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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Map
 Foreword
 Acknowledgements
 Definitions
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Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026154/00012
 Material Information
Title: Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
Series Title: 197374- Economic information report
Portion of title: Vegetable crops in Florida
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1968
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Vegetable trade -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000304067
oclc - 03425969
notis - ABT0638
lccn - 76368517 //r77
issn - 0149-0613
System ID: UF00026154:00012

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Map
        Page ii
    Foreword
        Page iii
    Acknowledgements
        Page iii
    Definitions
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text
SFebruary 1970


Costs and


Ag. Econ. Report 2


Returns


from


Vegetable Crops


in Florida


season 1968-1969
with comparisons


Department of Agricultural Economics
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville


Donald L. Brooke


Agricultural Economist











TABLE OF CONTENTS




Page


Map of Florida Vegetable Producing Areas ii

Foreword and Acknowledgements iii

Definitions iv


Costs and Returns Data

Beans, Snap................................................. 1

Beans, Pole................................................. 2

Cabbage ................................................... 3 5

Celery .................................................... 6 8

Corn, Sweet ............................................... 9 11

Cucumbers.................................................. 12 14

Eggplant ................................................. 15

Leaf Crops ................................................ 16 17

Peppers, Green ............................................ 18 20

Potatoes, Irish ........................................... 21 23

Radishes .................................................. 24

Squash ...................................... ............. 25 27

Tomatoes .................................................. 28 33

Watermelons ............................................... 34



















S15
-r 6l-.- 1\
I ,' \-- 6\

FLORIDA 14
VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS --1
r-
With Principal Vegetables Produced J' 13 %

1 Dade tomatoes, snap and pole beans, Irish 11-ll- -' ,-
potatoes, squash, cucumbers, strawberries '- -' '0
2 Palm Beach-Broward snap beans, peppers, -- 10
eggplant, cucumbers, squash, tomatoes
3 Immokalee-Lee tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, --
squash, Irish potatoes, watermelons \
4 Everglades snap beans, sweet corn, cabbage, '- 9
escarole, celery, Irish potatoes, radishes_
5 Fort Pierce tomatoes, watermelons
6 Wauchula cucumbers, tomatoes, watermelons '-
7 Sarasota celery, radishes, lettuce, cabbage1 J
8 Manatee-Ruskin tomatoes, cabbage, cauliflower,
watermelons '
9 Plant City strawberries, peppers, squash, -- -
pole beans, southern peas, okra / :
10 Sumter cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, lettuce,
watermelons
11 Zellwood sweet corn, celery, escarole, 2
lettuce, snap beans, radishes -
12 Sanford-Oviedo cabbage, celery, snap beans,
lettuce, escarole, sweet corn, peppers
13 Oxford-Belleview-Lowell tomatoes, watermelons
14 McIntosh-Island Grove squash, snap beans, celery,
cabbage, lettuce, watermelons
15 Alachua snap beans, cucumbers, peppers,
Irish potatoes, watermelons
16 Hastings Irish potatoes, cabbage 0 *o
17 Starke-Brooker-Lake Butler snap and lima beans, QO 0
cucumbers, peppers, squash, strawberries
18 Quincy-Havana pole beans, cucumbers, squash
19 Escambia Irish potatoes















FORWARD


This is the ninth in a new series of summaries of costs and returns
from the principal vegetable crops by major producing areas in Florida.
There is a need among growers, commodity groups, credit agencies, research
workers and teachers for current factual information of this type.

Data in this summary were gathered by personal interview with growers
of the various vegetable crops. Growers' records of actual production
costs were used when available, and estimates taken when records were not
kept. As complete a breakdown of costs as possible was obtained from
each grower. Insofar as possible, growing and harvesting costs have been
separated and labor items excluded from costs of materials. In a few cases
where crop sales were not available from growers they were computed on the
basis of average prices received for the crop as reported by the Florida
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, U.S.D.A., Orlando, Florida.


















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the vegetable
growers for their excellent cooperation to the Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Association and the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, U.S.D.A.,
Orlando, Florida, and to various county agents for much worthwhile assistance.















FORWARD


This is the ninth in a new series of summaries of costs and returns
from the principal vegetable crops by major producing areas in Florida.
There is a need among growers, commodity groups, credit agencies, research
workers and teachers for current factual information of this type.

Data in this summary were gathered by personal interview with growers
of the various vegetable crops. Growers' records of actual production
costs were used when available, and estimates taken when records were not
kept. As complete a breakdown of costs as possible was obtained from
each grower. Insofar as possible, growing and harvesting costs have been
separated and labor items excluded from costs of materials. In a few cases
where crop sales were not available from growers they were computed on the
basis of average prices received for the crop as reported by the Florida
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, U.S.D.A., Orlando, Florida.


















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the vegetable
growers for their excellent cooperation to the Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Association and the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, U.S.D.A.,
Orlando, Florida, and to various county agents for much worthwhile assistance.









DEFINITIONS

Total number of growers: Number of individual records or estimates
of crop costs and returns included in each crop summary.

Total number of acres: The total acreage planted by growers whose
records or estimates were used. When a part of the planted acreage was
lost soon after planting and replaced by another crop, the reduced acreage
was used.

Average acres per grower: The number of acres of the particular
crop divided by the number of growers.

Average yield per acre: The number of units per planted acre
harvested.

Land rent: In the interests of uniformity, land rent was charged
for all acreages and crops at the prevailing rate reported by growers in
the area. This was done to avoid difficulties in the determination of a
normal valuation, interest charge for use of land and capitalization of
land values in a period of fluctuating values and prices. Taxes on farm
real estate are excluded since rent is being charged.

Seed and seedbed: This item includes the cost of seed or plants
for planting the crop. If a seedbed was used, the figures include costs
of labor and materials for growing plants as well as seed costs, unless
other wise noted.

Fertilizer: This represents the actual cost of nutrient materials
applied to produce the crop. Labor or machine costs of application are
not included.

Spray and dust: Spray and dust includes the cost of materials
only, unless application labor is specified in which case some machine
costs may also be present. If weed control chemicals or soil fumigants
were used, their cost also is included here.

Cultural labor: This items contains the cost of man labor, whether
hired or family, to produce the crop from ground preparation until ready
for harvest. It does not include supervision by the operator, since his
compensation is to a great extent dependent upon returns from the sale of
the crop.

Machine hire: The cost of machine work hired, including use of
airplanes when applicable, in producing the crop. This item includes
labor charge for the machine operator and charges for the use of equipment.

Gas, oil and grease: The cost of gas, oil and grease required to
operate tractors, trucks, sprayers, pumps and other machinery in producing
the crop is included in this item.











Repair and maintenance: This figure represents the cost of repairs
to equipment used in producing the crop. It also includes the small tools
such as hoes, rakes and shovels purchased and charged off as a current
expenditure.

Depreciation: This includes the annual charge for depreciation
and obsolescense of equipment and labor housing. When actual depreciation
charges could not be obtained from records, they were computed by assuming
a 10-year average life-use on all equipment on the basis of replacement
value as indicated by the operator.

Licenses and insurance: The cost of licenses and insurance items
when chargable to the farm business. Licenses include those for trucks
and autos used on the farm. Insurance includes labor and crop insurance
and fire or windstorm insurance on buildings and equipment. It does not
include health or accident insurance of the operator or his family.

Interest on production capital: Interest on production capital
was charged at the rate of 6 percent on all cash costs for the number of
months required to grow and market the crop regardless of whether or not
much production capital was actually borrowed. This percentage was used
because it is believed to be the normal interest rate. It is realized
that production capital may be obtained at times from certain government
organizations at a lower rate, but seldom can growers secure capital at
lower rates when dealing with commercial banks or individuals.

Interest on capital invested (other than land): Interest was
charged at 6 percent of the actual or estimated annual depreciation value
of the capital invested in machinery and equipment. It was assumed that
all equipment was presently worth one-half its replacement value.

Miscellaneous: This figure includes such items as wire, stakes,
twine, office supplies, administrative expense other than value of
operators management, legal and audit fees, telephone and telegraph and
incidental expenses.

Harvesting and marketing expense: Where possible, harvesting and
marketing expense has been divided into two items: (1) picking and (2)
grading and packing. Picking, cutting or digging expense includes actual
cost of harvesting the crop and preparing it for movement to packinghouse
or wash house. Washing or grading and packing expense includes prepara-
tion of the product for shipment either in the field or at an adjacent
packinghouse. It includes machinery and overhead costs in addition to
labor. The same is true for all crops in all areas .here grading and
packing is done off the farm in packinghouses.

Containers: Includes the cost for hampers, crates, bags or baskets
in which the product is moved to market.








Hauling: Hauling is the cost of movement of the product from field
to packinghouse or loading point. It is often computed on a contract basis
and includes labor and equipment items. In cases where hauling was per-
formed by the operator's trucks, the costs have been separated from produc-
tion labor and machine expense items as nearly as possible.

Other: The cost of precooling the commodity prior to shipment and
for celery and sweet corn the contribution to the Marketing Agreement
Program. Inspection fees, when incurred, are included in packinghouse
charges and are not reported as a separate item.

Selling: The packinghouse, market, sales organization, or dealer's
charge for performing the sales service for the crop when deducted from the
producer's price. This cost does not include charges for unloading, grading,
packing, etc.

Crop sales: Crop sales are the gross returns to the grower before
deduction of growing, harvesting and marketing costs.

Net return: Return to the producer after deduction of all expenses
in producing, harvesting and marketing the crop.

Proration of costs between crops: For such items as seed, fertilizer,
spray and dust, airplane application and harvesting and marketing costs,
growers' records or estimates for each crop were used to make the appropriate
charges.

In the case of cultural labor, however, no breakdown for the
different crops produced on the individual farm could be obtained from the
grower except in a very few cases when such records had been kept. The
total cultural labor for all crops produced on each farm was, in most
cases, prorated to the various crops on the basis of available data developed
at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations with regard to man hours
required, in various parts of the state, to produce different crops from
land preparation to harvest. A similar situation also applies to such
items as machine hire, tractor fuel, oil and grease, repairs, depreciation
and other production costs where, except in very few cases, records had
not been kept as to their respective charges to different crops. Prora-
tions were also made of these items on the basis of available data.
(D. L. Brooke, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., Bul. 660, June, 1963).

In many cases individual growerd did not incur every cost item.
This applies especially to airplane application, machine hire, grading
and packing, containers, hauling and precooling. Thus, these costs are
based only on the over-all average for all growers contacted in each area,
and footnotes have been used to set forth the number of growers and average
costs for items not incurred by all growers in the area.

Per-Unit data: Per-unit costs and returns were computed by dividing
the average yield per acre in the area into the various items of cost shown
in the individual tables. They are merely averages of the data recorded
and, in some cases, do not reflect the full cost of performing the service
because all growers may not have incurred every item of cost.










Snap Beans
Costs and Returns in the Palm Beach-Broward Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


Item 5-Season 1968-69
: Average


Total number of growers........................:
Total number of acres......................... :
Average acres per grower...................... :
Average yield per acre (bushels) ..............:


55
36,964
672
100


13
11,700
900
91


Growing costs:
Acre
Land rent................................... :$ 29.43


Seed.....................
Fertilizer...............
Spray and dust...........
Cultural labor...........
Machine hire............
Gas, oil and grease......
Repair and maintenance...
Depreciat ion ............
Licenses and insurance...
Interest on production ca
Interest on capital inves
Miscellaneous expense....


...................: 19 .23
...................: 42.94
...................: 11.61
...................: 31.39
...................: 6.83
...................: 10 .28
...................: 13.05
...................: 9 .99
...................: 6.0 1
pital (6% 4 mos).: 3.53
ted(other than land) 1.00
................... : 5.58


Total growing cost ........................... :$190.87


Average per
Acre Bushel

:$ 34.02
S20.10
S48.43
S14.86
S29.82
1 0.69 a/
9.30
S13.00
S9.68
S5.79
S 3.83
S .97
5.54

:$206.03 :$ 2.264


Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking and packing expense............
Containers.. ...........................
Hauling.................................
Selling................................


.....:$ 99.67
.....: 39.96
..... : 9.75
... .: 10.29


Total harvesting and marketing cost .......... :$1.9.67

Total crop cost............................... :$350.54
Crop sales.................................... :$370.70
Net return ....................................:$ 20.16


a/Reported by 12 growers averaging $11.56 per acre.
- Reported by 12 growers averaging $11.56 per acre.


:$159.59 :$ 1.754


:$365.62
:$369 .28
:$ 3 .66


4.018
4.058
0.040


Source: Grower records and estimates.


94.21
38.84
9.14
17.40


1.035
.427
.101
.191









Pole Beans
Costs and Returns in the Dade County Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


: 5-Season :
Item 5-Season 1968-69
: Average :


Total number of growers...............
Total number of acres ................
Average acres per grower.............
Average yield per acre (bushels) .....


43
16,295
379
245


8
2,824
353
246


Growing costs:


Ac r


Land rent.................................... :$ 37.36
Seed......................................... 21.50
Fertilizer................................... 52.88
Spray and dust..............................: 32.15
Cultural labor..............................: 144.37
Machine hire.................................. 8.05
Gas, oil and grease.........................: 11.99
Repair and maintenance........................: 17.11
Depreciation................................. 11.92
Licenses and insurance......................: 10.14
Interest on production capital (6i 4 mos.)..: 7.34
Interest on capital invested (other than land) 1.19
Miscellaneous expense.......................: 31.49

Total growing cost............................ :$387.49


Average per
S Acre Bushe

:$ 25.77
22.21
58.46
49.12
:201.82
19.16 a/ :
13.04
22.15
11.74
13.48
9.53
1.18
51.41

:$499.07 :$2.029


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense........
Containers........................
Hauling...........................
Selling............................


Total harvesting and marketing cost...........:$308.76


Total crop cost.....................
Crop sales ..........................
Net return..........................


:$696.25
.:$795.11
.;$ 98.86


:$360.24 :$1.464


:$859.31
:$885.57
:$ 26.26


:$3.493
:$3.600
:$0.107


a/
- Reported by 6 growers averaging $25.55 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


1


.:$152.74
: 96.50
: 22.51
: 37.01


:$180.97
:105.15
:24.56
: 49.56


:$0.736
:.427
: .100
: .201


1111 11


11111111


111111111










Cabbage
Costs and Returns in the Everglades Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


Item :5-Season 1968-69
: Average :

Total number of growers..... .....................: 40 6
Total number of acres ..........................: 5,513 588
Average acres per grower....................... : 138 98
Average yield per acre (50 lb.) ................ : 255 174

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre 50 lb.

Land rant................................... ;$ 31.47 :$ 33.18
Seed ........................................ 12.65 18.69
Fertilizer.................................. 225.22 21.27
Spray and dust...............................: 27.76 30.74
Cultural labor..............................: 58.92 60.40
Machine hire ................................: 1.41 : 1.93 a/
Gas, oil and grease ........................... 9.88 10.02
Repair and maintenance .....................: 18.04 17.92
Depreciation.............................. .. 10.14 : 10.56
Licensed and insurance ......................: 7.24 8.77
Interest on production capital (6% 4 mos.)..: 4.00 : 4.23
Interest on capital invested (other than land) 1.02 : 1.06
Miscellaneious expense ...... ................: 7.26 8.51

Total growing cost ............................:$215.01 :$ 227.28 :$ 1.306

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Cutting and packing expense ..................:$ 67.64 :$ 45.34 :$ 0.261
Containers..................................: 110.84 85.24 .490
Hauling...................................... : 19.41 15.85 : .091
Selling .....................................: 30.85 20.19 : .116

Total harvesting and marketing cost...........:$228.74 :$ 166.62 :$ 0.958

Total crop cost............................... :$443.75 :$ 393.90 :$ 2.264
Crop sales.................................... :$406.31 :$ 235.06 :$ 1.351
Net return .................................... :$-37.44 :$-158.84 :$-0.913


a/Reported by 5 growers averaging $2.31 per acre.
Reported by 5 growers averaging $2.31 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.











Cabbage
Costs and Returns in the Hasting's Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


: 5-Season :
Item Sean 1968-69
: Average


Total number of growers ........................:
Total number of acres ..........................:
Average acres per grower.......................:
Average yield per acre (50-1b.) ................:


S76
7,49 3
99
417


17
1,701
100
535


Growing costs:


Land rent.................................... :
Seed ..........................................
Fertilizer.....................................
Spray and dust...............................:
Cultural labor ..............................:
Machine hire .................................:
Gas, oil and grease............................
Repair and maintenance.......................:
Depreciation.............................. ....
Licenses and insurance .......................:
Interest on production capital (6% 4 mos.).:
Interest on capital invested (other than land)
Miscellaneous expense........................ :


Average per
Acre Acre
28.77 :$ 32.66
31.29 : 51.16
68.15 : 65.31
19.49 : 21.78
67.59 : 72.99
2.30 2.77a/
8.54 : 9.00
16.49 :14.10
15.60 : 17.35
6.50 6.84
5.09 : 5.65
1.56 : 1.73
5.54 : 5.69


Total growing cost............................. :$276.91


50-lb.


:$307.03 :$0.574


Harvesting and marketing costs:


Cutting and packing expense..................
Containers...................................
Hauling ......................................
Selling......................................


:$ 76.33
: 149.39
: 5.41
:55.82


Total harvesting and marketing cost ...........:$286.95


Total crop cost................................
Crop sales.....................................
Net return............................ ........


:$563.86
:$650.19
:$ 86.33


:$125.14
: 237.82
: 2.23/
: 96.71


:$461.90 :$0.863


:$768.93
:$772.10
:$ 3.17


a/Reported by 12 growers averaging $3.93 per acre.
b/Reported by 7 growers averaging $5.43 per acre.
Reported by 7 growers averaging $5.43 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


:$0.234
:.444
:.004
:.181


:$1.437
:$1.443
:$0.006










Cabbage
Costs and Returns in the Sanford Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


: 5-Season :
Item n 1968-69
: Average :

Total number of growers .......................: 56 9
Total number of acres.........................: 6,828 2,130
Average acres per grower......................: 122 237
Average yield per acre (50 lb.) ...............: 449 451

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre 50 lb.

Land rent................................... :$ 33.96 :$ 35.97
Seed .................................. ..... : 27.75 31.98
Fertilizer..................................: 71.43 49.66
Spray and dust..............................: 35.22 37.79
Cultural labor .............................. : 78.30 : 104.45
Machine hire ................................: .55 : .79 a/:
Gas, oil and grease .........................: 11.18 : 10.87
Repair and maintenance ......................: 19.05 : 30.25
Depreciation.................................: 11.76 : 20.04
Licenses and insurance.......................: 6.00 : 10.25
Interest on production capital (6% 4 mos.)..: 5.81 : 6.43
Interest on capital invested(other than land) 1.17 : 2.01
Miscellaneous expense........................: 6.93 : 9.46

Total growing cost............................ :$309.11 :$ 349.95 :$ 0.776

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Cutting and packing expense.................:$102.54 :$ 127.90 :$ 0.284
Containers .................................. : 181.26 : 209.30 : .464
Hauling......................................: 21.89 22.82 .050
Selling ................................ ....: 60.66 64.03 .142

Total harvesting and marketing cost...........:$366.35 :$ 424.05 :$ 0.940

Total crop cost............................... :$675.46 :$ 774.00 :$ 1.716
Crop sales.................................... $699.66 :$ 670.33 :$ 1.486
Net return.................................... :$ 24.20 :$-103.67 :$-0.230


a/Reported by 2 growers averaging $3.57 per acre.
Reported by 2 growers averaging $3.57 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.









Celery
Costs and Returns in the Central Florida Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


Item 5-Season 1968-69
: Average :


Total number of growers...........
Total number of acres.............
Average acres per grower...........
Average yield per acre (crates)...


38
9,370
247
585


6
2,804
467
510


Growing costs:


Acre


Average per
Acre


Land rent......................
Seed...........................
Fertilizer.....................
Spray and dust.................
Cultural labor.................
Machine hire ...................
Gas, oil and grease............
Repair and maintenance........
Depreciation..................
Licenses and insurance.........
Interest on production capital
Interest on capital invested (o
Miscellaneous expense..........


.............:$ 37.02
.............: 56.48
.............: 119 .73
.............: 66.48
.............: 173.22
.............: 2.43
.............: 13.47
.............: 28.38
.............: 18.08
.............: 16.23
(6% 5 mos.)..: 13.42
their than land) 1.81
............. : 23.27


Total growing cost ............................ :$ 570.02


Harvesting and marketing costs:


Cutting and packing expense...................:$ 339.46
Containers...................................: 261.23
Hauling......................................: 44.51
Other........................................ : 121.33
Selling ........................... ..........: 94.72

Total harvesting and marketing cost...........:$ 861.25

Total crop cost................................:$1431.27
Crop sales.................................... :$1596.03
Net return ....................................:$ 164.76


a/
- Reported by 4 growers averaging $6.05 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Crate


38.77
61.57
98.81
79.31
182.9 3
4.03 a/
13.71
38.77
17.01
8.49
13.46
1.70
12.08


:$ 570.64


:$1.119


367.60
259.88
39.71
170.44
89.25


:$ 926.88

:$1497.52
:$1771.26
:$ 273.74


:$0.721
.509
.078
.334
.175

:$1.817

:$2.936
:$3.473
:$0.537









Celery
Costs and Returns in the Everglades Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


: 5-Season : 1968-69
It m: Average :


Total number of growers .......................:
Total number of acres......................... :
Average acres per grower...................... :
Average yield per acre (crates) ...............:


42
37,133
884
593


7
7,114
1,016
617


Growing costs:


Acre


Land rent................................... :$
Seed ........................................ :
Fertilizer........................... ....... :
Spray and dust.............................. :
Cultural labor.............................. :
Machine hire................................ :
Gas, oil and grease ................. ........ :
Repair and maintenance..................... :
Depreciation................................ :
Licenses and insurance...................... :
Interest on production capital (6% 5 mos.)..:
Interest on capital invested(other than land)
Miscellaneous expense ...................... :


30.53
41.66
108.70
112.46
169 .49
2.54
24.75
47.04
20.77
18.46
14.56
2.08
26.76


Total growing cost ........................ .... :$ 619.80


Ayerage per
Acre


35.95
66.19
103.31
112.73
188.13
11.13 a/
28.52
59.95
24.47
17.18
16.27
2.45
27.79


:$ 694.07


Harvesting and marketing costs:


Cutting and packing expense.................:$
Containers.................................. :
Hauling..................................... :
Other........................................ :
Selling..................................... :


311.22
274.81
46.36
121.77
77.96


Total harvesting and marketing cost...........:$ 832.12


Total crop cost............................. ...
Crop sales ............................. ........
Net return....................................


:$ 1451..9 2
:$1623.35
:$ 171.43


a!


a/Reported by 5 growers averaging $15.58 per acre.

Source: Grower records and estimates.


Crate


:$1.125


:$ 461.94
290.18
53.74
189.61
82.81

:$1078.28

:$1772.35
:$1995.39
:$ 223.04


:$0.749
.471
.087
.307
.134

:$1.748

:$2.873
:$3.234
:$0.361









Celery
Costs and Returns in the West Coast Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


: 5-Season :
Item 5-Season 1968-69
: Average


Total number of growers...............
Total number of acres.................
Average acres per grower...............
Average yield per acre (crates) .......


19
2,781
146
761


Growing costs:


Acre


Land rent.................................... :$
Seed ........................................:
Fertilizer....................................
Spray and dust..............................:
Cultural labor ...............................
Machine hire ................................
Gas, oil and grease.........................:
Repair and maintenance ......................:
Depreciation..................................
Licenses and insurance .......................
Interest on production capital (67 5 mos.) :
Interest on capital invested (other than land)


Miscellaneous expense.


52.94
44.8
152.5(
112.8
320.68


e


2

1


43.48
70.69
36.12
53.39
22.64
3.61
54.27


Total growing cost............................ :$ 967.95


Average per
Acre

:$ 47.08
S 38.26
S182.52
S118.27
S398.01

S44.43
S99.98
S 65.55
S95.33
S 27.17
S 6.56
S 62.82

:$1185.98


Harvesting and marketing costs:


Cutting and packing expense..............
Containers...............................
Hauling..................................
Other....................................
Selling..................................


376.87
321.76
33.66
150.25
88.93


Total harvesting and marketing cost ...........:$ 971.47


Total crop cost............................
Crop sales .................................
Net return.................................


...:$1939.42
...:$2217.44
...:$ 278.02


510.98
341.86
47.94
224.57
70.91


:$1196.26

:$2382.24
:$2521.03
:$ 138.79


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Crate


:$1.620


:$0.698
.467
.065
.307
.097

:$1.634

:$3.254
:$3.444
:$0.190


jlllllli


... .... ... ..... .. ... :









Sweet Corn
Costs and Returns in the Everglades Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


: 5-Season :
Item 5-Season 1968-69
: Average :

Total number of growers........................: 86 16
Total number of acros........................: 101,677 21,106
Average acres per grower...................... : 1,182 1,319
Average yield per acre (crates)...............: 156 156

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Aere Crate

Land rent ..................................:$ 26.52 :$ 34.43
Seed......................................... 5.75 : 5.94
Fertilizer .................................: 29.38 24.21
Spray and dust.............................: 62.03 57.73
Cultural labor..............................: 28.55 : 33.57
Machine hire...............................: 2.40 2.40 a/
Gas, oil and grease........................: 7.60 7.01
Repair and maintenance......................: 13.97 11.49
Depreciation..................................: 8.49 7.41
Licenses and insurance .....................: 6.24 5.56
Interest on production capital (67 4 mos.).: 3.79 : 3.73
Interest on capital invested (other than land) .85 : .74
Miscellaneous expense...................... 7.06 4.09

Total growing cost........................... :$202.63 :$198.31 :$ 1.271

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense................ :$ 56.85 :$ 66.22 :$ 0.424
Containers .................................. : 58.14 62.17 : .399
Hauling.....................................: 11.93 14.55 .093
Other....................................... : 30.45 44.59 .286
Selling..................................... : 19.34 21.83 .140

Total harvesting and marketing cost......... $176.71 :$209.36 :$ 1.342

Total crop cost.............................. :$379.34 :$407.67 :$ 2.613
Crop sales ................................... :$370.68 :$396.90 :$ 2.544
Net return ...................................:$ -8.66 :$-10.77 :$-0.069


Source: Grower records and estimates.


a/
- Reported by 11 growers averaging $3.49 per acre.









Sweet Corn
Costs and Returns in the Lower East Coast Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


Item 5-Season 1968-69
: Average


Total number of growers..........
Total number of acres...........
Average acres per grower.........
Average yield per acre (crates).


24
23,291
970
149


3
3,250
1,083
197


Growing costs:


Land rent....................
Seed .........................
Fertilizer...................
Spray and dust...............
Cultural labor...............
Machine hire.................
Gas, oil and grease..........
Repair and maintenance........
Depreciation.................
Licenses and insurance.......
Interest on production capital
Interest on capital invested
Miscellaneous expense........


Acre
............... :$ 37.13
...............: 6.98
...............: 57.20
................ 53.01
...............: 30 .36
...............: 4 .11
...............: 8 .78
..............: 15.56
...............: 12.68
...............: 7.60
1 (6% 4 mos.) : 4.67
(other than land) 1.27
............... : 12.92


Average per
Acre
:$ 48.36
S 8.35
S63.08
51.07
31.00
18.32
9.40
13.04
S 9.81
6.75
S 5.15
.98
S 7.81


Total growing cost ............................. :$252.27

Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking and packing expense.........
Containers..........................
Hauling..............................
Other...............................
Selling.............................


........ :$ 56.37
........: 52.30
........: 13.35
........: 29.32
........ : 17.53


Total harvesting and marketing cost ..........:$168.87


Total crop cost.......................
Crop sales............................
Net return ............................


Source: Grower records and estimates.


........ :$421.14
........ :$462.01
........ :$ 40.87


Crate


:$273.12


:$1.386


:$109 .30
74.26
19.66
56.72
27.72

:$287.66

:$560.78
:$717.07
:$156.29


:$0.555
.377
.100
.288
.141

:$1.461

:$2.847
:$3.640
:$0 .79 3







11
Sweet Corn
Costs and Returns in the Zellwood Area
5-Season A erage 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69

: 5-Season :
Item 5Season 1968-69
: Average :

Total number of growers.......................: 28 6
Total number of acres.........................: 17,096 4,630
Average acres per grower....................... : 611 772
Average yield per acre (crates) ...............: 231 249

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Crate

Land rent .................................. :$ 27.65 :$ 35.76
Seed ........................................ : 6.25 : .56
Fertilizer.................................. : 31.39 32.21
Spray and dust ............................... : 59.75 40.36
Cultural labor..............................: 30.75 37.32
Machine hire................................: 6.22 : 13.47 a/ :
Gas, oil and grease.........................: 4.52 : 7.03
Repair and maintenance.......................: 17.93 21.14
Depreciation................................: 7.16 : 10.19
Licenses and insurance......................: 9.16 : 5.07
Interest on production capital (6% 4 mos.)..: 4.02 : 4.16
Interest on capital invested (other than land) .71 : 1.02
Miscellaneous expense....................... : 7.28 : 9.19

Total growing cost............................ :$212.79 :$223.48 :$0.898

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense..................:$ 85.93 :$113.65 :$0.456
Containers .................................. 83.44 96.57 .388
Hauling ..................................... : 13.78 17.56 .071
Other....................................... : 45.09 60.08 : .241
Selling..................................... : 33.02 : 37.93 .152

Total harvesting and marketing cost...........:$261.26 :$325.79 :$ 1.308

Total crop cost.............................. :$474.05 :$549.27 :$ 2.206
Crop sales.................................... :$514.61 :$534.93 :$ 2.148
Net return.................................... :$ 40.56 :$-14.34 :$-0.058


a/Reported by 5 growers averaging $16.16 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.








Cucumbers
Costs and Returns in the Immokalee-Lee Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


Item : 5-Season : 1968-69
: Average :


Total number of growers.............
Total number of acres................
Average acres per grower.............
Average yield per acre (bushels).....


Growing costs:


54
6,807
126
241


15
2,041
136
177


Average per
Acre Acre


Land rent.................................. :$ 14.42 :$
Seed .......................................: 9 .72
Fertilizer.................................. 100.50
Spray and dust.............................: 51.12
Cultural labor.............................: 98.51
Machine hire...............................: 19.82
Gas, oil and grease........................: 16.97
Repair and maintenance...................... 21.81
Depreciation................................ 19.29
Licenses and insurance.....................: 6.26
Interest on production capital (67o 5 mos.).: 8.72
Interest on capital invested(other than land) 1.93
Miscellaneous expense.......................: 9.65


19.78
7.53
98.08
50.25
97.41
36.38
16.02
26.15
21.15
5.43
9.17
2.12
9.98


Total growing cost........................... :$378.72


:$399.45 :$2.257


Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking expense............................. :$132.87
Grading and packing expense................ : 112.31
Containers.................................: 133.06
Hauling.....................................: 38.24
Selling..................................... 35.80

Total harvesting and marketing cost..........:$452.28

Total crop cost.............................. :$831.00
Crop sales................................... :$837.30
Net return ...................................:$ 6.30


:$121.11
: 96.40
: 104.87
: 33.65
: 30.93


:$0.684
:.545
: .592
: .190
: .175


:$386.96 :$2.186


:$786.41
:$967.29
:$180.88


:$4.443
:$5.465
:$1.022


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Bushel







a/:


a/
- Reported by 13 growers averaging $41.97 per acre.


ji II









Cucumbers
Costs and Returns in the Palm Beach-Broward Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


: 5-Season :
Item 5-Season 1968-69
: Average :


Total number of growers .......................:
Total number of acres ......................... :
Average acres per grower.......................:
Average yield per acre (bushels) ..............:


25
3,805
152
210


Growing costs:


Acre


Land rent................................... :$ 36.18
Seed ............................... ..........: 8 .20
Fertilizer ..................................: 105.43


Spray and dust.............................. :
Cultural labor ..............................:
Machine hire ................................:
Gas, oil and grease..........................:
Repair and maintenance...................... :
Depreciation................................:
Licenses and insurance......................:
Interest on production capital (67, 5 mos.):
Interest on capital invested (other than land)
Miscellaneous expense....................... :


53.80
67.93
13.13
16.09
23.47
14.40
13.83
8.72
1.44
10.82


Total growing cost.............................:$373.44


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense........................
Grading and packing expense...........
Containers..............................
Hauling................................
Selling...............................


......:$124.96
......: 98.15
......: 124.02
......: 25.28
......: 31.03


Total harvesting and marketing cost...........:$403.44


Average per
Acre


Bushel


:$ 45.75
8.23
: 100.10
67.30
74.37
17.83
16.73
37.71
16.31
10.15
9.79
1.63
13.37

:$419.27 :$ 2.588


99.16
65.07
97.11
16.56
28.96


0.612
.402
.599
.102
.179


:$306.86 :$ 1.894


Total crop cost...............................
Crop sales.................................. ..
Net return.................................. ...


Source: Grower records and estimates.


:$776.88
:$861.17
:$ 84.29


:$726.13
:$715.67
:$-10.46


:$ 4.482
:$ 4.418
:$-0.064









Cucumbers
Costs and Returns in the Sanford Area
Season 1968-69


Item 1968-69


Total number of growers.........................: 3
Total number of acres.........................: 439
Average acres per grower.......................: 146
Average yield per acre (bushels) ..............: 133

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Bushel

Land rent.................................... :$ 24.66
Seed ......................................... 9.74
Fertilizer ..................................: 47.02
Spray and dust..............................: 22.62
Cultural labor..............................: 64.06
Machine hire ................................: 5.10 a/
Gas, oil and grease .........................: 4.98
Repair maintenance ..........................: 17.46
Depreciation ................................: 9.35
Licenses and insurance...................... : 5.81
Interest on production capital (6% 5 mos.)..: 5.15
Interest on capital invested (other than land) .94
Miscellaneous expense.......................: 4.59

Total growing cost ............................:$221.48 :$1.666

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense ............................ :$ 58.29 :$0.438
Grading and packing expense..................: 63.70 :.479
Containers.................................. : 67.66 .509
Hauling .......................................: 9.88 : .074
Selling......................................: 37.39 : .281

Total harvesting and marketing cost...........:$236.92 :$1.781

Total crop cost............................... :$458.40 :$3.447
Crop sales.................................... :$470.55 :$3.538
Net return ....................................:$ 12.15 :$0.091



a/Reported by 1 grower at $15.29 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.










Eggplant
Costs and Returns in the Palm Beach-Broward Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


I tem: 5-Season : 1968-69
: Average :

Total number of growers....................... 36 : 8
Total number of acres .........................: 1,499 :195
Average acres per grower .....................: 42 24
Average yield per acre (bushels) ..............: 565 677

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel

Land rent................................... :$ 44.96 :$ 69.80
Seed ........................................ : 7.06 11.51
Fertilizer................................ : 178.44 : 216.82
Spray and dust..............................: 75.34 105.21
Cultural labor..............................: 173.06 : 264.22
Machine hire.................................: 24.31 47.07
Gas, oil and grease .........................: 30.02 : 36.77
Repair and maintenance ......................: 49.01 : 79.44
Depreciation.................................: 32.89 40.45
Licenses and insurance .....................: 29.25 : 35.83
Interest on production capital (6% 5 mos.)..: 15.73 : 22.21
Interest on capital invested (other than land) 3.29 : 4.05
Miscellaneous expense.......................: 17.74 : 21.56

Total growing cost............................ :$ 681.10 :$ 954.94 :$1.411

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense...................:$ 223.40 :$ 302.01 :$0.446
Containers ................................: 290.04 :379.52 :.560
Hauling....... ........ .................. : 58.64 : 67.69 : .100
Selling ..................................... : 66.37 80.37 : .119

Total harvesting and marketing cost...........:$ 638.45 :$ 829.59 :$1.225

Total crop cost...............................:$1319.55 :$1784.53 :$2.636
Crop sales .................................. :$1309.90 :$2451.61 :$3.621
Net return.................................. :$ -9.65 :$ 667.08 :$0.985


Source: Grower records and estimates.










Leaf Crops
Costs and Returns in the Central Florida Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


: 5-Season :
Item 5-Season 1968-69
: Average:


Total number of growers.........
Total number of acres..........
Average acres per grower.......
Average yield per acre (crates)


47
6,413
136
427


13
1,777
137
413


Growing costs:


Land rent.................................... :$
Seed..........................................
Fertilizer....................................
Spray and dust.............................. :
Cultural labor...............................:
Machine hire................................ :
Gas, oil and grease ......................... :
Repair and maintenance......................:
Depreciation................................ :
Licenses and insurance.......................
Interest on production capital (67% 4 mos.)..:
Interest on capital invested(other than land)
Miscellaneous expense.......................:


Acre

21.64
11.97
0.18
18.89
93.88
.13
8.12
22.78
11.44
8.68
4.67
1.14
7.11


Total growing cost............................:$250.63


Average per
Acre

:$ 23.56
11.97
44.88
18.86
:154.65
2.58 a/
11.01
45.22
31.61
10.18
6.94
3.16
23.87

:$388.49


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Cutting and packing expense.........
Containers..........................
Hauling .............................
Other................................
Selling.............................


........ :$ 95.47
........: 171.81
........: 19.70
........: 73.53
........: 36.30


Total harvesting and marketing cost...........:$396.81


Total crop cost.......................
Crop sales............................
Net return ............................


........:$647.44
........ :$793.54
........:$146.10


/ Reported by 9 growers averaging $3.73 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Crate


:$0.940


:$ 94.35
:174.76
19.32
75.24
44.20

:$407.87

:$796.36
:$940.47
:$144.11


:$0.229
.423
.047
.182
.107

:$0.988

:$1.298
:$2.277
:$0.349


...............
...............
...............









Leaf Crops
Costs and Returns in the Everglades Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


Item 5-Season 1968-69
: Average :

Total number of growers................ ...... : 36 9
Total number of acres...........................: 15,128 4,925
Average acres per grower......................: 420 : 547
Average yield per acre (crates) ............... 381 415

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Crate

Land rent................................... :$ 30.56 :$ 31.21
Seed ........................................: 5.01 4.43
Fertilizer..................................: 27.10 : 23.24
Spray and dust..............................: 14.60 : 25.99
Cultural labor............................... 62.87 : 74.42
Machine hire................................: 1.56 : 5.6Z a/ :
Gas, oil and grease .........................: 8.85 7.30
Repair and maintenance......................: 15.22 12.42
Depreciation................................: 8.48 9.33
Licenses snd insurance.......................: 6.95 : 11.38
Interest on production capital (67/ 4-mos) ...: 3.59 : 4.07
Interest on capital invested(other than land) .85 : .93
Miscellaneous expense.......................: 6.72 7.52

Total growing cost ............................:$192.36 :$217,86 :$0.525

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense...................:$ 93.05 :$110.39 :$0.266
Containers .................................. : 157.71 : 196.91 : .474
Hauling .....................................: 25.97 : 34.39 : .083
Other.......................................: 71.33 : 94.12 : .227
Selling ....................................: 44.53 : 58.22 : .140

Total harvesting and marketing cost...........:$392.59 :$494.03 :$1.190

Total crop cost ...............................:$584.95 :$711.89 :$1.715
Crop sales.............. ...................... :$662.27 :$887.40 :$2.138
Net return ....................................:$ 77.32 :$175.51 :$0.423


a/ 8 growers averaging $6.32 per acre.
- Reported by 8 growers averaging $6.32 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.









Green Peppers
Costs and Returns in the Immokalee-Lee Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


Item 5-Season : 1968-69
:Average :


Total number of growers... ...................:
Total number of acres........................ :
Average acres per grower .....................:
Average yield per acre (bushels) .............:

Growing costs:


Land rent .................................. :$
Seed.........................................
Fertilizer...................................
Spray and dust.............................:
Cultural labor ..............................
Machine hire...............................:
Gas, oil and grease..........................
Repair and maintenance. .....................:
Depreciation.................................
Licenses and insurance.....................:
Interest on production capital (67o 5-mos.).:
Interest on capital invested(other than land)
Miscellaneous expense....................... :


49
7,510
153
337


Acre

15.1
21.79
142.8
72.31
162.2f
31.1
33.3:
43.1
40.1
14.1
13.9(
4.0
19.7(


Total growing cost........................... :$ 613.7:


12
2,829
236
237


Average per
Acre
1 :$ 17.68
S: 29.95
5 128.10
4 : 83.24
5 189.85
4 : 55.36 a/
2 21.94
1 : 42.53
1 : 35.58
S: 12.22
S: 15.18
1 : 3.56
S 26.50

7 :$ 661.69


Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking expense.............................:$
Grading and packing expense................:
Containers..................................:
Hauling.................................... :
Selling....................................


133.91
149.32
164.50
53.85
46.72


Total harvesting and marketing cost..........:$ 548.30

Total crop cost.............................. :$1162.07
Crop sales................................... :$1177.86
Net return ...................................:$ 15.79


113.08
129.12
127.80
39.69
42.90


:$ 452.59

:$ 1114.28
:$ 854.71
:$ -259.57


a/
- Reported by 10 growers averaging $66.43 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Bushel
















:$ 2.792


0.477
.545
.539
.168
.181


:$ 1.910

:$ 4.702
:$ 3.606
:$ -1.096









19
Green Peppers
Costs and Returns in the Palm Beach-Broward Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


Item 5-Season : 1968-69
: Average :


Total number of growers ......................:
Total number of acres........................ :
Average acres per grower.....................
Average yield per acre (bushels) .............:


Growing costs:


Land rent.................................. :$
Seed.........................................
Fertilizer...................................
Spray and dust.............................:
Cultural labor ..............................
Machine hire...............................:
Gas, oil and grease..........................
Repair and maintenance.....................:
Depreciation................................
Licenses and insurance.....................:
Interest on production capital (67% 5 mos.).:
Interest on capital invested(other than land)
Miscellaneous expense...................... :


68
7,033
103
386


Acre

46.0:
24.2
165.5
88.1:
254.4'
31.0(
31.9
47.9(
36.9
23.6
18.41
3.69
24.5:


Total growing cost........................... :$ 796.4


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense.......
Containers........................
Hauling...........................
Selling ...........................


178.57
182.23
38.99
41.13


Total harvesting and marketing cost..........:$ 440.92


Total crop cost..............................
Crop sales...................................
Net return...................................


:$1237.39
:$1302.8 2
:$ 65.43


9
1,052
117
483


Average per
Acre

3 :$ 71.71
S 32.41
7 : 179.84
3 115.91
5 302.06
S: 57.91
2 : 37.15
: 73.31
3 : 43.62
5 : 30.37
4 : 23.41
S 4.32
2 35.81

7 :$1007.83


241.29
233.41
48.27
69 .79


:$ 592.76

:$1600.59
:$2176.25
:$ 575.66


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Bushel


'$2.087


:$0.500
.483
.100
.144

:$1.227

:$3.314
:$4.506
:$1.192


...... ...:$


.........:








20
Green Peppers
Costs and Returns in the Sanford Area
Season 1968-69


Ttem 1968-69


Total number of growers.........................: 3
Total number of acres...........................: 124
Average acres per grower........................: 41
Average yield per acre (bushels) ................: 326

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Bushel

Land rent..................................... :$ 29.67
Seed ..........................................: 46.90
Fertilizer ....................................: 89 .30
Spray and dust................................: 54.90
Cultural labor................................: 169.11
Gas, oil and grease...........................: 10.97
Repair and maintenance.........................: 32.07
Depreciation...................................: 17.43
Licenses Aind insurance.........................: 10.84
Interest on production capital (6% 5-mos.) ...: 11.40
Interest on capital invested (other than land): 1.74
Miscellaneous expense... ........ .............: 12.44

Total growing cost.............................. :$ 486.77 :$ 1.493

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense............................... :$ 126.56 :$ 0.388
Grading and packing expense....................: 158.77 : .487
Containers...................................... 169.60 .520
Hauling....................................... : 17.71 .055
Selling .......................................: 46.07 : .141

Total harvesting and marketing cost.............:$ 518.71 :$ 1.591

Total crop cost................................. :$1005.48 :$ 3.084
Crop sales...................................... :$ 933.71 :$ 2.864
Net return...................................... :$ -71.77 :$-0.220


Source: Grower records and estimates.









Irish Potatoes
Costs and Returns in the Dade County Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


Item 5-Season 1968-69
: Average :


Total number of growers.......
Total number of acres........
Average acres per grower.....
Average yield per acre(cwt)..


50
26,630
533
168


10
6,611
661
166


Growing costs:


Acre


Land rent ..................
Seed .......................
Fertilizer.................
Spray and dust.............
Cultural labor.............
Machine hire...............
Gas, oil and grease........
Repair and maintenance.....
Depreciation................
Licenses and insurance.....


Interest on production capital (6% 4-mos.).:
Interest on capital invested(other than land)
Miscellaneous expense...................... :


:$ 45.30
S107.40
51.74
41.64
45.22
1.58
8.91
16.61
15.03
11.96


6.82
1.50
10.75


Total growing cost........................... :$364.46


Average per
Acre


Cwt


:$ 44.43
:111-93
53.35
49.75
51.39
.87 a/ :
7.43
22.31
16.79
17.39
7.30
1.68
6.19

:$390.81 :$2.354


Harvesting and marketing costs:


Digging expense.............................:$ 21.10
Grading and packing expense................: 85.86
Containers..................................: 28.43
Hauling.................................... : 18.48
Selling ....................................: 31.70

Total harvesting and marketing cost..........:$185.57

Total crop cost.............................. :$550.03
Crop sales................................... :$734.51
Net return ...................................:$184.48


24.99
91.31
31.54
25.26
31.76


:$0.151
:.550
: .190
: .152
: .191


:$204.86 :$1.234


:$595.67
:$611.31
:$ 15.64


:$3.588
:$3.682
:$0.094


/Reported by 3 growers averaging $2.90 per acre.
- Reported by 3 growers averaging $2.90 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.







22

Irish Potatoes
Costs and Returns in the Hasting's Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69

Item 5-Season 1968-69
: Average :

Total number of growers.....................: 123 : 21
Total number of acres ...................... : 27,747 : 4,416
Average acres per grower.....................: 226 : 210
Average yield per acre (cwt) ................ : 135 184

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Cwt

Land rent................................. :$ 29.98 :$ 32.64
Seed...................................... : 75.95 : 78 .87
Fertilizer................................ : 68.57 : 68.40
Spray and dust ............................ : 13.87 16.41
Cultural labor............................: 34.56 : 35.48
Machine hire..............................: 3.08 : 3.35 a/ :
Gas, oil and grease.......................: 11.78 : 11.69
Repair and maintenance.................... : 21.60 : 18.57
Depreciation ................................ 21.11 22.40
Licenses and insurance.....................: 7.75 9.02
Interest on production capital(6% 4-mos.).: 5.47 : 5.62
Interest on capital invested(other than land) 2.11 : 2.24
Miscellaneous expense..................... : 6.41 : 6.42

Total growing cost............. .......... :$302.24 :$311.11 $1.691

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Digging expense.......................... :$ 19.51 :$ 30.06 :$0.163
Grading and packing expense...............: 38.39 : 59.67 :.324
Containers ................................ : 24.45 : 36.21 .197
Hauling......................................: 18.20 : 29.35 : .160
Selling..................................... 26.41 : 42.86 : .233

Total harvesting and marketing cost.........:$126.96 :$198.15 :$1.077

Total crop cost ............................. :$429.20 :$509.26 :$2.768
Crop sales.................................. :$494.83 :$534.94 :$2.907
Net return....................................:$ 65.63 :$ 25.68 :$0.139


Source: Grower records and estimated.


a/Reported by 14 growers averaging $5.02 per acre.









23
Irish Potatoes
Costs and Returns in the Immokalee-Lee Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69

: 5-Season o
Item eason 1968-69
: Average :

Total number of growers......................: 30 5
Total number of acres .........................: 5,982 1,661
Average acres per grower......................;: 199 332
Average yield per acre (cwt) ...................: 147 171

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Cwt

Land rent................................... :$ 20.93 :$ 26.14
Seed ........................................: 104.52 : 112.16
Fertilizer.................................. : 94.09 80.05
Spray and dust.............................. : 33.43 29.89
Cultural labor...............................: 45.38 59.71
Machine hire................................. : 4.21 : 8.08 a/:
Gas, oil and grease..........................: 11.10 10.56
Repair and maintenance......................: 16.33 23.69
Depreciation................................ : 17.39 33.79
Licenses and insurance......................: 9.28 8.31
Interest on production capital (6% 4 mos.)..: 7.01 : 7.50
Interest on capital invested (other than land) 1.74 : 3.38
Miscellaneous expense .....................: 11.38 16.36

Total growing cost............................:$376.79 :$419.62 :$ 2.454

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Digging expense.............................:$ 31.72 :$ 37.42 :$ 0.219
Grading and packing expense.................: 72.18 : 102.56 : .600
Containers .................................. : 28.30 35.62 : .208
Hauling.....................................: 24.13 28.78 .168
Selling............................... ... : 28.52 39.50 .231

Total harvesting and marketing cost...........:$184.85 :$243.88 :$ 1.426

Total crop cost...............................:$561.64 :$663.50 :$ 3.880
Crop sales ................................... :$660.40 :$668.80 :$ 3.911
Net return....................................:$ 98.76 :$ 5.30 :$ 0.031


a/
Reported by 3 growers averaging $13.47 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.











Radishes
Costs and Returns in the Everglades Area
Season 1968-69


Item 1968-69


Total number of growers........................: 4
Total number of acres.......................... .: 9,423
Average acres per grower .......................: 2,356
Average yield per acre (30 6 oz. packages)...: 214

Growing costs: Average per
Acre 30 6 oz. pkgs.

Land rent.................................... :$ 9.85
Seed......................................... : 6.43
Fertilizer .................................. : 4.67
Spray and dust...............................: 5.68
Cultural labor................................: 17.37
Machine hire .................................. : 2.18 a/:
Gas, oil and grease..........................: 4.09
Repair and maintenance.......................: 9.15
Depreciation.................................. : 5.62
Licenses and insurance.......................: 4.30
Interest on production capital (67 2 mos.).: .66
Interest on capital invested(other than land): .56
Miscellaneous expense........................: 2.51

Total growing cost.............................:$ 73.07 :$0.341

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Digging expense..............................:$ 8.52 :$0.040
Grading and packing expense....................: 61.76 .289
Containers...................................: 42.68 : .199
Hauling.......... ........................... : 4.96 : .023
Other............................. .................: 13.85 .065
Selling ...................................... : 19.04 .089

Total harvesting and marketing costs ........... :$150.81 :$0.705

Total crop cost ................................:$223.88 :$1.046
Crop sales ..................................... :$235.48 :$1.100
Net return....................................:$ 11.60 :$0.054


a/Reported by 3 growers averaging $2.90 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.










Squash
Costs and Returns in the Dade County Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


Item 5-Seas1968-69
: Average :

Total number of growers........................: 37 : 7
Total number of acres..........................: 5,450 : 1,230
Average acres per grower.......................: 147 : 176
Average yield per acre (bushels)................: 133 : 128

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel

Land rent .................. ................. :$ 30.20 :$ 23.50
Seed ................................ .. .. .. : 9.23 L 8.45
Fertilizer................................... 50.54 : 66.72
Spray and dust ...............................: 36.10 40.56
Cultural labor ...............................: 33.99 : 40.45
Machine hire .................................: 5.14 : 6.80a/
Gas, oil and grease .......................... 13.25 16.19
Repair and maintenance .......................: 18.52 :21.72
Depreciation.................................: 14.69 : 18.65
Licenses and insurance.......................: 9.80 1 13.9
Interest on production capital (6% 4 mos.)...: 4.27 4.92
Interest on capital invested (other than land) 1.47 1 1.87
Miscellaneous expense........ ... 0 .....: 6.75 8.38

Total growing cost............. ............ :$233.95 :$271.30 :$2.120

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense .................. :$ 99.78 :$149.67 :$1.169
Containers.......................................: 71.43 : 64.28 : .502
Hauling ...................................... : 13.42 : 12.76 : .100
Selling ..................................... : 19.43 : 24.25 : .189

Total harvesting and marketing cost............ :$204.06 :$250.96 :$1.960

Total crop cost ...............................:$438.01 :$522.26 :$4.080
Crop sales...................................:$501.52 :$570.44 :$4.456
Net return ... ....... .............. .............. :$ 63.51 :$ 48.18 :$0.376


a/
- Reported by 5 growers averaging $9.52 per acre.

Source: Grower records and estimates.










Squash
Costs and Returns in the Immokalee-Lee Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


Item : 5-Season :
: Average :

total number of growers .. .................: 21 6
Total number of acres.....,,................: 3,242 :1,044
Average acres per grower .....................: 154 174
Average yield per acre (bushels)..............: 195 : 131

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushe

Land rent ...................................:$ 12.76 :$ 18.00
Seed.................................... .: 6.98 : 6.77
Fertilizer ..................................: 72.10 : 64.97
Spray and dust..............................: 30.32 : 18.19
Cultural labor..............................: 40.41 :59.56
Machine hire ................................: 8.01 13.09 a/
Gas, oil and grease .........................: 12.30 : 11.38
Repair and maintenance. .................: 12.89 : 25.13
Depreciation........... .................: 16.47 : 22.94
Licenses and insurance......................: 5.25 : 8.62
Interest on production capital (67. 4 mos.)..: 4.14 : 4.76
Interest on capital invested(other than land) 1.65 : 2.29
Miscellaneous expense.......................: 5.74 : 12.13

Total growing costs: ..........................:$229.02 :$267.83 :$2.045

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense .............................:$ 57.88 :$ 66.19 :$0.505
Grading and packing expense.................: 81.74 : 60.86 : .465
Containers..................................: 93.23 : 60.02 : .458
Hauling .....................................: 29.38 : 19.07 : .145
Selling .....................................: 25.29 : 20.25 : .155

Total harvesting and marketing cost...........:$287.52 :$226.39 :$1.728

Total crop cost...............................:$516.54 :$494.22 :$3.773
Crop sales ............... .................... :$590.33 :$560.65 :$4.280
Net return .................... ..............:$ 73.79 :$ 66.43 :$0.507


a/
- Reported by 4 growers averaging $19.63 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.









2-7
Squash
Costs and returns in the Palm Beach-Broward Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69

tem : 5-Season : 1968-69
: Average :

Total number of growers......................: 29 9
Total number of acres.........................: 1,344 :236
Average acres per grower.....................: 46 :26
Average yield per acre (bushels).............: 133 : 129

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel

Land rent..................................:$ 34.11 :$ 45.31
Seed....................... ..............: 8.72 : 5.27
Fertilizer................................ 50.90 55.24
Spray and dust.............................: 35.51 : 42.24
Cultural labor.............................: 43.15 : 45.64
Machine hire.............................. : 14.63 : 14.62 a/
Gas, oil and grease........................: 14.97 L 15.70
Repair and maintenance..................... 19.55 : 28.83
Depreciation..............................: 14.05 : 21.06
Licenses and insurance.....................: 12.17 : 10.40
Interest on production capital (67. 4 mos.) 4.84 : 5.45
Interest on capital invested (other than land) 1.41 : 2.11
Miscellaneous expense.....................: 8.07 : 9.22

Total growing cost...........................:$262.08 :$301.09 :$2.334

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense................:$103.59 :$128.49 :$0.996
Containers................................: 83.33 : 83.28 : .646
Hauling....................................: 17.97 : 13.87 : .108
Selling....................................: 22.32 : 23.03 : .178

Total harvesting and marketing cost..........:$227.21 :$248.67 :$1.928

Total crop cost..............................:$489.29 :$549.76 :$4.262
Crop sales................................... :$621.55 :$678.25 :$5.258
Net return...................................:$132.26 :$128.49 :$0.996


a/Reported by 8 growers averaging $24.45 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.










Tomatoes
Costs and Returns in the Dade County Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


Item : 5-Season :
: Average :


Total number of growers......................:
Total number of acres..........................:
Average acres per grower......................:
Average yield per acre ( 40 lb.)..............:


54
47,391
878
220


Growing costs:


Acre


Average per
Acre


Land rent................................... :$ 40.65
Seed ........................................: 6.53
Fertilizer.................................. 123.26
Spray and dust..............................: 78.64
Cultural labor.............................. 93.63
Machine hire................................: 14.44
Gas, oil and grease.........................: 19.11
Repair and maintenance......................: 30.29
Depreciation................................: 19.72
Licenses and insurance......................: 14.62
Interest on production capital (67. 5 mos.)..: 10.80
Interest on capital invested (other than land) 1.97
Miscellaneous expense........................: 10.67

Total growing cost............................:$464.33

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense.............................:$102.25
Grading and packing expense.................: 107.06
Containers .................................: 78.07
Hauling.................... .............. : 19.83
Selling................................... : 27.50

Total harvesting and marketing costs..........:$334.71

Total crop cost............................... :$799.04
Crop sales.................................... $788.22
Net return ....................................:$-10.82


a/y 4 growers averaging $16.46 per acre.
- Reported by 4 growers averaging $16.46 per acre.


:$ 27.39
6.08
: 143.77
:86.04
:96.06
13.17 a/ :
17.45
31.37
18.63
8.71
:10.94
1.86
7.33

:$468.80 :$2.121


:$146.25
: 124.60
: 86.82
: 32.92
: 33.12


:$0.661
: .564
:.393
: .149
: .150


:$423.71 :$1.917


:$892.51
:$894.80
:$ 2.29


:$4.038
:$4.049
:$0.011


Source: Grower records and estimates.


5
9,246
1,849
221


40 lb.








Tomatoes
Costs and Returns in the Ft. Pierce Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


Item : 5-Season 1968-69
: Average :
Total number of growers..........................: 34 : 11
Total number of acres ..........................: 14,708 : 3,145
Average acres per grower.........................: 433 : 286
Average yield per acre (40 lb.) ..............: 291 : 263

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre 40 Ib.
Land rent ..... ... ..................... :$ 10.45 :$ 16.04
Seed........................................ 7.33 6.58
Fertilizer ... ....................... ....: 92.67 116.80
Spray and dust...............................: 68.91 : 67.38
Cultural labor.............................. : 138.43 : 134.47
Machine hire ..............................: 50.09 106.11
Gas, oil and grease..........................: 22.33 : 25.34
Repair and maintenance.....................: 34.59 39.40
Depreciation .......................... 21.70 16.95
Licenses and insurance.....................: 11.20 : 7.42
Interest on production capital (67. 5 mos.)...: 11.19 : 13.29
Interest on capital invested (other than land) 2.17 : 1.70
Miscellaneous expense.......................: 11.55 11.97

Total growing cost..............................:$ 482.61 :$ 563.45 :$2.142

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense ............................:$ 138.40 :$ 209.24 :$0.796
Grading and packing expense.................: 125.28 : 158.13 :$ .601
Containers........ ....... .. ...............: 95.42 : 102.47 : .390
Hauling.................................... : 43.01 : 39.24 : .149
Selling ........ ........................: 34.53 : 39.44 : .150

Total harvesting and marketing cost ............ :$436.64 :$ 548.52 :$2.086

Total crop cost.................................:$ 919.25 :$1111.97 :$4.228
Crop sales.................. ....... ....... :$1046.80 :$1422.05 :$5.407
Net return...................................... :$ 127.55 :$ 310.08 :$1.179


Source: Grower records and estimates.








Tomatoes
Costs and Returns in the Immokalee-Lee Area
5-Season Average 1963.-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


Itm : 5-Season : 1968-69
Item 1968-69
: Average :

Total number of growers ........................; 61 19
Total number of acres..........................: 14,931 3,080
Average acres per grower .......................: 245 162
Average yield per acre ( 40 lb.)...............: 284 264

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre 40 lb

Land rent ............ .. ............ ......: 13.17 :$ 18.78
Seed................................... ......: 8.41 9.84
Fertilizer...................................: 100.58 : 115.00
Spray and dust...............................: 73.93 72.05
Cultural labor...............................: 118.30 115.06
Machine hire.................................: 45.43 : 39.96 a/:
Gas, oil and grease..........................: 21.99 : 23.38
Repair and maintenance .......................: 31.10 40.27
Depreciation.................................: 28.57 25.54
Licenses and insurance......................: 9.36 7.19
Interest on production capital (6% 5 mos.)...: 11.02 : 11.45
Interest on capital invested (other than land) 2.86 : 2.55
Miscellaneous expense........................: 18.68 16.64

Total growing cost.............................: 483.40 :$ 497.71 :$1,885

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense .............................:$ 141.16 :$ 218.13 :$0.826
Grading and packing expense..................: 148.37 : 191.77 : .727
Containers ...................................: 101.67 : 102.82 : .389
Hauling......................................: 39.42 : 51.52 : .195
Selling ...................................... : 34.78 : 41.07 : .156

Total harvesting and marketing cost............:$ 465.40 :$ 605.31 :$2.293

Total crop cost................................:$ 948.80 :$1103.02 :$4.178
Crop sales .....................................:$1062.30 :$1458.71 :$5.525
Net return .....................................:$ 113.50 :$ 355.69 :$1.347


a/Reported by 17 growers averaging $44.66 per acre.
- Reported by 17 growers averaging $44.66 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.











Staked Tomatoes
Costs and Returns in the Manatee-Ruskin Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


: 5-Season :
Item 5-Season 1968-69
: Average :

Total number of growers......................... : 56 12
Total number of acres...........................: 9,080 1,945
Average acres per grower........................: 162 162
Average yield per acre (40 lb.) .......... .....: 66 : 439

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre 40 lb.

Land rent.................................... :$ 40.00 :$ 31.11
Seed ......................................... : 8.92 9.99
Fertilizer...................................: 147.39 154.40
Spray and dust............................... : 92.16 : 85.67
Cultural labor................................: 270.73 290.06
Machine hire..................................: 18.07 23.13 a/:
Gas, oil and grease...........................: 34.17 38.99
Repair and maintenance........................: 44.39 34.42
Depreciation................................. : 51.49 62.38
Licenses and insurance........................: 26.36 30.51
Interest on production capital (6% 5 mos.)...: 18.20 : 18.82
Interest on capital invested (other than land) 5.15 6.24
Miscellaneous expense........................: 46.01 54.61

Total growing cost..............................:$ 803.04 :$ 840.33 :$1.914

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense..............................:$ 227.66 :$ 213.85 :$0.487
Grading and packing expense....................: 379.45 :360.35 :.821
Containers............................ .......: 223.01 : 163.97 .374
Hauling...................................... : 48.80 40.58 : .092
Selling...................................... : 70.15 50.85 .116

Total harvesting and marketing cost.............:$ 949.07 :$ 829.60 :$1.890

Total crop cost .................................:$1752.11 :$1669.93 :$3.804
Crop sales...................................... :$2072.54 :$2123.39 :$4.837
Net return..................................... :$ 320.43 :$ 453.46 :$1.033



a/Reported by 10 growers averaging $27.76 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.













Vine-Ripe Tomatoes
Costs and Returns in the Immokalee-Lee Area
Season 1968-69


Item 1968-69


Total number of growers..........
Total number of acres...........
Average acres per grower.........
Average yield per acre ( 40 lb.).


Growing costs:


Average per
Acre 40 lb.


Land rent ....................................:$
Seed ......................................... :
Fertilizer.....................................
Spray and dust............................... :
Cultural labor ...............................:
Machine hire................................. :
Gas, oil and grease............................:
Repair and maintenance........................:
Depreciation..................................
Licenses and insurance....................... :
Interest on production capital (67. 5 mos.)...:
Interest on capital invested(other than land)


Miscellaneous expense....


42.62
11.52
244.34
178.67
775.31
163.26 a/
52.70
104.63
89.61
38.38
44.69
8.96


.................. : 176 .03


Total growing cost............................. :$1930.72

Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking expense.......................
Grading and packing expense............
Containers............................
Hauling...............................
Selling...............................


561.91
515.03
306.64
112.50
128.87


Total harvesting and marketing cost............ :$624.95


Total crop cost.........................
Crop sales ..............................
Net return...............................


....... :$3555.67
...... :$3327.72
....... :$-227.95


:$ 3.197


:$ 0.930
.853
.508
.186
.213

:$ 2.690

:$ 5.887
:$ 5.510
:$-0.377


Source: Grower records and estimates.


aReported by 3 growers averaging $217.68 per acre.
- Reported by 3 growers averaging $217.68 per acre.


. .. .. . :
..............:
..............:
..............:


:$











Vine-Ripe Tomatoes
Costs and Returns in the Palm Beach-Broward Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


: 5-Season :
Item 19 68 -69
: Average :


Total number of growers ........................ :
Total number of acres.......................... :
Average acres per grower ................. ..... :
Average yield per acre (40 lb.) ............... :


73
11,482
157
856


15
2,285
152
602


Growing costs:


Average per
Acre Acre


Land rent..................
Seed.......................
Fertilizer.................
Spray and dust..............
Cultural labor..............
Machine hire...............
Gas, oil and grease.........
Repair and maintenance.....
Depreciation..............


Licenses and insurance....................... :
Interest on production capital (67o 5 mos.)...:
Interest on capital invested (other than land)
Miscellaneous expense........................ :


65.98 :$
13.03
298.96
185.68
04.66
64.72
43.74
70.49
54.64
51.11
47.65
5.46
107.65


Total growing cost............................. :$2013.77


40 lb.


88 .37
12.85
282.57
195.23
1141.55
136.01
43.52
83.96
47.90
58.02
54.48
4.79
137.05


:$2286.30


:$3.798


Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking expense...............................:$ 557.38
Grading and packing expense...................: 687.89
Containers................................... : 507.65
Hauling...................... .................: 85.38
Selling...................................... 179 .12

Total harvesting and marketing cost............:$2017.42

Total crop cost................................ :$4031.19
Crop sales..................................... :$4653.07
Net return..................................... :$ 621.88


542.00
621.59
349.46
80.90
121.93


:$1715.88

:$4002.18
:$3690.80
:$-311.38


:$0.900
: 1.033
:.580
S.134
: .203


:$6.648
:$6.131
:$-.517


Source: Grower records and estimates.


: 2
: i

:10










Watermelons
Costs and Returns in the Immokalee-Lee Area
5-Season Average 1963-64 to 1967-68 and 1968-69


:5-Season :
Item 1968-69
: Average 2

Total number of growers .......................: 67 : 17
Total number of acres.........................: 11,803 : 3,0y3
Average acres per grower...................... : 176 : 179
Average yield per acre (cwt).................. : 212 : 203

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Cwt

Land rent ................................... :$ 13.92 :$ 17.82
Seed ........................................ : 5.36 3.74
Fertilizer..................................: 97.76 : 105.17
Spray and dust ..............................: 57.75 : 66.36
Cultural labor..............................: 90.39 : 111.20
Machine hire.................................: 31.53 35.11 a/:
Gas, oil and grease .........................: 15.29 17.62
Repair and maintenance ......................: 20.99 : 30.39
Depreciation.................................: 21.29 : 25.42
Licenses and insurance.......................: 6.83 : 5.95
Interest on production capital (67. 5 mos.)..: 8.74 : 10.16
Interest on capital invested(other than land) 2.13 : 2.54
Miscellaneous expense........................: 9.75 12.96

Total growing cost ............................:$381.73 :$444.44 :$ 2.189

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense..............................:$ 26.77 :$ 43.33 :$ 0.213
Grading and packing expense.................: 17.27 : 35.42 : .175
Materials................................... : 7.64 5.80 .029
Hauling.....................................: 53.63 68.22 .336
Selling .....................................: 48.58 5',82 .255

Total harvesting and marketing cost...........:$153.89 :$204.59 :$ 1.008

Total crop cost............................... :$535.62 :$649.03 :$ 3.197
Crop sales ............... ..................... :$495.60 :$614.88 :$ 3.029
Net return.................................... :$-40.02 :$-34.15 :$-0.168



- Reported by 15 growers averaging $39.79 per acre.

Source: Grower records and estimates.



Agr. Econ. Exp. Sta., 1500

DLB/eh 2/2/70