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 Front Cover
 Foreword
 Acknowledgements
 Table of Contents
 Map
 Definitions
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Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026154/00016
 Material Information
Title: Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
Series Title: 197374- Economic information report
Portion of title: Vegetable crops in Florida
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1972
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Vegetable trade -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000304067
oclc - 03425969
notis - ABT0638
lccn - 76368517 //r77
issn - 0149-0613
System ID: UF00026154:00016

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Foreword
        Page i
    Acknowledgements
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Map
        Page iii
    Definitions
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
Full Text
f' March 1974

S.S-
59
%Y?-C o sts a nd


Economics Report 59



Returns from Vegetable


Crops


in Florida, Season


1972-73


With


Comparisons


*C '- ~ ~

:V.,: Oi :


Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611


D. L. Brooke


ill --


,
I
'''
Si: "











FOREWORD


This is the thirteenth in a new series of summaries of costs and re-

turns from the principal vegetable crops by major producing areas in

Florida. There is a need among growers, commodity groups, credit agen-

cies, research workers and teachers for current factual information of

this type.

Data in this summary were gathered by personal interview with grow-

ers of the various vegetable crops. Growers' records of actual produc-

tion costs were used when available, and estimates taken when records

were not kept. As complete a breakdown of costs as possible was obtained

from each grower. Insofar as possible, growing and harvesting costs have

been separated and labor items excluded from costs of materials. In a

few cases, where crop sales were not available from growers, they were

computed on the basis of average prices received for the crop is reported

by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, U.S.D.A., Orlando,

Florida.








ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the vegetable grow-

ers for their excellent cooperation and also to the Florida Fruit and

Vegetable Association, the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,

U.S.D.A., Orlando, Florida, and to various county agents for much worth-

while assistance.











FOREWORD


This is the thirteenth in a new series of summaries of costs and re-

turns from the principal vegetable crops by major producing areas in

Florida. There is a need among growers, commodity groups, credit agen-

cies, research workers and teachers for current factual information of

this type.

Data in this summary were gathered by personal interview with grow-

ers of the various vegetable crops. Growers' records of actual produc-

tion costs were used when available, and estimates taken when records

were not kept. As complete a breakdown of costs as possible was obtained

from each grower. Insofar as possible, growing and harvesting costs have

been separated and labor items excluded from costs of materials. In a

few cases, where crop sales were not available from growers, they were

computed on the basis of average prices received for the crop is reported

by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, U.S.D.A., Orlando,

Florida.








ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the vegetable grow-

ers for their excellent cooperation and also to the Florida Fruit and

Vegetable Association, the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,

U.S.D.A., Orlando, Florida, and to various county agents for much worth-

while assistance.








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

FOREWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS......... ................ .......... i

MAP OF FLORIDA VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS....................... iii

DEFINITIONS..........................................* iv


Costs and Returns Data

Beans, Snap...................................... ....... 1
Beans, Pole............................... .............. 2
Cabbage.....................................*.......... 3 4
Celery......................... ........... ,.......... 5 6
Corn, Sweet .................. ...... .. .................... 7 9
Cucumbers.............................................. 10

Eggplant........................ ......* ........... .. .... 11
Leaf Crops..................................... ... 1213
Peppers, Green.......................................... 14-15
Potatoes, Irish.............................* ....... .... 16-17
Radishes...........................****** ....... 18
Squash................... .. .................... ..... 19-21
Tomatoes........ ..... ................................... 22-27
Watermelons............................................. 28


DONALD L. BROOKE is a professor in the Food and Resource Economics Depart-
ment.






% I
,19 1 /

.. .... '.. .
18- ['




*----
'' "


FL
VEGETABLE
With Principal


ORIDA
PRODUCING AREAS
Vegetables Produced


Dade tomatoes, snap and pole beans, Irish
potatoes, squash, cucumbers, strawberries
Palm Beach-Broward snap beans, peppers,
eggplant, cucumbers, squash, tomatoes
Immokalee-Lee tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, -
squash, Irish potatoes, watermelons
Everglades snap beans, sweet corn, cabbage,
escarole, celery, Irish potatoes, radishes
Fort Pierce tomatoes, watermelons
Wauchula cucumbers, tomatoes, watermelons
Sarasota celery, radishes, lettuce, cabbage
Manatee-Ruskin tomatoes, cabbage, cauliflower,
watermelons
Plant City strawberries, peppers, squash,
pole beans, southern peas, okra
Sumter cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, lettuce,
watermelons
Zellwood sweet corn, celery, escarole,
lettuce, snap beans, radishes
Sanford-Oviedo cabbage, celery, snap beans,
lettuce, escarole, sweet corn, peppers
Oxford-Belleview-Lowell tomatoes, watermelons
McIntosh-Island Grove squash, snap beans, celery,
cabbage, lettuce, watermelons
Alachua snap beans, cucumbers, peppers,
Irish potatoes, watermelons
Hastings Irish potatoes, cabbage
Starke-Brooker-Lake Butler snap and lima beans,
cucumbers, peppers, squash, strawberries
Quincy-Havana pole beans, cucumbers, squash
Escambia Irish potatoes


ci


00 o
00d






DEFINITIONS


Number of growers: Number of individual records or estimates of crop
costs and returns included in each crop summary.

Number of acres: The total acreage planted by growers whose records or
estimates were used. When a part of the planted acreage was lost soon
after planting and replaced by another crop, the reduced acreage was used.

Average acres per grower: The number of acres of the particular crop
divided by the number of growers.

Average yield per acre: The number of units per planted acre harvested.

Land rent: In the interests of uniformity, land rent was charged for all
acreages and crops at the prevailing rate reported by growers in the area.
This was done to avoid difficulties in the determination of a normal.
valuation, interest charge for use of land and capitalization of land
values in a period of fluctuating values and prices. Taxes on farm
real estate are excluded since rent is being charged.

Seed and seedbed includes the cost of seed or plants for planting the
crop. If a seedbed was used, the figures, unless otherwise noted, include
costs of labor and materials for growing plants as well as seed costs.

Fertilizer: Represents the actual cost of nutrient materials applied to
produce the crop. Labor or machine costs of application are not included.

Spray and dust includes only the cost of materials unless application
labor is specified, in which case some machine costs may also be present.
If weed control chemicals or soil fumigants were used, their cost also
is included here.

Cultural labor contains the cost of man labor, whether hired or family,
to produce the crop from ground preparation until ready for harvest. It
does not include supervision by the operator, since his compensation is
to a great extent dependent upon returns from the sale of the crop.

Machine hire is the cost of machine work hired, including use of air-
planes when applicable, in producing the crop. This item includes labor
charges for the machine operator and charges for the use of equipment.

Gas, oil and grease includes the cost of gas, oil and grease required to
operate tractors, trucks, sprayers, pumps and other machinery in producing
the crop.

Repair and maintenance represents the cost of repairs to equipment used
in producing the crop. It also includes the small tools such as hoes,
rakes and shovels purchased and charged off as a current expenditure.








Depreciation includes the annual charge for depreciation and obsolescence
of equipment and labor housing. When actual depreciation charges could
not be obtained from records, they were computed by assuming a 10-year
average life-use on all equipment on the basis of replacement value as
indicated by the operator.

Licenses and insurance represent the cost of licenses and insurance items
when chargeable to the farm business. Licenses include those for trucks
and autos used on the farm. Insurance includes labor and crop insurance
and fire or windstorm insurance on buildings and equipment. It excludes
health or accident insurance for the operator or his family.

Interest on production capital was charged at the rate of 6 percent on
all cash costs for the number of months required to grow and market the
crop regardless of whether or not much production capital was actually
borrowed. This percentage was used because it is believed to be the
normal interest rate.

Interest on capital invested (other than land) charged at 6 percent of
the actual or estimated annual depreciated value of the capital invested
in machinery and equipment. It was assumed that all equipment was pre-
sently worth one half its replacement value.

Miscellaneous includes such items as wire, stakes, twine, office supplies,
administrative expense other than value of the operator's management,
legal and audit fees, telephone and telegraph and incidental expenses.

Harvesting and marketing expense where possible, has been divided into
two items: (1) picking and (2) grading and packing. Picking, cutting
or digging expense includes actual cost of harvesting the crop and pre-
paring it for movement to packinghouse or wash house. Washing or grading
and packing expense includes preparation of the product for shipment either
in the field or at an adjacent packinghouse. It includes machinery and
overhead costs in addition to labor. The same is true for all crops in
all areas where grading and packing is done off the farm in packinghouses.

Containers includes the cost for hampers, crates, bags or baskets in
which the product is moved to market.

Hauling is the cost of movement of the product from field to packinghouse
or loading point. It is often computed on a contract basis and includes
labor and equipment items. In cases where hauling was performed by the
operator's trucks, the costs have been separated from production labor
and machine expense items as nearly as possible.

Other: The cost of precooling the commodity prior to shipment and, for
tomatoes, celery and sweet corn, the contribution to the Marketing Agree-
ment Program. Inspection fees, when incurred, are included in packinghouse
charges and are not reported as a separate item.









Selling: The packinghouse, market, sales organization or dealer's charge
for performing the sales service for the crop when deducted from the pro-
ducer's price. This cost does not include charges for unloading, grading,
packing, etc.

Crop sales are the gross returns to the grower before deduction of growing,
harvesting and marketing costs.

Net return: Return to the producer after deduction of all expenses in
producing, harvesting and marketing the crop.

Proration of costs between crops: For such items as seed, fertilizer,
spray and dust, airplane application and harvesting and marketing costs,
growers' records or estimates for each crop were used to make the appro-
priate charges.

In the case of the cultural labor, however, no breakdown for the different
crops produced on the individual farm could be obtained from the grower
except in a very few cases when such records had been kept. The total
cultural labor for all crops produced on each farm was, in most cases,
prorated to the various crops on the basis of available data developed
at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations with regard to man hours
required in various parts of the state to produce different crops from
land preparation to harvest. Except in a very few cases, a similar
situation also applies to such items as machine hire, tractor fuel, oil
and grease, repairs, depreciation and other production costs where records
had not been kept as to their respective charges to different crops.
Prorations were also made of these items on the basis of available data
(D. L. Brooke, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 660, June 1963).

In many cases individual growers did not incur every cost item. This
applies especially to airplane application, machine hire, grading and
packing, containers, hauling and precooling. Thus, these data are based
only on the overall average for all growers contacted in each area.
Footnotes have been used to set forth the number of growers and average
costs for items not incurred by all growers in the area.

Per-unit costs and returns were computed by dividing the average yield
per acre in the area into the various items of cost shown in the individ-
ual tables. They are merely averages of the data recorded and, in some
cases, do not reflect the full cost of performing the service because
all growers may not have incurred every item of cost.

Range per acre showing the lowest and the highest of the sampled observa-
tions for yields, costs and returns are included for each crop and area.
This is intended to show growers and other interested parties the extremes
that may be encountered in vegetable production.





vi





Snap Beans
Costs and Returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


Item 5-Season 1972-73
: Average
Number of growers ................................: 10 6
Number of acres.................................. : 10260 7085
Average acres per grower .........................: 1026 : 1181
Average yield per acre (bushels).................: 80 : 82
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
Land rent..................................... :$ 33.59 :$ 40.16 :
Seed ....................................... : 21.22 : 25.35 :
Fertilizer.....................................: 47.44 : 56.25 :
Spray and dust.................................: 17.19 : 28.95 :
Cultural labor.................................: 30.50 : 32.55 :
Machine hire...................................: 12.38 : 15.23 :
Gas, oil and grease............................: 9.22 : 11.72
Repair and maintenance ........................: 13.39 : 15.21 :
Depreciation..................................: 10.28 : 11.07 :
Licenses and insurance.........................: 7.27 : 9.36 :
Interest on production capital (6% 4 months).: 3.98 : 4.86 :
Interest on capital invested (other than land).: 1.03 : 1.11 :
Miscellaneous expense..........................: 6.61 : 8.10
Total growing cost...............................: 214.10 : 259.92 :$3.170
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense....................: 81.30 : 82.91 : 1.011
Containers ...................................: 34.80 : 42.68 : .520
Hauling .............................. .. .. : 8.69 : 11.88 : .145
Selling. ....................................... : 11.46 : 11.54 : .141
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............: 136.25 :149.01 : 1.817
Total crop cost..................................: 350.35 : 408.93 : 4.987
Crop sales....................................... : 351.53 : 430.38 : 5.249
Net return......................................:$ 1.18 :$ 21.45 :$0.262

1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels)............................................: 49 : 95
Total growing cost..........................................:$ 196.90 :$ 299.79
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 123.75 : 203.35
Total crop cost.......... ......................... : 397.64 : 423.54
Crop sales....................... ... ............: 374.39 : 494.00
Net return ............................................... :$ -48.54 :$ 74.67


Source: Grower records and estimates.









2

Pole Beans
Costs and Returns per acre in the Dade County Area
5-Season average 1968-72 and 1972-73

Item : 5-Season : 1972-73
Item 1972-73
: Average :

Number of growers................................: 7 : 9
Number of acres..................................: 2520 2980
Average acres per grower.........................: 360 331
Average yield per acre (bushels).................: 261 : 308
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
Land rent.................................... :$ 35.12 :$ 36.58 :
Seed............................................ : 22.86 25.99 :
Fertilizer.....................................: 63.32 72.85 :
Spray and dust................................. : 47.07 60.30 :
Cultural labor.................................: 182.61 192.40 :
Machine hire...................................: 13.72 10.83a
Gas, oil and grease............................: 18.56 : 22.10
Repair and maintenance.........................: 30.25 32.62
Depreciation..................................: 18.34 19.18
Licenses and insurance.........................: 17.12 30.08
Interest on production capital (6% 4 months).: 9.69 : 11.41
Interest on capital invested (other than land).: 1.83 : 1.92
Miscellaneous expense..........................: 54.14 86.81
Total growing cost.................................: 514.63 : 603.07 :$ 1.958
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense....................: 193.63 : 251.23 : .816
Containers....................................: 117.63 167.16 : .543
Hauling.......................................: 29.97 : 40.19 : .130
Selling........... ............. ............... .. : 49.52 58.49 : .190
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............: 390.75 : 517.07 : 1.679
Total crop cost...................................: 905.38 : 1120.14 : 3.637
Crop sales.......................................: 1048.86 : 1497.91 : 4.863
Net return.......................................:$ 143.48 :$ 377.77 :$ 1.226

1972-73 Range per acre
From To

Yield (bushels)............................................ 284 336
Total growing cost......................................... :$ 512.62 :$ 736.67
Total harvesting and marketing cost..........................: 577.00 : 568.2e
Total crop cost........................................ ......: 1035.01 : 1285.91
Crop sales.................................................: 1377.00 : 1657.82
Net return..................................................:$ 263.29 :$ 675.63


aReported by 8 growers averaging $12.18 per acre.

Source: Grower records and estimates.





Cabbage
Costs and Returns per Acre in the Hastings Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


: 5-Season :
Itemean 1972-73
: Average :
Number of growers ...............................: 16 :13
Number of acres..................................: 1744 : 1813
Average acres per grower.........................: 109 : 139
Average yield per acre (50 lb.)..................: 441 : 469
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre 50 lb.
Land rent..................................... :$ 33.60 :$ 31.99 :
Seed........................................... : 49.91 : 57.63 :
Fertilizer....................................: 68.24 : 71.64 :
Spray and dust.................................: 24.31 : 39.49 :
Cultural labor.................................: 84.46 : 101.75 :
Machine hire...................................: 1.55 : 3.36a:
Gas, oil and grease........ ...................: 9.58 : 17.35 :
Repair and maintenance.........................: 17.68 : 31.84 :
Depreciation .................................: 17.15 : 21.74 :
Licenses and insurance.........................: 8.64 : 17.43 :
Interest on production capital (6% 4 months).: 6.07 : 7.59 :
Interest on capital invested (other than land).: 1.72 : 2.18 :
Miscellaneous expense..........................: 5.46 : 6.87 :
Total growing cost...............................: 328.37 : 410.86 :$ 0.876
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Cutting and packing expense....................: 112.95 : 151.54 : .323
Containers .................................... : 192.80 : 243.71 : .520
Hauling........................... ........... ... : .99 :
Selling............................. ... .... : 74.48 : 93.90 : .200
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............: 381.22 : 489.15 : 1.043
Total crop cost..................................: 709.59 : 900.01 : 1.919
Crop sales.......................................: 818.13 : 1330.48 : 2.837
Net return.......................................:$ 108.54 :$ 430.47 :$ 0.918

1972-73 Range per Acre
From To
Yield (50 lb.) ..............................................: 287 : 672
Total growing cost......................................... $ 261.55 :$ 626.14
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 304.83 : 691.25
Total crop cost................................. ......... 688.31 : 1317.39
Crop sales........................ .......................... 704.00 : 2166.96
Net return....................................... $ -29.94 :$ 949.93


aReported by 8 growers averaging $5.46 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.






Cabbage
Costs and Returns per Acre in the Sanford Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


Item :5-Season 1972-73
: Average :


Number of growers................................ :
Number of acres .................................. :
Average acres per grower .........................:
Average yield per acre (50 lb.)..................:
Growing costs:

Land rent...................................... :$
Seed............................................
Fertilizer..................................... :
Spray and dust.................................:
Cultural labor ................................. :
Machine hire ...................................:
Gas, oil and grease............................ :
Repair and maintenance.........................:
Depreciation....................................
Licenses and insurance......................... :
Interest on production capital (6% 4 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense..........................:


7
1701
243
463


5
1705
341
561


Average per


Acre
31.82
39.77
56.70
53.00
125.89
3.57
9.91
36.01
23.11
17.10
7.70
2.31
11.41


Total growing cost...............................:$ 418.30
Harvesting and marketing costs:


Cutting and packing expense.................... :
Containers .................................... :
Hauling ........................................
Selling........................................ :


151.37
217.90
27.11
78.36


Total harvesting and marketing cost..............: 474.74


Total crop cost.................................. :
Crop sales....................................... :
Net return .......................................:$


893.04
868.06
-24.98


Acre 50 lb.
:$ 27.14 :
38.27 :
64.06a:
80.78 :
: 141.70 :

12.88 :
53.85 :
48.90 :
24.21 :
9.35 :
4.89 :
: 24.67 :
:$ 530.70 :$0.946


257.40
318.20
39.09
84.85


.459
.567
.070
.151


:699.54 : 1.247
: 1230.24.: 2.193
: 1614.34 : 2.878
:$ 384.10 :$0.685


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (50 lb.)............................................... : 351 974
Total growing cost.........................................:$ 405.33 :$ 750.41
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 386.10 : 1480.48
Total crop cost....................................... : 791.43 : 1967.19
Crop sales...................................................: 985.37 : 2775.90
Net return ..................................................:$ 69.64 :$ 808.71


aReported by 4 growers averaging $80.08 per acre.
Source: Grower records and estimates.





Celery
Costs and Returns per Acre in the Central Florida Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73

5-Season
Item Sean 1972-73
Average


Number of growers....................
Number of acres......................
Average acres per grower............
Average yield per acre (crates)......

Growing costs:

Land rent..................... ......
Seed................................
Fertilizer.........................
Spray and dust...................
Cultural labor.....................
Machine hire........................
Gas, oil and grease................
Repair and maintenance.............
Depreciation .....................
License and insurance.............
Interest on production capital (6%
Interest on capital invested (other
Miscellaneous expense..............

Total growing cost...................

Harvesting and marketing costs:


... .. .. .. ... :









.......- 5 months).:
........than land).
. . . :




... .... .. .:.
........ ....


............:

... ..... ... :



- 5 months).:
than land).:
. . . :


Cutting and packing expense.................... :
Containers..................................... :
Hauling ........................................ :
Other................................... ....... :
Selling ........................................ :
Total harvesting and marketing cost............... :
Total crop cost.................................. :
Crop sales.................................... ... :


5
2050
410
529

Av
Acre
$ 40.96
73.90
108.32
92.46
205.66
5.23
11.21
40.63
14.29
12.65
15.12
1.43
13.63
635.49


409.46
276.43
41.49
170.19
92.45
990.02
1625.51
1767.14


Net return....... ...............................:$ 141.63


: 5
: 1763
: 353
: 426

rage per
Acre
:$ 32.70
68.85
88.33
:148.73
:174.82
17.02a
16.29
50.17
16.55
16.96
15.91
1.66
22.63
670.62


:496.79
:239.71
43.86
157.18
74.04
:1011.58
:1682.20
:1619.17
:$ -63.03


1972-73 Range per Acre
From To
Yield (crates) ....................... .................... : 259 527
Total growing cost......................................... :$ 623.84 :$ 712.87
Total harvesting and marketing cost........................: 535.27 : 1260.86
Total crop cost......................................... .. : 1211.24 : 1952.42
Crop sales.................................................: 1009.16 : 2120.33
Net return.................................................. :$-218.99 :$ 167.91


aReported by 4 growers averaging $21.28 per acre

Source: Grower records and estimates.


Crate
















:$ 1.574


1.166
.563
.103
.369
.174

2.375
3.949
3.801
:$-0.148


:


............






Celery
Costs and Returns per Acre in the Everglades Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


: 5-Season : 1972-73
Item: Average : 1972-73
: Average


Number of growers................................ :
Number of acres...................................:
Average acres per grower.........................:
Average yield per acre (crates)..................:
Growing costs:

Land rent...................................... :
Seed........................................... :
Fertilizer..................................... :
Spray and dust................................. :
Cultural labor................................. :
Machine hire................................... :
Gas, oil and grease...........................:
Repair and maintenance.........................:
Depreciation........................... ... .... :
Licenses and insurance.........................:
Interest on production capital (6% 5 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense..........................:
Total growing cost............................... :
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Cutting and packing expense....................:
Containers................................. ....:
Hauling......................................... :
Other ....................................... :
Selling......................................... :


8
8595
1074
575


9
8853
984
648


Average per
Acre Acre Crate
36.32 :$ 45.00 :
59.08 : 78.30 :
99.08 : 97.26 :
117.11 : 162.37 :
211.06 : 249.43 :
9.33 : 20.56a:
24.47 : 17.29 :
58.75 : 44.65 :
24.69 : 24.00 :
20.02 : 31.11 :
16.54 : 19.60 :
2.47 : 2.40 :
26.37 38.23 :
705.29 :830.20 :$1.281


446.54
285.82
53.03
171.62
83.95


Total harvesting and marketing cost..............: 1040.96


608.16
384.66
73.67
206.93
90.14


.938
.594
.114
.319
.139


: 1363.56 : 2.104


Total crop cost.................................. :
Crop sales....................................... :


1746.25 : 2193.76
2049.52 : 2514.88


Net return .......................................:$ 303.27


:$ 321.12


1972-73 Range per Acre
From To
Yield (crates)........................................... .. : 471 : 777
Total growing cost......................................... :$ 668.78 :$1022.23
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 985.33 : 1610.22
Total crop cost............................................: 1696.81 : 2540.47
Crop sales.................................................: 1726.76 : 3100.73
Net return..................................................:$ 29.95 :$ 612.97



aReported by 6 growers averaging $30.84 per acre.
Source: Grower records and estimates.


: 3.385
: 3.881
:$0.496







Sweet Corn
Costs and Returns per acre in the East Coast Area
Season 1972-73


Item 1972-73


Number of growers................................:
Number of acres ..................................:
Average acres per grower.........................:
Average yield per acre (crates)..................:
Growing costs:

Land rent.................................... :$
Seed............................................:
Fertilizer......................................:
Spray and dust................................. :
Cultural labor .................................:
Machine hire ...................................:
Gas, oil and grease.............................:
Repair and maintenance .........................:
Depreciation.........................................
Licenses and insurance.........................:
Interest on production capital (6% 4 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense..........................:
Total growing cost............................... :
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense.................... :
Containers..................................... :
Hauling.........................................
Other.......................................... :
Selling.........................................
Total harvesting and marketing cost...............:
Total crop cost.................................. :
Crop sales....................................... :
Net return ....................................... :$


6
8184
1364
202


Ave
Acre
39.24
13.97
68.31
66.83
39.61
22.94a
10.44
20.24
15.16
17.69
6.14
1.52
7.83

329.92


102.69
100.12
24.82
59.45
29.66
316.74
646.66
690.83
44.17


rage per
Crate


:$1.633


S.508
S.496
.123
.294
.147
: 1.568
:3.201
: 3.420
:$0.219


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (crates)................................... 183 : 240
Total growing cost...............................:$ 292.23 :$ 396.78
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............: 266.22 : 437.85
Total crop cost.................................: 558.94 : 834.63
Crop sales.......................................: 609.00 : 829.37
Net return......................................:$ -19.28 :$ 110.09


Reported by 5 growers averaging $27.53 per acre.

Source: Grower records and estimates.







Sweet Corn
Costs and Returns per Acre in the Everglades Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


: 5-Season :
Item -Season : 1972-73
: Average :


Number of growers................................:
Number of acres..................................:
Average acres per grower..........................:
Average yield per acre (crates)..................
Growing costs:

Land rent..................................... $
Seed........................................... :
Fertilizer........................................ :
Spray and dust.................................:
Cultural labor ................................. :
Machine hire...................................:
Gas, oil and grease............................:
Repair and maintenance.........................:
Depreciation...................................:
Licenses and insurance..........................:
Interest on production capital (6% 4 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense..........................:
Total growing cost..............................:
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense....................
Containers ................................... :
Hauling....................................... :
Other.......................................... :
Selling........................................ :
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............:
Total crop cost..................................:
Crop sales....................................... :
Net return......................................:$


17
24157
1421
153


15
17284
1152
229


Average per
Acre Acre Crate
30.90 :$ 36.77 :
6.07 : 6.89 :
25.87 : 22.67 :
55.26 : 64.09 :
32.31 : 36.39
9.37 : 18.56a
6.56 : 6.87
12.99 : 17.50
9.95 : 12.27
5.31 : 6.99
3.80 : 4.46
1.00 : 1.23
5.39 : 6.21
204.78 :240.90 ;$1.052


71.40 :
64.03 :
13.94 :
42.34 :
23.56 :
215.27 :
420.05 :
406.01 :
-14.04 :


128.72
116.16
25.84
70.05
30.24
371.01
611.91
616.52
4.61


.562
.507
S.113
S.306
.132
: 1.620
: 2.672
: 2.692
:$0.020


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (crates).............................................. : 136 320
Total growing cost......... ............ .................:$ 159.30 :$ 328.38
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 205.65 : 554.67
Total crop cost.................................... : 425.74 : 851.06
Crop sales.......... ..................................... 351.42 : 799.71
Net return.................................. ...............:$ -74.32 :$ 81.14


aReported by 11 growers averaging $25.31 per acre.
Source: Grower records and estimates.






Sweet Corn
Costs and Returns per Acre in the Zellwood Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


Item 5-Season : 1972-73
: Average :


Number of growers................................. :
Number of acres................................... :
Average acres per grower .........................:
Average yield per acre (crates)..................:
Growing costs:

Land rent.................................... :
Seed ......................................... :
Fertilizer..................................... :
Spray and dust.................................. :
Cultural labor..................................:
Machine hire....................................:
Gas, oil and grease.............................:
Repair and maintenance .........................:
Depreciation..................... .... ....... :
Licenses and insurance..........................:
Interest on production capital (6% 4 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense..........................:
Total growing cost................................
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense.....................:
Containers..................................... :
Hauling.......................... .............. :
Other ......................................... :
Selling........................................ :
Total harvesting and marketing cost...............:
Total crop cost...................................:
Crop sales....................................... :
Net return.......................................:$


55
3560
712
221


Acre
32,
7.
30.
47.
36,
10,
5,
30.
11.
11,
4.
1,
5,


4
3329
832
287


Average per
S Acre C
.12 :$ 31.12 :
.95 : 11.44 :
.84 : 44.06 :
,46 : 61.59 :
.67 : 30.24 :
.70 : 12.03a:
.69 : 9.29 :
.17 : 42.19 :
.06 : 16.36 :
.30 : 15.17 :
.38 : 5.23 :
.11 : 1.63
.91 : 4.66


235.36 :


116.57
91.29.
14.74
61.25
37.76
321.61
556.97
533.09
-23.88


rate


285.01 :$0.993


151.69
134.46
23.81
98.26
48.21
456.43
741.44
804.70
63.26


.529
.468
.083
.342
.168


: 1.590
: 2.583
: 2.804
:$0,221


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (crates) ..............................................: 243 322
Total growing cost.......................................:$ 212.40 :$ 336.15
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 387,20 : 531.48
Total crop cost............................................: 696.97 : 826.53
Crop sales...................................... ........ : 627.77 : 929.80
Net return..................................................:$ -69.20 :$ 143.90


aReported by 3 growers averaging $16.04 per acre.
Source: Grower records and estimates.






Cucumbers
Costs and Returns per Acre in the Immokalee-Lee Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


Item -Season 1972-73
: Average I


Number of growers............................... :
Number of acres..................................:
Average acres per grower.........................:
Average yield per acre (bushels).................:
Growing costs:

Land rent.................................... :$
Seed........................................... :
Fertilizer..................................... :
Spray and dust................................. :
Cultural labor..................................:
Machine hire...................................:
Gas, oil and grease............................:
Repair and maintenance.........................:
Depreciation.................................. :
Licenses and insurance.........................
Interest on production capital (6% 5 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense..........................:
Total growing cost...............................
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense................................:
Grading and packing expense.................... :
Containers.................................... :
Hauling....................................... ........ :
Selling..................................... :
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............:
Total crop cost...................................:
Crop sales.......................................:
Net return....................................... :


12
1860
155
199


10
1090
109
178


Average per
Acre Acre
17.27 :$ 21.14
10.42 : 9.04
100.33 : 98.40
52.52 : 48.95
106.30 : 167.74
25.05 61.31
18.74 : 24.47
34.86 : 55.40
24.41 : 32.28
7.74 : 15.10
9.74 13.16
2.44 : 3.23
16.34 : 24.99


426.16


154.87
109.12
116.03
38.64
35.24
453.90
880.06
911.09
31.03


:575.21 :$3.232


162.66
115.17
120.32
36.66
29.49


464.30
: 1039.51
: 783.86
:$-255.65


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels).............................................: 69 : 325
Total growing cost..........................................:$ 353.25 :$ 952.8
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 212.85 : 828.7
Total crop cost.......................................... : 725.05 : 1534.0
Crop sales............................. ......... .... : 390.21 : 1076.2
Net return..................... ........... ............. :$-809.10 :$ 96.7


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Bushel
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:


.914
.647
.676
.206
.165
: 2.608
: 5.840
: 4.404
:$-1.436







Eggplant
Costs and Returns per Acre in the Palm Beach-Broward Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


Item: 5-Season :
ItemAverage 1972-73
: Average:


Number of growers................................:
Number of acres ..................................:
Average acres per grower.........................:
Average yield per acre (bushels).................:
Growing costs:


Land rent............................
Seed.................................
Fertilizer...........................
Spray and dust.......................
Cultural labor.......................
Machine hire.........................
Gas, oil and grease..................
Repair and maintenance...............
Depreciation .........................
Licenses and insurance...............
Interest on production capital (6% -


5 months)


Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense..........................:

Total growing cost ............................... :

Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense....................:
Containers.....................................:
Hauling....................................... ..
Selling.........................................:
Total harvesting and marketing cost...............:

Total crop cost.................................. :
Crop sales....................................... :


6
240
40
6161


5
326
65
692


Average per
Acre Acre
55.49 :$ 51.69
11.77 : 12.13
205.37 : 201.75
102.64 : 106.80
222.73 : 286.57
30.88 : 37.07
35.96 : 30.23
63.81 : 48.64
51.22 : 35.89
32.95 : 30.41
19.54 : 20.86
5.13 : 3.59
20.09 : 29.27


857.58 : 894.90 :$ 1.293


292.77
352.63
65.04
80.77
791.21

1648.79
1819.59


Net return .......................................:$ 170.80


:384.93
:485.94
82.68
102.77
: 1056.32

: 1951.22
: 1919.32
:$ -31.90


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels)............................................: 286 974
Total growing costs........................................:$ 811.45:$1045.38
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 450.21: 1426.59
Total crop cost................... ......... .................... : 1495.59: 2367.02
Crop sales.................................................. : 717.50: 2800.00
Net return .................................................. $ -778.09:$ 652.55


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Bushel
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:


.556
.702
.120
.149
:1.527

:2.820
:2.774
:$-0.046


.......... :$
..........:
..........:
..........:
..........e
..........:






Leaf Crops
Costs and Returns per Acre in the Central Florida Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


Item : 5-Season 1972-73
: Average


Number of growers................................
Number of acres..................................:
Average acres per grower.........................:
Average yield per acre (crates)..................
Growing costs:

Land rent...................................... :$
Seed.......................................... :
Fertilizer ................... ................. :
Spray and dust................................:
Cultural labor.. .............................. :
Machine hire...................................:
Gas, oil and grease........................... :
Repair and maintenance......................:
Depreciation..................................:
Licenses and insurance.......................:
Interest on production capital (6% 4 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense..........................:
Total growing cost...............................:
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense................... :
Containers.................................. .. :
Hauling........................................ :
Other.......................................... :
Selling....................................... :
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............:
Total crop cost..................................:
Crop sales.......... ........ .. .. ................. :
Net return ......................................:$


11
1452
132
336


6
1332
222
464


Average per
Acre Acre
22.31 :$ 22.54
11.27 : 6.86
40.62 45.52
22.09 53.14
135.56 :119.47
3.56
7.85 9.79
37.51 : 55.75
23.37 : 44.67
15.00 : 36.82
6.14 : 7.61
2.33 : 4.47
10.99 : 30.66
338.60 437.30


92.59
140.14
17.71
68.58
44.55
363.57
702.17
760.04
57.87


:141.63
:189.63
26.91
73.54
48.22
479.93
917.23
: 1321.21
$ 403.98


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (crates)...................................... .. 59 : 701
Total growing cost.......................................... :$ 321.58 :$ 543,32
Total harvesting and marketing cost .........................: 82.60 ; 733.27
Total crop cost.............................................: 404.18 : 1098.08
Crop sales..................................................: 101.30 : 1842.17
Net return ................................................. :$-302.88 :$ 744.09


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Crate















:$ 0.942


.305
,409
.058
.158
.104
1.034
1.976
2.847
:$ .871




13

Leaf Crops
Costs and Returns per Acre in the Everglades Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73

Item 5-Season 1972-73
: Average :
Number of growers................................: 9 9
Number of acres...................................: 4878 : 7037
Average acres per grower.........................: 542 : 782
Average yield per acre (crates) .................: 394 : 430
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Crate
Land rent......................................:$ 34.00 :$ 39.04 :
Seed ...........................................: 5.05 : 9.15 :
Fertilizer.......................... ... ... : 26.34 : 41.87 :
Spray and dust................................. : 25.33 : 37.66 :
Cultural labor.................................: 83.15 : 138.31 :
Machine hire...................................: 6.32 : 12.29a"
Gas, oil and grease..............................: 9.41 : 8.00 :
Repair and maintenance.........................: 19.64 : 26.04 :
Depreciation....................................: 14.30 : 20.07 :
Licenses and insurance.........................: 8.71 : 15.03 :
Interest on production capital (6% 4 months).: 4.52 : 6.90 :
Interest on capital invested (other than land).: 1.43 : 2.01
Miscellaneous expense..........................: 8.04 : 17.73 :
Total growing cost...............................: 246.24 : 374.10 :$0.870
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense.....................: 127.62 :209.97 : .488
Containers.....................................: 178.28 : 205.15 : .477
Hauling ............................... ... : 34.97 : 47.13 : .110
Other........................ .................. : 90.98 : 111.42 : .259
Selling .................. ...................: 58.77 64.70 : .150
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............: 490.62 : 638.37 : 1.484
Total crop cost..................................: 736.86 : 1012.47 : 2.354
Crop sales.......................................: 824.68 : 1112.88 : 2.588
Net return...................................... :$ 87.82 :$ 100.41 :$0.234


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (crates)................................ .........: 213 : 772
Total growing cost...........................................:$ 181.11 :$ 687.57
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 270.44 : 1236.06
Total crop cost.............................................: 500.70 : 1923.63
Crop sales.............................................. .. : 417.29 : 2385.76
Net return........ .. .. .. ................... .................. :$ -83.41 :$ 462.13


Reported by 7 growers averaging $15.81 per acre.
Source: Grower records and estimates.






Peppers
Costs and Returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


: 5-Season :
Item 5-Season 1972-73
: Average :


Number of growers................................:
Number of acres.................................. :
Average acres per grower.........................
Average yield per acre (bushels).................
Growing costs:

Land rent................ .... ...............
Seed ..........................................
Fertilizer............ .......................
Spray and dust................................
Cultural labor............. .................
Machine hire..................................
Gas, oil and grease............................
Repair and maintenance............. ........:
Depreciation...................................
Licenses and insurance........................ :
Interest on production capital (6% 5 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense......................... :
Total growing cost...............................:
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense......,.........................:
Grading and packing expense....................:
Containers ................................... :
Hauling.........................................
Selling........................................ :


Total harvesting and marketing cost...............:
Total, rop cost.................. ................
Crop sales.......................................


11
2376
216
294


16
2722
170
542


Average per


Acre
18.85
31.79
150.59
103.18
223.42
51.04
34.49
66.96
41.84
18.08
18.30
4.17
33.75
796.46


152.88
158.60
148.36
53.41
53.43


566.68
1363.14
1327.40


Net return...................................... :$ -35.74


Acre
:$ 22.04
S 63.23
S186.23
161.40
S326.55
72.76
48.86
S106.04
S 55.78
S 39.60
27.04
5.58
54.68
:1169.79


314.82
326.71
S312.88
S 91.43
9 4.21
: 1140.05
: 2309.84
: 2262.66
:$ -47.18


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels)............................................. 128 : 800
Total growing cost..........................................:$ 696.85:$1835.11
Total harvesting and marketing cost........................: 283.08: 1767.63
Total crop cost............................................: 1516.85: 3330.03
Crop sales..................................................: 513.00: 3259.49
Net return................................................. $-1300.40:$ 524.27


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Bushel















:$ 2.158


.581
.603
.577
.169
.174


: 2.104
: 4.262
:4.175
:$-0.087






Peppers
Costs and Returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


: 5-Season :
Item: Aerage : 1972-73
: Average :
Number of growers ...............................: 9 : 8
Number of acres..................................: 1143 : 1203
Average acres per grower.........................: 127 : 150
Average yield per acre (bushels).................: 353 : 517
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
Land rent.................................... :$ 52.25 :$ 50.33 :
Seed.................................... .. : 32.69 : 45.92 :
Fertilizer............................ .... : 167.96 : 165.68 :
Spray and dust.................................: 109.02 : 110.88 :
Cultural labor.................................: 308.51 : 453.24 :
Machine hire................................... : 48.26 : 53.69 :
Gas, oil and grease............................: 39.31 : 43.01
Repair and maintenance.........................: 64.26 : 66.65
Depreciation...................................: 47.91 : 61.10
Licenses and insurance ........................: 33.97 : 61.85
Interest on production capital (6% 5 months).: 22.23 : 28.31
Interest on capital invested (other than land).: 4.78 : 6.11
Miscellaneous expense..........................: 33.15 : 81.28
Total growing cost...............................: 964.30 : 1228.05 :$2.375
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense ...................: 200.20 : 356.35 : .689
Containers ................................. : 168.26 : 236.96 : .458
Hauling .......................................: 37.51 : 68.03 : .132
Selling........................................: 51.73 87.70 : .170
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............: 457.70 : 749.04 : 1.449
Total crop cost..................................: 1422.00 : 1977.09 : 3.824
Crop sales.......................................: 1523.15 : 2108.82 : 4.079
Net return......................................:$ 101.15 :$ 131.73 :$0.255


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels)............................................: 218 : 896
Total growing cost....................................... :$ 859.11 :$1853.53
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 292.11 : 1222.54
Total crop cost.............................................: 1423.50 : 2762.82
Crop sales.................................................: 823.21 : 2935.05
Net return..................................................:$-600.29 :$ 619.12


Source: Grower records and estimates.






Irish Potatoes
Costs and Returns per acre in the Dade County Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


Item 5-Seas : 1972-73
: Average :.


Number of growers...............................:
Number of acres..................................:
Average acres per grower.........................:
Average yield per acre (cwt.)....................:
Growing costs:

Land rent..................................... :$
Seed........................................... :
Fertilizer................................... :
Spray and dust.................................:
Cultural labor ................................ :
Machine hire................................... :
Gas, oil and grease............................:
Repair and maintenance..........................:
Depreciation................................... :
Licenses and insurance..........................:
Interest on production capital (6% 4 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense...........................:
Total growing costs..............................:
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Digging expense.................. ..............:
Grading and packing expense....................:
Containers................ ........... ....... :
Hauling........................................ :
Selling........................................ :
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............:
Total crop cost.................................. :
Crop sales....................................... :
Net return ................ .......................:$


9
6102
678
158


8
5158
645
201


Average per
Acre Acre Cwt.
49.67 :$ 52.18
119.97 : 158.04 :
54.69 : 67.88 :
60.63 : 68.54 :
57.04 : 62.65 :
1.04 : .89a
8.75 : 8.76
20.89 : 22.88
17.83 : 19.07
16.15 : 20.30
7.92 : 9.51
1.78 : 1.91
7.02 : 13.12
423.38 : 505.73 :$2.516


25.67
95.36
27.28
23.48
32.04
203.83
627.21
654.33
27.12


35.59
129.76
31.26
30.36
44.87
271.84


:777.57
: 1305.88
:$ 528.31


.177
.646
.156
.151
.223
:1.353
:3.869
:6.497
$2.628


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (cwt.)..................................... ....... 151 : 237
Total growing cost.................................... ...:$ 424.35 :$ 629.60
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 184.50 : 375.99
Total crop cost................................. .... .... : 630.53 : 929.64
Crop sales....................................... ..... : 1013.08 : 1567.59
Net return.................................................:$ 273.00 :$ 691.13


aReported by 4 growers averaging $1.77 per acre.
Source: Grower records and estimates.





Irish Potatoes
Costs and Returns per acre in the Hastings Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


Item : 5-Season :
Average 1972-73
: Average:


Number of growers................................
Number of acres...................................
Average acres per grower.........................
Average yield per acre (cwt.)....................
Growing costs:

Land rent......................................
Seed...........................................:
Fertilizer.....................................
Spray and dust.................................
Cultural labor.................................
Machine hire...................................
Gas, oil and grease...........................
Repair and maintenance.........................:
Depreciation.............................. ..
Licenses and insurance.........................
Interest on production capital (6% 4 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense..........................:
Total growing cost...............................:
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Digging expense........... .....................:
Grading and packing expense....................:
Containers..................................... :
Hauling...................................... :
Selling........................................ :


25
5575
223
150


19
4262
224
175


Average per
Acre Acre Cwt.
34.19 :$ 34.32 :
80.19 : 103.12 :
69.17 : 70.46 :
21.30 : 29.61 :
39.23 : 49.27 :
3.11 : 6.33a:
11.38 : 12.92 :
21.46 : 29.04 :
21.78 : 21.29 :
9.87 12.68 :
5.93 : 7.09 :
2.18 : 2.13 :
6.69 : 6.55 :
326.48 : 384.81 :$2.199


26.25
45.51
23.89
23.23
33.61


33.38 :
51.05 :
7.65 :
26.40 :
41.73 :


.190
.292
.044
.151
.238


Total harvesting and marketing cost...............:
Total crop cost..................................:
Crop sales...................................... :
Net return......................................:$


152.49
478.97
486.13 :
7.16 :$


160.21 : .915
545.02 : 3.114
889.27 : 5.082
344.25 :$1.968


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (cwt.) ...............................................: 112 : 247
Total growing cost.......................... .............$ 243.43 :$ 456.40
Total harvesting and marketing cost........................: 112.00 : 230.19
Total crop cost........................................... 423.51 : 628.61
Crop sales.............................................. .. 481.56 : 1175.77
Net return................................................ :$ -21.42 :$ 702.15


Reported by 15 growers averaging $8.02 per acre.
bReported by growers averaging $24.22 per acre.
Reported by rower records averaging $24.22 per acre.
Source: Grower records and estimates.





Radishes
Costs and Returns per acre in the Everglades Area
Season 1972-73


Item 1972-73

Number of growers................................: 4
Number of acres ..................................: 9458
Average acres per grower.........................: 2364
Average yield per acre (30-6oz. packages)........: 246
Growing costs: Average per
Acre 30 60z. pkgs.
Land rent...................................... :$ 7.27
Seed............................................ 7.85
Fertilizer ...................................... 5.39
Spray and dust ................................. .: 10.18
Cultural labor ........................ .........: 11.67
Machine hire...................................: 5.42
Gas, oil and grease............................: 2.51
Repair and maintenance.........................: 6.93
Depreciation..................................... 4.92
Licenses and insurance.........................: 3.96
Interest on production capital (6% 2 months).: .64
Interest on capital invested (other than land).: .50
Miscellaneous expense..........................: 3.36
Total growing cost............................... : 70.60 :$ 0.287
harvesting and marketing costs:
Harvesting expense.............................: 33.91 .138
Grading and packing expense......................: 68.19 : .277
Containers..................................... : 51.46 .209
Hauling......................................... : 10.41 .042
Other.. ....................................... : 12.03 .049
Selling....................... ................. : 18.93 .077
Total harvesting and marketing cost...............: 194.93 : .792
Total crop cost.................................. : 265.53 1.079
Crop sales....................................... : 323.22 1.314
Net return ....................................... :$ 57.69 :$ 0.235

1972-73 Range per acr
From To
Yield (30 6oz. packages).......................: 115 350
Total growing costt...............................:$ 53.32 :$ 82.09
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............: 105.82 : 291.31
Total crop cost...................................: 172.85 : 373.40
Crop sales.......................................: 161.51 458.65
Net return.......................................:$ -11.34 :$ 118.23


Source: Grower records and estimates.






Squash
Costs and Returns per Acre in the Dade County Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


Item 5-Season 1972-73
: Average :
Number of growers................................: 7: 6
Number of acres.................................. : 1141 1433
Average acres per grower ........................: 163 239
Average yield per acre (bushels).................: 133 : 143
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
Land rent ....................................:$ 27.00 :$ 36.72 :
Seed ...........................................: 7.79 : 6.37 :
Fertilizer..................................... : 56.96 : 50.67 :
Spray and dust. ............................... : 41.59 : 55.32 :
Cultural labor........ ........................: 38.15 : 40.96 :
Machine hire....................................: 9.00 : 11.53 :
Gas, oil and grease............................: 17.15 : 16.58 :
Repair and maintenance .......................: 24.23 : 27.00
Depreciation .................................: 18.68 : 14.12 :
Licenses and insurance ........................: 13.34 : 25.51 :
Interest on production capital (6% 4 months).: 4.84 : 5.60 :
Interest on capital invested (other than land).: 1.87 : 1.41 :
Miscellaneous expense..........................: 7.01 : 9.33 :
Total growing cost...............................; 267.61 : 301.12 :$2.106
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense ...................: 142.23 : 193.41 : 1.352
Containers ................................... 70.01 : 134.81 : .943
Hauling ..................................... : 15.29 : 20.33 : .142
Selling.................................. .. .. 24.83 : 40.45 : .283
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............: 252.36 : 389.00 : 2.720
Total crop cost.................... .............: 519.97 : 690.12 : 4.826
Crop sales.......................................: 634.83 : 920.83 : 6.439
Net return.......................................:$ 114.86 :$ 230.71 :$1.613

1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels).......................................... :125 170
Total growing cost......................................... $ 247.34 :$ 408.43
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 313.10 : 467.50
Total crop cost............................................: 575.86 : 754.69
Crop sales................................................. 798.10 : 1105.00
Net return..................................................:$ 179.13 :$ 359.48


Source: Grower records and estimates.






Squash
Costs and Returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


: 5-Season :
Item 5-Season 1972-73
: Average :


Number of growers................................:
Number of acres.................................. :
Average acres per grower.........................:
Average yield per acre (bushels).................:
Growing costs:

Land rent...................................... :$
Seed........................................... :
Fertilizer..................................... :
Spray and dust.................................:
Cultural labor.................................:
Machine hire................................... :
Gas, oil and grease............................:
Repair and maintenance.........................:
Depreciation...................................:
Licenses and insurance..........................:
Interest on production capital (6% 4 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense..........................:
Total growing cost............................... :
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense................................:
Grading and packing expense....................:
Containers. ................................... :
Hauling........................................ :
Selling........................................ :
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............:
Total crop cost................................... :
Crop sales....................................... :
Net return....................................: $


5
695
139
148


Average per
Acre Acre
17.67 :$ 22.48
8.99 : 18.77
69.45 : 73.15
31.55 : 25.56
55.44 : 55.00
10.35 : 10.86
13.53 : 20.01
24.83 : 25.66
22.28 : 17.11
8.93 : 12.37
5.01 : 5.39
2.23 : 1.71
9.64 : 5.83


279.90 : 293.90 :$1.986


61.48
70.92
74.01
25.04
23.13


107.48
96.27
128.80
57.12
41.34


254.58 : 431.01 : 2.912


534.48
586.53
52.05


724.91
872.70
147.79


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels)............................................: 99 : 200
Total growing cost.............................. .......... :$ 260.15 :$ 334.95
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 287.04 :546.00
Total crop cost..................................... ..: 563.30 : 874.95
Crop sales.......................... .................. : 643.50 : 980.00
Net return..................................................:$ 55.05 :$ 241.67


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Bushel
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:


.726
.651
.870
.386
.279


: 4.898
: 5.897
:$0.999






Squash
Costs and Returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


Item 5-Season : 1972-73
; Average :
Number of growers ...............................: 6 : 6
Number of acres..................................: 168 : 303
Average acres per grower .......................: 28 : 50
Average yield per acre (bushels).................: 127 : 111
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
Land rent..................................... :$ 40.14 :$ 46.25 :
Seed........................................... : 7.72 5.61 :
Fertilizer......................... ......... : 53.82 : 62.39 :
Spray and dust.................................: 41.53 38.08 :
Cultural labor................................. : 60.94 62.64 :
Machine hire...................................: 17.43 : 27.09 :
Gas, oil and grease...........................: 14.99 : 17.85 :
Repair and maintenance.........................: 21.98 : 25.25 :
Depreciation .................................: 16.37 : 17.65 :
Licenses and insurance.........................: 12.59 : 26.18 :
Interest on production capital (6% 4 months).: 5.65 : 6.70 :
Interest on capital invested (other than land).: 1.64 : 1.76 :
Miscellaneous expense..........................: 11.53 : 23.54 :
Total growing cost...............................; 306.33 360.99 :$ 3.252
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense ...................: 131.52. : 125.35 : 1.129
Containers ...................................: 89.38 : 90.10 : .812
Hauling .......................................: 18.65 : 13.34 : .120
Selling........................................ : 23.41 : 28.09 : .253
Total harvesting and marketing cost...............: 262.96 : 256.88 : 2.314
Total crop cost.................................. : 569.29 : 617.87 : 5.566
Crop sales.....................................: 668.10 : 811.70 : 7.312
Net return..................................,...:$ 98.81 :$ 193.83 :$ 1.746

1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels)........................................... ..: 59 : 187
Total growing cost.........................................:$ 219.21 :$ 543.06
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 121.41 : 461.81
Total crop cost........... ........ .............. ...........: 387.59 : 827.03
Crop sales..................................................: 206.58 : 1453.89
Net return................................................. :$-181.01 :$ 637.25


Source: Grower records and estimates.






Tomatoes
Costs and Returns per acre in the Dade County Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


I: 5-Season :
: Average :


Number of growers.................................
Number of acres..................................:
Average acres per grower.........................
Average yield per acre (30 lb.)..................
Growing costs:

Land rent..................................... :
Seed..........................................
Fertilizer ............... ...................
Spray and dust................................:
Cultural labor................................
Machine hire...................................
Gas, oil and grease............................:
Repair and maintenance...........................
Depreciation...................................
Licenses and insurance.........................
Interest on production capital (6% 5 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense..........................:


Total growing cost..............................: 557


Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense................................:
Grading and packing expense.....................:
Containers..................................... :
Hauling........................................ :
Other..................................... ... :
Selling........................................ :
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............:


7
8001
1143
i335


Aci
37

143
108
li(
2C
20
35

13
12
2
9


6
6640
1107
S303


Average per
re Acre 30 lb.
.00 :$ 32.40 :
3.42 : 9.12 :
.47 : 141.92 :
.30 : 141.55 :
.34 : 112.25 :
).37 19.21 :
.35 : 18.47 :
i.95 : 40.26 :
.86 : 28.50 :
.01 : 19.76 :
.82 : 13.62 :
.88 : 2.85 :
.49 : 10.01 :
.26 :589.92 :$1.947


160.51
167.76
98.80
32.67
2.67
36.59
S499.00


Total crop cost..................................: 1056.26
Crop sales.......................................: 1166.98
Net return......................................:$ 110.72


189.33
197.57
127.12
37.18
15.13
35.59
601.92


: 1191.84
: 1318.74
:$ 126.90


.625
.652
.419
.123
.050
.117
: 1.986
: 3.933
: 4.352
:$0.419


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (30 lb.)....................................... 176 : 450
Total growing cost...................................... :$ 474.13 :$ 694.21
Total harvesting and marketing cost................. ...: 388.96 : 817.50
xTotal crop cost.............................................: 863.09,>- 1400.26
Crop sales..................................................: 741.67 : 1957.50
Net return ..................................................:$-121.42 :$ 594.33


Source: Grower records and estimates.


I






Tomatoes
Costs and returns per acre in the Ft. Pierce Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


Item : 5-Season :
Item: Average 1972-73
: Average


Number of growers. ...... .........................:
Number of acres...................................:
Average acres per grower.........................:
Average yield per acre (30 lb.)..................:
Growing costs:

Land rent...................................... :$
Seed..........................................
Fertilizer....................................
Spray and dust................................:
Cultural labor.................................:
Machine hire.................................:
Gas, oil and grease............................:
Repair and maintenance.........................:
Depreciation.................................. :
Licenses and insurance.........................:
Interest on production capital (6% 5 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense...........................:
Total growing cost...............................:
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense.................................:
Grading and packing expense....................:
Containers................................ .. :
Hauling........................................ :
Other ......................................... :
Selling ....................................... :
Total harvesting and marketing cost...............:


12
3744
312
296


14
3339
238
301


Average per
Acre Acre
13.95 :$ 20.30
11.87 : 13.92
113.85 :115.30
89.28 103.60
163.44 : 176.86
91.62 : 91.50
29.09 : 34.82
49.06 : 62.35
23.42 27.51
9.48 : 14.64
14.59 : 16.25
2.34 2.75
12.18 : 16.93
624.17 696.73


179.78
129.25
84.14
37.03
2.54
37.61
470.35


Total crop cost..................................: 1094.52
Crop sales.......................................: 1107.73
Net return......................................:$ 13.21


228.23
209.09
108.76
40.65
15.06
38.06
639.85


: 1336.58
: 1057.36
:$-279.22


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (30 lb.)..............................................: 125 : 489
Total growing cost........................................ :$ 420.79 :$1099.13
Total harvesting and marketing cost.........................: 246.74 : 1087.15
Total crop cost.............. .......................................: 816.78 :41940.42
Crop sales................................... ..........: 360.57 : 2101.46
Net return.................................................. :$-854.77 :$ 264.43


Source: Grower records and estimates.


30 lb.















:$ 2.315


.758
.695
.361
.135
.050
.126
:2.125
4.440
3.513
:$-0.927






Tomatoes
Costs and Returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


Item 5-eason : 1972-73
: Average :


Number of growers................................ :
Number of acres..................................
Average acres per grower.........................:
Average yield per acre (30 lb.)................. :
Growing costs:

Land rent......................................:$
Seed...........................................:
Fertilizer............ .................... ....... ;
Spray and dust .................................
Cultural labor.................................
Machine hire...................................
Gas, oil and grease............................
Repair and maintenance........................:
Depreciation...................... ...........
Licenses and insurance.........................
Interest on production capital (6% 5 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense..........................:
Total growing cost.............................. .:
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense................................:
Grading and packing expense.......... .....:
Containers.................................. :
Hauling....................................... :
Other........... ......................... .....:
Selling....................................... :


Total harvesting and marketing cost...............:
Total crop cost..................................:
Crop sales.......................................:
Net return ......................................:$


15
2880
192
311


10
2700
270
311


Average per
Acre Acre
16.69 :$ 18.12
10.16 : 29.04
120.41 : 150.25
89.87 : 120.06
140.51 : 216.00
50.49 : 96.96
26.30 : 38.62
46.67 : 60.64
28.86 : 35.69
7.98 : 15.85
13.22 : 19.63
2.89 : 3.57
19.72 : 39.80
573.77 : 844.23


192.15
170.19
93.87
44.05
2.34
40.09


225.69
230.09
116.22
56.33
15.57
41.69


542.69 : 685.59
1116.46 : 1529.82
1181.05 : 1216.02
64.59 :$-313.80


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (30 lb.).................................. .. ... .... ....: 155 600
Total growing cost ........................... ....... ... :$ 483.33 :$ 1482.;
Total harvesting and marketing cost... ............ ....: 364.55 : 1226.J
Total crop cost.......................................: 1062.88 : 2708.(
Crop sales................................ ...... .. ... 476.62 : 2952.(
Net return......................................... .. :$-817.66 :$ 650.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


30 lb.















:$ 2.715


.725
.740
.374
.181
.050
.134


: 2.204
: 4.919
: 3.910
:$-1.009






Staked Tomatoes
Costs and Returns per acre in the East Coast Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


Item 5-Season 1972-73
: Average :


Number of growers...............................:
Number of acres.......,.......................... :
Average acres per grower........................:
Average yield per acre (30 lb.)..................:
Growing costs:

Land r nt .................................... :$
Seed..........................................
Fertilizer................................ .... :
Spray and dust................................:
Cultural labor.................................:
Machine hire ...................................:
Gas, oil and grease............................:
Repair and maintenance.........................:
Depreciation................................. :
Licenses and insurance.........................:
Interest on production capital (6% 5 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense..........................:
Total growing cost...............................:
Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking expense................................ :
Grading and packing expense....................:
Containers....................................:
Hauling...................................... :
Other..........................................:
Selling........................................:
Total harvesting and marketing cost...............:


1









2


11
2068
188
967


8
1862
233
729


Average per
Acre Acre
89.87 :$ 74.26
21.88 : 27.40
268.73 :224.05
231.29 :242.52
.082.60 :768.21
120.48 :132.05
49.11 : 49.86
104.83 : 90.40
61.85 : 91.03
42.82 40.23
53.26 : 44.29
6.18 : 9.10
119.00 :122.75
'251.90 : 1916.15


648.91
557.91
357.56
109.10
7.62
158.11
1839.21


Total crop cost..................................: 4091.11
Crop sales.................. ................ ..: 4760.63
Net return...................................... :$ 669.52


:504.85
:488.36
:273.58
111.14
37.56
124.63
: 1540.12
: 3456.27
: 3433.25
:$ -23.02


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (30 lb.)................................... ......... 321 : 1619
Total growing cost..........................................:$1246.26 ;$2833.69
Total harvesting and marketing cost......................... 876.53 : 3057.90
Total crop cost..........................................; 2144.80 : 5728.77
Crop sales.................................... .. 1570.50 : 6539.19
Net return ................................. ...........:$-685.88 :$ 811.69


Source: Grower records and estimates.


30 lb.















:$ 2.628


.693
.670
.375
.152
.052
.171
2.113
4.741
4.709
:$-0.032






Staked Tomatoes
Costs and Returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


: 5-Season :
1972-73
: Average :


Number of growers............................... :
Number of acres .................................:
Average acres per grower............ ..............:
Average yield per acre (30 lb.).... e............:
Growing costs:

Land rent.................................... .. :$
Seed.. .........................................
Fertilizer.......................... .. .. .......:
Spray and dust................... .. ............:
Cultural labor.. .............................
Machine hire................................... :
Gas, oil and grease................... ........ :
Repair and maintenance .........................:
Depreciation .............................. ... :
Licenses and insurance.........................:
Interest on production capital (6% 5 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense.........................
Total growing cost..............................:
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense ........ ......................:
Grading and packing expense....................
Containers.....................................
Hauling..........................................
Other.................................. ........
Selling................................. ....... :


6
1554
259
680


11
2331
212
851


Average per


Acre
32.69
26.41
193.85
193.98
560.52
95.48
47.29
94.53
75;:7
37.49
35.04/
7.55
120.89
1521.i19


488. 31
465.33
243.51
85.98
6.60
100.07


Total harvesting and marketing cost...............: 1389.86
Total crop cost..................................: 2911.05
Crop sales...................................... : 3045.07
Net return ........................................ $ 134,02


Acre
:$ 34.72
82.71
S197.48
307.53
643.40
63.43
55.88
101.18
S 80.07
S 60.80
S 44.37
8.01
227.64
: 1907.22


722.47
692.97
336.30
96.69
42.56
124.88


30 lb,.















:$2.241


.8^9
.814
.395
.114
.050
.147


: 2015.87 : 2.369
: 3923.09 : 4.610
: 4420.69 : 5.195
:$ 497.60 :$0.585


1972-73 Raneer acre


From
Yield (30 lb.).............................................. 585
Total growing cost..........................................:$ 916.07
Total harvesting and marketing cost.......................: 1311.50
Total crop cost............... ..............................: 2227.57
Crop sales........................... .... ................ .: 2610.80
Net return................................................:$-444.08


To
: 1140
:$2656,54
:2511. 62
:5120.76
:6133.12
:S1144.97


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Item


~ 1~-~I"---~ "I~------~-~---~TII-~1IC-----l


- -~ ~- -~~-~-~--"I-~


- I~"1IPI~-~ll-~------*blpll






Staked Tomatoes
Costs and Returns per acre in the Manatee,-Ruskia Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


: 5-Season :
: Average :


1972-73


Number of growers........... .....................:
Number of acres ..................................:
Average acres per grower.........................:
Average yield per acre (30 lb.).................:

Growing costs:

Land rent......................................:$
Seed ......................... ...................
Fertilizer..................................... :
Spray and dust................................. :
Cultural labor ....................... ......... :
Machine hire......................................
Gas, oil and grease.................,..........:
Repair and maintenance...................,.....:
Depreciation........................... ....... .:
Licenses and insurance.........................:
Interest on production capital (6% 5 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense.......................... :
Total growing cost...... .......................:

Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking expense................................ :
Grading and packing expense....................:
Containers................................. :
Hauling..........................................
Other ................................... .......
Selling ............................. ... ......
Total harvesting and marketing cost..............:

Total crop cost.................................. :
Crop sales............. ......................... :


12
2172
181
555


11
2310
210
625


Average per
Acre Acre
31.67 :$ 35.58
18.99 : 52.93
157.26 : 180.64
97.32 :186.95
307.76 368.23
20.45 : 24.31
41.72 : 55.56
49.40 75.22
54.36 : 48.47
38.08 : 56.14
20.33 : 28.23
5.44 4.85
50.72 93,40
893.50 : 1210.51


232.41 :299.74
385.43 : 562.76
165.28 : 250.18
44,64 : 62.64
4.48 : 31.27
60.15 78.54
892.39 : 1285.13


1785.89
2157.05


Net return .. .. ............ .... .. ... .....,, $ 3 71.1 6


: 2495.64
: 2656.54
:S 160,90


12-73 png Per .
From "To
Yield (30 Ib.) .......................... ..... ... .... ..... 3V
Total growing cost.. ............. ...... .......... ,;$ 9082 :$1.87'
Total harvesting and marketing cost..........,,.......... : 711.55 : 5 2
Total crop cost......................................... ..... : 1630,0 :
Crop sales...................................... : 1564.68 : 3..
Net return ........... ....................... ....... :$-56 c,3.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Item


30 lb.
















:$1.937


.480
.900
.400
.100
S.050
.12
2, 05

3.993
: $0. 2 ;


~


111 _P





Watermelons
Costs and Returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee Area
5-Season Average 1968-72 and 1972-73


: 5-Season : 1 -7
Item 1972-73
: Average :


Number of growers.................................:
Number of acres.................................. :
Average acres per grower........................ :
Average yield per acre (Cwt.) ....................:
Growing costs:

Land rent................................ ...... :$
Seed............................. .............
Fertilizer....................... .............
Spray and dust..................................:
Cultural labor..................................:
Machine hire................... ......... .......:
Gas, oil and grease............................:
Repair and maintenance.........................:
Depreciation............... ............. .........:
Licenses and insurance.........................:
Interest on production capital (6% 5 months).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense......................... :
Total growing cost...............................:
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Cutting expense.................................:
Grading and packing expense....................:
Containers............... ...................... :
Hauling........................................ :
Selling........................................ :
Total harvesting and marketing cost...............:
Total crop cost...................................:
Crop sales....................................... :
Net return .......................................:$


9
1449
161
175


Average per
Acre Acre Cwt.
16.23 :$ 19.94 :
7.17 : 5.16 :
103.05 : 123.74 :
68.64 : 94.43 :
98.56 : 196.52 :
26.19 : 60.85 :
15.42 20.35
29.93 : 41.31 :
26.57 : 27.35 :
7.92 : 22.25 :
9.66 : 15.24 :
2.66 : 2.74 :
13.10 : 25.08


425.10


38.40
33.12
10.68
63.79
44.33
190.32
615.42
535.44
-79.98


654.96 :$2.481


77.55
64.84
29.01
103.89
60.98


.294
.246
.110
.393
.231


: 336.27 : 1.274
: 991.23 : 3.755
: 1086.56 : 4.116
:$ 95.33 :$0.361


1972-73 Range per acre
From To
Yield (Cwt.) .................. .............................: 181 452
Total growing cost..........................................:$ 389.36 :$ 887.99
Total harvesting and marketing cost..........................: 237.50 : 497.20
Total crop cost ........................................... : 626.86 : 1200.49
Crop sales ............................................... : 615.40 : 2147.00
Net return.............................................. .......... :$-412.86 :$1002.23


Source: Grower records and estimates.
Food and Resource Econ. -- 1500


DLB/sec 1/22/74