<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Map
 Definitions
 Main


UF FLAG IFAS PALMM



Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026154/00011
 Material Information
Title: Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
Series Title: 197374- Economic information report
Portion of title: Vegetable crops in Florida
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1983
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Vegetable trade -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Coastal Engineering Department series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000304067
oclc - 03425969
notis - ABT0638
lccn - 76368517 //r77
issn - 0149-0613
System ID: UF00026154:00011

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Abstract
        Page i
    Foreword
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
    Map
        Page vi
    Definitions
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
Full Text

Timothy G. Taylor
David Locascio



Costs and F


Economic Information
Report 205


returns from Vegetable


Crops in Florida,


with


Season


1983-84


Comparisons


Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611


June 1985











ABSTRACT


Costs and returns were estimated for 14 vegetable crops in one or more

of nine major production areas for the 1983-84 season. Of the 21 crop-area

combinations surveyed, 12 crops were estimated to have incurred losses on

average. Total per acre costs ranged from $561.35 for.Everglades radishes

to $12,333.41 for Plant City strawberries. Estimated net returns ranged

from -$1,779.87 per acre for Plant City strawberries to $657.31 per acre for

Everglades celery.













Key words: vegetables, operating cost, fixed cost, harvesting and marketing

cost, net return.


1










FORWARD


This is the twenty-fourth ,annual summary of costs and returns for Flor-

ida vegetable crops. Although the basic structure of this report is similar

to that of past summaries, there are some significant changes of which the

reader should be aware.

The first major change is that the five season averages of production

costs and returns have been replaced by the previous season's (1982-83)

data. This provides an easier format for directly viewing specific changes

in cost from the 1982-83 season to the 1983-84 season.

There have been three changes in the categories for which costs are

reported. First, the spray and dust category has, when possible, been dis-

aggregated into two separate categories: 1) pesticides, and 2) sterilants

and herbicides. Secondly, a new category, plastic, stakes and twine has

been added. These costs were previously included in the miscellaneous cate-

gory. Finally, the category, interest on investment, has been deleted.

This category has become increasingly difficult to measure and represents an

extremely small proportion of total costs.

The cost and returns estimates for each crop were obtained on the basis

of data obtained from individual growers and statistical estimation. To

increase accuracy in estimating yields and prices, considerable use was made

of Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service Data. The reader should

note, however, that budgetary constraints have resulted in decreased sample

sizes for many crops. Thus, extreme care is urged is the use of this data.










ACKNOWLEDGMENT


The authors wish to express appreciation to the many vegetable growers

for their cooperation in supplying the basic data utilized in preparing the

report. In addition, various county agents, the Florida Fruit and Vegetable

Association, Florida Tomato Committee and Florida Crop and Livestock Report-

ing Service provided valuable assistance.








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ABSTRACT .......... .... .......... .................................... i


FOREWARD .............. ......... ........................... .......... i


ACKNOWLEDGMENT......................................................... iii


MAP OF FLORIDA VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS.............................. vi


DEFINITIONS.......................................................... vii




LIST OF TABLES

Table

1 Summary of estimated per acre cost and returns
for selected Florida vegetables, 1983-84........................ 1


2 SNAP BEANS: Costs and returns per acre in the
Dade County area, 1982-83 and 1983-84........................... 2


3 CABBAGE: Costs and returns per acre in the
Hastings area, 1982-83 and 1983-84............................... 3


4 CELERY: Costs and returns per acre in the
Central Florida area, 1982-83 and 1983-84....................... 4


5 CELERY: Costs and returns per acre in the
Everglades area, 1982-83 and 1983-84............................ 5


6 SWEET CORN: Costs and returns per acre in the
Central Florda area, 1982-83 and 1983-84....................... 6


7 SWEET CORN: Costs and returns per acre in the
Everglades area, 1982-83 and 1983-84............................ 7


8 SWEET CORN: Costs and returns per acre in the
Lower East Coast area, 1982-83 and 1983-84...................... 8









Table

9 CUCUMBERS: Costs and returns per acre in the
Immokalee-Lee area, 1982-83 and 1983-84....................... 9


10 LEAF CROPS: Costs and returns per acre in the
Central Florida area, 1982-83 and 1983-84....................... 10


11 LEAF CROPS: Costs and returns per acre in the
Everglades area, 1982-83 and 1983-84............................. 11


12 PEPPERS: Costs and returns per acre in the
Immokalee-Lee area, 1982-83 and 1983-84......................... 12


13 PEPPERS: Costs and returns per acre in the
Palm Beach-Broward area, 1982-83 and 1983-84.................... 13


14 IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the
Dade County area, 1982-83 and 1983-84........................... 14


15 IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the
Hastings area, 1982-83 and 1983-84.............................. 15


16 RADISHES: Costs and returns per acre in the
Everglades area, 1982-83 and 1983-84............................ 16


17 SQUASH: Costs and returns per acre in the
Palm Beach-Broward area, 1982-83 and 1983-84.................... 17


18 STRAWBERRIES: Costs and returns per acre in the
Plant City area, 1982-83 and 1983-84............................ 18


19 TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the
Dade County area, 1982-83 and 1983-84........................... 19


20 STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the
Immokalee-Lee area, 1982-83 and 1983-84......................... 20


21 STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the
Manatee-Ruskin area, 1982-83 and 1983-84........................ 21


22 WATERMELONS: Costs and returns per acre in the
Immokalee-Lee area, 1982-83 and 1983-84......................... 22







FLORIDA VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS
With Principal Vegetables Produced


1 Dade-tomatoes, snap and pole beans, Irish
potatoes, squash, cucumbers, strawberries.
2 Palm Beach-Broward-snap beans, peppers,
eggplant, cucumbers, squash, tomatoes.
3 Immokalee-Lee--tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers,
squash, Irish potatoes, watermelons.
4 Everglades--snap beans, sweet corn, cabbage,
escarole, celery, Irish potatoes, radishes.
5 Fort Pierce-tomatoes, watermelons.
6 Wauchula-cucumbers, tomatoes, watermelons.
7 Sarasota-celery, radishes, lettuce, cabbage.
8 Manatee-Ruskin-tomatoes, cabbage, cauliflower,
watermelons.
9 Plant City-strawberries, peppers, squash, pole
beans, southern peas, okra.
10 Sumter-cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, lettuce,
watermelons.
11 Zellwood--sweet corn, celery, escarole, lettuce,
snap beans, radishes.
12 Sanford-Oviedo-cabbage, celery, snap beans,
lettuce, escarole, sweet corn, peppers.
13 Oxford-Belleview-Lowell--tomatoes, watermelons.
14 Mclntoch-Island Grove-squash, snap beans, celery,
cabbage, lettuce, watermelons.
15 Alachua-snap beans, cucumbers, peppers, Irish
potatoes, watermelons.
16 Hastings-Irish potatoes, cabbage.
17 Starke-Brooker-Lake Butler--snap and lima beans,
cucumbers, peppers, squash, strawberries.
18 Quincy-Havana--pole beans, cucumbers, squash,
tomatoes.
19 Escambia--Irish Potatoes.


r; r










DEFINITIONS


Average yield per acre: The number of saleable units per acre harvested.


Land rent: In the interest of uniformity, land rent was charged for all
acreages and crops at the prevailing rate reported by growers in the area.
This was done to avoid difficulties in the determination of a normal valua-
tion, interest charge for use of land and capitalization of land values in a
period of fluctuating values and prices. Taxes on farm real estate are ex-
cluded since rent is being charged.


Seed/transplants includes the cost of seed or plants for planting the crop.
If a seedbed was used, the figures, unless otherwise noted, include the
costs of labor and materials for growing plants as well as seed costs.


Fertilizer represents the actual cost of nutrient materials applied to pro-
duce the crop. Labor or machine costs of application are not included.


Pesticides represent the cost of all insecticides and fungicides applied.
Labor and/or machine costs are not included.


Sterilants and herbicides include nematicides as well. Only the cost of
materials applied is considered. Labor and/or machine costs are not
included.


Cultural labor contains the value of farm labor, whether hired or family, to
produce the crop from ground preparation until ready for harvest. It does
not include supervision by the operator.


Machine hire is the cost of machine work hired, including use of airplanes
when applicable, in producing the crop. This item includes labor charges
for the machine operator and charges for the use of equipment.


Gas, oil and grease include the cost of gas, oil and grease required to
operator tractors, trucks, sprayers, pumps and other machinery in producing
the crop. It may also include electrical power expense for irrigation when
utilized.


Repair and maintenance represent the cost of repairs to equipment used in
producing the crop. It also includes the small tools such as hoes, rakes
and shovels purchased and charged off as a current expenditure.




vii










Depreciation includes the annual charge for depreciation and obsolescence of
equipment and labor housing.


Licenses and insurance represent the cost of licenses and insurance items
when chargeable to the farm business. Licenses include those for trucks and
autos used on the farm. Insurance includes labor and crop insurance and
fire or windstorm insurance on buildings and equipment. It excludes health
or accident insurance for the operator or his family.


Plastic, stakes and twine represent the actual cost of some or all of these
items as is relevant for each crop. Labor and machine costs associated with
these items are not included.


Interest on production capital was charged at the rate of 13 1/2 percent on
all cash costs for the number of months required to grow and market the crop
regardless of whether or not much production capital was actually borrowed.


Miscellaneous includes such items as office supplies, administrative expense
other than value of the operator's management, legal and audit fees, tele-
phone and incidental expenses.


Harvesting and marketing expense, where possible, has been divided into two
items: (1) picking, and (2) grading and packing. Picking, cutting, or
digging expense includes actual cost of harvesting the crop and preparing it
for movement to packinghouse or wash house. Washing or grading and packing
expense includes preparation of the product for shipment either in the field
or at an adjacent packinghouse. It includes machinery and overhead costs in
addition to labor. The same is true for all crops in all areas where grad-
ing and packing is done off the farm in packinghouses.


Containers include the cost of hampers, crates, bags or baskets in which the
product is moved to market.


Hauling is the cost of movement of the product from field to packinghouse or
loading point. It is often computed on a contract basis and includes labor
and equipment items. In cases where hauling was performed by the operator's
trucks, the costs have been separated from production labor and machine
expense items as nearly as possible.


Other includes the cost of precooling the commodity prior to shipment and,
for celery and sweet corn, the contribution to the Marketing Agreement Pro-
gram. Inspection fees, when incurred, are included in packinghouse charges
and are not reported as a separate item.


viii











Selling is the packinghouse, market, sales organization or dealer's charge
for performing the sales service for the crop when deducted from the pro-
ducer's price. The cost does not include charges for unloading, grading,
packing.


Total receipts are the gross returns before deduction of all expenses, in
producing, harvesting, and marketing the crop.


Net return is the return to the producer after deduction of all expenses, in
producing, harvesting and marketing the crop.


Per-unit costs and returns were computed by dividing the average yield per
acre in the sample into the various items of cost shown in the individual
tables. They are merely averages of the data recorded and, in some cases,
do not reflect the full cost of performing the service because all growers
may not have incurred every item of cost.


1











Table 1. Summary of estimated per acre costs and returns for selected Florida
1983-84.


vegetables,


Crop


Area


Snap Beans
Cabbage
Celery
Celery
Sweet Corn
Sweet Corn
Sweet Corn
Cucumbers
Leaf Crops
Leaf Crops
Peppers
Peppers
Irish Potatoes
Irish Potatoes
Radishes
Squash
Strawberries
Tomatoes
Staked Tomatoes
Staked Tomatoes
Watermelon


Preharvest
Cost


$781.72

910.39
1,892.69
3,229.69
886.10
865.51
1,168.66
1,654.85
1,040.67
1,401.68
2,707.42
3,363.62
1,665.19
1,144.41
297.34
967.54
5,844.76
2,449.36
3,426.42
2,445.57
1,421.57


--~-----


Total
Cost


Harvest and
Marketing Cost

$449.30
356.17
1,869.17
1,919.84
591.55
536.82
634.49
1,847.82
1,256.39
1,645.14
1,230.60
1,485.12
389.77
305.77
264.01
378.20
6,488.65
3,296.25
2,767.86
2,778.31
571.90


Total
Return


$1,231.02
1,266.56
3,761.86
5,149.53
1,477.65
1,402.33
1,803.15
3,502.67
2,297.06
3,046.82
3,938.02
4,848.74
2,054.96
1,450.18
561.35
1,345.74
12,333.41
5,745.66
6,194.28
5,223.88
1,993.47


Net
Return


$1,426.30
930.74
2,925.06
5,806.84
1,359.52
913.42
2,260.15
3,599.94
2,181.10
2,653.80
3,074.40
4,373.76
2,706.11
1,524.14
902.52
1,800.00
10,553.54
7,485.42
5,825.00
4,240.11
1,710.00


Pl"n''~"n;T~~"I~- L-~2~-ZI~-5~Y=


$195.88
-335.82
-836.80
657.31
-118.13
-488.91
457.00
97.27
-115.96
-393.02
-863.62
-474.98
651.15
73.96
341.17
454.26
-1,779.87
1,739.76
-369.28
-983.77
-283.47











Table 2. Snap Beans: Costs and returns per acre in
seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.


the Dade County area,


1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre Bushel

Yield (bushels) 91 151


TOTAL RECEIPTS . . . .


$964.60


$1,426.30


$9.45


Operating Costs


Seed/transplants . .
Fertilizer . . .
Pesticides .......
Sterilants and herbicides
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil, grease . .
Repair and maintenance .
Interest (13 1/2% 4 months)
Plastic, stakes and twine
Miscellaneous . .


TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . . .


76.10
110.44
78.64

93.98
8.47
45.07
75.37
32.30

20.18

540.55


93.46
105.17
80.53
25.94
77.89

36.61
42.22
31.15

11.71

504.68


3.34


Fixed Costs


Land rent . .
Depreciation . ...
Licenses and insurance .


TOTAL FIXED COST . . .


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Cutting and Packing ..
Containers . *.....
Hauling . . .
Other . . .
Selling . . .


TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS .

TOTAL COSTS . . . .


NET RETURN


. . .... .


187.50
60.39
22.05

269.94


145.12
82.14
20.24

36.40

283.90

,094.39

-129.79


181.42
62.81
32.81

277.04


1.84


237.71
136.47
10.07

65.05

449.30

,231.02

195.28


1.57
0.91
0.07

0.43

2.98

8.15

1.29


t I f .











Table 3. Cabbage: Costs and returns per acre in the Hastings area, seasons
1982-83 and 1983-84.

1982-83 1983-84
Average per
Category Acre Acre 50 Ibs

Yield (50 Ibs) 431 188

TOTAL RECEIPTS . . ... $1,778.08 $930.74 $4.95


Operating Costs

Seed/transplants . . ... .86.81 72.53
Fertilizer . . .... .146.91 131.24
Pesticides . . .... .112.78 67.73
Sterilants and herbicides .. 31.43
Cultural labor . . ... 195.00 192.90
Machine hire . . ... .3.88 1.63
Gas, oil, grease . . ... .77.70 87.31
Repair and maintenance . ... .78.66 81.12
Interest (13 1/2% 4 months) 42.47 37.29
Plastic, stakes and twine . -
Miscellaneous . . ... .22.57 33.46

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . ... 766.78 736.64 3.92


Fixed Costs

Land rent . . ... 64.89 50.67
Depreciation . . ... .42.67 44.37
Licenses and insurance . ... 156.51 78.71

TOTAL FIXED COST . . ... 264.07 173.75 0.92


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Cutting and Packing . ... 304.39 122.24 0.65
Containers . .... .. 479.39 179.28 0.95
Hauling ...... .. . 17.57 6.11 0.03
Other . . .
Selling . .... . 143.75 48.54 0.26

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS 945.10 356.17 1.90

TOTAL COSTS ..... .. . .. 1,975.95 1,266.56 6.74

NET RETURN . . .... .-197.95 -335.82 -1.79











Table 4. Celery: Costs and returns per acre in the
seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.


Central Florida area,


1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre Crate

Yield (crates) 645 369


TOTAL RECEIPTS . . .. $5,076.15


$2,925.06


$7.93


Operating Costs


Seed/transplants . .
Fertilizer . . .
Pesticides . . .
Sterilants and herbicides
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire .....
Gas, oil, grease . .
Repair and maintenance .
Interest (13 1/2 % 5 months)
Plastic, stakes and twine .
Miscellaneous . .


TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . . .


Fixed Costs


Land rent . . .
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance .


TOTAL FIXED COST . . .


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Cutting and Packing .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . .
Other . . .
Selling . . .


TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS .

TOTAL COSTS . . . .


. . . .


121.19
175.35
177.45

353.04
25.82
53.00
234.36
89.38

224.28


127.54
233.00
182.48

370.49
30.79
92.94
303.42
94.90

135.88


4.26


110.22
71.59
114.23

296.04


901.14
514.85
91.20
201.83
132.60


92.29
110.66
118.30

321.25


979.80
391.42
119.73
255.07
123.15


0.87


2.66
1.06
0.33
0.69
0.33

5.07

10.20

-2.27


3,591.53


-836.80


NET RETURN











Table 5. Celery: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area,
seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.

1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre Crate

Yield (crates) 591 676

TOTAL RECEIPTS . . $5,183.07 $5,806.84 $8.59


Operating Costs

Seed/transplants . .... 158.01 150.40
Fertilizer . .... .. 293.45 271.65
Pesticides . . ... .. 488.81 329.95
Sterilants and herbicides . 349.95
Cultural labor ...... . 664.14 485.67
Machine hire . . ... 117.91
Gas, oil, grease . . 97.66 143.87
Repair and maintenance . ... 300.49 657.67
Interest (13 1/2% 4 months) 106.96 130.48
Plastic, stakes and twine . -
Miscellaneous . . . 83.47 78.63

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . . 2192.99 2716.18 4.02


Fixed Costs

Land rent ......... .. 168.75 154.92
Depreciation . .... . 156.15 198.92
Licenses and insurance ... . 122.10 159.67

TOTAL FIXED COST . .... . 447.00 513.51 0.76


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Cutting and Packing . .. 710.07 851.76 1.26
Containers .... . 546.97 601.64 0.89
Hauling . . . 165.70 141.96 0.21
Other . .... . 260.82 236.60 0.35
Selling ... .. . . 140.50 87.88 0.13

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS 1,824.06 1,919.84 2.84

TOTAL COSTS . . .. 4,464.05 5,149.53 7.62

NET RETURN . .... .. . 719.02 657.31 0.97












Table 6. Sweet Corn: Costs and returns per acre in
area, seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.


the Central Florida


1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre Crate

Yield (crates) 236 259


TOTAL RECEIPTS . . .. $1,257.88


$1,359.52


$5.25


Operating Costs


Seed/transplants . .
Fertilizer . .
Pesticides . . .
Sterilants and herbicides
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil, grease . .
Repair and maintenance .
Interest (13 1/2% 4 months)
Plastic, stakes and twine
Miscellaneous . .


TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . . .


20.86
92.01
161.12

33.94
42.83
51.86
130.70
41.96

187.71

762.99


23.20
62.23
154.60

71.73
47.87
45.84
122.71
35.82
-
100.17

664.17


2.56


Fixed Costs


Land rent . . .
Depreciation .............
Licenses and insurance .. .....

TOTAL FIXED COST . . .


96.41
40.10
46.09

182.60


82.89
54.30
84.74

221.93


0.86


Harvesting and Marketing Costs


Picking and Packing . . .
Containers . . .. .
Hauling . . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS .

TOTAL COSTS . . . .

NET RETURN . . . .


184.82
211.40
33.04
59.80
59.00

548.06

.-493.65

-235.77


177.53
252.66
30.00
90.24
41.12

591.55


0.69
0.98
0.12
0.38
0.16

2.28

3.71


-118.13 -0.46


---------------












Table 7. Sweet Corn: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area,
seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.

1982-83 1983-84
Average per
Category Acre Acre Crate

Yield (crates) 190 189

TOTAL RECEIPTS . . . $1,027.90 $913.42 $4.83


Operating Costs

Seed/transplants . . ... .34.87 34.73
Fertilizer . . ... .96.41 115.50
Pesticides . . ... 221.25 234.52
Sterilants and herbicides .. 16.07
Cultural labor . . .... .56.49 77.03
Machine hire . . ... 27.60 68.96
Gas, oil, grease . . ... .20.12 48.71
Repair and maintenance . ... .84.38 62.56
Interest (13 1/2% 4 months) . 29.97 33.63
Plastic, stakes and twine . -
Miscellaneous . . . 21.06 2.22

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . .. 592.15 693.93 3.67


Fixed Costs

Land rent . . ... 79.19 76.07
Depreciation . . . 57.40 84.63
Licenses and insurance . ... .24.54 10.88

TOTAL FIXED COST . .. 161.13 171.58 0.91


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking and Packing . ... 134.53 181.23 0.96
Containers . . . 168.19 188.00 0.99
Hauling . . . 56.36 46.11 0.24
Other . . ..... .74.58 96.72 0.51
Selling . . ... 47.74 24.76 0.13

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS 481.40 536.82 2.84

TOTAL COSTS . . . 1234.68 1,402.33 7.42

NET RETURN . . ... -206.78 -488.91 -2.59











Table 8. Sweet Corn: Costs and returns per acre in
area, seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.


the Lower East Coast


1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre Crate

Yield (crates) 175 233


TOTAL RECEIPTS . . .. $1,505.00


$2,260.15


$9.70


Operating Costs


Seed/transplants . . .
Fertilizer . . . .
Pesticides . . . .
Sterilants and herbicides . .
Cultural labor . . .
Machine hire . . . .
Gas, oil, grease . . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Interest (13 1/2% 4 months) .. ..
Plastic, stakes and twine . .
Miscellaneous . . .

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . . .


22.05
135.62
156.90

71.20
32.12
56.28
75.42
33.45

18.99

602.93


35.90
198.57
188.97
50.24
164.13
84.49
66.56
89.91
49.01

39.20

968.98


4.16


Fixed Costs


Land rent . . .
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance . .

TOTAL FIXED COST . . .


138.47
29.44
36.21

204.12


99.30
30.62
69.76


199.68


0.86


Harvesting and Marketing Costs


Picking and Packing . . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS .

TOTAL COSTS . . .


. . . . .


154.20
198.87
13.18
142.10
31.98

540.33


1,347.38

157.62


203.22
246.09
40.80
102.50
41.88

634.49


0.87
1.06
0.18
0.44
0.18

2.76

7.74

1.96


457.00


1,803.15


NET RETURN











Table 9. Cucumbers: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area,
seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.

1982-83 1983-84
Average per
Category Acre Acre Bushel

Yield (bushels) 334 491

TOTAL RECEIPTS .. . $2,595.18 $3,599.94 $7.33


Operating Costs

Seed/transplants . . .. 26.55 83.00
Fertilizer . .... ... 282.02 295.00
Pesticides . .... . 143.12 237.50
Sterilants and herbicides .. 100.00
Cultural labor . .... 232.92 238.60
Machine hire . . .... .38.21 46.21
Gas, oil, grease . .... 81.73 93.36
Repair and maintenance . ... .71.35 73.53
Interest (13 1/2% 4 months) . 47.73 68.69
Plastic, stakes and twine . 144.00
Miscellaneous ..... .. . 31.05 30.43

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . .. 954.68 1,410.32 2.87


Fixed Costs

Land rent . .. . 85.60 106.58
Depreciation . .. . 57.29 59.58
Licenses and insurance . ... .68.20 78.37

TOTAL FIXED COST . . .... 211.09 244.53 0.50


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking . . . .. 518.31 503.90 1.03
Grading and Packing . .. 286.45 715.65 1.46
Containers ... .. . .. 253.51 374.15 0.76
Hauling . . . 107.04 96.00 0.20
Other ....... ....... .- 52.50 0.11
Selling . . . 58.59 105.62 0.22

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS 1,223.90 1,847.82 3.76

TOTAL COSTS . . . 2389.67 3502.67 7.13


NET RETURN 205.51 97.27 0.20


97.27 0.20


205.51


NET RETURN











Table 10. Leaf Cropsa: Costs and returns per acre
area, seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.


in the Central Florida


1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre Crate

Yield (crates) 620 516


TOTAL RECEIPTS .. . . $3,248.80


Operating Costs

Seed/transplants . . .
Fertilizer . . . .
Pesticides . . . .
Sterilants and herbicides . .
Cultural labor . . .
Machine hire . . . .
Gas, oil, grease . . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Interest (13 1/2% 4 months) . .
Plastic, stakes and twine . .
Miscellaneous . . .

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . . .


97.37
40.31
67.41

245.69
82.75
55.47
135.44
45.98

68.23

838.65


$2,181.10


$4.23


97.30
86.92
38.46

301.55
6.47
45.69
118.11
44.18

56.96

795.64


1.54


Fixed Costs


Land rent . . .
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance .


TOTAL FIXED COST . . .


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking and Packing .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . .
Other . . .
Selling . . .


98.46
71.59
130.66

300.71


323.76
615.05
52.10
185.72
158.43


91.80
53.16
100.07

245.03


0.48


344.05
538.12
40.00
246.53
87.69


0.67
1.04
0.08
0.48
0.17

2.44

4.45

-0.23


TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS .

TOTAL COSTS . . . .


NET RETURN


. . . . .


774.38


2,297.06

-115.96


aIncludes lettuce, escarole, endive and romaine.


2,474.42








11


Table 11. Leaf Cropsa: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area,
seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.

1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre Crate

Yield (crates) 572 545

TOTAL RECEIPTS .. . . ... $2,957.24 $2,653.80 $4.87


Operating Costs

Seed/transplants . . ... .21.83 15.76
Fertilizer . . . 251.32 173.55
Pesticides . . ... 259.45 106.40
Sterilants and herbicides .. 101.82
Cultural labor . . ... 337.00 303.47
Machine hire . . ... .61.20 30.01
Gas, oil, grease .......... .112.60 93.95
Repair and maintenance ... 165.56 118.00
Interest (131/2% 4 months) ..... 69.77 56.10
Plastic, stakes and twine . -
Miscellaneous . . . 42.78 121.36

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . 321.51 1,120.42 2.06


Fixed Costs

Land rent . ... .. . 221.38 142.01
Depreciation . .... . 47.34 98.89
Licenses and insurance . . 77.28 40.36

TOTAL FIXED COST . . ... 346.00 281.26 0.52


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking and Packing . ... 548.41 538.46 0.99
Containers . . .. 492.93 566.80 1.04
Hauling . . . ... 173.97 147.65 0.27
Other . . . ... .246.24 243.62 0.45
Selling . . .... 83.51 148.61 0.27

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS 1,545.06 1,645.14 3.02

TOTAL COSTS . . . 3212.57 3046.82 5.59

NET RETURN . . . -255.33 -393.02 -0.72

aIncludes lettuce, escarole, endive and romaine.








12


Table 12. Peppers: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area,
seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.

1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre Bushel

Yield (bushels) 436 420

TOTAL RECEIPTS . . .. ... $4,120.20 $3,074.40 $7.32


Operating Costs

Seed/transplants . . ... 101.06 226.80
Fertilizer . . . 326.22 315.00
Pesticides . . ... 328.67 180.60
Sterilants and herbicides . 134.40
Cultural labor . . ... 480.00 482.80
Machine hire . . -
Gas, oil, grease . . ... 162.49 185.97
Repair and maintenance . ... 212.11 257.10
Interest (13 1/2% 5 months) ..... 119.94 127.38
Plastic, stakes and twine ... 201.00
Miscellaneous . . ... 310.02 159.60

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . . 2040.51 2,319.90 5.52


Fixed Costs

Land rent . ..... 90.68 121.25
Depreciation . . .. 99.78 103.77
Licenses and insurance . . 121.04 162.50

TOTAL FIXED COST . . ... 311.50 387.52 0.92


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking . . . 476.53 302.40 0.72
Grading and Packing ... .. 539.57 432.60 1.03
Containers ..... .. . 334.40 310.80 0.74
Hauling . . . .. 128.21 75.60 0.18
Other . . 16.80 0.04
Selling . . . ... 104.16 92.40 0.22

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS 1,582.87 1,230.60 2.93

TOTAL COSTS . . 3934.88 3938.02 9.38

NET RETURN . . . 185.32 -863.62 -2.06












Table 13. Peppers: Costs and returns per acre in the
area, seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.


Palm Beach-Broward


1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre Bushel

Yield (bushels) 525 544


TOTAL RECEIPTS . . ... .$4,620.00


$4,373.76


$8.04


Operating Costs


Seed/transplants . .
Fertilizer . . .
Pesticides . . .
Sterilants and herbicides
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil, grease . .
Repair and maintenance .
Interest (13 1/2% 4 months)
Plastic, stakes and twine
Miscellaneous . .


183.35
305.20
498.00

819.94
15.86
103.99
442.37
160.73

271.11


166.72
314.14
373.02
110.23
1,089.56
60.26
128.86
238.75
127.54
268.60
148.20


TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . . .


5.44


Fixed Costs


Land rent . . . .
Depreciation . . . .
Licenses and insurance . .

TOTAL FIXED COST . . .


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking and Packing . . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS .

TOTAL COSTS . . . .


120.11
176.03
91.57

387.71


634.53
355.24
112.15

133.09


4,423.27


124.46
182.40
94.88

401.74


1.52


832.32
391.68
87.04

174.08


1.53
0.72
0.16
w
0.32

2.73

8.91


4,848.74


-479.98 -0.87


196.73


NET RETURN








14


Table 14. Irish Potatoes: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County
area, seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.

1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre Cwt.

Yield (cwt.) 131 187

TOTAL RECEIPTS . . ... $1,513.25 $2,706.11 $14.47


Operating Costs

Seed/transplants . . .. 299.06 332.56
Fertilizer . . .... 210.05 140.51
Pesticides . .. .. . 258.04 105.43
Sterilants and herbicides ... 54.37
Cultural labor . ... .. . 198.62 208.55
Machine hire . . 12.44 25.15
Gas, oil, grease . . .. 36.15 78.62
Repair and maintenance . .. 161.29 154.00
Interest (13 1/2% 4 months) . 68.57 65.34
Plastic, stakes and twine . .
Miscellaneous . . 32.52 52.70

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . 276.74 1,217.23 6.51


Fixed Costs

Land rent . .... . 177.44 194.00
Depreciation . . .. 142.24 147.93
Licenses and insurance . . 56.12 106.03

TOTAL FIXED COST . .... .. 375.80 447.96 2.40


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Digging . . . 33.98 41.70 0.22
Grading and Packing . .. 130.16 168.33 0.90
Containers . . . 84.75 89.40 0.48
Hauling ..... . . 15.74 16.75 0.09
Other . .
Selling . .... .. . 63.50 73.59 0.39

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS 328.13 389.77 2.08

TOTAL COSTS . . . 198067 2054.96 10.99

NET RETURN ... .. . -467.42 651.15 3.48











Table 15. Irish Potatoes: Costs and returns per acre
seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.


in the Hastings area,


1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre Cwt.

Yield (cwt.) 215 222


TOTAL RECEIPTS . . ... $1,741.50


$1,524.14


S6.87


Operating Costs


Seed/transplants . .
Fertilizer . . .
Pesticides . . .
Sterilants and herbicides
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil, grease . .
Repair and maintenance .
Interest (13 /2 % 4 months)
Plastic, stakes and twine
Miscellaneous . .


TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . . .


Fixed Costs

Land rent . . . .
Depreciation . . . .
Licenses and insurance . .

TOTAL FIXED COST . . .


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Digging . . .
Grading and Packing .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . .
Other . . .
Selling . . .


TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS .

TOTAL COSTS . . . .


NET RETURN


200.70
145.90
136.87

126.57
24.32
61.65
75.89
41.80

54.28

867.98




52.20
99. 82
50.58

202.90


57.29
93.84
82.96
64.96

67.67

366.72


1,473.60


303.90


266.64
151.57
53.32
66.24
122.79
12.96
50.41
110.16
44.92

44.31

923.32


54.20
103.17
65.72

221.09


96.85
68.11
53.80
8.32

78.69

305.77

450.18

73.96


4.16


1.00


0.44
0.31
0.24
0.04

0.35

1.38

6.53

0.33








16


Table 16. Radishes: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area,
seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.

1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre 30-6 oz.

Yield (30-6 oz.) 247 207

TOTAL RECEIPTS . . . $1,022.58 $902.52 $4.36


Operating Costs

Seed/transplants ... .. 21.84 21.63
Fertilizer . .... . 27.36 33.03
Pesticides . .... . 35.94 12.72
Sterilants and herbicides . 13.03
Cultural labor ...... .. . 39.67 41.15
Machine hire . . ... .- 6.22
Gas, oil, grease .. . 31.55 26.34
Repair and maintenance ... . 53.93 47.41
Interest (13 1/2% 2 months) ..... 6.24 6.20
Plastic, stakes and twine . -
Miscellaneous . . 13.04 10.77

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . ... 229.57 218.50 1.06


Fixed Costs

Land rent . .... .. . 24.32 41.19
Depreciation . . .. 15.75 15.50
Licenses and insurance . 29.55 22.15

TOTAL FIXED COST . .... . 69.62 78.84 0.38


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Digging . . . 50.56 41.10 0.20
Grading and Packing . .. 88.13 78.86 0.38
Containers . .. . 106.40 91.45 0.44
Hauling . . . 33.44 17.75 0.09
Other . .......... 25.56 11.25 0.05
Selling .... ... 44.32 23.65 0.11

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS 348.41 264.01 1.28

TOTAL COSTS ...... . ... 647.60 561.35 2.71

NET RETURN ...... .. . 374.98 341.17 1.65












Table 17. Squash: Costs and returns per acre in the
area, seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.


Palmn Beach-Broward


1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre Bushel

Yield (bushels) 176 1-0

TOTAL RECEIPTS . . ... $1,781.12 $1,800.00 $12.00


Operating Costs

Seed/transplants . . 19.65 70.87
Fertilizer ... .. . 76.42 139.65
Pesticides ...... .. . 87.64 56.00
SSterilants and herbicides . 52.00
Cultural labor ..... .. . 169.64 170.05
Machine hire ...... .. . 33.20 17.19
Gas, oil, grease . . 16.43 45.28
Repair and maintenance ...... .. 81.31 82.47
Interest (13 1/2% 4 months) 28.66 40.60
Plastic, stakes and twine . 95.00
Miscellaneous . . . 29.31 44.08

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS .. . 542.26 813.19 5.42


Fixed Costs

Land rent ...... .. . 103.38 89.90
Depreciation . . . 23.85 24.80
Licenses and insurance .. 19.93 39.65

TOTAL FIXED COST . .... .. .. 147.16 154.35 1.03


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking and Packing.. . 291.75 203.20 1.36
Containers . . ... 133.06 103.75 0.69
Hauling ..... .. .. . 42.88 30.00 0.20
Other
Other . . . . -
Selling ...... .. . 42.00 41.25 0.28

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS 509.69 378.20 2.52

TOTAL COSTS . . . 1,199.11 1,345.74 8.97

NET RETURN ..... ... . 582.01 454.26 3.03








18


Table 18. Strawberries: Costs and returns per acre in the Plant City area,
seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.

1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre Flat

Yield (flats) 1,598 1,840


TOTAL RECEIPTS . . ... $9,811.72


$10,553.54


Operating Costs


Seed/transplants . .
Fertilizer . . .
Pesticides . . .
Sterilants and herbicides
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil, grease . .
Repair and maintenance .
Interest (13 1/2% 5 months)
Plastic, stakes and twine
Miscellaneous . .


908.62
339.64
607.40

417.74

300.94
184.56
257.35

203.53


TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . . .


Fixed Costs


Land rent . .
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance .


TOTAL FIXED COST . . .


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking . . .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . .
Other . . .
Selling . . .


560.00
98.65
290.15

948.80


2,905.70
1,195.10
33.68
999.91
942.82


TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS .


TOTAL COSTS . . 10,245.79

NET RETURN . . .... .. -424.07


$5.74


1,167.52
387.87
689.33
206.23
292.22
19.79
313.62
325.67
305.80
255.88
495.68

4,459.61


2.42


486.50
102.60
796.05


0.75


3,080.99
1,219.34
169.91
1,140.92
877.49


1.67
0.66
0.09
0.62
0.48

3.53

6.70


12,333.41


-1,779.87 0.97


I.(f










Table 19. Tomatoes: Costs and returns per acre in
seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.


the Dade County area,


1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre 25 lbs

Yield (25 lbs) 1,160 966


TOTAL RECEIPTS . .. .$8,572.40


$7,485.42


$7.75


Operating Costs


Seed/transplants . .
Fertilizer . . .
Pesticides . . .
Sterilants and herbicides
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil, grease . .
Repair and maintenance .
Interest (13 1/2 % 5 months)
Plastic, stakes and twine
Miscellaneous . .


TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . . .


Fixed Costs


Land rent . . . .
Depreciation . . . .
Licenses and insurance . .

TOTAL FIXED COST . . .


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking . . .
Grading and Packing .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . .
Other . . .
Selling . . .


TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS .

TOTAL COSTS . . . .


49.84
259.58
498.64

599.42
31.17
103.52
130.47
129.00

366.94


197.02
285.38
270.69
249.47
407.22
45.46
88.19
201.52
125.59
181.79
8.35


2.13


159.95
87.59
93.76

341.30


895.70
1,489.09
697.76
239.12

279.56


200.00
91.09
97.59

388.68


686.94
1,695.23
712.82
73.98

127.28


0.40


0.71
1.76
0.74
0.08

0.13

3.41

5.95


6,111.11


NE REUN18


1,739.76 1.80


NET RETURN






20


Table 20. Staked Tomatces: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee
area, seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.

1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre 25 lbs

Yield (25 lbs) 1,110 962

TOTAL RECEIPTS . . . $7,755.00 $5,825.00 $6.06


Operating Costs

Seed/transplants . . .. .. 177.45 206.00
Fertilizer . . ... 315.62 352.50
Pesticides . . ... 296.84 259.50
Sterilants and herbicides . 161.25
Cultural labor . . ... 718.28 591.15
Machine hire . . .. 57.45 107.25
Gas, oil, grease . .... .151.85 239.33
Repair and maintenance . ... 225.59 295.67
Interest (13 1/2 % 5 months) .. 134.99 174.35
Plastic, stakes and twine . 280.67
Miscellaneous ..... .. . 234.37 220.50

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . . 2314.44 2888.17 3.00


Fixed Costs

Land rent ... .. . 96.39 159.33
Depreciation . .... . 146.72 152.59
Licenses and insurance ..... 125.89 226.33

TOTAL FIXED COST . . ... 369.00 538.25 0.56


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking . . . .. 861.42 737.14 0.77
Grading and Packing . .. 1,151.01 1,301.33 1.35
Containers .. . . 698.42 452.42 0.47
Hauling . .... . 210.11 116.20 0.12
Other . . . -
Selling .... . . 182.01 160.77 0.17

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS .3,102.97 2,767.86 2.88

TOTAL COSTS .... . . .. 5,784.41 6,194.28 6.44


NE RTUN1,7059-6938-03


-369.38 -0.38


1,970.59


NET RETURN










Table 21. Staked Tomaotoes: Costs and returns per acre in the Manatee-
Ruskin area, seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.

1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre 25 lbs

Yield (25 Ibs) 1,110 891

TOTAL RECEIPTS . . ... $8,030.00 $4,240.11 $4.76


Operating Costs

Seed/transplants . . ... .74.55 10/710
Fertilizer . . ... 266.62 308.88
Pesticides . . ... 175.35 155.70
Sterilants and herbicides .. 145.33
Cultural labor . . ... 561.86 686.45
Machine hire . . ... .19.98 29.58
Gas, oil, grease . . .. 186.42 141.79
Repair and maintenance . ... 172.97 122.70
Interest (13 1/2 % 5 months) ..... 106.66 119.88
Plastic, stakes and twine . 180.23
Miscellaneous . . ... 201.52 4.52

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . 1,765.93 2002.16 2.25


Fixed Costs

Land rent . . . 92.10 75.81
Depreciation . . .. 308.58 194.43
Licenses and insurance . .. 144.87 173.17

TOTAL FIXED COST . . .. 545.55 443.41 0.50


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Picking . . . ... 756.70 744.66 0.84
Grading and Packing . ... 1,597.46 1,004.38 1.13
Containers . . ... 905.60 753.03 0.85
Hauling . . . ... 143.16 61.25 0.07
Other . . . .
Selling . . . ... 211.72 214.99 0.24

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS 3614.64 2,778.31 3.12

TOTAL COSTS . . . 5926.12 5,223.88 5.86


NET RETURN -983.77 -1.10


-983.77 -1.10


NET RETURN










Table 22. Watermelons: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee
area, seasons 1982-83 and 1983-84.

1982-83 1983-84
Average per

Category Acre Acre Cwt.

Yield (cwt.) 190 190

TOTAL RECEIPTS .. . ... 2 ,185.00 $1,710.00 $9.00


Operating Costs

Seed/transplants . .... .. 21.21 47.00
Fertilizer . .. . 369.67 189.50
Pesticides . . . 164.41 151.00
Sterilants and herbicides . 32.50
Cultural labor . .... 281.98 298.00
Machine hire . .. . 159.28
Gas, oil, grease . . .. 98.62 46.25
Repair and maintenance . .. 105.81 145.95
Interest (13 1/2% 4 months) .. 75.73 52.26
Plastic, stakes and twine . 81.50
Miscellaneous . . 13.21 78.63

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS . .. 28992 1126.59 5.93


Fixed Costs

Land rent ...... ...... 77.44 125.00
Depreciation . . .. 110.61 115.03
Licenses and insurance ..... ... 54.50 54.95

TOTAL FIXED COST ...... . 242.55 294.98 1.55


Harvesting and Marketing Costs

Cutting . . . 105.01 180.50 0.95
Grading and Packing . 93.12 72.20 0.38
Containers .... . . 16.81 -
Hauling . . . 130.72 129.20 0.68
Other . ............
Selling . . . 93.12 190.00 1.00

TOTAL HARVESTING AND MARKETING COSTS 438.78 571.90 3.01

TOTAL COSTS .... .. ... .... 1,971.25 1,993.47 10.49

NET RETURN ..... . . 213.75 -283.47 -1.49


~`-- ---~-