• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Credits
 Feed shortage and substitution...
 Requirements of poultry
 Feed for hatchability
 Reference














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division ; no. 118
Title: Managing poultry under war-time conditions
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026131/00001
 Material Information
Title: Managing poultry under war-time conditions
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 16 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Moore, Oscar Keeling, 1916-
Mehrhof, N. R ( Norman Ripley ), b. 1899
Publisher: Florida Extension Bulletin
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1943>
 Subjects
Subject: Poultry -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 14-15).
Statement of Responsibility: O.K. Moore, N.R. Mehrhof.
General Note: "January, 1943."
General Note: <Revised see no. 71 Ext. Circulars>
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026131
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002571126
oclc - 44716424
notis - AMT7441
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Feed shortage and substitutions
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Requirements of poultry
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Feed for hatchability
        Page 13
    Reference
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida
















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AGRICUL-iPS Af I` -j ECONOMIC

a c:sf y f8and jJj30, 1914)
A ICUL OXL/ S"' (JiY"I Ir O FL AIA,
rFLOur A STATI CcL Uro roF Wo ,
AND n D STAT e D InA "T 'NT O A:F! At ojrLoIt
r-O WW"Ar 3 Nwx., WD

BOARD OF CONTROL
H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak THOSE. W. BRYANT, Lakeland
R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director of Extension'
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor'
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor1
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor'
FRANK M. DENNIS, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'
Cooperative Agricultural Demonstration Work
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Coordinator with AAA
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist and District Agent
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Coordinator with AAA
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
N. H. McQUEEN, B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman'
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
V. V. BOWMAN, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist'
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., Soil Conservationist
Cooperative Home Demonstration Work
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Specialist
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
Negro Extension Work
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent
SPart-time.








FEEDING AND MANAGING POULTRY UNDER
WAR-TIME CONDITIONS
0. K. MOORE1 and N. R. MEHRHOF

The Food for Freedom program necessitates increased produc-
tion of eggs and poultry meat. These increases may be obtained
by using substitutes in poultry rations, increasing the number of
chickens raised and layers housed, and by adopting better feeding
and management practices.
Under wartime conditions, many feedstuffs which normally
are used in poultry rations for chickens of all ages may become
scarce, high in price or even unavailable. Since many feedstuffs
for poultry have become scarce and high in price, it is necessary
for the poultryman to make adjustment in his feeding program
to provide the great quantities of eggs and poultry meat needed
for domestic consumption and for the Allied Nations.

FEED SHORTAGE AND SUBSTITUTIONS
Curtailment of fish oil importations from Norwegian waters,
diversion of dried milk products to human dietary needs, and
shortages of meat scraps and fish meal make it necessary for the
poultry feeder to look for additional sources of vitamins A and D,
protein concentrates and riboflavin, and water-soluble factors
associated with the latter.
In the future other shortages of feeds used in poultry rations
may develop and feeds used at present may become unavailable.
So it is important that the feeder know more about the funda-
mentals of poultry nutrition and know how to make substitutions
as conditions change to secure the best possible production
efficiency.
PROTEIN SUBSTITUTES
With meat scraps, fish meal, and dried milk products scarce,
feeders must use vegetable sources of proteins to replace most of
the mineral sources of protein that have been used.
Wilgus, Norris, Heuser (9) have shown that properly heat-
treated soybean oil meal has about the same biological value as
meat scrap containing 55 percent protein. Soybean oil meal con-
tains 43.9 percent protein and is one of our best sources of plant
protein concentrate. Soybean oil meal is properly heat-treated

'Assistant professor of poultry husbandry, University of Florida.






Florida Cooperative Extension


at the processing plants. If raw soybeans are fed to poultry the
beans should be boiled first for about an hour. This heat-treat-
ment will greatly increase the feeding value of the protein borne
by the beans.
Peanut meal containing 45.7 percent protein is another good
substitute feedstuff. The biological value of peanut meal has not
been determined but it contains more vitamin A and pantothenic
acid and less riboflavin than soybean oil meal.
These two vegetable proteins contain about one-half the quan-
tity of riboflavin (vitamin G) that is found in either meat scrap
or fish meal. They contain smaller quantities of calcium and
phosphorus than do feedstuffs of animal origin. When soybean
oil meal and peanut meal are used to replace part of the animal
sources of protein it is necessary to supplement the mixture with
ingredients to offset these riboflavin and mineral deficiencies.
Unless animal protein concentrates are absolutely prohibitive
(in cost and quantity) peanut meal and soybean oil meal should
not totally replace them. Experiments indicate that at least 20
percent of the total protein in a breeding ration should come
from an animal source (meat scrap, fish meal, milk products,
crab meal, shrimp meal, and shark meal). There are some indi-
cations that fairly satisfactory results can be obtained with less
than 20 percent of the total protein obtained from animal sources
for layers.
MILK PRODUCTS
Various milk products have been used with splendid success in
poultry feeding. Tables 1, 2 and 3 show the composition of
several milk products. With apparent shortages and higher
prices it may be necessary to reduce or eliminate them from the
ration. However, dried whey production has been accelerated
during the past two years, and this product may be used to re-
place the dried milk which has been diverted to human needs.
Dried whey is higher in riboflavin and pantothenic acid than
other milk products, but lower in protein, calcium and phos-
phorus than dried skimmilk or dried buttermilk. About two-
thirds as much whey as dried milk may be used with the differ-
ence in protein concentration being made up with soybean oil
meal, peanut meal or some other high protein feedstuff.

VITAMINS A AND D
In Florida, if birds of all ages are allowed out of doors in the
sunlight, it is not necessary to add any vitamin D to the ration.







TABLE 1.-AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF INGREDIENTS USED IN FEEDING
CHICKENS AND TURKEYS.'


Carbohydrates
Percent Percent
Ingredients Crude Percent Nitro-
Protein Crude gen-free
S Fiber Extract


Alfalfa leaf meal ........
Alfalfa meal ...............
Barley ............................
Bonemeal, steamed .....
Brewer's grain, dried
Buttermilk, liquid .........
Buttermilk, condensed
Buttermilk, dried .........
Cabbage ...............
Cane molasses ...........
Carrots ......... ..... ...
C orn ...........................
Corn, Argentine ........
Corn m eal ............ ....
Corn gluten meal .......
Cottonseed meal
(41% protein) .........
Cowpeas ............
Crab m eal .................
Distiller's grains (corn)
Feterita ............ .-. ...
Field peas .-..................
Fish meal (average of
unidentified fish meals)
K afir ........ ...............
K ale ...... ......................
Linseed meal
(old process) ...........
Meat scraps
(55% protein) ........
Meat and bone scraps
(50% protein) .....
M illet (proso) ............
M ilo ............... .........- .
Oats (ground or whole)
Oatmeal, or rolled oats
Peanut meal (no hulls,
old process) .............
Potatoes .................... .
Shallu .......... .. ........
Shark meal .............
Shrimp meal (or bran)
Skimmilk, liquid .........
Skimmilk, dried ......
Soybean oil meal ........
Sunflower seeds (hulled)
Tankage (60% protein)
W heat ........................
W heat bran ...............
Wheat middlings,
standard ...................
Wheat shorts (gray) ..
W hey, dried ................
Yeast, brewers' dried


20.4
16.0
11.8
13.0
26.2
3.2
10.6
33.4
1.8
3.0
1.1
9.3
11.0
8.8
43.0

41.8
23.5
34.7
31.2
13.2
23.3

60.4
11.5
2.4

35.3

55.2

50.0
11.6
11.0
11.2
16.2

45.7
2.0
12.9
84.2'
42.0
3.5
35.0
43.9
28.0
59.8
12.4
15.6

16.9
17.6
12.5
46.5


40.1
37.2
66.9
2.8
41.8
4.6
12.2
44.0
5.2
64.0
7.9
71.2
68.8
75.5
42.1

27.1
56.3
6.5
37.5
70.2
57.0

3.5
70.1
5.3

35.0

1.0

1.8
63.1
70.9
59.5
64.2

24.0
17.7
70.0
?
1.4
5.1
50.0
30.0
16.2
1.8
70.5
55.1

56.6
58.0
71.7
35.3


SData mainly that of Titus (8).
2 Nitrogen x 6.25.


Percent Percent Percent
Crude Ash Mois-
Fat ture


2.6 12.0 7.8
2.5 8.7 8.3
2.1 2.9 10.4
6.5 73.8 3.1
6.6 3.7 7.0
0.6 0.8 90.8
2.1 3.5 71.6
5.0 10.1 7.1
0.3 0.8 90.8
0.0 8.2 24.8
0.3 1.1 88.4
4.2 1.3 11.9
5.7 1.7 11.0
2.5 0.9 11.2
1.9 1.5 8.9

6.4 5.8 7.5
1.5 3.5 11.1
2.1 40.1 8.1
10.5 2.3 7.0
3.0 1.6 10.2
1.2 3.3 9.3

7.7 19.7 8.0
3.1 1.6 11.7
0.5 1.9 88.4

6.0 5.8 9.4

10.7 24.2 6.7

10.9 29.2 6.0
3.6 3.4 9.6
2.9 2.0 11.0
4.5 3.4 10.1
6.7 2.2 8.6

8.6 5.6 6.9
0.1 0.9 78.8
3.5 1.8 10.0
2.3 11.1 8.6
2.2 33.9 11.0
0.2 0.7 90.5
1.1 7.9 6.0
5.5 5.6 9.1
41.0 3.8 5.0
8.2 19.5 8.0
1.9 1.8 11.0
4.2 5.9 10.2

4.7 4.1 11.1
4.5 4.1 10.3
0.7 8.5 6.3
2.8 7.3 7.0








Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE 2.-AVERAGE CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS, AND MANGANESE CONTENT OF
INGREDIENTS USED IN FEEDING CHICKENS AND TURKEYS.1


Ingredients


Calcium Phosphorus Manganese
(Ca) (P) (Mn)
I Percent Percent Parts per million


Alfalfa leaf meal .................... 1.90
Alfalfa meal ......-...................... 1.44
B arley ............. ....... .................... 0.05
Bonemeal, steamed ...................... 28.80
Brewers' grain, dried .................: 0.20
Buttermilk, liquid ......................... 0.18
Buttermilk, condensed .................. 0.56
Buttermilk, dried ......... .. 1.56
Cabbage ........................................ 0.07
Cane molasses ...--............ .... I 0.56
Carrots ................... .......... ... 0.06
Clam shell (crushed or ground) 38.90
Coquina shell
(crushed or ground) ....-.. .... 38.71
Corn ............... ........ ...- 0.01
Corn m eal ............... ................... 0.01
Corn gluten meal ........................ 0.06
Cottonseed meal (41% protein) 0.23
Cowpeas ..................................... 0.10
Crab m eal .................................... 13.25
Distillers' grains (corn) ............. 0.04
Feterita ............. ...... ............... 0.02
Field peas -................... ......... 0.08
Fish meal (average of
unidentified meals) ................. 6.50
K afir ........................ ...... ...... 0.03
K ale .............................. .... ... I 0.18
Limestone (high calcium) -...... 39.20
Linseed meal (old process) ........ 0.33
Manganous sulfate, anhydrous ... 0.00
Meat scrap (55% protein) ........ 8.25
Meat-and-bone scrap ............. 10.20
M illet (proso) ........... ........ .....| 0.01
M ilo ................ ........... ............. 0.04
Oats ................................... .. ........I 0.10
Oatmeal, or rolled oats ......... 0.08
Oyster shell (crushed or ground) 38.40
Peanut meal (old process) .......... 0.18
Potatoes ..................... .............. 0.02
Shark m eal ................. ..... *
Skimmilk, liquid ....................... 0.13
Skimmilk, dried ............... 1.27
Soybean oil meal ................ 0.29
Sunflower seed ................. ....... 0.41
Tankage (60% protein) ............... 7.16
W heat ................................ 0.04
W heat bran .............. ... ........ 0.11
Wheat middlings, standard ....... 0.08
W heat shorts .................-.............. 0.08
W hey, dried ... ............. ............. I 0.83
Yeast, dried ........................... ... 1.26


0.22 30
0.21 26
0.36 16
13.34 5
0.46 20
0.10 Trace
0.33 0.2
1.05 | 0.4
0.04 21
0.06
0.07 *
0.00 *

- 0.04 *
0.29 5
0.30 4
0.40 4
1.18 18
0.46 30
0.50
0.30 20
0.32 *
0.40 30

3.60 45
0.35 16
0.07 *
0.00 200
0.74 40
0.00 36.3"
4.00 18
4.91 10
0.33 35
0.32 15
0.36 34
0.44 20
0.05 *
0.56 *
0.06 3
1.49 *
0.11 Trace
0.96 0.6
0.69 30
0.99 *
3.53 14
0.39 39
1.21 119
0.93 119
0.93 60
0.70 14
1.21 2


1Data mainly that of Titus (8).
SThis figure is expressed as percent, instead of p.p.m.
*Information lacking.








Managing Poultry Under War-Time Conditions


TABLE 3.-AVERAGE


VITAMIN CONTENT OF INGREDIENTS USED IN FEEDING
CHICKENS AND TURKEYS.1


Ingredients


Alfalfa leaf meal,
dehydrated 95,000
dehydrated .................. 95,000
Alfalfa leaf meal,
suncured ...................... 32,000
Barley ................... ......400
Buttermilk, liquid ......... 25
Buttermilk, dried .......... 200
Cabbage ........................ 200
Cane molasses ................. *
Carrots ............... ... ...... 18,200
Cod liver oil ....................1 340,190
Cod liver oil, fortified .... 1,362,000
Corn, yellow .................... 3,180
Corn, white ..........-........ 0
Corn gluten meal
(yellow ) ....-........... .... 6,800
Cottonseed meal
(41% protein) ......... 600
Cowpeas ...................... 1,360
Field peas ...................... 2,720
Fish meal (average of
unidentified meals) ...... *
K afir .................................. 250
K ale .................. ....... ...- 181,400
Linseed meal
(old process) .............. 200
Meat scrap .............. ....
M ilo .............. ....-........ .... 250
Oats ................................... 80
Oatmeal, or rolled oats
Peanut meal
(no hulls; old process)' 250
Potatoes ............................ 220
Shark liver oil .................! 4,086,000
Skimmilk, liquid ........., 15
Skimmilk, dried .......... 130
Soybean oil meal .......... 170
W heat ............................ I 140
Wheat bran .................... 150
Wheat middlings,
standard ..................... 120
Wheat shorts .......-......... 120
Whey, dried ................ *
Yeast, brewers', dried .... *


-Q -
IauS


>0)
><<,
5.


I -
14
Trace

Trace
;


45,360
181,600

i


1,800
450
450

*
100

2,000 -


270 -
230

900
80 -
15,
40 -
400 -
900 Tr
340 -
450 -

1,000
1,000

4,500


8,000

7,000
400
1,200
9,000
100
2,000
120
0
0
450
450

0

300
350
*


S 3,317
S 2* *
- 2,240


x
S *



xx
iXX
*
890 *
x

ace *
xx
S xx

-- xxx
S xxx

0


900
2,700
400
400
*

1,200
55
*
1,000
9,500
1,400
400
1,000

900
900
12,000
16,000
1


SData mainly that of Titus (7)
SDashes ( I indicate that the ingredient contains no appreciable amount of vita-
min D.
3x Fair source; xx Good source; xxx Very good source.
Information lacking.


1


i


i






Florida Cooperative Extension


But chicks confined to brooder houses, broilers raised indoors
either in batteries or on the floor, or layers confined to cages or
laying houses need vitamin D added to their rations.
Shortages of cod liver oil, primarily used as a source of vitamin
D but also used for vitamin A, have made it necessary to use a
substitute. A new product known as D-activated animal sterol of
high vitamin D potency has been developed and poultry feeders
will have an ample supply of this important vitamin. D-activated
animal sterol is equally as valuable, unit for unit, as the vitamin
D in cod liver oil.
As the new vitamin D product does not contain vitamin A it is
necessary to use other sources of feedstuffs to raise the vitamin
A level of the ration. Green forage, lawn clippings, alfalfa leaf
meals and yellow corn are additional sources of vitamin A.

PASTURES FOR GREEN FEED
In war-time green forage crops are of utmost importance.
Young tender grasses and leafy material can go a long way in
solving the vitamin problem. Green feeds are good sources of
vitamin A, riboflavin and other associated factors in the vitamin
G complex.
In rations lacking vitamin A or G, green feed should be used
as a supplement to increase egg production, improve hatchability,
insure rapid growth and protect chicks against curled-toe pa-
ralysis and dermatitis.
Green pastures reduce feed cost by reducing consumption of
mash and grain. It has been shown that laying birds receiving
succulent green feed will consume 10 percent less mash and grain.
Lawn clippings from the yard or from a golf course make ex-
cellent sources of greens for birds. For additional information
relative to green feed refer to Florida Extension Circular 59,
Green Feed for Poultry in Florida.
Green grass and Florida sunshine insure protection for birds
against nutritional deficiencies resulting from an inadequate
amount of vitamins A, D, and G.

ADDITIONAL SUBSTITUTES
A number of by-products of the fermentation industries, such
as dried fermentation residues and dried distillers' grains, are on
the market. These are rich sources of riboflavin, pantothenic
acid and vitamin B. They can be substituted appropriately for
dried milk, as can dried whey.






Managing Poultry Under War-Time Conditions


Large supplies of wheat are available and when other cereal
grains becomes scarce or high priced, extra wheat may be incor-
porated in the ration. Ground wheat may be used in the mash to
replace up to half of the yellow corn meal, wheat bran, wheat
shorts, or ground oats. It is desirable to have some wheat bran
or ground oats in the ration to provide the proper bulk which
is essential for a good ration. When ground wheat is used to re-
place yellow corn meal there is a decrease in the carotene or
vitamin A content of the ration, since the former contains very
little and the latter is a good source of this vitamin. Therefore,
it is advisable not to replace more than half the yellow corn with
wheat. In addition, it is undesirable to replace more than half
of these ingredients with ground wheat due to the laxative effect
that large quantities of wheat will have upon the birds.

REQUIREMENTS OF POULTRY
Table 4 shows the nutrient requirements of chickens and tur-
keys for satisfactory growth and egg production. Tables 1, 2, 3
and 4 give all the essential information required in formulating
a completely balanced ration for chicks, poults, layers, breeding
chickens or turkeys. Table 5 gives a suggested schedule of sub-
stitutions of dried whey, soybean meal and peanut meal for dried
skimmilk. The table also shows the quantity of soybean oil meal
or peanut meal required to give the same protein level when these
materials are substituted for meat scraps or fish meal. It should
be emphasized, however, that when these plant materials are
substituted for animal products there is an appreciable decrease
in vitamin G and mineral content.

FEED FOR GROWTH
Baby chicks need a well balanced diet to grow normally. Table
4 gives the nutrient requirements of baby chicks and growing
poults. A starting mash containing about 21 percent protein
should be fed for the first 6 weeks, after which a growing mash
and grain mixture should be fed, the average composition of both
being about 16 percent protein. Chicks should be allowed to run
on a green pasture as early as weather conditions permit. Fine
grit should be supplied to chicks and growing pullets either in
the feed or in separate feeders. The quantity of grain fed to
growing pullets should be increased gradually so that birds at
about 15 weeks of age are consuming approximately equal
quantities of mash and grain by weight. From 15 weeks of age












TABLE 4.-PROTEIN, MINERAL AND VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS FOR CHICKENS AND TURKEYS.

Chickens Turkeys
Nutrients Growing Laying Breeding Growing Breeding
SChicks Stock Stock Poults Stock

Protein,' percent of total feed2 ....... .......................... ......... 21" 16 16 25 16 1

Calcium, percent of total feed ............................ ............. ..... 1.1 2.4 2.4 1.6 2.4

Phosphorus, percent of total feed ............ ..................... 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

Manganese in total feed, parts per million .... ....... 50 50 50 50 50

Vitamin A, international units per lb. total feed ........................ 1,450 3,150 4,720 3,630 4,720

Vitamin B, international units per lb. of total feed .......-...... 180 180 180 180 180"

Vitamin D, international units per lb. of total feed ................ 180 360 540 360 540

Vitamin G, riboflavin, micrograms' per lb. of total feed .......... 1,670 680 1,250 1,670 1,250

pantothenic acid, milligrams5 per lb.of total feed .. 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

SAt least 20% of the protein content of the ration should be derived from animal sources.
2 All protein, mineral and vitamin requirements are stated in terms of total feed consumed; thus, where all-mash is fed, it must contain the
nutrients stated; where scratch and grain is fed, the average composition of the two mixes should contain the nutrients stated.
3 The protein level for growing pullets may be reduced to 16% at 6 weeks of age. In broiler rations the protein level should be maintained at
21% until the birds are sold at 10 to 14 weeks of age.
One microgram 1/1,000,000 of a gram or 1/28,000,000 of an ounce.
5 One milligram = 1/1,000 of a gram. Multiply milligrams times 1,000 to convert to micrograms.





TABLE 5.-TABLE OF SUBSTITUTIONS FOR DRIED SKIMMILK, MEAT SCRAP AND FISH MEAL.


Ingredients


In place of 1 pound Dried skimmilk containing ....
Use,
(a) Peanut m eal .............................. 0.5 lb.
Alfalfa leaf meal (dehydrated) 0.1 lb......
Dried whey ................ .... ........- 0.4 lb. -
1.0 lb.


Soybean m eal ............ .............
Alfalfa leaf meal (dehydrated)
Dried w hey ..............................


Soybean m eal ........................
Peanut m eal .................... ....
Alfalfa leaf meal (dehydrated)
Dried whey ..............................-


0.6 lb.
0.1 lb.
0.3 lb.
1.0 lb.

0.2 lb.
0.3 lb.
0.1 lb.
0.4 lb.
1.0 lb.


In place of 1 pound meat scrap (55%) containing
Use,
(a) Peanut meal- 1.2 lbs ...... ....... .... ......
or
(b) Soybean meal-1.25 lbs ...............................


In place of 1 pound fish meal" containing
Use,
(a) Peanut meal-1.3 lbs ........................


or
(b) Soybean meal-1.37 lbs.


Vitamin Vitamin
A, B,
Protein Inter- Inter-
Percent national national
Units Units
per lb. per lb.


35.0 130 400


32.1


9,602


585





495


29.5 9,609


55.0

55.0

54.9


300

212.5


1,080

1,125


325 1,170

233 1,233


Vitamin
D,1
A.O.A.C.
Chick
Units
per lb.


Trace





Trace






Trace


Trace


Vitamin
E"


Vitamin
I
Ribo-
flavin,
Micro-
grams
per lb. I


9,500


6,200




5,240


6,240


S 2,700

xx 1,440
* 1,750
4,500

xx 1,560

:* 1,918


G
'anto-
thenic
Acid,
Milli-
grams
er lb.
15.9


26.7 ^




13.7





20.3
S'.
1.3

30.5

8.0
1.3

33.0

8.8


1 Dashes (- -) indicate that the feedstuff contains no appreciable amount of vitamin D.
Sx Fair source; xx Good source; xxx Very good source; xxxx Excellent source.
3 At least 20% of the total protein in the ration should be derived from animal sources. Where these substitutions are made, compensations must
be made in the ration to supplant the decrease in vitamin G and mineral level.
Information lacking.


...... .


..............
- - - -


~







Florida Cooperative Extension


until pullets start laying they should consume more grain than
mash. Oyster shell should be hopper-fed after grain feeding is
started. For further information on feeding and disease control
of chicks and pullets refer to Florida Extension Bulletin 94,
Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets. For wartime starting and
growing rations refer to Table 6.

TABLE 6.-FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION REGULAR
STARTING RATION FOR CHICKS WITH WAR-TIME SUBSTITUTIONS.2

Ingredients Regular Wartime
(a) (b) (c)
Yellow corn meal .......... 40 lbs. 40 lbs. 40 lbs. 40 lbs.
W heat bran ................... 15 15 15 15
W heat shorts .........-- ..-- 10 10 10 10
Meat scraps or fish meal 10 10 10 10
Ground oats .............. 10 10 10 10
Dried skimmilk .......... 10
Alfalfa leaf meal ........ 2 3 3 3
Ground clam, coquina
or oyster shell .......... 2 2 2 2
Salt ................................. 1 1 1 1
Dried whey ............... 4 3 4
Peanut meal .... 5 | 3
Soybean meal ....... 6 2

SWar-time rations devised on the basis of schedule of substitutions given in Table 5.
SBy feeding grain with this starting mash from six weeks of age to maturity it makes
a good growing mash. Oyster shell should be provided when grain is fed to growing birds.

FEED FOR EGG PRODUCTION
Heavy feed consumption is one of the essentials for high egg
production. The number of eggs a flock of birds will produce
increases with the quantity of feed consumed.
In winter especially, methods should be used to encourage
heavier feed consumption. In addition to the normal method of
feeding dry mash ad libitum and grain once daily in the late after-
noon, moist or crumbly mash or soaked grain with milk may be
fed.
The feed should not be allowed to become stale. A fresh sup-
ply should be available continuously.
The amount of feeding space influences production. Under
average conditions about 24 feet of feed space is optimum for
100 birds. The feed troughs should be about 18 inches off the
floor.
In brief, we must induce greater feed consumption by various
devices to insure economical, efficient egg yields. Substitute feeds







Managing Poultry Under War-Time Conditions


must be sought, yet the feeding efficiency of the newly formulated
ration must be as high as, if not even higher than, that of pre-
viously used mixes because now, more than ever before, it is im-
perative that high production and more efficient production be
obtained.
Suggested wartime laying rations are given in Table 7.

TABLE 7.-FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION REGULAR LAYING
AND BREEDING RATION FOR CHICKENS WITH WAR-TIME SUBSTITUTIONS.1

Ingredients Regular Wartime | (
(a) (b) (c)

Mash
Yellow corn meal ....... 10.0 lbs.' 10.0 lbs. 10.0 lbs. 10.0 lbs.
Wheat bran ................ 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Ground oats ............. 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Wheat shorts ............... 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Meat scraps ............ 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5
Dried skimmilk ......... 2.5
Alfalfa leaf meal ........ 2.5 2.8 2.8 2.8
Ground clam, coquina
or oyster shell .. 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
Salt .............................. 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Dried whey ............ .. 1.0 0.8 1.0
Peanut meal ....-........... 1.3 0.8
Soybean meal ............ 1.5 0.5
Scratch
Corn ........... ..... ......... 100 100
W heat ............. ......... 100 200
Oats ....................... i 100 100

1These rations should be supplemented with continuous feeding of clam, coquina or
oyster shell, grit and green feed.
*Use a combination of the three grains, depending upon availability and price.

FEED FOR HATCHABILITY

A better ration is required for the production of hatching eggs
than for table eggs. The hen must store in the egg all the nu-
trients needed for development of the chick embryo. The breed-
er's ration should be especially rich in vitamins, A, D, E, and G.
At least 20 percent of the protein in breeding rations should be
derived from animal sources. Experiments have demonstrated
that without some animal protein ingredient in a breeder ration,
eggs fail to hatch.
Byerly and his co-workers (1, 2) found second-week embryo
mortality to be high when breeding stock was fed heavily on pro-
teins of plant sources while mortality was low at this time when
animal protein was fed. Feeding green grass to breeders, how-







Florida Cooperative Extension


ever, alleviated the condition. Parkhurst (6) also has shown
that maximum hatchability is obtained only when a sufficient
quantity of animal protein is included in the ration.
Titus and others (8) found that meat scraps contain an un-
known factor, aside from riboflavin, which increases hatchability.
This unidentified factor likewise seems to be present in green
grasses, the work of Nestler and co-workers (5) and that of Hunt,
Record and Bethke (4) show. Dearstyne and his associates (3)
found that peanut meal, when used to replace a part of the animal
protein in a ration, did not decrease hatchability.
These experiments indicate that a basic quantity of animal
protein material should be kept in a breeder ration. At least a
fifth of the protein in a breeder mash should be from animal
sources. Using this quantity of animal protein in the ration and
feeding ample feed should maintain good hatchability. If it
should become necessary to conserve laying mash due to scarcity,
it should be conserved by feeding more grain to layers,
but by all means breeding stock should be given all the mash that
the birds can consume to assure consumption of sufficient vita-
mins to maintain hatchability.


REFERENCES
1. BYERLY, T. C., HARRY W. TITUS and N. R. ELLIS. Production and
hatchability of eggs as affected by different kinds and quantities of
protein in the diet of laying hens. Jour. Agr. Res. 46: 1-22. 1933.
2. BYERLY, T. C., HARRY W. TITUS, N. R. ELLIS and R. B. NESTLER. Effect
of light, soybean and other diet supplements on seasonal hatchability
and egg production. Poultry Sci. 16: 322. 1937.

3. DEARSTYNE, R. S., C. O. BOLLINGER and H. P. BRIGMAN. Effect of sub-
stituting peanut meal in part for the animal protein in laying mash
on egg production, hatchability and livability of chicks. N. C. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 326. 1940.
4. HUNT, C. H., P. R. RECORD and R. M. BETHKE. Observations on the
vitamin G requirement of the chicken. Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta. Bimonth-
ly Bul. 183: 127-130. 1936.

5. NESTLER, R. B., T. C. BYERLY, N. R. ELLIS and HARRY W. TITUS. A new
factor, not vitamin G, necessary for hatchability. Poultry Sci.
15: 67-70. 1936.

6. PARKHURST, R. T. The value of certain feeds of high vitamin content
for laying hens. Third World's Poultry Congress Proc., pp. 221-226.
1927.







Managing Poultry Under War-Time Conditions 15

7. TITUS, HARRY W. Practical nutritive requirement of poultry. USDA
Yearbook of Agriculture, pp. 787-818. 1939.

8. TITUS, HARRY W., T. C. BYERLY, N. R. ELLIS and R. B. NESTLER. Effect
of packing-house by-products, in the diet of chickens, on the produc-
tion and hatchability of eggs. Jour. Agr. Res. 53: 453-465. 1936.

9. WILGUS, H. S., L. C. NORRIS and G. F. HEUSER. The relative protein
efficiency and the relative vitamin G contents of common protein sup-
plements used in poultry rations. Jour. Agr. Res. 51: 399. 1935.





TABLE 8.-CALCULATION SHEET FOR COMPUTING THE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF A FEED MIXTURE.
Purpose:
Kind: UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Starting ( )
Chicken ( ) FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION Growing ( )
Turkey ( ) COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE Broiler ( )
All-Mash ( ) Laying ( )
Mash and Grain ( ) POULTRY RATION WORK SHEET Breeding ( )
Fattening ( )
Ingredients I Lbs. i1 NUTRIENTS MINERALS I VITAMINS
Protein Fat Fiber Calcium Phosphorus Manganese I 1 Pantothenic
parts per A B) D Riboflavin acid
% b b lb I o % b 100 In per In per In per I In grams In grams! In
S_ lIb feed feed eed ed feed lb feed I per lb feed per lb feed
I- -

i___I!___ I I I i
I I II i ii __ I

_ __i l I I I i l I II


I-fl I


per lb
Minimum I
requirement


I I i I -Ii II
C It! ii
I- I I I




I I I I I

II It i i 1
[ I I I I


____


--!---T--
i 1-- --Tt
SI i

I I


I i1-- T
II I


Total in mix
100 lb




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