<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Main
 Reference
 Addenda


FLAG IFAS PALMM UF



Budgeting costs and returns for Southwest Florida citrus production
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026155/00004
 Material Information
Title: Budgeting costs and returns for Southwest Florida citrus production
Series Title: Economic information report
Portion of title: Southwest Florida citrus production
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Muraro, R. P
Holcomb, Edgar D
University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food & Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations and Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1992
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruit industry -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Marketing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
General Note: Description based on: 1986-87; title from cover.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001596350
oclc - 21057551
notis - AHM0449
lccn - sn 91022495
System ID: UF00026155:00004

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Abstract
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Reference
        Page 14
    Addenda
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
Full Text



Ronald P. Muraro
Edgar D. Holcomb, Jr.


Economic Information
Report El 93-2


Budgeting Costs and Returns
for Southwest Florida Citrus

Production, 1992-93


Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
versity of Florida, Gainesville 32611
100
F637fe
El
93-2


July 1993
















ABSTRACT


Estimated costs and returns of growing processed-market round oranges and fresh-market
seedless grapefruit in the Southwest area of Florida are presented for the seventh consecutive
year. The format presented may be used by individual growers to budget costs and returns,
utilizing individual data on specific groves.

Key words: citrus, budgeting, costs, round oranges, seedless grapefruit and Southwest
Florida.

NOTE: Southwest Florida refers primarily to Charlotte, Collier, Glades, Hendry and Lee
counties. However, the costs shown are applicable to other South Central Florida
counties such as DeSoto, Okeechobee, and Sarasota counties.

The budget cost items have been revised to reflect current grove practices being used
by growers--e.g., chemical mowing, new spray materials, higher rates of fertilization,
microsprinkler irrigation, more reset trees, etc. Therefore, the revised costs shown
may be higher than reported in previous reports.

Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Tables 5 and 6 are
representative for a mature Southwest Florida Hamlin orange and red seedless
grapefruit groves, respectively, the grove care costs for a specific grove site may differ
depending upon the grove practices performed. For example, spot herbicide for
grass/brush regrowth under trees could add as much as $19.21 per acre; a Temik
application would add $126.84 per acre; extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza
could at least double, if not increase more, the tree replacement and care costs; etc.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation is extended to Mrs. Jane Wilson for typing the final draft of this manuscript.

Appreciation is also extended to the citrus growers and production managers of Southwest
Florida who provided suggestions for the revision of this manuscript.
















ABSTRACT


Estimated costs and returns of growing processed-market round oranges and fresh-market
seedless grapefruit in the Southwest area of Florida are presented for the seventh consecutive
year. The format presented may be used by individual growers to budget costs and returns,
utilizing individual data on specific groves.

Key words: citrus, budgeting, costs, round oranges, seedless grapefruit and Southwest
Florida.

NOTE: Southwest Florida refers primarily to Charlotte, Collier, Glades, Hendry and Lee
counties. However, the costs shown are applicable to other South Central Florida
counties such as DeSoto, Okeechobee, and Sarasota counties.

The budget cost items have been revised to reflect current grove practices being used
by growers--e.g., chemical mowing, new spray materials, higher rates of fertilization,
microsprinkler irrigation, more reset trees, etc. Therefore, the revised costs shown
may be higher than reported in previous reports.

Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Tables 5 and 6 are
representative for a mature Southwest Florida Hamlin orange and red seedless
grapefruit groves, respectively, the grove care costs for a specific grove site may differ
depending upon the grove practices performed. For example, spot herbicide for
grass/brush regrowth under trees could add as much as $19.21 per acre; a Temik
application would add $126.84 per acre; extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza
could at least double, if not increase more, the tree replacement and care costs; etc.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation is extended to Mrs. Jane Wilson for typing the final draft of this manuscript.

Appreciation is also extended to the citrus growers and production managers of Southwest
Florida who provided suggestions for the revision of this manuscript.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ABSTRACT ............................................................

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................. i

LIST OF TABLES ................................................... iii

INTRODUCTION ................................................. ...... 1

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION ......................................... 1

COSTS AND INPUTS ..................................................... 1

THE GROVE SITUATION ..................................... ............ .... 2

BUDGET COSTS AND RETURNS .......................................... 6

HISTORICAL COST TRENDS ............................................ 9

REFERENCES ........................................................ 14

ADDENDA ............................................................. 15


NOTE: The ADDENDA includes a Listing of Grove Care Programs for
Southwest Florida Citrus Production for Both Round Oranges and
Grapefruit; 1993 custom rate summary report; cost of establishing a
citrus grove; etc. Page 15 is a list of the tables included in the
ADDENDA.















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Southwest Florida
mature, round orange grove, 1992-93 ................................. 3

2 Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Southwest Florida
mature, red seedless grapefruit grove, 1992-93 .......................... 4

3 Calculation of normal production per tree and per acre for Hamlin oranges,
1992-93 ....................................................... 5

4 Calculation of normal production per tree and per acre for red seedless grapefruit,
1992-93 ....................................................... 6

5 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, Hamlin orange
grove producing for the processed market, Southwest Florida area, 1992-93 .... 7

6 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, red seedless
grapefruit grove producing for the fresh market, Southwest Florida area,
1992-93 ............................................ .......... 8

7 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and
returns for a mature, Hamlin orange grove producing citrus for processed
market in the Southwest Florida area, 1988-89--1992-93 .................. 10

8 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns
(adjusted to 1993 dollars) for a mature, Hamlin orange grove producing citrus
for processed market in the Southwest Florida area, 1988-89--1992-93 ....... 11

9 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and
returns for a mature, red seedless grapefruit grove producing citrus for fresh
fruit packing in the Southwest Florida area, 1988-89--1992-93 .............. 12

10 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns
(adjusted to 1993 dollars) for a mature, red seedless grapefruit grove producing
citrus for fresh fruit packing in the Southwest Florida area, 1988-89--1992-93 13









BUDGETING COSTS AND RETURNS FOR SOUTHWEST
FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION, 1992-93


Ronald P. Muraro and Edgar D. Holcomb, Jr.


INTRODUCTION


Southwest Florida has become a major citrus production area. Over 132,000 acres of citrus
are located in this region. Continued expansion of citrus acreage is expected.
Budget analysis provides the basis for many grower decisions. Budget analysis can be used
to calculate potential profits from an operation, to determine cash requirements for an operation,
and to determine break-even prices. This report presents two budgets constructed from current
data and provides a format for growers to analyze costs and returns from their individual records.


METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


The data presented here were developed by surveying custom operators, input suppliers,
growers, and colleagues at both the Southwest Florida Research and Education Center and the
Citrus Research and Education Center in Lake Alfred. The survey is conducted annually in
February and March.


COSTS AND INPUTS


Costs for various production inputs are those collected from citrus growers as well as the
average of the data obtained from annual custom rate, chemical, and fertilizer surveys. Grower
costs are shown in the ADDENDA, Table 1-A through 8-A. The custom rate costs are shown in
Table 9-A and the various chemical and fertilizer costs are shown in Tables 10-A and 11-A in the
ADDENDA. Historic on-tree prices for selected citrus varieties are shown in 12-A. Although
brand names are used in many of the tables in the ADDENDA, this does not imply endorsement
by the University of Florida. It is merely an attempt to depict typical production practices.
All tables have a column reserved for the individual growers to insert data from a particular
grove. This will allow a comparison of the grower's costs with those presented.



RONALD P. MURARO is Associate Professor of Food and Resource Economics and
Extension Farm Management Economist stationed at the Citrus Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred. EDGAR D. HOLCOMB, JR. is Extension Agent (retired), Multi-county stationed
at the Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee.










THE GROVE SITUATION


Production practices for Southwest Florida orange and grapefruit groves are shown in
Tables 1 and 2, respectively, with the times during the year when they are normally performed.
There are two benefits to developing such a table for an individual grove. First, it shows what
work is needed and when, so that operations can be planned well in advance. Second, it can be
helpful if an annual cash flow analysis is developed to plan financing. The individual grower may
benefit from developing a plan for a particular grove.
Specific production practices vary from grove to grove making it difficult to define a "typical"
grove. Many combinations of practices and various tree variety combinations produce acceptable
yields and returns. Although the examples represent a Hamlin orange and red seedless grapefruit
groves, the cost and return data are designed to be applicable to most grove situations. A grower,
realtor, or land appraiser can substitute individual grove costs and expected returns into the
budget format and develop a budget for a particular grove. A "your cost" column is appropriately
provided for this purpose in subsequent tables.
In the following budget, above noted average management and cultural practices are
assumed. Beyond this general assumption, the following specifics are assumed:
1. A mature, drip-irrigated grove;
2. Varieties are processed-market Hamlin oranges and fresh-market red seedless
grapefruit;
3. Annual tree loss is 4 trees per acre for oranges and 3 trees per acre for grapefruit;
4. Trees are pulled and replaced when production falls below 50 percent of expected
yield;
5. Tree density is 116 trees per acre for oranges and 96 trees per acre for grapefruit.
As a result of tree losses and replacement, the tree ages will vary. The budget reflects the
following age distribution:
Hamlin Oranges
Situation Boxes/tree
3.5% pulled and reset 0.0
3.5% 1 year old 0.0
3.5% 2 years old 0.0
3.5% 3 years old 0.7
3.5% 4 years old 0.9
38.5% 5-15 years old 4.0
3.5% producing 50% of expected yield 2.8
40.5% over 15 years old 5.6











Table 1.--Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Southwest Florida mature, round orange grove, 1992-93'
Month

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Total revenue:


20%
deposit


50%
Partial
payment


Final
payment


Less: Pick & haul cost X
DOC advertisement tax X

Grove expenses:
Disc
Chop
Mow X X X X X
Labor, general grove work, pull vines X X
Herbicide (1/2 grove acre equivalent) X X X
Spray: Dormant
Post bloom/nutritional X
Supplemental miticide

Summer oil/greasy spot X
Fall miticide X
Fertilizer 75# N/A 75# N/A 75# N/A Dolomite
Hedging and topping Hedge
Brush removal/mow brush Mow brush
Tree removal X
Young tree care X X X X X
Drip irrigation (times/week) 1 2 3 4 4 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
Miscellaneous (clean ditches) X
Grove taxes including water management X
Interest expense X
Annual principal payment on mortgage X
"This is a suggested schedule of practices. Actual practices would not necessarily be done on the exact schedule shown here.











Table 2.--Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Southwest Florida mature, red seedless grapefruit grove, 1992-93'
Month

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Total revenue: 20% Final
deposit payment

Less: Pick & haul cost X
DOC advertisement tax X

Grove expenses:
Disc
Chop
Mow X X X X X
Labor, general grove work, pull vines X X
Herbicide (1/2 grove acre equivalent) X X X
Spray: Dormant
Post bloom/nutritional X
Supplemental miticde X
Summer oil/greasy spot X X
Fall miticide X

Fertilizer 75# N/A 75# N/A 75# N/A Dolomite
Hedging and topping Hedge
Brush removal/mow brush Mow brush
Tree removal X
Young tree care X X X X X
Drip irrigation (times/week) 1 2 3 4 4 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
Miscellaneous (clean ditches) X
Grove taxes including water management X
Interest expense X
Annual principal payment on mortgage X
This is a suggested schedule of practices. Actual practices would not necessarily be done on the exact schedule shown here.









and
Red Seedless Grapefruit
Situation
3% pulled and reset
3% 1 year old
3% 2 years old
3% 3 years old
3% 4 years old
33% 5-15 years old
3% producing 50% of expected yield
49% over 15 years old


Boxes/tree
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
1.7
45
3.7
7.4


Calculation of normal production per acre for Hamlin oranges and red seedless grapefruit are
shown in Tables 3 and 4, respectively.


Table 3.--Calculation of normal production per tree and per acre for Hamlin oranges, 1992-93

Boxes Total
Age of Tree Trees /tree boxes

Total no. Proportion No. ea.
all ages ea. age ae -------- No. -----
3 years 116 x 0.035 = 4.0 x 0.7 = 2.8
4 years 116 x 0.035 = 4.0 x 0.9 = 3.6
5-15 years 116 x 0385 = 44.7 x 4.0 = 178.8
Prod. 50% of
exp. yield 116 x 0.035 = 4.0 x 2.8 = 112
Over 16 years 116 x 0.405 = 47.0 x 5.6 = 263.2
Total boxes = 459.6

"Proportion adds up to 89.5 percent as 10.5 percent of the trees were non-bearing (pulled
and reset, 1 and 2 year old trees; see page 2).










Table 4.--Calculation of normal production per tree and per acre for red seedless grapefruit,
1992-93
Boxes Total
Age of Tree Trees /tree boxes
Total no. Proportion No. ea.
all ages ea. age ae No. --

3 years 96 x 0.03 = 3.0 x 1.0 = 3.0
4 years 96 x 0.03 = 3.0 x 1.7 = 5.1
5-15 years 96 x 033 = 31.7 x 4.5 = 142.7
Prod. 50% of
exp. yield 96 x 0.03 = 3.0 x 3.7 = 11.1
Over 16 years 96 x 0.49 = 47.0 x 7.4 = 347.8
Total boxes = 509.7

"Proportion adds up to 91 percent as 9 percent of the trees were non-bearing (pulled and
reset, 1 and 2 year old trees; see page 5).


BUDGET COSTS AND RETURNS


The estimated budget costs and returns for the two Southwest Florida grove situations are
shown in Tables 5 and 6. The budgeted costs represent one possible citrus production program and
were selected from the costs shown in the ADDENDA tables. The gross revenue estimates are based
on the projected yields in Tables 3 and 4 and estimated preliminary on-tree prices for the 1992-93
season. Historical on-tree prices for selected Florida citrus varieties are shown in Table 13-A of the
ADDENDA.
As shown in Table 5, the total revenue for processed-market Hamlin oranges is estimated to be
$1,311.00 per acre. Total specified costs are $823.29 and are comprised of grove care costs of
$775.29, plus management cost of $48.00. Return to land and trees of $487.71 represents net return
above variable costs. The break-even price required to cover grove care costs for Hamlin oranges
range from $2.58 to $1.55 per box on-tree and $0.81 to $0.62 per pounds solids delivered-in at 300
and 500 boxes per acre, respectively.
In Table 6, total revenue for fresh market red seedless grapefruit is estimated to be $2,244.00
per acre. Total specified costs are $873.75, being comprised of grove care costs of $825.75, plus
management cost of $48.00. Return to land, trees, and ownership or net return above fixed costs is
$1,370.25. The break-even price required to cover grove care costs for seedless grapefruit range from
$236 to $1.50 per box on-tree and $1.06 to $0.87 per pound solids delivered-in for eliminations at
350 and 550 boxes per acre, respectively.









Table 5.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, Hamlin orange grove producing for the processed market, Southwest Florida area, 1992-93'

Item Description Amount Your cost
--------------- Dollars --------

I. Revenue 460 boxes @ $2.85 1,311.00

II. Expenses
Weed control
Mow middles 3 times per year 24.99
Chemical mow (Table 2-A, Program #8) 2 times per year 23.56
General grove work/sprouting (2 labor hours per acre) 19.12
Herbicide (Table 2-A, Program #1 & #7) 142.31 209.98
Spray program (Table 1-A, Programs #1, #11 & #19) 158.91
Fertilizer (Table 3-A, Program #5) 133.35
Dolomite (Table 7-A, Program #1) 9.73
Pruning (maintenance)
Topping ($300.00/hr. + 8.0 A/hr.) + 3 yrs. 12.50
Remove brush from trees ($15.92/A + 3 yrs.) 5.31
Hedging ($225.00/hr. + 8.0 A/hr.) + 2 yrs. 14.06
Mow brush ($15.33/A + 2 yrs.) 7.67 39.54
Tree replacement and care (1 through 3 years)
Remove trees 4 trees per acre 20.25
Prepare sites and plant resets Including 4 trees per acre 42.96
Supplemental fertilizer, sprout, Ridomil/Aliette, etc. (Trees 1-3 years) Including application 31.53 94.74
Drip irrigation (Table 8-A, Program #1) 101.24
Drainage ditch annual costs (Table 8-A, Program #5) 27.80
Total grove care expenses 775.29

III. Management $4.00 per acre per month' 48.00

IV. Total specified costsd 823.29

V. Return to land, trees, and ownership 487.71

VI. Break-even price for total grove care expenses
Boxes per acre Boxes per acre

300 350 400 450 500 300 350 400 450 500
S On-tree price per box $ Delivered-in price per pound solids'

2.58 2.22 1.94 1.72 1.55 0.81 0.74 0.69 0.65 0.62

'Although the estimated annual per cre grove costs shown in Tables 5 and 6 are representative for a mature Southwest Florida Hmlin orange and red seedless grapefruit grove, respectively, the grove
care costs for a specific grove site may differ depending upon the grove practices performed; e.g., a Temik application would add $126.84 per acre; extenive tree loss due to blight or tristez could at least
double, if not increase more, the tree replacement and care costs; etc. Also, truck watering of resets could add another $10.13 per acre (average S waterings).
'On-tree price per box is preliminary: assumes price for processed oranges only.
'Other methods to estimate a management cost-e.g, 5% of gross sales or 10% of total grove care costs-are used in the industry. Other selected methods will give a different return to land and trees
than reported here.
'Other cost items which are not included in the budget are ad valorem taxes and interest on grove investment. In addition to these cost items, overhead and administrative costs, such as water
drainage/district taxes, crop insurance, and other grower assessments, can add up to 12 percent to the total grove care costs. These costs vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, and time of
purchase or grove establishment.
'Assumes 5.5 pounds solids per box and $1.85 pick and haul cost per box.









Table 6.-Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, red seedless grapefruit grove producing for the fresh market, Southwest Florida area, 1992-93"

Item Description Amount Your cost
--------- Dollars --


I. Revenue 510 boxes @ S4.40( 2,244.00

II. Expenses
Weed control
Mow middles 3 times per year 24.99
Chemical mow (Table 2-A, Program #8) 2 times per year 23.56
General grove work/sprouting (2 labor hours per acre) 19.12
Herbicide (Table 2-A, Program #1 & #6) 142.31 209.98
Spray program (Table 1-A, Programs #1, #7, #11, #19 & 20) 240.58
Fertilizer (Table 3-A, Program #2) 125.82
Dolomite (Table 7-A, Program #1) 9.73
Pruning (maintenance)
Topping ($300.00/hr. + 8.0 A/hr.) + 3 yrs. 12.50
Remove brush from trees (S15.92/A + 3 yrs.) 5.31
Hedging ($225.00/hr. + 8.0 A/hr.) + 2 yrs. 14.06
Removing/chop brush ($15.33/A + 2 yrs.) 7.67 39.54
Tree replacement and care (1 through 3 years)
Remove trees 3 trees per acre 15.19
Prepare sites and plant resets Including 3 trees per acre 32.22
Supplemental fertilizer, Ridomil/Aliette, etc. (Trees 1-3 years) Including application 23.65 71.06
Drip irrigation (Table 8-A, Program #1) 101.24
Drainage ditch annual costs (Table 8-A, Program #5) 27.80
Total grove care expenses 825.75

III. Management 5% of gross sales' 48.00

IV. Total specified costs' 873.75

V. Return to land, trees, and ownership 1370.25

VI. Break-even price for total grove care expenses
Boxes per acre Boxes per acre

350 400 450 500 550 350 400 450 500 550
$ On-tree price per box $ Delivered-in price per pound solids for eliminations*

2.36 2.06 1.84 1.65 1.50 1.06 1.00 0.95 0.91 0.87

'Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Tables 5 and 6 are representative for a mature Southwest Florida Hamlin orange and red seedless grapefruit grove, respectively, the grove
care costs for a specific grove site may differ depending upon the grove practices performed; e.g. a Temik application would add $126.84 per acre; extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could at least
double, if not increase more, the tree replacement and care costs; etc. Also, truck watering of resets could add another $7.62 per acre (avenge 5 waterings).
'On-tree price per box is preliminary; assumes average of all methods of sale (fresh and processed). Price assumes 75% of fruit harvested packed fresh.
*Other methods to estimate a management cost-e.g, 5% of gross sales or 10% of total grove care costs--are used in the industry. Other selected methods will give a different return to land and trees
than reported here.
Other cost Items which are not included in the budget are ad valorem taxes and interest on grove investment. In addition to these cost items, overhead and administrative costs, such as water
drainage/district taxes, crop insurance, and other grower assessments, can add up to 12 percent to the total grove care costs. These costs vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, and time of
purchase or grove establishment.
*Assumes 4.5 pounds solids per box and $1.60 pick and haul cost per box. $0.45 per box handling through packinghouse, and $0.40 per box delivery to processing plant










Ad valorem taxes, and overhead and administrative costs (such as water drainage district taxes,
crop insurance, and other grower assessments) can add up to 12 percent of the total grove care costs.
These costs vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, soil, and time of purchase or
establishment. However, as a guideline, ad valorem taxes in the Southwest Florida citrus area
average $40 to $50 per acre. These costs should be considered in arriving at a net return to land,
trees, and ownership (total return minus total costs). Also, average annual debt payment (principal
and interest) may be as high as $580 per acre ($4,500 average debt per acre @ 10 percent interest
amortized over 20 years) which would reduce total available cash for grove expansion or other
investment.


HISTORICAL COST TRENDS


Annual budgets of costs and returns for mature, processed Hamlin oranges and mature fresh-
market seedless grapefruit in the Southwest Florida area have been developed and published in each
of the past three years. Estimated cost and return histories for 1988-89 through 1991-92 along with
1992-93, and a five-year average are presented in Tables 7 and 9. To allow comparisons in current
values, these same costs and returns, adjusted to 1993 dollars, are presented in Tables 8 and 10.












Table 7.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns for a mature, Hamlin orange grove
producing citrus for processed market in the Southwest Florida area, 1988-89--1992-93


On-tree Gross Total grove Total specified Net return to land,
Year price/box* Yield revenue care expenses costs' trees, and ownership
------------------------- ------ Dollars ---------------------------------


1988-89 $6.63 460 3,049.80 715.85 763.85 2,285.95

1989-90 5.74 460 2,640.40 733.13 781.13 1,859.27

1990-91 5.79 460 2,663.40 756.10 804.10 1,859.30

1991-92 5.09 460 2,341.40 777.10 825.10 1,516.30

1992-93 2.85b 460 1,311.00 775.29 823.29 487.71

5-yr. avg. 5.22 460 2,401.20 751.49 799.49 1,601.71


'On-tree prices for processed oranges only as reported by the Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.
bPreliminary estimate by authors at time of printing and is not a published price.

CA management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not
included.












Table 8.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns (adjusted to 1993 dollars) for a mature,
Hamlin orange grove producing citrus for processed market in the Southwest Florida area, 1988-89--1992-93


Inflation On-tree Gross Total specified Net return to land,
Year factor index' price/box Yield revenue costs trees, and ownership
..................- ---- Dollars --------------------


1988-89 105.4 $6.99 460 3,215.40 805.10 2,410.30

1989-90 101.7 5.84 460 2,686.40 794.41 1,891.99

1990-91 101.5 5.88 460 2,704.80 816.16 1,888.64

1991-92 100.9 5.14 460 2,364.40 832.53 1,531.87

1992-93 100.0 2.85 460 1,311.00 823.29 487.71

5-yr. avg. -- 5.34 460 2,456.40 814.30 1,642.10

'Producer price index for each year adjusted to 1993 prices (1993 = 100), with 1993 producer price index estimated to be 118.3.
Producer price index for other years are: 1989 = 112.2; 1990 = 116.3; 1991 = 116.5 and 1992 = 117.2.
bA management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not
included. (Refer to Table 7.)












Table 9.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns for a mature, red seedless grapefruit grove
producing citrus for fresh market packing in the Southwest Florida area, 1988-89--1992-93


On-tree Gross Total grove Total specified Net return to land,
Year price/box' Yield revenue care expenses costs trees, and ownership
---------------------------.---.---------- Dollars ----------------------------- ----


1988-89 $4.66 510 2,376.60 754.02 802.02 1,574.58

1989-90 8.09 510 4,125.90 779.29 827.29 3,298.61

1990-91 8.53 510 4,350.30 792.07 840.07 3,510.23

1991-92 6.73 510 3,432.30 819.63 867.63 2,564.67

1992-93 4.40b 510 2,244.00 825.75 873.75 1,370.25

5-yr. avg. 6.48 510 3,304.80 794.15 842.15 2,462.65


"On-tree prices for all sales methods as reported by the Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.
bPreliminary estimate by authors at time of printing and is not a published price.
CA management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not
included.













Table 10.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns (adjusted to 1993 dollars) for a mature,
red seedless grapefruit grove producing citrus for fresh fruit packing in the Southwest Florida area, 1988-89--1992-93


Inflation On-tree Gross Total specified Net return to land,
Year factor index' price/box Yield revenue costs trees, and ownership
------ Dollars -------------------------


1988-89 105.4 $4.91 510 2,504.10 845.33 1,658.77

1989-90 101.7 8.23 510 4,197.30 841.35 3,355.95

1990-91 101.5 8.66 510 4,416.60 852.67 3,563.93

1991-92 100.9 6.79 510 3,462.90 875.44 2,587.46

1992-93 100.0 4.40 510 2,244.00 873.75 1,370.25

5-yr. avg. -- 6.60 510 3,366.00 857.71 2,508.29

"Producer price index for each year adjusted to 1993 prices (1993 = 100), with 1993 producer price index estimated to be 118.3.
Producer price index for other years are: 1989 = 112.2; 1990 = 116.3; 1991 = 116.5 and 1992 = 117.2.
bA management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not
included. (Refer to Table 9.)










REFERENCES


1. Florida Citrus Spray Guide 1993. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Ext. Svc. SP 43. Gainesville: Jan. 1993.

2. Koo, R. C. J., editor. Recommended Fertilizers and Nutritional Sprays for Citrus. Univ. of
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 536D. Gainesville: March 1984.

3. Muraro, Ronald P. "A Listing of Estimated Comparative Southwest Florida Citrus Production
Costs Per Acre for 1992-1993." Lake Alfred Citrus Research and Education Center (CREC)
Report. Lake Alfred, FL: May 1993.

4. "Cost for Establishing, Planting, and Maintaining a Citrus Grove through Four Years
of Age, South Florida Flatwoods Area." Lake Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: Nov.
1989.

5. "A Listing of 1993 Custom Rates Reported by Twenty-nine Indian River and South
Florida Citrus Caretakers." Lake Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: May 1993.

6. Savage, Zach. Citrus Yields Per Tree Age. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Ext. Ser. 60-8. Gainesville:
1960.










ADDENDA: Listing of Grove Care Programs for Southwest Florida Citrus Production for Both
Round Oranges and Grapefruit

Page

Table 1-A. Spray programs ............................................... 16

Post bloom spray .............................................. 16
Summer spray ...................................... ......... 18
Fall spray .................................................... 19

Table 2-A. Herbicide ..................................................... 21

Table 3-A. Dry fertilizer .................................................. 22

Table 4-A. Liquid fertilizer (Double boom application) ........................... 24

Table 5-A. Fertigation ................................................... 24

Table 6-A. Nematicides ...................................... ........... 25

Table 7-A. Soil amendment .............................................. 25

Table 8-A. Irrigation--annual cost per acre .................................... 26

Drip ....................................................... 26
Microsprinkler .............................................. 26
Drainage ditch annual costs ....................................... 26

Table 9-A. A listing of 1993 custom rates reported by twenty Indian River and South Florida
citrus caretakers ....................................... ....... 27

Table 10-A. 1993 summary of average chemical price estimates ...................... 29

Table 11-A. 1993 summary of average fertilizer price estimates ...................... 31

Table 12-A. Cost for establishing, planting and maintaining a citrus grove through four
years of age, South Florida flatwoods area ............................ 33

Table 13-A. Historic prices for selected citrus varieties ............................ 34

Table 14-A. Debt which can be supported per $1,000.00 annual payment capacity ........ 35


Cu = Copper Mn = Manganese
Fe = Iron Zn = Zinc
Mg = Magnesium











Table 1-A.--Spray programs


POST BLOOM SPRAY


Spray Program #1


Spray Program #2


Spray Program #3


Spray Program #4


Materials/Ingredients

Cu
Zn
Mn
Adjuvant (Surfactant)
Ground Application

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Cu
Zn, Mn, Nitrates
Kelthane MF
Adjuvant (Surfactant)
Ground Application
Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Zn, Mn, Fe Nitrates
Cu
Ethion
Oil
Ground Application

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients
Cu
Nitrate
Potassium Nitrate
Lorsban 4EC
Hystop (pH Reducer)
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
Total per Application


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Amount
/Acre
15 lbs
5 lbs
10 lbs
1 pt

250 gals


Amount
/Acre
10 lbs
1 pt
6 pts
1 pt
100 gals


Amount
/Acre

1 pt
7 lbs
6pts
1 gal

100 gals


Amount
/Acre
7 lbs
3 qts
10 lbs
4 pts
1 pt
1 pt

100 gals


Cost/Acre
$19.80
3.80
330
1.92

22.74

$51.56


Cost/Acre

$13.20
1.07
34.20
1.92
17.59

$67.98


Cost/Acre
$1.07
9.24
23.40
2.19

17.59

$53.49


Cost/Acre
$ 9.24
5.14
3.08
21.80
1.43
1.92

17.59

$60.20


--------------------------1 --1------------ - - - --1


--------------------------- ------_------------------------------


--- --- -- --- --- --- --- - -- --- -- --- --- -- - -- -- - -- -- -


_____________________I--I---------------










Table 1-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)

POST BLOOM SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #5


Spray Program #6


Spray Program #7


Spray Program #8


Spray Program #9


Materials/Ingredients

Dicofol 4EC
Cu
Adjuvant (Surfactant)
Ground Application
Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Zn, Mn, Fe Nitrates
Cu
Urea

Ground Application

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients
Vendex 4L

Aerial Application

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients
Cu
Zn, Mn, Mg, Fe
Ethion
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Vendex 4L

Ground Application

Total per Application


Amount
/Acre

5 pts
10 lbs
0.5 pt
250 gals


Amount
/Acre

1 pt
7 lbs
2 lbs

100 gals


Amount
/Acre
2.0 Ibs

15 GPA


Amount
/Acre
7 lbs
4pts
6pts
2 pts

500 gals


Amount
/Acre
2 pts

250 gals


Cost/Acre

$28.00
13.20
0.96
22.74
$64.90


Your
Cost/Acre










Your
Cost/Acre










Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre











Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$ 1.07
9.24
0.40
17.59

$28.30


Cost/Acre
$38.70
5.50

$44.20


Cost/Acre
$9.24
428
23.40
3.84

27.50

$64.42


Cost/Acre

$38.66

22.74

$61.40


-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - -- -- -


-- -- --- - -- ---- - -- -- -- - -- - -- -- -- -- -


-------------------------------I----------I---------------










Table 1-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)
POST BLOOM SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #10

(Scale insects)


SUMMER SPRAY


Spray Program #11


Spray Program #12


Spray Program #13


Spray Program #14


Materials/Ingredients
Lorsban 4EC
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Oil
Cu
Ethion
Ground Application

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients
Oil 97%
Cu
Ethion

Ground Application

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients
Zn, Mn, Fe Nitrates
Vendex 50WP
Urea
Cu

Ground Application

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Oil 97%
Agri-Mek
Ground Application

Total per Application


Amount
/Acre

7pts
1 pt

500 gals


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
7 lbs
6pts

250 gals


Amount
/Acre

3 gals
7 lbs
3.75 pts
100 gals


Amount
/Acre

1 pt
2 lbs
3.5 lbs
4 lbs

100 gals


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
10 ozs

500 gals


Cost/Acre
$38.15
1.92
27.50

$67.57


Your
Cost/Acre









Your
Cost/Acre










Your
Cost/Acre










Your
Cost/Acre











Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$10.95
9.24
23.40
22.74

$66.33


Cost/Acre
$ 6.57
9.24
14.63

17.59

$48.03


Cost/Acre
$ 1.07
38.70
0.70
5.28
17.59

$63.34


Cost/Acre
$10.95
43.40

27.50

$81.85


__I_____________________________________


-- --- -- --- -- -- - -- - -- - -- -- -- -- -- -- -


-- -- ---- -- - -- - -- -- -- -- -- -- - -- - -- -










Table 1-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)

SUMMER SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #15










Spray Program #16


Materials/Ingredients

Ethion
Cu
Oil

Ground Application

Total per Application



Materials/Ingredients
Kelthane MF
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application

Total per Application


FALL SPRAY


Spray Program #17


Spray Program #18


Spray Program #19


Materials/Ingredients

Agri-Mek
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Vendex 4L

Aerial Application

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Dicofol
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Aerial Application

Total per Application


Amount
/Acre

6 pts
7 lbs
5 gals

500 gals



Amount
/Acre

6 pts
1 pt

250 gals


Your
Cost/Acre









Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$23.40
9.24
10.95

27.50

$71.09



Cost/Acre

$34.20
1.92

22.74

$58.86


Amount
/Acre

10 ozs
1 pt

50 gals


Amount
/Acre

1.25 lbs

15 GPA


Amount
/Acre

6 pts
1 pt

15 GPA


Your
Cost/Acre









Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$43.40
1.92
10.78

$56.10


Cost/Acre

$24.19

5.50

$29.69


Cost/Acre

$33.60
1.92
5.50

$41.02


-- -- - -- - -- - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -


-- -- --- - -- --- - -- - -- - -- -- -- -- -- -- -


______________________I_________________


-- --- -- --- -- -- - -- - -- - -- -- -- -- -- -- -











Table 1-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)

FALL SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #20


Materials/Ingredients

Morestan 25WP
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Aerial Application
Total per Application


Table 2-A.--Herbicide


Herbicide Program #1

(Strip/band)


Herbicide Program #2

(Strip/band)


Materials

Krovar II
Gramoxone
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(2 times)

Total for 2 Applications


Materials

Solicam 80DF
Simazine 90DF
Roundup

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

12 lbs
6pts
1 pt
80 gals


Amount/
Treated Acre

8 lbs
4 lbs
2pts

40 gals


Herbicide Program #3

(Strip/band)


Materials

Roundup
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

4 qts
2 qts

40 gals


"With respect to herbicide materials, Amount Per Grove Acre does not equal Amount Per Treated
Acre shown on the label as only a strip or band is being treated. In this report, it is assumed that only
50% or one-half of a grove acre is being treated.


Amount
/Acre

25 lbs
1 pt

15 GPA


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$30.05
1.92

5.50

$37.47


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre"

$60.60
14.46
1.92
23.58


$100.56


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre"

$53.72
6.60
4.98

11.79


$77.09


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre"

$19.92
3.84
11.79


$35.55


--- -- -- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -


-- --- -- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- -- -- --- -- --- -- -- - -


-- --- --- --- -- --- --- --- -- - --- --- -- -- - -- -- - -- -- -


__1______1____________________l________l










Table 2-A.--Herbicide (cont'd.)


Herbicide Program #4

(Strip/band)


Herbicide Program #5

(Strip/band)


Materials

Krovar I
Oil

Ground Application
(2 times)
Total for 2 Applications


Materials

Princep (Caliber 90)
Hyvar X
Adjuvant (Surfactant)
Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

12 lbs
2 gals

100 gals


Amount/
Treated Acre

4 lbs
6 lbs
2 qts
40 gals


Herbicide Program #6
(Strip/band)


Herbicide Program #7

(Strip/band)


Materials

Roundup
Princep (Caliber 90)
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Materials

Direx 4L
Solicam
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(2 times)
Total for 2 Applications


Amount/
Treated Acre

2 qts
4 lbs
2 qts

50 gals


Amount/
Treated Acre

3 qts
3 lbs
1 qt

50 gals


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$50.70
2.19

23.58


$76.47


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$6.60
39.45
3.84
11.79


$61.68


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$9.96
6.60
3.84

11.79


$32.19


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$7.89
20.15
1.92

11.79


$41.75


__________1_____1_______________________


---- - -- -- -- -- --- - -- -- --- -- -- -- -- - -- -- -










Table 2-A.--Herbicide (cont'd.)


Herbicide Program #8

(Chemical mow)


Herbicide Program #9

(Chemical mow)


Materials

Roundup
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Materials

Roundup
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

1 pt
0.5 pt


Amount/
Treated Acre

1.5 pts
05 pt


Herbicide Program #10

(Spot)


Materials

Poast
Crop Oil

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

2pts
1 pt

15 GPA


Table 3-A.--Dry fertilizer


Program #1

(162 lbs N/Acre)


Program #2

(180 lbs N/Acre)


Analysis/Material
Applied

12-2-12-2.4 MgO

Application

Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied

12-2-12-2.4 MgO

Application

Total for 3 Applications


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre"

$ 2.49
0.96

833


$11.78


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre"

$ 3.74
0.96

8.33


$13.03


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre"

$13.92
0.29

5.00


$19.21


Amount
/Acre

1350 lbs

3 times


Amount
/Acre

1500 lbs

3 times


Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$ 9450

20.82

$115.32


Cost/Acre

$105.00

20.82

$125.82


-- -- - -- - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - -- -- -


--- --- --- --- -- --- --- --- - -- -- --- -- --- - -- -- - -- -- -


--- -- - --- --- -- --- --- --- -- --- --- --- --- -- -- - -- -- -


---- - -- - -- -- -- -- -- -- - -- - -- -- -- -- -


---------------- -------------- ------- ------- -- --- -----------






23


Table 3-A.--Dry fertilizer (cont'd.)
Analysis/Material
Program #3 Applied
(180 lbs N/Acre) 15-2-15-2.4 MgO
Application

Total for 3 Applications


Program #4
(204 lbs N/Acre)


Program #5

(225 lbs N/Acre)


Program #6
(240 Ibs N/Acre)


Program #7
(272 lbs N/Acre)


Analysis/Material
Applied

17-4-17-2.4 MgO
Application
Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied

15-2-15-2.4 MgO
Application
Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied
16-2-16-3 MgO
Application

Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied

17-0-17-3 MgO
Application
Total for 3 Applications


Amount
/Acre
1200 lbs
3 times


Amount
/Acre

1200 lbs
3 times


Amount
/Acre

1500 lbs

3 times


Amount
/Acre

1500 lbs
3 times


Amount
/Acre
1600 lbs
3 times


Cost/Acre

$ 90.00
20.82

$110.82


Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$98.40
20.82
$119.22


Cost/Acre

$112.53
20.82
$133.35


Cost/Acre

$117.00
20.82

$137.82


Cost/Acre
$129.60
20.82

$150.42


-- -- - -- - -- - -- -- -- -- -- -- - -- -- -


-- -- --- - ---- -- - -- - -- - -- -- -- -- -- -- -


-- --- -- -- -- -- - -- --- -- -- --- -- -- -- - -- -- -


_________ _- ------------------------_ 1










Table 4-A.--Liquid fertilizer (Double boom application)
Analysis/Material
Program #1 Applied
12-0-12

Double Boom Application

Total for 3 Applications


Amount
/Acre

1500 lbs

3 times


Analysis/Material Amount
Applied /Acre Cost/Acre
12-4-12 1500 lbs $ 9150

Double Boom Application 3 times 30.00

Total for 3 Applications $121.50
--------------------------------------------- ...-------------------------


Analysis/Material
Applied

12-0-12
Krovar II (Treated Acre)
Double Boom Application

Total for 3 Applications


Table 5-A.--Fertigation


Amount
/Acre

1500 lbs
12 lbs
3 times


Program #1

(Supplemental)


Program #2

(Supplement







Program #3
(Exclusive)


al)


Analysis/Material
Applied

10-0-10

Application

Total per Application


Analysis/Material
Applied
8-4-8

Application

Total per Application


Amount
/Acre

400 lbs


Amount
/Acre
750 lbs


Cost/Acre

$19.20
4.44

$23.64


Cost/Acre

$39.00
5.60

$44.60


- - - - - - - ---- - - -- -

Analysis/Material Amount
Applied /Acre Cost/Acre
8-0-8 2000 lbs $ 88.62

Application 15.65

Total per Application $104.27


Cost/Acre
$ 8250

30.00

$112.50


Program #2









Program #3


Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$ 82.50
60.60
30.00

$173.10


Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre


-----------------------------I-----r--------I--------------I---










Table 6-A.--Nematicides


Analysis/Material
Applied
Temik 15G

Application

Total per Application


Amount
/Acre
33 lbs


Cost/Acre
$114.84
12.00

$126.84


Program #1








Program #2








Program #3


Analysis/Material
Applied
Nemacur 15G

Application

Total per Application


Amount
/Acre
50 lbs


Cost/Acre

$153.50

12.00

$165.50


Table 7-A.--Soil amendment


Program #1
(Every 3 yea








Program #2

(Every year)


rs)


Analysis/Material
Applied

Dolomite (Delivered)

Application
Total for 1 Application
(Average 1/3 Ton Applied/Yr)


Amount
/Acre

1 ton

1 time


Cost/Acre

$22.70
6.50
$29.20
$ 9.73


Analysis/Material Amount
Applied /Acre Cost/Acre

Dolomite (Delivered) 1000 lbs $11.35
Application 6.50
Total per Application $17.50


Analysis/Material Amount
Applied /Acre Cost/Acre

Nemacur 15G 67 lbs $205.69

Application 12.00
Total per Application $217.69
.. ... ... .. .. . .. . .. ... .. . .. . .. . .. .. .


Your
Cost/Acre







Your
Cost/Acre







Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre









Your
Cost/Acre










Table 8-A.-Irrigation--annual cost per acre


DRIP


Operating


Maintenance of System
Total Cost


Program #1

$61.77
(Electric)
39.47

$101.24


MICROSPRINKLER


Operating


Maintenance of System

Total Cost


Program #3

$ 77.22
(Electric)
46.94

$124.16


DRAINAGE DITCH ANNUAL COSTS


Ditches/Canals Maintenance ($31.39/acre + 3 years)
Weed Control in Ditches/Canals
Water Control: In/Out of Ditches and Canals
Total


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Program #2

$37.45
(Diesel)
45.82

$83.27


Your
Cost/Acre


Program #4

$ 46.80
(Diesel)

54.47
$101.27


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Program #5

$10.46
9.67
7.67
$27.80


-- -- -- -- -- - -- -- -- -- - -- -- -- -- -


_____I______________________________l__l











Table 9-A.-A listing of 1993 custom rates reported by twenty Indian River and South Florida citrus caretakers

Range of Rate Average
Grove Practice Unit Reported Rate' Comments

CULTIVATION AND EQUIPMENT:


Hand Hoe/Hand Labor
Rotovate
Disc 7-8'
Disc 10'
Mow: Off-set or Side Mower
5-8'
9-10'
15-16'
V-Mower
Sickle Mower
Herbicide' (Strip/Band-Single Boom)
Herbicide' (Strip/Band-Single Boom)
Herbicide' (Strip/Band-Double Boom)
Herbicide' (Chemical Mow)
Temik/Nemacur'
Plow
Backhoe
Vine Puller
Pickup Truck with Driver
Pickup Truck without Driver
Flatbed/Transport Truck with Driver
Tractor with Driver
Power Saw with Operator
Power Saw without Operator
Middle Buster
Mound Builder
Grader Blade
Water Truck with Driver

SPRAYING?

Hand Sprayer
Air Curtain Sprayer


500 GPA
250 GPA
125 GPA
100 GPA


Aerial
Aerial
Aerial
Aerial


Hour S 8.50-
Hour 22.00-
Hour 22.00-
Hour 25.00-
Hour 25.00-
Hour 25.00-
Hour 26.00-
Hour 26.00-
Hour 30.00-
Hour 29.00-
Hour 28.00-
Acre 9.25-
Acre 10.00-
Acre 7.00-
Acre -
Hour 20.00-
Hour 35.00-
Hour --
Hour 20.00-
Hour
Hour 2850-
Hour 20.00-
Hour 14.75-
Hour 5.50-
Hour 24.00-
Hour 26.50
Hour 24.00-
Hour 22.00-


$12.00
36.00
32.00
35.00
33.00
30.00
33.00
35.00
32.00
36.50
36.00
14.00
12.00
10.00

26.25
44.00
-S
28.50

30.00
29.00
18.5
850
32.00
33.00
3200
30.00


$10.60 Plus transportation
29.42
27.45 Average $L75/acre
28.15
30.00
27.53 Average $8.50acre
29.83 Average $9.17/acre
3134 Average $833/acre
31.00 Average $9.50acre
31.40
30.71 Plus materials
11.79 Plus materials
11.17 Plus materials; Average $36.83/hour
833 Plus materials
12.00 Plus materials
24.08
38.82
26.00
23.95 Average miles traveled per year Pick-up truck 21571 miles
17.50 Transport truck 10,000 miles
29.25 One reporting $1.00/mile
2350
16.08
7.25
27.29 With tractor and driver
29.00 With tractor and driver
27.13 Tractor/blade and driver
2638


Hour $40.00- $45.00 $42.50 Includes tractor, handgun sprayer and 2 workers
Acre 17.50 2-MPH Dicky John

AIR BLAST SPRAYER

Engine Driven PTO Powered


Acre 32.00- 42.00
Acre 21.00- 30.00
Acre 1850- 20.00
Acre 17.25- 19.00


37.75 35.00- 4750 39.83
25.17 22.00- 34.00 25.13 Average $20/acre-250 GPA @ 2 MPH
19.44 18.00- 20.00 19.15 Average $18/acre-125 GPA @ 2 MPH
1750 1650- 18.50 1759


Helicopter: $ 4.00/acre @ 5 gallons per acre
Fixed Wing: $4.75/acre Helicopter: $5.67/acre @ 10 gallons per acre
Fixed Wing: $550/acre Helicopter. $850/acre @ 15 gallons per acre
Fixed Wing: $638/acre Helicopter: 900/acre @ 20 gallons per acre


DUSTING?


Aerial Application

FERTILIZING:

Inject Liquid Fertilizer into Irrigation System
Liquid Boom Application:
Double Boom
Dry (Bulk)
Dry (Bulk)
Lime or Dolomite
Lime or Dolomite
Fertilize Young Trees? Hand Spread
Fert. Spreader


Acre $- -- $ 750


Hour $ -- S $ 27.20 Includes tractor, driver and fertilizer tank


Acre -
Acre 6.25- 8.00
Ton 17.00- 18.15
Acre 6.00- 7.00
Ton 550- 8.00
Hour 850- 12.00
Hour 25.00- 36.00


1150
6.94 Average S2533/hour
1738
650
6.88
10.60 Plus transportation; one reporting 10/tree
28.97 Plus materials; $7.13/acre


One reporting travel to/from grove site at one hour per day of pickup truck rate.


(OVER)










Table 9-A.-A listing of 1993 custom rates reported by twenty Indian River and South Florida citrus caretakers (cont'd.)

Range of Rate Average
Grove Practice Unit Reported Rate' Comments

IRRIGATION:


Water Furrow Disc
Water Furrow Cleaner
Water Furrow Shaper
Rotary Ditcher or Auger
Water Slinger
Water Trencher
Ring Young Trees: Mechanical
Hand Labor
4 Wheeler for Microsprinkler with Driver
Microsprinkler Maintenance

REMOVING TREES:

Front End Loader
Tree Shearing (Cutting Tree at Ground
Level)

PRUNING:

General Pruning (Per Man)
Saw with Operator
Hedging:
Single Side (Tractor Pulled)
Double Side (Tractor Pulled)
Double Side (Self Propelled)
Double Side (Self Propelled)
Topping:
Tractor Pulled
Single Boom (Self Propelled)

Double Sided Topper
Double Boom (Self Propelled)
Limb Lifter/Tree Skirt Trimmer
Removing Brush:
Haul Brush out of Grove
Mow Brush

COLD PROTECTION (YOUNG TREES):

Hand Labor
Tree Wraps

OTHER CUSTOM RATES:

Plant Trees (Solid Set)
Plant Trees (Resets)
Mechanic Labor
Mechanic Labor
Grove Management Charge/Month




Consulting

Other Charge Reported

Total Reported Acreage Provided Grove
Service to:


Hour
Hour
Hour
Hour
Hour
Hour
Hour
Hour
Hour
Acre/Month


$25.50- $36.00 $30.20
29.0- 32.00 30.50
46.00 65.00 55.25
22.0- 32.00 28.00
25.00- 32.00 28.50
25.0- 32.00 29.00
25.0- 26.50 25.75
8.50- 12.00 10.60 Plus transportation
16.50- 22.50 19.53 Average 3 wheeler $14.33/hour
3.00- 350 3.25 Check repair system; parts extra


Hour $ 40.00- $ 50.00 $ 45.57 Avg. range 5-20 trees per hour bulldozer avg. $51.75/hour

Hour 45.00- 5000 47.00 Avg. range 5-30 trees per hour



Hour $ 850- $ 12.00 $ 10.60 Plus transportation and pruning equipment
Hour 16.00- 18.00 17.00


Hour
Hour
Hour
Hour

Hour
Hour

Hour
SHour
Hour

Hour
Hour


50.00- 70.00 60.00 4 to 8 acres/hour; equipment only
85.00- 95.00 91.67 4 to 15 ares/hour
225.00 8 to 20 cres/hour depending on wood size
305.00 15 to 25 acres/hour-double row beds; 8 to 12 acres-single
w beds; depending on wood size
85.00- 95.00 91.67 1 to 4 acree/our depending on wood size
300000 4 to 10 acres/hour depending on wood size; 10 to 20 arses
attop cut from bed tops
225.00 Avg. 5 to 25 acres depending on wood size type of cut
-- 495.00 2 to 10 scres/hour depending on wood size: 15 to 30 acres
46.00- 55.00 5033 3 to 12 acres/hour iattop cut from bed tops

40.00- 45.00 4333 Front-end loader
25.0- 33.00 2933



$ 8.50- 12.00 $ 10.60 Plus transportation and materials; 7e-15t/tree
1.05


lach $ 0.61- $ 1.25 S 0.93 Varies as to density
Each 1.90- 2.30 2.04 Varies as to the number of resets
lour 18.00- 25.00 22.67
lour 26.00- 40.00 32.00 Labor and service truck
ocre 250- 6.00 4.56 In addition to caretaking charges; supervising grove care
operations; varies by grove size

Average 15c/box for handling and marketing


Hour


75.00- 100.00 8750 One reporting $30/hour or $1Acre for pest monitoring


10%-15% supervision charge for all materials and outside contracting


Acre


600- 4,000 2,133 Total acres reporting: 25590


Source: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, Lake Alfred CREC, May 1993.


"Plus materials. Caretakers reporting rates include labor, tractor and sprayer, supply truck included by most caretakers.

'Calculated by dividing the total number of caretakers reporting a grove practice rate into the sum reported. Unless otherwise stated, labor included with all charges.








Table 10-A.--1993 summary of average chemical price estimates


Average
Item Unit Price


Fungicides:


Aliette 80WP
Benlate
Carbamate
Basic Copper Sulfate (53%)
Copper Hydroxide (50%)
Copper (50%) (Kocide 101)
Copper (40%) (Kocide 606)
Copper (40%) (Champ)
Oil 435
Oil 455
Ridomil 2E
Ridomil 5G


Insecticides/Nematicides:
Agri-Mek (0.15EC)
Carzol 92 SP
Comite 6.55 EC
Cygon 4 EC
Dicofol 4 EC
Ethion
Guthion 2L
Guthion 35WP
Kelthane MF
Logic Bait
Lorsban 4EC
Lorsban 15G
Malathion
Metasystox-R
Methyl Bromide 98/2
Morestan 25WP
Nemacur 3EC
Nemacur 15G
Sevin 80S
Sulphur 6F
Sulphur Dust
Supracide 2 EC
Temik 15G
Vapam
Vendex 50W
Vendex 4L


12.93
16.34
3.55
1.32
1.97
1.92
12.63
12.23
2.19
2.14
141.73
4.11


555.67
28.31
72.00
28.85
44.78
31.20
27.41
4.88
45.61
6.98
43.60
1.79
15.74
43.26
0.92
12.02
65.59
3.07
4.04
3.68
310.00
43.27
3.48
6.63
19.35
154.63






30

Table 10-A.--1993 summary of average chemical price estimates (cont'd.)
Average
Item Unit Price


Herbicides: DeVine pt. 72.00
Diquat gal. 75.66
Direx 4L gal. 21.01
Dual gal. 68.50
Eptam gal. 27.88
Fusilade 2000 1E gal. 64.15
Goal gal. 73.60
Gramoxone (Paraquat) gal. 38.53
Hyvar L gal. 53.53
Hyvar X lb. 13.15
Karmex lb. 4.34
Krovar I lb. 8.45
Krovar II lb. 10.10
Poast gal. 111.35
Princep (Caliber 90) lb. 3.30
Princep 4L gal. 15.11
Prowl gal. 30.50
Rodeo gal. 93.02
Roundup gal. 39.84
Simazine 90 DF lb. 3.30
Simazine 4L gal. 14.00
Solicam lb. 13.43
Sonar AS gal. 17.65
Surflan AS gal. 63.34
Touchdown gal. 59.24
Treflan gal. 32.81
Growth Regulators:
Citrus Fix gal. 510.22
Fruit Fix gal. 166.67
Pro-Gibb 3.91% 20 oz. 27.14
TreeHold gal. 72.03
Other Spray Materials:
Borates (15%) lb. 0.65
Manganese (32%) lb. 0.33
Zinc (78%) lb. 0.76
Adjuvant (Surfactant) gal. 15.33
Nutritional Spray Mix
Ferri Plus 138 lb. 7.62
Goemar gal. 29.91
MZF gal. 7.24
NutraLeaf (20-20-20) lb. 0.58
Sequestrene 138 lb. 10.10



SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, University of
Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, Florida, May 1993.









Table 11-A.--1993 summary of average fertilizer price estimates


Average
Item Unit Price


FERTILIZER (FOB Price @ Plant)
Slow Release (Youne Tree)*


IBDU:


8-4-8
10-3-


Osmocote: 17-6-
ESCOTE: 19-6-
Multicote: 10-4-
Dry Mix (Bulk)
17-0-17-3Mgo
17-4-17-2.4,,
16-0-16
16-0-16-4M,,
16-2-16-3m,,
15-2-12-2.4,,o
12-2-12-2.4Mo
8-8-8 w/minors**
8-4-8 w/minors**
8-2-8 w/minors**
6-6-6 w/minors**
Liquid Mix (Bulk)
8-2-8
8-4-8
9-3-9
9-4-9
10-0-10
10-2-10
12-0-6
12-3-6


(N)
7 (N)
9 (NPK)
12 (NPK)
10 (N 65%, K 54%)


*Slow Release Elements are indicated in parenthesis.

**With organic nitrogen, the price averaged 45% higher.


257.00
376.00
1,916.67
1,524.00
426.00


162.08
164.34
135.21
159.36
156.22
150.04
140.36
114.40
112.22
107.01
103.39


85.26
93.21
90.35
94.11
84.96
92.47
85.32
96.56








Table 11-A.--1993 summary of average fertilizer price estimates (cont'd.)

Average
Item Unit Price

Other Fertilizer Materials (Bulk)
Ammonium Nitrate (21% N Liquid) ton 104.09
Ammonium Nitrate (33.5% N Dry) ton 162.83
Ammonium Sulfate (21% N) ton 110.25
Calcium Nitrate (19% N) ton 192.16
Dolomite (at mine--49% CaCO,, ton 11.39
36% MgCO3)
Gypsum (20%-28% Ca) ton 11.14
Muriate of Potash (42% K) ton 139.44
Nitrate of Soda/Potash ton 240.00
Potassium Nitrate (14% N) ton 353.48
Super Phosphate (8% P) ton 148.70
Triple Superphosphate( 19% P) ton 155.53
Average Delivery Cost ton 11.31


SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, University of
Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, Florida, May 1993.







Table 12-A.--Cost for establishing, planting and maintaining a citrus grove through four years of age, South Florida Flatwoods area

Cost Per Acre

Range Average

$ $
Land Cost:' Improved Pasture Land 1,700-2,500 2,050
Raw Land and Semi-improved Pasture 1,150-1,800 1,450
Land Preparation: Pasture and Light Palmettos 125- 275 195
(Clearing) Raw Land (heavy pines, palmettos) 350- 600 465
Leveling: With Laser 200- 350 275
Without Laser 100- 250 160
Bedding: 2-rows (short rows -- 1,350+ feet) 100- 195 130
Soil Amendments: Dolomite 1 ton 35
Super Phosphate, 400 lbs. 30
Canals, Ditches and Dikes 150- 260 195
Reservoirs and Roads 130- 180 155
Throw-out Pumps for Water Movement 45- 60 55
Culverts 65- 135 85
Middle Drop Drainage Pipes 45- 95 105
Drainage Tile 140- 160 150
Cover Crop 9- 16 12
Irrigation System: Microsprinkler -- with Well2 850-1,500 1,000
-- without Well 525-1,200 700
Drip -- with Well2 775-1,050 875
-- without Well 400- 825 560
Water Permits, Environmental Studies, and Engineering: Cost 40- 90 70
Time in Months 5- 12 8
Percent Land Utilization: Planted to Citrus 55%- 85% 71%
Ditches and Canals 5%- 10% 8%
Water Retention 10%- 30% 15%
Roads and Service Areas 3%- 15% 6%
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
South Florida

Year

1 2 3 4

Solidset Planted Trees3 ---------- Cost Per Tree ---- ---

Microsprinkler Irrigation and Ditch Maintenance $0.40 $0.50 $0.65 $0.85
Fertilize Tree 0.25 0.40 055 0.56
Supplemental Fertilization thru Irrigation 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.29
Spray 0.30 0.40 0.47 0.50
Insulated Tree Wrap (annual maintenance) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.00
Sprouting (labor) 0.20 0.20 0.00 0.00
Cultivation/Mowing 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44
Herbicide 0.54 054 0.54 0.54
Ridomil/Aliette 035 035 0.00 0.00
Miscellaneous 0.43 0.49 0.42 0.48
Total Cost Per Year $331 $3.77 $3.62 $3.66

Reset Trees (annual additional grove care costs) $2.13 $2.47 $1.84

Cost of Planting Trees' Solidset = $5.00 Reset = $6.30

'Land cost will vary from one county to another as well as from one parcel to another.

2Irrigation costs include distribution system, power unit and well (where indicated.) The higher cost ranges reported also included a cost for
fertigation equipment.

3The per tree costs shown are applicable for tree densities of 145 to 165 trees per acre. The per tree costs should be decreased for higher density
plantings and increased for lower density plantings; e.g., at 200 trees per acre decrease costs by 15%; at 115 trees per acre increase costs by 15%.

*Tree cost (bare root) = $3.25; stake, plant, and water tree = $1.25 (solidset) and $2.55 (resets); and uninsulated tree wrap = $0.50.

Source: Ronald P. Muraro, Farm Management Economist, CREC, Lake Alfred, FL, November 1989.









Table 13-A.--Historic prices' for selected citrus varieties

Variety

Early" and Late Seedless grapefruit'
mid'-season season Temple
Crop year oranges oranges oranges Tangerines Tangelos (white) (pink)


1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80
1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85
1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92f


$1.93
2.17
4.43
2.57
1.44
0.81
1.86
1.56
1.15
1.10
1.98
1.43
138
1.46
1.69
1.89
3.90
4.44
3.59
3.67
4.27
4.88
5.09
7.30
3.92
4.56
6.72
6.63
6.01
538
5.39


$1.81
3.50
4.45
2.28
1.79
1.08
2.28
1.83
1.13
1.91
2.11
1.71
1.59
1.82
1.88
2.63
4.40
4.95
3.89
4.63
4.29
5.41
6.72
6.88
3.97
6.02
8.73
8.41
6.53
6.58
7.01


$2.17
3.09
4.45
2.77
1.80
0.88
2.79
222
1.47
1.91
1.95
1.95
1.64
1.68
1.79
2.16
3.92
4.89
2.89
4.21
4.01
3.99
534
5.59
3.01
3.60
5.69
5.46
5.64
6.11
7.06


$2.04
3.02
3.18
2.68
2.14
1.06
4.29
2.55
2.23
1.88
2.97
237
2.82
3.05
3.02
3.29
4.79
4.99
4.25
5.45
6.23
7.57
5.93
15.91
12.69
10.92
12.99
12.64
15.28
17.40
2351


$336
4.66
4.83
4.00
2.85
1.64
3.22
2.47
1.13
1.04
1.69
139
1.25
1.45
1.42
1.42
329
3.90
2.87
3.92
3.58
4.37
4.28
7.08
4.06
3.72
5.58
631
5.10
6.11
7.06


$0.68
1.29
2.24
1.51
139
0.73
2.05
0.98
1.72
1.89
227
2.06
1.58
1.55
129
1.49
1.47
221
3.12
3.46
1.92
1.51
2.08
3.02
3.56
4.45
5.35
433
521
4.59
6.63


$0.86
1.81
254
1.82
1.64
0.94
2.48
1.15
1.92
2.15
2.69
253
2.12
259
2.23
2.04
2.09
3.13
3.80
4.22
2.80
320
4.05
4.84
4.98
5.80
5.93
4.71
630
6.85
6.74


"On-tree average price per box (1-3/5 bushel box equivalent) for all methods of sale minus pick and haul
charges.


bNavel and Hamlin
Tarson Brown and Pineapple
dValencia


*Marsh (white) or pink
fPreliminary


Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.













Table 14-A.--Debt which can be supported per $1,000.00 annual payment capacity


Loan Interest rate paid on the loan
term
(years) 8.0% 8.5% 9.0% 9.5% 10.0% 10.5% 11.0% 11.5% 12.0% 12.5% 13.0% 13.5% 14.0% 14.5% 15.0%
1 926 922 917 913 909 905 901 897 893 889 885 881 877 873 870
2 1,783 1,771 1,759 1,747 1,754 1,724 1,713 1,701 1,690 1,679 1,668 1,657 1,647 1,636 1,626
3 2,577 2,554 2,531 2,509 2,487 2,465 2,444 2,423 2,402 2,381 2,361 2,341 2,322 2,302 2,283
4 3,312 3,276 3,240 3,204 3,170 3,136 3,102 3,070 3,037 3,006 2,974 2,944 2,914 2,884 2,855
5 3,993 3,941 3,890 3,840 3,791 3,743 3,696 3,650 3,605 3,561 3,517 3,475 3,433 3,392 3352
6 4,623 4,554 4,486 4,420 4,355 4,292 4,230 4,170 4,111 4,054 3,998 3,942 3,889 3,836 3,784
7 5,206 5,119 5,033 4,950 4,868 4,789 4,712 4,640 4,564 4,492 4,423 4,355 4,288 4,224 4,160
8 5,747 5,639 5,535 5,433 5,335 5,239 5,146 5,056 4,968 4,882 4,799 4,718 4,639 4,562 4,487
9 6,247 6,119 5,995 5,875 5,759 5,646 5,537 5,431 5,328 5,228 5,132 5,038 4,946 4,858 4,772
10 6,710 6,561 6,418 6,279 6,145 6,015 5,889 5,768 5,650 5,536 5,426 5319 5,216 5,116 5,019
11 7,139 6,969 6,805 6,647 6,495 6348 6,207 6,070 5,938 5,810 5,687 5,568 5,453 5,341 5,234
12 7,536 7,345 7,161 6,984 6,814 6,650 6,492 6,341 6,194 6,054 5,918 5,787 5,660 5,538 5,421
13 7,904 7,691 7,487 7,291 7,103 6,923 6,750 6,583 6,424 6,270 6,122 5,979 5,842 5,710 5,583
14 8,244 8,010 7,786 7572 7,367 7,170 6,982 6,801 6,628 6,462 6,302 6,149 6,002 5,861 5,724
15 8,559 8,304 8,061 7,828 7,606 7,394 7,191 6997 6,811 6,633 6,462 6,299 6,142 5,992 5,847
16 8,851 8,576 8,313 8,062 7,824 7,596 7,379 7,172 6,974 6,785 6,604 6,431 6,265 6,106 5,954
17 9,122 8,825 8,543 8,276 8,022 7,779 7,549 7,329 7,119 6,920 6,729 6,547 6,373 6,207 6,048
18 9,372 9,056 8,756 8,471 8,201 7,945 7,702 7,470 7,250 7,040 6,840 6,649 6,467 6,294 6,128
19 9,603 9,268 8,950 8,650 8,365 8,095 7,839 7,596 7,366 7,146 6,938 6,739 6,551 6,370 6,198
20 9,818 9,463 9,129 8,812 8,514 8,231 7,963 7.710r 7,469 7,241 7,025 6,819 6,623 6,437 6,259
25 10,675 10,234 9,823 9,438 9,077 8,739 8,422 8,123 7,843 7,579 7,330 7,095 6,873 6,663 6,464
30 11,258 10,747 10,274 9,835 9,427 9,047 8,868 8,364 8,055 7,766 7,496 7,242 7,003 6,778 6,566
35 11,655 11,088 10,567 10,087 9,644 9,234 8,855 8,503 8,175 7,870 7,586 7,320 7,070 6,836 6,617
40 11,925 11,315 10,757 10,247 9,779 9348 8,951 8,587 8,244 7,928 7,634 7,361 7,105 6,866 6,642

'Example. Assumes a $10,000 after tax income at 11.5% interest rate and a 15-year term mortgage, the total debt which can be supported is $69,970
($6,997 x 10). At 11.5% interest rate and a 20-year term mortgage, the total debt which can be supported is $77,100 ($7,710 x 10).