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 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Foreword
 Acknowledgements
 Table of Contents
 Map
 Definitions
 Main
 Back Cover


UF FLAG IFAS PALMM



Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026154/00004
 Material Information
Title: Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
Series Title: 197374- Economic information report
Portion of title: Vegetable crops in Florida
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1976
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Vegetable trade -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Coastal Engineering Department series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000304067
oclc - 03425969
notis - ABT0638
lccn - 76368517 //r77
issn - 0149-0613
System ID: UF00026154:00004

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Abstract
        Abstract
    Foreword
        Page i
    Acknowledgements
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Map
        Page iv
    Definitions
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text
,5D. L. Brooke


Report 85


Costs and


Returns


fromVegetable


Season


Crops in

1976-77


Florida,


Comparisons


Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611


March 1978


with


__ __


Economic Information














ABSTRACT


Costs and returns were obtained for 14 different vegetable crops
in one or more of eight major producing areas for the 1976-77 season.
Increased costs were the rule for most crops as compared to a year
earlier. Energy and machine costs showed the largest increases. Labor
and materials costs increased more moderately. Yields were lower on
winter crops, a result of the freeze.

Key words: Economics, vegetables, annual costs, simple averages,
purposive sample.















FOREWORD


This is the seventeenth in this series of summaries of costs and
returns from the principal vegetable crops by major producing areas in
Florida. There is a need among growers, commodity groups, credit
agencies, research workers and teachers for current factual information
of this type.
Data in this summary were gathered by personal interview with
growers of the various vegetable crops. Growers' records of actual
production costs were used when available, and estimates taken when
records were not kept. As complete a breakdown of costs as possible
was obtained from each grower. Insofar as possible, growing and har-
vesting costs have been separated and labor items excluded from costs
of materials. In a few cases, where crop sales were not available from
growers, they were computed on the basis of average prices received for
the crop as reported by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
Orlando, Florida.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the vegetable
growers for their excellent cooperation and also to the Florida Fruit
and Vegetable Association, the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service, Orlando, Florida, and to various county agents for much
worthwhile assistance.















FOREWORD


This is the seventeenth in this series of summaries of costs and
returns from the principal vegetable crops by major producing areas in
Florida. There is a need among growers, commodity groups, credit
agencies, research workers and teachers for current factual information
of this type.
Data in this summary were gathered by personal interview with
growers of the various vegetable crops. Growers' records of actual
production costs were used when available, and estimates taken when
records were not kept. As complete a breakdown of costs as possible
was obtained from each grower. Insofar as possible, growing and har-
vesting costs have been separated and labor items excluded from costs
of materials. In a few cases, where crop sales were not available from
growers, they were computed on the basis of average prices received for
the crop as reported by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
Orlando, Florida.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the vegetable
growers for their excellent cooperation and also to the Florida Fruit
and Vegetable Association, the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service, Orlando, Florida, and to various county agents for much
worthwhile assistance.







TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

FOREWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . .... .. i

MAP OF FLORIDA VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS . . . iv

DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . v

COSTS AND RETURNS DATA . . . . .. ... 1


LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1 SNAP BEANS: Costs and returns in the Palm Beach-Broward area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . . 1

2 POLE BEANS: Costs and returns in the Dade County area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . . 2

3 CABBAGE: Costs and returns in the Central Florida area
5-season average . . . . ... .. 3

4 CABBAGE: Costs and returns in the Hastings area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . . 4

5 CELERY: Costs and returns in the Central Florida area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . . 5

6 CELERY: Costs and returns in the Everglades area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . . 6

7 SWEET CORN: Costs and returns in the Central Florida area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . . 7

8 SWEET CORN: Costs and returns in the Everglades area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . . 8

9 SWEET CORN: Costs and returns in the Lower East Coast area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . . 9

10 CUCUMBERS: Costs and returns in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . .. 10

11 CUCUMBERS: Costs and returns in the Palm Beach-Broward area
season 1976-77 . . . . ... . 11


D. L. BROOKE is a professor in the Food and Resource Economics
Department.







LIST OF TABLES--Continued


Table Page

12 EGGPLANT: Costs and returns in the Palm Beach-Broward area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . ... 12

13 LEAF CROPS: Costs and returns in the Central Florida area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . ... 13

14 LEAF CROPS: Costs and returns in the Everglades area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . ... 14

15 PEPPERS: Costs and returns in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77. . . ... 15

16 PEPPERS: Costs and returns in the Palm Beach-Broward area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . ... 16

17 IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns in the Dade County area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . .... 17

18 IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns in the Hastings area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . .... 18

19 RADISHES: Costs and returns in the Everglades area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . .... 19

20 SQUASH: Costs and returns in the Dade County area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . .. .. 20

21 SQUASH: Costs and returns in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . .. 21

22 SQUASH: Costs and returns in the Palm Beach-Broward area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . ... 22

23 TOMATOES: Costs and returns in the Dade County area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . ... 23

24 TOMATOES: Costs and returns in the Ft. Pierce area
5-season average 1972-76 . . ... 24

25 TOMATOES: Costs and returns in the Gadsden County area
season 1977 (Spring) . . . . .. 25

26 STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . .... 26

27 STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns in the Manatee-Ruskin area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . ... 27

28 WATERMELONS: Costs and returns in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77 . . ... 28


iii










\ / i '. .-- / \. \ / ) ,


,- r, ,, ,-Y .-7^f---..'


F L O R I DA .



VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS '
--J- ,_ -" 13

With Principal Vegetables Produced ~ -- \
I I_ /'_ 24A/









1 Dade-tomatoes, snap and pole beans, Irish '
potatoes, squash, cucumbers, strawberries 0
2 Palm Beach-Broward--snap beans, peppers, ,- /
eggplant, cucumbers, squash, tomatoes -
3 Immokalee-Lee--tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, .. '
squash, Irish potatoes, watermelons / \
4 Everglades-snap beans, sweet corn, cabbage, \
escarole, celery, Irish potatoes, radishes-.
5 Fort PDerce-tomatoes, sn watermelons, Irish
6 Wauchula--cucumbers, tomatoes, watermelons '

7 Sarasota--celery., radishes, lettuce, cabbage 7 6A ,-T^^.^U -.,
8 Manatee-Ruskin--tomatoes cucumbers, caulfloweppers, ---- .
watermelons p w aemln-
4 EvergPlant City--strawberries, peppers, squash,
pole beans, southern peas, okra dishes
60 Sumter--cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, lettuce,



11 Zelwood--sweet corn, celery, escarole, lettuce, cabbage

snap beans, radishes .- ---
12 Sanford-Ovied--cabbage, celery, snap beans, lettuce,
escarole, sweet corn, peppers
13 Oxford-Belleview-Lowell--tomatoes, watermelons 1 T
14 Mclntosh-lsland Grove--squash, snap beans, celery, 4 i 4.'l
cabbage, lettuce, watermelons
15 Alachua--snap beans, cucumbers, pepper, Irishe
potatoes, watermelons
16 Hastings-Irish potatoes, cabbage
17 Starke-Brooker-Lake Butler-snap and lima beans, lettucG
cucumbers, peppers, squash, strawberries
18 Quincy-Havana--pole beans, cucumbers, squash, tomatoes
19 Escambia--Irish potatoes








iv










DEFINITIONS


Number of growers: Number of individual records or estimates of crop
costs and returns included in each crop summary.

Number of acres: The total acreage planted by growers whose records or
estimates were used. When a part of the planted acreage was lost soon
after planting and replaced by another crop, the reduced acreage was
used.

Average acres per grower: The number of acres of the particular crop
divided by the number of growers.

Average yield per acre: The number of units per planted acre harvested.

Land rent: In the interests of uniformity, land rent was charged for
all acreages and crops at the prevailing rate reported by growers in the
area. This was done to avoid difficulties in the determination of a
normal valuation, interest charge for use of land and capitalization of
land values in a period of fluctuating values and prices. Taxes on farm
real estate are excluded since rent is being charged.

Seed and seedbed includes the cost of seed or plants for planting the
crop. If a seedbed was used, the figures, unless otherwise noted, in-
clude costs of labor and materials for growing plants as well as seed
costs.

Fertilizer represents the actual cost of nutrient materials applied to
produce the crop. Labor or machine costs of application are not
included.

Spray and dust included only the cost of materials unless application
labor is specified, in which case some machine costs may also be present.
If weed control chemicals or soil fumigants were used, their cost also
is included here.

Cultural labor contains the value of man labor, whether hired or family,
to produce the crop from ground preparation until ready for harvest. It
does not include supervision by the operator, since his compensation is
to a great extent dependent upon returns from the sale of the crop.

Machine hire is the cost of machine work hired, including use of air-
planes when applicable, in producing the crop. This item includes labor
charges for the machine operator and charges for the use of equipment.

Gas, oil and grease include the cost of gas, oil and grease required to
operate tractors, trucks, sprayers, pumps and other machinery in produc-
ing the crop. It may also include electrical power expenses for irriga-
tion when utilized.








Repair and maintenance represent the cost of repairs to equipment used
in producing the crop. It also includes the small tools such as hoes,
rakes and shovels purchased and charged off as a current expenditure.

Depreciation includes the annual charge for depreciation and obsoles-
cence of equipment and labor housing. When actual depreciation charges
could not be obtained from records, they were computed by assuming a
10-year average life-use on all equipment on the basis of replacement
value as indicated by the operator.

Licenses and insurance represent the cost of licenses and insurance
items when chargeable to the farm business. Licenses include those for
trucks and autos used on the farm. Insurance includes labor and crop
insurance and fire or windstorm insurance on buildings and equipment.
It excludes health or accident insurance for the operator or his family.

Interest on production capital was charged at the rate of 9 percent on
all cash costs for the number of months required to grow and market the
crop regardless of whether or not much production capital was actually
borrowed. This percentage was used because it is a currently available
borrowing rate.

Interest on capital invested (other than land) was charged at 9 percent
of the actual or estimated annual depreciated value of the capital in-
vested in machinery and equipment. It was assumed that all equipment
was presently worth one half its replacement value.

Miscellaneous includes such items as wire, stakes, twine, plastic,
office supplies, administrative expense other than value of the opera-
tor's management, legal and audit fees, telephone and telegraph and
incidental expenses.

Harvesting and marketing expense, where possible, has been divided into
two items: (1) picking and (2) grading and packing. Picking, cutting,
or digging expense includes actual cost of harvesting the crop and pre-
paring it for movement to packinghouse or wash house. Washing or
grading and packing expense includes preparation of the product for
shipment either in the field or at an adjacent packinghouse. It in-
cludes machinery and overhead costs in addition to labor. The same is
true for all crops in all areas where grading and packing is done off
the farm in packinghouses.

Containers include the cost of hampers, crates, bags or baskets in
which the product is moved to market.

Hauling is the cost of movement of the product from field to packing-
house or loading point. It is often computed on a contract basis and
includes labor and equipment items. In cases where hauling was pre-
formed by the operator's trucks, the costs have been separated from
production labor and machine expense items as nearly as possible.

Other includes the cost of precooling the commodity prior to shipment
and, for celery and sweet corn, the contribution to the Marketing
Agreement Program. Inspection fees, when incurred, are included in
packinghouse charges and are not reported as a separate item.








Selling is the packinghouse, market, sales organization or dealer's
charge for performing the sales service for the crop when deducted from
the producer's price. The cost does not include charges for unloading,
grading, packing, etc.

Crop sales are the gross returns to the grower before deduction of
growing, harvesting and marketing costs.

Net return is the return to the producer after deduction of all expenses,
in producing, harvesting and marketing the crop.

Proration of costs between crops: For such items as seed, fertilizer,
spray and dust, airplane application and harvesting and marketing costs,
growers' records or estimates for each crop were used to make the
appropriate charges.

In the case of the cultural labor, however, no breakdown for the differ-
ent crops produced on the individual farm could be obtained from the
grower except in a very few cases when such records had been kept. The
total cultural labor for all crops produced on each farm was, in most
cases, prorated to the various crops on the basis of available data de-
veloped at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations with regard to
man hours required in various parts of the state to produce different
crops from land preparation to harvest. Except in a very few cases, a
similar situation also applies to such items as machine hire, tractor
fuel, oil and grease, repairs, depreciation and other production costs
where records had not been kept showing the respective charges to dif-
ferent crops. Prorations were also made to these items on the basis of
available data (D. L. Brooke, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 660, June 1963).

In many cases individual growers did not incur every cost item. This
applies especially to airplane application, machine hire, grading and
packing, containers, hauling and precooling. Thus, these data are based
only on the overall average for all growers contacted in each area.
Footnotes have been used to set forth the number of growers and average
costs for items not incurred by all growers in the sample.

Per-unit costs and returns were computed by dividing the average yield
per acre in the sample into the various items of cost shown in the in-
dividual tables. They are merely averages of the data recorded and, in
some cases, do not reflect the full cost of performing the service be-
cause all growers may not have incurred every item of cost.

Ranges per acre showing the lowest and the highest of the sampled obser-
vations for yields, costs and returns are included for each crop and
area. This is intended to show growers and other interested parties
the extremes that may be encounted in vegetable production.








Table 1.--SNAP BEANS: Costs and returns in the Palm Beach-Broward area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77


Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .. .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


7 :
7861 :
1123 :
78


6
5505
918
59


Growing costs:

Land rent . .
Seed . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production c
Interest on capital inve
Miscellaneous expense

Total growing cost .


Acre
S . . :$ 36.95
. . . : 29.51
. . . : 61.42
S . . : 29.24
S . . : 41.22
. . . : 14.76
. .. . : 13.81
. . : 16.48
. . . : 12.06
. .. . : 10.20
capital (9% 4 months). : 7.79
sted (other than land). : 1.81
. . . : 6.18


Average per
Acre Bushel
:$ 48.09
39.99
59.25
40.67
65.13
10.64
18.07
28.15
14.46
16.25
9.98
2.17
6.26


: 281.43 : 359.11 :$ 6.087


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . .. .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


77.11
47.34
10.88
12.80


. : 148.13 :


: 429.56
: 440.15
:$ 10.59


72.93
44.17
9.64
11.56


1.236
.749
.163
.196


138.30 : 2.344


: 497.41
: 369.04
:$-128.37


: 8.431
: 6.255
:$-2.176


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (bushels) . . . . : 33 : 94
Total growing cost . . . .. : $ 254.54 : $ 482.33
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 71.70 : 213.54
Total crop cost . . . . : 353.41 : 695.87
Crop sales . . . . .. : 187.85 : 587.50
Net return . . . . .. ... : $ -241.30 : $ -14.67


. . . .







Table 2.--POLE BEANS: Costs and returns in the Dade County area 5-season
average 1972-76 and 1976-77


Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


8
2520
315
312


7
1886
269
224


Growing costs:
Acre
Land rent . ... .. . .. :$ 40.62
Seed . .. . . . : 43.59
Fertilizer . .... .. . .. : 94.40
Spray and dust . . .... .. : 67.28
Cultural labor . .... .. .. . .. : 256.05
Machine hire . .... . .. : 12.86
Gas, oil and grease .. .. .. : 28.02
Repair and maintenance . .... .. : 41.49
Depreciation .... . .... : 24.89
Licenses and insurance ....... . .. : 36.45
Interest on production capital (9% 7 4 months) : 21.18
Interest on capital invested (other than land) : 3.73
Miscellaneous expense ... .. ... : 85.02


Average per
Acre
:$ 54.29
67.70
97.32
75.52
:352.21
12.81 :
32.27
47.18
31.08
46.40
24.76
4.66
39.66


Total growing cost . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . .
Selling . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . ..
Crop sales . .
Net return . . . .


. . : 755.58 : 885.86


256.11
195.62
43.49
60.62


185.80
172.30
33.59
66.07


. .. : 555.84 : 457.76


:1311.42
:1542.30
:$230.88


:1343.62
:1382.90
:$ 39.28


:$ 3.954


.830
.769
.150
.295


2.044

5.998
6.174
.176


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (bushels) . . . . : 179 : 300
Total growing cost. . . . : $ 750.02 : $ 1027.45
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 349.12 : 615.00
Total crop cost ..... .. . . . : 1155.38 : 1533.80
Crop sales . . . . . : 1057.75 : 1890.00
Net return . . . . : $ -147.46 : $ 430.04


Bushel







Table 3.--CABBAGE: Costs and returns in the Central
5-season average 1972-76


Florida area


Item 5-season
: average


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
'Average yield per acre (50 Ibs.)


Growing costs:


Land rent . . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust . .
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease . .
Repair and maintenance .
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance .


Interest on production capital (92 4 months). :
Interest on capital invested (other than land). :
Miscellaneous expense . . :

Total growing cost . . . :

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense . . :
Containers . . . . :
Hauling . . . . ... :
Selling . . . . .. :

Total harvesting and marketing cost ... :

Total crop cost . . . .. :
Crop sales . . . . .. :
Net return . . .. ... :


Average per
Acre
$ 26.47
42.78
96.39
95.57
167.59
1.31
15.63
55.65
50.68
32.85
17.22
7.60
39.75


649.49


230.23
321.01
36.73
82.39

670.36

1319.85
1251.65
$ -68.20


4
1432
358
506


. . ..








Table 4.--CABBAGE: Costs and returns in the Hastings area 5-season average
1972-76 and 1976-77

: 5-season:
Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (50 Ibs.)


12 :
1608 :
134 :
514 :


11
1837
167
389


Growing costs:


Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire .
Gas, oil and grease
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production


Interest on capital inv
Miscellaneous expense


. . . :$
. . . .months) :
. std (othr than land). .:
. . . :
. . . :
. . . :
. . . :
. . . :


capital (9% 4 months) :
ested (other than land) :
. . . :


Acre
33.77
65.00
88.06
45.51
109.27
2.82
18.40
27.50
23.76
16.37
12.40
3.56
6.78


Average per
Acre 50 lbs.
:$ 39.07 :
58.22 :
107.33 :
54.92 :
138.18
10.00a:
31.72 :
48.99
34.10 :
25.16 :
15.59 :
5.11 :
6.00 :


Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


. : 453.20 :


171.14
305.13
.33
102.61


. : 579.21 :


:1032.41
:1218.77
:$186.36


574.39 :$ 1.476


150.88 :
274.97 :

110.29 :


.388
.707

.284


536.14 : 1.379


: 1110.53
: 2209.42
:$1098.89


2.855
5.680
2.825


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (50 Ibs.) ...... .. . . .. : 210 : 640
Total growing cost . . . .. :$ 446.33 :$ 979.86
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .. : 300.62 : 851.20
Total crop cost . . . . .. : 825.65 : 1786.71
Crop sales .. . . . . : 1254.00 : 3840.00
Net return .. . . . . :$ 309.11 :$ 1995.71


aReported by 9 growers averaging $12.22 per acre.







Table 5.--CELERY: Costs and returns in the Central Florida area 5-season
average 1972-76 and 1976-77


Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)


4 :
1756 :
439 :
558 :


3
1455
485
410


Growing costs:


Land rent . .
Seed . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance


Interest on production capital (9% 5
Interest on capital invested (other th
Miscellaneous expense . .

Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . ..
Other . . . .
Selling . . . ..

Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


Acre
.. .. :$ 37.54
.. : 83.39
.... : 119.63
. .: 143.64
... : 240.79
: 9.71
.. : 20.66
.. : 67.63
.. : 20.15
.. : 24.14
months). : 29.55
an land). : 3.02
... : 41.09


Average per
Acre
:$ 35.44 :
:81.89 :
: 152.37
:169.56
: 307.08
:10.85
:20.76
:63.30
:24.62
:28.43
:33.16
3.69
14.71


. : 840.94 : 945.86 :$ 2.307


: 533.82
: 381.68
:55.08
: 207.65
:94.68


608.34
320.94
55.16
155.69
80.65


S. :1272.91 :1220.78 : 2.978

S. :2113.85 :2166.64 : 5.285
S. :2294.87 :2406.78 : 5.870
S. :$181.02 :$240.14 :$ .585


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (crates) . . . .... : 385 460
Total growing cost . . . . : $ 916.77 : $ 969.39
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .. : 1024.52 : 1364.21
Total crop cost ................. : 1993.91 : 2280.98
Crop sales . . . . .. : 2178.80 : 2818.64
Net return . . . ... : $ -2.12 : $ 537.66


Crate


1.484
.783
.134
.380
.197




6


Table 6.--CELERY: Costs and returns in the Everglades area 5-season average
1972-76 and 1976-77


Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)


9 :
8370
930 :
610 :


8
7360
920
574


Growing costs:


Acre
. :$ 48.29
.. : 90.39
. .. : 130.07
. : 221.27
... : 284.89
: 18.62
: 28.57
: 71.25
: 33.82
: 32.59
months) : 36.10
n land) : 5.07
. : 36.72


Land rent . . .
Seed . . . .
Fertilizer .. . .
Spray and dust . .
Cultural labor . . .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital (


Interest on capital invested (other
Miscellaneous expense . .

Total growing cost . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Cutting and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost . .


. .
* .
. .
* .
. .




% 5 1


tha
. .


Average per
Acre Crate
:$ 71.05 :
92.46 :
: 154.54 :
: 499.71 :
: 451.92 :
47.44a:
50.47 :
152.94 :
64.18 :
43.55 :
59.26 :
9.63 :
16.27 :


. .. :1037.65 : 1713.42 :$ 2.985


: 559.02
: 418.61
: 75.69
: 217.74
: 88.81


598.31
450.55
75.82
237.28
91.86


1.043
.785
.132
.413
.160


:1359.87 : 1453.82 : 2.533


Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . .
Net return . .


:2397.52
:2640.64
:$243.12


: 3167.24
: 3710.97
:$ 543.73


:5.518
:6.465
:$ .947


1976-77 range per acre
From To


Yield (crates) . . . . : 432 : 736
Total growing cost . . . . : $ 1149.95 :$ 2897.47
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 1103.59 : 1811.22
Total crop cost . . . . : 2711.97 : 4678.09
Crop sales . . . .... ... : 2711.11 : 5182.21
Net return . . . .... ... : $ -123.37 :$ 996.42


aReported by 6 growers averaging $63.26 per acre.




7


Table 7.--SWEET CORN: Costs and returns in the Central Florida area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77

:5-season:
Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per.grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)


4
3340
835
267


4
3234
808
324


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . . :$
Seed . . . . . :
Fertilizer . . . . :
Spray and dust . . . . :
Cultural labor .. . . :
Machine' hire . . . . :
Gas, oil and grease . . . :
Repair and maintenance . . . :
Depreciation . . . :
Licenses and insurance . . . :
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months). :
Interest on capital invested (other than land). :
Miscellaneous expense . . . :


Acre
32.39
13.11
47.28
74.28
50.35
11.92
11.25
50.04
17.57
19.87
9.83
2.63
17.32


Average per
Acre
:$ 37.74 :
:20.05
:56.38
:103.86
:44.50 :
7.91
:14.44 :
:67.96
:20.44
:24.95
:11.81:
3.07 :
15.99 :


Total growing cost . . .... : 357.84 : 429.10 :$ 1.324

Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


140.44
143.46
22.10
87.05
39.47


. : 432.52 : 613.34 : 1.893


S. : 790.36
S. : 857.44
S . :$ 67.08


:1042.44
:1036.57
:$ -5.87


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (crates) . . . . : 299 : 340
Total growing cost . . . . : $ 301.02: $ 598.59
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 424.07: 753.58
Total crop cost . . . . : 972.00: 1100.91
Crop sales . . . . . : 889.19: 1180.97
Net return . . . . ... .. : $ -211.72: $ 158.31


Crate


195.16
217.38
38.48
103.62
58.70


.602
.671
.119
.320
.181


3.217
3.199
-.018




8


Table 8.--SWEET CORN: Costs and returns in the Everglades area 5-season
average 1972-76 and 1976-77


Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)


: 13 :
: 17498 :
: 1346 :
212 :


10
12351
1235
202


Growing costs:

Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer.. .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production


Interest on capital inv
Miscellaneous expense


Average per
Acre Acre
. . . :$ 32.77 :$ 51.07


. . . :
. . . :
. . . :






capital (9% 4 months)
ested (other than land)
. . . :


Total growing cost . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


10.16 :
26.99 :
75.95
41.01:
18.26 :
9.43
22.42 :
15.06 :
9.82 :
7.67
2.26 :
8.76 :


19.86
41.42
86.05
58.22
18.64a
16.73
35.23
24.45
15.91
10.53
3.67
7.98


. : 280.56 : 389.76


121.28 :
124.91 :
24.24 :
71.91 :
31.81 :


135.05
141.81
26.96
83.62
34.23


.. : 374.15 : 421.67

.. : 654.71 : 811.43
.. : 670.81 : 720.03
.... :$ 16.10 :$-91.40


Crate


:$ 1.929


.669
.702
.134
.414
.169


:2.088

:4.017
S3.565
:$ -.452


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (crates) . . ... . : 154 237
Total growing cost . . . .... : $ 250.47 : $ 490.18
Total harvesting and marketing cost . ... : 324.43 : 504.74
Total crop cost . . .... . : 692.53 : 920.75
Crop sales . . . . : 515.53 : 881.10
Net return . . ... ... .. : $-247.26 : $ 16.80


aReported by 7 growers averaging


$26.64 per acre.




9


Table 9.--SWEET CORN: Costs and returns in the Lower East Coast 5-season
average 1972-76 and 1976-77


Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)


4 :
5216
1304 :
191 :


4
7406
1852
102


Growing costs:

Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . . .
Repair and maintenance . . .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance . . .
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months).
Interest on capital invested (other than land).
Miscellaneous expense . . . .

Total growing cost . . . .


Average per
Acre Acre Crate
:$ 40.88 :$ 51.50 :
14.57 : 22.66 :
93.19 : 96.62 :
61.95 : 53.08 :
50.66 : 64.32 :
22.60 : 15.64a
15.09 : 16.96 :
26.35 : 29.09 :
17.11 : 22.83 :
: 14.75 : 19.77 :
: 10.44 : 11.32 :
2.57 : 3.42 :
7.99 : 7.58 :

:378.15 : 414.79 :$ 4.067


Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking and packing expense
Containers . .
Hauling . . .
Other . . .
Selling . . .


99.11
106.42
26.21
61.94
26.39


62.26
63.60
16.19
42.40
18.68


.610
.623
.159
.416
.183


Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales .. . .
Net return . . . .


. . .: 320.07 : 203.13 : 1.991


. . : 698.22
. . : 726.40
. . :$ 28.18


: 617.92
: 464.58
:$-153.34


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (crates) . . . . : 43 144
Total growing cost . . . . : $ 316.99: $ 459.24
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 89.85: 294.84
Total crop cost . . . . : 520.18: 747.45
Crop sales . . . ... : 191.07: 655.20
Net return . . . .. .. : $ -329.11: $ 80.69


aReported by 3 growers averaging $20.85 per acre.


: 6.058
: 4.555
:$-1.503




10


Table 10.--CUCUMBERS: Costs and returns in the Immokalee-Lee area 5-season
average 1972-76 and 1976-77

:5-season;
Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


9 :
990 :
110 :
250 :


Growing costs:


Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production


Interest on capital invested (other than land)
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .


Acre
:$ 23.79
:13.08
: 140.33
:67.70
: 157.02
:39.52
:37.66
:52.84
:37.97
:17.94
:17.41
5.70
30.60


capital (9%


- 4 months)


Average per
Acre
:$ 27.25 :
: 17.52 :
: 173.51:
: 78.33 :
: 202.62 :
:24.64 :
51.32 :
:48.94 :
: 42.67 :
24.81:
24.85 :
6.40 :
13.58 :


: 641.56 : 736.44 :$ 2.811


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense . . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


222.82
184.52
167.27
50.36
44.36


280.29
213.12
139.88
48.52
43.26


1.070
.813
.534
.185
.165


. : 669.33 : 725.07 : 2.767


:1310.89
:1319.13
:$ 8.24


:1461.51
:1544.23
:$ 82.72


: 5.578
: 5.894
:$ .316


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (bushels) . . . ... : 201 : 325
Total growing cost . . . . :$ 618.13 :$ 1098.50
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 562.50 : 856.80
Total crop cost . . . ... : 1269.44 : 1904.90
Crop sales . . . .... ... : 1220.73 : 1833.30
Net return . . . ... :$-101.37 :$ 308.12


Bushel







Table 11.--CUCUMBERS: Costs and returns in the Palm
season 1976-77


Beach-Broward area


Item : 1976-77


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . . .
Repair and maintenance . . .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance . . .
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months).
Interest on capital invested (other than land).
Miscellaneous expense . . . .

Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking expense . . .
Grading and packing expense . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling .. . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


Average per
Acre
$ 71.02
39.58
78.33
74.95
231.90
16.08
38.68
46.25
30.34
33.89
19.86
4.55
31.20


716.63


181.99
106.34
112.13
29.54
32.81

462.81

1179.44
1312.14
$ 132.70


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (bushels) . . . ... : 150 238
Total growing cost . . . ... : $ 586.21 : $ 801.09
Total harvesting and marketing cost ..... : 352.50 : 523.58
Total crop cost . . . ... : 938.71 : 1313.43
Crop sales . . . . ... : 930.00 : 1542.77
Net return . . . .... : $ -8.71 : $ 229.34




12


Table 12.--EGGPLANT: Costs and returns in the Palm Beach-Broward area
S5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77

:5-season:
Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


6
498
83
736


Growing cost:

Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production


Interest on capital inv
Miscellaneous expense


Acre
. . . :$ 53.10
. . . : 17.32
. . . : 247.22
. . . : 142.73
. . . : 333.80
. . . : 46.07
. . . : 46.46
. . . : 62.47
. . . : 50.36
. . : 41.63
capital (9% 5 months) : 38.72
ested (other than land) : 7.55
. . . : 41.84


Average per
Acre Bushel
:$ 58.15
:18.33
: 268.79
: 262.05
: 494.03
51.07a :
:72.52
: 107.55
77.07
89.79
55.63
11.56
61.20


Total growing cost . . . :1129.27 :1627.74

Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . .
Net return . . . .


: 395.48
: 402.57
: 90.33
: 108.19


: 428.13
: 421.83
: 108.26
: 136.27


. : 996.57 :1094.49


:2125.84
:2141.04
:$ 15.20


:2722.23
:2880.56
:$158.33


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (bushels) . . . . : 500 : 914
Total growing cost . . . . : $ 965.51 :$ 2735.30
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 737.50 : 1369.77
Total crop cost . . . . : 1703.01 : 4105.07
Crop sales . . . .... .. : 1800.00 : 3733.36
Net return . . . . ... ... : $ -514.52 : $ 596.47

aReported by 5 growers averaging $61.29 per acre.
Reported by 5 growers averaging $61.29 per acre.


:$ 2.212


.582
.573
.147
.185


: 1.487

: 3.699
: 3.914
:$ .215







Table 13.--LEAF CROPS: Costs and returns in the
5-season average 1972-76


Central Florida area
and 1976-77


Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)


6
1116
186
505


Growing costs:


Land rent . .
Seed . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance


Interest on production capital (9% 4
Interest on capital invested (other th
Miscellaneous expense . .

Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


Acre
.. .. :$ 29.14
. : 16.59
: 53.77
.. : 56.36
: 157.05
. : .95
: 13.76
. : 70.47
. : 38.53
. : 36.75
months). : 14.12
ian land). : 5.78
... : 35.89


Average per
Acre
:$ 32.27
: 178.31
:52.10
:66.78
: 160.73
: 10.24a :
:24.31
:81.74
:33.13
:62.58
:21.37
4.97
43.17


: 529.16 : 771.70


165.19
265.20
35.99
115.53
63.38


: 236.84
: 513.19
: 68.40
: 193.35
: 93.34


. : 645.29 :1105.12

S. :1174.45 :1876.82
S. :1516.04 :2600.14
S. :$341.59 :$723.32


Crate















1.109


.340
.738
.098
.278
.134


: 1.588

: 2.697
: 3.736
:$ 1.039


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (crates) . . . . : 489 : 974
Total growing cost . . . . : $ 535.33 : $ 1012.22
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 843.29 :1387.58
Total crop cost . . ... . . : 1470.13 : 2399.80
Crop sales . . . . .. : 1696.37 : 3834.24
Net return . . . . : $ 121.18 :$ 1434.44


aReported by 5 growers averaging $12.29 per acre.


:$


: : : : :


.....








Table 14.--LEAF CROPS: Costs and returns in the Everglades area 5-season
average 1972-76 and 1976-77


Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers .. .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)


9 :
5949 :
661 :
391 :


8
7056
882
508


Growing costs:

Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production
Interest on capital inv
Miscellaneous expense

Total growing cost .


Acre
. . . :$ 37.97
. . . : 8.62
. . . : 48.73
. . . : 45.00
. . . : 132.84
. . . : 12.12
. . . : 13.11
. . . : 39.23
. . . : 23.97
. . . : 15.14
capital (9% 4 months) : 11.13
ested (other than land) : 3.60
. . . : 18.07


Average per
Acre
:$ 54.44
9.66
79.24
87.24
:239.99
:27.96a
27.94
50.68
38.65
22.92
18.65
5.80
21.72


S. : 409.53 : 284,89


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost . .


Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . .
Net return . . .


: 631.63 : 969.24


:1041.16
:1080.07
:$ 38.91


:1654.13
:2056.30
:$402.17


1976-77 range per acre
From To


Yield (crates) . . .. ... : 350 909
Total growing cost . . . :$ 398.87 : $1302.17
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 711.53 :1594.26
Total crop cost . . . ... : 1118.09 : 2896.43
Crop sales . . . ... .. : 1400.82 : 3363.64
Net return . . . . ... .. : $ -147.47 : $ 793.55


aReported by 6 growers averaging $37.28 per acre.


Crate
















1.348


174.11
227.86
46.79
122.33
60.54


283.12
335.29
69.50
189.28
92.05


.557
.660
.137
.373
.181


1.908

3.256
4.048
.792


: 1$







Table 15.--PEPPERS: Costs and returns in the Immokalee-Lee area 5-season
average 1972-76 and 1976-77


Item:5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


12
2364
197
566


9
2196
244
548


Growing costs:
Acre
Land rent . . . . :$ 25.11
Seed . . . . ... : 68.98
Fertilizer . . . ... : 230.71
Spray and dust . . . ... : 184.94
Cultural labor .. . . . : 349.81
Machine hire . . . . : 59.78
Gas, oil and grease . . . : 64.92
Repair and maintenance . . . : 113.23
Depreciation . . . . : 55.88
Licenses and insurance . . .. : 37.67
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months). : 45.06
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 8.38
Miscellaneous expense . . . : 66.48


Average per
Acre
:$ 34.37
:118.53
:290.61
:278.90
:477.45
: 31.07 :
92.03
:172.22
92.82
65.28
64.04
13.92
:147.18


Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense .. . .
Grading and packing expense . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


. . :1310.95 :1878.52


: 305.00
: 381.96
: 281.16
: 94.83
: 100.66


: 362.71
: 432.15
: 278.00
: 108.83
: 108.12


. .. :1163.61 :1289.81


:2474.56
:2758.19
:$283.63


:3168.33
:3408.09
:$239.76


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (bushels) . .... . .... : 285 745
Total growing cost . . .. . : $ 1136.61 : $ 2757.40
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 703.86 : 1817.50
Total crop cost . ... .. .. .. : 2002.69 : 4335.93
Crop sales . . .... . . : 1825.98 : 4577.96
Net return . . .. ... .. .. : $-1449.34 : $ 2197.31


aReported by 7 growers averaging $39.95 per acre.


Bushel


:$ 3.428


.662
.789
.507
.199
.197


: 2.354

: 5.782
: 6.219
:$ .437




16


Table 16.--PEPPERS: Costs and returns in the Palm Beach-Broward area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77

:5-season:
Item : e n: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


: 9 :
1071
: 119 :
: 568


7
1100
157
689


Growing costs:
Acre
Land rent . . . . .. :$ 56.16
Seed . . . .... . .. : 55.78
Fertilizer . . . .... ... : 203.62
Spray and dust . . .... . : 151.15
Cultural labor . . . : 449.45
Machine hire . . .... . : 65.25
Gas, oil and grease . .. . .. : 57.19
Repair and maintenance . .... ... : 76.73
Depreciation . ..... . . : 56.17
Licenses and insurance . ... ... : 60.22
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months) : 48.11
Interest on capital invested (other than land) : 8.42
Miscellaneous expense . .... ... : 107.29


Average per
Acre Bushel
:$ 56.92
88.48
:204.48
:242.54
:692.95
:158.67
99.81
:106.21
88.20
89.96
72.40
13.23
:210.75


Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . .


. .. :1395.54 :2104.60


: 354.79
: 267.36
:84.08
: 100.91


449.82
328.65
107.62
144.14


. ... : 807.14 :1030.23


:2202.68
:2827.48
:$624.80


:3134.83
:3412.20
:$277.37


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (bushels) ... .. . . .. : 400 920
Total growing cost . . . : $ 1160.85 : $ 3216.25
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 590.00 : 1395.54
Total crop cost . . . . : 1750.85 : 4611.79
Crop sales . . . . ... : 1980.00 4176.80
Net return . . . . .. : $ -434.89 : $ 1262.11


:$ 3.055


.653
.477
.156
.209


:1.495

:4.550
:4.952
:$ .402


j i j







Table 17.--IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns in the Dade County area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77


Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (cwt.) .

Growing costs:

Land rent . . . .


Seed . . .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust . .
Cultural labor . .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease . .
Repair and maintenance .
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance .


Interest on production capital (9% -
Interest on capital invested (other
Miscellaneous expense . .


8
5128
641
190


Acre
S . :$ 60.62
S . : 187.27
S . : 82.15
S . : 82.45
S . : 84.42
S. : 2.07
S. : 13.52
S . : 30.27
S . : 25.29
S . : 28.05
4 months). : 17.61
than land). : 3.79
. . : 16.34


8
5066
633
98


Average per
Acre
:$ 66.40
: 194.97
:90.56
:87.55
:91.31
5.94a
:21.51
:49.36
:37.47
:43.47
:20.36
5.62
27.68


Total growing cost . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Digging expense.. . . .
Grading and packing expense . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . . .
Selling . . . . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


. : 633.85 : 742.20


S35.34
: 142.43
: 44.73
: 31.20
: 45.12


18.55
110.34
36.43
16.67
28.05


. : 298.82 : 210.04


: 932.67
:1290.99
:$358.32


: 952.24
: 981.72
:$ 29.48


:$ 7.574


.189
1.126
.372
.170
.286


: 2.143

: 9.717
: 10.018
:$ .301


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (cwt.) . . . .... : 73 : 124
Total growing cost . . .. . $ 529.51 : $ 901.77
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 118.38 : 355.63
Total crop cost . . . .... . 662.46 : 1144.32
Crop sales . . . .. : 762.52 : 1250.65
Net return . . . .... : $ -232.54 : $ 218.90

aReported by 5 growers averaging $9.50 per acre.
Reported by 5 growers averaging $9.50 per acre.


Cwt.


III







Table 18.--IRISH POTATOES: Costs and returns in the Hastings area 5-season
average 1972-76 and 1976-77


Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (cwt.)


18
4392
244
171


19
5455
287
218


Growing costs:

Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . . .
Repair and maintenance . . .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance . . ..
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months)
Interest on capital invested (other than land)
Miscellaneous expense . . .


Acre
:$ 36.63
:128.39
96.62
41.80
57.57
5.64
18.20
38.15
27.17
15.60
13.41
4.08
8.45


Average per
Acre
:$ 44.36
: 165.33
: 113.18
53.68
63.30
7.56a :
26.56
51.19
38.30
: 19.59
:16.72
5.75
12.49


Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Digging expense . . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .


. : 491.71


34.58
51.69
10.35
27.43
41.89


: 618.01 :$ 2.835


44.02
70.42
21.17b
39.87
57.92


.202
.323
.097
.183
.266


. : 165.94 : 233.41 : 1.071


Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . .
Net return . . .


S. : 657.65
S. : 812.29
S . :$154.64


1976-77 range per acre
From To


Yield (cwt.) . . . . : 140 299
Total growing cost . . . : $ 480.49 : $ 868.09
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 126.88 : 403.67
Total crop cost . . . .... : 648.52 : 1155.60
Crop sales . . . .... .: 575.33 : 1308.62
Net return . . . .... : $ -193.77 : $ 415.19


aReported by 14 growers averaging $10.26 per acre.
bReported by 8 growers averaging $50.28 per acre.


Cwt.


: 851.42
:1012.90
:$161.48


3.906
4.646
.740







Table 19.--RADISHES: Costs and returns in the Everglades area 5-season
average 1972-76 and 1976-77


Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . . . .
Number of acres . . . .
Average acres per grower . . .
Average yield per acre (30-6 oz. packages) .

Growing costs:


Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . . .
Repair and maintenance . . .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance . . .
Interest on production capital (9% 2 months).
Interest on capital invested (other than land).
Miscellaneous expense . . . .

Total growing cost . . . .


: 4
: 10532
2633
S 239


3
12125
4042
267


Average p
Acre Acre


:$ 7.78
9.20
9.21
12.35
18.67
4.23
4.79
12.01
7.38
5.46
1.30
1.11
3.10


15.47
15.06
17.39
23.00
29.96
4.72a
7.96
21.11
11.27
7.51
2.19
1.69
3.61


: 96.59 : 160.94


er
30-6 oz.
pkgs.















:$ 0.603


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Harvesting expense . . .
Grading and packing expense . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


24.85
79.95
58.48
9.65
28.00


: 11.94
: 131.97
: 87.22
: 8.99
:30.39


... : 200.93 : 270.51

... : 297.52 : 431.45
... : 355.81 : 481.73
... :$ 58.29 :$ 50.28


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (30-6 oz. packages) . . . : 209 : 308
Total growing cost . . . .. : $ 114.84 : $ 232.59
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 195.33 : 324.09
Total crop cost . . . . .. : 310.17 : 556.68
Crop sales . . . .... .. : 358.84 : 664.83
Net return . . . . ... .. : $ -5.98 : $ 108.15


aReported by 2 growers averaging $7.08 per acre.
Reported by 2 growers averaging $7.08 per acre.


.045
.494
.326
.034
.114


: 1.013

: 1.616
: 1.804
:$ .188







Table 20.--SQUASH: Costs and returns in the Dade County area 5-season
average 1972-76 and 1976-77


Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers... . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


6 :
1236 :
206 :
144 :


7
1250
179
124


Growing costs:


Land rent . .
d-


See . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . ...
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . . .
Repair and maintenance . . .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance . . ..
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months)
Interest on capital invested (other than land)
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . . .


Acre
36.21
14.02
67.83
63.37
58.97
12.31
23.82
33.16
21.75
27.42
10.39
3.26
9.37


Average per
Acre Bushel
:$ 37.64
18.75
68.02
66.11
65.74
13.57
28.30
32.75
21.87
36.14
11.47
3.28
15.50


: 381.88 : 419.14


:$ 3.380


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


193.06
111.14
20.06
31.83


184.43
89.52
18.65
32.89


. : 356.09 : 325.49


: 737.97
: 839.43
:$101.46


: 744.63
: 735.72
:$ -8.91


1976-77 range per acre
From To


Yield (bushels) . . . . : 85 : 168
Total growing cost . . . . : $ 311.35 : $ 624.64
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 215.05 :464.56
Total crop cost . . . . : 631.21 : 955.75
Crop sales . . . .... .. : 442.00 : 992.54
Net return . . . .... ... : $ -276.28 :$ 262.83


1.487
.722
.151
.265


:2.625

: 6.005
:5.933
:$ -.072




21


Table 21.--SQUASH: Costs returns in the Immokalee-Lee area 5-season
average 1972-76 and 1976-77

Item :5-season: 1976-77
Item: average:
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres .. . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


5
945
189
187


6
1356
226
214


Growing costs:

Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . . .
Repair and maintenance . . .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance . . .
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months).
Interest on capital invested (other than land).
Miscellaneous expense . . . .

Total growing cost . . . .


Acre
:$ 23.21
18.34
:111.22
45.27
68.48
13.22
27.10
24.69
23.58
15.07
10.66
3.54
8.83


Average per
Acre Bushel
:$ 31.55
:23.25
:132.40
:61.05
: 111.57
:17.40
:36.81
:41.42
:31.86
:29.55
:15.11
4.78
18.59


: 393.21 : 555.34


:$ 2.595


Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking expense . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . .
Selling . . .


113.10
118.31
125.42
51.01
41.15


134.34
154.62
129.43
51.45
44.33


.628
.723
.605
.240
.207


Total harvesting and marketing costs .


Total crop cost . .
Crop sales . . .
Net return . . .


. : 448.99 : 514.17


: 842.20
: 987.84
:$145.64


:1069.51
:1399.08
:$329.57


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (bushels) . . . . : 159 : 300
Total growing cost . . . . : $ 361.04 : $ 692.14
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 344.75 : 909.00
Total crop cost . . . . : 705.79 : 1368.62
Crop sales . . . . ... : 1027.25 : 2250.00
Net return . . . . ... ... : $ -5.94 : $ 881.38


: 2.403

: 4.998
: 6.538
:$ 1.540


~ f I I







Table 22.--SQUASH: Costs and returns in the Palm Beach-Broward area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77

Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (bushels)


Growing costs:

Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation .. ...
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production
Interest on capital inv
Misrelanneous expense


Acre
. . . :$ 41.37
. . . : 13.19
. . . : 72.39
. . . 46.88
. . . : 68.88
. . . : 27.47
. . . : 25.59
. . . 29.77
. . . : 23.63
S. . : 2 1 .1 2
capital (9% 4 months) : 10.94
ested (other than land) : 3.54
. . . : 17.88


Average per
Acre
:$ 53.09
19.69
62.75
47.50
91.92
17.06
27.47
36.88
29.59
20.38
11.51
4.09
7.05


Total growing cost . . . .


: 402.65 : 428.98 :$ 4.377


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


151.64
97.76
19.97
25.13


169.64
109.49
17.19
25.95


. . : 294.50 : 322.27


: 697.15
: 732.13
:$ 34.98


: 751.25
: 769.50
:$ 18.25


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (bushels) . . . . : 60 : 130
Total growing cost . . . .. : $ 322.90: $ 488.05
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 222.00: 403.00
Total crop cost . . . . : 588.50: 883.00
Crop sales . . . . . : 480.00: 1083.00
Net return . .. . .. : $ -230.05: $ 200.00


Bushel


1.731
1.117
.176
.265


S3.289

:7.666
S7.852
:$ .186


i i I I




23


Table 23.--TOMATOES: Costs and returns in the Dade County area 5-season
average 1972-76 and 1976-77


Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (30


7 :
5810 :
830 :
507


lb.)


6
3612
602
204


Growing costs:
Acre
Land rent . . . . :$ 36.04
Seed . . . . ... : 22.06
Fertilizer . . . . : 215.23
Spray and dust . . . .: 230.73
Cultural labor . . . . : 184.32
Machine hire . . . . : 21.79
Gas, oil and grease . . . : 30.85
Repair and maintenance . . . : 56.25
Depreciation . . . . : 43.48
Licenses and insurance . . . : 27.77
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months). : 33.52
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 6.52
Miscellaneous expense . . . : 68.95


Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking expense . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . .
Selling . . .


Average per
Acre
:$ 56.11
23.29
:244.83
:257.85
:244.27
19.97
44.09
68.24
42.45
50.04
39.97
6.37
57.18


. .. : 977.51 :1154.66


292.15
415.51
240.50
54.35
70.85


: 127.71
: 188.07
: 108.30
: 28.79
: 29.00


Total harvesting and marketing cost . :1073.36 : 481.87

Total crop cost . . . :2050.87 :1636.53
Crop sales . . .... . .. :2330.62 :1179.12
Net return . .... .. . .. :$279.75 :$-457.41


30 lb.


:$ 5.660


.626
.922
.531
.141
.142

2.362

8.022
5.780
:$-2.242


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (30 lb.) . .... . .... : 61 393
Total growing cost . . . ... : $ 869.70 : $ 1415.19
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .. : 146.22 : 954.99
Total crop cost . . .. .. .: 1015.92 : 2154.39
Crop sales ... ....... .... . : 436.15 : 2333.29
Net return . . ..... .. : $ -894.97 : $ 178.90








Table 24.--TOMATOES: Costs and returns in the Ft.
average 1972-76


Pierce area 5-season


Item 5-season
average


Number of growers . ..
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (30 lbs.)


Growing costs:


Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance


Interest on production capital (9% 5 months)
Interest on capital invested (other than land)
Miscellaneous expense . . .

Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:


Picking expense . . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . .
Selling . . . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . .
Net return . . . .


Average per
Acre
$ 21.23
16.97
152.52
118.10
179.59
103.24
49.50
65.81
36.46
17.97
28.17
5.47
26.69


821.72


254.27
276.31
150.01
58.31
53.04

791.94


1613.66
1534.85
$ -78.81


13
2990
230
351


- -- ----


. .







Table 25.--STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns in the Gadsden County area
season 1977 (Spring)


Item : 1977


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (30 lb.)


8
150
19
1347


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . . .
Repair and maintenance . . .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance . . .
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months).
Interest on capital invested (other than land).
Miscellaneous expense . . . .

Total growing cost. . . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:


Average per
Acre
$ 43.44
129.42
211.11
457.03
675.04
7.81a
131.46
146.00
90.00
157.71
83.18
13.50
258.94


2404.64


Picking expense .
Grading and packing
Containers .
Hauling . .
Selling . .


expense . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost


Total crop cost .
Crop sales . .
Net return . .


719.99
1424.76
673.69
183.46
317.31

3319.21

5723.85
5913.19
$ 189.34


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (30 lb.) . . . . : 944 : 1667
Total growing cost . . . . : $1907.71 : $ 3653.82
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 2265.60 : 4204.17
Total crop cost . . . : 4389.01 : 7328.24
Crop sales . . . . ... : 3757.12 : 7596.60
Net return . . . . .. : $-631.89 : $ 1437.56


Reported by 3 growers averaging $20.83 per acre.


: : : : : : i








Table 26.--STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77


Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (30 lb.)


13
3133
241
910


14
4973
355
624


Growing costs:


Land rent . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire .. ...
Gas, oil and grease
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance
Interest on production


Interest on capital invested (other
Miscellaneous expense . .

Total growing cost . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense . . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . .


Acre
S . :$ 35.76
S. .. : 79.42
S . : 240.99
. : 328.50
S. : 644.63
S . : 85.25
S . : 76.40
. : 116.29
S. : 84.82
S . : 56.29
- 5 months) : 69.88
than land) : 12.72
. . : 200.02


capital (9%
. .
. e e. .
. a .


Average per
Acre 30 lb.
:$ 41.71
81.35
: 232.89
: 322.36
: 634.34
:56.40a
:82.16
: 124.92
98.90
64.01
68.30
14.84
:181.15


:2030.97 :2003.33


: 605.30
: 789.52
: 396.49
: 118.44
: 125.28


: 357.53
: 612.40
: 323.48
: 102.18
:91.04


:$ 3.211


.573
.981
.518
.164
.146


Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost.. . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


. .. :2035.03 :1486.63


:4066.00
:4603.93
:$537.93


:3489.96
:3765.08
:$275.12


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (30 lb.) . . . . : 286 : 900
Total growing cost . . . . : $ 909.48 : $ 3142.48
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 729.30 : 2164.68
Total crop cost .. . . . : 1818.07 : 4786.34
Crop sales . . . .... ... : 1627.04 : 6029.84
Net return . . . .... .: $ -398.68 : $ 1243.50


aReported by 11 growers averaging $71.78 per acre.


: 2.382

: 5.593
: 6.034
:$ .441


......




27


Table 27.--STAKED TOMATOES: Costs and returns in the Manatee-Ruskin area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77

Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers .
Number of acres .
Average acres per grower
Average yield per acre (30


12
2232
186
715


lb.)


12
2662
222
742


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . . .
Repair and maintenance . . .
Depreciation . . . . .
Licenses and insurance . . .
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months).
Interest on capital invested (other than land).
Miscellaneous expense . . . .


Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense . . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Selling . . . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . . .


Acre
:$ 42.65
:59.54
: 213.54
: 204.20
: 419.64
:21.83
68.03
:80.96
:67.14
:61.66
:48.69
:10.07
: 126.36


Average per
Acre 30 lb.
:$ 44.48
:83.50
: 216.40
: 236.60
: 591.07
:25.14
:79.39
:90.70
:85.98
:86.03
:60.16
:12.90
: 151.00


. .. :1424.31 :1763.35


: 330.41
: 701.28
: 329.14
: 90.17
: 91.73


380.90
772.04
398.37
116.01
95.53


. . :1542.73 :1762.85


. .. :2967.04
S. :3558.00
S . :$590.96


:3526.20
:3612.52
:$ 86.32


:$ 2.376


.513
1.041
.537
.156
.129


: 2.376

: 4.752
: 4.868
:$ .116


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (30 lb.) . . . . : 483 1223
Total growing cost . . . . :$1249.12 : $ 2576.19
Total harvesting and marketing cost . ...... : 1141.33 : 2719.23
Total crop cost . . . . .. : 2495.36 : 4650.34
Crop sales . . . . .. : 1978.91 : 5487.78
Net return . . . . .. :$-781.61 : $ 952.13

aReported by 9 growers averaging 33.52 per acre.
Reported by 9 growers averaging $33.52 per acre.




28


Table 28.--WATERMELONS: Costs and returns in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1972-76 and 1976-77

Item :5-season: 1976-77
: average:


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (cwt.)


6
702
117
215


4
220
55
431


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . .
Machine hire . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . . .
Repair and maintenance . . .
Depreciation . . . ..
Licenses and insurance .. . ......
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months)
Interest on capital invested (other than land)
Miscellaneous expense . . .


Acre
:$ 20.81
8.06
: 159.70
: 92.69
: 136.31
50.26
24.63
41.72
28.23
14.73
21.30
4.24
19.07


Average per
Acre
:$ 28.08
3.78
: 179.00
: 97.62
:110.92
63.79
29.52
35.32
31.25
20.16
21.67
4.69
9.81


Total growing cost . . .

Harvesting and marketing costs:

Picking expense . . .
Packing expense . . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . .
Selling . . . .

Total harvesting and marketing cost .

Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . .
Net return . . .


. : 621.75 : 635.61


66.19
56.15
22.32
87.10
52.70


129.38
107.81
21.56
178.25
79.06


: 284.46 : 516.06


: 906.21
:1010.21
:$104.00


:1151.67
:1508.48
:$356.81


:$ 1.475


.300
.250
.050
.414
.183


:1.197

:2.672
:3.500
:S .828


1976-77 range per acre
From To

Yield (cwt.) . . . . : 340 : 575
Total growing cost . . . .. : $ 531.74 : $ 830.47
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .. : 391.00 : 718.75
Total crop cost . . . . : 1018.01 : 1271.98
Crop sales . . . . . : 1020.00 : 2300.00
Net return . . . . . : $ -182.97 : $ 1216.26


Cwt.


i i i


. .
































































This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of $1792.00 or
$1.19 per copy to furnish the vegetable industry and allied suppliers
with current information on costs and returns for vegetable crops in
Florida.