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 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Acknowledgements
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Main
 Reference
 Addenda


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Budgeting costs and returns for Southwest Florida citrus production
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026155/00012
 Material Information
Title: Budgeting costs and returns for Southwest Florida citrus production
Series Title: Economic information report
Portion of title: Southwest Florida citrus production
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Muraro, R. P
Holcomb, Edgar D
University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food & Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations and Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1997
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruit industry -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Marketing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
General Note: Description based on: 1986-87; title from cover.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001596350
oclc - 21057551
notis - AHM0449
lccn - sn 91022495
System ID: UF00026155:00012

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Abstract
        Page i
    Acknowledgements
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Reference
        Page 17
    Addenda
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
Full Text














ABSTRACT


Estimated costs and returns of growing processed-market round oranges and fresh-market seedless
grapefruit in the Southwest area of Florida are presented for the eighth consecutive year. The format
presented may be used by individual growers to budget costs and returns, utilizing individual data on
specific groves.

Key words: citrus, budgeting, costs, round oranges, seedless grapefruit and Southwest
Florida.

NOTE: Southwest Florida refers primarily to Charlotte, Collier, Glades, Hendry and Lee counties.
However, the costs shown are applicable to other South Central Florida counties such as
DeSoto, Okeechobee, and Sarasota counties.

The budgeted cost information presented herein is the most current available. The budget cost
items have been revised to reflect current grove practices being used by growers--e.g.,
chemical mowing, different spray materials and rates of fertilization, microsprinkler irrigation,
more reset trees, etc. Thus, the 1997-98 budget costs reflect reduced fertilizer for fresh market
grapefruit and lower fertilizer and pesticide materials costs and increased per acre yield due
to higher per acre tree densities.

The budget costs in this report represent an owner-managed operation based on a "net grove
acre" excluding non-productive areas for the production of oranges for processing and
grapefruit for the fresh market. Therefore, the 10 percent handling and supervision charge
added to the material cost for a custom-managed operation is not included in the costs.

Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Tables 5 and 7 are representative
for mature (10+ years old) Southwest Florida Hamlin orange and red seedless grapefruit
groves, respectively, the grove care costs for a specific grove site may differ depending upon
the grove practices performed. For example, spot herbicide for grass/brush regrowth under
trees could add as much as $17.38 per acre; "skirting trees" or pruning the lower branches
could add $14.13 per acre; extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could at least double,
if not increase more, the tree replacement and care costs; etc.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation is extended to Mrs. Jane Wilson for typing the final draft of this manuscript.

Appreciation is also extended to the citrus growers and production managers of Southwest Florida
who provided suggestions for the revision of this manuscript.















ABSTRACT


Estimated costs and returns of growing processed-market round oranges and fresh-market seedless
grapefruit in the Southwest area of Florida are presented for the eighth consecutive year. The format
presented may be used by individual growers to budget costs and returns, utilizing individual data on
specific groves.

Key words: citrus, budgeting, costs, round oranges, seedless grapefruit and Southwest
Florida.

NOTE: Southwest Florida refers primarily to Charlotte, Collier, Glades, Hendry and Lee counties.
However, the costs shown are applicable to other South Central Florida counties such as
DeSoto, Okeechobee, and Sarasota counties.

The budgeted cost information presented herein is the most current available. The budget cost
items have been revised to reflect current grove practices being used by growers--e.g.,
chemical mowing, different spray materials and rates of fertilization, microsprinkler irrigation,
more reset trees, etc. Thus, the 1997-98 budget costs reflect reduced fertilizer for fresh market
grapefruit and lower fertilizer and pesticide materials costs and increased per acre yield due
to higher per acre tree densities.

The budget costs in this report represent an owner-managed operation based on a "net grove
acre" excluding non-productive areas for the production of oranges for processing and
grapefruit for the fresh market. Therefore, the 10 percent handling and supervision charge
added to the material cost for a custom-managed operation is not included in the costs.

Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Tables 5 and 7 are representative
for mature (10+ years old) Southwest Florida Hamlin orange and red seedless grapefruit
groves, respectively, the grove care costs for a specific grove site may differ depending upon
the grove practices performed. For example, spot herbicide for grass/brush regrowth under
trees could add as much as $17.38 per acre; "skirting trees" or pruning the lower branches
could add $14.13 per acre; extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could at least double,
if not increase more, the tree replacement and care costs; etc.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation is extended to Mrs. Jane Wilson for typing the final draft of this manuscript.

Appreciation is also extended to the citrus growers and production managers of Southwest Florida
who provided suggestions for the revision of this manuscript.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

A B ST R A C T .................................................... .......... i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................... ............................ i

LIST OF TABLES ................ .............. ................ ........ iii

INTRODUCTION ............................................... 1

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION ...................................... ..... 1

COSTS AND INPUTS .......... ...................................... ........ 1

THE GROVE SITUATION .................................................. 2

BUDGET COSTS AND RETURNS ......... ........... ........ ............ 6

HISTORICAL COST TRENDS ......... ..................................... 7

REFERENCES ............... ........................ ................. 17

ADDENDA ........................ ........................ 18


NOTE: The ADDENDA include a Listing of Grove Care Programs for Southwest
Florida Citrus Production for Both Round Oranges and Grapefruit; 1998
custom rate summary report; cost of establishing a citrus grove; etc. Page
18 is a list of the tables included in the ADDENDA.













LIST OF TABLES


Table Pane

1 Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Southwest Florida mature,
round orange grove, 1997-98 ........................................ 3

2 Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Southwest Florida mature,
red seedless grapefruit grove, 1997-98 ................................... 4

3 Calculation of normal production per tree and per acre for Hamlin oranges, 1997-98 5

4 Calculation of normal production per tree and per acre for red seedless grapefruit,
1997-98 ......... .................................. 6

5 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, Hamlin orange grove
producing for the processed market, Southwest Florida area, 1997-98 ............. 8

6 Estimated total delivered-in cost for Southwest Florida Hamlin oranges grown for the
processed juice market under three cultural cost programs, 1997-98 .............. 9

7 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, red seedless grapefruit
grove producing for the fresh market, Southwest Florida area, 1997-98 ............ 10

8 Estimated total delivered-in cost for Southwest Florida Red grapefruit under three
cultural cost programs, 1997-98 ................ ....................... 11

9 Estimated F.O.B. cost for fresh market Southwest Florida Red grapefruit, 1997-98 .. 12

10 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns
for a mature, Hamlin orange grove producing citrus for processed market in the
Southwest Florida area, 1993-94--1997-98 ............................... 13

11 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns
(adjusted to 1998 dollars) for a mature, Hamlin orange grove producing citrus
for processed market in the Southwest Florida area, 1993-94--1997-98 ............ 14

12 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns for
a mature, red seedless grapefruit grove producing citrus for fresh fruit packing in the
Southwest Florida area, 1993-94--1997-98 ............ ................... 15

13 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns
(adjusted to 1998 dollars) for a mature, red seedless grapefruit grove producing
citrus for fresh fruit packing in the Southwest Florida area, 1993-94--1997-98 ...... 16









BUDGETING COSTS AND RETURNS FOR SOUTHWEST
FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION, 1997-98

Ronald P. Muraro, Fritz M. Roka, and Robert E. Rouse

INTRODUCTION


Southwest Florida has become a major citrus production area. In 1996 citrus acreage in Southwest
Florida represented over 20% of total state citrus acreage. Acreage in Southwest Florida increased from
72,480 in 1986 to 179,093 in 1996. Southwest Florida refers primarily to Charlotte, Collier, Glades,
Hendry and Lee counties. However, the costs shown are applicable to other South Central Florida counties
such as DeSoto, Okeechobee, and Sarasota counties.
Budget analysis provides the basis for many grower decisions. Budget analysis can be used to
calculate potential profits from an operation, to determine cash requirements for an operation, and to
determine break-even prices. This report presents two budgets constructed from current data and provides
a format for growers to analyze costs and returns from their individual records.


METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


The data presented here were developed by surveying custom operators, input suppliers, growers, and
colleagues at both the Southwest Florida Research and Education Center and the Citrus Research and
Education Center in Lake Alfred. The survey is conducted annually in February and March.


COSTS AND INPUTS


Costs for various production inputs are those collected from citrus growers as well as the average of
the data obtained from annual custom rate, chemical, and fertilizer surveys. Grower costs are shown in the
ADDENDA, Table 1-A through 7-A. The custom rate costs are shown in Table 8-A and the various
chemical and fertilizer costs are shown in Tables 9-A and 10-A in the ADDENDA. Costs of planting and
maintaining reset trees through three years of age are shown in Table 12-A. Historic on-tree prices for
selected citrus varieties are shown in 15-A. Although brand names are used in many of the tables in the




RONALD P. MURARO is a Professor of Food and Resource Economics and Extension Farm
Management Economist stationed at the Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred. FRITZ M.
ROKA is an Assistant Professor in Economics and ROBERT E. ROUSE is an Associate Professor of
Horticulture; both are stationed at the Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee.









ADDENDA, this does not imply endorsement by the University of Florida. It is merely an attempt to depict
typical production practices.
All tables have a column reserved for the individual growers to insert data from a particular grove.
This will allow a comparison of the grower's costs with those presented.


THE GROVE SITUATION


Production practices for Southwest Florida orange and grapefruit groves are shown in Tables 1 and
2, respectively, with the times during the year when they are normally performed. There are two benefits
to developing such a table for an individual grove. First, it shows what work is needed and when, so that
operations can be planned well in advance. Second, it can be helpful if an annual cash flow analysis is
developed to plan financing. The individual grower may benefit from developing a plan for a particular
grove.
Specific production practices vary from grove to grove making it difficult to define a "typical" grove.
Many combinations of practices and various tree variety combinations produce acceptable yields and
returns. Although the examples represent Hamlin orange and red seedless grapefruit groves, the cost and
return data are designed to be applicable to most grove situations. A grower, realtor, or land appraiser can
substitute individual grove costs and expected returns into the budget format and develop a budget for a
particular grove. A "your cost" column is appropriately provided for this purpose in subsequent tables.
In the following budget, above average management and cultural practices are assumed. Beyond this
general assumption, the following specifics are assumed:


1. A mature (10+ years old), low volume irrigated grove;
2. Varieties are processed-market Hamlin oranges and fresh-market red seedless grapefruit;
3. Annual tree loss is 4 trees per acre for oranges and 3 trees per acre for grapefruit;
4. Trees are pulled and replaced when production falls below 50 percent of expected
yield;
5. Tree density is 131 trees per acre for oranges and 96 trees per acre for grapefruit.


As a result of tree losses and replacement, the tree ages will vary. The budget reflects the following
age distribution:












Table 1 .-Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Southwest Florida mature, round orange grove, 1997-98'
Month

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Total revenue:


Less:


Grove expenses:


20%
d .;t#


50%
Partial
anvment


Pick & haul cost X

DOC advertisement tax X


Mow X X X X X

Labor, general grove work, pull vines X X

Herbicide (1/2 grove acre equivalent) X X X

Spray: Dormant
Post bloom/nutritional X

Supplemental miticide

Summer oil/greasy spot X

Fall miticide X

Fertilizer 68# N/A 68# N/A 68# N/A Dolomite

Hedging and topping Hedge

Brush removal/mow brush Mow brush

Tree removal X

Young tree care X X X X X

Microsprinkler irrigation (times/week) 1 1 2 3 33 2 2 2 2 1

Miscellaneous (clean ditches) X

Grove taxes including water management X

Interest expense X

Annual principal payment on mortgage X


'This is a suggested schedule of practices. Actual practices would not necessarily be done on the exact schedule shown here.


Final
payment


--











Table 2.-Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Southwest Florida mature, red seedless grapefruit grove, 1997-98'
Month

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Total revenue:


20%
deposit


Less: Pick & haul cost
DOC advertisement tax

Grove expenses:
Disc


Final
payment
X


X


Chop

Mow X X X X X

Labor, general grove work, pull vines X X

Herbicide (1/2 grove acre equivalent) X X X

Spray: Dormant
Post bloom/nutritional X

Supplemental miticide X

Summer oil/greasy spot X X

Fall miticide X

Fertilizer 50# N/A 50# N/A 50# N/A Dolomite

Hedging and topping Hedge

Brush removal/mow brush Mow brush

Tree removal X

Young tree care X X X X X

Microsprinkler irrigation (times/week) 1 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1

Miscellaneous (clean ditches) X

Grove taxes including water management X

Interest expense X
Anl..l r n nanl navent nn mnrt ooo X


uu ggested scIhedul .......... practicewx d
'This is a suggested schedule of practices. Actual practices would not necessarily be done on the exact schedule shown here.


I








Hamlin Oranges
Situation Boxes/tree
3% pulled and reset 0.0
3% 1 year old 0.0
3% 2 years old 0.0
3% 3 years old 0.7
3% 4 years old 0.9
33% 5-15 years old 4.0
3% producing 50% of expected yield 2.5
49% over 15 years old 4.5
and
Red Seedless Grapefruit
Situation Boxes/tree
3% pulled and reset 0.0
3% 1 year old 0.0
3% 2 years old 0.0
3% 3 years old 1.0
3% 4 years old 1.7
33% 5-15 years old 4.5
3% producing 50% of expected yield 3.7
49% over 15 years old 7.4
Calculation of normal production per acre for Hamlin oranges and red seedless grapefruit are shown in
Tables 3 and 4, respectively.

Table 3.--Calculation of normal production per tree and per acre for Hamlin oranges, 1997-98
Boxes Total
Age of Tree Trees /tree boxes
Total no. Proportion No. ea.
all ages ea. age' age ---------- No. ----------

3 years 131 x 0.03 = 3.9 x 0.7 = 2.7
4 years 131 x 0.03 = 3.9 x 0.9 = 3.5
5-15 years 131 x 0.33 = 43.2 x 4.0 = 172.8

Prod. 50% of
exp. yield 131 x 0.03 = 3.9 x 2.5 = 9.8

Over 16 years 131 x 0.49 = 64.2 x 4.5 = 288.9
Total boxes = 477.7

"Proportion adds up to 91 percent as 9 percent of the trees were non-bearing (pulled and reset, 1
and 2 year old trees; see page 5).









Table 4.--Calculation of normal production per tree and per acre for red seedless grapefruit,
1997-98
Boxes Total
Age of Tree Trees /tree boxes
Total no. Proportion No. ea.
all ages ea. age e ---------- No. ----------
3 years 96 x 0.03 = 3.0 x 1.0 = 3.0
4 years 96 x 0.03 = 3.0 x 1.7 = 5.1
5-15 years 96 x 0.33 = 31.7 x 4.5 = 142.7
Prod. 50% of
exp. yield 96 x 0.03 = 3.0 x 3.7 = 11.1
Over 16 years 96 x 0.49 = 47.0 x 7.4 = 347.8
Total boxes = 509.7

"Proportion adds up to 91 percent as 9 percent of the trees were non-bearing (pulled and reset, 1
and 2 year old trees; see page 5).

BUDGET COSTS AND RETURNS


The estimated budget costs and returns for the two Southwest Florida grove situations are shown in
Tables 5 and 7. The budgeted costs represent one possible citrus production program and were selected from
the costs shown in the ADDENDA tables. The costs presented in the budgets represent an owner-
managed citrus operation. The gross revenue estimates are based on the projected yields in Tables 3 and
4 and estimated preliminary on-tree prices for the 1997-98 season. Historical on-tree prices for selected
Florida citrus varieties are shown in Table 15-A of the ADDENDA.
As shown in Table 5, the total revenue for processed-market Hamlin oranges is estimated to be
$1,225.89 per acre. Total specified costs are $778.25 and are comprised of grove care costs of $730.25, plus
management cost of $48.00. Return to land and trees of $447.64 represents net return above variable costs.
At 350 and 550 boxes per acre, respectively, the break-even price required to cover grove care costs for
Hamlin oranges range from $2.09 to $1.33 per box on-tree and $0.67 to $0.54 per pounds solids delivered-in.
In Table 7, total revenue for fresh market red seedless grapefruit is estimated to be $1,127.10 per acre.
Total specified costs are $867.44, being comprised of grove care costs of $819.44, plus management cost of
$48.00. Return to land, trees, and ownership or net return above fixed costs is $259.66. At 350 and 550 boxes
per acre, respectively, the break-even price required to cover grove care costs for seedless grapefruit range
from $2.34 to $1.49 per box on-tree and $1.24 to $1.05 per pound solids delivered-in for eliminations.









Ad valorem taxes, and overhead and administrative costs (such as water drainage district taxes, crop
insurance, and other grower assessments) can add up to 12 percent of the total grove care costs. These costs
vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, variety of fruit, etc. and should be considered in arriving
at a net return to land, trees, and ownership (total return minus total costs). Harvest costs (pick, roadside, and
hauling costs) also add to the total fruit cost delivered to either a processing plant or fresh fruit packinghouse.
Also, average annual debt payment (principal and interest) may be as high as $435 per acre ($3,700 average
debt per acre @ 10 percent interest amortized over 20 years) which would reduce total available cash for grove
expansion or other investment.
An estimated "delivered-in" costs are shown for processed oranges in Table 6 and fresh packed red
grapefruit in Table 8. "Delivered-in" costs include grove care costs (Tables 5 and 6) plus harvesting,
regulatory, and grower assessment costs. The "delivered-in" costs are presented as a cost per acre, per box,
and per pound solids or per carton. Three possible budget cost scenarios are presented: 1) Typical/ Historical
Cultural Program; 2) Reduced Cost Cultural Program; and 3) Low Cost Processed Cultural Program. The first
scenario represents typical costs of grove practices which have been performed for citrus grown for the fresh
fruit market. Scenarios 2 and 3 represent costs of two possible cultural programs directed toward reducing the
expenditures for fruit grown primarily for the processed market. Modified herbicide and/or spray and fertilizer
programs account for the reduced costs. NOTE: Before modifying a grove management program to reduce
costs, an evaluation of the market program (processed or fresh), vield. and specific cultural problems (nutrition,
disease, etc.) for the specific grove site should be made. Also, in Table 9, the total estimated F.O.B. cost for
fresh packed Red grapefruit is shown. The F.O.B. costs are presented for "fresh fruit packout percentage rates"
ranging from 50 percent to 100 percent.


HISTORICAL COST TRENDS


Annual budgets of costs and returns for mature, processed Hamlin oranges and mature fresh-market
seedless grapefruit in the Southwest Florida area have been developed and published in each of the past five
years. Estimated cost and return histories for 1993-94 through 1996-97 along with 1997-98, and a five-year
average are presented in Tables 10 and 12. To allow comparisons in current values, these same costs and
returns, adjusted to 1998 dollars, are presented in Tables 11 and 13.


L









Table 5.-Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, Hamlin orange grove producing for the processed market, Southwest Florida area, 1997-98'

Item Description Amount Your cost
Dollars

I. Revenue 477 boxes @ $2.57" 1,225.89

II. Expenses

Weed control
Mow middles 3 times per year 22.44
Chemical mow (Table 2-A, Program #10) 2 times per year 18.54
General grove work/sprouting (2 labor hours per acre) 22.22
Herbicide (Table 2-A, Program #1, #6, & #8) 123.87 187.07
Spray program (Table 1-A, Programs #1 & #10) 99.97
Fertilizer (Table 3-A, Program #4) 129.21
Dolomite (Table 6-A, Program #1) 10.65
Pruning (maintenance)
Topping ($316.67/hr. + 8 A/hr.)+ 2.5 yrs. 15.83
Remove brush from trees ($22.03/A + 2.5 yrs.) 8.81
Hedging ($235.00/hr. + 8 A/hr.) + 2 yrs. 14.69
Mow brush ($10.00/A- 2 yrs.) 5.00 44.33
Tree replacement and care (Table 12-A) (1 through 3 years)
Remove trees 4 trees per acre 18.12
Prepare sites and plant resets Including 4 trees per acre 41.96
Supplemental fertilizer, sprout, etc. (Trees 1-3 years) Including application 35.28 95.36
Microsprinkler irrigation (Table 7-A, Program N4) 130.38
Drainage ditch annual costs (Table 7-A, Program #5) 33.28
Total grove care expenses 730.25

III. Management $4.00 per acre per month' 48.00

IV. Total specified costs' 778.25

V. Return to land, trees, and ownership 447.64

VI. Break-even price for total grove care expenses
Boxes per acre Boxes per acre
350 400 450 500 550 350 400 450 500 550

$ On-tree price per box $ Delivered-in price per pound solids'
2.09 1.83 1.62 1.46 1.33 0.67 0.62 0.59 0.56 0.54

*Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Tables 5 and 6 are representative for a mature Southwest Florida Hamlin orange and red seedless grapefruit grove, respectively, the grove care costs for
a specific grove site may differ depending upon the grove practices performed; e.g., a Temik application would add $1 14.64 per acre; extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could at least double, if not increase more,
the tree replacement and care costs; etc. Also, truck watering of resets could add another $8.31 per acre (average 5 waterings).
bOn-tree price per box is preliminary; assumes price for processed oranges only.
'Other methods to estimate a management cost-c.g., 5% of gross sales or 10% of total grove care costs-are used in the industry. Other selected methods will give a different return to land and trees than reported
here.
'Other cost items which are not included in the budget are ad valorem taxes and interest on grove investment. In addition to these cost items, overhead and administrative costs, such as water drainage/district taxes,
crop insurance, and other grower assessments, can add up to 12 percent to the total grove care costs. These costs vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, and time of purchase or grove establishment.
'Assumes 6.0 pounds solids per box and $1.75 pick and haul cost per box and Department of Citrus advertising assessment of $0.175 per box.









Table 6.--Estimated total delivered-in cost for Southwest Florida Hamlin oranges grown for the processed market under three cultural cost programs,
1997-98

Represents a mature (10+ years old) Southwest Fresh/Processed Hamlin Oranges Processed Hamlin Oranges Processed Hamlin Oranges
Florida Orange Grove Typical/Historical Reduced Cost Low Cost
Cultural Program Cultural Program Cultural Program
$/Acre $/Box S/P.S. $/Acre S/Box S/P.S. S/Acre $/Box S/P.S.

Total Production/Cultural Costs $ 761.90 $1.597 $0.2662 $ 730.25 $1.531 $0.2552 $681.97 $1.430 $0.2383

Interest on Operating (Cultural) Costs 38.10 0.080 0.0133 36.51 0.077 0.0128 34.10 0.071 0.0119

Management Costs 48.00 0.101 0.0168 48.00 0.101 0.0168 48.00 0.101 0.0168

Taxes/Regulatory Costs:
Property Tax and Water Management
District Tax 61.00 0.128 0.0213 61.00 0.128 0.0213 61.00 0.128 0.0213

Total Direct Grower Costs $909.00 $1.906 $0.3176 $875.76 $1.836 $0.3060 $ 825.07 $1.730 $0.2883

Interest on Average Capital Investment Costs 367.85 0.771 0.1285 367.85 0.771 0.1285 367.85 0.771 $0.1285

Total Grower Costs $1,276.85 $2.677 $0.4461 $1,243.61 $2.607 $0.4345 $1,192.92 $2.501 S0.4168

Harvesting and Assessment Costs:
Pick/Spot Pick, Roadside and Haul 834.75 1.750 0.2917 834.75 1.750 0.2917 834.75 1.750 0.2917
DOC Assessment 83.48 0.175 0.0292 83.48 0.175 0.0292 83.48 0.175 0.0292

Total Harvesting and Assessment Costs 918.23 1.925 0.3208 918.23 1.925 0.3208 918.23 1.925 0.3208

Total Delivered-In Cost $2.195.07 $4.602 $0.7670 $2161.84 $4.532 $0.7554 $2.111.14 $4.426 $07376


P.S. = Pound Solids Refer to cultural program shown on Refer to cultural program shown in Refer to cultural program shown
Yield: 477 boxes/acre @ 6.0 P.S. per box Table 13-A. Table 5. on Table 13-A.
131 trees per acre A Fall Miticide Spray added to the
cultural program shown in Table 5 Only summer spray with oil,
and fertilization at 225 pounds copper, and Agri-Mek.
nitrogen per acre.








Table 7.-Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, red seedless grapefruit grove producing for the fresh market, Southwest Florida area, 1996-97'

Item Description Amount Your cost

Dollars
1. Revenue 510 boxes @ $2.21b 1,127.10

II. Expenses
Weed control
Mow middles 3 times per year 22.44
Chemical mow (Table 2-A, Program #10) 2 times per year 18.54
General grove work/sprouting (2 labor hours per acre) 22.22
Herbicide (Table 2-A, Program #1, #6, & #8) 123.87 187.07
Spray program (Table I-A, Programs #1, #6, #10, #14, & #16) 232.13
Fertilizer (Table 3-A, Program #2) 103.21
Dolomite (Table 7-A, Program # 1) 10.65
Pruning (maintenance)
Topping ($316.67/hr. + 8 A/hr.) + 2.5 yrs. 15.83
Remove brush from trees ($22.03/A + 2.5 yrs.) 8.81
Hedging ($235.00/hr. 8 A/hr.) 2 yrs. 14.69
Raise skirts of trees ($14.13/A 2 yrs.) 7.07
Removing/chop brush ($10.00/A 2 yrs.) 5.00 51.40
Tree replacement and care (Table 12-A) (1 through 3 years)
Remove trees 3 trees per acre 13.59
Prepare sites and plant resets Including 3 trees per acre 31.47
Supplemental fertilizer, etc. (Trees 1-3 years) Including application 26.26 71.32
Microsprinkler irrigation (Table 7-A, Program #4) 130.38
Drainage ditch annual costs (Table 7-A, Program #5) 33.28
Total grove care expenses 819.44
III. Management 48.00
IV. Total specified costs 867.44
V. Return to land, trees, and ownership 259.66
VI. Break-even price for total grove care expenses

Boxes per acre Boxes per acre
350 400 450 500 550 350 400 450 500 550

$ On-tree price per box S Delivered-in price per pound solids for eliminations'
2.34 2.05 1.82 1.64 1.49 1.24 1.18 1.12 1.08 1.05

'Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Tables 5 and 6 ar representative for a mature Southwest Florida Hamlin orange and red seedless grapefruit grove, respectively, the grove care costs for
a specific grove site may differ depending upon the grove practices performed; e.g., a Temik application would add 51 14.64 per acre; extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could at least double, if not increase more,
the tree replacement and care costs; etc. Also, truck watering of resets could add another $8.31 per acre (average 5 waterings).
bOn-tree price per box is preliminary, assumes average of all methods of sale (fresh and processed). Price assumes 75% of fruit harvested packed fresh.
'Other methods to estimate a management cost-e.g., 5% of gross sales or 10% of total grove care costs--are used in the industry. Other selected methods will give a different return to land and trees than reported
here.
'Other cost items which are not included in the budget are ad valorem taxes and interest on grove investment. In addition to these cost items, overhead and administrative costs, such as water drainage/district taxes,
crop insurance, and other grower assessments, can add up to 12 percent to the total grove care costs. These costs vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, and time of purchase or grove establishment.
'Assumes 4.5 pounds solids per box and $2.23 pick and haul cost per box (includes spot picking and fruit drenching plus D O.C. $0.30 advertising tax), $0.55 per box handling through packinghouse, and $0.45 per
box delivery to processing plant.







Table 8.--Estimated total delivered-in cost for Southwest Florida Red grapefruit grown for the fresh/processed market under three cultural cost programs,
1997-98
Represents a mature (10+ years old) Southwest Fresh Packed Red Grapefruit Fresh Packed Red Grapefruit Processed Red Grapefruit
Florida Red Grapefruit Grove Typical/Historical Reduced Cost Low Cost
Cultural Program Cultural Program Cultural Program
S/Acre $/Box S/Carton $/Acre $/Box S/Carton S/Acre S/Box S/P.S.
Total Production/Cultural Costs $819.44 $1.607 $0.8034 $ 802.99 $1.574 $0.7872 $642.67 $1.260 $0.2800

Interest on Operating (Cultural) Costs 40.97 0.080 0.0402 40.15 0.079 0.0394 32.13 0.063 0.0140

Management Costs 48.00 0.094 0.0471 48.00 0.094 0.0471 48.00 0.094 0.0209

Taxes/Regulatory Costs:
Property Tax and Water Management
District Tax 48.80 0.096 0.0478 48.80 0.096 0.0478 48.80 0.096 0.0478
Fly Protocol Cost 25.00 0.049 0.0245 25.00 0.049 0.0245 -

Total Taxes/Regulatory Costs 73.80 0.145 0.0724 73.80 0.145 0.0724 48.80 0.096 0.0478

Total Direct Grower Costs $982.21 $1.926 $0.9630 $ 964.94 $1.892 $0.9460 $771.60 $1.513 $0.3628

Interest on Average Capital Investment Costs 367.85 0.721 0.3606 367.85 0.721 0.3606 367.85 0.805 $0.1789

Total Grower Costs $1,350.06 $2.647 $1.3236 $1,332.79 $2.613 $1.3067 $1,139.45 $2.318 $0.5417

Harvesting and Assessment Costs:
Pick/Spot Pick, Roadside and Haul 918.00 1.800 0.9000 918.00 1.800 0.9000 867.00 1.700 0.3778
Fruit Drenching (Fresh) 66.30 0.130 0.0650 66.30 0.130 0.0650 -
DOC Assessment 153.00 0.300 0.1500 153.00 0.300 0.1500 153.00 0.300 0.0667

Total Harvesting and Assessment Costs 1,137.30 2.230 1.1150 1,137.30 2.230 1.1150 1,020.00 2.000 0.4444

Total Delivered-In Cost $2,487.36 $4.877 $2.4386 $2.470.09 $4.843 $2.4217 $2 159.45 $4.318 $0.9861

Two cartons per box Refer to cultural program shown in Refer to cultural program shown on Refer to cultural program shown
P.S. = Pound Solids Table 3. Table 14-A. on Table 14-A.
Yield: 510 boxes/acre @ 4.5 P.S. per box
96 trees per acre Assumes 100% packout Assumes 100% packout Only summer spray with oil,
copper, and Agri-Mek.










Table 9.-Estimated F.O.B. cost for fresh market Southwest Florida Red grapefruit, 1997-98

Percent Packout 50.00% Percent Packout 60.00% Percent Packout 70.00%
Box Yield Per Acre 510 Box Yield Per Acre 510 Box Yield Per Acre 510

Per Acre Per Box Per Carton Per Acre Per Box Per Carton Per Acre Per Box Per Carton

Total Production/
Cultural Costs $819.44 $3.213 $1.6067 $819.44 $2.678 $1.3390 $819.44 $2.295 $1.1477

Interest on Operating
(Cultural Costs) 40.97 0.161 0.0803 40.97 0.134 0.0669 40.97 0.115 0.0574

Management 48.00 0.188 0.0941 48.00 0.157 0.0784 48.00 0.134 0.0672

Taxes/Regulatory 73.80 0.289 0.1447 73.80 0.241 0.1206 73.80 0.207 0.1034

Interest on Average
Capital Investment 367.85 1.443 0.7213 367.85 1.202 0.6011 367.85 1.030 0.5152

Harvesting (Pick, Haul,
Etc.) and
DOC Assessment 1,137.30 4.460 2.2300 1137.30 3.717 1.8583 1137.30 3.186 1.5929

Total Delivered-In Cost $2,487.36 $9.754 $4.8772 $2,487.36 $8.129 $4.0643 $2,487.36 $6.967 $3.4837

Packing & Selling 1,708.50 6.700 3.3500 2,050.20 6.700 3.3500 2,391.90 6.700 3.3500

Fresh Eliminations Costs
(Credit)' -43.35 -0.170 -0.0850 -34.68 -0.113 -0.0567 -26.01 -0.081 -0.0407

Total F.O.B. Costs $4152.51 $16.284 $8.1422 $4.502.88 $14.715 $7.3577 $4.853.25 $13.586 6.7930

Percent Packout 80.00% Percent Packout 90.00% Percent Packout 100.000
Box Yield Per Acre 510 Box Yield Per Acre 510 Box Yield Per Acre 510

Per Acre Per Box Per Carton Per Acre Per Box Per Carton Per Acre Per Box Per Carton

Total ProductionW
Cultural Costs $819.44 $2.008 $1.0042 $819.44 $1.785 $0.8926 $819.44 $1.607 $0.8034

Interest on Operating
(Cultural) Costs 40.97 0.100 0.0502 40.97 0.089 0.0446 40.97 0.080 0.0402

Management 48.00 0.118 0.0588 48.00 0.105 0.0523 48.00 0.094 0.0471

Taxes/Regulatory 73.80 0.181 0.0904 73.80 0.161 0.0804 73.80 0.145 0.0724

Interest on Average
Capital Investment 367.85 0.902 0.4508 367.85 0.801 0.4007 367.85 0.721 0.3606

Harvesting (Pick, Haul,
Etc.) and
DOC Assessment 1137.30 2.787 1.3937 1137.30 2.478 1.2389 137.30 2.230 1.1150

Total Delivered-In Cost $2,487.36 $6.096 $3.0482 $2,487.36 $5.419 $2.7095 $2,487.36 $4.877 $2.4386

Packing & Selling 2,733.60 6.700 3.3500 3,075.30 6.700 3.3500 3,417.00 6.700 3.3500

Fresh Eliminations Costs
(Credit)' -17.34 -0.047 -0.0237 -8.67 -0.021 -0.0105 0.00 0.000 0.0000

Total F.O.B. Costs $5,203.62 $12.749 $6.3745 $5.553.99 $12.098 $6.0490 $5,904.36 $11.577 $5.7886

"'Net Eliminations Cost" equals the average yield of 4.50 pound solids per box times $0.26 per pound solids less packinghouse elimination charge
and cannery hauling charge of $1.00 per box.












Table 10.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns for a mature, Hamlin orange grove producing citrus
for processed market in the Southwest Florida area, 1993-94--1997-98


On-tree Gross Total grove Total specified Net return to land,
Year price/box" Yield revenue care expenses costs" trees, and ownership
---------------------------------------- Dollars ----------------------------------


1993-94 $3.56 460 1,637.60 750.99 798.99 838.61

1994-95 $3.21 460 1,476.60 752.83 800.83 675.77

1995-96 $3.84 460 1,766.40 780.54' 828.54 937.86

1996-97 $3.55 477C 1,693.35 731.10 779.10 914.25

1997-98 $2.57' 477c 1,225.89 730.25 778.25 447.64

5-yr. avg. $3.35 467 1,564.45 749.14 797.14 767.31

"On-tree prices for processed oranges only as reported by the Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.
bPreliminary estimate by authors at time of printing and is not a published price.
cHigher per acre yield is due to increased average tree density of Hamlin citrus groves in Southwest Florida.
dIn 1995-96, the cost of fertilizer materials and the supplemental maintenance costs of resets have increased substantially over previous years.
"A management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not
included.












Table 1 l.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns (adjusted to 1998 dollars) for a mature, Hamlin
orange grove producing citrus for processed market in the Southwest Florida area, 1993-94--1997-98


Adjusted
Inflation on-tree Gross Total specified Net return to land,
Year factor index" price/box Yield revenue costs trees, and ownership
------------------------------ Dollars ----------------------


1993-94 106.6 $3.79 460 1,743.40 851.72 891.68

1994-95 103.0 $3.31 460 1,522.60 824.85 697.75

1995-96 100.6 $3.86 460 1,775.60 833.51 942.09

1996-97 100.5 $3.57 477 1,702.89 783.00 919.89

1997-98 100.0 $2.57 477 1,225.89 778.25 447.64

5-yr. avg. -- $3.42 467 1,597.14 814.27 782.87

"Producer price index for each year adjusted to 1998 prices (1998 = 100), with 1998 producer price index estimated to be 128.3. Producer
price index for other years are: 1994 = 120.4; 1995 = 124.7; 1996 = 127.7; and 1997 = 127.6.

bA management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not included.
(Refer to Table 10.)












Table 12.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns for a mature, red seedless grapefruit grove producing
citrus for fresh market packing in the Southwest Florida area, 1993-94--1997-98


On-tree Gross Total grove Total specified Net return to land,
Year price/box' Yield revenue care expenses costs trees, and ownership
---------------------------------------- Dollars -------------------------------------


1993-94 $3.38 510 1,723.80 863.83 911.83 811.97

1994-95 $1.66 510 846.60 839.89 887.31 (40.71)

1995-96 $1.95 510 994.50 872.28d 920.28 (74.22)

1996-97 $1.43 510 729.30 821.94d 869.94 (140.64)

1997-98 $2.21b 510 1,127.10 819.44d 867.44 259.66

5-yr. avg. $2.13 510 1,086.30 843.48 891.48 194.82

"On-tree prices for all sales methods as reported by the Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.
bPreliminary estimate by authors at time of printing and is not a published price.
CA management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not included.
din 1995-96, the cost of fertilizer materials and supplemental maintenance costs of resets had increased substantially over previous years. The
1996-97 costs were less than previous years due to a decrease in nitrogen application from 180 Ibs of N/acre to 150 lbs as well as the cost of
materials reported being less than 1995-96.











Table 13.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns (adjusted to 1998 dollars) for a mature, red seedless
grapefruit grove producing citrus for fresh fruit packing in the Southwest Florida area, 1993-94--1997-98


Adjusted
Inflation on-tree Gross Total specified Net return to land,
Year factor index" price/box Yield revenue costs trees, and ownership
-----...........-------------- Dollars -------------------------

1993-94 106.6 $3.60 510 1,836.00 972.01 863.99

1994-95 103.0 $1.71 510 872.10 913.93 (41.83)

1995-96 100.6 $1.96 510 999.60 925.80 73.80

1996-97 100.5 $1.44 510 744.40 874.29 (139.89)

1997-98 100.0 $2.21 510 1,127.10 867.44 259.66

5-yr. avg. -- $2.18 510 1,111.80 910.69 201.11

"Producer price index for each year adjusted to 1998 prices (1998 = 100), with 1998 producer price index estimated to be 128.3. Producer
price index for other years are: 1994 = 120.4; 1995 = 124.7; 1996 = 127.7; and 1997 = 127.6.

bA management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not included.
(Refer to Table 12.)








REFERENCES


1. Citrus Summary 1996-97. Florida Agricultural Statistics Service. Florida Agricultural Statistics.
Jan. 1998.

2. Knapp, J. L. (Ed.). 1998 Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Ext. Svc. SP
43. Gainesville: Jan. 1998. 76 pp.

3. Muraro, Ronald P. "A Listing of Estimated Comparative Southwest Florida Citrus Production Costs
Per Acre for 1997-1998." Lake Alfred Citrus Research and Education Center (CREC) Report. Lake
Alfred, FL: June 1998.

4. "Cost for Establishing, Planting, and Maintaining a Citrus Grove through Four Years of
Age, South Florida Flatwoods Area." Lake Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: Nov. 1989.

5. "Estimated Cost of Planting and Maintaining a Reset Citrus Tree through Three Years of
Age." Lake Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: Nov. 1996.

6. "A Listing of 1998 Custom Rates Reported by Twenty-three Indian River and South Florida
Citrus Caretakers." Lake Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: June 1998.

7. Savage, Zach. Citrus Yields Per Tree Age. Univ. ofFla. Agr. Ext. Ser. 60-8. Gainesville: 1960.

8. Tucker, D. P. H., A. K. Alva, L. K. Jackson, and T. A. Wheaton (Eds.). Nutrition of Florida Citrus
Trees. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Ext. Svc. SP 169. Gainesville: 1995. 61 pp.








ADDENDA:


18

Listing of Grove Care Programs for Southwest Florida Citrus Production for Both
Round Oranges and Grapefruit
Page


Table 1-A Spray program s ... ....... ....................................
Post bloom spray .................... .....................
Summer spray ................. .................. ... ...........
Fall spray ................. ................ .. ..... ...........

Table 2-A. Herbicide .. ......... .................................

Table 3-A. Dry fertilizer ............ ...............................

Table 4-A. Liquid fertilizer (Double boom application) ............. ...........

Table 5-A. Nematicides .................................................

Table 6-A. Soil amendment ............. ............ .. ..............

Table 7-A. Irrigation--annual cost per acre .............. .........................
Drip ........... ...... ............................ ..........
Microsprinkler ..............................................
Drainage ditch annual costs ............... ...........................

Table 8-A. A listing of 1998 custom rates reported by twenty-three Indian River and South
Florida citrus caretakers .... .....................................

Table 9-A. 1998 summary of average chemical price estimates ........................

Table 10-A. 1998 summary of average fertilizer price estimates ........................

Table 11-A. Cost for establishing, planting and maintaining a citrus grove through four years
of age, South Florida flatwoods area ... .............................

Table 12-A. Estimated cost of planting and maintaining a reset citrus tree through three years
of age, 1996 .................. ................... ................

Table 13-A. A listing of estimated comparative Southwest Florida citrus production costs per
acre for oranges, 1997-98 .. ....................................

Table 14-A. A listing of estimated comparative Southwest Florida citrus production costs per
acre for grapefruit, 1997-98 ................ ......................

Table 15-A. Historic prices for selected citrus varieties ............................

Table 16-A. Debt which can be supported per $1,000.00 annual payment capacity ..........

Abbreviations for important chemicals are:

B = Boron Fe = Iron Mn = Manganese Zn = Zinc
Cu = Copper Mg = Magnesium N = Nitrogen


19
19
21
22

23

26

27

27

28

28
28
28
28









Table 1-A.--Spray programs


POST BLOOM SPRAY


Spray Program #1


Spray Program #2


Spray Program #3


Spray Program #4


Materials/Ingredients

Cu (50% metallic)
Zn
Mn
B

Ground Application
(engine driven airblast)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Cu (50% metallic)
Zn, Mn, Nitrates
Micromite 25WP

Ground Application

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Cu (50% metallic)
Ethion
Oil 97+%

Ground Application
(engine driven airblast)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Cu (50% metallic)
Nitrate
Potassium Nitrate
Lorsban 4EC
Hystop (pH Reducer)

Ground Application
(engine driven airblast)

Total per Application


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$19.65
3.65
3.30
1.23

20.77


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$13.10
1.27
39.08


17.96
$71,41


Amount
/Acre
15 lbs
5 lbs
10 lbs
0.25 lbs

150 gals


Amount
/Acre

10 lbs
I pt
1.25 lbs

100 gals


Amount
/Acre

7 lbs
5 pts
3 gals

100 gals


Amount
/Acre

7 lbs
3 qts
10 lbs
4 pts
1 pt

100 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$9.17
20.45
5.97

17.96


Cost/Acre

$9.17
6.07
3.67
22.24
1.71


1796









Table 1-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)

POST BLOOM SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #5


Materials/Ingredients
Dicofol 4EC
Cu (50% metallic)
Ground Application
(engine driven airblast)
Total per Application


Spray Program #6


Spray Progr


Spray Prog


Materials/Ingredients
Ethion
Cu (50% metallic)
Oil 97+%
Ground Application
Total per Application


Amount
/Acre
6 pts
8 lbs
3 gals
250 GPA


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre
$24.54
10.48
5.97
22.31
$63.29


Amount
-am #7 Materials/Ingredients /Acre Cost/Acre
Cu (50% metallic) 7 lbs $ 9.17
Zn, Mn, B 8 lbs metallic 8.24
Ethion 6 pts 24.54
Ground Application 500 gals 2L25
(engine driven airblast)
Total per Application $69.20


Amount
ram #8 Materials/Ingredients /Acre Cost/Acre
Vendex 4L 2 Ibs $30.12
Ground Application 150 gals 20.77
(engine driven airblast)
Total per Application $5 9


Spray Program #9
(Scale insects)


Materials/Ingredients
Lorsban 4EC
Ground Application
(engine driven airblast)
Total per Application


Amount
/Acre
5 pts
10 lbs
250 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre
$25.45
13.10
221.3


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Amount
/Acre
5 pts
500 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre
$27.80
27.25


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --










Table 1-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)


SUMMER SPRAY


Spray Program #10


Spray Program #11


Spray Program #12


Materials/Ingredients

Oil 97+ %
Cu (50% copper)

Ground Application
(engine driven airblast)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Oil 97+%
Cu (50% metallic)
Agri-Mek

Ground Application
(engine driven airblast)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Cu (50% metallic)
Oil 97+%
Agri-Mek

Ground Application
(engine driven airblast)

Total per Application


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$19.90
9.17

223Q


Your
Cost/Acre


Amount
/Acre

10 gals
7 lbs

250 gals


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
7 lbs
5 ozs

150 gals


Amount
/Acre

7 lbs
5 gals
10 ozs

250 gals


Cost/Acre

$9.95
9.17
20.95

20.77


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$9.17
9.95
41.90

220Q


---------------------------------------------------------------------


$83.32


---------------------------------------------------------------------


$5-22


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


$60.84










FALL SPRAY


Amount


Spray Prog











Spray Prog










Spray Prog










Spray Prog


ram #13 Materials/Ingredients /Acre Cost/Acr

Agri-Mek 10 ozs $41.90

Ground Application 50 gals 154
(PTO driven airblast)

Total per Application $57.44

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Amount
ram #14 Materials/Ingredients /Acre Cost/Acre

Thiolux 80 DF (sulfur) 15 lbs $ 9.75

Aerial Application 15 GPA 67Q

Total per Application $145

----------------------------------------.. . . ..---------------.

Amount
ram #15 Materials/Ingredients /Acre Cost/Acre

Dicofol 6 pts $30.54

Aerial Annlication 15 GPA 6.70


Total per Application $37.24

----------------------------------------... ..... .. ..---------------

Amount
ram #16 Materials/Ingredients /A Cost/Acre

Vendex 4L 2 lbs $30.12

Ground Application 250 GPA 22.30

Total per Application $52.42

----------------------------------------.. .. .. .. ....---------------.


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre










Table 2-A.--Herbicide


Herbicide Program #1

(Strip/band)


Herbicide Program #2

(Strip/band)


Materials

Solicam 80DF
Karmex WP
Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Materials

Surflan A80 DF
Simazine 4L
Roundup Ultra


Amount/
Treated Acre

3 lbs
4 lbs
2 qts


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$20.49
8.24
12.32

8.26


Amount/ Cost/
Treated Acre Grove Acre'

2 qts $14.62
4 qts 6.84
2 qts 12.32


Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Herbicide Program #3

(Strip/band)


Herbicide Program #4

(Strip/band)


Materials

Karmex WP
Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Materials

Solicam 80DF
Simazine 4L
Roundup Ultra


Amount/ Cost/
Treated Acre Grove Acre'

4 lbs $ 8.24
2 qts 12.32


$28.82


Amount/
Treated Acre

8 lbs
4 qts
2 pts


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$54.64
6.84
6.16


Ground Application .
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application $759

"With respect to herbicide materials, Amount Per Grove Acre does not qal Amount Per Treated Acre
shown on the label as only a strip or band is being treated. In this report, it is assumed that only 50% or
one-half of a grove acre is being treated.


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Your Cost/
Grove Acre










Table 2-A.--Herbicide (cont'd.)


Herbicide Program #5

(Strip/band)


Materials

Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

4 qts


Herbicide Program #6

(Strip/band)


Materials

Krovar I
Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)


Amount/
Treated Acre

5 Ibs
2 qts


Total for 1 Application $47.28


Amount/ Cost/
program #7 Materials Treated Acre Grove Acre'

d) Princep (Caliber 90) 4 lbs $ 6.70
Hyvar X 6 lbs 49.05
Adjuvant (Surfactant) 2 pts 1.85

Ground Application 8.26


(1 time)


Total for 1 Application $65.86


Amount/ Cost/
program #8 Materials Treated Acre Grove Acre'

I) Roundup Ultra 2 qts $12.32
Princep (Caliber 90) 4 lbs 6.70

Ground Application 8.26


(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


$27.28


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$24.64

8.26


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$26.70
12.32

l26


Herbicide P

(Strip/bane


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Herbicide Pi

(Strip/band


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --










Table 2-A.--Herbicide (cont'd.)


Herbicide Program #9

(Strip/band)


Materials

Direx 4L
Solicam
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Herbicide Program #10

(Chemical mow)


Materials

Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)


Amount/
Treated Acre

1 pt


Total for 1 Application $9.27


Amount/ Cost/
program #11 Materials Treated Acre Grove Acre'

mow) Roundup Ultra 1.5 pts $ 4.62

Ground Application 6.19
(1 time)


Total for 1 Application $10.81


Amount/ Cost/
ogram #12 Materials Treated Acre Grove Acre'

nent) Roundup Ultra 2 qts $12.32

Ground Application 5.06


(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


$11.3


Amount/
Treated Acre

3 qts
3 lbs
1 qt


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$7.41
20.49
1.85

8.26


$38.01


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre

$ 3.08

b132


Herbicide P

(Chemical


Herbicide Pr

(Spot treaty


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --










Table 3-A.--Dry fertilizer


Program #1

(125 lbs N







Program #2

(150 lbs N







Program #3

(180 lbs N


Program #

(204 lbs


Program #-

(225 lbs i


Analysis/Material Amount
Applied /Are Cost/Acre

I/Acre) 12-2-12-2.4 MgO 1042 lbs $ 76.07
Application 3 times 21.21

Total for 3 Applications $97.2
---------------------------------------------------------

Analysis/Material Amount
Applied /Acre Cost/Acre

/Acre) 15-2-15-2.4 MgO 1000 lbs $ 82.00
Application 3 times 21.21

Total for 3 Applications $103.21
--------------------------------------------------------------------

Analysis/Material Amount
Applied /Acre Cost/Acre

4/Acre) 15-2-15-2.4 MgO 1200 lbs $ 98.40
Application 3 times 21.21

Total for 3 Applications $19.6
-------------------......-----------------------------------------------

Analysis/Material Amount
4 Applied /Acre Cost/Acre

N/Acre) 17-4-17-2.4 MgO 1200 lbs $108.00
Application 3 times 21.21

Total for 3 Applications $129.21
--------------------------------------------------------------------

Analysis/Material Amount
5 Applied /Acre Cost/Acre

N/Acre) 15-2-15-2.4 MgO 1500 lbs $123.00
Application 3 times 21.221

Total for 3 Applications $144.21
-------------------......-----------------------------------------------


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre









Table 4-A.--Liquid fertilizer (Double boom application)

Analysis/Material
Program #1 Applied

(180 lbs N/Acre) 10-0-10

Double Boom Application

Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material


Amount
/Acre

1800 lbs

3 times


Amount


Cost/Acre

$108.00

34.29

$14229


Applied /Acre Cost/Acre

i/Acre) 10-2-10 1800 lbs $115.20

Double Boom Application 3 times 34.29

Total for 3 Applications $149.49


Analysis/Material Amount
Applid /Ae Cost/Acre t/Ac
I/Acre) 10-0-10 1800 Ibs $108.00
Solicam 80DF 3 lbs* 20.49
Karmex WP 4 lbs* 8.24

Double Boom Application 3 times 34.29

Total for 3 Applications $171.02


*Treated acre--one application


Table 5-A.--Nematicides


Analysis/Material Amount
Applied /Acre Cost/Acre

Temik 15G 33 lbs $101.31

Application 13.33

Total per Application $114.64


Analysis/Material Amount
Applied /Acre Cost/Acre

Nemacur 15G 50 lbs $189.50

Application 13.33

Total per Application $202.83


Program #2

(180 lbs IN


Program #3

(180 lbs N


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Program #1









Program #2


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --









Table 6-A.--Soil amendment

Program #1
(Every 3 years)







Program #2
(Every year)


Analysis/Material
Applied
Dolomite (Delivered)
Application
Total for 1 Application
(Average 1/3 Ton Applied/Yr)


Analysis/Material
Applied
Dolomite (Delivered)
Application
Total per Application


Table 7-A.--Irrigation--annual cost per acre
DRIP
Program #1
Operating (Electric)
$34.77
Maintenance of System 34.20
Total Cash Expenses $ 68.97

Fixed Depreciation Expense 42.35

Total Cash and Fixed Expenses $111.32


MICROSPRINKLER

Operating

Maintenance of System
Total Cash Expenses

Fixed Depreciation Expense

Total Cash and Fixed Expenses

DRAINAGE DITCH ANNUAL COSTS


Program #3
(Electric)
$ 39.52
38.11
$ 75.63

52.94

$130.57


Ditches/Canals Maintenance ($37.93/acre 3 years)
Weed Control in Ditches/Canals
Water Control: In/Out of Ditches and Canals
Total


Amount
/Acre
1 ton
1 time


Amount
/Acre
1000 lbs


Your
Cost/Acre












Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre







Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre












Your
Cost/Acre












Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre
$24.69
7.25
$10.6
$10.61


Cost/Acre
$12.35
$125
$196


Program #2
(Diesel)
$31.26
35.43
$66.69

45.25

$111.94



Program #4
(Diesel)
$ 33.26
40.56
$ 73.82

56.56

$130.38


Program #5

$12.64
11.45

$32J
$33.28


---------------------------------------_










Table 8-A.-A listing of 1998 custom rates reported by twenty-three Indian River and South Florida citrus caretakers

Range of Rate Average
Grove Practice Unit Reported Rate' Comments

CULTIVATION AND EQUIPMENT:


Hand Labor
Mechanic Labor
Tractor/Equipment Operator (Driver)
Rotovate
Disc 7-8'
Disc 10'
Mow: Off-set or Side Mower
5-8'
9-10'
15-16'
V-Mower
Sickle Mower
Herbicide' (Strip/Band-Single Boom)
Herbicide' (Strip/Band-Single Boom)
Herbicide' (Strip/Band-Double Boom)
Herbicide' (Chemical Mow)
Temik/Nemacur'
Plow
Backhoe
Vine Puller
Middle Buster
Mound Builder
Grader Blade
Bush Hog
Water Truck with Driver
Pickup Truck with Driver
Flatbed/Transport Truck with Driver
Tractor with Driver
ATV with Driver


$8.50- $13.75
25.00- 40.00
12.50- 18.00
27.50- 40.00
25.00- 35.00
26.00- 35.00

27.00- 32.00
25.00- 35.00
32.00- 41.00
30.00- 38.00
31.00- 33.00
25.00- 35.25
9.50- 15.00
9.50- 12.50
4.50- 8.25
12.00- 15.00
25.00- 35.00
39.00- 50.00

26.00- 35.00
27.00- 35.00
25.00- 32.00
30.00- 40.00
25.00- 35.00
20.00- 35.00
35.00- 55.00
25.00- 35.00
16.00- 25.00


$11.11 Plus transportation and equipment
31.77 Labor and service truck
14.86
32.60
29.94 Average $10.00/acre
30.38
35.00 Average $8.50/acre
29.38 Average $9.25/acre
29.95 Average $9.50/acre
32.82 Average $8.17/acre
34.00 Average $8.25/acre
32.25
29.96 Plus materials
12.19 Plus materials
11.43 Plus materials
6.19 Plus materials
13.33 Plus materials
30.13
43.42
25.83
30.81 With tractor and driver
31.15 With tractor and driver
28.32 Tractor/blade and driver
34.60 Average $10.00/acre
30.54
24.80 Average miles traveled per year: Pick-up truck 23,850 miles
41.67 Avg. $1.25/mile; $100 per move Transport truck 20,000 miles
28.97
18.49 J.D. Gator @ $10.00/hour equipment only


SPRAYING:"

Hand Sprayer Hour $ $ $42.50 Includes tractor, handgun sprayer and 2 workers
Curtec @ 3 MPH: $28/acre; Curtec @ 3.5 MPH: $26/acre; Curtec Sprayer: $18.75/acre @ 25 GPA; Spectrum Electrostatic Sprayer: $20.00/acre @ 25 GPA

AIR BLAST SPRAYER
Engine Driven PTO Powered


Acre 32.00- 35.00
Acre 24.00- 30.00
Acre 20.00- 25.00
Acre -


33.52 28.00- 34.00 32.25 PTO with 'tree see" $36/acre
26.07 21.50- 27.00 24.15 PTO with "tree see" $26/acre
22.10 18.00- 22.00 19.57 PTO with "tree sec' $21/acre
17.50- 19.00 18.22


ENGINE/PTO DRIVEN SPRAYERS


Tank 32.00- 43.00
Tank 45.00- 64.00
Tank 60.00- 74.00
Tank 72.00- 82.00


37.65 500 gallon tank
55.75 500 gallon tank
67.19 500 gallon tank
77.80 500 gallon tank


Fixed Wing: $4.35/acre @ 5 gallons per acre Bell Helicopter: $5.00/acre @ 5 GPA
Fixed Wing: $5.63/acre @ 10 gallons per acre Bell Helicopter: $10.00/acre @ 10 GPA
Fixed Wing: $6.70/acre @ 15 gallons per acre Huie Helicopter: $17.00/acre @ 15 GPA
Fixed Wing: $8.73/acre @ 20 gallons per acre Huie Helicopter: $20.00/acre @ 20 GPA


Ground Application
Aerial Application


$S. $-


$ 7.25
8.00


Inject Liquid Fertilizer
Liquid Boom Application:
Single Boom
Double Boom
Dry (Bulk)
Lime or Dolomite
Fertilize Young Trees:' Hand Spread
Fert. Spreader


Hour $ $ $38.50 One reporting $50/setting

Acre 7.00
Acre 11.00- 12.50 11.69
Acre 6.00- 9.50 7.07 Average $18.25/ton; average $33.17/hour
Acre 5.50- 8.25 7.25 Average $8.25/ton
Hour 8.50- 13.75 11.11 Plus transportation; one reporting 10c/tree
Hour 25.00- 36.00 29.56 And materials; average $6.85/acre
One reoortine travel to/from erove site at one hour per day of pickup truck rate.


(OVER)


500 GPA
250 GPA
125 GPA
100 GPA


Aerial
Aerial
Aerial
Aerial












Table 8-A.-A listing of 1998 custom rates reported by twenty-three Indian River and South Florida citrus caretakers (cont'd.)

Range of Rate Average
Grove Practice Unit Reported Rate' Comments


Water Furrow Mower
Water Furrow Disc
Water Furrow Cleaner
Water Furrow Shaper (Laser Control)
Rotary Ditcher or Auger
Microsprinkler/Drip Irrigation Maintenance
Microsprinkler

REMOVING TREES:

Front End Loader
Tree Shearing (Cutting Tree at Ground Level)
D3-C Wide Track


Hour $42.50- $45.00
Hour 25.00- 36.00
Hour 27.50- 35.00
Hour 65.00- 70.00
Hour 28.00- 35.00
Acre/Month 1.50- 4.25
$20/setting; $34/hour (truck and driver)


$43.44
30.13
31.50
66.67
30.50
2.92


Hour $40.00- $50.00 $46.59
Hour 48.00- 52.00 49.92
Hour 55.00


Check & repair system; parts extra
Start/stop and supervision


Avg. range 5-20 trees per hour; bulldozer avg. $56.00/hr
Avg. range 5-12 trees per hour; one reporting $3/tree


PRUNING:


General Pruning (Rehab/Freeze Damage)
Saw with Operator
Hedging:
Single Side (Tractor Pulled)
Single Side (Tractor Mounted)
Double Side (Self Propelled)
Self-Propelled Double Boom Hedger
Self-Propelled Double Boom Hedger & Topper
Topping:
Tractor Pulled
Tractor Pulled
Tractor Mounted
Double Sided Topper
Double Boom (Self Propelled)
Limb Lifter/Tree Skirt Trimmer
Limb Lifter/Tree Skirt Trimmer
Removing Brush:
Haul Brush out of Grove
Mow/Chop Brush

OTHER CUSTOM RATES:

Install Tree Wraps
Plant Trees (Solid Set)
Plant Trees (Resets)
Travel/Setup Charge
Grove Management Charge/Month:
Supervising Grove Care Operations
Handling Fruit Marketing
Supervising/Handling Chemicals/Fertilizer

Consulting

Total Reported Acreage Provided Grove
Service to:


$ $ $3.50
16.00- 20.25 18.45


55.00-
205.00-




300.00



12.00-
40.00-


70.00
250.00




350.00



17.00
60.00


115.00
60.83
235.00
335.00
250.00

100.00
316.67
175.00
250.00
550.00
14.38
53.33


6 to 10 acres/hour
4 to 8 acres/hour
8 to 20 acres/hour depending on wood size; $12/acre
12 to 30 acres/hour--bd top only; 8 to 20 acres-bed top
Light cut \ad furrow; depending on wood size

2-5 ac/hr depending on wood size; $30/acre "Gable Cut"
4jo 10 acres/hour roof top; 10 to 20 acres flattop cut from
\be tops
Avg. 8-15 acres depending on wood size type of cut: $22'acre
4 to 10 acres/hour rooftop; 15 to 30 acres flatloarcut from
3 to 5 acres/hr \bed tops


Hour 45.00- 55.00 46.47 Front-end loader
Hour 29.75- 35.00 33.21 Average $10.00/acre



$0.07 $0.25 depending on type of wrap and number of trees
Tree $ 0.70- $ 1.50 $ 1.02 Varies as to density
Tree 1.25- 2.75 2.05 Varies as to the number of resets
Hour 26.40


Acre 3.00- 6.00 4.15 In addition to caretaking charges
$0.15-$0.20/box; $0.05/pound solids One reporting $5/acre/month for supervising and marketing
7% to 15% of materials cost; averaged 12%

$100 per hour for Horticultural Evaluation and/or Financial Analysis/prospectus.


Acre


405- 8,000


2,259 Total acres reporting: 36,145


Sourc: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, Lake Alfred CREC, June 1998.


'Plus materials. Caretakers reporting rates include labor, tractor and sprayer; supply truck included by most caretakers.

'Calculated by dividing the total number of caretakers reporting a grove practice rate into the sum reported. Unless otherwise stated, labor included with all charges.






31


Table 9-A.--1998 summary of average chemical price estimates

Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1997-98)


Fungicides:


Aliette 80WP
Benlate
Basic Copper Sulfate (53%)
Copper (50%) (Kocide 101)
Copper (40%) (Kocide 606)
Carbamate 76WP
Copper (Champ)
Nu-Cop 50DF
Oil 435 or 455
Ridomil 5G
Ridomil (Gold)


Insecticides/Nematicides:


Admire
Agri-Mek (0.15EC)
Bacillus thuringienses
Carzol 92 SP
Comite 6.55 EC
Cygon 4 EC
Dicofol 4 EC
Ethion
Guthion 2L
Guthion 50WP
Kelthane MF
Logic Bait
Lorsban 4EC
Lorsban 15G
Malathion 5 E
Metasystox-R
Micromite 25WP
Microthiol 80DF
Nemacur 15G
Nexter 75WP
Sevin 80S
Sevin XLR
Sulphur 6F
Sulphur Dust
Temik 15G
Thiolux 80 DF
Vendex 50W


9.52
15.91
1.31
1.91
12.54
3.80
1.76
1.84
1.99
4.59
614.36


528.70
603.68
9.25
31.90
77.68
8.85
40.70
32.70
30.83
8.09
36.79
7.16
44.45
1.90
24.08
61.82
31.26
0.67
3.79
7.38
4.26
24.97
3.65
305.00
3.07
0.65
15.06


gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
lb.
lb.
gal.
gal.
ton
lb.
lb.
lb.









Table 9-A.--1998 summary of average chemical price estimates (cont'd.)
Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1997-98)


Herbicides: DeVine
Devrinol 50WP
Direx 4L
Direx 80 DF
Eptam 7-E
Fusilade DX
Goal
Gramoxone (Paraquat)
Hyvar X
Karmex
Krovar I
Princep (Caliber 90)
Princep 4L
Prowl
Rodeo (30 gal drum)
Roundup (30 gal drum)
Roundup Ultra
Simazine 90 DF
Simazine 4L
Solicam 80 DF
Surflan AS
Torpedo 1E
Touchdown
Treflan

Growth Regulators:
Pro-Gibb 3.91%
Tre-Hold


pt.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.


20 oz.
gal.


Other Spray Materials:
Borates (15%)
Manganese (32%)
Zinc (78%)
Adjuvant (Surfactant)
Nutritional Spray Mix:
Goemar BM 86
Goemar MZ 63
Sequestrene 138 FE
Peter's 20-20-20 Foliar (25 lb bag)
Dyna Gold MZF


lb.
lb.
lb.
gal.

gal.
gal.
lb.
lb.
gal.


73.25
7.83
19.76
3.98
31.34
126.77
86.72
36.38
16.35
4.12
10.68
3.35
14.65
27.63
102.33
43.94
49.30
2.85
13.67
13.66
58.45
52.38
71.07
32.90


39.02
74.29


0.74
0.33
0.73
14.82

28.50
30.50
10.45
0.44
7.38


SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, University of
Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, Florida, June 1998.








Table 10-A.--1998 summary of average fertilizer price estimates


Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1997-98)


FERTILIZER (FOB Price @ Plant)
Slow Release (Young Tree)*
Osmocote: 18-4-12
Meister: 17-6-12
Sulfur Coated/Polymer Coated Urea (42 % N)
Dry Mix (Bulk)
17-0-17-3
17-4-17-2.4
16-0-16
16-0-16-4 M
16-2-16-3
15-2-12-2.4
12-2-12-2.4,
8-8-8 w/minors**
8-4-8 w/minors**
8-2-8 w/minors**
6-6-6 w/minors**
Liquid Mix (Bulk)
8-2-8
8-4-8
9-3-9
9-4-9
10-0-10
10-2-10
12-0-6
12-3-6


1,372.67
1,562.00
357.00


182.14
179.92
159.26
174.43
174.89
163.39
145.11
138.28
132.54
127.75
125.70


120.28
121.88
125.38
129.60
120.15
128.54
132.37
138.80


*Slow Release Elements are indicated in parenthesis.
**With organic nitrogen, the price averaged 25% higher.








Table 10-A.--1998 summary of average fertilizer price estimates (cont'd.)


Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1997-98)

Other Fertilizer Materials (Bulk)
Ammonium Nitrate (21% N Liquid) ton 136.12
Ammonium Nitrate (33.5% N Dry) ton 190.88
Ammonium Sulfate (21% N) ton 111.71
Calcium Nitrate (19% Ca, 15.5% N) ton 183.70
Dolomite (at mine--49% CaCO3, 36% MgCO3) ton 12.65
High Cal Lime ton 6.50
Muriate of Potash (60% K20) ton 154.00
Potassium Nitrate (14% N; 46% K20) ton 363.91
Sul-Po-Mag (SPM--21.9% K20) ton 172.00
Super Phosphate (20% P205) ton 143.27
Triple Superphosphate (48% P205) ton 202.69
Average Delivery Cost ton 12.04


SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, University of
Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, Florida, June 1998.








Table 1 1-A.--Cost for establishing, planting and maintaining a citrus grove through four years of age, South Florida flatwoods area
Cost Per Acre
Range Average

$ $
Land Cost:' Improved Pasture Land 1,700-2,500 2,050
Raw Land and Semi-improved Pasture 1,150-1,800 1,450
Land Preparation: Pasture and Light Palmettos 125- 275 195
(Clearing) Raw Land (heavy pines, palmettos) 350- 600 465
Leveling: With Laser 200- 350 275
Without Laser 100- 250 160
Bedding: 2-rows (short rows 1,350+ feet) 100- 195 130
Soil Amendments: Dolomite 1 ton 35
Super Phosphate, 400 lbs. 30
Canals, Ditches and Dikes 150- 260 195
Reservoirs and Roads 130- 180 155
Throw-out Pumps for Water Movement 45- 60 55
Culverts 65- 135 85
Middle Drop Drainage Pipes 45- 95 105
Drainage Tile 140- 160 150
Cover Crop 9- 16 12
Irrigation System: Microsprinkler -- with Well' 850-1,500 1,000
--without Well 525-1,200 700
Drip with Well2 775-1,050 875
-- without Well 400- 825 560
Water Permits, Environmental Studies, and Engineering: Cost 40- 90 70
Time in Months 5- 12 8
Percent Land Utilization: Planted to Citrus 55%- 85% 71%
Ditches and Canals 5%- 10% 8%
Water Retention 10%- 30% 15 %
Roads and Service Areas 3%- 15% 6%
----------------------II0?------------ -----------------------------------^^-5--- ------ --------------?----
South Florida
Year
1 2 3 4

Solidset Planted Trees' ----------------- Cost Per Tree ----------------

Microsprinkler Irrigation and Ditch Maintenance $0.40 $0.50 $0.65 $0.85
Fertilize Tree 0.25 0.40 0.55 0.56
Supplemental Fertilization thru Irrigation 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.29
Spray 0.30 0.40 0.47 0.50
Insulated Tree Wrap (annual maintenance) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.00
Sprouting (labor) 0.20 0.20 0.00 0.00
Cultivation/Mowing 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44
Herbicide 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.54
Ridomil/Aliette 0.35 0.35 0.00 0.00
Miscellaneous 0.43 0.49 .Q42 0.48
Total Cost Per Year $3.31 $3.77 $3.62 $3.66

Reset Trees (annual additional grove care costs) $2.13 $2.47 $1.84

Cost of Planting Trees' Solidset = $5.00 Reset = $6.30

'Land cost will vary from one county to another as well as from one parcel to another.

'Irrigation costs include distribution system, power unit and well (where indicated.) The higher cost ranges reported also included a cost for fertigation
equipment.

'The per tree costs shown are applicable for tree densities of 145 to 165 trees per acre. The per tree costs should be decreased for higher density plantings and
increased for lower density plantings; e.g., at 200 trees per acre decrease costs by 15%; at 115 trees per acre increase costs by 15%.

'Tree cost (bare root) = $3.25; stake, plant, and water tree = $1.25 (solidset) and $2.55 (resets); and uninsulated tree wrap = $0.50.


Source: Ronald P. Muraro, Farm Management Economist, CREC, Lake Alfred. FL, November 1989.


i








Table 12-A.--Estimated cost of planting and maintaining a reset citrus tree through three years of age,
1996

Number of Resets/Replacement Trees Per Acre

1-2 3-5 6-10 11-25 26+
---------------- Cost Per Tree ---------------

Year #1: $ $ $ $ $
Tree Removal 5.21 4.53 3.62 2.93 2.34
Tree Cost (Container Tree) 4.00 4.00 3.75 3.75 3.75
Site Preparation' 5.12 4.44 3.76 3.48 2.73
Plant Tree and First Watering 2.37 2.05 1.73 1.61 1.26
Total Planting Cost 11.49 10.49 9.24 8.84 7.74

Supplemental Fertilization 4 Times
(Application & Materials) 1.26 1.10 1.01 0.92 0.84
Supplemental Spraying (Application & Materials) 0.45 0.39 0.36 0.33 0.30
Spot Herbicide (Application & Materials) 0.21 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.13
Tree Wrap (Corrugated) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sprouting/Pruning 0.38 0.38 0.35 0.35 0.32
Miscellaneous 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.13
Supervision & Overhead 0.26 0.24 0.23 022 0_20
Total Tree Care Cost Year #1 3.72 3.44 3.25 3.10 2.92
Total Cost Year #1 20.42 18.46 16.11 14.87 13.00
Year #2:
Supplemental Fertilization 3 Times
(Application & Materials) 1.70 1.51 1.32 1.12 1.02
Supplemental Spraying (Application & Materials) 0.52 0.46 0.40 0.34 0.31
Spot Herbicide (Application & Materials) 0.20 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.13
Sprouting/Pruning 0.45 0.45 0.38 0.38 0.34
Miscellaneous 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.09
Supervision & Overhead 0.23 0.20 0.1 0.14
Total Cost Year #2 3.24 2.93 2.55 2.24 2.03
Year #3:
Supplemental Fertilization 3 Times
(Application & Materials) 2.31 2.06 1.77 1.51 1.28
Miscellaneous 0.12 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.06
Supervision & Overhead 0.18 0.16 014 0.12 0.10
Total Cost Year #3 2.61 2.32 2.00 1.71 1.44
Total Three-Year Cumulative Costs 26.27 2.71 20.66 1882 16.47

'Site preparation for bedded citrus grove; cost of root removal, rotovating/leveling tree planting site.
Fumigate planting site would cost approximately $2.50 per tree.

SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Farm Management Economist, CREC, Lake Alfred, FL, November 1996.






Table 13-A.--A listing of estimated comparative Southwest Florida citrus production costs per acre for oranges, 1997-98'
Low Cost Reduced Cost Typical/Historical
Costs represent a mature (10+ years old) Processed Fresh/Processed Fresh Fruit
Southwest Florida Orange Grove. Cultural Program Cultural Program Cultural Program

PRODUCTION/CULTURAL COSTS:
Weed Management/Control:
Mechanical Mow Middles (3 times per year) $ 22.44 $ 22.44 $ 22.44
Chemical Mow Middles (2 times per year) 18.54 18.54 18.54
General Grove Work (2 labor hours per acre) 22.22 22.22 22.22
Herbicide (1/2 tree acre treated):
Application (3 applications) $24.78 $24.78 $24.78
Material 77.06 99. 99-09
Total Herbicide Cost 101.84 123.87 123.87
Spray
Post Bloom: Application (150 GPA) 20.77 20.77
Material 27.83 27.83
Total Post Bloom Cost 48.60 48.60
Summer Oil: Application (250 GPA) 22.30 22.30 22.30
Material 6102 29.07 29.07
Total Summer Oil Cost 83.32 51.37 51.37
Supplemental Fall Miticide:
Aerial Application 6.70
Material (Wettable Sulfur) 9.75
Total Supplemental Fall Miticide Cost 16.45
Fertilizer (Bulk): 3 Applications 21.21 21.21 21.21
Material (15-2-15-2.4 MgO @ 180 lbs N,
204 lbs N, and 225 lbs N) 98.40 108.00 123.00
Total Fertilizer Cost 119.61 129.21 144.21
Dolomite (one ton applied every 3 years)
Material/Application 10.65 10.65 10.65
Pruning: Topping ($39.58/A 2.5 yrs) 15.83 15.83 15.83
Remove Brush from Trees after Topping
($22.03/A + 2.5 yrs) 8.81 8.81 8.81
Hedging ($29.38/A + 2 yrs) 14.69 14.69 14.69
Chop/Mow Brush after Hedging ($10/A 2 yrs) 5.00 5.00 5.00
Total Pruning Cost 44.33 44.33 44.33
Tree Replacement 1 thru 3 years of age: (4 trees/acre)
Remove Trees: Pull, Stack & Burn 4 Trees with
Front-end Loader 18.12 18.12 18.12
Prepare Site & Plant Tree (Includes 4 reset trees) 41.96 41.96 41.96
Supplemental Fertilizer, Tree Wraps Maintenance,
Sprout, etc. (Trees 1-3 years) 35.28 35.28 35.28
Total Tree Replacement Cost 95.36 95.36 95.36
Irrigation: Microsprinkler System 130.38 130.38 130.38
Clean Ditches (Weed Control) 11.45 11.45 11.45
Ditch and Canal Maintenance 12.64 12.64 12.64
Water Control (Pump water in/out of Ditches and
Canals) 12 -212 9,19
Total Irrigation Cost 163.66 163.66 163.66
IRRIGATED PROCESSED FRUIT PRODUCTION COSTS $681.97 $730.2
Supplemental Post Bloom Spray:
Application (250 GPA) 22.30 22.30
Material 40.99 40.99
Total Supplemental Post Bloom Spray 63.29 63.29
Fall Miticide Spray: Application (250 GPA) 22.30 22.30
Material 30.12 30.12
Total Fall Miticide Cost 52.42 52.42
IRRIGATED FRESH FRUIT PRODUCTION COSTS $845.96 $877.41

'The listed estimated comparative costs are for the example grove situation described in the Economic information Report Series entitled: "Budgeting Costs
and Returns for Southwest Florida Citrus Production" and may not represent your particular grove situation in Southwest Florida.
SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, University of Florida-IFAS, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL.







Table 14-A.--A listing of estimated comparative Southwest Florida citrus production costs per acre for grapefruit, 1997-98'
Low Cost Reduced Cost Typical/Historical
Costs represent a mature (10+ years old) Processed Fresh/Processed Fresh Fruit
Southwest Florida Grapefruit Grove. Cultural Program Cultural Program Cultural Program
PRODUCTION/CULTURAL COSTS:
Weed Management/Control:
Mechanical Mow Middles (3 times per year) $ 22.44 $ 22.44 $ 22.44
Chemical Mow Middles (2 times per year) 18.54 18.54 18.54
General Grove Work (2 labor hours per acre) 22.22 22.22 22.22
Herbicide (1/2 tree acre treated):
Application (3 applications) $24.78 $24.78 $24.78
Material 2.6 992.92
Total Herbicide Cost 101.84 123.87 123.87
Spray
Post Bloom: Application (150 GPA) 20.77 20.77
Material 27.83 27.83
Total Post Bloom Cost 48.60 48.60
Summer Oil: Application (250 GPA) 22.30 22.30 22.30
Material 61.02 29.07 29.07
Total Summer Oil Cost 83.32 51.37 51.37
Supplemental Fall Miticide:
Aerial Application -- 6.70
Material (Wettable Sulfur) 9.Z5
Total Supplemental Fall Miticide Cost -16.45
Fertilizer (Bulk): 3 Applications 21.21 21.21 21.21
Material (12-2-12-2.4 MgO @ 125 lbs N;
and 15-2-15-2.4 MgO @ 150 lbs N) 76.07 82.Q00 2.
Total Fertilizer Cost 97.28 103.21 103.21
Dolomite (one ton applied every 3 years)
Material/Application 10.65 10.65 10.65
Pruning: Topping ($39.58/A 2.5 yrs) 15.83 15.83 15.83
Remove Brush from Trees after Topping
($22.03/A + 2.5 yrs) 8.81 8.81 8.81
Hedging ($29.38/A + 2 yrs) 14.69 14.69 14.69
Chop/Mow Brush after Hedging ($10/A + 2 yrs) 5.00 5.00 5.00
Raise Skirts of Trees ($14.13/A 2 yrs) 7.07 7.07 7.07
Total Pruning Cost 51.40 51.40 51.40
Tree Replacement 1 thru 3 years of age: (3 trees/acre)
Remove Trees: Pull, Stack & Burn 3 Trees with
Front-end Loader 13.59 13.59 13.59
Prepare Site & Plant Tree (Includes 3 reset trees) 31.47 31.47 31.47
Supplemental Fertilizer, Tree Wraps Maintenance,
Sprout, etc. (Trees 1-3 years) 26.26 .26.26 2626
Total Tree Replacement Cost 71.32 71.32 71.32
Irrigation: Microsprinkler System 130.38 130.38 130.38
Clean Ditches (Weed Control) 11.45 11.45 11.45
Ditch and Canal Maintenance 12.64 12.64 12.64
Water Control (Pump water in/out of Ditches and
Canals) 21 -2.9 29.9
Total Irrigation Cost 163.66 16366 163.66
IRRIGATED PROCESSED FRUIT PRODUCTION COSTS $642.67 $ 28
Supplemental Post Bloom Spray:
Application (250 GPA) 22.30 22.30
Material 4L0. 40.99
Total Supplemental Post Bloom Spray 63.29 63.29
Fall Miticide Spray: Application (250 GPA) 22.30 22.30
Material 30.12 -3012
Total Fall Miticide Cost -52A2 52.42
IRRIGATED FRESH FRUIT PRODUCTION COSTS $8029 $S81.44
The listed estimated comparative costs are for the example grove situation described in the Economic Information Report Series entitled: "Budgeting Costs
and Returns for Southwest Florida Citrus Production" and may not represent your particular grove situation in Southwest Florida.
SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, University of Florida-IFAS, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL.








Table 15-A.-Historic prices' for selected citrus varieties
Variety
Early and Seedless grapefruit'
mid'-season Late season Temple All
Crop year oranges oranges oranges Tangerines Tangelos (white) (colored)


1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66

1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80
1980-81

1981-82
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85
1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91

1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97'


$1.93
2.17
4.43
2.57
1.44
0.81
1.86
1.56
1.15
1.10
1.98
1.43
1.38
1.46
1.69
1.89
3.90
4.44
3.59
3.67
4.27
4.88
5.09
7.30
3.92
4.56
6.72
6.63
6.01
5.38

5.44
3.23
3.76
3.25
3.91
3.61


$1.81
3.50
4.45
2.28
1.79

1.08
2.28
1.83
1.13
1.91
2.11
1.71
1.59
1.82
1.88
2.63
4.40
4.95
3.89
4.63

4.29
5.41
6.72
6.88
3.97
6.02
8.73
8.41
6.53
6.58

6.65
3.88
4.61
4.41
5.81
4.26


$2.17
3.09
4.45
2.77
1.80
0.88
2.79
2.22
1.47
1.91
1.95
1.95
1.64
1.68
1.79
2.16
3.92
4.89
2.89
4.21
4.01
3.99
5.34
5.59
3.01
3.60
5.69
5.46
5.64
6.31

6.51
2.99
2.73
3.47
4.42
3.06


$2.04
3.02
3.18
2.68
2.14
1.06
4.29
2.55
2.23
1.88
2.97
2.37
2.82
3.05
3.02
3.29
4.79
4.99
4.25
5.45

6.23
7.57
5.93
15.91
12.69
10.92
12.99
12.64
15.28
17.10

18.00
13.75
9.83
11.98
12.72
7.92


$3.36
4.66
4.83
4.00
2.85
1.64
3.22
2.47
1.13
1.04
1.69
1.39
1.25
1.45
1.42
1.42
3.29
3.90
2.87
3.92

3.58
4.37
4.28
7.08
4.06
3.72
5.58
6.31
5.10
6.11

7.16
3.31
2.38
2.64
4.01
2.54


$0.68
1.29
2.24
1.51
1.39
0.73
2.05
0.98
1.72
1.89
2.27
2.06
1.58
1.55
1.29
1.49
1.47
2.21
3.12
3.46

1.92
1.51
2.08
3.02
3.56
4.45
5.35
4.33
5.21
4.59

6.46
2.22
3.23
2.58
2.39
0.99


$0.86
1.81
2.54
1.82
1.64
0.94
2.48
1.15
1.92
2.15
2.69
2.53
2.12
2.59
2.23
2.04
2.09
3.13
3.80
4.22

2.80
3.20
4.05
4.84
4.98
5.80
5.93
4.71
6.30
6.85

6.87
3.11
3.38
1.66
1.95
1.43


'On-tree average price per box (1-3/5 bushel box equivalent) for all methods of sale minus pick and haul
charges.


bNavel and Hamlin

'Parson Brown and Pineapple


dValencia


'Preliminary


'Marsh (white) or pink


Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.












Table 16-A.--Debt which can be supported per $1,000.00 annual payment capacity


Loan Interest rate paid on the loan
term
(years) 8.0% 8.5% 9.0% 9.5% 10.0% 10.5% 11.0% 11.5% 12.0% 12.5% 13.0% 13.5% 14.0% 14.5% 15.0%
1 926 922 917 913 909 905 901 897 893 889 885 881 877 873 870
2 1,783 1,771 1,759 1,747 1,754 1,724 1,713 1,701 1,690 1,679 1,668 1,657 1,647 1,636 1,626
3 2,577 2,554 2,531 2,509 2,487 2,465 2,444 2,423 2,402 2,381 2,361 2,341 2,322 2,302 2,283
4 3,312 3,276 3,240 3,204 3,170 3,136 3,102 3,070 3,037 3,006 2,974 2,944 2,914 2,884 2,855
5 3,993 3,941 3,890 3,840 3,791 3,743 3,696 3,650 3,605 3,561 3,517 3,475 3,433 3,392 3,352
6 4,623 4,554 4,486 4,420 4,355 4,292 4,230 4,170 4,111 4,054 3,998 3,942 3,889 3,836 3,784
7 5,206 5,119 5,033 4,950 4,868 4,789 4,712 4,640 4,564 4,492 4,423 4,355 4,288 4,224 4,160
8 5,747 5,639 5,535 5,433 5,335 5,239 5,146 5,056 4,968 4,882 4,799 4,718 4,639 4,562 4,487
9 6,247 6,119 5,995 5,875 5,759 5,646 5,537 5,431 5,328 5,228 5,132 5,038 4,946 4,858 4,772
10 6,710 6,561 6,418 6,279 6,145 6,015 5,889 5,768 5,650 5,536 5,426 5,319 5,216 5,116 5,019
11 7,139 6,969 6,805 6,647 6,495 6,348 6,207 6,070 5,938 5,810 5,687 5,568 5,453 5,341 5,234
12 7,536 7,345 7,161 6,984 6,814 6,650 6,492 6,341 6,194 6,054 5,918 5,787 5,660 5,538 5,421
13 7,904 7,691 7,487 7,291 7,103 6,923 6,750 6,583 6,424 6,270 6,122 5,979 5,842 5,710 5,583
14 8,244 8,010 7,786 7,572 7,367 7,170 6,982 6,801 6,628 6,462 6,302 6,149 6,002 5,861 5,724
15 8,559 8,304 8,061 7,828 7,606 7,394 7,191 6.997 6,811 6,633 6,462 6,299 6,142 5,992 5,847
16 8,851 8,576 8,313 8,062 7,824 7,596 7,379 7,172 6,974 6,785 6,604 6,431 6,265 6,106 5,954
17 9,122 8,825 8,543 8,276 8,022 7,779 7,549 7,329 7,119 6,920 6,729 6,547 6,373 6,207 6,048
18 9,372 9,056 8,756 8,471 8,201 7,945 7,702 7,470 7,250 7,040 6,840 6,649 6,467 6,294 6,128
19 9,603 9,268 8,950 8,650 8,365 8,095 7,839 7,596 7,366 7,146 6,938 6,739 6,551 6,370 6,198
20 9,818 9,463 9,129 8,812 8,514 8,231 7,963 L210 7,469 7,241 7,025 6,819 6,623 6,437 6,259
25 10,675 10,234 9,823 9,438 9,077 8,739 8,422 8,123 7,843 7,579 7,330 7,095 6,873 6,663 6,464
30 11,258 10,747 10,274 9,835 9,427 9,047 8,868 8,364 8,055 7,766 7,496 7,242 7,003 6,778 6,566
35 11,655 11,088 10,567 10,087 9,644 9,234 8,855 8,503 8,175 7,870 7,586 7,320 7,070 6,836 6,617
40 11,925 11,315 10,757 10,247 9,779 9,348 8,951 8,587 8,244 7,928 7,634 7,361 7,105 6,866 6,642


'Example. Assumes a $10,000 after tax income at 11.5% interest rate and a 15-year term mortgage, the total debt which can be supported is $69,970
($6,997 x 10). At 11.5% interest rate and a 20-year term mortgage, the total debt which can be supported is $77,100 ($7,710 x 10).