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 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Acknowledgements
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Main
 Reference
 Addenda


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Budgeting costs and returns for Southwest Florida citrus production
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026155/00008
 Material Information
Title: Budgeting costs and returns for Southwest Florida citrus production
Series Title: Economic information report
Portion of title: Southwest Florida citrus production
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Muraro, R. P
Holcomb, Edgar D
University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food & Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations and Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1996
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruit industry -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Marketing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
General Note: Description based on: 1986-87; title from cover.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001596350
oclc - 21057551
notis - AHM0449
lccn - sn 91022495
System ID: UF00026155:00008

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Abstract
        Page i
    Acknowledgements
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Reference
        Page 17
    Addenda
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
Full Text































































100
F637fe
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97-6















ABSTRACT


Estimated costs and returns of growing processed-market round oranges and fresh-market seedless
grapefruit in the Southwest area of Florida are presented for the eighth consecutive year. The format
presented may be used by individual growers to budget costs and returns, utilizing individual data on
specific groves.

Key words: citrus, budgeting, costs, round oranges, seedless grapefruit and Southwest
Florida.

NOTE: Southwest Florida refers primarily to Charlotte, Collier, Glades, Hendry and Lee counties.
However, the costs shown are applicable to other South Central Florida counties such as
DeSoto, Okeechobee, and Sarasota counties.

The budgeted cost information presented herein is the most current available. The budget cost
items have been revised to reflect current grove practices being used by growers--e.g.,
chemical mowing, different spray materials and rates of fertilization, microsprinkler irrigation,
more reset trees, etc. Thus, the 1996-97 budget costs reflect reduced fertilizer for fresh market
grapefruit and lower fertilizer and pesticide materials costs and increased per acre yield due
to higher per acre tree densities.

The budget costs in this report represent an owner-managed operation based on a "net grove
acre" excluding non-productive areas for the production of oranges for processing and
grapefruit for the fresh market. Therefore, the 10 percent handling and supervision charge
added to the material cost for a custom-managed operation is not included in the costs.

Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Tables 5 and 6 are representative
for mature (10+ years old) Southwest Florida Hamlin orange and red seedless grapefruit
groves, respectively, the grove care costs for a specific grove site may differ depending upon
the grove practices performed. For example, spot herbicide for grass/brush regrowth under
trees could add as much as $18.30 per acre; "skirting trees" or pruning the lower branches
could add $14.13 per acre; extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could at least double,
if not increase more, the tree replacement and care costs; etc.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation is extended to Mrs. Jane Wilson for typing the final draft of this manuscript.

Appreciation is also extended to the citrus growers and production managers of Southwest Florida
who provided suggestions for the revision of this manuscript.





iLCO LARE
,-,-" '!,v OF FLORIDA LIBRAFARES















ABSTRACT


Estimated costs and returns of growing processed-market round oranges and fresh-market seedless
grapefruit in the Southwest area of Florida are presented for the eighth consecutive year. The format
presented may be used by individual growers to budget costs and returns, utilizing individual data on
specific groves.

Key words: citrus, budgeting, costs, round oranges, seedless grapefruit and Southwest
Florida.

NOTE: Southwest Florida refers primarily to Charlotte, Collier, Glades, Hendry and Lee counties.
However, the costs shown are applicable to other South Central Florida counties such as
DeSoto, Okeechobee, and Sarasota counties.

The budgeted cost information presented herein is the most current available. The budget cost
items have been revised to reflect current grove practices being used by growers--e.g.,
chemical mowing, different spray materials and rates of fertilization, microsprinkler irrigation,
more reset trees, etc. Thus, the 1996-97 budget costs reflect reduced fertilizer for fresh market
grapefruit and lower fertilizer and pesticide materials costs and increased per acre yield due
to higher per acre tree densities.

The budget costs in this report represent an owner-managed operation based on a "net grove
acre" excluding non-productive areas for the production of oranges for processing and
grapefruit for the fresh market. Therefore, the 10 percent handling and supervision charge
added to the material cost for a custom-managed operation is not included in the costs.

Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Tables 5 and 6 are representative
for mature (10+ years old) Southwest Florida Hamlin orange and red seedless grapefruit
groves, respectively, the grove care costs for a specific grove site may differ depending upon
the grove practices performed. For example, spot herbicide for grass/brush regrowth under
trees could add as much as $18.30 per acre; "skirting trees" or pruning the lower branches
could add $14.13 per acre; extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could at least double,
if not increase more, the tree replacement and care costs; etc.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation is extended to Mrs. Jane Wilson for typing the final draft of this manuscript.

Appreciation is also extended to the citrus growers and production managers of Southwest Florida
who provided suggestions for the revision of this manuscript.





iLCO LARE
,-,-" '!,v OF FLORIDA LIBRAFARES















TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

A B STRA CT ....... ... .. ............................... ... .. ......... i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................. ................. .................. i

LIST OF TABLES ........................................................... iii

IN TR O D U CTIO N ......................................... ........ 1

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION ............... ................... ........ 1

COSTS AND INPUTS ............ ..... ................... ........ ......... 1

THE GROVE SITUATION .......... .......................................... 2

BUDGET COSTS AND RETURNS .......... .................................... 6

HISTORICAL COST TRENDS ................ ................................. 9

REFERENCES ................... ........... ................ 17

ADDENDA ................................................ .. .. 18


NOTE: The ADDENDA include a Listing of Grove Care Programs for Southwest
Florida Citrus Production for Both Round Oranges and Grapefruit; 1997
custom rate summary report; cost of establishing a citrus grove; etc. Page
18 is a list of the tables included in the ADDENDA.














LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Southwest Florida
mature, round orange grove, 1996-97 ................................... 3

2 Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Southwest Florida
mature, red seedless grapefruit grove, 1996-97 .......................... 4

3 Calculation of normal production per tree and per acre for Hamlin oranges,
1996-97 ....... ................................. ................... 5

4 Calculation of normal production per tree and per acre for red seedless grapefruit,
1996-97 ..... ................................. ..................... 6

5 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, Hamlin orange grove
producing for the processed market, Southwest Florida area, 1996-97 ........ 7

6 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, red seedless
grapefruit grove producing for the fresh market, Southwest Florida area,
1996-97........................................ ................... 8

7 Estimated total delivered-in cost for Southwest Florida Hamlin oranges grown
for the processed juice market under three cultural cost programs, 1996-97 ... 10

8 Estimated total delivered-in cost for Southwest Florida Red grapefruit under
three cultural cost programs, 1996-97 ................................. 11

9 Estimated F.O.B. cost for fresh market Southwest Florida Red grapefruit,
1996-97 ..... ................................. ..................... 12

10 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and
returns for a mature, Hamlin orange grove producing citrus for processed
market in the Southwest Florida area, 1992-93--1996-97 .................. 13

11 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns
(adjusted to 1997 dollars) for a mature, Hamlin orange grove producing citrus
for processed market in the Southwest Florida area, 1992-93--1996-97 ....... 14

12 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and
returns for a mature, red seedless grapefruit grove producing citrus for fresh
fruit packing in the Southwest Florida area, 1992-93--1996-97 .............. 15

13 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns
(adjusted to 1997 dollars) for a mature, red seedless grapefruit grove producing
citrus for fresh fruit packing in the Southwest Florida area, 1992-93--1996-97 16










BUDGETING COSTS AND RETURNS FOR SOUTHWEST
FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION, 1996-97

Ronald P. Muraro, Fritz M. Roka, and Robert E. Rouse

INTRODUCTION


Southwest Florida has become a major citrus production area. In 1996 citrus acreage in Southwest
Florida represented over 20% of total state citrus acreage. Acreage in Southwest Florida increased from
72,480 in 1986 to 179,093 in 1996. Southwest Florida refers primarily to Charlotte, Collier, Glades,
Hendry and Lee counties. However, the costs shown are applicable to other South Central Florida counties
such as DeSoto, Okeechobee, and Sarasota counties.
Budget analysis provides the basis for many grower decisions. Budget analysis can be used to
calculate potential profits from an operation, to determine cash requirements for an operation, and to
determine break-even prices. This report presents two budgets constructed from current data and provides
a format for growers to analyze costs and returns from their individual records.


METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


The data presented here were developed by surveying custom operators, input suppliers, growers, and
colleagues at both the Southwest Florida Research and Education Center and the Citrus Research and
Education Center in Lake Alfred. The survey is conducted annually in February and March.


COSTS AND INPUTS


Costs for various production inputs are those collected from citrus growers as well as the average of
the data obtained from annual custom rate, chemical, and fertilizer surveys. Grower costs are shown in the
ADDENDA, Table 1-A through 7-A. The custom rate costs are shown in Table 8-A and the various
chemical and fertilizer costs are shown in Tables 9-A and 10-A in the ADDENDA. Costs of planting and
maintaining reset trees through three years of age are shown in Table 12-A. Historic on-tree prices for
selected citrus varieties are shown in 16-A. Although brand names are used in many of the tables in the




RONALD P. MURARO is a Professor of Food and Resource Economics and Extension Farm
Management Economist stationed at the Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred. FRITZ M.
ROKA is an Assistant Professor in Economics and ROBERT E. ROUSE is an Associate Professor of
Horticulture; both are stationed at the Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee.








ADDENDA, this does not imply endorsement by the University of Florida. It is merely anmaempt to depict
typical production practices.
All tables have a column reserved for the individual growers to insert data from agarticular grove.
This will allow a comparison of the grower's costs with those presented.


THE GROVE SITUATION


Production practices for Southwest Florida orange and grapefruit groves are show, in Tables 1 and
2, respectively, with the times during the year when they are normally performed. Thet are two benefits
to developing such a table for an individual grove. First, it shows what work is needed and when, so that
operations can be planned well in advance. 'Second, it can be helpful if an annual cad flow analysis is
developed to plan financing. The individual grower may benefit from developing a pla for a particular
grove.
Specific production practices vary from grove to grove making it difficult to define a "typical" grove.
Many combinations of practices and various tree variety combinations produce acceptable yields and
returns. Although the examples represent Hamlin orange and red seedless grapefruit groves, the cost and
return data are designed to be applicable to most grove situations. A grower, realtor, or land appraiser can
substitute individual grove costs and expected returns into the budget format and develop a budget for a
particular grove. A "your cost" column is appropriately provided for this purpose in subsequent tables.
In the following budget, above average management and cultural practices are assumed. Beyond this
general assumption, the following specifics are assumed:


1. A mature (10+ years old), low volume irrigated grove;
2. Varieties are processed-market Hamlin oranges and fresh-market red seedless grapefruit:
3. Annual tree loss is 4 trees per acre for oranges and 3 trees per acre for grapefruit;
4. Trees are pulled and replaced when production falls below 50 percent of expected
yield;
5. Tree density is 131 trees per acre for oranges and 96 trees per acre for grapefruit.


As a result of tree losses and replacement, the tree ages will vary. The budget reflects the following
age distribution:












Table I.-Schedule of production practices and hudect items for a Southwest Florida mature, round orange grove. 1996-97'
Month

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
50%
Total revenue: 20%. Partial Final
deposit payment payment

Less: Pick & haul cost X
DOC advertisement tax X

Grove expenses:
Disc
Chop

Mow X X X X X
Labor, general grove work, pull vines X X
Herbicide (1/2 grove acre equivalent) X X X
Spray: Dormant
Post bloom/nutritional X
Supplemental miticide
Summer oil/greasy spot X

Fall miticide X

Fertilizer 70# N/A 70# N/A 70# N/A Dolomite
Hedging and topping IHedge
Brush removal/mow brush Mow brush

Tree removal X

Young tree care X X X X X
Microsprinkler irrigation (times/week) 1 I 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1

Miscellaneous (clean ditches) X
Grove taxes including water management X
Interest expense X
Annual principal payment on mortgage X
'This is a suggested schedule of practices. Actual practices would not necessarily he done on the exact schedule shown here.












Table 2.-Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Southwest Florida mature, red seedless grapefruit grove, 1996-97'
Month

.an Feb NMar Apr May lun lul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Total revenue: 20% Final
deposit payment

Less: Pick & haul cost X
DOC advertisement tax X

Grove expenses:
Disc

Chop

Mow X X X X X
Iabor, general grove work, pull sines X X

lierbicide (1/2 grove acre equivalent) X 1 X
Sprav: Dormant
Post hloom/nutritional X
Supplemental miticide X

Summer oil/greasy spot X X
Fall miticide X

Fertilizer 60# N/A 60# N/A 60# N/A Dolomite
I ledging and topping Iledlge

Brush removal/mow brush Mow brush

Tree removal X

Young tree care X X X X X
Microsprinkler irrigation (times/week) I 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 I1

Miscellaneous (clean ditches) X

Grove taxes including water management X
Interest expense X

Annual principal payment on mortgage X
"This is a suggested schedule of practices. Actual practices should not necessarily he done on the exact schedule shown here.









Hamlin Orangs
Situation
3% pulled and reset
3% 1 year old
3% 2 years old
3% 3 years old
3% 4 years old
33% 5-15 years old
3% producing 50% of expected yield
49% over 15 years old
and
Red Seedless GraNfruit
Situation
3% pulled and reset
3% 1 year old
3% 2 vears old


Boxes/tree
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.9
4.0
2.5
4.5


Boxes/tree
0.0
0.0
0.0


3% 3 years old 1.0
3% 4 years old 1.7
33% 5-15 years old 4.5
3% producing 50% of expected yield 3.7
49% over 15 years old 7.4
Calculation of normal production per acre for Hamlin oranges and red seedless grapefruit are shown in
Tables 3 and 4, respectively.

Table 3.--Calculation of normal production per tree and per acre for Hamlin oranges, 1996-97
Boxes Total
Age of Tree Trees /tree boxes
Total no. Proportion No. ea.
all ages ea. ae a .. .e -.........
3 years 131 x 0.03 = 3.9 x 0.7 = 2.7
4 years 131 x 0.03 = 3.9 x 0.9 = 3.5
5-15 years 131 x 0.33 = 43.2 x 4.0 = 172.8
Prod. 50% of
exp. yield 131 x 0.03 = 3.9 x 2.5 = 9.8
Over 16 years 131 x 0.49 = 64.2 x 4.5 = 288.
Total boxes = 477.7

'Proportion adds up to 91 percent as 9 percent of the trees were non-bearing (pulled and reset, 1
and 2 year old trees; see page 5).









Table 4.--Calculation of normal production per tree and per acre for red seedless grapefruit,
1996-97
Boxes Total
Age of Tree Trees /tree boxes
Total no. Proportion No. ea.
all ages ea. a pe ------- No ------
3 years 96 x 0.03 = 3.0 x 1.0 3.0
4 years 96 x 0.03 = 3.0 x 1.7 = 5.1
5-15 years 96 x 0.33 = 31.7 x 4.5 = 142.7
Prod. 50% of
exp. yield 96 x 0.03 = 3.0 x 3.7 11.1
Over 16 years 96 x 0.49 47.0 x 7.4 347.8
Total boxes = 509.7

"Proportion adds up to 91 percent as 9 percent of the trees were non-bearing (pulled and reset, 1
and 2 year old trees; see page 5).

BUDGET COSTS AND RETURNS


The estimated budget costs and returns for the two Southwest Florida grove situations are shown in
Tables 5 and 6. The budgeted costs represent one possible citrus production program and were selected from
the costs shown in the ADDENDA tables. The costs presented in the budgets represent an owner-
managed citrus operation. The gross revenue estimates are based on the projected yields in Tables 3 and
4 and estimated preliminary on-tree prices for the 1996-97 season. Historical on-tree prices for selected
Florida citrus varieties are shown in Table 16-A of the ADDENDA.
As shown in Table 5, the total revenue for processed-market Hamlin oranges is estimated to be
$1,701.68 per acre. Total specified costs are $779.10 and are comprised of grove care costs of $731.10, plus
management cost of $48.00. Return to land and trees of $922.58 represents net return above variable costs.
The break-even price required to cover grove care costs for Hamlin oranges range from $2.09 to $1.33 per box
on-tree and $0.70 to $0.57 per pounds solids delivered-in at 350 and 550 boxes per acre, respectively.
In Table 6, total revenue for fresh market red seedless grapefruit is estimated to be $1,004.70 per acre.
Total specified costs are $869.94, being comprised of grove care costs of $821.94, plus management cost of
$48.00. Return to land, trees, and ownership or net return above fixed costs is $134.76. The break-even price
required to cover grove care costs for seedless grapefruit range from $2.35 to $1.49 per box on-tree and $1.25
to $1.06 per pound solids delivered-in for eliminations at 350 and 550 boxes per acre, respectively.











Table 5.-FAsimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, Hamlin orange grove producing for the processed market, Southwest Florida area, 1996-97'

Item Description Amount Your cost

----------- eollar ---------

I. Revenue 478 boxes @ $3 .56 1,701.68

I. Expenses

Weed control
Mow middles 3 times per year 22.11
Chemical mow (Table 2-A, Program #10) 2 times per year 23.34
General grove work/sprouting (2 labor hours per acre) 22.28
Herbicide (Table 2-A, Program #1, #6, & #8) 1.129 189.02
Spray program (Table I-A, Programs # & # 10) 101.00
Ferilizer (Table 3-A, Program #4) 127.59
Dolomite (Table 6-A, Program #1) 11.10 _
Pruning (maintenance)
Topping ($350.00hr. 8 A/hr.)+ 2.5 yrs. 17.50
Remove brush from trees ($21.70/A 4 2.5 yrs.) 8.68
Hedging ($240.00/hr. + 8 A/hr.) + 2 yrs. 15.00
Mow brush (S1000/A + 2 yrs.) .00 46.18
Tree replacement and care (Table 12-A) (1 through 3 years)
Remove trees 4 trees per acre 18.12
Prepare sites and plant resets Including 4 trees per acre 41.96
Supplemental fertilizer, sprout, etc. (Trees 1-3 years) Including application .84 94.92
Microsprinkler irrigation (Table 7-A, Program #4) 128.68
Drainage ditch annual costs (Table 7-A, Program #5) 32.61
Total grove care expenses 731.10

Ill. Management $4.00 per acre per month' A 48.

IV. Total specified costs'd 910

V. Retum to land, trees, and ownership 222=

VI. Break-even price for total grove care expenses

Boxes per acre Boxes per acre
135 400 45 500 550 350 40 4"10 00 M .

S On-tree rice per box $ Delivered-in rice per oound solids'
2.09 1.83 1.62 1.46 1.33 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.59 0.57

Although the estimated annual per acre grove costa shown in Tables 5 and 6 are representative for a mature Southwest Florida Ilamlin orange and red seedless grapefuit grove, respectively, the grove care costs for
a specific gm site may differ depending upon the grove practices performed; e.g.. a Temik application would add $114.15 per acre, extensive tree los due to blight or tristeza could at least double, ifnot increase more,
the tree replacemen andcare costs; etc. Also, truck watering of resets could add another $11.08 per acre (average 5 waterings)
'On-tree price per box is preliminary, assumes price for processed oranges only.
'Other methods to estimate a management cost-e.g., 5% of gross sales or 10% of total grove care costs-are used in the industry. Other selected methods will give a different return to land and trees than reported
here.
Odthr end itam which are not included in the budget are ad valorem taxes and interest on grove investment. In addition to these cost items, overhead and administrative costs, such as water drainagc/district taxes,
crop insurance, and other grower assessments, can add up to 12 percent to the total grove care costs. these costs vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, and time of purchase or grove establishment.
'Assumes 6.0 pounds solids per box and $1.90 pick and haul cost per box and I)epartment ofCitrus advertising assessment of 0. 185 per box.









Table 6.-Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, red seedless grapefruit grove producing for the fresh market, Southwest Florida area. 1996-97'
Item D)cscription Amount Your cost


Revenue

Expenses
Weed control
Mow middles
Chemical mow (Table 2-A, Program # 10)
General grove work/sprouting
Herbicide (Table 2-A, Program #1, #6, & #8)
Spray program (Table I-A, Programs # 1, #6, 10, # 15, & # 17)
Fertilizer (Table 3-A, Program #2)
Dolomite (Table 7-A, Program #1)
Pruning (maintenance)
Topping
Remove brush from trees
Iledging
Raise skirts of trees
Removing/chop brush
Tree replacement and care (Table 12-A)
Remove trees
Prepare sites and plant resets
Supplemental fertilizer, etc. (Trees 1-3 years)
Microsprinkler irrigation (Table 7-A. Program #4)
Drainage ditch annual costs (Table 7-A, Program #5)
Total grove care expenses
Management
Total specified costs'
Return to land, trees, and ownership
Break-even price for total grove care expenses


510 boxes ()@ $1.97b


3 times per year
2 times per year
(2 labor hours per acre)






($350.00/hr. 8 A/hr.) 4 2.5 yrs.
($21.70/A 2.5 yrs.)
($240.00/hr. + 8 A/hr.) + 2 yrs.
($14.13/A + 2 yrs.)
($10.00/A + 2 yrs.)
(I through 3 years)
3 trees per acre
Including 3 trees per acre
Including application


22.11
23.34
22.28
121.29




17.50
8.68
1500
7.07


13.59
31.47
2W131


51 of gross sales'


Dollars
1,004.70


189.02
234.30
101.79
11.10





53.25



71.19
128.68
J2 61
821 94
4800
869.94
134.76


Boxes per acre
450


S On-tree 9ce per box
1 83 164


Boxes per acre
350 4 450 5Q 550

S Dclivered-in mice per pound solids for eliminations'
1 25 1.19 1.14 1.10 1.06


'Although the nesaated annual per acre grove costs shown in Tables 5 and 6 are representative for mature Southwest Florida I amlin orange and red seedles grapefruit grove, respectively, the grove care costs for
a specic gu it may differ depending pon the g practices performed; e.g., a Temik application would add $114.15 per acre; extensive tree loss due to blight or ritcza could at least double, if not increase more,
the tree replacement and care costs; etc. Also, truck watering of resets could add another S8.31 per acre (average 5 waterings).
'On-tree price per box is preliminary; assnmes average of all methods of sale (fresh and processed). Price assumes 75% of fruit harvested packed fresh.
'Other methods to estimate a management cost-.g., 5% of gross sales or 10% of total grove care costs-are used in the industry. Other selected methods will give a different return to land and trees than reported
here.
4Olhe cost itm which ae not included in the budget are ad valorem taxes and interest on grove investment. In addition to these cost items, overhead and administrative costs, such as water drainageldistric taxes,
crop insurance, and other grower assessments, can add up to 12 percent to the total grove care costs. 'hese costs vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, and time of purchase or grove establishment.
*Aswnes 4.5 pounds solids per box and $1.93 pick and haul cost per box (includes spot picking and fruit drenching plus D.O.C. $035 advertising tax), $0 55 per box handling through packinghouse, and $0.45 per
box delivery to processing plant.


MP 400







Ad valorem taxes, and overhead and administrative costs (such as water drainage district taxes, crop
insurance, and other grower assessments) can add up to 12 percent of the total grove care costs. These costs
vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, variety of fruit, etc. and should be considered in
arriving at a net return to land, trees, and ownership (total return minus total costs). Harvest costs (pick,
roadside, and hauling costs--Tables 13-A and 14-A) also add to the total fruit cost delivered to either a
processing plant or fresh fruit packinghouse. Also, average annual debt payment (principal and interest)
may be as high as $530 per acre ($4,500 average debt per acre @ 10 percent interest amortized over 20
years) which would reduce total available cash for grove expansion or other investment.
An estimated "delivered-in" costs are shown for processed oranges in Table 7 and fresh packed red
grapefruit in Table 8. "Delivered-in" costs include grove care costs (Tables 5 and 6) plus harvesting,
regulatory, and grower assessment costs. The "delivered-in" costs are presented as a cost per acre, per box,
and per pound solids or per carton. Three possible budget cost scenarios are presented: 1) Typical/
Historical Fresh Cultural Program; 2) Reduced Cost Processed/Fresh Cultural Program; and 3) Low Cost
Processed Cultural Program. The first scenario represents typical costs of grove practices which have been
performed for citrus grown for the fresh fruit market. Scenarios 2 and 3 represent costs of two possible
cultural programs directed toward reducing the expenditures grown primarily for fruit for the processed
market. Modified herbicide and/or spray and fertilizer programs account for the reduced costs. NOTE:
Before modifyina a grove management program to reduce costs, an evaluation of the market program
(Drocessed or fresh), vield. and specific cultural problems (nutrition, disease. etc.) for the specific grove site
should be made. Also, in Table 9, the total estimated F.O.B. cost for fresh packed Red grapefruit is shown.
The F.O.B. costs are presented for "fresh fruit packout percentage rates" ranging from 50 percent to 100
percent.


HISTORICAL COST TRENDS


Annual budgets of costs and returns for mature, processed Hamlin oranges and mature fresh-market
seedless grapefruit in the Southwest Florida area have been developed and published in each of the past five
years. Estimated cost and return histories for 1992-93 through 1995-96 along with 1996-97, and a five-
year average are presented in Tables 10 and 12. To allow comparisons in current values, these same costs
and returns, adjusted to 1997 dollars, are presented in Tables 11 and 13.










Table 7.--Estimated total delivered-in cost for Southwest Florida Hamlin oranges grown for the processed market under three cultural cost programs,
1996-97

Represents a mature (10+ years old) Fresh/Processed Hamlin Oranges Processed Hamlin Oranges Processed Hamlin Oranges
Southwest Florida Orange Grove Typical/Historical Reduced Cost Low Cost
Cultural Program Cultural Program Cultural Program

$/Acre $/Box $/P.S. $/Acre $/Box $/P.S. $/Acre $/Box $/P.S.

Total Production/Cultural Costs $762.39 $1.598 $0.2664 $731.10 $1.533 $0.2555 $683.52 $1.433 $0.2388

Interest on Operating (Cultural) Costs 38.12 0.080 0.0133 36.56 0.077 0.0128 34.18 0.072 0.0119

Management Costs 48.00 0.101 0.0168 48.00 0.101 0.0168 48.00 0.101 0.0168

Taxes/Regulatory Costs:
Property Tax and Water Management
District Tax 61.00 0Q128 02 1 _61.00 28 0 ,0213 1.0 .128 0.0213

Total Direct Grower Costs $909.51 $1.907 $0.3178 $876.66 $1.838 $0.3063 $ 826.70 $1.733 $0.2889

Interest on Average Capital Investment Costs 396.05 Q 0.30 1384 396.05 Q.aQ 0,1384 396.05 (I $0.1384

Total Grower Costs $1,305.56 $2.737 $0.4562 $1,272.71 $2.668 $0.4447 $1,222.75 $2.563 $0.4272

Harvesting and Assessment Costs:
Pick/Spot Pick, Roadside and Haul 906.30 1.900 0.3167 906.30 1.900 0.3167 906.30 1.900 0.3167
DOC Assessment 88.25 0Q85 0.0308 88.25 0.185 0.0308 88.25 Q8 0.0308

Total Harvesting and Assessment Costs 994.55 2.085 0.3475 994.55 2.085 0.3475 994.55 2.085 0.3475

Total Delivered-in Cost $2300.2 4.822 $080 $2.267.25 $4.753 $2,21L.29 $27 4. $Q.774


P.S. = Pound Solids A Fall Miticide Spray added to the Refer to cultural program shown Reduced herbicide program;
Yield: 477 boxes/acre @ 6.0 P.S. per box cultural program shown in Table 5 in Table 5. only summer spray with oil,
131 trees per acre and fertilization at 225 pounds copper, and Agri-Mek; fertilizer
nitrogen per acre. reduced to 180 pounds of
nitrogen per acre.


---------------------~------









Table 8.--Estimated total delivered-in cost for Southwest Florida Red grapefruit grown for the fresh/processed market under three cultural cost programs,
1995-96

Represents a mature (10+ years old) Fresh Packed Red Grapefruit Fresh Packed Red Grapefruit Processed Red Grapefruit
Southwest Florida Red Grapefruit Grove Typical/Historical Reduced Cost Low Cost
Cultural Program Cultural Program Cultural Program
$/Acre $/Box $/Carton $/Acre $/Box $/Carton $/Acre $/Box $/P.S.

Total Production/Cultural Costs $821.94 $1.612 $0.8058 $ 805.35 $1.579 $0.7896 $ 667.32 $1.308 $0.2908

Interest on Operating (Cultural) Costs 41.10 0.081 0.0403 40.27 0.079 0.0395 33.37 0.065 0.0145

Management Costs 48.00 0.094 0.0471 48.00 0.094 0.0471 48.00 0.094 0.0209

Taxes/Regulatory Costs:
Property Tax and Water Management
District Tax 48.80 0.096 0.0478 48.80 0.096 0.0478 48.80 0.096 0.0478
Fly Protocol Cost 23.00 00Q45 Q.QA225 23. 0 0.A4 0.0225 -

Total Taxes/Regulatory Costs 71.0 0.141 0.Q704 1L J.141 0.0704 48.Q 0.096 0.0478

Total Direct Grower Costs $982.84 $1.927 $0.9636 $ 965.42 $1.893 $0.9465 $797.49 $1.564 $0.3741

Interest on Average Capital Investment Costs 396.05 QL2 0.3883 396.05 Q1 03883 396.05 0.86 $0.1926

Total Grower Costs $1,378.89 $2.704 $1.3519 $1,361.47 $2.670 $1.3348 $1,193.54 $2.430 $0.5667

Harvesting and Assessment Costs:
Pick/Spot Pick, Roadside and Haul 918.00 1.800 0.9000 918.00 1.800 0.9000 918.00 1.800 0.4000
Fruit Drenching (Fresh) 66.30 0.130 0.0650 66.30 0.130 0.0650
DOC Assessment 118.5 0 0 0.1750 178.50 0350 0.1750 158.0 0.10 0689

Total Harvesting and Assessment Costs 1,162.80 2.280 1.1400 1,162.80 2.280 1.1400 1,076.10 2.110 0.4689

Total Delivered-In Cost $2.541.69 $4.984 $2.4919 $2.524.27 $4950 $2.4748 $2.269.64 $4.540 $1.0355

Two cartons per box Refer to cultural program shown Reduced cost of Supplemental Fall Reduced herbicide spray
P.S. = Pound Solids in Table 3. Miticide Spray. program; only summer spray
Yield: 510 boxes/acre @ 4.5 P.S. per box with oil, copper, and Agri-Mek.
96 trees per acre Assumes 100% packout Assumes 100% packout












Table 9.--Estimated F.O.B. cost for fresh market Southwest Florida Red grapefruit, 1996-97

Percent Packout 50.00% Percent Packout 60.00% Percent Packout 70.00%
Box Yield Per Acre 510 Box Yield Per Acre 510 Box Yield Per Acre 510

Per Acre Per Box Per Carton Per Acre Per Box Per Carton Per Acre Per Box Per
Carton

Total Production/
Cultural Costs $821.94 $3.597 $1.7986 $821.94 $2.998 $1.4988 $821.94 $2.569 $1.2847

Interest on Operating
(Cultural Costs) 41.10 0.180 0.0899 41.10 0.150 0.0749 41.10 0.128 0.0642

Management 48.00 0.210 0.1050 48.00 0.175 0.0875 48.00 0.150 0.0750

Taxes/Regulatory 71.80 0.314 0.1571 71.80 0.262 0.1309 71.80 0.224 0.1122

Interest on Average
Capital Investment 396.05 1.733 0.8666 396.05 1.444 0.7222 396.05 1.238 0.6190

Harvesting (Pick, Haul,
Etc.) and
DOC Assessment 116 809 1. 0 421 .124 1.162.80 3635 .1 174

Total Delivered-In Cost $2,541.69 $11.123 $5.5617 $2,541.69 S9.269 $4.6347 $2,541.69 $7.945 $3.9726

Packing & Selling 1,530.95 6.700 3.3500 1,837.14 6.700 3.3500 2,143.33 6.700 3.3500

Fresh Eliminations Costs
(Credit)' -10 -0.355 -129.79 -0473 -0.-367 -97.34 -0.04 -0.15-2

Total F.O B Costs $3.91040 $ 171 $8.5567 $4.249.04 $15.496 $77481 $4.587 68 S14 341 S71705

Percent Packout 80.00% Percent Packout 90.00% Percent Packout 100.00%
Box Yield Per Acre 510 Box Yield Per Acre 510 Box Yield Per Acre 510

Per Acre Per Box Per Carton Per Acre Per Box Per Caron Per Acre Per Box Per
Caron

Total Production/
Cultural Costs $821.94 $2.248 $1.1241 $821.94 $1.998 $0.9992 $821.94 $1.799 $0.8993

Interest on Operating
(Cultural) Costs 41.10 0.112 0.0562 41.10 0.100 0.0500 41.10 0.090 0.(050

Management 48.00 0.131 0.0656 48.00 0.117 0.0584 48.00 0.105 0.0525

Taxes/Regulatory 71.80 0.196 0.0982 71.80 0.175 0.0873 71.80 0.157 0.0786

Interest on Average
Capital Investment 396.05 1.083 0.5416 396.05 0.963 0.4815 396.05 0.867 0.4333

Harvesting (Pick, Haul,
Etc.) and
DOC Assessment 1.162. 3.181 LQ .I5903 .J 1.46 3 12.81. 24 L2

Total Delivered-In Cost $2,541.69 $6.952 $3.4760 $2,541.69 $6.180 $3.0898 $2,541.69 $5.562 $2.7808

Packing & Selling 2,449.52 6.700 3.3500 2,755.71 6.700 3.3500 3,061.90 6.700 3.3500

Fresh Eliminations Costs
(Credit)' -64.89 -0.177 -0.0887 -3.45 -0.079 -,Q0394 0.00 0.000 0.X

Total F.O.B. Costs $4923 $1 $L S 5. 64 95 1 $55 03.59 S12.26 SLj

'"Net Eliminations Cost" equals the average yield of 4.50 pound solids per box times $0.29 per pound solids less packinghouse elimination charge
and cannery hauling charge of S 1.00 per box.













Table 10.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns for a mature, Hamlin orange grove
producing citrus for processed market in the Southwest Florida area, 1992-93--1996-97


On-tree Gross Total grove Total specified Net return to land,
Year price/box' Yield revenue care expenses costs' trees, and ownership
------------------------------------------ Dollars ---------------------------------


1992-93 $3.16 460 1,453.60 779.92 827.92 625.68

1993-94 $3.57 460 1,642.20 750.99' 798.99 843.21

1994-95 S3.00 460 1,380.00 752.83' 800.83 579.17

1995-96 S3.42 460 1,573.20 780.54' 828.54 744.66

1996-97 $3.56b 478' 1,701.68 731.10 779.10 922.58

5-yr. avg. $3.34 464 1,549.76 759.08 807.08 742.68

'On-tree prices for processed oranges only as reported by the Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.
'Preliminary estimate by authors at time of printing and is not a published price.
'Higher per acre yield is due to increased average tree density of lHamlin citrus groves in Southwest Florida.
'Represents a "reduced cost" cultural program which most citrus growers have employed. In 1995-96, the cost of fertilizer
materials and the supplemental maintenance costs of resets have increased substantially over previous years.
'A management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not
included.













Table 1 .--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns (adjusted to 1997 dollars) for a mature,
Hamlin orange grove producing citrus for processed market in the Southwest Florida area, 1992-93--1996-97


Adjusted
Inflation on-tree Gross Total specified Net return to land,
Year factor index" price/box Yield revenue costs' trees, and ownership
---------------------------- Dollars ------------------


1992-93 109.8 $3.47 460 1,596.20 909.06 687.14

1993-94 108.4 $3.87 460 1,780.20 866.11 914.09

1994-95 104.7 $3.14 460 1,444.40 838.47 605.93

1995-96 102.3 $3.50 460 1,610.00 847.60 762.40

1996-97 100.0 $3.56 478 1,701.68 779.10 922.58

5-yr. avg. -- $3.51 464 1,628.64 848.07 780.57

'Producer price index for each year adjusted to 1997 prices (1997 = 100), with 1997 producer price index estimated to be 130.5.
Producer price index for other years are: 1993 = 118.9; 1994 = 120.4; 1995 = 124.7; and 1996 = 127.5.

bA management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not
included. (Refer to Table 10.)













Table 12.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns for a mature, red seedless grapefruit
grove producing citrus for fresh market packing in the Southwest Florida area, 1992-93--1996-97


On-tree Gross Total grove Total specified Net return to land,
Year price/box" Yield revenue care expenses costs' trees, and ownership
---------------------------------------- Dollars ------ ----------


1992-93 $3.26 511 1,662.60 847.22 895.22 767.38

1993-94 $3.38 510 1,723.80 863.83 911.83 811.97

1994-95 $1.82 510 928.20 839.89 887.31 40.89

1995-96 $1.71 510 872.10 872.28' 920.28 (48.18)

1996-97 S1.97b 510 1,004.70 821.94' 869.94 134.76

5-yr. avg. $2.43 510 1,239.30 849.03 897.03 342.27

"On-tree prices for all sales methods as reported by the Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.

'Preliminary estimate by authors at time of printing and is not a published price.
'A management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not
included.
'In 1995-96, the cost of fertilizer materials and supplemental maintenance costs of resets had increased substantially over previous
years. The 1996-97 costs were less than previous years due to a decrease in nitrogen application from 180 Ibs of N/acre to 150 Ibs as
well as the cost of materials reported being less than 1995-96.













Table 13.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns (adjusted to 1997 dollars) for a mature,
red seedless grapefruit grove producing citrus for fresh fruit packing in the Southwest Florida area, 1992-93--1996-97


Adjusted
Inflation on-tree Gross Total specified Net return to land,
Year factor index' price/box Yield revenue costs' trees, and ownership
------------------------------ Dollars -------------- ---------


1992-93 109.8 $3.58 510 1,825.8) 982.95 842.85

1993-94 108.4 $3.66 510 1,866.60 988.42 878.18

1994-95 104.7 $1.91 510 974.10 929.01 45.09

1995-96 102.3 $1.75 510 892.50 941.45 (48.95)

1996-97 100.0 $1.97 510 1,004.70 869.94 134.76

5-yr. avg. $2.57 510 1,310.70 942.35 368.35

'Producer price index for each year adjusted to 1997 prices (1997= 100), with 1997 producer price index estimated to be 130.5.
Producer price index for other years are: 1993 = 118.9; 1994 = 120.4; 1995 = 124.7; and 1996 = 127.5.

bA management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not
included. (Refer to Table 12.)







17

REFERENCES


1. Citrus Summanr 1995-96. Florida Agricultural Statistics Service. Florida Agricultural Statistics.
Jan. 1997.

2. Knapp, J. L. (Ed.). 1997 Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Ext. Svc. SP
43. Gainesville: Jan. 1997. 75 pp.

3. Muraro, Ronald P. "A Listing of Estimated Comparative Southwest Florida Citrus Production Costs
Per Acre for 1996-1997." Lake Alfred Citrus Research and Education Center (CREC) Report. Lake
Alfred, FL: May 1997.

4. "Cost for Establishing, Planting, and Maintaining a Citrus Grove through Four Years of
Age, South Florida Flatwoods Area." Lake Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: Nov. 1989.

5. "Estimated Cost of Planting and Maintaining a Reset Citrus Tree through Three Years of
Age." Lake Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: Nov. 1996.

6. "A Listing of 1997 Custom Rates Reported by Twenty-one Indian River and South Florida
Citrus Caretakers." Lake Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: May 1997.

7. Savage, Zach. Citrus Yields Per Tree Age. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Ext. Ser. 60-8. Gainesville: 1960.

8. Tucker, D. P. H., A. K. Alva, L. K. Jackson, and T. A. Wheaton (Eds.). Nutrition of Florida Citrus
Tres. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Ext. Svc. SP 169. Gainesville: 1995. 61 pp.








18

ADDENDA: Listing of Grove Care Programs for Southwest Florida Citrus Production for
Both Round Oranges and Grapefruit
PagT


Table -A. Sppray p ms ................ ............................... 19
Post bloom spray ................................................. 19
Summer spray ................................................... 21
Fall spraybie ...................................................... 22

Table 2-A. Herbicide ................................................. 23

Table 3-A. Dry fertilizer .................................................... 26

Table 4-A. Liquid fertilizer (Double boom application) ......................... 27

Table 5-A. Nematicides .................. ..................... ... .... 27

Table 6-A. Soil amendment ................................................. 28

Table 7-A. Irrigation--annual cost per acre ................................... 28
Drip ............................................................ 28
Microsprinkler .................................................. 28
Drainage ditch annual costs ....................................... 28

Table 8-A. A listing of 1997 custom rates reported by twenty-one Indian River and South
Florida citrus caretakers .......................................... 29

Table 9-A. 1997 summary of average chemical price estimates ................... 31

Table 10-A. 1997 summary of average fertilizer price estimates ................... 33

Table 11-A. Cost for establishing, planting and maintaining a citrus grove through four
years of age, South Florida flatwoods area ........................... 35

Table 12-A. Estimated cost of planting and maintaining a reset citrus tree through three
years of age, 1996 ................. ............................... 36

Table 13-A. Estimated average picking, roadsiding and hauling rates for Florida citrus -
1994-95 season ................................................ 37

Table 14-A. Estimated total harvesting (pick/roadside/haul). Costs per box for Florida
citrus 1994-95 season ........................................... 38

Table 15-A. Summary of Florida fresh citrus packing charges by variety 1994-95
season ..................................................... 39

Table 16-A. Historic prices for selected citrus varieties ........................... 40

Table 17-A. Debt which can be supported per S1,000.00 annual payment capacity ...... 41

Abbreviations for important chemicals are:
B = Boron Fe = Iron Mn = Manganese Zn Zinc
Cu = Copper Mg = Magnesium N = Nitrogen











Table 1-A.--Spray programs


POST BLOOM SPRAY


Spray Program #1


Spray Program #2


Spray Program #3


Materials/Ingredients

Cu (50% metallic)
Zn
Mn
B

Ground Application
(engine driven airblast)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Cu (50% metallic)
Zn, Mn, Nitrates
Micromite 25WP

Ground Application

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Cu (50% metallic)
Ethion
Oil 97+ %

Ground Application
(engine driven airblast)

Total per Application


Spray Program #4


Materials/Ingredients

Cu (50% metallic)
Nitrate
Potassium Nitrate
Lorsban 4EC
Hystop (pH Reducer)

Ground Application
(engine driven airblast)

Total per Application


Amount
/Acre

15 lbs
5 lbs
10 lbs
0.25 lbs

150 gals


Amount
/Acre

10 lbs
I pt
1.25 lbs

100 gals


Amount
/Acre

7 lbs
5 pts
3 gals

100 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$19.95
3.50
3.40
1.18


20.1


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$13.30
1.24
38.24


17.54

$2@2


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$9.31
20.50
6.57

17.54


$5392


Your
Cost/Acre


Amount
/Acre

7 lbs
3 qts
10 lbs
4 pts
1 pt

100 gals


Cost/Acre

$ 9.31
5.95
3.60
22.84
1.67


17.54


$0.91


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


_










Table 1-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)

POST BLOOM SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #5


Materials/Ingredients
Dicofol 4EC
Cu (50% metallic)
Ground Application
(engine driven airblast)
Total per Application


Spray Program #6


Spray Prog


Spray Prog


Materials/Ingredients
Ethion
Cu (50% metallic)
Oil 97+ %
Ground Application
Total per Application


Amount
/Acre
6 pts
8 lbs
3 gals
250 GPA


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre
$24.60
10.64
6.57


$6344


Amount
ram #7 Materials/Ingredients /Acr Cost/Acre
Cu (50% metallic) 7 lbs $ 9.31
Zn, Mn, B 8 lbs metallic 8.08
Ethion 6 pts 24.60
Ground Application 500 gals 26.62
(engine driven airblast)
Total per Application $68


Amount
ram #8 Materials/Ingredients Acre Cost/Acre
Vendex 4L 2 Ibs $31.64
Ground Application 150 gals 20.1
(engine driven airblast)
Total per Application $ 77


Spray Program #9
(Scale insects)


Materials/Ingredients
Lorsban 4EC
Ground Application
(engine driven airblast)
Total per Application


Amount
/Acre
5 pts
10 lbs
250 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre
$28.95
13.30
21.L6


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Amount
/Acre
7 pts
500 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre
$39.97
2.2


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --












Table I-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)


SUMMER SPRAY
Amount Your
Spray Program #10 Materials/Ingredients /Acre Cost/Acre Cost/Acr
Oil 97+% 10 gals $21.90
Cu (50% copper) 7 lbs 9.31

Ground Application 250 gals 2163
(engine driven airblast)

Total per Application $284
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Amount Your
Spray Program #11 Materials/Ingredients Acre Cost/Acre Cost/Acre
Oil 97+% 5 gals $10.95
Cu (50% metallic) 7 Ibs 9.31
Agri-Mek 5 ozs 21.30
Ground Application 150 gals 20.13
(engine driven airblast)

Total per Application $61.69
..............................................................--------------------------.........

Amount Your
Spray Program #12 Materials/Ingredients Acre Cost/Acre Cost/Acr
Cu (50% metallic) 7 lbs $9.31
Oil 97+% 5 gals 10.95
Agri-Mek 10 ozs 42.60

Ground Application 250 gals 21.6
(engine driven airblast)

Total per Application $84.49
--------------------------------------------------------------

Amount Your
Spray Program #13 Materials/Ingredients /Acre Cost/Acre Cost/Acr
Kelthane MF 6 pts $32.88

Ground Application 250 gals 21.6
(engine driven airblast)

Total per Application $54,5










FALL SPRAY


Spray Program #14


Materials/Ingredients

Agri-Mek

Ground Application
(PTO driven airblast)

Total per Application


Amount
ram #15 Materials/Ingredients /Acre CostAcr
Thiolux 80 DF (sulfur) 15 lbs $ 9.90

Aerial Application 15 GPA 6.69

Total per Application $16,59


Amount
ram #16 Materials/Ingredients Acre Cost/Acre
Dicofol 6 pts $34.74

Aerial Application 15 GPA 6.69

Total per Application $41.43


Spray Program #17


Materials/Ingredients

Vendex 4L

Ground Application

Total per Application


Amount
/Acre

10 ozs

50 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$42.60

12.88


$55.48


Spray Prog









Spray Prog


Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre


Amount
/Acre

2 lbs

250 GPA


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$31.64

21.63
$D327


-- - - - - -- - - - -----------------------------''--


-------~--~-~111


~










Table 2-A.--Herbicide


Herbicide Program #1

(Strip/band)


Amount/
Materials Treated Acre


Solicam 80DF
Karmex WP
Roundup Ultra


3 Ibs
4 lbs
2 qts


8.16


Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Herbicide Program #2

(Strip/band)


Surflan A80 DF
Simazine 4L
Roundup Ultra


Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Herbicide Program #3

(Strip/band)


Herbicide Program #4

(Strip/band)


Karmex WP
Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Solicam 80DF
Simazine 4L
Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)


Total for 1 Application $7.66

'With respect to herbicide materials, Amount Per Grove Acre does not qual Amount Per Treated Acre
shown on the label as only a strip or band is being treated. In this report, it is assumed that only 50% or
one-half of a grove acre is being treated.


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$19.77
8.32
12.20


Amount/
Treated Acre


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


2 qts
4 qts
2 qts


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$14.44
6.88
12.20


Amount/
Materials Treated Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


$ 8.32
12.20


4 lbs
2 qts


Amount/
Treated Acre

8 lbs
4 qts
2 pts


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$52.72
6.68
6.10


8.16











Table 2-A.--Herbicide (cont'd.)


Herbicide Program #5

(Strip/band)


Materials

Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

4 qts


Herbicide Program #6


Krovar I
Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

5 lbs
2 qts


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$25.50
12.20


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


$4586


Amount/ Cost/
ogram #7 Materials Treated Acre Grove Acre'

) Princep (Caliber 90) 4 lbs $ 6.62
Hyvar X 6 lbs 47.85
Adjuvant (Surfactant) 2 pts 1.93

Ground Application 8.16
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application $64.56


Amount/ Cost/
program #8 Materials Treated Acre Grove Acre'

d) Roundup Ultra 2 qts $12.20
Princep (Caliber 90) 4 lbs 6.62


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$24.40

LL8.


$2.56


(Strip/band)


Herbicide Pr

(Strip/band


Herbicide P

(Strip/ban












Table 2-A.--Herbicide (cont'd.)


Herbicide Program #9

(Strip/band)


Materials

Direx 4L
Solicam
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

3 qts
3 lbs
1 qt


Herbicide Program #10

(Chemical mow)


Materials

Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)


Total for 1 Application $10.14


Herbicide Program #11

(Chemical mow)


Herbicide Program #12

(Spot treatment)


Materials

Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Materials

Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$ 7.70
19.77
1.93

8.16


Amount/
Treated Acre

1 pt


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$3.05

7.09


Amount/
Treated Acre

1.5 pts


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$4.58

7.09


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


$11.67


Amount/
Treated Acre

2 qts


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$12.20

-L&


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


$17.3


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --











Table 3-A.--Dry fertilizer


Program #1

(125 lbs N/Acre)


Analysis/Material
Applied

12-2-12-2.4 MgO

Application

Total for 3 Applications


Program #:

(150 lbs I







Program #:
(180 lbs


Program #.

(204 lbs


Program #:
(225 lbs I


Analysis/Material Amount
SApplied /Acre Cost/Acre

N/Acre) 15-2-15-2.4 MgO 1000 lbs $81.00
Application 3 times .2092

Total for 3 Applications $101


Analysis/Material Amount
3 Applied /Acre Cost/Acre

N/Acre) 15-2-15-2.4 MgO 1200 Ibs $ 97.20
Application 3 times 20.79

Total for 3 Applications $117.99


Analysis/Material Amount
4 Applied /Acre Cost/Acre

N/Acre) 17-4-17-2.4 MgO 1200 Ibs $106.80
Application 3 times 20.79

Total for 3 Applications $12.59


Analysis/Material Amount
5 Applied /Acre Cost/Acre
N/Acre) 15-2-15-2.4 MgO 1500 Ibs $121.50
Application 3 times 20.79

Total for 3 Applications $142.29
-----------------------------------------------------------------------


Amount
/Acre
1042 Ibs

3 times


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$ 76.07
20.79

ULU7..


=


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre











Table 4-A.--Liquid fertilizer (Double boom application)
Analysis/Material


Amount


Program #1

(180 lbs







Program #2

(180 lbs I


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


SApplied /Acre Cost/Acre

N/Acre) 10-0-10 1800 Ibs $109.80

Double Boom Application 3 times 35.47

Total for 3 Applications $145.27
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Analysis/Material Amount
2 Applied /Acre Cost/Acre

N/Acre) 10-2-10 1800 Ibs $117.00

Double Boom Application 3 times 35.47

Total for 3 Applications $152.47
----------------------------------------- ----------------------------------
Analysis/Material Amount
3 Applied /Acre Cost/A

N/Acre) 10-0-10 1800 Ibs $109.80
Solicam 80DF 3 Ibs* 19.77
Karmex WP 4 Ibs* 8.32

Double Boom Application 3 times 35.47

Total for 3 Applications $173.36


*Treated acre--one application


Table 5-A.--Nematicides


Analysis/Material
Applied

Temik 15G

Application

Total per Application


Analysis/Material
Applied

Nemacur 15G

Application

Total per Application


Amount
/Acre

33 Ibs


Amount
/Acre

50 lbs


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$100.98

13.17

$114.15


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$173.00

13.17

$18617


Your
Cost/Acre


Program #:

(180 Ibs


Program #1









Program #2


--- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --











Table 6-A.--Soil amendment


Program #1
(Every 3 years)


Program #2
(Every year)


Analysis/Material
Applied
Dolomite (Delivered)
Application
Total for 1 Application
(Average 1/3 Ton Applied/Yr)


Analysis/Material
Applied
Dolomite (Delivered)
Application
Total per Application


Table 7-A.--Irrigation--annual cost per acre
DRIP
Program #1
Operating $34.36
(Electric)
Maintenance of System 33.04
Total Cash Expenses $ 67.40

Fixed Depreciation Expense 42.35


Amount
/Acre
1 ton
I time


Amount
/Acre
1000 lbs


Your
Cost/Acre


Total Cash and Fixed Expenses


MICROSPRINKLER

Operating

Maintenance of System
Total Cash Expenses

Fixed Depreciation Expense

Total Cash and Fixed Expenses

DRAINAGE DITCH ANNUAL COSTS


Program #3
$ 39.05
(Electric)
36.82
$ 75.87


Your
Cost/Acre


Program #4
$ 32.93
(Diesel)
39.19
$ 72.12


Your
Cost/Acre


52.94

$128.81


Your
Program #5 Cost/Acre


Ditches/Canals Maintenance ($36.83/acre + 3 years)
Weed Control in Ditches/Canals
Water Control: In/Out of Ditches and Canals
Total


Cost/Acre
$26.38

S6.93
$.i0
$UL~


Your
Cost/Acre







Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre
$13.19
6931
$2Q.U


Your
Cost/Acre


Program #2
$30.95
(Diesel)
34.23
$65.18


45.25


$12.28
11.28
9.05
$32.61


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --










Table 8-A.-A listing of 1997 custom rates reported by twenty-one Indian River and South Florida citrus caretakers

Range of Rate Average
Grove Practice Unit Reported Rate Comments

CULT'IATION AND EQUIPMENT:


Hand Labor
Mechanic Labor
Tractor/Equipment Operator (Driver)
Rotovate
Disc 7-8'
Disc 10'
Mow: Off-set or Side Mower
5-8'
9-10'
15-16'
V-Mower
Sickle Mower
Herbicide' (Strip/Band-Single Boom)
Herbicide' (Strip/Band-Single Boom)
Herbicide' (Strip/Band-Double Boom)
Herbicide' (Chemical Mow)
Temik/Nemacur'
Plow
Backhoe
Vine Puller
Middle Buster
Mound Builder
Grader Blade
Bush Hog
Water Truck with Driver
Pickup Truck with Driver
Flathed/Transpor Truck with Driver
Ramp Truck: with Driver
without Driver
Tractor with Drnver
Tractor without Driver
ATV with Driver

SPRAYING.'


$ 8.50- $13.75 $11.14 Plus transportation and equipment
25.00- 40.00 30.79 Labor and service truck
12.50- 18.00 15.00
28.00- 36.00 31.98
25.00- 35.00 28.65 Average $10.00/acre
30.00- 35.00 31.43
35.00
24.00- 32.00 28.44 Average $9.50/acre
25.00- 35.00 30.61 Average $9.50/acre
28.00- 41.00 32.82 Average $8.00/acre
28.00- 35.00 30.70 Average $8.50/acre
32.00
25.00- 36.50 30.11 Plus materials
9.50- 15.00 12.46 Plus materials
10.00- 13.00 12.01 Plus materials
6.00- 10.50 8.38 Plus materials
13.00- 13.50 13.17 Plus materials
24.00- 35.00 29.13
35.00- 46.00 41.95
27.75
28.00- 35.00 31.50 With tractor and driver
30.00- 35.00 31.94 With tractor and driver
27.50- 30.00 28.67 Tractor/blade and driver
27.00- 35.00 31.75 Average $10.00/acre
28.00- 35.00 31.70
20.00- 30.00 26.56 Average miles traveled per year: Pick-up truck 28.250 miles
35.00- 50.00 40.67 Avg. $1.25/mile: $100 per move Transport truck 20.000 miles
38.00
26.00
25.00- 35.00 28.08
14.75- 18.00 15.94
14.00- 19.95 17.08 J.D. Gator @ $10.00/hour


Hand Sprayer Hour $ $ $40.00 Includes tractor, handgun sprayer and 2 workers
Air Curtain Sprayer: $21.17/acre @ 25 GPA; Cutec Sprayer: $17.50/acre @ 25 GPA; Spectrum Sprayer: $17.00/acre @ 25 GPA

AIR BLAST SPRAYER
Eneine Dnven PTO Powered


Acre 33.00- 35.00 34.06 33.73 PTO with "tree see' $36'acre
Acre 24.00- 28.00 25.75 20.00- 24.00 21.33 PTO with "tree see" $26/acre
Acre 20.00- 22.00 21.00 18.00- 20.00 19.00
Acre 17.50- 19.00 18.17 Average $16/acre 75 GPA

ENGINE'PTO DRIVEN SPRAYERS

Tank 28.50- 34.00 31.13 500 gallon tank
Tank 32.00- 43.00 37.10 500 gallon tank
Tank 45.00- 65.00 57.14 500 gallon tank
Tank 60.00- 80.00 69.75 500 gallon tank
Tank 80.00- 82.00 80.67 500 gallon tank

Fixed Wing: $4.25/acre @ 5 gallons per acre Bell Helicopter: $5.00/acre @ 5 GPA
Fixed Wing: $5.42/acre @ 10 gallons per acre Bell Helicopter: $10.00/acre @ 10 GPA
Fixed Wing: $6.69/acre @ 15 gallons per acre Bell Helicopter: $20.00/acre @ 20 GPA
Fixed Wing: $8.67/acre @ 20 gallons per acre Hillu-Utilize: S12.00/acre @ 20 GPA


Ground Application

FERTILIZING:'

Inject Liquid Fertilizer
Liquid Boom Application:
Single Boom
Double Boom
Dry (Bulk)
Dry (Bulk)
Lime or Dolomite
Fertilize Young Trees:' Hand Spread
Fert. Spreader


Acre $ 5- $ 6.50


Hour $ $42.50 Average $20.00 per each fertilizer injection.

Acre 7.00
Acre 11.00- 12.50 11.75
Acre 6.00- 9.00 6.93 Average $33.00/hour
Ton 17.00- 18.50 17.75
Acre 6.00- 8.25 6.93
Hour 8.50- 13.75 11.14 Plus transportation; one reporting 10c/tree
Hour 25.00- 36.00 30.09 And materials; average $7.13/acre
One renornine travel to/from trove site at one hour per day of pickup truck rate.


500 GPA
250 GPA
125 GPA
100 GPA


Dilute
2X
3X
4X
6X

Aerial
Aerial
Aerial
Aerial












Table 8-A.-A listing of 1997 custom rates reported by twenty-one Indian River and South Florida citrus caretakers (cont'd.)

Range of Rate Average
Grove Practice Unit Reported Rate' Comments

IRRIGATION:


Water Furrow Disc
Water Furrow Cleaner
Water Furrow Shaper (Laser Control)
Rotary Ditcher or Auger
Microsprinkler/Drip Irrigation Maintenance

REMOVING TREES:

Front End Loader
Tree Sheanng (Cutting Tree at Ground Level)
Vermeer Tree Spade for Relocating Trees

PRUNING:

General Pruning (Rehab/Freeze Damage)
Saw with Operator
Hedging:
Single Side (Tractor Pulled)
Single Side (Tractor Mounted)
Double Side (Tractor Pulled)
Double Side (Self Propelled)
Self-Propelled Double Boom Hedger
Self-Propelled Double Boom Hedger & Topper
Topping:
Tractor Pulled
Tractor Pulled

Double Sided Topper
Double Boom (Self Propelled)
Limb Lifter/Tree Skirt Trimmer
Removing Brush:
Haul Brush out of Grove
Mow/Chop Brush

OTHER CUSTOM RATES:

Install Tree Wraps
Plant Trees (Solid Set)
Plant Trees (Resets)
Travel/Setup Charge
Grove Management Charge/Month:
Supervising Grove Care Operations
Handling Fruit Marketing
Supervising/Handling Chemicals/Fertilizer

Consulting


Total Reported Acreage Provided Grove
Service to:


Hour
Hour
Hour
Hour
Acre/Month


$25.00-
25.00-

30.00-
3.00-


$36.00
35.00

35.00
4.25


$30.13
30.60
65.07
30.93
3.58


Hour $42.00- $50.00 $46.36
Hour 45.00- 50.00 47.25
Hour 60.00


Check & repair system; parts extra


Avg. range 5-20 trees per hour; bulldozer avg. $56.00'hr
Avg. range 5-12 trees per hour


$ 5 $3.50
15.00- 25.00 19.04


55.00-
85.00-
225.00-


70.00
115.00
250.00


90.00
60.83
99.17
240.00
335.00
38.00


6 to 10 acres/hour
4 to 8 acres/hour
4 to 15 acres/hr; Double Side (Tractor Mounted): S16,'acre
8 to 20 acres/hour depending on wood size
12 to 30 acres/hour-be. top only; 8 to 20 acres-bed top
Light cut \and furrow; depending on wood size


Hour 95.00- 100.00 98.33 2-5 ac/hr depending on wood size: $30/acre "Gable Cut"
Hour 350.00 4Lo 10 acres/hour roof top; 10 to 20 acres flattop cut from
\bd tops
Hour 250.00 Avg. 8-15 acres depending on wood size type of cut;: 24:acre
Hour 550.00 4 to 10 acres/hour roof top: 15 to 30 acres flatLar.cut from
Acre 12.00- 17.00 14.13 3 to 5 acres/hr \bid tops

Hour 40.00- 50,00 46.54 Front-end loader
Hour 27.00- 38.00 31.63 Average $10.00/acre


$0.07 $0.25 depending on type of wrap and number of trees
Tree $0.65- S 1.50 $ 1.09 Varies as to density
Tree 1.25- 2.50 2.05 Varies as to the number of resets
Hour 26.40


Acre 3.00- 6.00
$0.20/box; 0.05/pound solids
7% to 15% of materials cost; averaged 139


3.97 In addition to caretaking charges


$100 per hour for Horticultural Evaluation and/or Financial Analysis/prospectus.
$2 per acre for Pest Management/Regulatory Compliance in addition to management charge.


Acre


900- 8.000 2,756 Total acres reporting: 44,092


Source: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, Lake Alfred CREC, May 1997.


'Plus materials. Caretakers reporting rates include labor, tractor and sprayer; supply truck included by most caretakers.

'Calculated by dividing the total number of cartckers reporting a grove practice rate into the sum reported. Unless otherwise stated, labor included with all charges.






31

Table 9-A.--1997 summary of average chemical price estimates
Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1996-97)


Fungicides:


Aliette 80WP
Benlate
Basic Copper Sulfate (53%)
Copper (50%) (Kocide 101)
Copper (40%) (Kocide 606)
Carbamate 76WP
Copper (Champ)
Oil 435 or 455
Ridomil 5G
Ridomil 2E
Ridomil (Gold)


Insecticides/Nematicides:


Admire
Agri-Mek (0.15EC)
Carzol 92 SP
Comite 6.55 EC
Dicofol 4 EC
Ethion
Guthion 2L
Guthion 50WP
Kelthane MF
Logic Bait
Lorsban 4EC
Lorsban 15G
Malathion 5 E
Metasystox-R
Methyl Bromide 98/2 (200 lbs.)
Micromite 25WP
Morestan 25WP
Neemix
Nemacur 3EC
Nemacur 15G
Sevin 80S
Sevin XLR
Sulphur 6F
Sulphur Dust
Supracide 2 EC
Temik 15G
Thiolux 80 DF
Vendex 50W


9.45
15.78
1.33
1.91
12.58
4.34
1.69
2.19
4.82
165.70
598.71


536.10
613.73
28.40
81.06
46.35
32.79
31.80
8.22
43.82
7.07
45.70
1.97
24.04
57.45
1.19
30.59
12.41
42.18
70.17
3.46
4.29
25.94
3.65
310.00
48.31
3.06
0.66
15.82


gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
lb.
lb.
lb.
gal.
gal.
lb.
lb.
gal.
gal.
ton
gal.
lb.
lb.
lb.







Table 9-A.--1997 summary of average chemical price estimates (cont'd.)
Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1996-97)


Herbicides:


DeVine
Devrinol 50WP
Direx 4L
Direx 80 DF
Eptam 7-E
Fusilade DX
Goal
Gramoxone (Paraquat)
Hyvar X
Karmex
Krovar I
Princep (Caliber 90)
Princep 4L
Prowl
Rodeo (30 gal drum)
Roundup (30 gal drum)
Roundup Ultra
Simazine 4L
Solicam
Surflan AS
Torpedo 1E
Touchdown
Treflan


pt.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.


Growth Regulators:
Citrus Fix
Pro-Gibb 3.91%
Tre-Hold


gal.
20 oz.
gal.


Other Spray Materials:
Borates (15%)
Manganese (32%)
Zinc (78%)
Adjuvant (Surfactant)
Nutritional Spray Mix:
Goemar BM 86
Goemar MZ 63
NutraLeaf (20-20-20)
Sequestrene 138 FE
Peter's 20-20-20 Foliar
Key Plex 350
Dyna Gold MZF
Soil Applied Iron Humate


71.50
8.00
20.51
4.13
32.58
133.88
74.34
35.85
15.95
4.16
10.20
3.31
14.44
28.00
103.76
45.38
48.83
13.77
13.18
57.75
50.22
71.45
32.90

385.00
40.51
75.58

0.71
0.34
0.70
14.14
28.50
30.50
0.65
10.63
0.64
14.15
7.25
0.15


SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, University of
Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, Florida, May 1997.


i









Table 10-A.--1997 summary of average fertilizer price estimates
Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1996-97)


FERTILIZER (FOB Price @ Plant)
Slow Release (Young Tree)*
IBDU: 10-3-7 (85% Slow Release N)
8-4-8 (50% Slow Release N)
Osmocote: 18-4-12
17-6-9
ESCOTE: 19-6-12
(% Slow Release) (100-50-50)
Nutralene/Hydrolene (N 38%)
Sulfur Coated Urea (39%-40% N)
(70% Slow Release N)
Dry Mix (Bulk)
17-0-17-3
17-4-17-2.4,
16-0-16
16-0-16-4
16-2-16-3,
15-2-12-2.4
12-2-12-2.4
8-8-8 w/minors**
8-4-8 w/minors**
8-2-8 w/minors**
6-6-6 w/minors**
Liquid Mix (Bulk)
8-2-8
8-4-8
9-3-9
9-4-9
10-0-10
10-2-10
12-0-6
12-3-6


$


434.00
316.00
1,318.00
1,562.00

1,524.00

918.75

412.75


177.88
178.63
151.39
173.88
175.66
162.45
146.43
127.83
124.33
116.80
116.89


114.85
123.05
126.75
130.59
122.30
130.57
128.24
141.09


*Slow Release Elements are indicated in parenthesis.
**With organic nitrogen, the price averaged 25% higher.









Table 10-A.--1997 summary of average fertilizer price estimates (cont'd.)


Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1996-97)

Foliar N $
UNOCAL Plus (20% N) gal. 1.35
Spray Grade Urea (46% N) ton 375.00
Spray Grade Urea (23% N) gal. 1.00
Spray Grade Potassium Nitrate (14% N) ton (bags) 398.75
Trizone/Dynazone gal. 4.00
Other Fertilizer Materials (Bulk)
Ammonium Nitrate (21% N Liquid) ton 157.23
Ammonium Nitrate (33.5% N Dry) ton 207.83
Ammonium Sulfate (21% N) ton 131.91
Calcium Nitrate (19% Ca, 15.5% N) ton 201.11
Dolomite (at mine--49% CaCO3, 36% MgCO3) ton 13.75
Muriate of Potash (60% K20) ton 139.00
Potassium Nitrate (14% N; 46% K20) ton 335.87
Sul-Po-Mag (SPM--21.9% K20) ton 169.00
Super Phosphate (20% P205) ton 140.22
Triple Superphosphate (48% P2O0) ton 198.37
Average Delivery Cost ton 12.63


SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, University of
Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, Florida, May 1997.









Table 11-A.--Cost for establishing, planting and maintaining a citrus grove through four years of age, South Florida flatwoods area
Cost Per Acre
Range Average


Land Cost:' Improved Pasture Land
Raw Land and Semi-improved Pasture
Land Preparation: Pasture and Light Palmettos
(Clearing) Raw Land (heavy pines, palmettos)
Leveling: With Laser
Without Laser
Bedding: 2-rows (short rows -- 1,350+ feet)
Soil Amendments: Dolomite 1 ton
Super Phosphate, 400 Ibs.


1,700-2,500
1,150-1,800
125- 275
350- 600
200- 350
100- 250
100- 195


$
2,050
1,450
195
465
275
160
130
35
30


Canals, Ditches and Dikes 150- 260 195
Reservoirs and Roads 130- 180 155
Throw-out Pumps for Water Movement 45- 60 55
Culverts 65- 135 85
Middle Drop Drainage Pipes 45- 95 105
Drainage Tile 140- 160 150
Cover Crop 9- 16 12
Irrigation System: Microsprinkler -- with Well2 850-1,500 1,000
-- without Well 525-1,200 700
Drip -- with Well2 775-1,050 875
-- without Well 400- 825 560
Water Permits, Environmental Studies, and Engineering: Cost 40- 90 70
Time in Months 5- 12 8
Percent Land Utilization: Planted to Citrus 55%- 85% 71%
Ditches and Canals 5%- 10% 8%
Water Retention 10%- 30% 15%
Roads and Service Areas 3%- 15% 6%
----------------------Rad-ad---ic----------------------------------------- 3--15%--------------------
South Florida
Year
1 2 3 4


Solidset Planted Trees3

Microsprinkler Irrigation and Ditch Maintenance
Fertilize Tree
Supplemental Fertilization thru Irrigation
Spray
Insulated Tree Wrap (annual maintenance)
Sprouting (labor)
Cultivation/Mowing
Herbicide
Ridomil/Aliette
Miscellaneous
Total Cost Per Year

Reset Trees (annual additional grove care costs)
r t nf Plintinn Tra s4


---------- -----. Cost Per Tree ----------------


$0.40
0.25
0.15
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.44
0.54
0.35
0.43
$3.31

$2.13


$0.50
0.40
0.20
0.40
0.25
0.20
0.44
0.54
0.35
QA2
$3.77

$2.47


Solidset = $5.00


$0.65
0.55
0.25
0.47
0.25
0.00
0.44
0.54
0.00
0.42
$3.62


-1 -F.---
'Land cost will vary from one county to another as well as from one parcel to another.

'Irrigation costs include distribution system, power unit and well (where indicated.) The higher cost ranges reported also included a cost for fenigation
equipment.

'The per tree costs shown are applicable for tree densities of 145 to 165 trees per acre. The per tree costs should be decreased for higher density plantings and
increased for lower density plantings; e.g., at 200 trees per acre decrease costs by 15%; at 115 trees per acre increase costs by 15%.

Tree cost (bare root) = $3.25; stake, plant, and water tree = $1.25 (solidset) and $2.55 (resets): and uninsulated tree wrap = $0.50.


Source: Ronald P. Muraro. Farm Management Economist, CREC, Lake Alfred, FL, November 1989.


$0.85
0.56
0.29
0.50
0.00
0.00
0.44
0.54
0.00
3.66
$3.66


$1.84

Reset = $6.30










Table 12-A.--Estimated cost of planting and maintaining a reset citrus tree through three years of age,
1996

Number of Resets/Replacement Trees Per Acre
1-2 3-5 6-10 11-25 26+
--..-------- Cost Per Tree ---------------

Year #1: $ $ $ $ $
Tree Removal 5.21 4.53 3.62 2.93 2.34
Tree Cost (Container Tree) 4.00 4.00 3.75 3.75 3.75
Site Preparation" 5.12 4.44 3.76 3.48 2.73
Plant Tree and First Watering 2.l7 205 1.2 L61 126
Total Planting Cost 11.49 10.49 9.24 8.84 7.74

Supplemental Fertilization 4 Times
(Application & Materials) 1.26 1.10 1.01 0.92 0.84
Supplemental Spraying (Application & Materials) 0.45 0.39 0.36 0.33 0.30
Spot Herbicide (Application & Materials) 0.21 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.13
Tree Wrap (Corrugated) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sprouting/Pruning 0.38 0.38 0.35 0.35 0.32
Miscellaneous 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.13
Supervision & Overhead 026 024 .2 0.22 020
Total Tree Care Cost Year #1 3.72 3.44 3.25 3.10 2.92
Total Cost Year #1 20.42 18.46 16.11 14.87 13.00
Year #2:
Supplemental Fertilization 3 Times
(Application & Materials) 1.70 1.51 1.32 1.12 1.02
Supplemental Spraying (Application & Materials) 0.52 0.46 0.40 0.34 0.31
Spot Herbicide (Application & Materials) 0.20 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.13
Sprouting/Pruning 0.45 0.45 0.38 0.38 0.34
Miscellaneous 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.09
Supervision & Overhead 023 0.2 0.18 0.16 0.14
Total Cost Year #2 3.24 2.93 2.55 2.24 2.03
Year #3:
Supplemental Fertilization 3 Times
(Application & Materials) 2.31 2.06 1.77 1.51 1.28
Miscellaneous 0.12 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.06
Supervision & Overhead 0.1S DJ6 0.14 012 010
Total Cost Year #3 2.61 2.32 2.00 1.71 1.44
Total Three-Year Cumulative Costs 267 23.71 20.66 1882 16.47

'Site preparation for bedded citrus grove; cost of root removal, rotovating/leveling tree planting site.
Fumigate planting site would cost approximately $2.50 per tree.

SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Farm Management Economist, CREC, Lake Alfred, FL, November 1996.










Table 13-A.--Estimated average picking, roadsiding and hauling rates for Florida citrus -
1994-95 season'

Variety Fresh Processing State average

Picking: ------------------- $ Per Florida field box-----------
.................................................................................................................................................................................
Early/Midseason oranges 0.740 0.630 0.685
Valencia oranges 0.826 0.630 0.728


Pink/Red grapefruit 0.556 0.456 0.506
White grapefruit 0.542 0.402 0.472


Temples 0.850 0.800 0.829
Tangelos 0.814 0.818 0.816
Tangerines 1.571 1.571 1.571


Roadsiding: ----------------- $ Per Florida field box--------------

Early/Midseason oranges 0.740 0.740 0.740
Valencia oranges 0.762 0.762 0.762


Pink/Red grapefruit 0.708 0.708 0.708
White grapefruit 0.676 0.676 0.676


Temples 0.698 0.698 0.698
Tangelos 0.730 0.730 0.730
Tangerines 1.003 1.003 1.003

Hauling (All citrus): ----------------- $ Per Florida field box--------------

(Mileage Range)
0-30 miles 0.349 0.349 0.349
31-50 miles 0.379 0.379 0.379
51-80 miles 0.455 0.455 0.455
81-100 miles 0.517 0.517 0.517
100+ miles 0.598 0.598 0.598

SHarvesting rates from a mail-in survey conducted. Although, the total survey respondents
represented less than 10% of the total fruit harvested in the 1994/95 season, review of the
harvesting rates data by industry sources indicate that the averages reported are representative
for the harvest 1994/95 season.










Table 14-A.--Estimated total harvesting (pick/roadside/haul). Costs per box for Florida citrus -
1994-95 season'

Variety/Hauling Range Fresh Processing State average

EARLY/MID ORANGES ---- $ Per Florida field box--------------
0-30 miles 1.829 1.719 1.774
31-50 miles 1.859 1.749 1.804
51-80 miles 1.935 1.825 1.880
81-100 miles 1.997 1.887 1.942
100+ miles 2.078 1.968 2.023
State average 1.910 1.800 1.855
...............................................................................................................................................................................
VALENCIA ORANGES -- ------ $ Per Florida field box-------------
0-30 miles 1.937 1.741 1.839
31-50 miles 1.967 1.771 1.869
51-80 miles 2.043 1.847 1.945
81-100 miles 2.105 1.909 2.007
100+ miles 2.186 1.990 2.088
State average 2.019 1.823 1.921
,..t....te.... ..,. e ...... ................................................ ................................ .. 2. 3 .... .. ......... ...... 1.. . .
RED GRAPEFRUIT ------------ $ Per Florida field box------- -------
0-30 miles 1.613 1.513 1.563
31-50 miles 1.643 1.543 1.593
51-80 miles 1.719 1.619 1.669
81-100 miles 1.781 1.681 1.731
100+ miles 1.862 1.762 1.812
....St te average ......................... ................................................. ........................................... .............
WHITE GRAPEFRUIT ------- $ Per Florida field box-----------------
0-30 miles 1.567 1.427 1.497
31-50 miles 1.597 1.457 1.527
51-80 miles 1.673 1.533 1.603
81-100 miles 1.735 1.595 1.655
100+ miles 1.816 1.676 1.746
.. e... v. g ..........................................644.......................... .... ........... ................................. .. ..............
TANGELOS -------- $ Per Florida field box-----------------
0-30 miles 1.893 1.897 1.895
31-50 miles 1.923 1.926 1.924
51-80 miles 1.999 2.002 2.000
81-100 miles 2.061 2.064 2.062
100+ miles 2.142 2.146 2.144
...State.avera ......................................... .............. ... ........................ 9 ........................... ...9. ...............
TANGERINES ----------- $ Per Florida field box--------- --
0-30 miles 2.923 2.923 2.923
31-50 miles 2.952 2.952 2.952
51-80 miles 3.028 3.028 3.028
81-100 miles 3.091 3.091 3.091
100+ miles 3.172 3.172 3.172
State average 3.001 3.001 3.001










Table 15-A.--Summary of Florida fresh citrus packing charges by variety 1994-95 season'
Grapefruit Oranges/Temples Tangerines Tangelos

Domestic Export
-$ Per 4/5 Carton ---------

Total packing $3.077 $3.228 $3.320 $4.031 $3.465

Label/PLU charges $0.133 $0.133 $0.133 $0.133 $0.133

Export handling charges $0.712 -- --

Pre-cooled charges $0.117 $0.117 $0.117 $0.117 $0,117

Eliminations:
Charges per field boxb $0.656 $0.656 $0.666 $0.701 $0.676

SRepresents data from ten fresh citrus packinghouses located in the Indian River and Central (Ridge)
citrus producing regions.
b Add $0.35 per box charge for short haul distance to processing plant and up to $0.60 per box for
100+ miles hauling distance.










Table 16-A.--Historic prices' for selected citrus varieties
Variety
Early and Seedless grapefruit'
mid'-season Late season Temple All
Crop year oranges oranges oranges Tangerines Tangelos (white) (colored)


1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80
1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85
1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91

1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96'


$1.93
2.17
4.43
2.57
1.44
0.81
1.86
1.56
1.15
1.10
1.98
1.43
1.38
1.46
1.69
1.89
3.90
4.44
3.59
3.67
4.27
4.88
5.09
7.30
3.92
4.56
6.72
6.63
6.01
5.38

5.44
3.16
3.58
3.01
3.44


$1.81
3.50
4.45
2.28
1.79
1.08
2.28
1.83
1.13
1.91
2.11
1.71
1.59
1.82
1.88
2.63
4.40
4.95
3.89
4.63
4.29
5.41
6.72
6.88
3.97
6.02
8.73
8.41
6.53
6.58
6.65
3.88
4.61
4.25
6.24


$2.17
3.09
4.45
2.77
1.80
0.88
2.79
2.22
1.47
1.91
1.95
1.95
1.64
1.68
1.79
2.16
3.92
4.89
2.89
4.21
4.01
3.99
5.34
5.59
3.01
3.60
5.69
5.46
5.64
6.31

6.51
2.99
2.73
2.89
4.10


$2.04
3.02
3.18
2.68
2.14
1.06
4.29
2.55
2.23
1.88
2.97
2.37
2.82
3.05
3.02
3.29
4.79
4.99
4.25
5.45
6.23
7.57
5.93
15.91
12.69
10.92
12.99
12.64
15.28
17.10

18.00
13.75
9.83
11.98
12.47


$3.36
4.66
4.83
4.00
2.85
1.64
3.22
2.47
1.13
1.04
1.69
1.39
1.25
1.45
1.42
1.42
3.29
3.90
2.87
3.92
3.58
4.37
4.28
7.08
4.06
3.72
5.58
6.31
5.10
6.11

7.16
3.31
2.38
2.18
3.69


$0.68
1.29
2.24
1.51
1.39
0.73
2.05
0.98
1.72
1.89
2.27
2.06
1.58
1.55
1.29
1.49
1.47
2.21
3.12
3.46
1.92
1.51
2.08
3.02
3.56
4.45
5.35
4.33
5.21
4.59

6.46
2.22
3.23
2.23
2.28


$0.86
1.81
2.54
1.82
1.64
0.94
2.48
1.15
1.92
2.15
2.69
2.53
2.12
2.59
2.23
2.04
2.09
3.13
3.80
4.22
2.80
3.20
4.05
4.84
4.98
5.80
5.93
4.71
6.30
6.85

6.87
3.11
3.38
1.82
1.71


"On-tree average price per box
charges.
bNavel and Hamlin
'Parson Brown and Pineapple


(1-3/5 bushel box equivalent) for all methods of sale minus pick and haul


dValencia


'Preliminary


'Marsh (white) or pink


Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.













Table 17-A.--Debt which can be supported per $1,000.00 annual payment capacity


Loan Interest rate paid on the loan
term
(years) 8.0% 8.5% 9.0% 9.5% 10.0% 10.5% 11.0% 11.5% 12.0% 12.5% 13.0% 13.5% 14.0% 14.5% 15.0%

1 926 922 917 913 909 905 901 897 893 889 885 881 877 873 870
2 1,783 1,771 1,759 1,747 1,754 1,724 1,713 1,701 1,690 1,679 1,668 1,657 1,647 1,636 1,626
3 2,577 2,554 2,531 2,509 2,487 2,465 2,444 2,423 2,402 2,381 2,361 2,341 2,322 2,302 2,283
4 3,312 3,276 3,240 3,204 3,170 3,136 3,102 3,070 3,037 3,006 2,974 2,944 2,914 2,884 2,855
5 3,993 3,941 3,890 3,840 3,791 3,743 3,696 3,650 3,605 3,561 3,517 3,475 3,433 3,392 3,352
6 4,623 4,554 4,486 4,420 4,355 4,292 4,230 4,170 4,111 4,054 3,998 3,942 3,889 3,836 3,784

7 5,206 5,119 5,033 4,950 4,868 4,789 4,712 4,640 4,564 4,492 4,423 4,355 4,288 4,224 4,160
8 5,747 5,639 5,535 5,433 5,335 5,239 5,146 5,056 4,968 4,882 4,799 4,718 4,639 4,562 4,487
9 6,247 6,119 5,995 5,875 5,759 5,646 5,537 5,431 5,328 5,228 5,132 5,038 4,946 4,858 4,772
10 6,710 6,561 6,418 6,279 6,145 6,015 5,889 5,768 5,650 5,536 5,426 5,319 5,216 5,116 5,019
11 7,139 6,969 6,805 6,647 6,495 6,348 6,207 6,070 5,938 5,810 5,687 5,568 5,453 5,341 5,234
12 7,536 7,345 7,161 6,984 6,814 6,650 6,492 6,341 6,194 6,054 5,918 5,787 5,660 5,538 5,421

13 7,904 7,691 7,487 7,291 7,103 6,923 6,750 6,583 6,424 6,270 6,122 5,979 5,842 5,710 5,583
14 8,244 8,010 7,786 7,572 7,367 7,170 6,982 6,801 6,628 6,462 6,302 6,149 6,002 5,861 5,724
15 8,559 8,304 8,061 7,828 7,606 7,394 7,191 6.22' 6,811 6,633 6,462 6,299 6,142 5,992 5,847
16 8,851 8,576 8,313 8,062 7,824 7,596 7,379 7,172 6,974 6,785 6,604 6,431 6,265 6,106 5,954
17 9,122 8,825 8,543 8,276 8,022 7,779 7,549 7,329 7,119 6,920 6,729 6,547 6,373 6,207 6,048
18 9,372 9,056 8,756 8,471 8,201 7,945 7,702 7,470 7,250 7,040 6,840 6,649 6,467 6,294 6,128

19 9,603 9,268 8,950 8,650 8,365 8,095 7,839 7,596 7,366 7,146 6,938 6,739 6,551 6,370 6,198
20 9,818 9,463 9,129 8,812 8,514 8,231 7,963 7210' 7,469 7,241 7,025 6,819 6,623 6,437 6,259
25 10,675 10,234 9,823 9,438 9,077 8,739 8,422 8,123 7,843 7,579 7,330 7,095 6,873 6,663 6,464
30 11,258 10,747 10,274 9,835 9,427 9,047 8,868 8,364 8,055 7,766 7,496 7,242 7,003 6,778 6,566
35 11,655 11,088 10,567 10,087 9,644 9,234 8,855 8,503 8,175 7,870 7,586 7,320 7,070 6,836 6,617
40 11,925 11,315 10,757 10,247 9,779 9,348 8,951 8,587 8,244 7,928 7,634 7,361 7,105 6,866 6,642


'Example. Assumes a $10,000 after tax income at 11.5% interest rate and a 15-year term mortgage, the total debt which can be supported is $69,970
($6,997 x 10). At 11.5 % interest rate and a 20-year term mortgage, the total debt which can he supported is $77,100 ($7,710 x 10).