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UF FLAG IFAS PALMM



Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026154/00009
 Material Information
Title: Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
Series Title: 197374- Economic information report
Portion of title: Vegetable crops in Florida
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1981
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Vegetable trade -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Coastal Engineering Department series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: aleph - 000304067
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System ID: UF00026154:00009

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Abstract
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Front Matter
        Page iv
        Page vii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
Full Text

2"Timothy G. Taylor
Gary H. Wilkowske


Costs
Crops


Economic Information
Report 186


and Returns from Vegetable
in Florida, Season 1981-82
with Comparisons


HLjME LIBRARY


JAN 21 i 194


Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Unveraity of Florida, Gainesvills 32111


July 1983


F -3










ABSTRACT


Costs and returns were estimated for 14 vegetable erops in one or more of
nine major 'production areas for the 1981-82 season. For the first time
strawberries in the Plant City area are reported. Of the 24 crop-area
combinations, 11 crops were estimated to have incurred losses on average.
Total per acre costs ranged from a low $636.50 per acre for Everglades
radishes to $11,072.20 per acre for Plant City strawberries. Estimated net
"returns ranged from $-766.29 per acre for Immokalee-Lee pe-pers to $1321.49
per acre for leaf crops in Central Florida.

Keywords: vegetables, operating cost, harvesting and marketing cost, net
return.


FOREWORD


This is the twenty-second annual summary of costs and returns for Florida
vegetable crops. Although the cost items included in this summary are similar
to previous summaries, the reporting format has been changed. Several items,
including sample sizes, total acreage surveyed, average acres per grower and
I
statistical ranges, have been omitted primarily for reasons of
confidentiality.
As in past years, cost and returns estimates for each crop were obtained
on the basis of data obtained from individual growers and statistical estima-
tion. To increase accuracy in estimating yields and prices, considerable use
was made of Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service data. The computa-
tion of 5 year averages for all crops was achieved by estimating costs and
returns for the 1979-80 season for those crops not included in the 1979-80
summary. These data are available on request from the authors.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The author wishes to express appreciation to the many vegetable growers
for their cooperation in supplying the basic data utilized in preparing the
report. In addition, various county agents, the Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Association, the Florida Tomato Committee and the Florida Crop and Livestock
Reporting Service provided invaluable assistance.











TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

ABSTRACT, FOREWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.............................. i

MAP OF FLORIDA VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS............................ iv

DEFINITIONS ........................................................... v




LIST OF TABLES



Table

1 Summary of estimated per acre costs and returns
for selected Florida vegetables, 1981-82.................... 1

2 SNAP BEANS: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm
Beach-Broward area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82..... 2

3 CABBAGE: Costs and returns per acre in the Hastings
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82................... 3

4 CELERY: Costs and returns per acre in the Central
Florida area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82.......... 4

5 CELERY: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82................... 5

6 SWEET CORN: Costs and returns per acre in the Central
Florida area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82........... 6

7 SWEET CORN: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82................... 7

8 SWEET CORN: Costs and returns per acre in the lower
East Coast area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82........ 8

9 CUCUMBERS: Costs and returns per acre in the
Immokalee-Lee area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82..... 9

10 EGGPLANT: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-
Broward area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82........... 10

11 LEAF CROPS: Costs and returns per acre in the Central
Florida area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82........... 11

12 LEAF CROPS: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82................... 12










LIST OF TABLES--Continued

Table Page

13 PEPPERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-
Lee area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82............... 13

14 PEPPERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-
Broward area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82........... 14

15 IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade
County area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82............ 15

16 IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the
Hastings area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82.......... 16

17 RADISHES: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82.................... 17

18 SQUASH: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82................... 18

19 SQUASH: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-
Lee area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82............... 19

20 SQUASH: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-
Broward area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82........... 20

21 STRAWBERRIES: Costs and returns per acre in the Plant
City area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82.............. 21

22 TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82.................... 22

23 STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the
Immokalee-Lee area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82..... 23

24 STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the
Manatee-Ruskin area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82.... 24

25 WATERMELONS: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-
Lee area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82............... 25






























potatoes, squash, cucumbeers strawberries
2 Palm Bcach-Broward--snap beans, peppers,
4 Everglades--snap beans, sweet corn, cabbage, I








5 Fort Pierce--tomatoes, watermelons





watermelons '" I:. 4 /
9 Plant City--strawberries, peppers, squash, pole 3--.
beans, southern peas, CLoka














watermelons/ t
LEI16

FLO R I DA 14
VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS r 13
With Principal Vegetables Produced saoe\ 12t

1 Dadc--tomatoes, snap and pole beans,-Irish
potatoes, squash, cucumbers, strawberries "
2 Palm B iech-Broward--snap beans, peppers, l Ne10
eggplant, cucumbers, squash, tomatoes pi "2'
3 Immokalee-Lee-tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers,
squash, Irish potatoes, watermelons
4 Everglades--snap beans, sweet corn, cabbage, w9
escarole, celery, Irish potatoes, radishes .-No a-
5 Fort Pierce--tomatoes, watermelons 5
6 Wauchula--cucumbers, tomatoes, watermelons, I h pa
7 Sarasota--celery, radishes, lettuce, cabbage 6 \ -r
8 Manatee-Ruskin--tomatoes, cabbage, cauliflower,7 ^O
watermelons 4
9 Plant City-strawberries, peppers, squash, pole rE ,3ri
beans, southern peas, okra ^
10 Sumer--cucunbers, tomatoes, peppers, lettuce, t tomatoes
watermelons potatoes
11 Zellwood--sweet corn, celery, escarole, lettuce, 2
snap beans, radishes 3
12 Sanford-Oviedo--cabbage, celery, snap beans, lettuce, ,_ 1
escarole, sweet corn, peppers /
13 Oxford-Belleview-Lowell--tomatoes, watermelons.
14 McIntoch-Island Grove--squash, snap beans, celery,
cabbage, lettuce, watermelons
15 Alachua--snap beans, cucumbers, peppers, Irish potatoes,,,.
watermelons
16 Hastings--Irish potatoes, cabbage MoP
17 Starke-Brooker-Lake Butler--snap and lima beans, ./
cucumbers, peppers-, squash, strawberries
18 Quincy-Havana--pole beans, cucumbers, squash, tomatoes
19 Escambia--Irish potatoes









other production costs where records had not been kept showing the respective
charges to different crops. Prorations were also made to these items on the
basis of available data (D.L. Brooke, Fla. Agri. Exp. Sta. Bul. 660, June
1973).

In many cases individual growers did not incur every cost item. This applies
especially to airplane application, machine hire, grading and packing,
containers, hauling and precooling. Thus, these data are based only on the
overall average for all growers contacted in each area.

Per-unit costs and returns were computed by dividing the average yield per
acre in the sample into the various items of cost shown in the individual
tables. They are merely averages of the data recorded and, in some cases, do
not reflect the full cost of performing the service because all growers may
not have incurred every item of cost.









Table 1. Summary of estimated per acre costs and
Vegetables, 1981-82


returns for selected Florida


Preharvest Harvest and Total Total Net
Crop Area marketing
cost m et costs receipts return
costs


Snap beans 2 $ 701.95 $ 306.28 $1,008.23 $ 851.16 $-157.07
Cabbage 16 874.86 957.81 1,832.67 2,386.25 553.28
Celery 11 1,833.25 1,742.00 3,575.25 4,363.86 788.61
Celery 4 2,475.92 1,553.18 4,029,10 3,400.44 -628.66
Sweet corn 11 820.06 677.44 1,497.50 1,661.61 164.11

Sweet corn 4 565.24 637.26 1,202.50 1,122.68 -79.82
Sweet corn 2 972.34 549.68 1,522.02 1,385.65 -136.37
Cucumbers 3 1,150.76 1,110.80 2,261.56 1,956.04 -305.52
Eggplant 2 2,470.47 1,490.36 3,960.83 3,765.86 -194.97
Leaf 11 954.95 1,410.92 2,365,87 3,687.36 1,321.49

Leaf 4 1,456.80 1,330.12 2,786.92 3,251.93 465.01
Peppers 3 2,/06.36 1,268.53 3,574.89 2,808.60 -766.29
Peppers 2 2,975.36 1,426.49 4,401.85 3,891.96 -509.89
Potatoes 1 1,444.04 383.32 1,827.36 2,524.34 696.98
Potatoes 16 1,003.59 395.43 1,399.02 1,824.00 424.98

Radishes 4 304.69 331.81 636.50 798.75 162.25
Squash 1 841.58 599.70 1,441.28 1,569.78 128.50
Squash 3 739.72 782.02 1,521.74 1,782.96 261.22
Squash 2 692.12 455.21 1,147.33 1,627.92 408.59
Strawberries 9 4,127.08 6,945.12 11,072.20 11,377.52 305.32

Tomatoes 1 2,458.19 3,499.53 5,957.72 6,328.30 370.58
Tomatoes 3 2,774.32 3,070.97 5,845.29 5,753.00 -92.29
Tomatoes 8 2,449.99 4,266.92 6,716.91 6,840.75 123.84
Watermelons 3 1,333.63 418.73 1,752.36 1,449.00 -303.36









Table 2. SNAP BEANS: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Bushel

Yield (bushels) 76 82


Total receipts.....................,.....
Operating costs
Seed ..................................
Fertilizer.............................
Spray and dust.........................
Cultural labor.........................
Machine hire..........................
Gas, oil, grease.......................
Repair and maintenanceo..............
Interest on production
capital (17% 4 months).............
Miscellaneous expense..................
Total operating costs....................
Fixed costs
Land rent..............................
Depreciation...........................
Licenses and insurance..................
Interest on investment.................
Total fixed costs........................
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking and packing....................
Containers.............................
Hauling............ ....................
Selling............ ....................
Total harvesting and marketing costs.....
Total costs..............................
Net return...............................


$556.97 $851.16 $10.380


35.38
55.55
48.58
74.66
9.61
19.21
26.02


11.82
12.99
293.82


49.60
13.55
16.25
2.00
81.40


85.08
58.50
12.99
16.79
173.36
548.58
8.39


72.47
80.37
78.41
85.44
8.29
45.99
55.63


34.53
19.57
480.70


141.92
50.92
21.20
7.21
221.25


139.17
101.01
25.20
40.90
306.28
1008.23
-157.07


5.862









2.698


1.697
1.232
0.307
0.499
3.735
12.295
-1.915










Table 3 CABBAGE: Costs and returns per acre in the Hastings area, 5-season
average 1977-81 and 1981-82


1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre 50 lb.

Yield (50 lbs.) 433 415


Total receipts...........................
Operating costs
Seed............................... .
Fertilizer ...... .... ...................
Spray and dust.........................
Cultural labor........................
Machine hire...........................
Gas, oil, grease...... ................
Repair and maintenance.................
Interest on production
capital (17% 4 months)..............
Miscellaneous expense..................
Total operating costs....................
Fixed costs
Land rent..............................
Depreciation.. .........................
Licenses and insurance ................
Interest on investment.................
Total fixed costs..... ....................
Harvesting and marketing costs
Cutting and packing....................
Containers... .................. ........
Hauling .............. ..................
Selling ................................
Total harvesting and marketing costs ....
Total costs..............................
Net return...............................


$1742.72 $2386.25


74.10
113.51
80.65
165.64
5.93
49.52
64.85


22.14
8.28
584.62


43.11
51.20
41.99
7.97
144.27


224.91
385.41


116.87
727.19
1456.08
286.64


80.08
114.55
83.27
219.35
27.50
53.91
42.27


40.78
16.36
678.07


60.00
36.59
95.06
5.14
196.79


348.18
474.22
10.91
124.50
957.81
1832.67
553.58


$5.750


1.634









0.474


0.839
1.143
0.026
0.300
2.308
4.416
1.334


- --- -I










Table 4. CELERY: Costs and returns per acre in the Central Florida area,
5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Crate

Yield (crates) 421 566

Total receipts............ ............. $3529.81 $4363.86 $7.710
Operating costs.......*...... ..*..... *...
Seed................................... 114.75 99.08
Fertilizer.................. ......... .. 161.17 198.13
Spray and dust......................... 169.82 180.24
Cultural labor.......................... 362.29 380.49
Machine hire............................. 21.84 65.48
Gas, oil, grease......,................ 41.69 55.30
Repair and maintenance................. 97.85 237.16
Interest on production
capital (17% 5 months)............. 50.48 118.75
Miscellaneous expense.................. 88.71 267.73
Total operating costs.................... 1108.60 1602.36 2.831
Fixed costs
Land rent.............................. 49.33 99.36
Depreciation........*................* 41.15 54.02
Licenses and insurance................. 80.40 93.60
Interest on investment................. 6.90 7.65
Total fixed costs........*........*..... 177.78 254.63 .450
Harvesting and marketing costs
Cutting and packing................... 841.72 842.59 1.489
Containers........ ....... ........*..** 423.83 513.48 .907
Hauling.......*....**........*......... 78.12 83.33 .147
Other.........*.......*...... ......... 175.82 190.38 .336
Selling ................*.........*.... 107.44 112.22 .198
Total harvesting and marketing costs.... 1626.93 1742.00 3.077
Total costs.............................. 2913.31 3598.99 6.359
Net return......*....... ................ 616.50 764.87 1.351










Table 5. CELERY: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area, 5-season
average 177-81 and 1981-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Crate

Yield (crates) 597 516

Total receipts..................... ..... $3827.00 $3400.44 $6.590
Operating costs
Seed................................... 105.64 121.77
Fertilizer.............. .......... ..... 160.22 287.84
Spray and dust........................ 396.27 390.00
Cultural labor....................... .... 464.66 646.09
Machine hire........................... 28.95 41.44
Gas, oil, grease...... ................ 62.55 117.28
Repair and maintenance................. 145.48 178.47
Interest on production
capital (17% 5 months)............. 66.73 160.13
Miscellaneous expense.................. 70.26 103.25
Total operating costs.................... 1500.76 2046.27 3.966
Fixed costs
Land rent.............................. 84.58 215.15
Depreciation......................... 68.92 76.42
Licenses and insurance................. 78.08 159.28
Interest on investment................ 11.69 10.83
Total fixed costs.... ................... 243.27 461.68 0.895
Harvesting and marketing costs
Cutting and packing.................... 724.33 633.12 1.227
Containers............................ 539.86 459.83 0.891
Hauling................................ 103.32 133.42 0.259
Other................................... 292.86 197.31 0.382
Selling......... .... ............... ..... 111.35 129.50 0.251
Total harvesting and marketing costs..... 1771.72 1553.18 3.010
Total costs.............................. 3515.75 4061.13 7.870
Net return.............................. 311.25 -660.69 -1.280











Table 6. SWEET CORN: Costs and returns per acre in the Central Florida area,
5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Crate

Yield (crates) 307 291


Total receipts.........................
Operating costs
Seed...................................
Fertilizer.....*................ ........
Spray and dust.......................
Cultural labor.........................
Machine hire...........................
Gas, oil, grease.....................
Repair and maintenance.................
Interest on production
capital (17% 4 months).............
Miscellaneous expense..................
Total operating costs....................
Fixed costs
Land rent.................*.......*...
Depreciation........*..................
Licenses and insurance.................
Interest on investment.........*.......
Total fixed costs........................
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking and packing...................
Containers...................* ...*.****
Hauling..*......................*******
Other.................*........********
Selling ....... ..... ..*.... .............
Total harvesting and marketing cost......
Total costs...............*....**********
Net return........... ....... -.. ..... .****


$1177.11 $1661.61


21.91
60.57
103.63
54.63
13.87
22.24
62.57


16.33
40.54
396.29


46.87
22.91
31.05
3.93
104.76


210.13
251.49
36.72
108.05
59.57
665.96
1167.01
10.10


21.91
79.60
161.98
43.24
17.99
37.47
106.90


42.77
153.76
665.62


88.47
19.76
43.41
2.80
154.44


215.53
291.41
29.39
87.37
53.74
677.44
1497.50
164.11


$5.710


2.287









0.531


0.741
1.001
0.101
0.300
0.185
2.328
5.146
0.564










Table 7. SWEET CORN: Costs and return per acre in the Everglades area, 5-
season average 1977-81 and 1981-82


1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Crate

Yield (crates) 190 221


Total receipts..........................
Operating costs
Seed. ............... ....... ...........
Fertilizer.................. ...... ...
Spray and dust.........................
Cultural labor.........................
Machine hire...........................
Gas, oil, grease...... ................
Repair and maintenance.................
Interest on production
capital (17% 4 months)............
Miscellaneous expense.................
Total operating costs..................
Fixed costs
Land rent..............................
Depreciation............................
Licenses and insurance ................
Interest on investment.................
Total fixed costs.... ....................
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking and packing...................
Containers. ....... ....................
Hauling ....... ........ ....... ..........
Other .... ........... ............ .....
Selling ............. ....................
Total harvesting and marketing costs.....
Total costs..............................
Net return...............................


$784.28 $1122.68


20.98
45.20
94.93
59.52
21.26
20.29
39.56


13.51
16.85
332.10


54.76
25.19
25.24
4.37
109.56


165.12
168.91
34.05
93.07
35.81
496.96
938.62


$5.080


31.45
48.56
154.55
50.75
26.96
17.30
43.17


27.32
23.31
423.37


60.76
50.05
25.22
5.84
141.87


224.07
228.18
53.31
83.94
47.76
637.26
1202.50


1.916









0.642


1.014
1.032
0.241
0.380
0.216
2.883
5.441


-153.34 -79.82 -0.361


-







8



Table 8. SWEET CORN: Costs and returns per acre in the Lower East Coast
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Crate

Yield (crates) 175 185


Total receipts...........................
Operating costs
Seed...................................
Fertilizer .............................
Spray and dust.........................
Cultural labor.........................
Machine hire...........................
Gas, oil, grease.......................
Repair and maintenance.................
Interest on production
capital (17% 4 months)..............
Miscellaneous expense..................
Total operating costs....................
Fixed costs
Land rent..............................
Depreciation........................
Licenses and insurance.................
Interest on investment.................
Total fixed costs........................
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking and packing....................
Containers.............................
Hauling............. ..................
Other. ............. ...................
Selling ................................
Total harvesting and marketing costs.....
Total costs..............................
Net return.,.............................


$905.49 $1385.65


28.07
112.23
101.27
72.03
17.12
26.00
39.07


17.16
18.01
430.96


66.67
23.56
25.71
4.29
120.23


113.13
133.93
33.18
97.78
30.01
408.03
959.22
-53.73


22.47
152.26
222.58
66.13
33.31
78.75
100.16


50.53
27.33
753.52


131.88
26.33
56.88
3.73
218.82


158.25
202.45
12.73
144.11
32.14
549.68
1522.02
-136.37


$7.490


4.073









1.183


0.855
1.094
0.069
0.779
0.174
2.971
8.227
0.737


I I ~












Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area, 5-


season average 1977-81 and 1981-82


1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Bushel

Yield (bushels) 291 316


Total receipts...........................
Operating costs
Seed .............. .. ..................
Fertilizer .............................
Spray and dust.........................
Cultural labor........................
Machine hire............... ..........
Gas, oil, grease...... ........... ....
Repair and maintenance.................
Interest on production
capital (17% 4 months).............
Miscellaneous expense..................
Total operating costs ....................
Fixed costs
Land rent.............................
Depreciation ...........................
Licenses and insurance.................
Interest on investment................
Total fixed costs......................
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking ..............................
Grading and packing....................
Containers................... .........
Hauling ........ ....... .................
Selling............ ...... .............
Total harvesting and marketing costs.....
Total costs..............................
Net return...............................


$2035.61 $1956.04


19.26
174.98
90.45
234.40
34.62
59.03
58.48


29.95
22.11
723.28


35.62
41.49
49.20
7.17
133.48


353.61
241.39
202.11
52.70
64.60
914.41
1771.17
264.44


27.06
284.13
139.81
214.84
44.81
83.40
69.45


50.59
29.29
943.38


77.90
55.97
65.58
7.93
207.38


445.80
263.12
239.85
55.43
106.60
1110.80
2261.56
-305.52


$6.190


2.985









0.656


1.411
0.833
0.759
0.175
0.337
3.515
7.157
-0.967


II-- -


Table 9. CUCUMBERS:












Table 10. EGGPLANT: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Bushel

Yield (bushels) 742 727

Total receipts....................,..... $3274.28 $3765.86 $5.180
Operating costs
Seed .......................*...** ..... 54.03 88.49
Fertilizer.. ................. ........ 277.36 421.74
Spray and dust......................... 250.75 281.24
Cultural labor ...................... 535.26 622.37
Machine hire......... ................. 44.70 37.13
Gas, oil, grease......*................ 94.77 112.37
Repair and maintenance................ 111.89 114.31
Interest on production
capital (17% 5 months)............. 73.72 161.30
Miscellaneous expense. ...... ......... 196.80 291.97
Total operating costs.................... 1639.28 2130.92 2.931
Fixed costs
Land rent................... .......*.. 79.36 190.00
Depreciation........................... 59.31 56.29
Licenses and insurance................. 97.88 117.55
Interest on investment................. 10.05 7.97
Total fixed costs ............... 0...... 246.60 371.81 0.511
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking and packing.................... 626.17 723.37 0.995
Containers....... .................. 487.26 458.01 0.630
Hauling.................. .. ............ 127.17 127.23 0.175
Selling..... ..... .............. ....... 177.56 181.75 0.250
Total harvesting and marketing costs..... 1418.16 1490.36 2.050
Total costs................ ...*** ........ 3304.04 3993.09 5.493
Net return................................. -29.76 -227.23 -0.313







11



Table 11. LEAF CROPS: Costs and returns per acre in the Central Florida
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Crate

Yield (crates) 664 552

Total receipts........................... $2611.40 $3687.36 $6.680
Operating costs
Seed................................. .. 114.01 90.42
Fertilizer............ ............ 59.52 71.87
Spray and dust........................ 70.00 75.17
Cultural labor ........................ 205.12 256.57
Machine hire........... ............ -- -
Gas, oil, grease...................... 28.32 35.54
Repair and maintenance................. 83.69 106.52
Interest on production
capital (17% 4 months)............. 24.55 48.76
Miscellaneous expense................. 58.40 56.64
Total operating costs.................... 643.61 741.49 1.343
Fixed costs
Land rent.............................. 48.69 93.84
Depreciation.................... 37.66 40.04
Licenses and insurance................. 63.59 73.91
Interest on investment................ 6.41 5.67
Total fixed costs........................ 156.35 213.46 0.387
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking and packing.................... 274.37 397.44 0.720
Containers............................ 504.19 601.68 1.090
Hauling................................ 50.10 47.16 0.085
Other............... ................... 194.61 226.64 0.411
Selling................................ 81.73 138.00 0.250
Total harvesting and marketing costs..... 1105.00 1410.92 2.556
Total costs.............................. 1904.96 2365.87 4.286
Net return............................... 706.44 1321.49 2.394












Table 12. LEAF CROPS: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area, 5-
season average 1977-81 and 1981-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Crate

Yield (crates) 456 517


Total receipts..........................
Operating costs
Seed....... ..... .. ....................
Fertilizer..... ... .....................
Spray and dust.........................
Cultural labor........................
Machine hire...........................
Gas, oil, grease....... ...............
Repair and maintenance.................
Interest on production
capital (17% 4 months).............
Miscellaneous expense..................
Total operating costs....................
Fixed costs
Land rent..............................
Depreciation..........* ....* ......*** &.
Licenses and insurance................
Interest on investment..............***
Total fixed costs................
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking and packing....................
Containers.......*.....................
Hauling......... ....... .... .. ...********
Other.................... ..... .......
Selling.................. ........* ......
Total harvesting and marketing costs.....
Total costs..........................****
Net return..........**.....---...........


$1997.48 $3251.93


18.36
106.01
97.77
221.45
33.92
28.40
53.40


23.03
27.92
611.16


64.48
30.76
31.56
5.04
131.84


296.80
347.17
77.19
211.60
88.01
1020.77
1763.77
233.71


29.44
195.80
190.84
306.36
53.95
70.70
137.70


75.38
60.36
1120.53


210.84
44.78
74.31
6.34
336.27


498.37
387.30
132.32
236.82
75.31
1330.12
2786.92
465.01


$6.290


2.167









0.650


0.964
0.749
0.256
0.458
0.146
2.573
5.391
0.899










Table 13. PEPPERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area,
5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Bushel

Yield (bushels) 597 372

Total receipts........................... $3818.06 $2808.60 $7.550
Operating costs
Seed................ ................... 57.80 103.12
Fertilizer ..... ..... .................. 277.91 316.72
Spray and dust......................... 304.26 317.82
Cultural labor......................... 474.91 431.52
Machine hire............................. 47.41 53.21
Gas, oil, grease...... ................ 118.38 165.81
Repair and maintenance................. 191.58 205.40
Interest on production
capital (17% 5 months)............. 82.46 147.19
Miscellaneous expense.................. 286.11 292.47
Total operating costs.................... 1840.82 2033.26 5.466
Fixed costs
Land rent.............................. 64.82 75.57
Depreciation......................... 81.77 96.87
Licenses and insurance................ 96.54 116.38
Interest on investment................. 13.80 13.72
Total fixed costs........................ 256.93 302.54 0.813
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking ............................... 450.58 369.62 0.994
Grading and packing.................... 554.39 418.46 1.125
Containers............................. 323.65 267.84 0.720
Hauling............................... 135.63 101.01 0.272
Selling................................. 126.24 111.60 0.300
Total harvesting and marketing costs..... 1590.49 1268.53 3.410
Total costs.............................. 3688.24 3604.33 9.689
Net return............................... 129.82 -795.73 -2.139










Table 14. PEPPERS:


Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82


1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Bushel

Yield (bushels) 762 569


Total receipts...........................
Operating costs
Seed......................... .. .......
Fertilizer .............................
Spray and dust.........................
Cultural labor..........................
Machine hire..........................
Gas, oil, grease...... 0.......... ......
Repair and maintenance.................
Interest on production
capital (17% 5 months).............
Miscellaneous expense..................
Total operating costs....................
Fixed costs
Land rentio............................
Depreciation...........................
Licenses and insurance................
Interest on investment.................
Total fixed costs...... ....... ..........
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking and packing....................
Containers................ ............
Hauling ................................
Selling ............ .... ..... ...........
Total harvesting and marketing costs.....
Total costs.......... ...................
Net return.......... .....................


$4515.32 $3891.96


89.93
239.69
369.91
688.52
94.12
133.61
143.59


94.47
261.70
2115.54


84.17
72.52
160.85
11.81
329.35


700.54
389.13
143.68
177.52
1410.87
3855.76
659.56


149.58
289.40
290.32
831.56
162.11
123.66
298.45


191.83
307.50
2644.41


117.28
99.74
138.17
14.13
369.32


786.47
339.62
135.15
142.25
1426.49
4440.22
-548.26


$6.840


4.647









0.649


1.382
0.597
0.238
.250
2.507
7.804
-0.964










Table 15. IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Cwt.

Yield (cwt.) 153 182

Total receipts........................... $1434.88 $2524.34 $13.870
Operating costs
Seed.................. ................. 245.02 296.25
Fertilizer ............................. 112.04 172.19
Spray and dust......................... 115.29 183.05
Cultural labor.................. ....... 109.29 207.07
Machine hire ........................... 12.23 8.81
Gas, oil, grease......a................ 36.78 88.43
Repair and maintenance................. 56.58 111.96
Interest on production
capital (17% 4 months)............. 28.97 71.23
Miscellaneous expense.................. 22.57 14.13
Total operating costs.................... 738.77 1153.12 6.336
Fixed costs
Land rent.............................. 79.92 121.61
Depreciation........................... 39.57 101.50
Licenses and insurance................. 58.51 53.43
Interest on investment................. 6.61 14.38
Total fixed costs........................ 184.61 290.92 1.598
Harvesting and marketing costs
Digging................................ 34.22 37.51 0.206
Grading and packing.................... 174.00 183.12 1.006
Containers.............................. 54.06 77.66 0.427
Hauling........... ..................... 32.22 16.98 0.093
Selling................................ 45.32 68.05 0.374
Total harvesting and marketing costs..... 339.82 383.32 2.106
Total costs.............................. 1263.20 1827.36 10.040
Net return............................... 171.68 696.98 3.830










Table 16. IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Hastings area,
5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Cwt.

Yield (cwt.) 222 240

Total receipts.....................,..... $1209.05 $1824.00 $7.600
Operating costs
Seed.............. .... .. .... ............ 184.73 238.56
Fertilizer............ ................. 119.93 155.43
Spray and dust......................... 68.19 114.44
Cultural labor ........................ 74.60 87.44
Machine hire........................... 9.16 8.34
Gas, oil, grease......*................ 35.94 60.06
Repair and maintenance................. 60.23 75.95
Interest on production
capital (17% 4 months)............. 22.35 50.01
Miscellaneous expense.................. 20.68 53.82
Total operating costs.................... 595.81 844.05 3.517
Fixed costs
Land rent.............................. 48.15 46.99
Depreciation................... ...... 52.92 63.07
Licenses and insurance................. 33.46 41.44
Interest on investment................. 7.48 8.04
Total fixed costs........................ 142.01 159.54 0.665
Harvesting and marketing costs
Digging ................ ............... 47.83 71.44 0.298
Grading and packing.................... 75.95 110.89 0.462
Containers .................. ....... 28.70 81.61 0.340
Hauling.......... .... .................. 44.27 60.15 0.251
Selling................................ 60.74 71.34 0.297
Total harvesting and marketing costs..... 257.49 395.43 1.648
Total costs............................. 995.31 1399.02 5.829
Net return............................... 213.74 424.98 1.771










Table 17. RADISHES: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area, 5-
season average 1977-81 and 1981-82


1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre 30-6 oz.

Yield (30-6 oz.) 241 225


Total receipts....................,.....
Operating costs
Seed...................................
Fertilizer..............................
Spray and dust..........................
Cultural labor..........................
Machine hire...........................
Gas, oil, grease...... ................
Repair and maintenance.................
Interest on production
capital (17% 2 months).............
Miscellaneous expense..................
Total operating costs....................
Fixed costs
Land rent............... ..............
Depreciation...........................
Licenses and insurance ................
Interest on investment.................
Total fixed costs.. ......................
Harvesting and marketing costs
Digging ................................
Grading and packing....................
Containers.. ....... ......................
Hauling.................................
Other .............. ..... ................
Selling ................................
Total harvesting and marketing costs.....
Total costs.............................
Net return...............................


$573.31 $798.75


19.36
22.79
20.37
38.35
3.56
13.18
28.18


3.29
7.86
156.94


21.74
10.94
13.04
1.82
47.54


23.92
122.26
95.01
16.05
5.19
30.69
293.12
497.60
75.71


23.74
23.09
32.78
39.32
8.04
32.84
54.54


8.20
15.53
238.08


31.09
11.79
28.60
3.34
74.82


40.20
94.90
107.44
23.20
21.06
45.01
331.81
644.71
154.04


$3.550


1.058









0.333


0.179
0.422
0.478
0.103
0.094
0.200
1.475
2.865
0.685





18



Table 18. SQUASH: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County area, 5-
season average 1977-81 and 1981-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Bushel

Yield (bushels) 154 162

Total receipts........................... $1257.68 $1569.78 $9.690
Operating costs
Seed......... ....... ..... ..... ....... 78.08 108.86
Fertilizer ............... ............ 90.16 117.24
Spray and dust....................... 77.96 88.08
Cultural labor....................... 76.11 89.72
Machine hire........................... 19.17 16.05
Gas, oil, grease......,................ 39.83 56.69
Repair and maintenance................. 57.01 67.99
Interest on production
capital (17% 4 months)............. 19.31 42.83
Miscellaneous expense .................. 19.18 31.34
Total operating costs.................... 476.81 618.80 3.820
Fixed costs
Land rent............................. 62.94 121.61
Depreciation............................ 32.15 40.58
Licenses and insurance................. 47.28 58.29
Interest on investment................. 4.24 2.30
Total fixed costs.... ................... 146.61 222.78 1.375
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking and packing................. .... 283.50 351.57 2.170
Containers............................ 135.02 162.44 1.003
Hauling................................. 29.59 37.09 0.229
Selling....................... ....... ... 46.38 48.60 0.300

Total harvesting and marketing costs..... 494.49 599.70 3.702

Total costs.............................. 1117.91 1441.28 8.897

Net return............................... 139.77 128.50 0.793










Table 19. SQUASH: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area, 5-
season average 1977-81 and 1981-82


1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Bushel


Yield (bushels)


198


184


Total receipts.......................... $1596.43 $1782.96 $9.690
Operating costs
Seed................................... 30.20 33.79
Fertilizer .......................... 141.29 173.16
Spray and dust......................... 66.71 77.50
Cultural labor......................... 107.06 127.03
Machine hire........................... 20.43 24.54
Gas, oil, grease...... ............... 44.64 63.25
Repair and maintenance................. 35.26 39.58
Interest on production
capital (17% 4 months)............. 18.24 37.78
Miscellaneous expense.................. 17.51 26.42
Total operating costs.................... 481.34 603.05 3.277
Fixed costs
Land rent.............................. 38.99 53.34
Depreciation.......................... 29.01 30.89
Licenses and insurance................. 36.62 48.06
Interest on investment................. 4.81 4.38
Total fixed costs........................ 109.43 136.67 0.743
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking........... ..................... 204.39 272.76 1.482
Grading and packing.................... 147.29 160.25 0.871
Containers............................. 173.27 212.44 1.155
Hauling............. .................. 45.73 42.55 0.231
Selling .... ........ ................... 71.20 94.02 0.511
Total harvesting and marketing costs..... 641.88 782.02 4.250
Total costs.......... ................... 1232.65 1521.74 8.270
Net return............................... 363.78 261.22 1.420










Table 20. SQUASH: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward area,
5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Bushel

Yield (bushels) 121 168

Total receipts........................... $1128.23 $1627.92 $9.690
Operating costs
Seed......... ...... ...... ............. 18.21 20.03
Fertilizer...... ....................... 63.00 77.19
Spray and dust......................... 74.33 85.09
Cultural labor......................... 99.23 154.22
Machine hire........................... 12.31 16.11
Gas, oil, grease......*................ 28.01 33.88
Repair and maintenance................. 37.44 79.72
Interest on production
capital (17% 4 months)............. 14.56 35.69
Miscellaneous expense.................. 7.61 45.88
Total operating costs.................... 354.70 547.81 3.261
Fixed costs
Land rent...o ........ ......*.......... 64.59 98.46
Depreciation.......... ... ............ 24.02 23.38
Licenses and insurance................. 20.08 19.16
Interest on investment................. 3.88 3.31
Total fixed costs..........*............. 112.57 144.31 0.860
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking and packing.................... 202.45 253.17 1.507
Containers............................. 118.25 120.96 0.720
Hauling ................................ 25.93 38.98 0.232
Selling............ .*....... ......... 36.34 42.10 0.251
Total harvesting and marketing costs..... 382.97 455.21 2.710
Total costs.............................. 850.24 1147.33 6.829
Net return............................... 277.99 480.59 2.861










Table 21. STRAWBERRIES: Costs and returns per acre in the Plant City area,

1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Flat

Yield (flats) 1847


Total receipts....................,.....
Operating costs
Seed. ........................ .........
Fertilizer........... ....... ......
Spray and dust.........................
Cultural labor.........................
Machine hire ...........................
Gas, oil, grease........................
Repair and maintenance,................
Interest on production
capital (17% 6 months).............

Miscellaneous expense..................
Total operating costs....................
Fixed costs
Land rent.............................
Depreciation ................... .......
Licenses and insurance.................
Interest on investment..................
Total fixed costs............ .........
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking and Packing...................
Containers............... ... ... ......
Hauling.................. ..............
Sellinge... ....... ..... .... ... ...........
Other...................................
Total harvesting and marketing costs.....
Total costs..............................
Net return...............................


$11,377.52


897.53
352.28
657.61
371.72
4.40
312.33
180.94


215.23
191.37
3183.41


550.00
93.75
280.00
19.92
943.67


3358.46
1354.24
38.00
1145.94
1048.48
6945.12
11072.20
305.32


$6.160


1.724









0.511


1.818
0.733
0.021
0.620
0.568
3.760
5.995
0.165









Table 22. TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County area, 5-
season average 1977-81 and 1981-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre 25 lb.

Yield (25 Ibs.) 692 1210

Total receipts........................... $3438.18 $6328.30 $5.230
Operating costs
Seed ................................ 38.97 50.86
Fertilizer..... ....................... 219.45 262.20
Spray and dust......................... 396.05 488.86
Cultural labor........................ 410.96 544.93
Machine hire.................... ...... 24.97 30.56
Gas, oil, grease....................... 70.62 105.63
Repair and maintenance................. 108.47 127.91
Interest on production
capital (17% 5 months)............. 70.55 157.03
Miscellaneous expense.................. 246.05 363.31
Total operating costs.................... 1586.09 2131.29 1.761
Fixed costs
Land rent.............. ............ 71.86 152.33
Depreciation.............. ............ 72.39 85.87
Licenses and insurance................. 71.65 90.15
Interest on investment................. 12.13 29.96
Total fixed costs........................ 228.03 358.31 0.296
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking........... ..................... 350.08 849.37 0.702
Grading and packing.................... 646.74 1412.07 1.167
Containers............................. 331.32 709.06 0.586
Hauling............................... 125.65 243.67 0.201
Selling............... ............... 131.77 285.36 0.236
Total harvesting and marketing costs..... 1585.56 3499.53 2.892
Total costs.............................. 3399.68 5989.13 4.950
Net return............................... 638.50 339.17 0.280










Table 23. STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82


1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre 25 lb.

Yield (25 lbs.) 795 1100


Total receipts...........................
Operating costs
Seed..................................
Fertilizer ......... .................
Spray and dust..........................
Cultural labor..........................
Machine hire...........................
Gas, oil, grease....................
Repair and maintenance.................
Interest on production
capital (17% 5 months)..............
Miscellaneous expense..................
Total operating costs....................
Fixed costs
Land rent.............................
Depreciation.............................
Licenses and insurance.................
Interest on investment...............
Total fixed costs......................
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking ...... .............. .......... ..
Grading and packing....................
Containers.............................
Hauling............ ...................
Selling .......... .. ....................
Total harvesting and marketing costs.....
Total costs..............................
Net return.. .... ......................


$4831.31 $5753.00


108.95
275.43
809.38
779.03
54.71
113.57
174.97


101.33
321.16
2738.53


73.49
102.35
96.25
17.51
289.60


506.84
815.21
429.56
156.51
141.44
2049.56
5077.69
-246.38


152.99
343.36
351.35
774.25
75.00
163.73
197.21


176.01
219.33
2453.23


91.80
130.21
115.83
18.45
356.29


815.97
1191.30
668.80
229.90
165.00
3070.97
5880.49
-127.49


$5.230


2.230









0.324


0.742
1.083
0.608
0.209
0.150
2.792
5.346
-0.116









Table 24. STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Manatee-Rusk in
area, 5-season average 1977-81 and 1980-82

1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre 25 lb.

Yield (25 Ibs.) 844 1303

Total receipts........................... $5187.85 $6840.75 $5.250
Operating costs
Seed.....* ..... .. .... ......... ......... 91.66 128.60
Fertilizer............................. 208.67 290.18
Spray and dust.......................... 237.59 268.26
Cultural labor.............. ............. 534.98 531.13
Machine hire........................... 27.26 19.56
Gas, oil, grease...................... 113.73 190.09
Repair and maintenance............... 117.97 151.60
Interest on production
capital (17% 5 months).............. 70.56 142.31
Miscellaneous expense.................. 182.38 193.41
Total operating costs..................... 1584.80 1915.14 1.470
Fixed costs
Land rent.................. ....... ... 52.42 83.29
Depreciation........................... 108.67 286.41
Licenses and insurance................. 112.80 153.04
Interest on investment................. 17.49 40.57
Total fixed costs..................... ... 291.38 563.31 0.432
Harvesting and marketing costs
Picking............................... 623.42 936.29 0.719
Grading and packing.................... 1089.84 2007.10 1.540
Containers............................. 483.17 882.00 0.677
Hauling... ........ .................. 163.33 149.10 0.114
Selling.................... ............ 139.87 292.43 0.224
Total harvesting and marketing costs..... 2499.63 4266.92 3.275
Total costs.. ........................... 4375.81 6745.37 5.177
Net return.............................. 812.04 95.38 0.073










Table 25. WATERMELONS: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area,
5-season average 1977-81 and 1981-82


1977-81 1981-82 Season
average per

Category Acre Acre Cwt.

Yield (cwt.) 306 210

Total receipts........................... $1843.68 $1449.00 $6.900
Operating costs
Seed .... ..... .. ..... .................. 10.04 20.79
Fertilizer............................. 211.63 259.19
Spray and dust......................... 117.41 201.30
Cultural labor ....... ............. 141.44 209.03
Machine hire........................... 102.24 155.99
Gas, oil, grease...... ................ 46.16 105.98
Repair and maintenance................. 50.03 82.55
Interest on production
capital (17% 5 months)............. 33.20 83.70
Miscellaneous expense.................. 16.98 20.92
Total operating costs.................... 729.13 1139.45 5.426
Fixed costs
Land rent............................. 44.08 73.58
Depreciation........................... 37.91 74.42
Licenses and insurance................. 37.59 52.38
Interest on investment................. 6.40 10.54
Total fixed costs........................ 125.98 210.92 1.004
Harvesting and marketing costs
Cutting........ ...... ................. 96.52 90.18 0.429
Grading and packing.................... 77.33 81.76 0.389
Containers............................ 15.80 16.18 0.077
Hauling....*......................... 131.23 134.91 0.642
Selling................................ 77.23 95.70 0.456
Total harvesting and marketing costs..... 398.11 418.73 1.994
Total costs................. ........... 1253.22 1769.10 8.424
Net return.............................. 590.46 -320.10 -1.524










This public document was promugated at an annual cost of $1680.00 or
$0.88 per copy to furnish the vegetable industry and allied suppliers with
current information on costs and returns of vegetable crops in Florida.