<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Foreword
 Acknowledgements
 Table of Contents
 Map
 Definitions
 Main


UF FLAG IFAS PALMM



Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026154/00007
 Material Information
Title: Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
Series Title: 197374- Economic information report
Portion of title: Vegetable crops in Florida
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1979
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Vegetable trade -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Coastal Engineering Department series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000304067
oclc - 03425969
notis - ABT0638
lccn - 76368517 //r77
issn - 0149-0613
System ID: UF00026154:00007

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Abstract
        Abstract
    Foreword
        Page i
    Acknowledgements
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Map
        Page iii
    Definitions
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text

D. Steven Bean


RECEIVED JUN 2 21981
Economic Information


Cd~~
.7
C.


143


/


Costs and


Returns


from Vegetable Crops in Florida,
Season 1979-80 with Comparisons


Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611


May 1981


Report

















ABSTRACT


Costs and returns were obtained for five different vegetable crops
in one or more of six major producing areas for the 1979-80 season. Yields
were equal or lower than a year earlier. Production cost increases were
recorded in all areas and crops. Increases were as much as 30 to nearly
50 percent more than such costs in 1978-79. Increases in harvest costs
were noted in 62 percent of the cases in 1979-80. Despite higher F.O.B.

prices for most crops, growers recorded losses in 75 percent of the crops
and areas.


Key words: Economics, vegetables, annual costs, simple averages,

purposive sample
















FOREWORD


This is the twentieth in this series of summaries of costs and returns
from the principal vegetable crops by major producing areas in Florida.
There is a need among growers, commodity groups, credit agencies, research
workers and teachers for current factual information of this type.
Data in this summary were gathered by personal interview with growers
of the various vegetable crops. Growers' records of actual production costs
were used when available, and estimates taken when records were not kept.
As complete a breakdown of costs as possible was obtained from each grower.
Insofar as possible, growing and harvesting costs have been separated and
labor items excluded from costs of materials. In a few cases, where crop
sales were not available from growers, they were computed on the basis of
average prices received for the crop as reported by the Florida Crop and
Livestock Reporting Service, Orlando, Florida.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the vegetable growers
for their excellent cooperation and also to the Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Association, the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Orlando,
Florida, and to various county agents for much worthwhile assistance.








i
















FOREWORD


This is the twentieth in this series of summaries of costs and returns
from the principal vegetable crops by major producing areas in Florida.
There is a need among growers, commodity groups, credit agencies, research
workers and teachers for current factual information of this type.
Data in this summary were gathered by personal interview with growers
of the various vegetable crops. Growers' records of actual production costs
were used when available, and estimates taken when records were not kept.
As complete a breakdown of costs as possible was obtained from each grower.
Insofar as possible, growing and harvesting costs have been separated and
labor items excluded from costs of materials. In a few cases, where crop
sales were not available from growers, they were computed on the basis of
average prices received for the crop as reported by the Florida Crop and
Livestock Reporting Service, Orlando, Florida.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the vegetable growers
for their excellent cooperation and also to the Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Association, the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Orlando,
Florida, and to various county agents for much worthwhile assistance.








i














TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


FOREWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . .

MAP OF FLORIDA VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS . . . .

DEFINITIONS . . . . . . .

COSTS AND RETURNS DATA . . . . . .


LIST OF TABLES


Table


1 CABBAGE: Costs and returns per acre in the Hastings area
5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80 . . . .

2 CELERY: Costs and returns per acre in the Central Florida
area 5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80 . . .

3 CELERY: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area
5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80 . . . .

4 PEPPERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80 . . . .

5 PEPPERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward
area 5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80 . . .

6 IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County
area 5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80 . . .

7 IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Hastings
area 5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80 . . .

8 STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-
Lee area 5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80 . .


D. STEVEN BEAN is a research assistant in the Food and Resource
Economics Department.


Page
















AP 1. RAN'S BOSA COALOO00 WALTON HOLMES JACKSON
NASSAU
WSLRIDNTON A ....DE
CIALHEUN A DUVAUML











1 Dade--tomatoes, snap and pole beans, Irish BAKU DWB
BAY LIBER SUWANNEE COLUMBIA
WAXULLA TAYLORL
GULF UNION SAINT
LAFAETJOTNS





FL 0 RIDA
VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS
With Principal Vegetables Produced

1 Dade--tomatoes, snap and pole beans, Irish
potatoes, squash, cucumbers, strawberries """I g
2 Palm Beach-Broward--snap beans, peppers, .E.
eggplant, cucumbers, squash, tomatoes pI SCEO
3 Immokalee-Lee--tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, .soo
squash, Irish potatoes, watermelons
4 Everglades--snap beans, sweet corn, cabbage, M. NEAS. '
escarole, celery, Irish potatoes, radishes ANS 0
5 Fort Pierce--tomatoes, watermelons E U
6 Wauchula--cucumbers, tomatoes, watermelons i
7 Sarasota--celery, radishes, lettuce, cabbage
8 Manatee-Ruskin--tomatoes, cabbage, cauliflower, .
watermelons
9 Plant City--strawberries, peppers, squash, pole -LE
beans, southern peas, okra
10 Sumter--cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, lettuce,
watermelons K RO
11 Zellwood--sweet corn, celery, escarole, lettuce,
snap beans, radishes D AD
12 Sanford-Oviedo--cabbage, celery, snap beans, lettuce,
escarole, sweet corn, peppers ,
13 Oxford-Belleview-Lowell--tomatoes, watermelons
14 Mclntoch-Island Grove--squash, snap beans, celery,
cabbage, lettuce, watermelons
15 Alachua--snap beans, cucumbers, peppers, Irish potatoes, ...
watermelons
16 Hastings--Irish potatoes, cabbage roMON.O COUNTY
17 Starke-Brooker-Lake Bulter--snap and lima beans,I .
cucumbers, peppers', squash, strawberries '
18 Quincy-Havana--pole beans, cucumbers, squash, tomatoes
19 Escambia--Irish potatoes-













DEFINITIONS


Number of growers: Number of individual records or estimates of crop
costs and returns included in each crop summary.

Number of acres: The total acreage planted by growers whose records or
estimates were used. When a part of the planted acreage was lost soon
after planting and replaced by another crop, the reduced acreage was
used.

Average acres per grower: The number of acres of the particular crop
divided by the number of growers.

Average yield per acre: The number of units per planted acre harvested.

Land rent: In the interests of uniformity, land rent was charged for
all acreages and crops at the prevailing rate reported by growers in the
area. This was done to avoid difficulties in the determination of a
normal valuation, interest charge for use of land and capitalization of
land values in a period of fluctuating values and prices. Taxes on farm
real estate are excluded since rent is being charged.

Seed and seedbed includes the cost of seed or plants for planting the
crop. If a seedbed was used, the figures, unless otherwise noted, in-
clude costs of labor and materials for growing plants as well as seed
costs.

Fertilizer represents the actual cost of nutrient materials applied to
produce the crop. Labor or machine costs of application are not
included.

Spray and dust included only the cost of materials unless application
labor is specified, in which case some machine costs may also be present.
If weed control chemicals or soil fumigants were used, their cost also
is included here.

Cultural labor contains the value of man labor, whether hired or family,
to produce the crop from ground preparation until ready for harvest. It
does not include supervision by the operator, since his compensation is
to a great extent dependent upon returns from the sale of the crop.

Machine hire is the cost of machine work hired, including use of air-
planes when applicable, in producing the crop. This item includes labor
charges for the machine operator and charges for the use of equipment.

Gas, oil and grease include the cost of gas, oil and grease required to
operator tractors, trucks, sprayers, pumps and other machinery in pro-
ducing the crop. It may also include electrical power expenses for
irrigation when utilized.










Repair and maintenance represent the cost of repairs to equipment used
in producing the crop. It also includes the small tools such as hoes,
rakes and shovels purchased and charged off as a current expenditure.

Depreciation includes the annual charge for depreciation and obsoles-
cence of equipment and labor housing. When actual depreciation charges
could not be obtained from records, they were computed by assuming a
10-year average life-use on all equipment on the basis of replacement
value as indicated by the operator.

Licenses and insurance represent the cost of licenses and insurance
items when chargeable to the farm business. Licenses include those for
trucks and autos used on the farm. Insurance includes labor and crop
insurance and fire or windstorm insurance on buildings and equipment.
It excludes health or accident insurance for the operator or his family.

Interest on production capital was charged at the rate of 9 percent on
all cash costs for the number of months required to grow and market the
crop regardless of whether or not much production capital was actually
borrowed. This percentage was used because it is a currently available
borrowing rate.

Interest on capital invested (other than land) was charged at 9 percent
of the actual or estimated annual depreciated value of the capital in-
vested in machinery and equipment. It was assumed that all equipment
was presently worth one half its replacement value.

Miscellaneous includes such items as wire, stakes, twine, plastic,
office supplies, administrative expense other than value of the opera-
tor's management, legal and audit fees, telephone and telegraph and
incidental expenses.

Harvesting and marketing expense, where possible, has been divided into
two items: (1) picking and (2) grading and packing. Picking, cutting,
or digging expense includes.actual cost of harvesting the crop and pre-
paring it for movement to packinghouse or wash house. Washing or
grading and packing expense includes preparation of the product for
shipment either in the field or at an adjacent packinghouse. It in-
cludes machinery and overhead costs in addition to labor. The same is
true for all crops in all areas where grading and packing is done off
the farm in packinghouses.

Containers include the cost of hampers, crates, bags or baskets in which
the product is moved to market.

Hauling is the cost of movement of the product from field to packing-
house or loading point. It is often computed on a contract basis and
includes labor and equipment items. In cases where hauling was pre-
formed by the operator's trucks, the costs have been separated from
production labor and machine expense items as nearly as possible.











Other includes the cost of precooling the commodity prior to shipment
and, for celery and sweet corn, the contribution to the Marketing
Agreement Program. Inspection fees, when incurred, are included in
packinghouse charges and are not reported as a separate item.

Selling is the packinghouse, market, sales organization or dealer's
charge for performing the sales service for the crop when deducted from
the producer's price. The cost does not include charges for unloading,
grading, packing, etc.

Crop sales are the gross returns to the grower before deduction of
growing, harvesting and marketing costs.

Net return is the return to the producer after deduction of all expenses,
in producing, harvesting and marketing the crop.

Proration of costs between crops: For such items as seed, fertilizer,
spray and dust, airplane application and harvesting and marketing costs,
growers' records or estimates for each crop were used to make the
appropriate charges.

In the case of the cultural labor, however, no breakdown for the different
crops produced on the individual farm could be obtained from the grower
except in a very few cases when such records had been kept. The total
cultural labor for all crops produced on each farm was, in most cases,
prorated to the various crops on the basis of available data developed
at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations with regard to man hours
required in various parts of the state to produce different crops from
land preparation to harvest. Except in a very few cases, a similar
situation also applies to such items as machine hire, tractor fuel, oil
and grease, repairs, depreciation and other production costs where records
had not been kept showing the respective charges to different crops. Pro-
rations were also made to these items on the basis of available data (D.L.
Brooke, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 660, June 1963).

In many cases individual growers did not incur every cost item. This
applies especially to airplane application, machine hire, grading and
packing, containers, hauling and precooling. Thus, these data are based
only on the overall average for all growers contacted in each area.
Footnotes have been used to set forth the number of growers and average
costs for items not incurred by all growers in the sample.

Per-unit costs and returns were computed by dividing the average yield
per acre in the sample into the various items of cost shown in the in-
dividual tables. They are merely averages of the data recorded and, in
some cases, do not reflect the full cost of performing the service be-
cause all growers may not have incurred every item of cost.

Ranges per acre showing the lowest and the highest of the sampled ob-
servations for yields, costs and returns are included for each crop and
area. This is intended to show growers and other interested parties
the extremes that may be encountered in vegetable production.











Table 1.--CABBAGE: Costs and returns per acre in the Hastings area
5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80


Item :5-season: 1979-80
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (50-1bs.)


. . : 11
. . : 1736
. . : 152
. . : 479


4
860
215
421


Growing costs:
Acre
Land rent . . . . :$ 38.87
Seed . . . . . : 74.40
Fertilizer . . . . : 107.70
Spray and dust . . . . : 60.58
Cultural labor . . . . : 141.81
Machine hire . . . . : 4.50
Gas, oil and grease . . . : 29.17
Repair and maintenance .. . . : 44.11
Depreciation . . . . : 36.33
Licenses and insurance .. . : 24.42
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months). : 15.99
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 5.45
Miscellaneous expense ... . ... : 7.35


Total growing cost . . .
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Cutting and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


Average per
Acre 50-1bs.
:$ 41.25
84.38
: 103.39
: 110.68
: 170.40
14.20a:
63.23 :
77.27
61.39 :
47.51
21.70 :
9.20 :
11.04 :


: 590.68 : 815.64 :$ 1.937


. . : 199.62
. . : 352.96
. . : .24
. . : 116.76
. . : 669.58


:1260.26
:1766.76
:$506.50


256.36 : .609
521.86 : 1.240

105.31 : .250
883.53 : 2.099


: 1699.17
: 1252.77
:$-446.40


: 4.036
: 2.976
:$-1.060


1979-80 range per acre
From To

Yield (50-lbs.) . . . . : 313 657
Total growing cost . . . . :$ 614.71 :$1307.65
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .... : 663.59 : 1346.93
Total crop cost . . . ....... : 1307.21 :2654.58
Crop sales . . . . . : 641.65 :2295.45
Net return . . . . .. :$-665.56 :$-304.80


Reported by 2 growers averaging $28.38 per acre.











Table 2.--CELERY: Costs and returns per acre in the Central Florida area
5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80


Item :5-season: 1979-80
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)


3 :
1461:
487
515 :


3
1391
464
583


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . . .
Cultural labor . . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . . .
Repair and maintenance . . . .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance . . .
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months)
Interest on capital invested (other than land)
Miscellaneous expense . . . .


Acre
:$ 40.30
S99.80
: 145.58
: 166.41
: 328.88
10.41
26.33
82.53
30.56
44.40
37.56
4.58
56.85


Average per
Acre Crate
:$ 57.85 :
:122.66 :
:146.42 :
:153.54 :
:343.75 :
48.49a:
69.10
98.34
57.60 :
:159.30 :
50.44 :
8.64 :
:145.61 :


Total growing cost . . .
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Cutting and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


. . :1074.19 :1461.73 :$2.507


. . : 699.00
. . : 402.29
. . : 64.15
. . : 197.98
. . : 93.48
. . :1456.90
. . :2531.09
. . :3169.11
. . :$638.02


:1002.38
: 574.75
: 95.02
: 172.59
: 129.35


: 1.719
S .986
: .163
: .296
: .222


:1974.09 : 3.386


:3435.83
:3340.66
:$-95.17


: 5.893
: 5.730
:$-.163


1979-80 range per acre
From To

Yield (crates) . . . .... .. : 551 : 642
Total growing cost . . . . .. :$1172.83 :$1724.28
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 1670.55 : 2339.88
Total crop cost . . . . : 3158.64 : 3636.13
Crop sales . . . . ... . : 3213.45 : 3558.09
Net return . . . . ... . :$-262.28 :$ 54.81


aReported by 2 growers averaging $72.74 per acre.


i j i j j












Table 3.--CELERY: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area
5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80

Item :5-season: 1979-80
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)


8
7835
933
605


5
7377
1475
644


Growing costs:

Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production c
Interest on capital inve
Miscellaneous expense .


Acre
. . . :$ 72.62
. . . 102.78
. . . 160.48
. . . 375.55
. . . 393.83
. . . 26.49
. . . 46.41
. . . 127.93
. . . 57.42
. . 55.93
capital (9% 5 months). : 52.85
sted (other than land). : 8.61
. . . : 47.37


Total growing cost . . .
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Cutting and packing expense . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .
Total harvesting and marketing costs
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


. . :1528.27


: 645.84
: 405.86
: 183.67
: 270.88
: 101.39


Average per
Acre Crate
:$ 87.31
:118.22
:156.8 :
: 3 .45 :
:549.42
16.94":
88.15 :
:128.40
77.76
:107.23
64.72 :
11.66 :
:111.79 :
:1879.91 :$2.919


: 764.85 :
: 600.12 :
: 120.36 :
: 279.66 :
: 114.74 :


1.188
.932
.187
.434
.178


. .. :1607.64 :1879.74 : 2.919


:3135.91
:3540.32
:$404.41


:3739.44 : 5.807
:3662.66 : 5.687
:$-76.78 :$-.119


1979-80 range per acre
From To

Yield (crates) . . . . : 537 : 730
Total growing cost . . . .. :$1321.42 :$2491.71
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 1588.37 : 2361.44
Total crop cost . . . . : 3188.91 : 4344.61
Crop sales . . . . ... : 3248.85 : 3991.35
Net return . . . . ... :$-512.76 :$ 730.63


Reported by 4 growers averaging $21.23 per acre.


i i i I







4



Table 4.--PEPPERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80


Item :5-season: 1979-80
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


11
2182
206
608


4
718
180
788


Growing costs:


Land rent . . .
Seed . . . .
Fertilizer . . . .
Spray and dust . . .
Cultural labor . . .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital (9% -


Interest on capital invested (othei
Miscellaneous expense . .
Total growing cost . . .
Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking expense . . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


5 months) .
than land) .
. .


Acre
:$ 41.52
: 89.83
: 266.92
: 252.32
:427.16
39.19
90.08
: 146.85
80.22
65.16
57.73
12.04
:120.48


Average per
Acre Bushel
:$ 92.04
: 165.37
: 302.22
: 395.18
: 546.94
:65.77a:
: 153.79 :
: 273.30 :
:50.19
: 135.90 :
: 105.22
7.53
:675.24


. . :1689.50 :2968.69 :$3.767


: 402.45
: 503.91
: 309.51
: 110.56
: 116.90


: 626.01
: 848.27
: 453.39
: 239.66
: 159.32


:.794
: 1.076
:.575
:.304
:.202


. .. :1443.33 :2326.65 : 2.953


:3132.83
:3322.42
:$189.59


:5295.34
:5797.92
:$502.58


: 6.720
: 7.358
:$ .638


1979-80 range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels) . . . . : 704 : 873
Total growing cost .. .. . .. :$2191.71 :$3877.59
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 2150.22 : 2566.62
Total crop cost . . . . : 4341.93 : 6444.21
Crop sales . . . . .. : 5434.88 : 6468.93
Net return . . . . .. :$-244.56 :$1276.14


aReported by 2 growers averaging $131.53 per acre.
Reported by 2 growers averaging $131.53 per acre.


.












Table 5.--PEPPERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward
area 5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80


:5-season:
: average:


Item


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


9
1367
145
720


1979-80


4
1365
341
958


Growing costs:

Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . . .
Repair and Maintenance . . .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance .....
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months).
Interest on capital invested (other than land).
Miscellansious expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


Acre
:$ 67.46
84.21
S235.81
S268.08
S603.50
91.29
94.35
S112.51
66.18
99.51
69.86
9.93
:204.82


Average per
Acre Bushel
:$ 92.21 :
: 72.66 :
: 283.04 :
: 486.68
:758.18
88.14
:210.42
:213.62
99.58
: 307.63
: 106.38
:14.93
: 324.30


:2007.51 :3057.77 :$3.192


: 565.08
: 352.73
: 121.54
: 151.51


: 916.23
: 544.13
: 204.65
: 218.83


S .956
: .568
: .214
: .228


. :1190.86 :1883.84 : 1.966


:3198.37
:3886.12
:$687.75


:4941 .61
:5830.70
:$889.09


: 5.158
: 6.086
:$ .928


1979-80 range per acre
From To

Yield (bushels) . . . . : 825 : 1150
Total growing cost . . . . :$2256.20 :$3650.08
Total harvesting and marketing cost . ... : 1491.87 : 2618.60
Total crop cost . . . . ... : 4100.20 :6268.68
Crop sales . . . . ... .. .: 4808.37 :7124.26
Net return . . . . ... :$-152.01 :$2855.00


v












Table 6.--IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County area
5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80


Item :5-season: 1979-80
: average:

Number of growers . . . . : 7 : 5
Number of acres . . . . : 4835 : 3870
Average acres per grower . . . : 672 : 774
Average yield per acre (cwt.) . . : 168 : 167

Growing -jsts: Average per
Acre Acre Cwt.
Land rent . . . . :$ 67.83 :$ 97.06 :
Seed . . . . ... . : 214.76 : 289.36 :
Fertilizer . . . . : 96.78 : 142.18
Spray and dust . . . . : 99.24 : 113.76 :
Cultural labor . . . . : 94.38 : 125.69 :
Machine hire . . . . : 7.44 : 16.76a:
Gas, oil and grease . . . : 21.57 : 52.93
Repair and maintenance . . . : 44.50 : 62.68 :
Depreciation . . . . : 33.18 : 49.59 :
Licenses and insurance . . . : 45.38 : 71.75 :
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months) : 21.42 : 29.71
Interest on capital invested (other than land) .: 4.98 : 7.44 :
Miscellaneous expense . . . : 22.16 : 18.04b:
Total growing cost . . . . : 773.62 : 1076.95 :$ 6.449
Harvesting marketing costs:
Digging expense . . . ... : 33.43 : 43.48 : .260
Grading and packing expense . . : 156.90 : 239.26 : 1.433
Containers . . . . : 55.79 : 55.53 : .332
Hauling . . . .... .. : 30.45 : 40.82 : .244
Selling . . . .... .. : 45.43 : 52.22 : .313
Total harvesting and marketing cost . : 322.00 : 431.31 : 2.583
Total crop cost . . . . :1095.62 : 1508.26 : 9.032
Crop sales . . . .... .. :1140.19 : 1228.31 : 7.355
Net return . . . .... .. :$ 44.57 :$-279.96 :$-1.676


1979-80 range per acre
From To
Yield (cwt.) . . . . .. . : 147 180
Total growing cost . . . . :$ 861.31 :$1285.81
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 344.97 : 546.57
Total crop cost . ... . . : 1206.60 : 1743.87
Crop sales . . . . ... . : 1081.92 : 1411.98
Net return . . . . ... . :$-661.95 :$ 205.38


aReported by 4 growers averaging $20.95 per acre.
bReported by 4 growers averaging $22.55 per acre.











Table 7.--IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Hastings area
5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80


:5-season: 1979-80
Item 1979-80
: average:

Number of growers . . . . : 17 : 7
Number of acres . . . . : 4190 : 2811
Average acres per grower . . . : 241 : 402
Average yield per acre (cwt.) . . : 207 : 219
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Cwt.
Land rent . . . . :$ 43.59 :$ 50.44 :
Seed . . . . ... : 163.91 : 187.89 :
Fertilizer . . . . : 119.06 : 130.24 :
Spray and dust . . . . : 56.60 : 87.21 :
Cultural labor . . . . : 67.87 : 77.76 :
Machine hire . . . .... : 8.17 : 9.33a:
Gas, oil and grease . . . : 26.45 : 33.99 :
Repair and maintenance . . ... : 51.51 : 62.29 :
Depreciation . .. . . : 38.73 : 57.70 :
Licenses and insurance . . . : 23.31 : 32.07 :
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months). : 17.15 : 20.94 :
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 5.81 : 8.66 :
Miscellaneous expense . . . : 11.09 : 26.75b:
Total growing cost . . . : 633.25 : 785.27 :$3.586
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Digging expense . . . . : 42.01 : 49,33 : .225
Grading and packing expense . . : 66.55 : 80.73 : .369
Containers . . . . : 13.69 : 40.40c: .184
Hauling . . . .... .: 37.50 : 45.78 : .209
Selling . . . .... .. : 54.60 : 59.98 : .274
Total harvesting and marketing cost . : 214.35 : 276.22 : 1.261
Total crop cost . . . .... : 847.60 :1061.49 : 4.847
Crop sales . . . . : 941.38 :1109.11 : 5.064
Net return . . . .... :$ 93.78 :$ 47.62 :$ .217

1979-80 range per acre
From To
Yield (cwt.) . . . . . : 120 : 250
Total growing cost . . . . :$ 476.91 :$1064.70
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 166.80 : 462.00
Total crop cost . . . . : 753.86 : 1381.29
Crop sales . . . . . : 682.56 : 1405.75
Net return . . . . . :$-360.16 :$ 400.06

aReported by 6 growers averaging $10.89 per acre.
bReported by 6 growers averaging $31.21 per acre.

CReported by 5 growers averaging $56.56 per acre.







8




Table 8.--STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee
area 5-season average 1975-79 and 1979-80


Item :5-season: 1979-80
: average:


Number of growers .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (30


lbs.)


Growing costs:


Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .. .
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance .
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance .


Interest on production ca
Interest on capital inves
Miscellaneous expense .


. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
pital (9% 5 months) .
ted (other than land) .
. . . .


: 14
: 4228
: 306
: 844


Acre
:$ 51.76
96.27
S268.47
S367.71
S701.58
72.28
98.48
: 142.28
:100.86
75.92
78.74
15.13
224.98


4
1581
395
856


Average per
Acre 30 lbs.
:$ 96.06 :
: 115.01 :
: 332.77 :
: 446.46 :
: 920.19 :
:54.43a:
: 112.16
: 224.30
:42.10
: 108.84
: 112.45
6.32
:588.52


Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking expense . . . .
Grading and packing expense . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . . .
Selling . . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . . .
Crop sales . . . . .
Net return . . . . .


. . :2294.46 :3159.61 :$3.691


: 492.16
: 818.15
: 432.17
: 139.37
: 129.40


: 500.19
: 853.69
: 460.32
: 174.02
: 165.61


.. .:2011.25 :2153.83 : 2.516


:4305.71
:4733.88
:$428.17


:5313.44 : 6.207
:5428.25 : 6.341
:$114.81 :$ .134


1979-80 range per acre
From To

Yield (30 lbs.). . . . . .. : 677 :1085
Total growing cost . . . . :$2988.57 :$3398.83
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 1753.43 : 2717.22
Total crop cost . . . . : 4758.12 : 6116.05
Crop sales . . . . ... .: 3983.37 : 7837.27
Net return . . . . .. :$-774.75 :$1721.22


aReported by 2 growers averaging $108.85 per acre.


: .584
: .997
: .538
: .203
: .193