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 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Foreword
 Acknowledgements
 Table of Contents
 Map
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UF FLAG IFAS PALMM



Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026154/00005
 Material Information
Title: Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
Series Title: 197374- Economic information report
Portion of title: Vegetable crops in Florida
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1977
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Vegetable trade -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Coastal Engineering Department series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000304067
oclc - 03425969
notis - ABT0638
lccn - 76368517 //r77
issn - 0149-0613
System ID: UF00026154:00005

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Abstract
        Abstract
    Foreword
        Page i
    Acknowledgements
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Map
        Page iv
    Definitions
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
Full Text

D. L. Brooke


JUN 20 RECD


(tr?'


c1-1


Costs and Returns from
Vegetable Crops in Florida,


Season


1977-78


with Comparisons


Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciepces
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611


April 1979


..... ...


m


Economic Information
Report 110

















ABSTRACT


Costs and returns were obtained for 14 different vegetable crops
in one or more of eight major producing areas for the 1977-78 season.
Yields were generally better than a year earlier, a result of better
weather. Cost increases were noted in three-fourths of the crops and
areas. FOB prices were higher than a year earlier resulting in higher
net returns to growers in 60 percent of the cases.

Key wordyl: Economics, vegetables, annual costs, simple averages,
purposive sample.














FOREWORD


This is the eighteenth in this series of summaries of costs and

returns from the principal vegetable crops by major producing areas in

Florida. There is a need among growers, commodity groups, credit

agencies, research workers and teachers for current factual information

of this type.

Data in this summary were gathered by personal interview with

growers of the various vegetable crops. Growers' records of actual

production costs were used when available, and estimates taken when

records were not kept. As complete a breakdown of costs as possible

was obtained from each grower. Insofar as possible, growing and har-

vesting costs have been separated and labor items excluded from costs

of materials. In a few cases, where crop sales were not available from

growers, they were computed on the basis of average prices received for

the crop as reported by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,

Orlando, Florida.














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS



The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the vegetable

growers for their excellent cooperation and also to the Florida Fruit

and Vegetable Association, the Florida Crop and Livestock Reportiiing

Service, Orlando, Florida, and to various county agents for much

worthwhile assistance.


i














FOREWORD


This is the eighteenth in this series of summaries of costs and

returns from the principal vegetable crops by major producing areas in

Florida. There is a need among growers, commodity groups, credit

agencies, research workers and teachers for current factual information

of this type.

Data in this summary were gathered by personal interview with

growers of the various vegetable crops. Growers' records of actual

production costs were used when available, and estimates taken when

records were not kept. As complete a breakdown of costs as possible

was obtained from each grower. Insofar as possible, growing and har-

vesting costs have been separated and labor items excluded from costs

of materials. In a few cases, where crop sales were not available from

growers, they were computed on the basis of average prices received for

the crop as reported by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,

Orlando, Florida.














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS



The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the vegetable

growers for their excellent cooperation and also to the Florida Fruit

and Vegetable Association, the Florida Crop and Livestock Reportiiing

Service, Orlando, Florida, and to various county agents for much

worthwhile assistance.


i















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

FOREWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . .... .. ... i

MAP OF FLORIDA VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS. . . . iv

DEFINITIONS . . . .... . . v

COSTS AND RETURNS DATA . . . .... . 1


LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1 SNAP BEANS: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-
Broward area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 . 1

2 POLE BEANS: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 .... . .. 2

3 CABBAGE: Costs and returns per acre in the Hastings area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 ..... .. . 3

4 CELERY: Costs and returns per acre in the Central Florida
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 ...... ..

5 CELERY: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 ...... .. .. 5

6 SWEET CORN: Costs and returns per acre in the Central
Florida area 5-season average 1973-1977 and 1977-78 . 6

7 SWEET CORN: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 . . 7

8 SWEET CORN: Costs and returns per acre in the Lower East
Coast area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 . 8

9 CUCUMBERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 . ... 9


D. L. BROOKE is a professor in the Food and Resource Economics
Department.









LIST OF TABLES--Continued


Tabl e Pag

10 (UCUMBERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-
Broward area season 1977-78 . . . 10

11 EGGPLANT: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-
Broward area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 ... 11

12 LEAF CROPS: Costs and returns per acre in the Central
Florida area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 ... 12

13 LEAF CROPS: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 . . .

I PEPPERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 .. . 14

15 PEPPERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-
Broward area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 .... 15

16 IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade
(County area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 .... .

17 IRLSH POTATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Hastin.,s
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 .. ... 17

18 RADISHES: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 .. ... . 18

19 SQUASH: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 . . 19

20 SQUASH: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 . . 2:)

21 SQUASH: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-
Broward area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 ... 21

22 TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 . ... 22

23 STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the
Immokalee-Lee area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 23

24 STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Manatee-
Ruskin area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 ... 24

25 WATERMELONS: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalct-
Lee area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78 . 25













vI ~ 1


'2'


FL 0 RIDA
VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS
With Principal Vegetables Produced


1r -


1 Dade--tomatoes, snap and pole beans, Irish
potatoes, squash, cucumbers, strawberries
2 Palm Beach-Broward--snap beans, peppers,
eggplant, cucumbers, squash, tomatoes
3 ImmoknLee-Lec--tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers,
squash, Irish potatoes, watermelons
4 Everglades--snap beans, sweet corn, cabbage, \J
escarole, celery, Irish potatoes, radishes 8
5 Fort Pierce--tomatoes, watermelons
6 Wauchula--cucumbers, tomatoes, watermelons
7 Sarasota--celery, radishes, lettuce, cabbage \
8 Manatee-Ruskin--tomatoes, cabbage, cauliflower,
watermelons
9 Plant City--strawberries, peppers, squash,
pole beans, southern peas, okra
10 Sumter--cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, lettuce,
watermelons
11 Zellwood--sweet corn, celery, escarole, lettuce,
snap beans, radishes
12 Sanford-Oviedo--cabbage, celery, snap beans, lettuce,
escarole, sweet corn, peppers
13 Oxford-Belleview-Lowell--tomatoes, watermelons
14 McIntosh-Island Grove--squash, snap beans, celery,
cabbage, lettuce, watermelons
15 Alachua--snap beans, cucumbers, pepper, Irish
potatoes, watermelons
16 Hastings--Irish potatoes, cabbage
17 Starke-Brooker-Lake Butler--snap and lima beans,
cucumbers, peppers, squash, strawberries
18 Quincy-Havana--pole beans, cucumbers, squash, tomatoes
19 Escambia--Irish potatoes


S' 2


\ i
.1

S1



//
f,"


_


15 I




S14


-F 1i


I


j












DEFINITIONS


Number of growers: Number of individual records or estimates of crop
costs and returns included in each crop summary.

Number of acres: The total acreage planted by growers whose records or
estimates were used. When a part of the planted acreage was lost soon
after planting and replaced by another crop, the reduced acreage was
used.

Average acres per grower: The number of acres of the particular crop
divided by the number of growers.

Average yield per acre: The number of units per planted acre harvested.

Land rent: In the interests of uniformity, land rent was charged for
all acreages and crops at the prevailing rate reported by growers in the
area. This was done to avoid difficulties in the determination of a
normal valuation, interest charge for use of land and capitalization of
land values in a period of fluctuating values and prices. Taxes on farm
real estate are excluded since rent is being charged.

Seed and seedbed includes the cost of seed or plants for planting the
crop. If a seedbed was used, the figures, unless otherwise noted, in-
clude costs of labor and materials for growing plants as well as seed
costs.

Fertilizer represents the actual cost of nutrient materials applied to
produce the crop. Labor or machine costs of application are not
included.

Spray and dust included only the cost of materials unless application
labor is specified, in which case some machine costs may also be present.
If weed control chemicals or soil fumigants were used, their cost also
is included here.

Cultural labor contains the value of man labor, whether hired or family,
to produce the crop from ground preparation until ready for harvest. It
does not include supervision by the operator, since his compensation is
to a great extent dependent upon returns from the sale of the crop.

Machine hire is the cost of machine work hired, including use of air-
planes when applicable, in producing the crop. This item includes labor
charges for the machine operator and charges for the use of equipment.

Gas, oil and grease include the cost of gas, oil and grease required to
operate tractors, trucks, sprayers, pumps and other machinery in produc-
ing the crop. It may also include electrical power expenses for irriga-
tion when utilized.









Repair and maintenance represent the cost of repairs to equipment used
in producing the crop. It also includes the small tools such as hoes,
rakes and shovels purchased and charged off as a current expenditure.

Depreciation includes the annual charge for depreciation and obsoles-
cence of equipment and labor housing. When actual depreciation charges
could not be obtained from records, they were computed by assuming a
10-year average life-use on all equipment on the basis of replacement
value as indicated by the operator.

Licenses and insurance represent the cost of licenses and insurance
items when chargeable to the farm business. Licenses include those for
trucks and autos used on the farm. Insurance includes labor and crop
insurance and fire or windstorm insurance on buildings and equipment.
It excludes health or accident insurance for the operator or his family.

Interest on product ion capital was charged at the rate of 9 percent on
all cash costs for the number of months required to grw and market the
crop regardless of whether or not much production capital was actually
borrowed. This percentage was used because it is a currently available
borrowing rate.

Interest on capital invested (other than land) was charged at 9 percent
of the actual or estimated annual depreciated value of the capital in-
vested in machinery and equipment. It was assumed that all equipment
was presently worth one half its replacement value.

Miscellaneous includes such items as wire, stakes, twine, plastic,
office supplies, administrative expense other than value of the opera-
tor's management, legal and audit fees, telephone and telegraph and
incidental expenses.

Harvesting and marketing expense, where possible, has been divided into
two items: (1) picking and (2) grading and packing. Picking, cutting,
or digging expense includes actual cost of harvesting the crop and pre-
paring it for movement to packinghouse or wash house. Washing or
grading and packing expense includes preparation of the product :or
shipment either in the field or at an adjacent packinghouse. It in-
cludes machinery and overhead costs in addition to labor. The same is
true for all crops in all areas where grading and packing is done off
the farm in packinghouses.

Containers include the cost of hampers, crates, bags or baskets in
which the product is moved to market.

Hauling is the cost of movement of the product from field to packing-
house or loading point. It is often computed on a contract basis and
includes labor and equipment items. In cases where hauling was pre-
formed by the operator's trucks, the costs have been separated from
production labor and machine expense items as nearly as possible.







Other includes the cost of precooling the commodity prior to shipment
and, for celery and sweet corn, the contribution to the Marketing
Agreement Program. Inspection fees, when incurred, are included in
packinghouse charges and are not reported as a separate item.

Selling is the packinghouse, market, sales organization or dealer's
charge for performing the sales service for the crop when deducted from
the producer's price. The cost does not include charges for unloading,
grading, packing, etc.

Crop sales are the gross returns to the grower before deduction of
growing, harvesting and marketing costs.

Net return is the return to the producer after deduction of all expenses,
in producing, harvesting and marketing the crop.

Proration of costs between crops: For such items as seed, fertilizer,
spray and dust, airplane application and harvesting and marketing costs,
growers' records or estimates for each crop were used to make the
appropriate charges.

In the case of the cultural labor, however, no breakdown for the differ-
ent crops produced on the individual farm could be obtained from the
grower except in a very few cases when such records had been kept. The
total cultural labor for all crops produced on each farm was, in most
cases, prorated to the various crops on the basis of available data de-
veloped at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations with regard to
man hours required in various parts of the state to produce different
crops from land preparation to harvest. Except in a very few cases, a
similar situation also applies to such items as machine hire, tractor
fuel, oil and grease, repairs, depreciation and other production costs
where records had not been kept showing the respective charges to dif-
ferent crops. Prorations were also made to these items on the basis of
available data (D. L. Brooke, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 660, June 1963).

In many c;ses individual growers did not incur every cost item. This
applies especially to airplane application, machine hire, grading and
packing, containers, hauling and precooling. Thus, these data are based
only on the overall average for all growers contacted in each area.
Footnotes have been used to set forth the number of growers and average
costs for items not incurred by all growers in the sample.

Per-unit costs and returns were computed by dividing the average yield
per acre in the sample into the various items of cost shown in the in-
dividual tables. They are merely averages of the data recorded and, in
some cases, do not reflect the full cost of performing the service be-
cause all growers may not have incurred every item of cost.

Ranges per acre showing the lowest and the highest of the sampled obser-
vations for yields, costs and returns are included for each crop and
area. This is intended to show growers and other interested parties
the extremes that may be encountered in vegetable production.







1



Table 1.--SNAP BEANS: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78

:5-season:
Item :5-season: 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


6126
1021
76


6500
1300
75


Growing costs:

Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . . .
Repair and maintenance . . .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance . . .
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months).
Interest on capital invested (other than land).
Miscellaneous expense . . . .


Acre
40.83
32.68
63.19
32.18
49.11
14.12
15.68
19.54
13.26
11.92
8.56
1.99
6.19


Average per
Acre Bushel
:$ 39.00
32.40 :
41.57
42.27
74.90
7.50
17.92
21.01
13.79
13.13
9.23
2.07
17.96


Total growing cost . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . .


. . : 309.25 : 332.75 :$ 4.437


79.62
49.87
11.09
13.01


84.42
51.44
10.10
16.35


1.125
.686
.135
.218


: 153.59 : 162.31 : 2.164


: 462.84
: 447.64
:$-15.20


: 495.06
: 538.76
:$ 43.70


6.601
7.184
.583


1977-78 Range per acre
From To

Yield (bushels) . . . . : 50 : 89
Total growing cost . . . . :$ 245.99 :$ 515.79
Total harvesting and marketing cost . ... : 122.91 : 192.58
Total crop cost . . .... .. .. : 413.26 : 708.37
Crop sales . . . .... .. : 350.00 : 712.00
Net return . . . ... :$ -63.49 :$ 151.97












Table 2.--POLE BEANS: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78

^ Item :5-season: 1977-78
Item: average:
Average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)

Growing costs:

Land rent . . .
Seed . . . .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust . .
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease ..
Repair and maintenance .
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance .
Interest on production capital
Interest on capital invested (o
Miscellaneous expense .

Total growing cost . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:


7 :
2135 :
305
297


Acre
. . :$ 43.72
. . : 51.92
. . : 99.11.
. . : 71.34
. . : 291.06
. . : 13.22
. . : 29.85
. . : 42.85
. . 26.45
. . : 40.69
(9% 4 months) : 22.85
their than land) : 3.97
. . : 78.06


4
1429
357
220


Average per
Acre Bushel
:$ 65.47
64.15
:115.74
82.67
:419.46

29.44
42.35
17.31
38.68
28.20
2.59
82.15


. : 815.09 : 988.21 :$ 4.492


Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . ....
Net return . . . .


246.24
201.33
42.40
62.55


238.39
186.52
36.25
64.02


1.083
.848
.165
.291


. : 552.52 : 525.18 : 2.387


:1367.61
:1543.78
:$176.17


:1513.39
:1737.33
:$223.94


: 6.879
: 7.897
:$ 1.018


Yield (bushels) . . .
Total growing cost . . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


1977-78 Range per acre
From To

S. 175 : 250
S :$ 827.77 :$1191.71
S 422.73 : 625.00
1324.18 : 1739.50
1414.22 : 2058.45
. :$ 90.04 :$ 318.95


----







3



Table 3.--CABBAGE: Costs and returns per acre in the Hastings area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78

:5-season:
Item :5-season: 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (50-1bs.)

Growing costs:


Land rent . . . .
Seed . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . .
Spray and dust . . .
Cultural labor . . .
Machine hire . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . . .
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital (9% 4
Interest on capital invested (other thai
Miscellaneous expense . . .


11
1573
143
504


Acre
:$ 35.02
: 65.43
: 96.27
S : 49.38
: 119.36
: 4.56
: 22.68
: 33.61
: 27.54
: 19.38
months). : 13.58
n land). : 4.13
. : 7.03


14
2062
147
387


Average per
Acre 50-1bs.
:$ 42.36
S80.43
: 117.36
: 63.93
1: 47.17
: 3.59a:
S32.41
S55.58
S48.40
S28.40
1 7.44
S 7.26
S10.02


Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


. : 497.97 : 654.35 :$ 1.691


175.64
320.19
.33
109.69


187.91 :
280.86 :

96.07 :


. . : 605.85 : 564.84 : 1.459


:1103.82 :1219.19
:1495.90 :1603.90
:$392.08 :$384.71


Yield (50-lbs.) . . .
Total growing cost . . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost .
Total crop costs . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


1977-78 Range per acre
From To

250 : 600
. $ 488.13 :$ 1038.61
. 401.15 : 894.60
. 905.06 : 1663.80
. 965.15 : 2500.00
S. $ 37.02 :$ 1254.50


aReported by 7 growers averaging


$7.19 per acre.


.485
.726

.248


3.150
4.144
.994


-- --------------












Table 4.--CELERY: Costs and returns per acre in the Central Florida area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78

:5-season:
Item : ea : 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)


3 :
1365 :
455
505


3
1565
522
437


Growing costs:
Acre
Land rent . .. . .. :$ 34.70
Seed . . . . . : 84.15
Fertilizer . . . . : 124.97
Spray and dust . . . .. : 153.12
Cultural labor . . . : 261.21
Machine hire . . .. ..... : 10.20
Gas, oil and grease . . . : 22.69
Repair and maintenance . .. ...... : 73.23
Depreciation . . . . : 22.80
Licenses and insurance . . .... : 26.43
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months) : 31.16
Interest on capital invested (other than land) : 3.42
Miscellaneous expense . . ... : 40.18


Average per
: Acre Crate
:$ 42.73
S 93.82
S144.64
: 167.83
S434.85
3.25a:
S 25.32
S 87.06
S 38.31
S 68.76
41.11
S 5.75
S 28.06


Total growing cost . . .
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Cutting and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


. . : 888.26 : 1181.49 :$ 2.706


. . : 549.41
. : 369.88
. : 53.25
. . : 194.67
. . : 86.75

. . :1253.96
. . :2142.22
. . :2281.01
. :$138.79


825.27
349.51
66.88
215.22
65.90


1.890
.800
.153
.493
.151


: 1522.78 : 3.487


: 2704.27
:3731.19
:$1026.92


6.193
8.545
2.352


.1977-78 Range per acre
From To

Yield (crates) . . . ...... : 389 : 472
Total growing cost . . . . :$ 1009.19 :$1321.55
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .. : 1159.90 : 1916.03
Total crop cost . .... .. ..... ... : 2169.09 : 3129.76
Crop sales . . . . : 2948.21 : 4516.60
Net return . . . . . :$ 134.24 :$1559.66


aReported by 1 grower averaging $9.74 per acre.







5



Table 5.--CELERY: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78

:5-season: 1977-78
Item 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)


9
8208
912
607


8
7726
966
542


Growing costs:

Land rent . . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust . .
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease . .
Repair and maintenance .
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance .
Interest on production capital
Interest on capital invested
Miscellaneous expense .

Total growing cost . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:


Acre
. . :$ 55.46
. . : 95.33
. . 141.84
. . 295.65
. . 327.74
. . : 25.05
. . : 34.50
. . : 90.98
. . : 41.62
. . : 36.63
1 (9% 5 months) : 42.62
(other than land) : 6.24
. . : 33.23


Average per
Acre Crate
:$ 89.29
: 104.32
: 145.13
:430.93
: 436.30
24.62
: 55.95
:169.56
S70.60
74.80
59.55
10.60
57.20


. :1226.89 :1728.85 :$ 3.192


Cutting and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


: 578.58
: 445.25
: 79.31
: 228.82
: 90.44


590.91
459.51
83.89
281.98
93.20


1.091
.848
.155
.521
.172


. . :1422.40 :1509.49 : 2.787


:2649.29
:2800.27
:$150.98


:3238.34
:3637.58
:$399.24


5.979
6.716
.737


1977-78 Range per acre
From To


Yield (crates) . . . .... . : 434 : 668
Total growing cost . . . . :$ 1285.22 :$ 2154.44
Total harvesting and marketing cost ...... .... : 1210.62 : 1872.12
Total crop cost . . . . : 2514.33 : 4026.56
Crop sales . . . . : 2930.17 : 4861.12
Net return . . . .... .:$ -348.50 :$ 1029.13







6



Table 6.--SWEET CORN: Costs and returns per acre in the Central Florida area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78

:5-season:
Item : 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (crates) .

Growing costs:

Land rent . . .
Seed . . . .
Fertilizer . . . .
Spray and dust . . .. .
Cultural labor . . .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital (9% -
Interest on capital invested (other
Miscellaneous expense . .

Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . .
Other . . .
Selling . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total cr cost . .
Crop sales . ...... .
Net return . . . .


4 :
3480 :
870
286


4
tha


Acre
. :$ 34.22
: 15.07
. 52.18
. 85.64
. : 51.45
. 10.45
. : 12.64
: 54.87
. : 8.1.3
. : 20.14
months) : 10.69
n land) : 2.72
: 19.67

. : 387.87



. : 153.44
. : 166.88
. : 26.49
. : 93.32
. : 44.56

. : 484.69

. : 872.56
. : 942.84


5
4457
891
321


Average per
Acre Crate
:$ 42.39
22.48
S 46.77
92.60
41,43
12.55a:
: 15.06
S47.67
S24.38
39.67
11.53
3.66
S23.62

423.81 :$ 1.321


:196.21
:240.65
S27.52
:120.55
54.38

:639.31

:1063.12
:1107.24


.612
.750
.086
.376
.169

1.993

3.315
3.452


:$ 70.28 :$ 44.12 :$ .137


Yield (crates) . . *. .
Total growing cost . . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


1977-78 Range per acre
From To

280 :339
:$ 318.29 :$ 661.33
436.83 : 733.02
975.44 : 1164.30
971.04 : 1179.69
:$ -43.00 :$ 187.93


nReported by 3 growers averaging $20.92 per acre.










Table 7.--SWEET CORN: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78


Item :5-season: 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)


Growing costs:


Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production c
Interest on capital inve
Miscellaneous expense .


. . . :$
. . . :
. . . months). :
sted (oth. than land). :
. . . :
. . . .
. . . ,
. . . .

. . . :
capital (9% 4 months). :
sted (other than land). :
. . . :


11
14223
1293
218



Acre
36.97
12.77
30.04
81.21
45.76
17.83
11.47
26.54
17.43
11.86
8.51
2.61
9.21


9
16670
1852
158


Average per
Acre Crate
:$ 43.25
21.24
39.28
S 79.60
5/ 54.80
S 17.23
15.19
34.09
S 22.60
: 21.52
10.10
S 3.39
10.58


Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . .


. . : 312.21 : 372.87 :$ 2.355


131.08
137.54
26.37
79.05
33.65


. . : 407.69 :


: 719.90
: 724.76
:$ 4.86


112.88
119.42
21.80
81.95
22.80


.713
.754
.138
.517
.144


358.85 : 2.266


:731.72
:572.25
:$-159.47


:4.621
:3.614
:$-1.007


Yield (crates) . . .
Total growing cost . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . .
Net return . . .


1977-78 Range per acre
From To

102 : 245
:$ 286.59 :$ 509.11
227.00 : 442.89
536.67 : 913.87
324.43 : 1208.80
:$ -335.19 :$ 390.26


---------






8




Table 8.--SWEET CORN: Costs and returns per acre in the Lower East Coast
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78


:5-season:
: average:


1977-78


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)


Growing costs:


Land rent .
Seed . .
Fertilizer .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire .
Gas, oil and grease
Repair and maintena
Depreciation .
Licenses and insura
Interest on product
Interest on capital
Miscellaneous expen


. . . . :$



n. .e . . . :.

.ne . . . :



ion capital (9% 4 months)
invested (other than land)
se . . :


5
7270
1454
175


Acre
42.63
17.33
97.76
60.91
51.11
19.64
15.81
27.16
16.70
16.05
10.70
2.51
8.22


4
7585
1896
194


Average per
Acre Crate
:$ 47.06
: 26.37
:103.67
85.82
70.22
18.00
14.68
25.69
24.44
25.98
13.04
3.67
17.10


Total growing cost . . . : 386.53 : 475.74 :$ 2.452

Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking and packing expense . . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost . .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . .* * * .
Net return . . ............


96.25
103.60
24.31
59.63
26.02


119.69
133.95
28.31
96.80
26.18


.617
.690
.146
.499
.135


: 309.81 : 404.93 : 2.087


: 696.34
: 702.15
:$ 5.81


:880.67
:1029.64
:$148.97


4.539
5.307
.768


1977-78 Range per acre
From To


Yield (crates) . ........ . : 141 : 226
Total growing cost . . . :$ 405.48 :$ 522.76
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .. : 311.43 : 471.77
Total crop cost . . . . *. 716.91 957.68
Crop sales . . . . * 822.80 : 1134.24
Net return . . . * $ 105.89 :$ 194.59


Item










Table 9.--CUCUMBERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78


Item :5-season: 1977-78
: average:

Number of growers . . . .. : 9 : 7
Number of acres . . . .. : 1035 : 703
Average acres per grower . . .... : 115 : 100
Average yield per acre (bushels) . .... : 252 : 273

Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
Land rent . . . . :$ 26.07 :$ 42.70
Seed . . . . . : 14.81 : 16.95
Fertilizer . . . . : 153.14 : 126.61
Spray and dust . . . . : 72.79 : 76.01
Cultural labor . . . . : 175.65 : 233.29
Machine hire . . . . : 39.60 : 26.94a:
Gas, oil and grease . . . : 43.52 : 38.46
Repair and maintenance . . . : 51.59 : 55.12
Depreciation . . . . : 39.59 : 36.72
Licenses and insurance . . . : 20.95 : 37.93
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months). : 18.71 : 25.06
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 5.94 : 5.51
Miscellaneous expense . . . : 25.56 : 14.18b:

Total growing cost . . . : 687.92 : 735.48 :$ 2.690
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense . . . . : 234.72 : 297.36 : 1.088
Grading and packing expense . .... : 198.01 : 267.34 : .978
Containers . . . . : 166.52 : 169.60 : .620
Hauling . . . . . : 47.85 : 44.93 : .164
Selling . . . . . : 42.90 : 43.00 : .157

Total harvesting and marketing cost . .. : 690.00 : 822.23 : 3.007
Total crop cost . . . . :1377.92 :1557.71 5.697
Crop sales .. . . . . .. :1366.05 :1466.02 : 5.362
Net return . . . . ... :$-11.87 :$-91.69 :$ -.335

1977-78 Range per acre
From To

Yield (bushels) . . . . : 116 : 400
Total growing cost . . . . :$ 554.36 :$ 922.47
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .. : 317.84 : 1220.00
Total crop cost . . . ... : 973.28 : 1868.28
Crop sales . . .... . ... : 713.95 :2100.00
Net return . . . . . :$ -561.81 :$ 258.41


aReported by 6 growers averaging
b rated by 5 growers veragin
Rpepr ted by 5 growers averaging


$31.44 per acre.
$19.85 per acre.


I






10




Table 10.--CUCUMBERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward
area season 1977-78


Item : 1977-78


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (bushels) .


530
132
233


Growing costs:


Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production


capital


5


Interest on capital invested (other thai
Miscellaneous expense . .

Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense . . .
Grading and packing expense . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost . :


Average per
Acre Bushel
. $ 61.88
. 11.70
. 50.62
. 71.75
. 214.09
. 46.27
. 57.70
. 90.15
. 31.30
. 102.14
months) : 22.17
n land) : 4.70
: 32.78


: 797.25 : $ 3.422


235.62
127.32
126.29
44.33
53.70


1.011
.546
.542
.190
.231


587.26 2.520


Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


1977-78 Range per acre
From To


Yield (bushels) . . .
Total growing cost . . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . .
Net return . . . .


1384.51
1532.53
$ 148.02


5.942
6.577
$ .635


112
$ 393.1.3
304.64
842.03
750.00
$ -179.67


370
$1103.56
907.08
1974.35
2592.61
$ 618.26


--






11



Table 11.--EGGPLANT: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78


:5-season:
: average:


1977-78


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


Growing costs:
Acre
Land rent . . . . :$ 54.75
Seed . . . . ... .. : 16.25
Fertilizer . . . . .. : 258.36
Spray and dust . . . .. : 168.46
Cultural labor . . . .. : 378.09
Machine hire . . . .. : 48.79
Gas, oil and grease . . . .. : 53.26
Repair and maintenance . . ... : 72.32
Depreciation . . . .. : 54.46
Licenses and insurance . . ... : 53.34
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months). : 43.28
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 8.17
Miscellaneous expense . . ... : 50.59


Total growing cost . . . .
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense . . .
Containers . . . . .
Hauling . . . . .
Selling . . . . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


Average per
Acre Bushels
:$ 57.00 :
43.96
:267.09
: 227.96
:494.85
71.72a
S84.96
: 141.84
S65.50
92.20
S62.00
9.83
: 169.63


. :1260.12 :1788.54 :$ 2.200


:396.25
: 389.04
: 93.07
: 109.61


640.26
531.40
121.97
175.38


.787
.654
.150
.216


. . : 987.97 :1469.01 : 1.807


:2248.09
:2223.18
:$-24.91


:3257.55
:3249.57
:$ -7.98


4.007
3.997
-.010


1977-78 Range per acre
From To


Yield (bushels) . . . . .. : 620 : 938
Total growing cost . . . . :$ 1504.68 :$ 2187.28
Total harvesting and marketing cost . ... : 1035.40 :2016.62
Total crop cost . . . . .. : 2540.08 : 3742.68
Crop sales . . . ... .. : 2418.00 : 3942.78
Net return . . . .... .. :$ -202.01 :$ 450.40


aReported by 4 growers averaging $89.66 per acre.


Item










Table 12.--LEAF CROPS: Costs and returns per acre in the Central Florida area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78

:5-season:
Item 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . .
Average acres per grower . . .
Average yield per acre (crates) . .

Growing costs:

Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . . .
Repair and maintenance . . .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance . . .
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months)
Interest on capital invested (other than land)
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Cutting and packing expense
Containers . . .
Hauling . . .
Other . . .
Selling . . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


: 5
: 1055
: 211
: 564


Acre
:$ 31.12
S50.32
S53.98
S63.94
:151.63
S 2.27
S16.80
S76.48
S37.39
42.62
15.95
S 5.61
S42.51


6
1115
186


: 838

Average per
Acre Crate
:$ 43.84 :
134.04 :
56.64 :
70.62
195.93 :
1.00
25.13
80.21
40.73 :
86.22
22.64
6.11
60.97


: 590.62 : 824.08 :$ 0.983


191.50
336.70
44.33
134.28
72.89


278.25
568.93
57.62
212.33
90.69


.332
.678
.069
.253
.108


. : 779.70 : 1207.82 : 1.440


:1370.32
:1851.55
:$481,23


: 2031.90
:3644.29
:$1612.39


2.423
4.346
1.923


1977-78 Range per acre
From To


Yield (crates) . . .
Total growing cost . . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


. 600
:$ 535.42 :$
1140.61
S. 1735.42 :
2400.00
:$ 465.65 :$


1008
1032.75
1329.84
2286.92
4798.98
2722.45


---------


:
:
:


:







13


Table 13.--LEAF CROPS: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78


Item :5-season: 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)


8 :
5696
712 :
417 :


9
9622
1069
449


Growing costs:

Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production c
Interest on capital inve
Miscellaneous expense .


Acre
. . . :$ 41.84
. . . 9.37
. . . 58.69
. . . 55.04
. . . 158.09
. . . 15.65
. . . 16.23
. . . 43.37
. . . 27.16
. . . 16.93
capital (9% 4 months). : 13.06
*sted (other than land). : 4.07
. . . : 20.11


Average per
Acre Crate
:$ 55.66
18.05
91.42
78.16
250.04
31.47
35.09
62.40
38.12
37.19
20.41
5.72
20.72


Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:


: 479.61 : 744.45 :$ 1.659


201.97
261.59
53.82
141.74
68.15


Cutting and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


232.65
341.88
65.19
204.44
75.21


.519
.762
.145
.456
.167


. : 727.27 : 919.36 : 2.049


:1206.88
:1331.56
:$124.68


:1663.81
:2361.45
:$697.64


3.708
5.263
1.555


1977-78 Range per acre
From To


Yield (crates) .... . ... : 250 : 619
Total growing cost . . . ... :$ 383.70 :$ 1614.68
Total harvesting and marketing cost . ... : 560.11 : 1291.36
Total crop cost . . . .. .... : 1003.31 : 2815.49
Crop sales . . . .... ........ : 993.41 : 4341.17
Net return . . . . ... .. :$ -93.64 :$ 1692.68







14



Table 14.--PEPPERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78


Item :5-season: 1977-78
Item average: 1977-78
_______ : average:_______


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


12
2316
193
593


10
2040
204
574


Growing costs:


Land rent . . .
Seed . . . .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust . .
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease . .
Repair and maintenance .
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance .
Interest on production capital
Interest on capital invested (o
Miscellaneous expense .

Total growing cost . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:


. . :$
. . :

.:2
. . : 2
. . : 2
. . : 3
. . :





(9% 5 months) :
their than land)
. . :


Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
27.46 :$ 52.87
85.84 : 78.03
51.07 : 250.61
13.92 : 255.56
88.70 : 412.99
53.83 : 45.18
75.43 : 78.52
29.07 : 145.59
66.98 : 86.56
45.22 : 67.12
50.86 : 56.44
10.05 : 12.98
85.83 : 118.71


. . :1484.26 : 1661.16 :$ 2.896


Picking expense . . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


. : 342.69
: 422.78
: 297.29
99.70

: 106.86

. . :1269.52

. :2753.78
. . 3070.43
. . :$316.65


402.48
515.60
293.48
96.30 :
74.54':
1: 02.89

:1418.21

:3079.37
:2916.05
:$-163.32 :$


1977-78 Range per acre
From To


Yield (bushels) . . .
Total growing cost . . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


.300
:$ 1056.55 :$
.. 534.00
.. 1590.55
.. 1800.00
. :$-1198.61 :$


aReported by 1 grower averaging $74.54 per acre.


.701
.899
.512
.168
.013
.179

2.472

5.368
5.083
-.285


892
2681.18
2170.46
4591.84
3937.35
379.56


-- ----~






15




Table 15.--PEPPERS: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78


Item:5-season: 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


8
912
114
647


9
1827
203
816


Growing costs:
Acre
Land rent ..... . . . :$ 57.47
Seed . . . . ... : 65.71
Fertilizer . . . . : 214.81
Spray and dust . . . . : 175.67
Cultural labor . . . . : 521.48
Machine hire . . . . : 85.39
Gas, oil and grease . . . : 70.09
Repair and maintenance . . . : 87.44
Depreciation . . . . : 66.26
Licenses and insurance . . . : 71.30
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months). : 55.97
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 9.94
Miscellaneous expense . . . : 143.23


Average per
Acre Bushels
:$ 69.93
88.15
: 239.78
:321.94
:679.45
88.94
:118.76
: 142.92
65.72
157.57
82.07
9.86
:280.97


Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


.. :1624.76 :2346.06 :$ 2.875


: 406.98
: 307.20
: 97.92
: 120.42


: 727.77
: 393.13
: 132.77
: 183.60


.892
.482
.162
.225


. : 932.52 :1437.27 : 1.761


:2557.28
:3254.82
:$697.54


:3783.33
:4357.47
:$574.14


4.636
5.340
.704


1977-78 Range per acre
From To


Yield (bushels) . . . . : 600 1100
Total growing cost . . . . :$ 1715.33 :$ 3525.26
Total harvesting and marketing cost. . .... : 948.00 :2172.50
Total crop cost . . . . .. : 2794.40 : 5245.74
Crop sales . . . ... .. : 2640.00 : 6865.03
Net return ... . . . . :$-1328.25 :$ 2535.84


I I I I j







16



Table 16.--IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78


Item :5-sason: 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (cwt.)


8
5056
632
182


7
4801
685
180


Growing costs:

Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production


Interest on capital inv
Miscellaneous expense


Acre
. . . :$ 62.61
. . . 200.38
. . . 88.39
. . . 84.42
. . . 88.93
. . . : 2.95
. . . 15.82
. . . 35.02
. . . 28.51
. . 33.02
capital (9% 4 months) : 18.94
ested (other than land) : 4.28
. . . : 19.78


Average per
Acre Cwt.
:$ 66.02 :
197.48
S90.85
80.62
91.53
9.78':
S20.23 :
35.13 :
31.75
51.23 :
20.00 :
4.76 :
23.76 :


Total growing cost . . .
Harvesting and marketing costs:


Digging expense . .
Grading and packing expense
Containers . . .
Hauling . . .
Selling . . .


. : 683.05 : 723.14 :$ 4.017


34.13
145.94
47.21
30.00
44.92


35.53 :
156.28 :
53.51
33.03
50.52 :


.197
.868
.297
.184
.281


Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


. . : 302.20 :


: 985.25
:1388.90
:$403.65


328.87 : 1.827


: 1052.01
: 1122.97
:$ 70.76


5.844
6.238
.394


1977-78 Range per acre
From To

Yield (cwt.) . . . .... : 123 : 211
Total growing cost . . . . :$ 572.64 :$ 833.84
Total harvesting and marketing cost . ... : 262.61 : 428.78
Total crop cost . . . . .. : 850.13 : 1255.34
Crop sales . . . . ... : 769.64 : 1432.78
Net return . . . . . :$ -386.19 :$ 405.65


Reported by 5 growers averaging $13.69 per acre.


- i












Table 17.--IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Hastings area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78


Item :5-season: 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (cwt.)

Growing costs:


17
4454
262
189


Acre
Land rent . . . . :$ 38.59
Seed . . . . . : 145.39
Fertilizer . . . . .. : 105.22
Spray and dust . . . .. : 45.12
Cultural labor . . . .. 61.54
Machine hire . . . .. : 6.37
Gas, oil and grease . . ... : 21.10
Repair and maintenance . . ... : 43.19
Depreciation . . . . : 31.03
Licenses and insurance . . ... : 17.09
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months) : 14.79
Interest on capital invested (other than land) : 4.65
Miscellaneous expense . . ... : 9.54


17
4949
291
188


Average per
Acre
:$ 48.99
: 169.61
: 122.05
S 57.15
S 71.61
S 9.29a
27.08
56.87
44.50 :
24.46
S 17.94 :
6.68
S 10.96 :


Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:
Digging expense . . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


. : 543.62 : 667.19 :$


38.27
59.26
12.24
31.56
47.53


. : 188.86
. : 732.48 :
. : 932.32
. :$199.84 :4


1977-78 Range per acre
From To

Yield (cwt.) . . . . . : 135 : 255
Total growing cost . . . .. :$ 466.55 :$ 916.98
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .. : 136.80 :272.00
Total crop cost . . . . : 675.27 : 1113.64
Crop sales . . . . . : 655.20 : 1137.60
Net return . . . . . :$ -192.25 :$ 272.60


Reported by 15 growers averaging $10.53 per acre.

Reported by 4 growers averaging $28.76 per acre.


Cwt.


3.549


.195
.289
.036
.190
.282

.992
4.541
4.964
.423


36.80 :
54.27 :
6.77 :
35.70
53.04


186.58 :
853.77 :
933.31 :
79.54 :$


~--~-~-~-~--~-








18



Table 18.--RADISHES: Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78


Item:5-season: 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (30-6 oz.

Growing costs:


Land rent . . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust . .
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease . .
Repair and maintenance .
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance .
Interest on production capital
Interest on capital invested (
Miscellaneous expense ..


pkgs.)


. . :









(9% 2 months)
Father than land)
. . :


3
8955
2985
243


Acre

9.34
10.79
11.31
14.58
22.30
4.16
5.65
14.13
7.77
5.52
1.52
1.17
3.30


3
11758
3919
224


Average per
Acre 30-6 oz.
pkgs.
:$ 18.07
S18.04
21.41
23.01
46.27
3.20:
12.74
31.44
9.94
10.27
2.84
1.49
5.44


Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Harvesting expense . . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


: 111.54 : 204.16 :$


20.75
89.56
66.69
9.26
29.21


17.61
111.26
101.66
13.12
27.99


.911


.078
.497
.454
.059
.125


. : 215.47 : 271.64 : 1.213


:327.01
: 388.24
:$ 61.23


: 475.80
: 524.98
:$ 49.18


:2.124
:2.344
:$ .220


1977-78 Range per acre
From To

Yield (30-6 oz. pkgs.) . . . : 190 266
Total growing cost . . . ... :$ 131,56 :$ 291.93
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 205.70 : 335.96
Total crop cost . . . . : 337.26 : 627.89
Crop sales . . . . ... : 428.31 : 679.37
Net return . . . ... :$ -33.93 :$ 130.01


Reported by 1 grower averaging $9.60 per acre.







19



Table 19.--SQUASH: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78


Item


:5-season:
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


6
1254 :
209
142 :


1977-78


4
1211
303
138


Growing costs:
Acre
Land rent . . . . :$ 37.61
Seed . . . . . : 16.47
Fertilizer . . . .. : 69.77
Spray and dust . . . .. : 66.71
Cultural labor . . . .. : 63.57
Machine hire . . . .. : 12.92
Gas, oil and grease . . . : 25.93
Repair and maintenance . . ... : 34.65
Depreciation . . . . 22.01
Licenses and insurance . . ... : 31.43
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months) : 11.11
Interest on capital invested (other than land) : 3.30
Miscellaneous expense . . ... : 11.27


Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost


198.43
116.52
20.18
33.92


Average per
Acre Bushel
:$ 53.63 :
76.78 :
96.33
84.54
75.36
37.94
31.24 :
67.92 :
27.85 :
37.35 :
17.11 :
4.18
9.21


: 406.75 : 619.44 :$ 4.489


253.48
103.69
24.32
40.67


1.837
.751
.176
.295


. . : 369.05 : 422.16 : 3.059


Total crop cost . .
Crop sales . . .
Net return . . .


: 775.80
: 844.14
:$ 68.34


1977-78 Range per acre
From To


Yield (bushels) . . .
Total growing cost . . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


126
572.15 :$
373.89 :
1019.99 :
945.00 :
-94.68 :$


:1041.60
:1057.30
:$ 15.70


: 7.548
: 7.662
:$ .114


156
685.41
467.53
1059.30
1181.99
122.69


I f I I








20



Table 20.--SQUASH: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78


:5-season: 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (bushels) .

Growing costs:

Land rent . . . .
Seed . . . .
Fertilizer . . . .
Spray and dust . . .
Cultural labor . . .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital (9% -
Interest on capital invested (other
Miscellaneous expense . .

Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense . . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . ....
Net return . . . .


6
1105
184
235


t


Acre
S :$ 26.11
. 20.98
. : 120.57
: 49.13
. : 81.80
. : 14.30
: 30.87
. : 28.62
. : 25.94
: 18.52
4 months) : 15.09
han land) : 3.89
. : 11.55


Average per
Acre Bushel
:$ 30.80
36.25
:145.04
60.71
85.41
18.22 :
30.86
27.53
30.20
25.38
14.06
4.53
8.53


: 447.37 : 517.52 :$ 2.202


:128.59
:134.00
:134.91
54.86
45.26

: 497.62

: 944.99
:1133.15
:$188.16


: 176.63
: 166.67
:152.84
55.16
47.82

:599.12

:1116.64
:1548.63
:$431.99 :$


.752
.709
.650
.235
.204

2.550

4.752
6.590
1.838


1977-78 Range per acre
From To


Yield (bushels) . . .
Total growing cost . . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


119 : 350
463.66 :$ 563.88
412.57 : 808.50
923.97 : 1372.38
903.30 : 2080.00
-69.00 :$ 1015.24


Reported by 5 growers averaging $21.87 per acre.


Item


-1-----


---


-----







21




Table 21.--SQUASH: Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78


Item


:5-season:
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


1977-78


5
245
49
118 :


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . .
Seed . . . .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust . . .
Cultural labor . . .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital (9% -
Interest on capital invested (other
Miscellaneous expense . .


. . : $










4 months).
than land).


Acre
45.03
15.54
74.64
47.73
74.45
26.97
27.41
33.23
26.72
22.49
11.50
4.01
15.99


Average per
Acre Bushels
:$ 44.17 :
23.92
62.33
62.33
93.28
19.50
23.50
32.62
27.70
31.92
: 12.05
4.15
8.10


Total growing cost . . .


. : 425.71 : 445.57 :$ 4.368


Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking and packing expense . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


159.03
100.86
19.90
26.15


219.64
79.77
20.70
40.93


2.1.54
.782
.203
.401


. : 305.94 : 361.04 : 3.540


: 731.65
: 762.91
:$ 31.26


: 806.61
: 818.66
:$ 12.05


7.908
8.026
.118


1977-78 Range per acre
From To


Yield (bushels) . . .
Total growing cost . . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost .
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


. 100
S. $ 347.53 :$
308.00
677.53
S. 700.00
S. :$ 1.49 :$


107
590.51
445.12
898.51
900.00
22.47


" ----


I I I i I


1 I I I I











Table 22.--TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County area
5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78


:5-season:
: average:


1977-78


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (30 lbs.)


: 6
:4566
: 761
: 480


Growing costs:
Acre
Land rent . . . . :$ 40.13
Seed . ... . . . : 24.05
Fertilizer . . ... . : 234.12
Spray and dust . .. .. . .. : 253.32
Cultural labor . . .... ..... : 208.11
Machine hire . .. . .. : 20.45
Gas, oil and grease .. . . : 35.66
Repair and maintenance .. . .. : 61.96
Depreciation . .. . . .. : 43.91
Licenses and insurance . . .. : 34.41
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months). : 37.15
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 6.59
Miscellaneous expense . .... .. . : 78.54

Total growing cost . .... .. . :1078.40


: 5
: 3565
: 713
: 720

Average per
Acre 30 Ibs.
:$ 58.09
S33.80
:203.50
:396.09
:356.21
S21.97a:
S58.60
:127.51
S89.23
S67.70
S58.10
S13.38
:225.80

:1709.98 :$ 2.375


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense . . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . .
Net return . . .


. . : 285.53
. . : 416.14
. . : 240.91
. : 53.86
. : 67.79

. . :1064.23

. . :2142.63
. . :2325.04
. . :$182.41


Yield (30 lbs.) . . .
Total growing cost . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . .
Net return . .. . .


1977-78 Range per acre
From To

S524 :1020
:$ 1204.09 :$ 2208.48
S. 1205.20 : 2628.54
2409.29 : 4474.32
3272.66 : 6120.00
S $ 115.91 :$ 1645.68


aReported by 4 growers averaging $27.46 per acre.


Item


:397.32
:823.62
:396.11
102.21
:108.03

:1827.29

:3537.27
:4283.93
:$746.66


.552
1.144
.550
.142
.150

2.538

4.913
5.950
:$ 1.037


~---










Table 23.--STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78

:5-season:
Item :5-season: 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (30 lbs.).


13
3432
264
868


14
4981
356
792


Growing costs:

Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production c
Interest on capital inve
Miscellaneous expense .

Total growing cost .

Harvesting and marketing c


Acre
. . . $ 38.59
. . . 86.04
. . . 245.80
. . . 333.22
. . . : 668.84
. . . 79.54
. . . 82.62
. . . : 122.44
. . . 87.19
. . . 59.25
capital (9% 5 months). : 72.17
sted (other than land). : 13.08
. . . : 208.32


Average per
Acre 30 lbs.
:$ 64.70
97.97
239.31
:374.94
:766.45
55.04
:114.53
:145.31
119.31
86.90
83.22
17.90
274.05


. :2097.10 :2439.63 :$ 3.080


osts:


Picking expense . . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


: 537.25
: 790.76
:404.62
: 118.14
: 124.63


537.53
807.09
396.08
160.42
119.46


.679
1.019
.500
.202
.151


. . :1975.40 :2020.58 : 2.551


:4072.50
:4554.38
:$481.88


:4460.21
:4930.04
:$469.83


5.631
6.224
.593


1977-78 Range per acre
From To

Yield (30 lbs.) . . .. . : 379 1224
Total growing cost . . .... .. .. :$ 1154.50 :$ 3500.24
Total harvesting and marketing cost . ... : 986.91 : 3101.99
Total crop cost . . .... ... ... : 2155.78 : 6011.24
Crop sales . . . .. . .. : 2166.29 : 7835.68
Net return . . . .... .. :$ -964.33 :$ 2618.64










Table 24.--STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns per acre in the Manatee-Ruskin
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78

:5-season: 1977-78
Item 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers ...
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (30


12
2280
190
751


lbs.)


12
2184
182
627


Growing costs:
Acre
Land rent . . . . :$ 45.34
Seed . . . . . : 71.42
Fertilizer . . . . .. : 222.84
Spray and dust . . . .. : 221.85
Cultural labor .. ............ : 468.38
Machine hire . . . .. : 22.88
Gas, oil and grease . . ... : 74.32
Repair and maintenance . . ... : 85.54
Depreciation . . . . : 75.69
Licenses and insurance . . ... : 67.80
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months) : 53.39
Interest on capital invested (other than land) : 11.35
Miscellaneous expense . . ... : 143.32


Total growing cost . . .
Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking expense . .
Grading and packing expense
Containers . . .
Hauling . . .
Selling . . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


Average per
Acre 30 lbs.
:$ 46.19
97.24
216.39
:267.83 :
527.74
18.20
90.85
:109.69
90.06
94.47
62.07
13.51
:186.59


. . :1564.12 :1820.83 :$ 2.902


:347.13
: 755.19
:370.06
: 101.18
: 91.61


406.53
652.75
352.97
106.03
96.68


.648
1.040
.563
.169
.154


:1665.17 :1614.96 : 2.574


:3229.29
:3710.77
:$481.48


:3435.79
:3508.90
:$ 73.11


5.476
5.593
.117


1977-78 Range per acre
From To

Yield (30 lbs.) . . . .. : 237 : 917
Total growing cost ... ... . :$ 1328.35 :$2160.62
Total harvesting and marketing cost ...... .. : 695.68 : 2347.52
Total crop cost . . .. .... : 2307.93 : 4508.14
Crop sales . . . . : 1466.75 : 5043.75
Net return . . . . ... ... :$ -1071.10 :$ 943.01


aReported by 10 growers averaging $21.84 per acre.


j _










Table 25.--WATERMELONS: Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee
area 5-season average 1973-77 and 1977-78

:5-season: 1977-78
Item 1977-78
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (cwt.)


5 :
540
108 :
284


6
453
76
322


Growing costs:


Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production c
Interest on capital inve
Miscellaneous expense .


Acre
. . . :$ 23.25
. . . 7.69
. . . 175.10
. . . 96.89
. . . 140.62
. . . 58.15
. . . : 27.68
. . . 43.08
. . . 29.50
. . . 16.88
capital (9% 5 months). : 22.79
sted (other than land). : 4.42
. . . : 18.52


Average per
Acre Cwt.
:$ 27.64
9.58
: 192.79
98.33
:183.53
39.67
30.77
34.22
31.75
28.06
24.65
4.76
12.80


Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:


: 664.57 : 718.55 :$ 2.232


86.64
73.10
24.00
115.97
64.18


Picking expense . . .
Packing expense . . .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


99.40
65.80
16.10
120.12
74.87


.309
.204
.050
.373
.233


. . : 363.89 : 376.29 : 1.169


:1028.46
:1252.78
:$224.32


:1094.84
:2043.71
:$948.87


3.401
6.347
2.946


1977-78 Range per acre
From To


Yield (cwl .) . . . . ..: 166 : 488
Tl:i1 l ,l w.ing cos . . . . :$ 488.16 :$ .1018.3/4
Total harvesting and marketing cost . ... : 175.50 : 550.00
Total crop cost . . . . .. : 671.41 : 1534.71
Crop sales . . . . : 1032.00 3080.00
Net return . . . ... :$ 360.59 :$ 1775.53


Food & Resource Economics--1500
DLB: sh


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