<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Main
 Main














Budgeting costs and returns
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026157/00006
 Material Information
Title: Budgeting costs and returns
Series Title: Economic information report
Portion of title: Budgeting costs and returns for Central Florida citrus production
Budgeting costs and returns for for <sic> Central Florida citrus production
Physical Description: v. : ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations and Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1980
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruit industry -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Marketing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: governmental publication   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
General Note: Title varies slightly: <1992-93>- Budgeting costs and returns for Central Florida Citrus Production.
General Note: Description based on: 1978-79; cover title.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000313320
oclc - 08042638
notis - ABU0053
lccn - sn 82000631 /g
System ID: UF00026157:00006

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Abstract
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Main
        Page 12
Full Text















ABSTRACT


Estimated costs and returns of growing round oranges in the central
Florida citrus area are presented for the seventh consecutive year. The
format presented may be used by individual growers to budget costs and
returns,utilizing individual data on specific groves.


Key words:


citrus, central Florida, budgeting, costs and returns.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation is expressed to Jim Todd, Florida Crop and Livestock
Reporting Service, for the pricing information (preliminary). Thanks are
extended to Mrs. Jane Wilson for typing the final draft.
















ABSTRACT


Estimated costs and returns of growing round oranges in the central
Florida citrus area are presented for the seventh consecutive year. The
format presented may be used by individual growers to budget costs and
returns,utilizing individual data on specific groves.


Key words:


citrus, central Florida, budgeting, costs and returns.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation is expressed to Jim Todd, Florida Crop and Livestock
Reporting Service, for the pricing information (preliminary). Thanks are
extended to Mrs. Jane Wilson for typing the final draft.




















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ABSTRACT. . . .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. . .

INTRODUCTION. . . .

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION .

THE GROVE SITUATION . .

Age and Production Per Tree.

COSTS OF INPUTS . . .

SPRAY PROGRAM . ...

COSTS AND RETURNS . .

ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION

REFERENCES . . .


Page







. . . . 1

. . . . 1

. . . . 1

. . . . 2

. . . . 3

. . . . 3

. . . . 8

. . . . 9
i
1

1




2


3

3

.* 8




... ... 12


LIST OF TABLES



Table

1 Calculation of production per acre . . .

2 Costs of inputs supplied on a custom basis used in calcu-
lating costs . . . ........ *

3 Costs of chemicals used in calculating costs . .

4 Spray program used in budget based on custom rates and
application of two 500-gallon tanks per acre . .

5 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature,
round orange grove producing citrus for processing in
central Florida. . . . . .. ..


1










6 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year
average costs and returns for a mature, round orange grove
producing citrus for processing in central Florida, 1976-77
--1980-81. . . . . . ... 8

7 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year
average costs and returns (inflated to 1981 dollars) for
a mature, round orange grove producing citrus for pro-
cessing in central Florida, 1976-77--1980-81 . . 9

8 Schedule of production practices in central Florida citrus
groves . . . . ... . . 11
















BUDGETING COSTS AND RETURNS:
CENTRAL FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION, 1980-81


R. P. Muraro


INTRODUCTION


Due to the manner in which data become available, there is always a
time lag between the collection of production costs and returns informa-
tion and when they are analyzed and published. Hence, production costs
in one year are understood to relate to the crop which is harvested the
following season.
In order to obtain current data for various decision making purposes,
a budget may be constructed by developing a list of production practices
and their costs. Budget analysis provides the basis for many grower
decisions. For example, budget analysis can be used to calculate poten-
tial profits from an operation, to determine cash requirements for an
operation, and to determine break-even prices. These data can then be
used as a basis for management decision making.


METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


The data presented here were developed from surveying custom opera-
tors, input suppliers, and from discussions with colleagues at the Agri-
cultural Research and Education Center in Lake Alfred. This annual survey
is conducted in January.


THE GROVE SITUATION


It is difficult to define a "typical" grove; therefore, it is nec-
essary to state the assumptions under which a budget was constructed.

R. P. MURARO is Area Farm Management Economist, Food and Resource
Economics Department, University of Florida, AREC, Lake Alfred, FL 33850.









The assumptions made as to a particular grove situation are thought to be
typical of a healthy, mature, rough lemon-rooted round orange grove in the
ridge area, or central part of the state.
Specific production practices vary from grove to grove. Many combi-
nations of practices and various tree combinations accomplish the produc-
tion of acceptable yields and returns. The generation of costs and returns
data is designed to be applicable to any grove situation. A grower can
substitute his individual grove costs and expected returns into the budget
format and develop a budget for a particular grove. A "your cost" column
is provided for this purpose.
In the following budget, good management and cultural practices are
assumed. Beyond this general assumption, the following specifics are
assumed:


1. A 25-year-old grove, irrigated;
2. Type is round orange on rough lemon rootstock;
3. Tree loss is 2 percent annually;
4. Trees are pulled and replaced when production falls below 50
percent of expected yield;
5. Production is for processing only; and
6. Tree spacing is 70 trees per acre.


Age and Production Per Tree


Situation Boxes/tree


2% pulled and replanted 0.0
2% 1 year old 0.0
2% 2 years old 0.0
2% 3 years old 0.6
2% 4 years old 0.9
28% 5-24 years old 4.4
2% producing 50% of expected yield 3.7
60% 25 years old 7.4









Table l.--Calculation of production per tree


Boxes Total
Age of tree Trees /tree boxes

Total no. Proportion No. ea.
all ages ea. agea age -----No.-----
3 yrs. 70 x 0.02 = 1.4 x 0.6 = 0.84
4 yrs. 70 x 0.02 = 1.4 x 0.9 = 1.26
5-24 yrs. 70 x 0.28 = 19.6 x 4.4 = 86.24
Prod. 50% of
Prod. 50 of 70 x 0.02 1.4 x 3.7 5.18
exp. yield
25 yrs. 70 x 0.60 = 42.0 x 7.4 = 310.80
Total boxes = 404.32

proportion adds up to 0.94 (94 percent) as 6 percent of the trees
were non-bearing (see page 2).

COSTS OF INPUTS

Costs for various production inputs are the average of the data
obtained from this survey. These average costs are shown in Tables 2
and 3.
This table, as do the others, has a column reserved for the indivi-
dual grower to insert data from a particular grove. This will allow a
comparison of the grower's costs and returns with those of the hypothe-
tical case presented.

SPRAY PROGRAM


The spray program presented here is believed to be of the type
followed by a majority of growers. It is not the exact program outlined
in the Florida Citrus Spray Guide 1981, nor is it necessarily the most
economical spray program. Most growers of fruit for processing use at
least two sprays and one dust in their insect and disease control pro-
grams. These costs are presented in the budget.
Table 4 outlines this program as a post bloom, a summer oil, and a
fall miticide application. The first two are dilute sprays while the
third is a ground application of sulphur. Table 4 shows a supplemental
miticide application that may be used when additional control for rust
mite is needed.











Table 2.--Costs of inputs supplied on a custom basis used in calculating costs


Item Unit Low High Average Your cost

-----------------------Dollars----------------------

Dilute spray Tank 11.00 15.00 12.83
Dusting, ground Acre 4.00 8.75 5.85
Fertilizing (bulk) Acre 4.00 8.75 5.23
Dolomite application Ton 4.00 6.25 5.54
Chopping Acre 5.00 7.70 6.30
Discing (9'-10') Acre 5.00 7.70 6.30
Topping Hour 205.00 225.00 215.00
Topping (double bloom) Hour 310.00
Hedging, 2-sides--tractor drawn Hour 44.00 75.00 51.73
Hedging, 2-sides--self propelled Hour 180.00 205.00 186.25
Front-end loader Hour 30.00 40.00 35.50
Bulldozer Hour 32.00 36.30 34.43
Truck and driver Hour 10.00 19.00 14.45
Tractor and driver Hour 10.00 20.00 14.12
Power saw without operator Hour 3.50 10.00 5.14
Labor Hour 4.50 6.75 5.75
Herbicide Hour 13.00 20.00 16.76










Table 3.--Costs of chemicals used in calculating costs


Item Unit Cost Your cost

------------Dollars-----------

Chlorobenzilate Pint 3.09
Neutral copper, 53% cu Lb. 1.02
Zinc, 36% zn Lb. 0.33
Borates Lb. 0.47
Manganese, 24-27% mg Lb. 0.14
Ethion Pint 2.00
Vendex Lb. 15.32
Oil Gal. 2.15
Kelthane Pint 1.33
Sulphur Lb. 0.12
Sticker Pint 0.90
Paraquat Gal. 42.49
Krovar II Lb. 6.58
16-0-16 Ton 128.34
8-2-8 Ton 95.47
Dolomite (delivered) Ton 23.28











Table 4.--Spray program used in budget based on custom rates
acre


and application of two 500-gallon tanks per


Item Amount/acre Cost Your cost

------------Dollars----------
Post bloom application
Kelthane 16 pints 23.41
Zinc 15 lbs. 5.45
Borates 1.25 lbs. 0.65
Manganese 15 lbs. 2.31
Sticker 1 pint 0.99
Application 2 tanks 25.66
Total 58.47

Summer oil application
Ethion 6 pints 13.20
Oil 6 gals. 14.19
Copper, 53% cu 3 Ibs. 3.37
Application 2 tanks 25.66
Total 56.42

Fall miticide application
Sulphur 70 Ibs. 9.24
Application, ground $5.85/acre 5.85
Total 15.09

Grand total 129.98

Supplemental miticide application
Kelthane 6 pints 8.78
Sticker 1 pint 0.99
Application 2 tanks 25.66
Total 35.43








Table 5.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, round orange
in central Florida


grove producing citrus for processing


Item Description Amount Your cost
--------------Dollars----------------

I. Revenue 323 boxes @ $4.85a 1,566.55
II. Expenses
Weed control
Material 2 Ibs. of Krovar II 14.48
Application 1/3 treated acre 6.70 21.18
Discing Twice/year 12.66
Chopping Twice/year 12.60 46.44
Spray program From Table 4 129.98
Fertilizer
Material 16-0-16, 1,125 lbs. 79.06
Application 2 @ $5.01 10.46 89.56
Dolomite
Material 1/3 ton @ $23.28 7.76
Application $5.54/ton @ 1/3 1.85 9.61
Pruning (maintenance)
Topping ($215/hr. + 8.0 A/hr. = $26.87) + 3 yrs. 8.96 ___
Hedging ($186/hr. + 11.0 A/hr. $17.02) + 2 yrs. 8.51
Chopping brush Custom rate 6.45 13."
Tree replacement and care
Pull trees and remove 1.4 trees/acre 14.89
Prepare site, plant and ring (Includes trees) 12.12
Water (Avg. 14 waterings) 11.76
Fertilizer (Includes application) 12.25
Tree wraps, sprout, etc. (Year of planting) 7.49 58.51
Irrigation (operating costs) 13.2 inches/year 103.18c
Management 5% of gross sales 78.33
III. Total specified costs 539.53
IV. Return to land and trees 1,027.02


aDue to the freeze of January 12 and 13, 1981, box yield was reduced 20 percent (404 boxes
323 boxes); price per box is preliminary.


@ 80 percent =


bAssumes all material custom applied; therefore, a 10 percent handling and supervision charge is added to
material cost.

cDoes not include $59.54 per acre of fixed depreciation cost.

dOther methods to estimate a management cost are used in the industry. Other selected methods will give a
different return to land and trees than reported here.


_ ___










COSTS AND RETURNS


Table 5 shows the estimated costs and returns based on data presented
earlier, and with a custom-caretaker providing grove management. Several
items of cost were not included in Table 5. For instance, a supplemental
miticide (Table 4) would add $35.43 to operating costs.
Costs for freeze protection were not included. A crew standing by
to light heaters one night in one season would result in an extra cost of
approximately $25.00 per acre. The cost of setting up and removing heaters
and the amount of fuel necessary for one or two nights is not included in
this cost. In addition, a wide variation may exist in the cost of fuel
from one area to another. Individual growers are in a better position to
estimate these "firing" costs. Firing costs are a cost of production;
hence, if known, they should be included in the expense column in Table 5.
Fixed costs were not included in the budgeted costs since these costs
would vary from one grove operation to another. However, for guidelines,
ad valorem taxes in Polk County last year would have added another $25-
$35 per acre. Annual debt payment may cost as high as $400 per acre
($3,000 average debt per acre @ 12 percent interest). Promotion and
insurance are other costs not included and will vary widely among different
grove operations.
Estimated annual costs and returns for processed, round oranges in
central Florida have been collected and published the past four years.
Estimated cost and return histories for these years, 1980-81, and a five-
year average are presented in Table 6. These same costs and returns,
inflated to 1981 dollars, are presented in Table 7.
Shown in Table 8 are production practices for Florida citrus and a
range of times during the year when they would likely be performed. There
are two benefits to developing such a table for an individual grove.
First, it shows what work is needed and when, so that operations can be
planned well in advance. Second, it can be helpful if an annual cash
flow analysis is developed to plan financing. The individual grower can
achieve benefits by developing a plan for a particular grove.











Table 6.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average
costs and returns for a mature, round orange grove producing
citrus for processing in central Florida, 1976-77--1980-81


Total Net return
Price Gross specified to land
Year /box Yield revenue costsc and trees
--------------Dollars--------------

1976-77 $2.63 368b 967.84 346.19 621.65
1977-78 4.40 404 1,777.60 394.10 1,383.50
1978-79 4.95 404 1,999.80 435.14 1,564.66
1979-80 3.87 404 1,563.48 494.30 1,069.18
1980-81 4.85a 323b 1,566.55 539.53 1,027.02
5 yr. avg. 4.14 381 1,575.05 441.85 1,133.20

Estimated at time of printing and is not a published price.
.byield reduced due to January freeze during 1977 and 1981.
CFixed costs such as taxes, debt payment, and insurance not included.


Table 7.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average
costs and returns (inflated to 1981 dollars) for a mature,
round orange grove producing citrus for processing in central
Florida, 1976-77--1980-81


Total Net return
Consumer Price Gross specified to land
Year price index /box Yield revenue costs and trees
------------Dollars------------

1976-77 148.9 $3.92 368 1,442.56 515.48 927.08
1977-78 138.3 6.09 404 2,460.36 545.04 1,915.32
1978-79 124.3 6.15 404 2,484.60 540.88 1,943.72
1979-80 109.5 4.24 404 1,712.96 541.26 1,171.70
1980-81 100.0 4.85 323 1,566.55 539.53 1,027.02
5-yr. avg. -- 5.05 381 1,924.05 536.44 1,387.61

aConsumer price index for each year inflated to 1981 price (1981 =
100). 1981 consumer price index estimated to be 270.2.


ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION


Since 1931,.through the cooperation of Florida citrus growers, the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations and the Florida Cooperative
Extension Service have conducted annual studies of citrus grove costs and










returns. These data have been summarized annually and averaged in varying
time spans.1 Annual cost and return histories can be made available upon
request.
The most recent time span (consecutive years) that these annual cost
and return figures have been reported is the growing season 1978-79 in
Economic Information Report 138. Annual cost and return histories are
recorded as five-year averages in Factors to Consider in Purchasing a
Citrus Grove. Copies of these reports, and other references listed,
can be obtained at your County Cooperative Extension Service Office or
by writing the author.




































1Dr. Donald L.-Brooke, Professor Emeritus in the Food and Resource
Economics Department, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, has con-
ducted:this annual study in.recent years.










Table 8.--Schedule of production practices in


central Florida citrus groves
central Florida citrus groves


Month
Practices Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.


Spray program
Post bloom X
Summer oil X
Fall X X

Fertilizer (custom) X X X
Dolomite (custom) X or X

Weed control
Chemical X or X
Mechanical X X X X
Hand (pulling vines) X X

Pruning
Hedging (custom) X or X
Topping (custom) X or X

Irrigation X X X X X X

Tree replacement
Pull trees X
Prepare sites X X
Plant resets X X
Ring X X
Water X X
Fertilizer X X X X X X
Weed control X X X X

aThis is a suggested schedule of practices. Actual practices would not necessarily be done on the exact
schedule shown here.


_ _~ ~__


__


1-












REFERENCES


Brooke, D. L. and R. Clegg Hooks. Citrus Costs and Returns in Florida,
Season 1978-79 with Comparisons. IFAS Econ. Info. Report 138.
Gainesville: Univ. of Fla., Aug. 1980.

Brooke, Donald L. and Ben Abbitt. Factors to Consider in Purchasing a
Citrus Grove. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Ext. Svc. Cir. 437. Gainesville:
1978.

DuCharme, E. P. "Tree Loss in Relation to Young Tree Decline and Sand
Hill Decline of Citrus in Florida," Proceedings of the Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 84 (Oct. 1970), pp. 48-52.

Florida Citrus Spray Guide 1981. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Ext. Svc. Cir.
393-F. Gainesville: Jan. 1981.

Harrison, D. S. and R. C. J. Koo. Sprinkler Irrigation Systems for Citrus.
Univ. of Fla. Agr. Ext. Rpt. AE 73-15 (Rev.). Gainesville: Aug.
1974.

Muraro, Ronald P. "Comparative Citrus Budgets." Lake Alfred Agricultural
Research and Education Center. Lake Alfred, FL: Apr. 1981.

Muraro, Ronald P. "Summary Custom Rate Survey for Interior Citrus Care-
takers." Lake Alfred Agricultural Research and Education Center.
Lake Alfred, FL: Apr. 1980.

Reitz, H. J., C. D. Leonard, et al. Recommended Fertilizer and Nutri-
tional Sprays for Citrus. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 536C.
Gainesville: Dec. 1972.

Tilley, Daniel S. and Richard L. Kilmer. Growers' Returns and Marketing
Costs at Each Stage of the Vertical Marketing System for Citrus.
IFAS Econ. Info. Report 112. Gainesville: Apr. 1979.





1,500 copies








This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of $845.79 or 53.6(
per copy to furnish the citrus industry with current data on cost of
production for the Food and Resource Economics Department, Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, and the University of Florida.


__