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Meat canning

FLAG University of Florida
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026132/00001

Material Information

Title: Meat canning
Alternate title: Bulletin 87 ; Florida Agricultural Extenion Service
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Thursby, Isabelle S.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Extenion Service, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1936
Copyright Date: 1936

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aab7712 - LTQF
amt7187 - LTUF
44795221 - OCLC
002570873 - AlephBibNum
System ID: UF00026132:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026132/00001

Material Information

Title: Meat canning
Alternate title: Bulletin 87 ; Florida Agricultural Extenion Service
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Thursby, Isabelle S.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Extenion Service, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1936
Copyright Date: 1936

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aab7712 - LTQF
amt7187 - LTUF
44795221 - OCLC
002570873 - AlephBibNum
System ID: UF00026132:00001


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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Bulletin 87


December, 1936


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORKING
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECON OMCa
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, l
Agricultural Extension S
University of Florida, State Colle f en,
And United States Department ri u
Cooperating ( i
Wilmon Newell, Dire r





MEAT CANNING

By ISABELLE S. THURSBY


- Fig. 1.-Outdoor grills with convenient tables are popular places in Florida and -
provide cool, attractive places for home barbecues and for community activities.
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Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon application to the
STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION DEPARTMENT
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


S1IIIIIIIPIIIIIIIIIIIIPllillllllllllllll







BOARD OF CONTROL
GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville
OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola
HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares
THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland
R. P. TERRY, Miami
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B:, Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist2
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman2
D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant, Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist2
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, PH.D., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
MYRON M. VARN, B.S.A., Assistant Farm Management Specialist
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
A. E. MERCKER, Field Agent, Cooperative Interstate Marketingl

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

1 In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
2 Part-time.



















CONTENTS


PAGE


THE VALUE OF MEAT AS A FOOD .....................-
ESSENTIALS FOR SUCCESSFUL CANNING OF MEAT -.
Health, Condition, Quality of Animal ...............
Preparation for Slaughter ...........................
Time to Butcher ............................ ..........
Cleanliness Required ....-......................- .....
PRINCIPLES OF MEAT CANNING ..............................
Steam Pressure Cooker .................................
How to Use the Steam Pressure Cooker ......
Before You Can a Whole Animal, Plan! ......
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING ALL MEATS ...
SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS AND RECIPES ..............
Roast Meats: Beef, Veal, Pork, Mutton .......
Swiss Steak No. 1 ...................... ................
Tomato Sauce for Swiss Steak ......................
Swiss Steak No. 2 .............. .................. ...
M eat Stews .................. .......- .......... ..
M eat Stew N o. 1 ........ .................... ...
M eat Stew N o. 2 ............................. ......


Multnomah County Stew ......
Meat Loaf No. 1 ........... ....
Meat Loaf No. 2 .....................
Hamburger .....................
Chili Con Carne .........................
Soup Stock ......................... .....
Vegetable Soup Stock .....
Pepperpot Soup ..................
Hash Meat ........... -..........-
Spareribs ...................... -. ...
Pork Sausage .... ...... .....
Head Cheese .......................
Scrapple ......................................
Pickled Pigs' Feed .....................
Mince Meat ................................
Delicious Plum Pudding ..............
Corned Beef .............................
Canned Corned Beef .................
RENDERING LARD ..........................
MEAT SPECIALTIES ................ .......


.....-..-.......- ...-..- ... .... ------....... .......... 19
--- -- --- -----.-. -- ----I-------- ---- - -...-..- ....- 2 0
.................. ........---....... ... .. -. ..... ... 20
.......... ... ...................................... ..... 20

-....-.... ....................... ............. ..... .. 21
----------------------- ---------------- ------------ --- 2 1
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..... .... .... .... .... ---------------- ---- -----.. 2 2
..................................................... 23
....................... ........... -........ ......... 23
....------------- ......................... 2 4
--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- ------------ -- 2 4


.... I .................................
............. ...........................
--------------- ................. ......
................ ........................
-- .....................................
................ ...... I .................
-------------------------- ..............
---------------------------- ...........
- ---------------- --------- I ---------
- ---- ---------------- -----------------
- ------- --------------- ..... I .........
--- ------------ .........................
- ......................................
............................... ....... -
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--------------- -- ......................
---- ----------------- ...................
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------------------------------ ----------
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5
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----------------- ......... ---------------- ----------
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--- ------------- -------------------------------------- -
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-------------------------------- ..........................
------------------------------------------------
-- -- ----------------- ............... -














P)
- - - - -- - - -- - - -- -
- - - - - - -. . - - - - - I - -
- - - - - - - -- . .. - -- - -
- - - -- -- - -- - - - - - - -- .- -
-- - - -- - - -- -- -.-. - - - - - - _
--- -- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .. I ... I - - - - - - -
---- --- --- ---- --- I ...................
.... .... .... .... ... .......... ..... -
.. . . . ...............
.. .. . ....... ..... ... -- --- -----
__ _1 ---- ------- ---- -- -- ----- ---
-- -- - - -- -. . . . - - - - - - -
.. . .. . . .. . . . - - - - - - - -
--- --- --- -- --- .. ... ..............
... ... ... ... ... ... .. .......... .


WAYS OF CANNING MEAT SPECIALTIES ....-.......
Brains No. 1 ............... ..........
B rains N o. 2 .............. .................................
Sweetbreads No. 1 ........ ...........................
Sweetbreads No. 2 .............................
Liver Paste ................. ..............
Pickling Tripe ........................... ..................
Tongue ................... ................ ....
CANNING CHICKEN ... ................................... ....
METHODS OF PREPARING CANNED CHICKEN .........
Roast Fowl ................... ....
Soup ... ....... ......... ....... -... .....
Potted Meat .........................
R abbit ..........................................
BARBECUE M EAT ...................................... ..........


Beef, Pork, M utton ......... .................. ...................... ................. ...
Barbecue Chicken, Turkey, Guinea, Rabbit, Squirrel ....................
Barbecue Chicken (Quick Method) ............. --............ .........
Other Barbecue Sauces .............. .......... .... ......... .......
Barbecue Sauce N o. 1 ...... ........ ............. .... ... .......... ......
Barbecue Sauce No. 2 ........ ...............................................
Barbecue Sauce No. 3 ............ ...-...................... ..... .....
Barbecue Sauce No. 4 ............. ......... .... ........ ......... .... ......
CANNED MEATS PREPARED IN APPETIZING WAYS FOR THE TABLE ..............
Canned Sausage Balls with Scalloped Potatoes .................................
Canned Pork Salad .......................... .................. .......... ......
Pork Chop Suey ..................... .............. ...................... ... .........
Shepherd P ie .. .............. ............................. .............. ...................


Beefsteak Pie .. ............... .......... ..............
Canned Steak .........................................................
Beefsteak and Onions ...........................................
Fricassee from Canned Beef ............ .......
V eal P ie ............ ....... .................................... ..
Tongue a la Maryland ....................................
Chicken a la King ...............................................
Chicken or Turkey with Dressing .......................
Dressing No. 1 ........................ ............
Dressing No. 2 from Home-Canned Corn ....
Creamed Chicken or Turkey ................................
Corn and Chicken Casserole ...........................
Creamed Sweetbreads ..........................................
Tripe Oysters ................. ............................
Tripe Roll .......................... ..................
Tripe a la Creole ..................... ..... ........... ......
Scrambled Brains with Eggs .............................
TIME TABLE FOR PROCESSING MEATS .................


GE
26
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................................... 37
................................ 37
................................... 37
.. ...... ..... 37
.................... ........ 38
----. -.- .--- -- -.------- ----- 3 8
.-...-.-..-... ............... 38
..-..-..-.....-................... 38
............................... 38
................................... 39
................................ 39
.-.....-................ ......... 39
................................... 39
.......................... 40
................. ................. 40
.................................. 40
................................. 40
................................... 41
............................ 42








MEAT CANNING

By ISABELLE S. THURSBY
THE VALUE OF MEAT AS A FOOD
Every thrifty Florida farm family planning to provide an ade-
quate food supply for home consumption recognizes that canning
meat at home plays an important part in efficient farm manage-
ment.
Meats, when purchased on the markets, tend to be expensive
items in the list of dietary essentials, and for that reason often
only those people with generous income can enjoy them. But
the farmer who produces and conserves his own meat supply on
his own farm can provide finer foods for his family and in larger
quantities than his income might allow him to purchase.
Present day findings would indicate that no live-at-home pro-
gram in Florida is complete without including in it some pro-
vision for canning and curing of meats. A year around garden
and an orchard, the family cow, several colonies of bees and a
pantry well filled with quality-canned meats, fruits and vegeta-
bles are safeguards for health and contribute to the economic
wellbeing of every farm family. The pleasure which comes to
the housewife and her husband when they think of the saving to
their budget and the satisfaction accruing to their family from
this well planned meat supply is of no small value in a happy
farm life.
Meat is a palatable food, readily digested and well liked by
most people. As a source of protein, it is needed for the growth
and repair of body tissues. The use of more lean meat, and a
decrease in the amount of fatty meat, is found to be an effective
aid in the prevention and cure of pellagra. Meat contains iron
which helps to build red blood corpuscles. Liver and glandular
organs are especially esteemed for their iron content in the treat-
ment and control of anemia. Meat is rich in phosphorus, which
is an important constituent in bones, teeth, tissue and body fluids.
In most farm homes there are seasons of too great abundance
of fresh meat. Caring for this meat by canning not only saves it
for the time being, but makes it possible to have fresh meat at a
moment's notice throughout the year. Canning of meat is an in-
surance against loss when the weather turns suddenly warm at
butchering time. It makes the Florida farmer independent of
weather conditions, and his meat animals can be slaughtered
when they have reached the right degree of finish.
Delicious roasts, rich soups and fragrant stews, full of good







Florida Cooperative Extension


savor, nutritious and appetizing-out of a can! Hence, home
canning of meat means:
Fresh meat for the farm home the whole year through at a
low cost.
Variety. Variety adds interest to a good diet.
Less over-eating of meat at butchering time. It is poor econo-
my to eat too much meat at killing time in order to save it.
Choice cuts canned. The cuts that cannot be cured-tender-
loin, spareribs, and the meat specialties, liver, heart, tongue-
make delicious and valuable canned supplies for the pantry
shelves.
Economy. It is poor economy to hold over a flock of chickens
or other animals for table use throughout the year. Save the
feed bill by canning when in prime condition. "Money saved is
money made."
Readiness for emergencies. A variety of canned meats in the
pantry means preparedness for Sunday dinner, unexpected com-
pany, wash-day and other occasions.

ESSENTIALS FOR SUCCESSFUL MEAT CANNING
Proper selection and care of the animals to be butchered are
the first essentials in successful canning of meat. Upon the selec-
tion and care depends to a large degree the wholesomeness, palat-
ability and keeping quality of the canned meat product. Beef,
pork, fowl, game and fish alike must be in perfect condition to
be canned. Just as the quality of a milk-fed fowl is superior to
a yard-fed bird, so the quality of beef, pork or lamb that has
received some feeding is superior to that of the thin range animal.
To obtain the most nutritious and palatable meat and meat
products there are a number of factors that should be given con-
sideration in selecting an animal for slaughter. Important
among these are the health condition, type and age of the animal
and the care it has received.
Health: The health of the animal should receive first consid-
eration; a sound article of food cannot be secured from an animal
that is not healthy in every way. The animal should be gaining,
never losing weight, and should have the general appearance of
thrift. In addition to the unwholesomeness of the product, meat
from diseased animals spoils quickly and may be the cause of
"meat poisonings" and serious digestive disturbances. Cooking
may destroy all the bacteria present in tainted meat but will not
necessarily kill all the spores which might produce toxins.







Meat Canning


Condition: The animal should be in medium condition, that
is, neither too fat nor too thin. The muscles from a thin animal
are usually lacking in the tenderness, flavor and juiciness which
characterize a well marbled piece of meat. Over-fat animals will
not produce a high quality product, as the proportion of fat to
lean is excessive and this makes the meat unpalatable to many
people.
Type and Quality: A high quality finished canned meat prod-
uct cannot be obtained from a nondescript animal having poor
conformation and lacking quality. There is no magic in the can-
ning process which can change the meat from poor, scrubby,
rangy animals into a choice, tender, flavorful, nutritious product.
Age: For best results select animals of an age somewhere
between the very young with watery flesh which is lacking in
nutritive properties and the old individual whose meat is apt to
be lacking in tenderness and is stringy and unpalatable.
Preparation for Slaughter: Never slaughter animals when
they are excited, fatigued or over-heated. Slaughtering should
proceed with as little noise and worrying and driving as possible.
Badly excited animals do not bleed thoroughly, and the flesh
usually develops a very dark red color and is often bloodshot. Not
only does the meat fail to keep well, but the unsightly, bruised
places on the carcass will have to be trimmed out and thrown
away, resulting in waste. Bone-taint of beef and putrefactive
changes which occur in the neighborhood of the hip joint of
otherwise prime carcasses are now traced to fatigue of the animal
before being slaughtered. We cannot over-emphasize the value
of careful handling of the animals and allowing them plenty of
water but no food from 12 to 24 hours before killing.
Time to Butcher: Butchering should be done when the weath-
er is so cold that the dressed meat will become thoroughly chilled
over night. Otherwise, cold storage should be used. Authorities
agree that the quality and tenderness of meat is greatly improved
by holding in storage at temperature of 32 to 380 F., for two to
six days before using. The meat must be canned immediately
after removing from cold storage. Pork in particular gets stale
rapidly so should be cooled quickly and canned as soon as possible
after the animal heat is out unless held under artificial
refrigeration.
"Sourbeef" is the trade description of spoilage occurring in
freshly slaughtered beef which has not been properly cooled, oc-
curring when the meat, while still warm, is stored in large pieces







Florida Cooperative Extension


and in poorly ventilated receptacles. Many defects of meat are
reduced, if not completely eliminated, by prompt and adequate
chilling.
Cleanliness Required: Clean handling from start to finish is
most important. Meat spoilage is due to bacteria, molds, and
enzymes. To control these spoilage agencies, scrupulous cleanli-
ness and low temperature are required. In a dressed carcass,
bacteria spread rapidly. The more meat is handled, the more
likely it is to spoil. Contamination by soiled hands, clothing or
utensils definitely lowers keeping quality. Tables on which
meat is cut, as well as all utensils used, should be scrupulously
clean.
(For further information see, Florida Agricultural Extension
Bulletin 81, Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm, Walter J.
Sheely; and U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1415, Beef on the
Farm, Slaughtering, Cutting, Curing.)

PRINCIPLES OF MEAT CANNING
The principle of all canning is to kill organisms of spoilage that
are in the product to be canned. Meat, along with non-acid fruits
and vegetables, requires very high heat to sterilize the product so
that it will keep in the container for a long or indefinite time.
With the exception of acid fruits and vegetables and those prod-
ucts which contain other chemical substances such as curing
salts and vinegars, foods intended for the can must be processed
at sufficiently high temperatures and for sufficiently long periods
to kill the most resistant types of spoilage organisms that may
be present.
Because of its high protein content, the density of its texture
and the moisture present, meat is a favorable medium for the
growth of bacteria.
All the different meats, beef, veal, pork and its by-products,
poultry, fish, and game are canned by the use of the steam pres-
sure method. The hot-pack method with the use of the pressure
cooker is advocated by the United States Department of Agri-
culture as the only satisfactory method known for canning all
meats and non-acid vegetables. In addition, it is suggested that
when a large quantity of meat is to be canned, the use of tin
containers will greatly expedite the work. The wide mouth of
the tin can facilitates packing the meat in larger pieces; tin cans
are economical of time and fuel in processing; may be cooled
quickly, a factor of great importance for safe canning; and are






Meat Canning


easier to handle and store. In addition, the seal of the tins
retains the valuable meat juices that are often drawn out in
the glass jar and lost when processed under pressure.
While plain tin cans are satisfactory for most meats, it is also
suggested that the C-enamel cans, manufactured for meat
products, be used when possible. Meats contain a high percent-
age of sulfur-bearing proteins which sometimes cause discolora-
tion of both container and product. This is avoided when enamel
lined tin is used. The discoloration is harmless, of course.
Enamel lined tins have been developed which are satisfactory
for all canned meat items, and their use is now an established
practice in the commercial canned meat industry. The only ob-
jection to their use lies in the slight additional cost.
Many can sealers are on the market that make practical the use
of the tin can for safe, simple and economical meat canning in the
home. These machines are simple and efficient when the direc-
tions for their use as furnished by the manufacturer are carefully
read and followed.
Steam Pressure Cooker: The steam pressure cooker, or can-
ner, is constructed of strong material and is provided with a
tightly fitting lid which, when clamped in place, makes it possi-
ble to hold steam under pressure and so obtain the adequate
sterilization temperatures needed for foods low in acidity. Most
steam pressure outfits will carry up to 30 pounds of pressure
with a corresponding range in temperature from 212 to 2740 F.
Each steam pressure outfit is equipped with a pressure gauge
which registers the pressure in pounds, a safety valve, and usu-
ally a steam petcock and a lifting crate. The pressure cooker
may be easily regulated so as to maintain the desired pressure
and temperature. It is thus suitable for use in processing non-
acid vegetables that require a temperature above boiling, all
meats, fish and fowl, as well as being useful in general cookery.
If the cooker is purchased primarily for canning, one should
determine how many jars or cans each size will hold and buy the
size best suited to the amount of canning to be done. Devices
vary for closing the cooker. Cookers may have a single clamp or
a set of several clamps, or a collar or band that screws in place.
In all cookers the device should make a steam-tight closure.
The hand on the pressure gauge should move easily without
sticking as the pressure rises. The safety valve, which opens
to let out steam when the pressure becomes too high, is a very
necessary part of the cooker and should be kept in good work-
ing order. Anyone using a steam pressure cooker should know






Florida Cooperative Extension


how to take the petcock apart for cleaning. Follow the manufac-
turer's instructions carefully.
SHow to Use the Steam Pres-
sure Cooker: Put enough wa-
ter in cooker (1 to 2 cups) so
2 there will be no danger of the
Cooker boiling dry. Place jars
10 or cans on rack so that steam
may circulate freely around
9 3 them. Never stack one can
directly over another, but
8' L place in alternate rows. The
5 lid on the cooker should be ad-
justed and fastened securely
S so that steam escapes only at
petcock. Leave petcock open
S for escape of any air in cooker,
as otherwise the desired tem-
perature may not be obtained.
In cookers under 25 quart ca-
pacity leave petcock open un-
til steam escapes in a steady
stream for 7 minutes. For 25
quart cookers and for all
larger sizes, allow steam to
escape from petcock for 10
minutes before counting time.
Fig. 2.-A convenient device made of card- If a large cooker is being
board with movable hands. May be placed
on or near cooker when processing time is used and there is plenty of
determined and the hands set for the com-
pleted cook. Being of a size easily read from water and, hence, little danger
across the room, the watch or clock may be
compared from any point, thus saving steps.- of boiling dry, the petcock
Courtesy Kissimmee Canning Kitchen.
may be left so that a very
small amount of steam can escape. This helps not only to re-
move air but keeps the steam moving in the cooker. Use a
quick "coming-up" time no longer than five minutes if possible.
Begin counting processing time when the desired pressure is
reached. Keep pressure or temperature as uniform as possible;
fluctuation in pressure means uneven cooking temperature, may
cause under or over processing, and the liquid will be drawn out
of jars if glass is being used.
When processing is complete, remove cooker from heat. If
glass jars are used, allow the pressure to fall slowly to zero and
then slowly open petcock. If petcock is opened rapidly, loss of







Meat Canning


liquid from the jars results. If No. 3 or larger tin cans are used,
also allow pressure to fall to zero before opening, but if No. 2 or
smaller cans are used, slowly open the petcock when the cooker
is removed from the fire, and when at zero, release clamps and
remove cover by lifting it turned away from the face in such
way that the face and hands will not be burned by the remaining
steam.
Before You Can a Whole Animal, Plan!-Elaborate equipment
is not necessary for meat canning, but it should be adequate to
handle the meat expeditiously. Best quality is obtained only
when products are handled rapidly in both the preparation and
the canning procedures. Holding the product during the pack-
ing procedure, due to inadequacy of equipment or insufficient la-
bor, brings poor quality. Also, holding partially prepared prod-
ucts for other ingredients may affect the quality of the finished
product. Delays mean that meats oxidize, color may become in-
ferior, a loss of temperature may occur, or bacterial decomposi-
tion may start. Roasting pans, frying pans, kettles, food grinder,
trays, long-handled forks, and other equipment found in a well
appointed kitchen are adequate for the heating and preparation
of the meat if sufficient in number and in readiness. Canning
equipment containing copper and iron which may cause discolora-
tion of the product should be avoided. Iron equipment under cer-
tain circumstances will cause discoloration. Many commercial
canners of meat products have replaced iron with stainless steel
equipment which prevents metallic discoloration. Those canning
meat in the home might profit by the experience of commercial
canners. The pressure cooker is essential, of course, for all
processing.
When canning a half or a whole animal consider both equip-
ment and a plan for doing the work.
EQUIPMENT:
1. Plenty of stove space. A four to five-burner oil stove
in addition to a good kitchen range will be adequate in most in-
stances. An outdoor stove may take care of one pressure cooker,
if necessary.
2. Extra pressure cookers. At least three or four cookers
of 20 to 30 can capacity are necessary for the speed required in
handling the beef.
3. The sealer, set up, oiled and perfectly adjusted for an
air-tight seal before actual canning starts.







Florida Cooperative Extension


4. Plenty of cans, examined for defects, washed, scalded
and stacked in a warm place to drain and keep warm. Can tops
should be dipped in boiling water and be placed where they will
warm. Seventy-five to 85 No. 3 tins will be needed for a beef
weighing around 300 pounds. More cans will be necessary if
soup stock and stew are canned.
5. Extra table space adds greatly to the convenience and
speed of operations. The meat cutting table should be in a cool
place, preferably on a screened porch conveniently located to
save steps. The sealing table, strong and steady, should be lo-
cated near the stove where the tins when sealed may be imme-
diately filled into the pressure canner for processing.
In addition, see that there are:
1. Suitable and sharp knives for cutting, carving and
boning.
2. Plenty of hot and cold water.
3. Plenty of fuel.
4. Plenty of seasoning.
5. Plenty of dish towels and holders and everything
needed conveniently at hand.
6. Food grinder.
PLAN OF WORK:
Divide the work. All persons assisting in canning should
have a definite task assigned, the work so systematized and so
carefully planned and divided that a number of people can work
together without delay or interruption.
One person may be responsible for sorting and heating
roasts, another may sear steaks. Another person may be respon-
sible for packing in containers and adding seasoning.
Another should fill cooker, start processing, watch cook-
ers, remove cans, cool, and examine the tins for leakage. (Write
down the time at the beginning of the processing period and label
cookers accordingly so there will be no question about processing
time.)
Enough help should always be on hand to insure speed in
the canning operations-preheating, filling, exhausting if neces-
sary, sealing while boiling hot, getting tins or jars into cookers
immediately and, as soon as cans are processed, cooling quickly
and thoroughly and testing for leaks.







Meat Canning


GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING ALL MEATS
Do not attempt to prepare meat in too many ways when can-
ning in quantity. Roasts, stews, ground meat (for meat loaf and
hamburger), steaks, soup stock, and meat specialties are favorite
and sufficient methods of preparation for one day's canning. If
mince meat, scrapple, and similar products are made it is gener-
ally better to do this the day after the major part of the animal
has been canned.
Meat for canning may be used as soon as the animal heat is
gone or as soon as completely chilled out. Wipe with a damp
cloth. Never soak meat in water. Soaking dissolves meat juices
and makes meat "stringy."
Cut meat into suitable pieces for cooking. (See Figs. 3 and 4.)
Prepare as for ordinary serving as roasting, broiling, or stewing.
Cut into pieces of a size that will conveniently fill into the tins.
Remove all bones and leave only enough fat to give flavor, as ex-
cess fat retards penetration of heat. Utilize all bones in making
soup stock. Steaks should never be cut less than one inch thick
and always across the grain. Save the tougher, "scrappy" parts
of the carcass for stew, hash and hamburger.
Meat should be browned first in hot fat, or seared and roasted
in the oven until heated through. This pre-heating develops
flavor and shrinks the meat so it can be packed in cans or jars
economically. It is desirable that a meat product that is to be
sliced be cut and packed in a way that it can be removed from
the can in a solid piece or congealed mass.
Flour is a poor conductor of heat. Meat should not be coated
with flour or crumbs, as this renders heat penetration more diffi-
cult. If desired, add meat juices for searing and roasting but
extra water should not be added as this has a tendency to make
the meat stringy and flavorless. The liquid in a tin of canned
meats usually forms a jelly when cold.
Pack the meat in the tins steaming hot to within one-half inch
of top, season with salt and pepper mixture, and seal at once
while the space between the meat and the top of the can is filled
with steam, preferably at a temperature of 170 F. at center of
can. If this precaution of keeping a head space is not observed, a
loss of quality may result from oxidation of the product caused by
air being present in the closed can. Over-filling or under-filling
of tins should be avoided. Pack tins so that meat does not extend
over the top, allowing 5/16 inch headspace for No. 2 cans. Small
pieces of meat or fat left on groove into which top fits may char







Florida Cooperative Extension


and bring about a defective sealing surface and so cause spoilage.
All meat and fat should be removed from the sealing surface by
wiping with a damp, clean cloth.
Mark all filled cans plainly with the name of the product for
identification. Marks made with an ordinary lead pencil will
remain on the can until processing is complete.
Filled cans should be processed as soon as possible after seal-
ing. Holding of cans prior to processing may cause loss of tem-
perature or permit incipient bacterial growth. (If filled cans
are not processed as soon as sealed, cover cans with hot water
and keep temperature just below boiling until placed in cooker.)


Fig. 3.-Chart showing cuts of beef, any and all of which may be canneu a- uome.


WBOI LEDW "AKED- BAKE DIWCj
--Chart showing how to cut porSTEAK for canning at ho
VBROHLER/ BOILEDj \BOILED \

4- Chart showing how to cut pork for canning at home.






Meat Canning


Process the exact time as advocated in this bulletin. Start
counting time when desired pressure is reached. Constant pres-
sure should be maintained throughout the processing period.
When the cans are processed the specified time, remove cooker
from heat, open petcock and if canning in tin, release steam very
slowly, as too rapid release may weaken the seal and seam of
the cans.
When canning in glass jars, open cooker only after pressure
gauge registers zero. Complete the seal and place the hot jars
where there is free circulation of air, but protect them from
drafts until cool. Test the cans for leaky seals and cool as rapid-
ly as possible in running water or in water frequently changed.
It is important that cans be cooled rapidly and completely not
only for best quality, but to prevent thermophilic spoilage.
Wipe cans and jars clean and dry. Label and store in cool,
dry place. A food-smeared can will always rust.

SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS AND RECIPES
ROAST MEATS
(Beef, Veal, Pork, Mutton)
The large pieces cut from the shoulder, loin, chuck, rib, and
rump make good roast pieces. Cut the pieces to fit the can with
the grain of the meat running lengthwise of the can so that when
it is opened for serving it may be sliced across the grain. Sear in
deep, hot fat or roast in the oven until one-third done. The es-
sentials of quality canned meat are to brown or sear the roast,
steaks, or chops for development of flavor and to heat them
thoroughly to the center without cooking completely. Pack into
the cans hot, allowing 5/16 inch headspace. Add two tablespoons
of the fat or pan gravy and one teaspoon salt and pepper mixture
to each No. 2 can. Salt and pepper mixture is made by mixing in
proportions of one-fourth pepper and three-fourths salt. If there
are small children in the family, it is well to season with salt only.
Seal hot and process under 15 pounds pressure; No. 2 cans, 55
minutes.
Some people prefer to salt, pepper and flour before pre-heating,
but the salt draws out a portion of the meat juices which are
usually lost by cooking and sticking to the bottom of the pan in
which it is seared. The flour which does not cook off forms a
starchy coating over the surface, making heat penetration more
difficult.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SWISS STEAK No. 1
Beef round Pepper
Salt Tomato Sauce
Cut the round into steaks 1 to 11/ inches thick. Then divide
into pieces of a size when rolled up that will just about fill a No.
3 tin or a wide-mouth quart jar. Sear steaks to a golden brown.
With two forks or a fork and spoon roll up the hot steak and drop
into the can. Fill spaces in can with boiling hot tomato sauce.
Tomato Sauce for Swiss Steak
2 cups onions, chopped 24 cloves, tied in cheesecloth
2 bay leaves bag
%/2 cup butter 1 gallon canned tomatoes
Celery leaves Salt to taste
1 bunch parsley
Brown onions until yellow and soft in the butter. Add other
ingredients and simmer until the quantity has been reduced al-
most half. Remove cloves. Rub mixture through sieve. Pour
this tomato puree while boiling hot over the seared meat. Seal
and process under 15 pounds pressure; No. 2 cans, 50 minutes;
No. 3 cans, 60 minutes.
Plain steak may be prepared and canned in the same way, ex-
cept that fat and liquid left from searing is poured over the
steak instead of the tomato sauce.
SWISS STEAK No. 2
Cut round steaks at least one inch thick and sear. Cut in pieces
which will fit into the cans, using for cutter a can which has been
cut and not reflanged. Pack into cans. Sprinkle each piece with
chopped onion and celery. Mix 2 tablespoons bacon drippings,
1 tablespoon browned flour with 1/2 cup of hot tomato juice and
add to each can. Finish by covering with hot tomato juice. Seal
and process under 15 pounds pressure; No. 2 cans, 50 minutes.
MEAT STEWS
Stews are almost unlimited in number, from the Irish stew of
the British Isles to the Hungarian goulash, the mulligan of the
Pacific Coast or the delectable Brunswick stews of the South.
Make stews by any favorite recipe. Meat stews, well prepared
and canned, not only cannot be told from the same article freshly
prepared, but seem rather to gain in flavor from the long asso-
ciation of the ingredients in the tin or jar.
Generally the thin muscled pieces of meat are used for stew.
Cut into cubes 1 or 1/2 inches thick. Cook meat until bones will
slip from meat. Add onions, if liked, and salt. If tomatoes,






Meat Canning


celery, carrots, parsnips or turnips are used, they may be pre-
pared and added in the proportion of 1/2 cup to each pound of meat
used. Vegetables should not be added until just before the meat
is ready to go into the cans. Heat to boiling. (Potatoes may
also be added, but since they can be preserved in their natural
state or can be secured at all times they have been omitted from
recipe below.)
MEAT STEW No. 1
12 pounds stew meat 3 cups finely chopped onion
4 teaspoons celery seed 6 tablespoons salt
Fill cans, seal and process under 15 pounds pressure; No. 2
cans, 50 minutes.
MEAT STEW No. 2
A much richer and better flavored product is always obtained
when the meat, cut in suitable pieces, is browned lightly in hot
fat. Add boiling water or boiling broth to the browned meat
and simmer until thoroughly heated. Add salt and pepper mix-
ture. Pack in cans, cover to 1/4 to 1/2 inch of top with boiling hot
gravy or stock. Seal immediately and process No. 2 cans 50
minutes. Vegetables-carrots, onions, celery, and tomatoes-
may be added when the meat is opened.
MULTNOMAH COUNTY STEW
6 pounds beef (no surplus fat) 1% pounds cracked whole wheat
1% pounds potatoes 31 pounds carrots
1% pounds celery % pounds onions, cut fine
5 quarts water 4 tablespoons salt
% teaspoon black pepper
Soak the wheat over night in part of the five quarts of water.
Cut the meat into one and one-half inch cubes and brown with
the onions. Cook 1/2 hour. Cut the other vegetables into small
pieces and add to the meat about 10 minutes before cooking time
is finished. Cook the wheat until tender, about 11/2 hours, or if a
steam pressure cooker is used, cook for 30 minutes at 15 pounds
pressure, allowing the pressure to return to zero before opening
the cooker. Add wheat to the vegetables and meat mixture at
boiling temperature just before sealing in the cans. Pour the
hot stew into cans and seal at once. Process 60 minutes at 15
pounds pressure.
MEAT LOAF No. 1
5 pounds meat 1 teaspoon sage
5 tablespoons bread crumbs 1 teaspoon celery seed
2 tablespoons salt 2 tablespoons finely chopped
2 eggs beaten together onion
1 teaspoon pepper






Florida Cooperative Extension


Use meat scraps, boil and let cool. Grind and mix thoroughly
with the crumbs and seasonings. One or two cups of broth (or
tomato juice) may be added, according to the dryness of the
meat. Fill cans while hot. Seal and process inder 15 pounds
pressure, No. 2 cans 55 minutes.
MEAT LOAF No. 2
15 pounds fresh ground beef 5 tablespoons salt
7 pounds ground veal or lean 20 eggs
pork Celery salt to taste
1 pound suet 2 cups tomato paste or catsup
3 loaves stale bread broken
into small pieces
Run both meat and suet through sausage grinder. Combine
meat, bread crumbs soaked in cold water and squeezed dry, salt,
well beaten eggs, seasonings and tomato. Mix well and form into
smooth even-sized loaves, shaping as nearly like the cylindrical
can as possible and a trifle larger. Do not put any flour on the
surface of the loaf. Insert three or four skewers in the loaves.
Place in a moderate oven (3750) on a flat pan. Sear on all sides
to a light brown, turning over with a pancake turner. This re-
quires 20 to 25 minutes. Remove skewers and slip the loaves
into the cans, add four or five tablespoons of liquid from searing
pan, seal at once and process for 60 minutes. Yield: 11 loaves.
HAMBURGER
15 pounds medium ground beef 3 onions chopped
% cup salt 1 large red pepper, chopped
Combine all the ingredients, mix thoroughly. Shape into
smooth cakes one inch thick and a little larger in diameter than
the cans. Lay cakes on a slightly greased flat pan and place
in an oven to sear until slightly browned on both sides. Use a
pancake lifter for turning. When seared, the cakes should just
fit into the cans snugly. Add three or four tablespoons of the
searing liquid from the pan. Seal and process at 15 pounds pres-
sure for 50 to 55 minutes.
CHILI CON CARNE
15 pounds beef from shoulder 3% quarts kidney beans
cut into small cubes or 2 quarts tomato puree
ground coarsely 3 quarts water
2% teaspoons paprika 1% cups lard or suet
20 dried peppers Salt to taste
Brown the meat lightly in the hot fat. Add the paprika, pep-
pers, tomato puree and water and cook 15 minutes. Soak the
beans in cold water over night and cook for 30 minutes. Com-
bine the meat mixture and the drained beans, add the salt aid
pack boiling hot into the cans; seal in No. 2 cans and process
50 minutes at 15 pounds pressure.







Meat Canning


SOUP STOCK
Cover bits of meat and all bones (split) with cold water. Bring
to a boil and simmer, do not boil, for six hours. Seasonings such
as parsley, celery leaves and onions may be added if desired.
Remove from fire, strain and set aside to cool. If boiled down
sufficiently the stock should congeal when cold. Remove all fat.
Reheat, bringing to a full boil. Can and process under 15 pounds
pressure; No. 2 cans 45 minutes.
The cooked meat from the soup bones may be ground and
used in meat loaf or in potted meat or may be added to the
soup stock. This concentrated beef broth may also be used to fill
up spaces between such meat specialties as brains, tongue, sau-
sage and other products.

VEGETABLE SOUP STOCK
Use the vegetables which suit the family taste. An excellent
mixture is made from tomatoes, corn, okra, butter beans, onions,
and carrots. Prepare vegetables, add all ingredients to the soup
stock, season by adding 2 teaspoons salt to each quart, boil for
5 minutes, pack immediately in hot tins to within 1/4 inch of top,
seal and process immediately; No. 2 tins 50 minutes.

PEPPERPOT SOUP
V cup sliced onions 2% quarts soup stock (chicken or
% cup chopped celery lamb broth preferably)
cup chopped green peppers 1 gallon honeycomb tripe
3 cups potatoes, cubed or diced Dash of cayenne pepper
V pound butter 1 tablespoon salt
% cup flour 1 cup cream
Simmer the tripe in the soup stock for one hour. Cook the vege-
tables in three-fourths of the butter for 15 minutes and then add
the flour and mix well. Add to the tripe and soup stock. Add
cream and remaining butter, cook for a few minutes to incorpo-
rate and pour hot into cans. Seal and process No. 1 cans for 30
minutes at 2500 F.
HASH MEAT
Place bones in cooker with 2 quarts of water. Steam until the
meat will slip. Remove the meat from the bones, pack into cans
and cover with the strained broth. Season. Process under 15
pounds pressure; No. 2 cans 50 minutes.

SPARERIBS
Wipe clean with a damp cloth. Roast as for table use until
the bones will slip. With a sharp knife cut down inside of each
rib and remove bones. Salt and cut meat in pieces suitable for







Florida Cooperative Extension


serving or make in a roll that will go into the can. Pack. Pour
in only enough of the hot brown drippings to make gravy. Seal
and process 60 to 70 minutes.
PORK SAUSAGE
25 pounds pork (4 parts lean, 2 tablespoons red pepper
1 part fat) 1 cup brown sugar
1 cup fine salt 3 tablespoons black pepper
% cup ground sage
Cut meat for grinding. Measure and mix all seasonings, then
mix well with the meat. Grind, using a fine knife. Mold into
medium sized cakes. Drop into deep hot fat and sear until
brown. Pack into cans. Addition of fat is not necessary. Seal
while hot and process under 15 pounds pressure; No. 1 cans 45
minutes, No. 2 cans 60 minutes, No. 3 cans 70 minutes.
The seasoned ground meat may be stuffed into casings, smoked
and cured. Before they become too dry and hard, cut into lengths
1/2 inch less than the length of can. Pack in cans, place in oven
or cooker and heat. Seal hot. Process 55 to 60 minutes at 15
pounds pressure.
HEAD CHEESE
Clean head thoroughly by washing and scraping at the time of
scraping the whole carcass. Remove eyes, burr of ears and bones
which contain cavities. Trim off excess fat from jowls. Soak
in salty cold water over night. Next morning rinse and place in
the pressure cooker with 2 cups of water. Steam for 30 to 40
minutes at 15 pounds pressure, depending upon the age of the
animal. Cut pieces of uniform size. Season to taste with salt
and pepper. Pack into suitable containers for molding. Weight
and press. Use while fresh or pack in cans boiling hot and pro-
cess under 15 pounds pressure; No. 2 cans 55 minutes.
SCRAPPLE
The head, heart, tongue and bones may be used. Place in steam
pressure cooker, add about 1 quart of water and steam 30 to 40
minutes under 15 pounds pressure. Remove the meat from the
bones and grind. Strain the stock and let it set until the fat rises
to the top. Skim off excess fat. Heat to boiling and add to
cereal mixture, made by mixing equal parts of corn meal, whole
wheat or shorts. Add only enough stock to make a very stiff
mixture. Add the ground meat which has been reheated. Equal
proportions of meat and cereal mixture make a very tasty prod-
uct. While hot fill cans and process under 15 pounds pressure;
No. 2 cans 65 minutes.







Meat Canning


PICKLED PIGS' FEET
Scrape and clean pigs' feet carefully. Place in pressure cooker.
Add water and process under 10 pounds pressure for from 45
minutes up to within 3 to 4 hours, depending on size and age. Re-
move from cooker, drain, split lengthwise and pack in jars. Cover
with spiced vinegar made as follows:
% gallon good cider vinegar 1 onion cut fine
1% tablespoons celery seed 1 tablespoon whole pepper
1 bay leaf corns
1 cup grated horseradish 1% tablespoons mustard seed
l/ lemon sliced 1 tablespoon allspice
1 tablespoon of salt
Mix all dry ingredients, tie in a bag, add to vinegar and bring
to the boiling point. Cover and let spice infuse for one to two
hours. Remove the bag of spices, heat and pour the vinegar over
the feet, or they may be packed hot in glass jars or in enamel
cans covered with the spiced liquid and processed under 15
pounds pressure 25 minutes for pint size or No. 2 cans. Cured
pigs' feet make an attractive product when kept light in color.
Spices like cloves tend to darken the color.

MINCE MEAT


3 pints cooked beef
1 quart brown sugar
1% pints suet
1 teaspoon mace
6 lemons, ground


1 tablespoon each allspice,
cloves, cinnamon
1/ cup cider vinegar
6 oranges, ground
21/ cups raisins
21 cups currants


Grind together the beef, suet, and oranges and lemons from
which the central core with seeds has been removed. Add enough
broth to moisten the mixture and boil all together for about 15
minutes. Pack hot into glass jars. Seal and process; pint jars
50 minutes at 15 pounds pressure.

DELICIOUS PLUM PUDDING


1 pound beef suet, ground
1 pound sugar
1 pound flour
1 pound seeded raisins, chopped
1 pound candied kumquats or
orange peel
% pound citron, cut fine
1 cup black walnut meats, cut
fine


1 cup grape, plum or other
fruit juice
9 eggs
2 teaspoons salt
4 teaspoons baking powder
6 teaspoons cinnamon
4 teaspoons cloves
4 teaspoons nutmeg
2 teaspoons allspice
4 teaspoons mace


Mix the ground suet with the sugar. Mix the fruit and nuts
with half of the flour. Beat the egg yolks and whites separately.
Add the yolks to the suet and sugar, then add fruit and nuts.
Sift together twice the salt, baking powder, spices, and remain-






Florida Cooperative Extension


ing flour. Add these ingredients to the first mixture, alter-
nately with the fruit juice. Fold in the egg whites and mix
gently. Grease eight No. 2 tins well and fill half full with the
pudding mixture. Tie oiled paper over top of can; put in cooker,
leaving petcock slightly open and steam for 60 minutes at 8 to
10 pounds pressure. Allow pressure to return to zero, remove
cans, seal. Return to cooker immediately and further process
for one hour. Cool cans thoroughly and quickly. When ready
to serve, set the can of pudding in boiling water for about an
hour to heat through, loosen with a knife and turn out on a
platter.
Hard sauce made of butter and sugar creamed together is
good with this pudding. If a hard sauce that is a little different
is desired, flavor with the grated rind of an orange. Any one of
the liquid or foamy sauces is also suitable with plum pudding.
When canned these puddings keep indefinitely.
Fig puddings, citrus fruit puddings and similar delicacies may
be made in quantity in the same way as above.
CORNED BEEF
The cheaper, fatter cuts, such as chuck, rump, navel, brisket,
and flank, make good corned beef. Of course, the better the
meat used the better will be the finished result. Choose meat
that is tender and well marbled with fat. Too often only beef
that is too tough for any other use is corned, whereas, this de-
licious product deserves the best.
The meat must be thoroughly chilled and perfectly fresh. Cut
it into 5 or 6 inch squares and of uniform thickness so they may
be packed in even layers in a clean barrel or crock.
Weigh the meat and allow 8 pounds of salt for each 100 pounds
of meat. Sprinkle a layer of this salt in the botton of a barrel
or crock that has been thoroughly scoured and scalded. Alter-
nate layers of salt and layers of meat until all the meat is packed.
Then cover the top layer with the remaining salt and allow the
salted meat to stand over night.
For each 100 pounds of meat, make a solution of the following:
5 pounds sugar 3 ounces saltpeter
2% ounces baking soda 4 gallons boiling water
Allow this solution to cool over night and next day pour it over
the meat, keeping the latter entirely under the brine with a
weighted cover. The corned beef will be ready to use in about 10
days or 2 weeks, according to size of pieces. It can be used
direct from brine as needed, but if left in the cure longer than 30






Meat Canning


days, parboiling will probably be necessary. On this account it
is usually best to can corned beef when cured. It may also be
removed from the brine after 28 to 40 days, allowed to drain
thoroughly and then be smoked like cured pork. In case any
meat should not be covered with brine, it may spoil and cause
the brine to deteriorate.
While the meat is in the brine solution the temperature should
be kept below 400 F. Thus corning should be done in cold storage
or in cold weather.
CANNED CORN BEEF
After beef has been corned, remove from the brine. Soak two
hours in clear water, changing once. Place in kettle, cover with
cold water. Bring slowly to boil and simmer three-fourths to
one hour. Remove meat and cut in pieces to fit the can, cutting
out any gristle, bone, or excess fat. Heat liquid in which meat
was boiled and season with bay leaf, cloves and nutmeg to
taste. Softened gelatine may be added to the liquid. Pack hot
meat in hot cans, cover with the boiling broth. Seal and process
No. 2 cans 55-65 minutes at 15 pounds pressure.

RENDERING LARD
Only clean fat should be used for choice lard. Leaf fat is the
best. Leaf lard is that which is made from the leaf fat which
lies around the kidneys. The next best in quality is that from
the back, and the poorest quality is that from around the in-
testines. The back strip of the side also makes nice lard as does
the fat from the ham, shoulder and neck trimmings. Fat from
around the intestines should never be mixed with the leaf and
back fat. It makes a strong smelling lard and should be kept sepa-
rate. Some of the offensive odor may be eliminated by thorough-
ly washing and allowing the intestinal fat to stand covered with
fresh, cold water for several hours.
The skins should be removed. They contain gelatin not needed
in lard and may be used with discarded pieces of fat meat for
soap making.
All scraps of lean meat should be cut from the fat before try-
ing out as they are very likely to scorch and stick to the kettle,
causing discoloration and giving an unpleasant flavor to the
lard. When preparing the fat for trying, cut the stock into half
inch cubes. The pieces should be nearly equal in size so that they
will dry out in about the same length of time. The skinned stock






Florida Cooperative Extension


may be ground through the sausage mill if a coarse plate is avail-
able. This hastens the rendering process.
Fill clean kettle about three-fourths full with meat pieces con-
taining fat. Some people put in a quart of water or if convenient
a quart of hot lard to prevent the fat from burning before the
heat is sufficient to bring out the grease. However, this is not
absolutely essential, and water tends to break down lard and
make it become rancid sooner. Keep the kettle over a moderate
fire. At first, the temperature should be greatly below simmering
and should be gradually raised to 230 F. When cracklings are
a golden brown and light enough to float, lower the temperature
to below boiling or about 200 F. Cracklings removed on a pad-
dle at this point will fry themselves dry. Continuous stirring is
necessary to prevent burning. Lard should not be allowed to
smoke. When done, remove from the stove and allow to cool
slightly. Press the lard from the cracklings and then strain
through a muslin cloth into a large hot jar. Stir often until
cool enough to begin to solidify. If pails or smaller jars are to
be filled, the lard should be dipped out while just warm enough
to be liquid. Stirring while the lard is cooling tends to whiten
it and makes it smoother.
Lard which is to be kept for considerable time should be packed
in air-tight containers and stored in a dry, cool, dark, well-venti-
lated place to keep from becoming rancid. Light, moisture and
high temperatures affect its quality unfavorably. Fruit jars are
especially good containers for lard because they can be made air-
tight. Care should be taken to sterilize containers, and have
them boiling hot when filling them.
When removing lard, take it off evenly. Do not dig down in
the lard and take out a scoopful as that will leave a thin coating
around the sides of the jar which will become rancid very quick-
ly through the action of air.

MEAT SPECIALTIES
Called by the trade "Meat Specialties," gland and muscle tid-
bits are delicacies to food connoisseurs the world over. The best
known gland meats are liver, kidneys and sweetbreads. Non-
gland specialties are heart, brains, tripe and tongue. All meat
specialties deteriorate rapidly and must be handled in the most
sanitary manner, with every precaution taken to avoid spoilage.
They call for delicate treatment on the part of those who prepare
them for the table.







Meat Canning


Liver is famous for its use in the treatment of certain types
of anemia. It contains a rich supply of iron and copper which
are necessary for the formation of good red blood. It is an ex-
cellent source of Vitamin A which helps to insure against cer-
tain infections, make children grow, and keep up the vitality of
both children and grown people; C, the "tooth nutrition" vitamin
for which doctors notably prescribe orange juice; and of Vitamin
G which has made the front page in the fight against pellagra.
Liver is a good source of Vitamin B, particularly desirable in the
diet of mothers who are nursing young babies or are pregnant.
Kidney, next to liver in food value, is also rich in Vitamins A,
B, C and G and in iron and copper. Kidneys should be a bright
brownish-red color with lamb kidney tending towards purple and
calf kidney slightly lighter than beef.
Brains are an excellent source of Vitamin C and a good source
of Vitamin B.


Fig. 5.-Honeycomb tripe, basis of the famous Philadelphia Pepperpot Soup, is be-
coming more popular every year. Much of the tripe sold in the markets has already been
precooked. Kidneys come next to liver in food value.-(Courtesy Consumers' Guide.)
The taste for tripe, the muscular portion of the first and second
of the four stomachs of cattle, is yearly becoming more generally
developed. From one stomach comes plain tripe and from the







Florida Cooperative Extension


other honeycomb tripe, the basis for the famous Philadelphia
Pepperpot Soup.
Heart, a muscle meat, has the food value of that class of foods.
All hearts should be full and firm and the more fat the better.

WAYS OF CANNING MEAT SPECIALTIES
BRAINS No. 1
Brains are perhaps the most delicate of all meats and need
special care in preparation. Soak the brains in cold, slightly
salty water, changing the water every half hour to remove all
blood. Cook gently for 15 to 20 minutes or until firm and white
in water containing one tablespoonful of vinegar for each quart
of water. Cool slightly, then remove the outside skin-like mem-
brane. Pack while still hot in No. 2 cans, add salt, and fill with
boiling beef broth. Seal and process at 15 pounds pressure for
55 minutes.


Fig. 6.-Meat specialties are both delicious and nourishing. Calves' brains and hearts
are shown at the left and top, sweetbreads in center, beef kidneys at bottom, and beef
liver at extreme right. Lamb kidneys are higher in price than beef, veal or hog kid-
neys, but all contain Vitamins A, B, C, and G, along with a rich supply of iron and
copper. -(Courtesy Consumers' Guide.)
BRAINS No. 2
Prepare as in above recipe. Drain thoroughly. Lightly brown
in hot fat. Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Pack into No. 2 cans.






Meat Canning


Add two tablespoons of fat, seal and process at 15 pounds pres-
sure for 55 minutes.
SWEETBREADS No. 1
Sweetbreads spoil quickly and should be handled expeditiously.
Clean sweetbreads, remove loose membranous tissue and soak
in cold water for 2 hours, changing the water several times. Let
stand for 5 minutes in salty, boiling water, to which has been
added vinegar or lemon juice. Remove and drain thoroughly.
Fill into the can to within 1/ inch of the top. Add boiling water
and salt (1 teaspoon per quart of water). Seal and process No. 2
cans 55 minutes at 15 pounds pressure.

SWEETBREADS No. 2
Put one ounce of lard and two teaspoonfuls of butter into a
saucepan and heat. As soon as hot, add 1 sliced carrot (medium
size), 2 slices of onion (medium size), 1 branch of finely chopped
celery, 1 branch of chopped parsley, 2 ripe tomatoes (cut fine), 1/2
teaspoon thyme, 2 cloves, pinch of allspice, and one bay leaf
broken in small pieces. Brown lightly, add the blanched sweet-
breads prepared as above. Sprinkle with salt very lightly. Bring
to a boil. Pack hot in cans with the gravy. Seal and process.
LIVER PASTE
3 pounds liver 3 eggs
1% pounds fresh pork 1 teaspoon black pepper
(1-5 fat, 4-5 lean) 1 teaspoon cloves
1 cup toasted bread or cracker 2 tablespoons salt
crumbs
Turn the liver and seasoning through meat chopper. Beat
eggs, and mix all together. Pack into cans, place in moderate
oven or cooker and heat thoroughly. Seal and process at 15
pounds pressure; No. 1 cans 45 minutes, No. 2 cans 60 minutes.

PICKLING TRIPE
After the tripe has been thoroughly cleaned and rinsed in
cold water, it should be scalded in hot water (a little below the
boiling point). When sufficiently scalded, the inside lining of
the stomachs may be removed by scraping, which will leave a
clean, white surface. Tripe should be boiled until tender (usually
about 3 hours) and then placed in cold water so that the fat may
be scraped from the outside. When this has been done, peel off
the membrane from the outside of the stomach and the clean,
white tripe is ready for pickling.
Place the tripe in a clean earthenware jar and keep submerged






Florida Cooperative Extension


in a strong brine for three or four days. Rinse well with cold
water and cover with pure cider vinegar, or, preferably, a spiced
pickling liquid as given in recipe for Pickled Pigs' Feet (See
p. 21). Place a weight on the tripe to keep it from floating on
the surface of the liquid.
If not used immediately, pack tripe in jars or enameled tins,
cover with the boiling hot, spiced liquid. Seal and process pints
at 15 pounds pressure for 25 minutes. Tripe may also be canned
as other meat.
TONGUE
Wash well and trim the fat and glandular tissue at root of
tongue of beef, veal, pork, or lamb and cook in the pressure cook-
er at 15 pounds for 30 minutes. Remove tongue from cooker,
peel off the skin and take out the root. Cut the tongue into pieces
that will fit compactly into the cans. Add 4 tablespoonsful of beef
broth or tomato juice, seal and process at 15 pounds for 50
minutes. The tongue may be cleaned, salted, and lightly smoked,
then boiled, skin removed, and packed in cans with the addition
of a little soup stock or meat jelly. Tongues may also be cleaned
thoroughly, rubbed heavily with salt and left standing with salt
sprinkled over them for 8 to 10 hours. Then boil until done, re-
move skin, pack in cans with a little of the liquid in which they
were boiled, thinning with some boiling water in order not to be
too salty. Seal and process 60 minutes at 15 pounds pressure.

CANNING CHICKEN
Canning the surplus birds from the home poultry flock is an
economical practice. Certainly it is poor economy to feed and
care for a flock of birds being held for table use during the year.
Chicken, like other meats, should be canned when it reaches
prime condition, thus stopping the feed bill and saving both
time and labor for the busy housekeeper.
A jar of delicious canned chicken ready to serve makes a most
appropriate and appetizing dish for emergency occasions-unex-
pected guests, Sunday night suppers, or a meal that must be
prepared hurriedly. A supply of home-canned chicken ready for
immediate serving is a great asset to the busy housewife and
makes most attractive and appetizing dishes when served in com-
bination mixture such as creamed chicken, chicken pie, cro-
quettes, chicken-a-la-king, salads, sandwiches and stewed chicken
with dumplings, noodles or rice.
Either young or old birds may be canned. However, the older






Meat Canning


birds are used in this way to better advantage than the young
ones. Plump, well-fed hens, two years and older and no longer
at their best for egg production, have better texture and more
characteristic flavor than young birds. Furthermore, practically
the same canning processes are needed for sterilization no mat-
ter what the age of the bird, and the meat from the young birds
is likely to become over-cooked.
Only chickens of prime quality should be selected for canning
and the right procedure in every step of the process must be fol-
lowed if delicious flavor and best texture is desired. Chickens
should be absolutely healthy and in good condition. Chickens
that are too lean are not so juicy or of such good flavor as those
whose flesh is well marbled with fat. Chickens should be penned
and fattened 8 to 10 days before they are killed. They should be
well bled, well dressed, and thoroughly cooled before canning.
All the large pieces of fat should be trimmed off, as fat inter-
feres with the heat penetration. The very bony pieces, such as
the neck, back and feet, after they have been skinned, should be
used for adding flavor and gelatine content to the broth needed
to fill up the containers. The liver, gizzard, and heart should be
canned separately when there are enough to fill a can. Never can
the liver with the larger pieces of the chicken because its flavor
will permeate every piece in the container.
There are many methods used in canning chicken. Chicken
may be fried or broiled until nicely browned, but not done, and
then packed in the jars or tins. Searing the chicken in its own
fat emphasizes the chicken flavor. Older birds may be stewed
or roasted until the meat can be removed from the bones. White
and dark meat may be packed separately, if desired. All of a
31/ pound chicken should go into a No. 3 can or quart jar, except
gizzard, liver and rib piece. When precooked and bones removed,
the same amount of chicken fills the pint size container.
The aim in all methods of precooking is to heat the meat thor-
oughly, but not to cook it. If cooked to doneness, the subsequent
canning process will overcook it. It is most important, if best
texture and flavor of poultry meat is to be retained when can-
ning, that great care be taken that the raw meat is not subjected
to too high a temperature when the preheating or precooking is
first begun. It is very easy to overcook chicken, destroying both
the texture and the flavor in the finished product. The flavor of
canned chicken is better when as little liquid as possible is used
in the canning process.
Some housewives prefer, when canning a number of chickens,






Florida Cooperative Extension


to sort the meat and pack the choice pieces in separate cans.
Many have found good markets for all of this special pack they
can prepare. The breast, thighs, and drumsticks are packed in
one lot and the meat from the more bony pieces is packed for
salads or sandwiches. A separate pack is made of the giblets.

METHODS OF PREPARING CANNED CHICKEN
ROAST FOWL
Clean the fowl, wash, and wipe dry. If turkey, goose, or guinea
fowl, lard the breast or cover it with thin slices of fat pork. For
chicken and duck tie a small piece of larding pork over breast.
Put two tablespoons lard and butter mixed in a roasting pan.
Place in oven and when hot lay the turkey or fowl in the hot
grease and turn until seared on all sides. Season turkey or goose
with one tablespoon of salt sprinkled all over, and three-quarter
teaspoon of pepper (for smaller fowls use less salt and pepper).
Pour into roasting pan half a cup of boiling water. Place in
oven to roast, and baste frequently with the liquid in the pan,
turning the fowl occasionally to get it nicely browned. Cook
until about one-third done or not entirely tender. Remove from
oven, place on platter, and cut meat from bones. Cut in pieces
that can pass through can openings. Pack dry into hot cans or
skim excess of fat from the gravy and pour over meat in cans
until half an inch from top. Seal and process: No. 2 cans, 55
minutes at 15 pounds of steam pressure.
Game birds may be treated as above, but should be stuffed
with some parsley. Duck, goose, turkey, squab, and guinea may
all be canned in the same way as chicken.
SOUP
The bones of turkey, chicken, goose, or duck, should be cracked
and with what little meat still clings to them they should be
placed in a kettle with the scalded and skinned feet, covered with
cold water, and allowed to simmer for several hours with season-
ing until the bones are exhausted for soup stock. Do not boil.
Cook the stock down until concentrated. Strain and fill boiling
hot into cans to within half an inch of the top of can. Seal and
process: No. 2 cans, 45 minutes at 15 pounds of steam pressure.
POTTED MEAT
What meat was left on the bones may now be removed, ground
finely in a meat grinder, and mixed with salt and spices to taste,







Meat Canning


with a little soup stock or gelatine (dissolved in cold water) added.
(Use to one pound of meat, one teaspoon salt, one-half tea-
spoon pepper, and other spices to suit taste.) Fill hot in No. 1
cans, seal and process: No. 1 flat cans, 35 minutes at 15 pounds
of steam pressure.
RABBIT
Domestic rabbit may be canned following the same directions
as for chicken. Rabbit makes delicious canned meat and may
be well used in the place of chicken, having the added advan.
tage of being all white meat. Wild rabbit has dark meat with a
rather gamey flavor.
BARBECUE MEAT
BEEF, PORK, MUTTON
Properly barbecued meat is a rare treat as all will attest who
have enjoyed its delicious flavor. In fact, meat cooked by the
barbecue method is far superior in taste and texture to meat
cooked by the various "indoor" methods. Slow cooking with low
heat and the judicious basting with delectable sauces leaves the
meat in a marvelously tender and savory condition.
There are many types of outdoor stoves or grills to be made
from cement, brick or stone that are very convenient and
satisfactory. (Fig. 7.)
A most excellent barbecue grill is shown at the bottom of
Fig. 7. In addition to the exposed cooking surface for a sheet iron
plate or bars as preferred, this type provides a good sized oven
around which heat from the fire circulates sufficiently to pro-
vide facilities for roasting or baking. There is also a warming
oven. Any handy man with the drawings provided', can build
this stove which may be used for many purposes. Interesting
devices for lowering or raising the grate or grill may be made
at home or be purchased from the local hotel supply company.
Meat is also commonly barbecued over a pit on a rack made
of heavy wire.
The trench for barbecuing may be about 40 inches deep and
about three feet wide, depending upon the quantity of meat to
be barbecued. To barbecue 100 pounds of meat the trench should
be approximately five feet long. After the fire has been started
and the wood has burned rapidly down to red coals, it is advisable
to cover the pit with heavy chicken wire or hog fencing securely
iBlueprints with exact directions for building this are available to
those interested. These were furnished the State Home Demonstration
Office by Mr. Hugh Roberts of the Portland Cement Association.








Florida Cooperative Extension


ICES CON
ST7Ov


NTArL DRUM
AND TUB


6fRBECLU
SW/TH OV
AND WAR.


Fig. 7.-Different types of stoves and outdoor furnaces suitable for use in canning meats,
cooking barbecue, and related activities.


zla:







Meat Canning


staked. The fire is built at the bottom of the trench and pieces
of wood are added gradually until there is a live bed of coals
about 15 inches thick in the pit. Hard, dry wood (preferably
oak or hickory) should be used. The pieces should not be too
large. After the wood is burned to live coals, spread evenly in
the bottom of the pit. It usually takes about 3 to 31/2 hours to
burn sufficient wood for the amount of live coals necessary. The
meat absorbs the savory smoke from the drippings that fall upon
the live coals. The fire should burn down where it is distinctly
beyond the point where there are any active flames. It is aston-
ishing how little heat is necessary or desirable in cooking meat
in this manner.
Prepare barbecue sauce as follows:
1 pint of vinegar 1 pint of salad oil
2 pound butter 1 bottle worcestershire sauce
1/ cup tomato catsup 8 ounces prepared mustard
Red pepper; black pepper Salt to taste
Mix ingredients thoroughly, keep hot, and swab on the meat
when needed. Make a mop or swab by tying onto a stick several
short pieces of white cloth about two inches long. Dip mop into
barbecue sauce frequently and slap the roasting meat with it so
that whole surface of the roast is basted in this way. Do this at
intervals of 10 minutes during the entire process of cooking.
Above recipe will make enough for about 50 pounds of meat.
This recipe can be modified by adding more vinegar and salad oil.
Normally speaking, 100 pounds of beef will serve approximately
300 people, depending on the generosity of the serving.
If barbecue is to be canned, when meat is partially done, lightly
browned and hot through, cut in convenient pieces, pack in
enameled tins, add boiling hot barbecue sauce to within 1/ inch of
top. Seal at once and process No. 2 tins 55 minutes at 15 pounds
pressure.
BARBECUE CHICKEN, TURKEY, GUINEA, RABBIT, SQUIRREL
Kill and dress fowl or game in the usual way, cutting frying
size chicken down back in halves. Cut rabbit or squirrel into con-
venient pieces and soak in salt water for a few minutes. Place
underside down on a rack over a bed of live coals. Do not cook
too fast. Let sear until white, then baste the fowl or game with
barbecue sauce made as follows:
2 cups catsup 1%/ cup butter or chicken fat
% cup of 5% vinegar 1 tablespoon tabasco sauce
2 tablespoons chopped onions % cup worcestershire sauce
1 teaspoon red pepper 1 teaspoon salt







Florida Cooperative Extension


Mix ingredients and bring to a boil. Baste and turn the meat
until it is lightly brown and thoroughly heated through. If it is
to be canned, separate the legs from the thighs. Remove the
wish-bone. If very large birds, remove the breast bone or per-
haps remove all meat from the bones before packing, in which
case cook on rack until meat will slip from the bone. Keep the
meat in as large pieces as possible. Add sauce, preheat if neces-
sary and seal boiling hot in enameled tins. Process as in recipe
above.
BARBECUED CHICKEN
(Quick Method)
Select chickens weighing 13/ to 2 pounds each. Kill and
dress in the usual way. The breast bone may be removed and
the bird halved if preferred, as removal of this bone facilitates
more rapid cooking. Without salting, place in refrigerator for
chilling at least 12 hours. Ordinary domestic refrigerator may
be used. Remove from refrigerator and sprinkle with salt.
Before cooking, dip each half into a barbecue sauce, the recipe
for which (enough for 12 chickens) follows:
2 14 ounce bottles tomato catsup 2 tablespoons salt
(equivalent to 3 cups) 4 tablespoons prepared mustard
1 cup cider vinegar 14 pound butter
5 tablespoons worcestershire Juice of one medium size onion
sauce Juice of 2 lemons
1 tablespoon tabasco sauce Red and black pepper to taste
Heat vinegar and melt butter. Mix these and bring the mix-
ture to a boil, adding other ingredients.
Have the steam pressure cooker ready. Dip chicken into this
sauce and place, skin down, on elevated rack in cooker. Skin at
bottom retains juices and causes them to permeate meat. Bring
cooker to 10 pounds pressure and cook 10 minutes. Let heat and
pressure recede slowly.
This cooks the meat after which the barbecue is finished by
either of two ways: (1) in an oven under heating unit, or (2)
over barbecue pit with slow heating. Heating too fast dries and
burns the meat.
As it is being barbecued, either in oven or over pit, the chicken
is basted frequently with the same sauce into which the raw
meat was dipped, until lightly browned. Serve hot. It is good
in any season of the year.







Meat Canning


OTHER BARBECUE SAUCES
No. 1


% pound butter
1/2 cups water
% cup vinegar
1 teaspoon mustard
1 tablespoon sugar
2% teaspoons salt
2 teaspoons chili powder


V4 teaspoon red pepper
12 tablespoon worcestershire
sauce
1/ teaspoon tabasco sauce
'/ onion, chopped fine
teaspoon black pepper
% garlic chopped fine


Put ingredients in saucepan, mix thoroughly and simmer 10
minutes. Use to baste roast and also to season barbecue
sandwich.

No. 2
/4. pound butter Juice of a lemon
1 cup vinegar 1 tablespoon chili sauce
% teaspoon dry mustard 2 lemon slices
1 tablespoon chopped onion 1 teaspoon brown sugar
2 tablespoons worcestershire % pod of red pepper (ground)
sauce
Mix all ingredients together; put over a low fire until the
butter melts, then set where it will keep warm. Make a mop or
swab as directed previously and baste the entire surface of the
roasting meat at 10 minute intervals.

No. 3
% cup mild vinegar 1 teaspoon chili powder or
1 tablespoon sugar paprika
V teaspoon salt Dash cayenne pepper
1 teaspoon dry mustard
Boil together about 3 minutes and pour over roasting meat,
basting meat often. This is excellent sauce for reheating cold
slices of beef or pork.


No. 4
1 pound butter or 2 cups bacon
fryings
1 bottle catsup or 1 cup chili
sauce


1 heaping tablespoon salt
Black pepper to taste
cup vinegar or lemon juice
cup steak sauce


Swab the meat with this sauce every time you turn it. A
brown, soft crust will gradually form over the first searing and
the flavor of the sauce will go through the meat.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CANNED MEATS PREPARED IN APPETIZING WAYS
FOR THE TABLE

CANNED SAUSAGE BALLS WITH SCALLOPED POTATOES
Butter a casserole and put in a layer of finely sliced raw pota-
toes and then a layer of canned sausage balls. Alternate layers
of potatoes and sausage until the casserole is filled within 11/2
inches of the top. Cover with milk and season with salt and pep-
per. Bake for about 3/4 hour in slow oven, 3000 F. Serve hot in
casserole.
CANNED PORK SALAD
2 cups diced, canned pork 2 hard cooked eggs
1 medium sized onion chopped 1 cup chopped celery
fine Mayonnaise
1 cup canned peas
Heat canned pork thoroughly in the can in the oven or in
boiling water. Cool, remove bone if any and cut into neat half-
inch dice. Combine the ingredients and moisten thoroughly with
mayonnaise. Served as the meat course with fresh fried pota-
toes, this is a satisfying dish. Chopped head lettuce, cabbage,
chayote or radishes and celery seed may be used in place of the
chopped celery.
PORK CHOP SUEY
11/2 to 2 cups shredded canned, 1 green pepper
lean pork 4 tablespoons soy sauce
2 cups shredded onion 2 tablespoons fat
2 cups shredded celery 1 tablespoon cold water
2 cups sliced raw Jerusalem 2 cups meat broth or thin gravy
artichokes or radishes Salt to taste
1 teaspoon cornstarch
Brown the meat lightly in half of the fat and remove from the
skillet. Cook the pepper and onion in the rest of the fat for a
few minutes. Add the celery, meat, salt, broth or gravy, cover
and simmer for 5 minutes. Mix the cornstarch and water until
smooth. Stir into the mixture and cook for a few minutes longer.
Add the artichoke or radishes. The large Japanese type radish
is to be preferred. Do not overcook-vegetables should retain
their characteristic crispness.
Add soy sauce in sufficient quantity to give the desired flavor
and then salt to taste. Serve with hot, flaky rice.

SHEPHERD PIE
1 pint canned meat cut in 1 tablespoon butter
small cubes 1 tablespoon flour
1 small onion 1 cup mlik
Mashed potatoes







Meat Canning


Melt butter and brown flour and onion in it. Add milk. Bring
to a boil, stirring constantly. Add the meat, season, put into
a greased baking dish, cover with mashed potatoes by spoonfuls,
brush top with milk and bake about half an hour.

BEEFSTEAK PIE
1 can beefsteak 2 tablespoons flour
Seasonings, suet pastry, made of the following:

2 cups flour 5 tablespoons chopped suet
4 teaspoons baking powder /2 teaspoon salt
Make a biscuit crust of the pastry ingredients. Line a round
baking dish with it. Put the can of beefsteak and onions into
it, add 2 tablespoons flour, season if necessary. Cover the top
with the pastry and bake in moderately hot oven 30 to 40
minutes. Serves 4 to 6. Variation: Oyster pie may be made
after the above recipe, substituting 1 can oysters and 1 can
potatoes, cubed, for the beefsteak and onions.

CANNED STEAK
2 cups plain canned steak Vz teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons butter 2 slices crisp bacon
2 cups milk 6 slices toast
2 tablespoons flour
Brown the butter and flour, add milk, bacon, and salt, and
cook. Add the steak in time to heat thoroughly through.

BEEFSTEAK AND ONIONS
Reheat the canned steak. Serve on platter. Cover steak
with 2 cups of onions cooked and browned in butter.

FRICASSEE FROM CANNED BEEF
1 quart can of beef 3 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons of flour 2 cups of boiling water
1 bay leaf 4 cloves
1 onion, sliced ;/4 cup vinegar
1 teaspoon salt 1/ teaspoon pepper
% cup brown sugar 2 or 3 sweet pickles, cut fine
Drain the liquid from the beef and cut meat into cubes. Melt
the butter, cook onion slightly in skillet, then add the flour. Stir
until the mixture browns, but take care that the flour does not
burn. Add the liquid from the meat and the boiling water. Add
all the seasonings, sugar and vinegar. Let simmer 10 minutes.
Strain mixture over meat. Add the pickles, cut fine. Let the
meat simmer in the gravy for 10 minutes and serve hot with
mashed potatoes.







Florida Cooperative Extension


VEAL PIE
1 quart canned veal or beef 2 tablespoons sugar
ground Salt and pepper to taste
1 teaspoon chili powder 1 can tomatoes
1 large onion, chopped Corn meal mush
Brown the onion in a little bacon grease in a large skillet. Add
the meat. After it is slightly browned with the onion, add the
chili powder, salt and pepper, and the tomatoes, sweetened with
sugar. Cover the mixture with a generous layer of cornmeal
mush. Dot the top with butter and bake until the mush is a
golden brown. For variety, green peppers may be sliced and
placed over the tomatoes or split okra. This pie may be made
also with ground fresh beefsteak.
TONGUE A LA MARYLAND
1 canned calf or beef tongue 1 cup of liquid drained from
Y% cup butter canned tongue
1 tablespoon of whole cloves % cup of brown sugar
1 teaspoon salt 1 cup raisins
% bay leaf V lemon, sliced
Place tongue in a covered pan and add butter, salt, cloves, bay
leaf, brown sugar, raisins, liquid, and sliced lemon. Let sim-
mer, covered, on the back of the stove one-half hour. Remove
tongue and cook the liquor until it thickens, then pour over
the tongue.
CHICKEN A LA KING
1 can of chicken 11/' cups liquid, (liquor from
1 green pepper canned chicken, canned
1 small can of mushrooms mushrooms and milk)
2 tablespoons flour 2 tablespoons chopped pimiento-
Seasonings 1/4 cup butter or chicken fat
Make a white sauce of the butter, flour and liquid. Add mush-
rooms, pimiento, and the green pepper, which has been chopped
and sauted in a little fat. Cut the chicken in large sized cubes
and simmer in the sauce for 10 minutes. The dish will lose its
delicacy if cooked rapidly. A tiny bit of onion will improve the
flavor. Serve at once on hot toast, pastry shells or with baking
powder biscuits. Pastry shells may be made by baking pie crust
on the bottom of muffin pans and cutting the shells carefully
apart. Prick the dough before baking so the crust will not
blister.
CHICKEN OR TURKEY WITH DRESSING
Open a can of boned chicken or turkey, empty it into a cov-
ered dish, set inside the oven and heat thoroughly. Arrange
on a dish with the following dressing or any other favorite
dressing recipe.







Meat Canning


DRESSING No. 1
2 cups cornbread Pepper
2 cups soft bread crumbs or Poultry seasoning
biscuit 2 cups scalded milk or broth
V2 cup butter 2 eggs
Salt 'V cup onion chopped fine
Mix bread crumbs, butter, onions and seasonings with milk or
broth to moisten well. Add boiled egg cut in small pieces. Bake
and serve hot with canned boned chicken or turkey as suggested
above.
DRESSING No. 2
FROM HOME-CANNED CORN
Drain a can of corn (whole kernel). Season with cream,
melted butter or chicken fat, salt and pepper. Crumble in corn-
flakes, cornbread, biscuit or a slice or two of day-old bread or a
mixture of biscuit and cornbread. Minced onion cooked in the
fat, a minced green pepper, celery or parsley are all good addi-
tions to home-canned corn stuffing.
CREAMED CHICKEN OR TURKEY
1/ teaspoon salt 1 cup milk
Dash of pepper 2 tablespoons flour
1 No. 1 can boned chicken or 2 tablespoons fat
turkey
Use double boiler. Melt fat, add flour and seasoning. Add
cold milk and cook 5 minutes. Mix with this sauce a No. 1 can
of chicken or turkey. Leave in double boiler until the meat
is thoroughly heated. Serve in any of the following ways:
(a) on squares or rounds of toast; (b) with hot biscuit; (c) in
ramekins with buttered bread crumbs or mashed potatoes on
top; (d) in pastry shells.
CORN AND CHICKEN CASSEROLE
1 small onion, chopped 1 No. 2 can or 21/ cups whole
1 tablespoon chopped green grain corn
pepper 1 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon chopped pimiento 2 tablespoons flour
3 tablespoons fat Buttered crumbs
2 cups canned chicken, cut in
cubes
Cook the onion, green pepper, and pimiento in the fat until
the vegetables are tender. Add corn, salt, and flour mixed to
a smooth paste with a little cold water. Cook slowly, stirring
constantly, until thick. Put the corn mixture and chicken in a
greased casserole, in alternate layers. Cover with buttered
crumbs. Bake in a moderate oven (3750) until well browned.
If desired, 11/2 cups canned okra may be added to the corn mix-







Florida Cooperative Extension


ture before it is baked. Serves 8. This dish may be prepared
in advance, then baked just before serving.

CREAMED SWEETBREADS
Prepare 2 cups of medium cream sauce. Add the sweetbreads
from a No. 2 tin which have been cut in shall cubes. Add one
cup cooked peas or 1 of asparagus tips. Season delicately with
salt and pepper. Serve on toast rounds.
TRIPE OYSTERS
No. 1 can tripe 2 tablespoons cold water
Fine bread or cracker crumbs Salt
1 egg, beaten Pepper
Sprinkle tripe with salt and pepper if needed and cut it into
oblongs the size of an oyster. Dip in fine crumbs, then in beaten
egg to which the water has been added, then in crumbs again.
Fry in hot fat until brown. Serve with a border of cole slaw
or slices of points of lemon with finely chipped parsley sprinkled
over them. Fresh tripe may be used by first simmering for 1
hour in water to cover. Then proceed as with the canned.

TRIPE ROLL
Tripe roll is a delicious luncheon dish. Tripe should be canned
in one piece. Boil, mash and season four medium sized potatoes.
Add one tablespoon of chopped onion, two cups of soft bread
crumbs, one-half green pepper chopped fine, one pimiento chopped
fine, one teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon pepper and a little
paprika and three tablespoons bacon fat. Lay tripe on board
and spread with the mixture. Roll tightly and tie with string.
Roll in flour, then in drippings, and again in flour. Lay six
strips of bacon over top. Bake for about 45 minutes at a tem-
perature of 350 F. until well browned. Cut roll into slices for
serving and cover with hot tomato sauce highly seasoned. For
additional flavor, saute the onion and pepper in fat, toss in bread
crumbs, then add to remaining ingredients and spread on tripe.
TRIPE A LA CREOLE
1 No. 2 can tripe 1 tablespoon worcestershire
2 cups tomatoes sauce
3 tablespoons bacon drippings 2 tablespoons flour
2 tablespoons chopped green 2 teaspoons salt
pepper is teaspoon paprika
3 tablespoons chopped onion
Melt drippings in frying pan; add onion and cook until brown,
add tomatoes and cook 10 minutes. Mash through strainer and
add flour which has been mixed with cold water; boil 5 minutes,






Meat Canning 41

season. Cut tripe into small pieces, sprinkle with flour, brown
on both sides in hot drippings, add green pepper and then add
to sauce. Garnish with boiled rice and parsley. Serves 4.
SCRAMBLED BRAINS WITH EGGS
No. 1 can brains 2 tablespoons minced parsley
3 eggs 1 tablespoon grated onion
2 tablespoons butter Salt
4 slices of toast Pepper
Cut or chop brains into small pieces; put into frying pan in
which butter and onion have been heated, and stir until brains
are lightly cooked. Add eggs, beaten with two tablespoons of
cold water; cook over moderate fire and stir until set. Season
and serve on toast garnished with parsley. When fresh brains
are used, soak for 30 minutes in cold water, skin and remove all
fibre. Then prepare as above. Serves 6.







Florida Cooperative Extension


TIME TABLE FOR PROCESSING MEATS-COOKED AND
PREHEATED

No. 2 tins No. 3 tins or
Meat according to preparation or pint jars quart jars Pounds
Sealed hot-170'-1800 F. processed processed of
Minutes Minutes Pressure

Roasts:
Beef ......... ...... .... .......... ......... 55 65 15
M utton ................... .....-.... ......... 55 65 15
Veal ............... ....- -.............-- .. 55 65 15
Steaks ................ .......... ..... .....- 50 60 15
Stew s ... ................... ......... ... 50 60 15
Soups -... .. .......... -- .. .... ..... ... 50 55 15
Meat Loaf-Hamburger ........-..-.. 55 60 15
Spare Ribs-pork sausage -....... .. .. 60 70 15
Head Cheese-scrapple ....-............... 65 75 15
Mince Meat ........ ...... .... ......... 50 60 15
Plum Pudding ........................................ 2 hrs. 10
Corned Beef ....................... ................ 55 65 15
Brains ........................ .................. 55 65 15
Sweetbreads ..-......-----...--.-- -............ --55 65 15
Liver Paste ........... --..-.... --..... .. ....... 60 70 15
Tongue .................................. ........... 60 70 15
Chicken- roast ..................................... 55 65 15
Chicken- soup ................................... 45 55 15
Barbecue Beef, Pork, Mutton .............. 55 65 15
Barbecue Chicken, Rabbit ......... 55 65 15


In processing pork, 5 minutes should
time given for beef.


always be added to the processing