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 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Foreword
 Acknowledgements
 Table of Contents
 Map
 Definitions
 Main


UF FLAG IFAS PALMM



Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026154/00001
 Material Information
Title: Costs and returns from vegetable crops in Florida, with comparisons
Series Title: 197374- Economic information report
Portion of title: Vegetable crops in Florida
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1973
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Vegetable trade -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Coastal Engineering Department series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000304067
oclc - 03425969
notis - ABT0638
lccn - 76368517 //r77
issn - 0149-0613
System ID: UF00026154:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Abstract
        Abstract
    Foreword
        Page i
    Acknowledgements
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Map
        Page iii
    Definitions
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
Full Text


D. L. Brooke


Economic Information
Report 22

S '' ,\,


31Y MT6


Costs and


Returns fro


Crops


in Florida,


Season


1973-74


with Comparisons

*


Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611


March 1975




.'4"


ABSTRACT


Costs and returns for vegetable crops were obtained and summarized
for 14 different vegetable crops in one or more of eight major producing
areas for the 1972-73 season. Yields were good to excellent for most
crops and areas. Per unit costs of production were higher for many crops,
reflecting increases in fuel, fertilizer, labor and packaging costs.
Higher season average prices were reported in one-half of the 28 possible
crop-area combinations in 1972-73 over a year earlier. Net returns per
unit of product were higher in 18 of the possible crop-area combinations.

Key words: Economics, vegetables, annual costs, simple averages,
purposive sample.






ii















FOREWORD


This is the fourteenth in a new series of summaries of costs and
returns from the principal vegetable crops by major producing areas in
Florida. There is a need among growers, commodity groups, credit
agencies, research workers and teachers for current factual information
of this type.
Data in this summary were gathered by personal interview with
growers of the various vegetable crops. Growers' records of actual
production costs were used when available, and estimates taken when re-
cords were not kept. As complete a breakdown of costs as possible was
obtained from each grower. Insofar as possible, growing and harvesting
costs have been separated and labor items excluded from costs of
materials. In a few cases, where crop sales were not available from
growers, they were computed on the basis of average prices received for
the crop as reported by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service, U.S.D.A., Orlando, Florida.








ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the vegetable
growers for their excellent cooperation and also to the Florida Fruit
and Vegetable Association, the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service, U.S.D.A., Orlando, Florida, and to various county agents for
much worthwhile assistance.















FOREWORD


This is the fourteenth in a new series of summaries of costs and
returns from the principal vegetable crops by major producing areas in
Florida. There is a need among growers, commodity groups, credit
agencies, research workers and teachers for current factual information
of this type.
Data in this summary were gathered by personal interview with
growers of the various vegetable crops. Growers' records of actual
production costs were used when available, and estimates taken when re-
cords were not kept. As complete a breakdown of costs as possible was
obtained from each grower. Insofar as possible, growing and harvesting
costs have been separated and labor items excluded from costs of
materials. In a few cases, where crop sales were not available from
growers, they were computed on the basis of average prices received for
the crop as reported by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service, U.S.D.A., Orlando, Florida.








ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the vegetable
growers for their excellent cooperation and also to the Florida Fruit
and Vegetable Association, the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service, U.S.D.A., Orlando, Florida, and to various county agents for
much worthwhile assistance.



















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


FOREWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . .. . . .

MAP OF FLORIDA VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS .. . .


DEFINITIONS . .



Costs and Returns Data


iv


. P . . .


Beans, Snap .

Beans, Pole .

Cabbage .

Celery . .

Corn, Sweet .

Cucumbers .

Eggplant .

Leaf Crops .

Peppers, Green .

Potatoes, Irish

Radishes .

Squash . .

Tomatoes .


S S S S

. S S


S S S


* S

S

. .

* 9

S *

* S S

S *

S


S S 9


Watermelons


. . .... . *


* 1

S 2

..3-4

. .5-6

. 7-9

. 10

. 11

S. 12-13

S. 14-15

S. 16-17

* 18

. 19-21

S. 22-26


D. L. BROOKE is a professor in the Food and Resource Economics
Department.


I I










1rl9 L %-_
I, I I ,- 7-
I I -- -I






FLORIDA / '
'"--"
F." L 0 R I D A-1

VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS
With Principal Vegetables Produced r 13 \

1. Dade tomatoes, snap and pole beans, Irish II- \12
potatoes, squash, cucumbers, strawberries r"-..
2 Palm Beach-Broward snap beans, peppers, 10
eggplant, cucumbers, squash, tomatoes
3 Immokalee-Lee tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, ----
squash, Irish potatoes, watermelons
4 Everglades snap beans, sweet corn, cabbage, 9
escarole, celery, Irish potatoes, radishes
5 Fort Pierce tomatoes, watermelons
6 Wauchula cucumbers, tomatoes, watermelons ,i--- ^I5
7 Sarasota celery, radishes, lettuce, cabbage- A7
8 Manatee-Ruskin tomatoes, cabbage, cauliflower, J
watermelons
9 Plant City strawberries, peppers, squash,-- .
pole beans, southern peas, okra
10 Sumter cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, lettuce,
watermelons
11 Zellwood sweet corn, celery, escarole, 2 -
lettuce, snap beans, radishes I 2
12 Sanford-Oviedo cabbage, celery, snap beans,
lettuce, escarole, sweet corn, peppers
13 Oxford-Belleview-Lowell tomatoes, watermelons
14 McIntosh-Island Grove squash, snap beans, celery,
cabbage, lettuce, watermelons
15 Alachua snap beans, cucumbers, peppers,
Irish potatoes, watermelons
16 Hastings Irish potatoes, cabbage 0 o
17 Starke-Brooker-Lake Butler snap and lima beans, 0 9
cucumbers, peppers, squash, strawberries
18 Quincy-Havana pole beans, cucumbers, squash
19 Escambia Irish potatoes


iii











DEFINITIONS


Number of growers: Number of individual records or estimates of crop
costs and returns included in each crop summary.

Number of acres: The total acreage planted by growers whose records or
estimates were used. When a part of the planted acreage was lost soon
after planting and replaced by another crop, the reduced acreage was
used.

Average acres per grower: The number of acres of the particular crop
divided by the number of growers.
Average yield per acre: The number of units per planted acre harvested.

Land rent: In the interests of uniformity, land rent was charged for
all acreages and crops at the prevailing rate reported by growers in the
area. This was done to avoid difficulties in the determination of a
normal valuation, interest charge for use of land and capitalization of
land values in a period of fluctuating values and prices. Taxes on farm
real estate are excluded since rent is being charged.

Seed and seedbed includes the cost of seed or plants for planting the
crop. If a seedbed was used, the figures, unless otherwise noted, in-
clude costs of labor and materials for growing plants as well as seed
costs.

Fertilizer represents the actual cost of nutrient materials applied to
produce the crop. Labor or machine costs of application are not
included.

Spray and dust included only the cost of materials unless application
labor is specified, in which case some machine costs may also be present.
If weed control chemicals or soil fumigants were used, their cost also
is included here.

Cultural labor contains the cost of man labor, whether hired or family,
to produce the crop from ground preparation until ready for harvest. It
does not include supervision by the operator, since his compensation is
to a great extent dependent upon returns from the sale of the crop.

Machine hire is the cost of machine work hired, including use of air-
planes when applicable, in producing the crop. This item includes labor
charges for the machine operator and charges for the use of equipment.

Gas, oil and grease includes the cost of gas, oil and grease required to
operate tractors, trucks, sprayers, pumps and other machinery in produc-
ing the crop. It may also include electrical power expenses for irriga-
tion when utilized.








Repair and maintenance represent the cost of repairs to equipment used
in producing the crop. It also includes the small tools such as hoes,
rakes and shovels purchased and charged off as a current expenditure.

Depreciation includes the annual charge for depreciation and obsoles-
cence of equipment and labor housing. When actual depreciation charges
could not be obtained from records, they were computed by assuming a
10-year average life-use on all equipment on the basis of replacement
value as indicated by the operator.

Licenses and insurance represent the cost of licenses and insurance
items when chargeable to the farm business. Licenses include those for
trucks and autos used on the farm. Insurance includes labor and crop
insurance and fire or windstorm insurance on buildings and equipment.
It excludes health or accident insurance for the operator or his family.

Interest on production capital was charged at the rate of 9 percent on
all cash costs for the number of months required to grow and market the
crop regardless of whether or not much production capital was actually
borrowed. This percentage was used because it is a currently available
borrowing rate.

Interest on capital invested (other than land) charged at 9 percent of
the actual or estimated annual depreciated value of the capital invested
in machinery and equipment. It was assumed that all equipment was pre-
sently worth one half its replacement value.

Miscellaneous includes such items as wire, stakes, twine, plastics,
office supplies, administrative expense other than value of the opera-
tor's management, legal and audit fees, telephone and telegraph and
incidental expenses.

Harvesting and marketing expense, where possible, has been divided into
two items: (1) picking and (2) grading and packing. Picking, cutting,
or digging expense includes actual cost of harvesting the crop and pre-
paring it for movement to packinghouse or wash house. Washing or
grading and packing expense includes preparation of the product for
shipment either in the field or at an adjacent packinghouse. It in-
cludes machinery and overhead costs in addition to labor. The same is
true for all crops in all areas where grading and packing is done off
the farm in packinghouses.

Containers includes the cost for hampers, crates, bags or baskets in
which the product is moved to market.

Hauling is the cost of movement of the product from field to packing-
house or loading point. It is often computed on a contract basis and
includes labor and equipment items. In cases where hauling was per-
formed by the operator's trucks, the costs have been separated from pro-
duction labor and machine expense items as nearly as possible.
Other includes the cost of precooling the commodity prior to shipment
and, for tomatoes, celery and sweet corn, the contribution to the Mar-
keting Agreement Program. Inspection fees, when incurred, are included
in packinghouse charges and are not reported as a separate item.








Selling is the packinghouse, market, sales organization or dealer's
charge for performing the sales service for the crop when deducted from
the producer's price. This cost does not include charges for unloading,
grading, packing, etc.

Crop sales are the gross returns to the grower before deduction of
growing, harvesting and marketing costs.

Net return is the return to the producer after deduction of all expenses
in producing, harvesting and marketing the crop.

Proration of costs between crops: For such items as seed, fertilizer,
spray and dust, airplane application and harvesting and marketing costs,
growers' records or estimates for each crop were used to make the
appropriate charges.

In the case of the cultural labor, however, no breakdown for the differ-
ent crops produced on the individual farm could be obtained from the
grower except in a very few cases when such records had been kept. The
total cultural labor for all crops produced on each farm was, in most
cases, prorated to the various crops on the basis of available data de-
veloped at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations with regard to
man hours required in various parts of the state to produce different
crops from land preparation to harvest. Except in a very few cases, a
similar situation also applies to such items as machine hire, tractor
fuel, oil and grease, repairs, depreciation and other production costs
where records had not been kept showing the respective charges to dif-
ferent crops. Prorations were also made of these items on the basis of
available data (D. L. Brooke, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 660, June 1963).

In many cases individual growers did not incur every cost item. This
applies especially to airplane application, machine hire, grading and
packing, containers, hauling and precooling. Thus, these data are based
only on the overall average for all growers contacted in each area.
Footnotes have been used to set forth the number of growers and average
costs for items not incurred by all growers in the sample.

Per-unit costs and returns were computed by dividing the average yield
per acre in the sample into the various items of cost shown in the in-
dividual tables. They are merely averages of the data recorded and, in
some cases, do not reflect the full cost of performing the service be-
cause all growers may not have incurred every item of cost.

Range per acre showing the lowest and the highest of the sampled obser-
vations for yields, costs and returns are included for each crop and
area. This is intended to show growers and other interested parties
the extremes that may be encountered in vegetable production.


I ~VL








Snap Beans
Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item 5-season : 1973-74
: average :
Number of growers . . . .. .: 9 : 5
Number of acres . . . .. : 9972 6850
Average acres per grower .. . . ... .: 1108 1370
Average yield per acre (bushels) . .: 75 70
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
Land rent . . . . :$ 33.72 $ 28.55
Seed . . . . .. .: 22.26: 27.55
Fertilizer . . ... . .. 48.39 : 58.39
Spray and dust . . . 20.27: 25.53
Cultural labor . . . : 30.29: 43.95
Machine hire . . . .. : 13.32 : 14.48
Gas, oil and grease . . . : 9.49 : 12.64
Repair and maintenance . . .. : 13.80 : 16.09
Depreciation ..... . . : 10.38: 12.56
Licenses and insurance . . .. : 7.83: 9.81
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months). : 6.19: 7.30 :
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 1.56: 1.89 :
Miscellaneous expense . . 7.11: 6.23
Total growing cost . . . ..: 224.61: 264.97 :$ 3.785
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense . . .: 73.23: 62.29 : .890
Containers . . . . .. : 34.07 : 40.62 : .580
Hauling . . . . .: 8.86 : 8.81 : .126
Selling . . . . . .: 11.48 : 11.58 : .166
Total harvesting and marketing cost . 127.64 : 123.30 : 1.762
Total crop cost . . . . : 352.25 : 388.27 : 5.547
Crop sales . . . ... : 352.14 : 388.43 : 5.549
Net return . . . . : $ -0.11 :$ 0.16 :$ 0.002


Yield (bushels) . . .
Total growing cost . . .
Total harvesting and marketing cost .
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . .
Net return . . .


1973-74 range
From
. . : 54
S. . . :$ 176.30
. . 81.33
. . 257.63
. . . 277.19
. .. . -50.28


per acre
To
83
:$ 320.85
151.21
451.10
458.87
:$ 30.03


Source: Grower records and estimates.








Pole Beans
Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item :5-season 1973-74
:average :
Number of growers . . .: 7 : 8
Number of acres . . . . : 2422 :1983
Average acres per grower . . . : 346 :248
Average yield per acre (bushels) . . : 270 277
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
Land rent . . . . .. :$ 35.15 :$ 37.83
Seed .. . . . . : 23.60 : 30.42
Fertilizer . . . ..... : 67.45 : 90.54 :
Spray and dust . . . : 52.17: 75.24 :
Cultural labor . . . : 188.11: 237.85 :
Machine hire . . . .. 13.24: 12.11 :
Gas, oil and grease . . . .. 20.46 : 27.47
Repair and maintenance . . .... : 33.58: 36.10
Depreciation . . . .. 19.95 : 23.87
Licenses and insurance . . .. 20.82 : 35.88
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months). : 15.59 : 20.62
Interest on capital invested (other than land).: 2.99 : 3.58
Miscellaneous expense . . .. : 64.87: 103.85
Total growing cost . . . .. : 557.98 : 735.36 :$ 2.655
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense . . .. .: 208.80 : 237.53 : .858
Containers . . . . .: 128.57 : 176.42 : .637
Hauling . . . .... ... : 32.94 : 36.98 : .133
Selling . . . .... ... : 51.07 : 44.86 : .162
Total harvesting and marketing cost . : 421.38 : 495.79 : 1.790
Total crop cost . . . .: 979.36 : 1231.15 : 4.445
Crop sales . . . . : 1159.76 : 1550.29 : 5.597
Net return . . . . .:$ 180.40 :$ 319.14 :$ 1.152

1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels) . . . . . 224 : 325
Total growing cost .. . . . ..... : $ 614.57 :$ 901.89
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . .. : 396.54 :565.50
Total crop cost . . . . : 1121.57 : 1446.58
Crop sales. . . . . . : 1317.90 1693.49
Net return .. . . . . . .: $ 166.79 :$ 438.43


Source: Grower records and estimates.








Cabbage
Costs and returns per acre in the Central Florida area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item 5-season 1973-74
:average :
Number of growers . . . .. .: 7 5
Number of acres . . . . : 1862 :1858
Average acres per grower. . . : 266 372
Average yield per acre (50 lbs.) . . : 481 :532
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre 50 Ibs.
Land rent . .. . . :$ 30.23 :$ 34.88
Seed .... . . . : 40.23 : 56.88
Fertilizer .. . . : 58.10 : 79.31
Spray and dust . . . : 61.19 : 77.94
Cultural labor ........ . : 134.58 : 178.76
Machine hire . . ........: 3.86:
Gas, oil and grease . . . .. 10.18 : 14.62
Repair and maintenance . .... ... : 41.89 : 66.17
Depreciation . . . . : 30.28 : 46.18
Licenses and insurance .. . . 20.47 : 33.62
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months).: 12.45 : 17.22
Interest on capital invested (other than land).: 4.54: 6.93
Miscellaneous expense . . . 14.44: 31.73
Total growing cost . . . : 462.44 : 644.24 :$ 1,211
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Cutting and packing expense . . .. .: 179.52 : 274.21 : .515
Containers . . . . .. : 238.41 : 346.09 : .651
Hauling . . . .. : 30.78 : 36.68 : .069
Selling. . . . . .. : 79.51 : 92.38 : .174
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .. : 528.22 : 749.36 : 1.409
Total crop cost . . . .. : 990.66 : 1393.60 : 2.620
Crop sales . . . . : 1038.39 : 988.36 : 1.858
Net return . . . . :$ 47.73 :$-405.24 :$-0.762

1973-74 range per acre


Yield (50 Ibs.) . . .
Total growing cost ...
Total harvesting and marketing cost
Total crop cost . .
Crop sales .. . . .
Net return . . .


From
373
. . . : 373
. . . :$ 514.00
. . . : 373.00
S. . : 887.00
S. . . : 586.07
S. . . : $-590.48


To
: 932
$ 816.55
:1661.10
:2254.28
:1806.76
:$-300.93


Source: Grower records and estimates.


-








Cabbage
Costs and returns per acre in the Hastings area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

:5-season :
Item 5-season 1973-74
:average

Number of growers . . . .. : 16 :11
Number of acres . . .... . : 1824 :1478
Average acres per grower . . : 114 :134
Average yield per acre (50 lbs.) . ... : 437 495
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre 50 Ibs.
Land rent .. . .. ..... :$ 33.72:$ 34.93
Seed . . . . : 52.96: 60.57
Fertilizer . . . . .. : 68.90: 85.15
Spray and dust . . . 27.32 : 41.35
Cultural labor . .... . 89.56 : 106.22
Machine hire ...... . . : 2.01: 2.42a
Gas, oil and grease.. . . : 11.41 : 19.91
Repair and maintenance . .. . : 21.25 : 28.45
Depreciation . . . . : 18.32 : 25.43
Licenses and insurance . .... : 10.69 : 15.20
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months). : 9.71: 12.11
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 2.75 : 3.81
Miscellaneous expense . . : 5.76 : 9.50
Total growing cost .. . . : 354.36 : 445.05 :$ 0.899
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Cutting and packing expense . . .. : 122.54: 148.11 : .299
Containers . . . . : 201.19 : 256.64 : .519
Haulinga. . . . .52 : .44 .001
Selling . . . . : 77.43 : 86.27 : .174
Total harvesting and marketing cost ...... : 401.68 : 491.46 : .993
Total crop cost . . . . : 756.04 : 936.51 : 1.892
Crop sales . . . . : 912.65 : 884.93 : 1.788
Net return . . . :$ 156.61 :$ -51.58 :$-0.104

1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (50 lbs.) .. . . .. : 301 : 617
Total growing cost . . .. .. : $ 337.74 :$ 631.13
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .. . : 57.53 : 717.35
Total crop cost . . .... .. . : 395.27 : 1348.48
Crop sales . . . . : 363.44 : 1414.73
Net return . . . . . :$-180.86 :$ 68.67


aReported by 5 growers averaging $5.33 per acre.

bReported by 2 growers averaging $2.44 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.








Celery
Costs and returns per acre in the Central Florida area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item :5-season : 197374
: average :
Number of growers . . . : 5 : 3
Number of acres . . . .. : 2015 :1639
Average acres per grower . . .. : 403 :546
Average yield per acre (crates) . . : 512 :493
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Crate
Land rent . . . ... ... :$ 39.97 :$ 34.26
Seed . . ... .... : 75.10: 74.12
Fertilizer . . ... 106.45 : 104.79
Spray and dust ........ . : 109.19: 126.52
Cultural labor ......... . : 201.50 : 252.08
Machine hire . . . .... 7.91: 7.14a :
Gas, oil and grease . . ... 13.06: 21.33:
Repair and maintenance . . . 44.04 : 103.87
Depreciation ................ : 14.91 : 24.29
Licenses and insurance . . . 15.04: 32.23
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months). : 23.55: 29.81 :
Interest on capital invested (other than land).: 2.24 : 3,64 :
Miscellaneous expense . . .. 15.89: 38.60
Total growing cost . . . .. : 668.85 : 852.68 :$ 1,730
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Cutting and packing expense . . .. : 440.92 : 492.39 : .999
Containers . . . . 275.56 : 382.63 : .776
Hauling . . . . . 43.89 : 52.52 : .106
Other . . . .. 171.97 : 204.08 : .414
Selling . . . . : 90.60 : 84.61 : .172
Total harvesting and marketing cost . 1022.94 : 1216.23 :2.467
Total crop cost . . . .. : 1691.79 : 2068.91 : 4.197
Crop sales ..... . . : 1780.02 : 1831.02 : 3.714
Net return . . . . : $ 88.23 :$-237.89 :$-0.483

1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (crates) . . . 484 : 506
Total growing cost . . . . :$ 686.61 : $ 939.92
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . .r 1132.77 : 1328.32
Total crop cost . . . . . : 2014.93 : 2119.09
Crop sales . . ...... .... .. : 1778.88 : 1931.38
Net return . . . . ..... $ -83.55 :$-340.21


Reported by 2 growers averaging $10.72 per acre


Source: Grower records and estimates.








Celery
Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item 5-season : 1973-74
:_average :
prber of growers . ....... : 8 : 8
yuumer of acres . . . .. 8416 : 8294
Average acres per crower .. ..... .. : 1052 :1037
Average yield per acre (crates) ,.... .. .: 588 564
Growing costs: Average ger
Acre Acre Crate
Land rent .. . . . .$ 37.60 :$ 7.11
Seed . . . . . : 64.85 : 91.27
Fertilizer . . . ... 95.52 108.46
Spray and dust . . . .. : 124.00 203.70
Cultural labor . . . .. : 222.93 : 250.42
Machine hire . .. . . : 12.89: 23.179
Gas, oil and grease . . ... 21.87 26.22
Repair and maintenance . . .. : 57.08 : 70.55
Depreciation . . .. . 24.93: 31.71
Licenses and insurance . . .. 23.89 : 26,79
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months).: 25.91 33.03
Interest on capital invested (other than land) : 3.74 : 4.76
Miscellaneous expense . . . : 30.15 : 24.07
Total growing cot . . . .. 745.36 95026 :$ 1.685
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Cutting and packing expense ... 493.51: 506.09 : .897
Containers . . . .... 308.81: 393.59 : .698
Hauling . . ... ... 57.75 79.21 .11
Other . .. . . .: 178.60 : 204.10 : .362
Selling . . . . . 85.50 : 82.02 : .1 5
Total harvesting and marketing cost . 1124.17 1265.01 2.243
Total crop cost . . ........ : 1869.53: 2215.27 3,928
Crop sales. . . . . 2193.83 1714.99 : 3.041
Net return . . ........ : $ 32.30 :$-500.28 :$-0O.87

1973-74 rang per acre
From To
Yield (crates) .. . . ...... ..: 471 : 754
Total growing cost . .. .. .: $ 755.65 $1211.17
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . . : 1136.73 :1696.39
Total crop cost . .... .. . ......... : 1963.99 : 2907.56
Crop sales . .. ... . . . .: 1370.32 :2228.05
Net return ........ ..... . .. : S-959.31 : $ -66.67


aReported by 7 growers averaging $26.48 per acre


Source: Grower records and estimates.








Sweet Corn
Costs and returns per acre in the Central Florida area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item :5-season : 1973-74
:average :
Number of growers ............. : 5 : 4
Number of acres . . . : 3755 : 3258
Average acres per grower ....... .: 751 :814
Average yield per acre (crates) . : 249 : 257
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Crate
Land rent . .... . .. $ 31.65 :$ 34.47
Seed .. ... . . . : 8.89 : 12.40
Fertilizer . ... ... : 35.08 : 44.31
Spray and dust . . . : 48.84 : 68.26
Cultural labor . . . 35.18 : 48.48
Machine hire . . . .. : 11.97: 10.31a
Gas, oil and grease . . .. 6.73 : 10.00
Repair and maintenance ........... : 33.24: 58.33
Depreciation ..... .... . ..: 12.58: 20.31
Licenses and insurance . . . 12.77: 17.70
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months). 6.88 : 10.04
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 1.89 : 3.04 :
Miscellaneous expense . . ... 5.03: 30.53
Total growing cost . . .. 250.73 : 368.18 :$ 1.433
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense . . : 131.88: 111.98 : .436
Containers . . . : 106.29 : 133.25 : .518
Hauling . . ... : 17.98 : 19.37 : .075
Other . .. ... : 72.79 : 80.31 : .313
Selling . ... . .. : 42.09 : 37.99 : .148
Total harvesting and marketing cost .. ..... : 371.03 : 382.90 : 1.490
Total crop cost ........... : 621.76 : 751.08 :2.923
Crop sales . . . . : 623.85: 853.68 : 3.322
Net return . . . . :$ 2.09 :$ 102.60 :$ 0.399

1973-74 range per acre


Yield (crates) .
Total growing cost .. ... .
Total harvesting and marketing cost .
Total crop cost . .. ..
Crop sales . . .
Net return .. . .


From
S. : 190
S. .. :$ 257.80
S. ... : 219.07
S. : 635.09
S. .. : 740.93
. . :$ -26.70


To
316
416.02
542.71
930.31
998.36
250.44


reported by 2 grers averaging 20.62 per acre.
Reported by 2 growers averaging $20.62 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.









Sweet Corn
Costs and returns per acre in the East Coast area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item :5-season : 1973-74
:average :


Number of growers . .
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower ,
Average yield per acre (crates)
Growing costs:


Land rent . .
Seed . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance


, I . : 4
. . : 4333
.......: 4333
. . : 1083
. . : 159


. . . .

. . .
.o:
0.nspeeeee.:


S 9 9 9
9


Interest on production capital (9% 4 months). :
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:
Miscellaneous expense . . ... :
Total growing cost . . .
Harvesting and marketing costs:


Acre
41.63
9.74
67.56
49.79
44.25
22.52
10.16
20.24
17.12
11.79
8.57
2.57
8.08


5
7200
1440
178


Average per
Acre
:$ 34.06
10.63 :
101.02
47.13
49.52
25.20
14.64 :
29.91
15.08
20.14
10.31
2.26
11.38


314.02 : 371.28 :$ 2.086


Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Other . .
Selling . . . .


9 9 9 .


Total harvesting and marketing cost .
Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . .
Net return . .


P 9 9 :


234.90 : 292.94 : 1.646


548.92 :
564.82 :
15.90 : $


664.22
627.15
-37.07


S3.732
:3.524
:$-0.208


1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (crates) . ......... : 151 218
Total growing cost . .. :$ 334.40 :$ 415.24
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . . : 240.20 : 341.20
Total crop cost . . . . : 595.19 : 756.44
Crop sales . . . . : 524.56 812.31
Net return . . .. . :$-168.61 :$ 56.90


Source: Grower records and estimates.


Crate


79.75 :
68.43 :
19.87 :
44.92 :
21.93 :


93.35
100.72
22.63
49.57
26.67


.524
.566
.127
.279
.150









Sweet Corn
Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74


Item :5-season : 1973-74
:average :


Number of growers . ..
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .
Average yield per acre (crates)
Growing costs:


Land rent . .. .
Seed . .
Fertilizer ....
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance


* ......
. .
.


: 17
. : 23273
. : 1369
S: 165


. . . : .

* A .



. . o .

. A p 0 :
. o e .


Interest on production capital (9% 4 months). :
Interest on capital invested (other than land). :
Miscellaneous expense . . .. :

Total growing cost . . . :
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense . . :
Containers . . . .. :
Hauling . . . . ... .
Other . . . .. .. .
Selling . . . . :
Total harvesting and marketing cost . ... :
Total crop cost . . . .:
Crop sales . . . :
Net return . . . . :


11
13457
1223
228


Average per
Acre Acre Crate
32.43 : $ 32.37
6.28 : 8.14
25.19 : 22.36
54.40 : 72.96
33.03 : 39.33
12.65 : 21.83a
6.44 : 9.85
13.78 : 20.81
10.40 : 17.99
5.64 : 9.65
5.85 : 7.34
1.56 : 2.70
5.29 : 7.38

212.94 : 272.71 :$ 1.196


84.06 :
74.15 :
16.55 :
47.83 :
24.93 :


131.40
133.76
27.04
77.73
32.77


.576
.587
.118
.341
.144


247.52 : 402.70 : 1.766


460.46 :
447.88 :
-12.58 : $


675.41
759.85
84.44


: 2.962
: 3.332
:$ 0.370


1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (crates) ............. .. . : 116 315
Total growing cost . ... .... . :$ 140.88 :$ 378.32
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . . : 193.18 :543.57
Total crop cost . . . . . .: 500.49 : 915.91
Crop sales . . . . : 382.62 : 1031.10
Net return . . ..... ... .. .. :$-117.87 :$ 353.45


aReported by 10 growers averaging $24.02 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.









Cucumbers
Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item :5-season : 1973-74
:average :
Number of growers . . . : 11 8
Number of acres . . . : 1716 :641
Average acres per grower ........ : 156 : 80
Average yield per acre (bushels). . : 182 268
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
Land rent . . .. ... $ 18.14: $ 24.93
Seed . . . . . : 9.96: 14.00
Fertilizer .. . . .. : 99.64: 138.75
Spray and dust . . . .. : 51.14: 60.01
Cultural labor . . . .. : 119.18 : 134.49
Machine hire . .......... .. : 33.76: 38.46
Gas, oil and grease .... . .. : 20.00: 34.64
Repair and maintenance . . .. : 41.02 : 37.40
Depreciation. .. . . .: 26.72: 31.65
Licenses and insurance . . : 9.45: 14.35
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months). : 12.64: 20.48
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 4.01: 4.75 :
Miscellaneous expense . . .. : 18.82 48.93
Total growing cost . . . .. : 464.48: 602.84 : $ 2.249
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense .. . . ... .: 153.47 : 232.66 : .868
Grading and packing expense . . .. : 105.41 200.94 : .750
Containers. ... . . .: 108.87: 178.58 : .666
Hauling . . . .. : 38.28: 58.57 : .219
Selling .. . . ... : 32.33 : 46.26 : .173
Total harvesting and marketing cost ..... : 438.36 : 717.01 : 2.676
Total crop cost. . . . .: 902.84 : 1319.85 : 4.925
Crop sales. . . . .... : 858.60 : 1401.51 : 5.230
Net return. ... . . ..... : $ -44.24 :$ 81.66 :$ 0.305

1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels) . . . ..... : 183 376
Total growing cost . . . .. ... : $ 444.08 : $ 915.66
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 495.00 : 1044.79
Total crop cost . . . . : 994.08 : 1897.66
Crop sales . . . . . : 965.45 : 2500.00
Net return . . . . . : $-388.40 :$1021.97


Source: Grower records and estimates.










Costs and returns per acre


plant
in the Palm Beach-Broward area


5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item :5-season : 1973-74
:average :
Number of growers . . ... : 6 : 4
Number of acres . . . .... : 270 247
Average acres per grower . . : 45 : 62
Average yield per acre (bushels) . . : 648 583
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
Land rent . . . . :$ 53.30:$ 48.97
Seed . . . . : 12.82: 9.72
Fertilizer .... . . .. : 205.44 : 238.62
Spray and dust . . . : 107.16 : 120.50
Cultural labor . ...... : 239.07 321.61
Machine hire ............... : 33.78 :. 38.79:
Gas, oil and grease . . : 35.46: 36.39
Repair and maintenance . . .. : 60.85 : 41.58
Depreciation . . . .... .: 48.00: 35.52 :
Licenses and insurance .. . .: 31.95: 31.28
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months). : 30.07: 34.20 :
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 7.20: 5.33
Miscellaneous expense . . .. .: 22.13: 24.37
Total growing cost . . . .. : 887.23 : 986.88 :$ 1.693
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense . .... : 320.16 : 298.15 : .511
Containers . . . . .. : 388.82 : 249.23 : .427
Hauling . . . . .. : 70.70 : 65.64 .113
Selling . . . .. : 90.61: 86.97 : .149
Total harvesting and marketing cost . : 870.29 : 699.99 : 1.200
Total crop cost . . . . : 1757.52 : 1686.87 : 2.893
Crop sales . . . ... : 1895.98: 1747.26 : 2.997
Net return ................. :$ 138.46 :$ 60.39 :$ 0.104

1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels) . . . . . : 320 : 733
Total growing cost . . . .. :$ 868.64 :$1156.00
Total harvesting and marketing cost .. . : 451.20 : 907.04
Total crop cost . . . . . : 1319.84 : 2063.04
Crop sales . .. . . . : 975.00 : 2129.00
Net return . . . . . :$-344.84 :$ 292.90


Source: Grower records and estimates.









Leaf Crop
Costs and returns per acre in the Central Florida area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74


Item :5-season : 1973-74
:average :


Number of growers . ..
Number of acres . .
Average acres per grower .. .
Average yield per acre (crates)
Growing costs:


Land rent .. .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . .
Spray and dust .
Cultural labor .
Machine hire . .
Gas, oil and grease .
Repair and maintenance
Depreciation . .
Licenses and insurance


S. : 11
S: 1452
. : 132
. : 359


Acre
. $ 21.44 : $


. .
. o o



c o


Interest on production capital (9% 4
Interest on capital invested (other th
Miscellaneous expense . ....

Total growing cost . .


. . : 9.55 :
S. : 42.04 :
S, : 27.12 :
. . : 135.10 :
. : 3.79 :
S. .: 8.10:
: 43.37 :
. : 29.52 :
S : 21.41:
months). : 9.82 :
lan land). : 4.43 :
. . : 15.40 :


S 0 :


Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost .


Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . . .


* .*.


3
1241
414
398


erage per
Acre Crate
37.79
4.68
48.66
62.32
139.23 :

10.04 :
82.64
45.61
21.80
13.71
6.84
49.74


371.09 : 523.06 :$ 1.314


101.10 :
148.96 :
20.11 :
69.17 :
45.46 :


139.58
185.90
25.88
84.43
50.70


.351
.467
.065
.212
.127


384.80 : 486.49 : 1.222

755.89 : 1009.55 : 2.536
879.60 : 1212.38 : 3.046


: S 0.510


Net return . . . -- ----

1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (crates) . . . ..... : 218 : 615
Total growing cost . . . ... :$ 464.01 :$ 601.76
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . . 235.96 :613.91
Total crop cost . . : 837.72 : 1117.32
Crop sales . . . . : 574.20 : 1942.94
Net return . . .. .* .* .. :$-263.52 :$ 869.33


Source: Grower records and estimates.


. 0 0 0 .





.n 133 71 i; 303~83








Leaf Crops
Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item :5-season : 1973-74
:average :
Number of growers .. ... ......... : 9 : 6
Number of acres . .. . : 5481 : 3477
Average acres per grower . . : 609 :580
Average yield per acre (crates) . : 390 : 267
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Crate
Land rent ..... .... . :$ 34.37: $ 34.92:
Seed . . ... . . : 6.08 : 8.20
Fertilizer ... ..... . : 27.49 : 44.47
Spray and dust . . . 29.94 : 31.41
Cultural labor ........ . : 95.05 : 98.78
Machine hire . . . 8.62 : 4.64
Gas, oil and grease . . . 8.92 : 8.60
Repair and maintenance. . . ... 21.60 : 39.48
Depreciation . ... ..... : 15.85 : 21.07
Licenses and insurance . . .: 10.56 : 9.22
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months).: 7.57 : 8.91
Interest on capital invested (other than land).: 2.38: 3.16
Miscellaneous expense . . . 9,90: 17.22
Total growing cost .. . . : 278.33: 330.08 :$ 1.236
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense .. . : 145.96 : 110.14 : .413
Containers ............. : 179.10: 155.96 : .584
Hauling ......... . . : 37.05 : 33.15 : .124
Other . . . .. . : 93.25 : 80.02 : .300
Selling .. . . . . : 58.34 : 42.76 : .160
Total harvesting and marketing cost .. . : 513.70 : 422.03 : 1.581
Total crop cost .. . . . : 792.03 : 752.11 : 2.817
Crop sales . . . . : 859.54 : 644.15 : 2.413
Net return ...... . . .... :$ 67.51 :$-107.96 :$-0.404

1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (crates) . . . . .: 151 378
Total growing cost .. ......... . :$ 238.35 : $ 671.95
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 239.59 :566.43
Total crop cost . . . . ... .... : 483.03 : 1088.78
Crop sales . . ......... . : 330.41 : 977.49
Net return ................ . ... :$-509.18 :$ 147.47


aReported by 5 growers averaging $5.57 per acre.
Reported by 5 growers averaging $5.57 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.








Peppers
Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item :5-season : 1973-74
: average :

Number of growers . . . : 12 12
Number of acres . . .. . : 2508 :2049
Average acres per grower . . . : 209 :171
Average yield per acre (bushels) . .. : 345 640
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
Land rent . . . ..... :$ 19.96:$ 28.83
Seed . . . . . 39.77: 83.81
Fertilizer . . . . .. : 160.09 : 226.79
Spray and dust . . . : 117.37 : 189.40
Cultural labor .. .. . ...... : 251.44 : 340.41 :
Machine hire ... ............. : 57.85: 90.42
Gas, oil and grease . . ... : 36.75 : 62.99
Repair and maintenance . . .. : 78.58: 123.64
Depreciation .. .. .. : 44.18 : 51.62
Licenses and insurance . : 23.69 : 31.44
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months). : 30.92: 48.45 :
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 6.63 : 7.74
Miscellaneous expense . . : 39.11 : 114.21
Total growing cost . . . .: 906.34: 1399.75 :$ 2.187
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense . . . .. : 190.78: 317.41 : .496
Grading and packing expense . . .. : 195.04 : 389.09 : .608
Containers . . . . .. : 180.50 : 288.68 : .451
Hauling . . . . : 62.14: 93.59 : .146
Selling . . . .... ... : 63.36: 117.44 : .184
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .: 691.82 :1206.21 : 1.885
Total crop cost . . . . : 1598.16 2605.96 : 4.072
Crop sales . . . . ... : 1540.94: 3186.44 : 4.979
Net return . . . .. :$ -57.22 :$ 580.48 :$ 0.907
1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels) .... . . . : 350 : 1000
Total growing cost . ............ .:$ 854.59 :$2190.13
Total harvesting and marketing cost . ... .. : 805.00 : 2107.00
Total crop cost . . ... .. ....: 1675.37 : 3508.97
Crop sales. . . ...... .. : 1500.01 : 5880.00
Net return . . . . ....... :$-1045.64 :$2486.57


Source: Grower records and estimates.








Peppers
Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item 5-season 1973-74
:average :
Number of growers. . . .... : 8 6
Number of acres . . . .: 1128 548
Average acres per grower. . .. : 141 91
Average yield per acre (bushels) . . : 376 770
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
Land rent .. .. . ........ :$ 51.01 :$ 64.84
Seed . .. ...... . : 36.45: 46.04
Fertilizer .................. : 166.80 : 177.55
Spray and dust . ... ......... : 113.42 136.58
Cultural labor . . . .. : 335.24: 440.86
Machine hire . . ...... : 53.17: 69.36
Gas, oil and grease ....... .. . : 40.80: 49.69
Repair and maintenance . . .. : 65.93: 71.32
Depreciation . ..... . : 50.53 : 58.05
Licenses and insurance . . .... : 40.90 : 75.00
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months). : 35.57 : 46.80
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 7.58: 8.71
Miscellaneous expense . .. ... .. : 44.73 : 116.65
Total growing cost. .. . . .. : 1042.13 : 1361.45 :$ 1.768
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense . .... : 229.90 : 417.69 : .542
Containers . . . . .. : 174.24: 339.48 : .441
Hauling ................. : 42.96 : 108.37 .141
Selling . . . .. ... : 60.28: 142.17 .185
Total harvesting and marketing cost ,. . : 507.38: 1007.71 : 1.309
Total crop cost . ..... ..... : 1549.51: 2369.16 :3.077
Crop sales ............ ... .. : 1640.05: 3904.96 :5.072
Net return .................. :$ 90.54 :$1535.80 :$ 1.995

1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels) . ......... . : 400 : 947
Total growing cost . ......... :$1088.66 :$1698.24
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . .: 564.00 : 1256.96
Total crop cost . . .... .: 1652.66 : 2953.74
Crop sales . . ........ . : 1600.00 : 5921.85
Net return .... . . . . :$ -52.66 :$3265.11


Source: Grower records and estimates.








Irish Potatoes
Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item 5-season : 1973-74
:average :
Number of growers .. . . 8 9
Number of acres. . . . . 5368 :5449
Average acres per grower. . . 671 :605
Average yield per acre (cwt.) . . .. 161 215
Growing costs: Average _er
Acre Acre Cwt.
Land rent ...... . . . .:$ 51.04 :$ 67.9 :
Seed . . . : 129.11: 204.03 :
Fertilizer . ............ : 58.23 : 85.70
Spray and dust . . . : 65.53 : 80.95
Cultural labor . .. . .. : 60.15 : 98.78:
Machine hire . . . .. 1.07 :
Gas, oil and grease . . .. 9.07 : 13.46
Repair and maintenance . ... : 22.49 : 28.91
Depreciation .. . ... .19.23 : 27.70 :
Licenses and insurance . . 17.65 : 30.03
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months).: 12.69 : 18.85
Interest on capital invested (other than land). 2.88 : 4.16
Miscellaneous expense ..... .. . 8.60 : 18.55
Total growing cost ........... .. . 457.74 : 679.18 :$ 3.159
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Digging expense .. . .... : 27.49 : 40.28 : .187
Grading and packing expense ....... 102.21 : 153.33 : .713
Containers .................. : 27.43 : 43.33 : .201
Hauling ................. .. : 24.95 : 35.64 : .166
Selling ................ .. : 32.70 : 50.88 : .237
Total harvesting and marketing cost ....... : 214.78 : 323.46 : 1.504
Total crop cost . . . . 672.52 : 1002.64 : 4.663
Crop sales . . . . 773.88: 2156.22 :10.029
Net return. .. . . . :$ 101.36 :$1153.58 :$ 5.366

1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (cwt.) . .. ...... : 167 :300
Total growing cost . . . . :$ 515.35 :$ 893.58
Total harvesting and marketing cost . ... : 218.16 : 441.44
Total crop cost . ........ . : 789.12 :1335.02
Crop sales . . . . : 1834.60 : 2553.18
Net return .. ....... . . . : $ 764.48 :$1446.84


Source: Grower records and estimates.








Irish Potatoes
Costs and returns per acre in the Hastings area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item 5-season : 1973-74
:average :
Number of growers . . .. . : 24 13
Number of acres . . . . : 5256 3063
Average acres per grower . . .. : 219 : 236
Average yield per acre (cwt.) . . : 155 158
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Cwt.
Land rent . . . . .. :$ 34.61 :$ 35.37
Seed . . . . : 84.84 : 142.71
Fertilizer. . ... . : 70.03 : 93.20
Spray and dust ....... .. . : 24.39 : 32.41
Cultural labor . . . . 42.13 : 62.79
Machine hire . . .. . : 4.13 : 3.97:
Gas, oil and grease ......... : 11.81: 19.81:
Repair and maintenance .. .. ... : 23.82 : 39.98
Depreciation. . . . .: 21.82 : 25.68:
Licenses and insurance . . .. : 10.89 : 13.76
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months). : 9.40: 13.61
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 3.27 : 3.85 :
Miscellaneous expense . . .. .: 6.84 : 9.65
Total growing cost ... . ..... : 347.98 496.79 :$ 3.144
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Digging expense . . . .. : 28.17: 34.26 : .217
Grading and packing expense ... . : 46.26: 45.54b : .288
Containers .............. : 19.92 : 10.30 : .065
Hauling . . . . .. : 24.04 : 24.92 : .158
Selling . . .. . 35.54: 43.47 : .275
Total harvesting and marketing cost ...... .: 153.93 : 158.49 : 1.003
Total crop cost . . . .: 501.91: 655.28 : 4.147
Crop sales ..... . . 570.27: 930.23 : 5.887
Net return . :$ 68.36 :$ 274.95 :$ 1.740

1973-74 range per area
From To
Yield (cwt.) . . . .. .. .: 120 : 220
Total growing cost . . . ....... .: $ 384.85 :$ 671.89
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . . : 122.04 : 197.64
Total crop cost ..... . . : 556.51 : 840.10
Crop sales .. . . ... 520.57 : 1322.77
Net return . . . .. . $-164.53 :$ 691.37


aReported by 10 growers averaging $5.17 per acre.

bReported by 5 growers averaging $26.78 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.









Radishes
Costs and returns per acre in the Everglades area
Season 1973-74


Item 1973-74


Number of growers .. . .....
Number of acres . . .. .
Average acres per grower . .
Average yield per acre (30 6 oz. packages)


Growing costs:


Land rent . . . . .
Seed . . . .
Fertilizer . . . . .
Spray and dust . . . .
Cultural labor . . . . .
Machine hire . . . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .. . .
Repair and maintenance . . ..
Depreciation . ...
Licenses and insurance . .
Interest on production capital (9% 2 months)
Interest on capital invested (other than land)
Miscellaneous expense . . . .

Total growing cost . . . .


Harvesting and marketing costs:

Harvesting expense . .
Grading and packing expense .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .


Average per
30 6 oz.
Acre packages
$ 7.61
8.95
9.78
12.92
14.74
4.59
4.95
13.13
6.74
6.18
1.30
1.01
3.50


. : $ 95.40 : $ 0.444


31.41
70.06
53.49
9.98
10.74
18.94


Total harvesting and marketing cost .


194.62 :-


Total crop cost . . .
Crop sales . . .
In iftn


290.02
321.72
q 1 70


.146
.326
.249
.046
.050
.088

.905


1.349
1.496
n 1/A7


1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (30 6 oz. packages) . . . ..: 177 : 254
Total growing cost . . . . .... .: $ 66.84 : $ 134.51
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . . .: 170.82 : 234.24
Total crop cost . . . . 259.06 : 368.75
Crop sales . . . . . .. .: 269.09 : 383.54
Net return . ... . . . . : $ 0.15 : $ 83.43


4
8599
2150
215


: : : : : : :








Squash
Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County area
5-season averages 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item :5-season 1973-74
: average :
Number of growers . . . . : 7 5
Number of acres . . . . : 1295 925
Average acres per grower . . : 185 :185
Average yield per acre (bushels) . .. : 132 :152
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
Land rent . . . . .. :$ 29.19 :$ 34.35
Seed . . . . . : 7.38 : 11.28 :
Fertilizer . . . . : 56.69 : 60.00
Spray and dust . . . .. : 44.78: 60.00
Cultural labor . . . .. : 39.98 : 51.62
Machine hire . . .... : 9.41 : 10.84
Gas, oil and grease . . . .. : 17.83 : 21.92
Repair and maintenance .. . .. : 25.57: 30.37
Depreciation . . . .. : 18.04: 19.88
Licenses and insurance . . . 16.32 : 27.72
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months) : 7.64 : 9.49
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 2.71: 2.98
Miscellaneous expense . . 7.67: 8.25
Total growing cost . ....... : 283.21 : 348.70 :$ 2.294
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense . . .. : 157.64 : 207.32 :1.364
Containers . . . . : 74.76 : 149.65 .984
Hauling . . . .... : 16.15 : 20.17 .133
Selling . . . . .. : 26.78 : 30.36 : .200
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .. : 275.33 : 407.50 :2.681
Total crop cost . . . : 558.54 : 756.20 : 4.975
Crop sales ..... . . ... : 684.10 : 826.82 : 5.440
Net return . . . .. . :$ 125.56 :$ 70.62 :$ 0.465

1973-74 range per area
From To
Yield (bushels) . . . . .....: 104 : 200
Total growing cost . . . . . :$ 318.18 : $ 428.36
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . . : 271.10 : 536.00
Total crop cost . . . ... .. .. : 699.46 : 854.18
Crop sales . . . .... .. : 644.10: 1000.00
Net return . . . . . :$ -55.36 :$ 145.82


Source: Grower records and estimates.


--








Squash
Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74


Item :5-season : 1973-74
: average


Number of growers . . .. .. .. :
"-=bar of acres . .... .. . .. :
Average acres per grower .. . :
Average yield per acre (bushels) . .. :
Growing costs:

Land rent . . . .. :
Seed . . .. . :
Fertilizer . . . :
Spray and dust . . . :
Cultural labor . . . :
Machine hire . . .. :
Gas, oil and grease ... . . :
Repair and maintenance ...... .. :
Depreciation . . :
Licenses and insurance . . :
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months). :
Interest on capital invested (other than land).:


Miscellaneous expense . . .
Total growing cost . . . .
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense . . .
Grading and packing expense . .
Containers . . . .
Hauling . . . . .
Selling . . . . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost .
Total crop cost . . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . .


$


5 :
980
196 :
142
Avy
Acre
19.27 : $


4
995
249
193
rage per
Acre Bushel
21.25 :


11.56 : 15.25
70.65 : 97.79
30.00 : 29.69
57.56 : 61.82
10.33 : 12.36
15.03 : 30.88
27.35 : 23.64
22.47 : 28.71
10.43 : 14.50
7.86 : 9.65
3.37 : 4.31
9.70 : 14.63
295.58 : 364.48


71.62:
74.16:
79.18:
31.40 :
26.14:


81.90
132.25
129.93
58.88
41.40


:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

:$ 1.889


.424
.685
.673
.305
.215


282.50 : 444.36 : 2.302
578.08 : 808.84 : 4.191
636.64 : 839.84 : 4.352


. :$ 58.56 : $ 31.00 : $ 0.161


1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels) . . . .... .. : 150 : 231
Total growing cost . . . . : $ 286.03 :$ 414.86
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 355.50 : 600.00
Total crop cost . . . . .. : 720.09 : 886.03
Crop sales . . .. ...... : 682.50 : 971.84
Net return . . . . . . :$ -37.59 :$ 156.47


Source: Grower records and estimates.


* :


.


. :





21


Squash
Costs and returns per acre in the Palm Beach-Broward area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item :5-season : 1973-74
:average :
Number of growers . . . ... : 6 3
Number of acres . . . .. : 186 200
Average acres per grower . . . : 31 : 67
Average yield per acre (bushels) . . : 120 :127
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Bushel
Land rent . . . .. : $ 39.05 :$ 32.89
Seed . . . .. . . : 7.29 : 13.17
Fertilizer . . . . 55.81: 64.92
Spray and dust . . . .. 41.25 : 34.33
Cultural labor. . . . 62.29 : 74.14
Machine hire . . . .... : 19.83 : 28.94
Gas, oil and grease . . . 15.64 : 20.63
Repair and maintenance . . .. 22.64 : 22.14
Depreciation . . . . 17.10 : 22.15
Licenses and insurance . . .. : 14.55: 23.01
Interest on production capital (9% 4 months). : 8.78 : 10.01
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 2.56 : 3.32
Miscellaneous expense . . ... 14.28 19.30
Total growing cost . . . : 321.07: 368.95 :$ 2.905
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking and packing expense . . .. .: 129.75 : 153.96 : 1.212
Containers .... . . .: 86.70 : 92.92 : .732
Hauling . . . .... .. : 17.55 : 23.41 : .184
Selling . . . . . : 24.11 : 26.15 .206
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .. : 258.11 : 296.44 :2.334
Total crop cost . . . . ..: 579.18: 665.39 :5.239
Crop sales . . . .. : 679.35 : 700.37 :5.515
Net return . . . .. . :$ 100.17 :$ 34.98 $ 0.276

1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (bushels) ......... .. : 97 :185
Total growing cost . ........ :$ 313.21 :$ 418.50
Total harvesting and marketing cost .. : 217.00 : 422.63
Total crop cost ......... . : 562.89 : 841.13
Crop sales . . . . .. . 567.55 : 936.27
Net return . . . . . :$ 4.66 :$ 95.14


Source: Grower records and estimates.


- --









Tomatoes
Costs and returns per acre in the Dade County area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74


Item 5-season : 1973-74
: average :


Number of growers . . .
Number of acres . . .
Average acres per grower .. ..
Average yield per acre (30 Ibs.) .
Growing costs:

Land rent . . . .
Seed . . .
Fertilizer . . .
Spray and dust . . .
Cultural labor . . .
Machine hire . . .
Gas, oil and grease . . .
Repair and maintenance . .
Depreciation . . .
Licenses and insurance . ..
Interest on production capital (9% -
Interest on capital invested (other t
Miscellaneous expense . .
Total growing cost . . .
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense. . . .
Grading and packing expense . .
Containers . . .
Hauling . . . .
Other . . . .
Selling . . . .


Total harvesting and marketing cost. .. .:
Total crop cost . . . .
Crop sales . . . .
Net return . . .. . .


5 months). :
han land). :


7
. : 7 :
: 8169 :
: 1167
: 331


6
5300
883
530


Average per
Acre Acre
34.38 :$ 39.62
8.99 : 22.44
148.18 : 195.50
117.76 :216.41
120.63 : 186.33a
20.77 : 19.06 :
20.49 : 35.30
38.96 : 68.35
30.81: 42.47
14.70 : 28.65
20.07 : 34.11
4.62: 6.37
10.29: 97.90


590.65 : 992.51 : $ 1.873


173.24:
181.00 :
106.46:
34.06:
5.70:
37.46:


340.62
402.30
235.70
68.23
21.21
73.80


537.92 : 1141.86 : 2.154


1128.57 : 2134.37
1218.14 : 2611.51
$ 89.57 :$ 477.14


1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (30 Ibs.) . . . . . .. : 211 : 751
Total growing cost . . . . . :$ 630.59 :$1310.40
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . . :456.82 :1609.26
Total crop cost . . .... . 1268.47 : 2919.66
Crop sales . . . . . .: 1295.29 : 4464.29
Net return . . . . . . $ -44.28 :$1881.18


aReported by 5 growers averaging $22.88 per acre.


Source: Grower records and estimates.


30 Ibs.


.642
.759
.445
.129
.040
.139


4.027
4.927
$ 0.900


. . : $








Tomatoes
Costs and returns per acre in the Ft. Pierce area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item :5-season : 1973-74
:average :
Number of growers . . . : 15 15
Number of acres . . . . : 3990 2495
Average acres per grower . . .: 266 166
Average yield per acre (30 Ibs.) .... ... : 299 384
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre 30 Ibs.
Land rent . . . .. :. $ 16.12:$ 22.52
Seed . . . .. . 13.01: 14.34
Fertilizer . . .. . ... : 116.65 : 116.41
Spray and dust . . . .. 96.32 : 126.33
Cultural labor . . . . 166.31: 127.14
Machine hire . . .. . 98.61: 90.53
Gas, oil and grease . . . 31.37: 42.95
Repair and maintenance . . ... 55.01: 50.64
Depreciation .. .. .. .... : 26.07: 35.10
Licenses and insurance . . 10.19 : 13.85
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months).: 23.19: 24.26
Interest on capital invested (other than land).: 3.91: 5.26
Miscellaneous expense. . . .. 14.95 : 42.25
Total growing cost . . : 671.71 : 711.58 : $ 1.853
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense . . ......: 203.69 : 281.10 : .732
Grading and packing expense . . .. : 151.57 : 285.92 : .745
Containers . . . . .. : 92.98 : 169.41 : .441
Hauling. .. . . .. : 40.11 : 68.45 : .178
Other . .. .......... : 5.55 : 15.38 : .040
Selling. .... . . . : 40.16 : 55.56 : .145
Total harvesting and marketing cost .... .. : 534.06 : 875.82 : 2.281
Total crop cost . . . . : 1205.77: 1587.40 : 4.134
Crop sales . . . . : 1187.85: 1640.45 : 4.272
Net return . . . . :$ -17.92 :$ 53.05 :$ 0.138

1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (30 Ibs.) . . . . . : 184 659
Total growing cost . . . . .: $ 508.39 : $ 892.96
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . : 446.29 : 1574.81
Total crop cost . . . . . : 993.38 : 2289.57
Crop sales . . . . . . : 664.70 : 3554.85
Net return . . . .. . .. :$-538.47 :$1392.96


Source: Grower records and estimates,



1i








Staked Tomatoes
Costs and returns per acre in the East Coast area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item :5-season : 1973-74
: average :

Number of growers. .. . . . : 10 : 6
Number of acres .. . ... : 2040 955
Average acres per grower .. . . : 204 :159
Average yield per acre (30 Ibs.) .... .. : 844 : 978
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre 30 Ibs.
Land rent ........ : $ 88.57 :$ 56.98
Seed . ... ..... ........ 24.83: 103.92
Fertilizer . . . .260.46 : 284.08
Spray and dust . . . 237.06 : 232.67
Cultural labor . . ..... : 992.65 : 905.05
Machine hire . . ...... .......: 136.85 : 176.35
Gas, oil and grease . . : 51.03 : 62.33
Repair and maintenance . . .. : 106.35 : 81.67
Depreciation . . . : 68.69 : 83.56
Licenses and insurance . . : 38.80 : 32.55
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months). : 77.26: 85.76
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 10.30: 12.53
Miscellaneous expense . . .. : 123.60: 351.49
Total growing cost . .... .. : 2216.45 : 2468.94 : $ 2.525
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense . . . 603.81 : 695.77 : .711
Grading and packing expense . . : 483.20 : 930.56 : .951
Containers . ... . : 297.40 : 531.02 : .543
Hauling . .... . : 110.29 : 185.34 : .190
Other ........ . . . : 15.13 : 39.22 : .040
Selling . ..... .. .. .... : 142.33 : 171.68 : .176
Total harvesting and marketing cost ... ..... : 1652.16 : 2553.59 : 2.011
Total crop cost . . . : 3868.61: 5022.53 : 5.136
Crop sales . ......... : 3999.18 : 4241.57 : 4.337
Net return . ..... . $ 130.57 :$-780.96 :$-0.799
1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (30 lbs.) .. .. . . : 409 : 2000
Total growing cost . . :$1980.78 :$2864.67
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . 945.70 : 5630.00
Total crop cost . . . . : 3402.87 : 7610.78
Crop sales . . . .. : 1432.92 : 9000.00
Net return .. . . . :$-2377.45 :$1389.22


Source: Grower records and estimates.








Staked Tomatoes
Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item :5-season : 1973-74
: average :
Number of growers . . . . : 7 12
Number of acres . . . .. : 1533 :2730
Average acres per grower . . . : 219 228
Average yield per acre (30 Ibs.) . ... : 715 :955
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre 30 lbs.
Land rent . . . . :$ 35.46 :$ 41.96
Seed . . . . ... : 40.63 : 84.50
Fertilizer . . ... . : 207.62 :181.65
Spray and dust . . . .. : 236.28 333.37
Cultural labor . . . .. : 596.69 : 708.99
Machine hire . . . : 92.89 : 78.72
Gas, oil and grease . . . : 51.26: 82.54
Repair and maintenance . . : 100.05 :124.32
Depreciation . .. .. ... : 77.20: 92.98
Licenses and insurance .. . . : 46.03 : 49.72
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months). : 58.15: 71.48
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 11.58 : 13.95
Miscellaneous expense .. . . : 143.83 : 220.39
Total growing cost . . ... : 1697.67: 2084.57 :$ 2.183
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense . . . . : 566.31: 610.82 : .640
Grading and packing expense ..... ..: 510.46: 800.16 : .838
Containers . . . .. .: 255.06 : 387.76 : .406
Hauling . . . . .. .. : 93.16 : 129.33 : .135
Other . . . .. : 15.12 : 38.20 : .040
Selling . . . . : 102.73 : 134.95 .141
Total harvesting and marketing cost . ..: 1542.84 : 2101.22 :2.200
Total crop cost . . . .... : 3240.51 : 4185.79 : 4.383
Crop sales . . . . ... : 3360.44: 4869.31 : 5.099
Net return . . . . :$ 119.93 :$ 683.52 :$ 0.716

1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (30 Ibs.) . . . . .: 500 1400
Total growing cost . . .. . :$1168.31 :$2945.35
Total harvesting and marketing cost . . . 1037.50 : 3080.00
Total crop cost . . . . . .: 2251.41 : 5836.04
Crop sales . . . . . : 2018.75 : 7490.00
Net return . . . . . :$-232.66 :$1918.84


Source: Grower records and estimates.








Staked Tomatoes
Costs and returns per acre in the Manatee-Ruskin area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

Item :5-season : 1973-74
: average :

Number of growers . . . . : 11 12
Number of acres . . . ... : 2086 2319
Average acres per grower . . . : 188 193
Average yield per acre (30 Ibs.) . . 51 782
Grcing costs: Average per
Acre Acre 30 Ibs.
Land rent . . . . $ 31.97 :$ 45.02
Seed . . . .. .. : 27.81: 58.71 :
Fertilizer . . . . .. : 163.57 : 175.40
Spray and dust . . . . 119.21: 155.01
Cultural labor . . . .. : 321.84 : 380.32
Machine hire . . . . 20.49 : 21.47
Gas, oil and grease . .. . : 45.40: 78.47
Repair and maintenance . .. . : 55.76 : 84.40
Depreciation . . . .: 52.21 : 76.72
Licenses and insurance .. . ..... : 44.40 : 57.53
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months). : 33.43: 45.08
Interest on capital invested (other than land). : 7.83 : 11.51
Miscellaneous expense . . .. : 60.93 : 145.68
Total growing cost . . . : 9d4.85 : 1335.32 :$ 1.708
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Picking expense . . . .. : 249.88 : 337.00 : .431
Grading and packing expense . . .. : 420.34 : 712.36 : .911
Containers . . . . .. : 181.35 : 345.65 : .442
Hauling . . . . . : 49.28: 104.63 : .134
Other . . . . .. : 10.74 : 31.28 : .040
Selling ................. : 66.15 : 94.35 : .120
Total harvesting and marketing cost .. : 977.74: 1625.27 : 2.078
Total crop cost .. . . . : 1962.59: 2960.59 : 3.786
Corp sales . . . . : 2355.85: 4385.50 : 5.608
Net return . . . .... $ 393.26 :$1424.91 : $ 1.822

1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (30 bs.) . . . . . : 376 : 1178
Total growing cost . . . .. . : $ 959.38 :$1891.96
Total harvesting and marketing cost . .. . : 950.64 : 2447.48
Total crop cost ; .............. : 2241.77 : 4339.44
Crop sales. . . . .. ... ...: 2210.91 :6549.83
Net return . . . ... . :$ -30.86 :$2340.29


Source: Grower records and estimates.








Watermelons
Costs and returns per acre in the Immokalee-Lee area
5-season average 1969-73 and 1973-74

: 5-siason :
Item 5-sason 1973-74
:average
Number of growers ............... : 9 : 4
Number of acres . . . .... : .386 501
Average acres per grower . . .: 154 :125
Average yield per acre (cwt.) ... .... : 189 216
Growing costs: Average per
Acre Acre Cwt.
Land rent . . . . .. : $ 17.31 :$ 22.15
Seed ............... : 7.00 : 11.06
Fertilizer . . . ..... .: 108.34 : 183.18
Spray and dust ............... : 73.63 : 85.77
Cultural labor . . . : 118.36 : 114.77
Machine hire. . . ... .. 32.81 : 52.78
Gas, oil and grease . . .. 16.18 : 22.80
Repair and maintenance . . ..: 32.99 : 65.36
Depreciation ....... ......... : 27.04 : 26.89
Licenses and insurance . . . 10.96 11.07
Interest on production capital (9% 5 months). 16.22 : 22.45
Interest on capital invested (other than land).: 4.05 : 4.04
Miscellaneous expense . . . 14.97: 29.73
Total growing cost . . . .. : 479.86 : 652.05 :$ 3.019
Harvesting and marketing costs:
Cutting expense ............ .. : 47.11 : 71.23 : .330
Packing expense . . . : 40.63 : 64.91 : .300
Containers . . . . .. : 15.28 : 42.34 : .196
Hauling . . . .... .. : 72.59 : 99.42 : .460
Selling . . . .... .. : 46.90 : 53.98 : .250
Total harvesting and marketing cost ....... .: 222.51 : 331.88 : 1.536
Total crop cost . . . .. : 702.37: 983.93 : 4.555
Crop sales . . . . : 626.22 : 1249.48 : 5.784
Net return . ,. . . : $ -76.15 :$ 265.55 :$ 1.229

1973-74 range per acre
From To
Yield (cwt.) .. . . . . : 200 : 238
Total growing cost . . . . .... :$ 584.93 : $ 704.57
Total harvesting and marketing cost .. . . : 260.00 : 400.57
Total crop cost . . . . . : 844.93 : 1050.22
Crop sales . . . . . : 800.00 : 1710.91
Net return . . . . . :$ -44.93 :$ 660.69


Source: Grower records and estimates.

Food and Resource Econ. -- 1300

DLB/jle 1/29/75