• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Title Page
 History of the grape
 Soils adapted to grape culture
 Propagation of the grape
 Planting grapes
 Pruning, rellising, and traini...
 Cultivation
 Fertilizing
 Care of young vines
 Cross pollination and self-ste...
 Varieties
 Diseases of grapes
 Insect enemies of the grape
 Types of spraying machines
 Spray materials
 Inspection of plants
 Harvesting grapes
 Marketing grapes
 Definitions for parts of the...
 Publications of particular value...














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division; no. 35
Title: Grape culture in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026120/00001
 Material Information
Title: Grape culture in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 24 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lord, E. L ( Earll Leslie ), b. 1881
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Place of Publication: <Gainesville Fla.>
Publication Date: 1922
 Subjects
Subject: Grapes -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Viticulture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 24).
Statement of Responsibility: by E.L. Lord.
General Note: "June, 1922".
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026120
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570128
oclc - 47285725
notis - AMT6435

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Title Page
        Page 1
    History of the grape
        Page 2
    Soils adapted to grape culture
        Page 2
    Propagation of the grape
        Page 3
    Planting grapes
        Page 4
    Pruning, rellising, and training
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Cultivation
        Page 10
    Fertilizing
        Page 11
        Page 12-13
    Care of young vines
        Page 14
    Cross pollination and self-sterility
        Page 15
    Varieties
        Page 15
    Diseases of grapes
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Insect enemies of the grape
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Types of spraying machines
        Page 20
    Spray materials
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Inspection of plants
        Page 22
    Harvesting grapes
        Page 22
    Marketing grapes
        Page 23
    Definitions for parts of the vines
        Page 24
    Publications of particular value to the Florida grape grower
        Page 24
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Bulletin 35


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DIVISION, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director



GRAPE CULTURE IN FLORIDA
By E. L. LORD

In the survey of the fruit industry of Florida made in 1921-22
by the State Plant Board it was found that there were in the
State 87,607 grape vines, which produced that year 1,220,623
pounds of grapes valued at $125,000. Since that time the state's
acreage has been doubled. As a result, many requests for re-


Fig. 1.-Ellen Scott grapes growing in Florida
trellis (30 months old)


on a Munson three-wire


June, 1922







Florida Cooperative Extension


liable information concerning grapes are made of the College
of Agriculture, University of Florida. It is in an attempt to
supply this demand for information, as far as possible, and to
aid in the development of a promising industry that this bulletin
is written. It is not intended to be a final pronouncement on
the subject, as there are still many problems before the grape
grower and the grape specialist.
HISTORY OF THE GRAPE
When the Spanish first came to Florida, they brought with
them cuttings of the Wine grape of Europe (Vitis vinifera) and
with it attempted to develop a wine industry.
Owing to the diseases and insects that attack this grape in
the eastern part of North America, its early culture was not
a success. In order to grow this grape successfully in this sec-
tion of North America, it must be grafted on resistant stock.
When the grape industry of northeastern North America was
placed on a firm basis by the use of the native Fox grape (Vitis
labrusca), a second attempt at grape culture was made in Flor-
ida and varieties of this species were extensively planted. These
attempts were doomed to failure, as the Fox grape, when grown
in a warm moist climate, is little more resistant to disease than
the Wine grape. The failure of the Fox grape generally thru-
out the middle and lower South directed the plant breeder's
attention to the native grapes of this section, as they were
promising as the foundation of a future grape industry. Two
species, the Summer grape (Vitis aestivalis) and the Muscadine
grape (Vitis rotundifolia), have been brought under cultivation,
and this bulletin will be confined almost entirely to varieties
containing the blood of these grapes. The methods of handling
these two types are quite dissimilar, neither doing best under
conditions suited to the other.

SOILS ADAPTED TO GRAPE CULTURE
The best type of soil for the grape is a well-drained sandy
loam, rich in humus and nitrogen, and with a more or less com-
pact subsoil. Soils containing too much lime will cause chlorosis,
a disease indicated by the absence of green coloring matter in
the leaves.
The water supply in the soil must be abundant and readily
available at all times during the growing season. Next to water,
nitrogen is the limiting factor in grape culture. An abundance







Florida Cooperative Extension


liable information concerning grapes are made of the College
of Agriculture, University of Florida. It is in an attempt to
supply this demand for information, as far as possible, and to
aid in the development of a promising industry that this bulletin
is written. It is not intended to be a final pronouncement on
the subject, as there are still many problems before the grape
grower and the grape specialist.
HISTORY OF THE GRAPE
When the Spanish first came to Florida, they brought with
them cuttings of the Wine grape of Europe (Vitis vinifera) and
with it attempted to develop a wine industry.
Owing to the diseases and insects that attack this grape in
the eastern part of North America, its early culture was not
a success. In order to grow this grape successfully in this sec-
tion of North America, it must be grafted on resistant stock.
When the grape industry of northeastern North America was
placed on a firm basis by the use of the native Fox grape (Vitis
labrusca), a second attempt at grape culture was made in Flor-
ida and varieties of this species were extensively planted. These
attempts were doomed to failure, as the Fox grape, when grown
in a warm moist climate, is little more resistant to disease than
the Wine grape. The failure of the Fox grape generally thru-
out the middle and lower South directed the plant breeder's
attention to the native grapes of this section, as they were
promising as the foundation of a future grape industry. Two
species, the Summer grape (Vitis aestivalis) and the Muscadine
grape (Vitis rotundifolia), have been brought under cultivation,
and this bulletin will be confined almost entirely to varieties
containing the blood of these grapes. The methods of handling
these two types are quite dissimilar, neither doing best under
conditions suited to the other.

SOILS ADAPTED TO GRAPE CULTURE
The best type of soil for the grape is a well-drained sandy
loam, rich in humus and nitrogen, and with a more or less com-
pact subsoil. Soils containing too much lime will cause chlorosis,
a disease indicated by the absence of green coloring matter in
the leaves.
The water supply in the soil must be abundant and readily
available at all times during the growing season. Next to water,
nitrogen is the limiting factor in grape culture. An abundance







Bulletin 35, Grape Culture in Florida


of humus is very desirable because of its effect on the water-
holding capacity of the soil.
Any good, well-drained garden soil will grow good grapes.
There are many excellent, healthy vineyards on well-drained
"flatwoods," high hammock, well-drained low hammock, and
high pine lands. Grapes are being grown successfully on sandy
soil without a good subsoil, land that would be too poor for many
crops. Good drainage is imperative, and rich soil is very desir-
able.

PROPAGATION OF THE GRAPE
Grapes may be propagated by seed, cuttings, layers, and by
grafting. Propagation by seed is only used when attempting
to establish a new variety. Propagation by means of cuttings
is almost the universal practice with bunch grapes, while the
muscadine is propagated usually by layers.
It is best to take the cuttings
in late November or December,
when the wood contains the
largest amount of stored food.
Cuttings should be of three or
four eyes for the aestivalis, or
summer grape, and twelve to fif-
teen inches long for the musca-
dine. Cut squarely across the
stem, just below the basal bud
and an inch or so above the up-
per bud. After cutting tie in
bundles and bury in a dirt mound
with the butts up. The soil in
the mound should never be wet
or very dry. Too much moist-
ure is more injurious than too
little. The soil over them should
\ '>- be four or five inches deep. In
February or March these cut-
tings may be taken from the
Fig. 2.-A one-year-old vine pro- mound and set in the nursery
perly pruned for planting rows two to four inches apart in
rows three to four feet apart. Wide rows make horse cultiva-
tion possible. Fertilize and cultivate well. If the soil becomes







Florida Cooperative Extension


too dry, irrigation must be practiced. By December the cuttings
will be ready to plant in the vineyard.
Unfortunately many of the varieties of the muscadine grape
do not root readily from cuttings, and must be propagated from
layers. The mother vines are usually cut back severely a year
before they are to be layered. In December the resulting canes
(see page 24) are pegged down in shallow trenches partially
filled with rich, well-packed soil. A cane with many laterals
is desirable, these laterals usually being thinned to a foot apart
and shortened to six or eight inches. They are separated and
planted out the following winter.
The grafting of grapes has never become a general practice
in the eastern part of North America, altho it may be used to
good advantage in many cases. Where the soil or the root sys-
tem limits the growing of certain varieties, grafting makes their
successful culture possible. Grape stocks have been developed
that are resistant to lime, to phylloxera (an insect enemy), and
to drouthy or poorly drained soils. Many varieties of grapes
are more vigorous and bear more heavily on other root systems
than their own.
Vigorous unproductive vines may be grafted at the ground
level, using either the cleft or the whip graft. Where the
stock and cion are equal in size, the whip graft is used; but
when the stock is much larger, the cleft graft is better. The
age of the stock does not matter, but the cion should be from
wood of the previous year's growth. No grafting wax is used.
Simply mound the dirt carefully over the top of the cion. It
is important that roots from the cion and suckers from the stock
be rubbed off frequently. There are many grafted vines in the
state that are doing well, but it is not yet possible to make re-
liable recommendations for stocks.

PLANTING GRAPES
In setting a vineyard, one-year-old plants should be used al-
ways, as the older ones rarely make thrifty vines. The roots
should be shortened to a length of from four to five inches, and
the top pruned back, leaving only two buds. The vine should
be planted, at the same depth that it stood in the nursery, and
the hole should be filled with good rich surface soil. December
is by far the best time for planting, and vines should be ordered
sufficiently in advance to be available at that time.








Bulletin 35, Grape Culture in Florida 5

If the ground is not prepared when the vines are received,
"heel in" in fairly moist soil but never in wet poorly drained
soil. The planting distance in the row varies with the variety,
but all varieties should be grown in rows eight to ten feet apart.
The only exception to this is the muscadines, when trained on
arbors. Probably it is best to space the rows nine feet apart.
The distance apart in the rows depends upon
the variety, and will be found in the table
of varieties on pages 12 and 13.
The best preparation possible for the vine-
yard consists in the growing of a heavy
leguminous crop the season before. This
cover crop should be turned under deeply
when growth stops in the fall. From then
on keep the soil in good tilth until planting
time.

PRUNING, TRELLISING, AND
TRAINING

These are most important in the produc-
tion of uniform crops of quality grapes, and
are probably less understood than any other
phases of grape growing.
The tendency of the grape to bear its crop
as far from its root system as possible, makes
it necessary to head in the vine severely so
that spraying, harvesting, and cultivating
may be carried on economically. The various
systems of controlling the vine by means of
pinching, cutting or thinning constitute
pruning.
.The vine requires support, and a construct-
ed support is called a trellis. The manner
Sin which the vine is arranged upon the trel-
Fig. 3.-Young Ellen lis depends upon the system of training
Scott vine trained practiced. The same trellis may carry three
o stake. This vine or four different types of training systems,
was planted Jan-
uary 20 and photo- but many growers believe that they are us-
graphed June 18 ing a certain system of pruning and train-
ing, when they are only using the type of trellis that accom-
panies such a system.








Florida Cooperative Extension


There are very few vineyards in the state that are using
any one system consistently, with the result that while the vines
make excessive growth, much of the one-year-old or bearing
wood is removed in order to keep them within bounds. This
reduces the crop excessively and causes much complaint from
the grower, when he himself is to blame for not studying the
needs of the vine. There are several cardinal principles of grape
pruning that may be emphasized:
1. The removal of active, developed leaves lessens vigor. Con-
sequently, in shaping the vine the laterals and other undesired
shoots should be "pinched out" at the growing tips, thus allow-
ing all leaves that have unfolded and developed a green color to
remain.
2. The factors that produce excessive growth tend to reduce
fruitfulness, and vice versa. There is a nice balance between
growth and fruitfulness in a vine that is properly nourished and
pruned.


I:~


Fig. 4.-A vigorous vine properly pruned at end of first season according
to the Munson system. A weak vine would not reach this size the
first season and must be cut back to two buds at the end of the first
season







Bulletin 35, Grape Culture in Florida


3. All varieties containing a high percentage of native blood
bear best when the canes are allowed to droop. In consequence,
while upright training may be best for European grapes, it is
more or less a failure when applied to American grapes of
the southern states of this country. Only a few varieties such
as Delaware and James will bear well with upright training.
4. The more nearly vertical a shoot is trained, the more vigor-
ous it will be. For this reason the young vine should be trained
and tied in a vertical position until it reaches the trellis. The
aim should be to get it upon the trellis as soon as possible, and
this may be done in a very short time, if it is kept vertical and
the lateral shoots pinched out before they develop.
5. The bunches are borne only on wood of the current sea-
son. Not all shoots (wood of the current season's growth) will
bear. The bearing shoots must arise from wood of the previous
season. Shoots arising from older wood are entirely barren.
Consequently, if the vine is headed-in evenly all around, much
of the previous year's wood will be removed and the vine will
not bear fruit.
6. Usually about two bunches are produced on the shoot that
arises from buds on the last year's wood, and for this reason
the number of buds left from last year's wood determines the
size of the crop (number of bunches). In this way the pruner
may control the crop of each vine.
7. The number of buds to be left depends on several factors;
e. g., variety, vigor of the individual vine, soil, method of prun-
ing, water supply, and whether quantity or quality is desired.
8. All pruning except the shaping of the young vine, the
pinching out of the tips of terminal shoots, and the rubbing
off of unnecessary or extraneous buds from the trunk, should
be done when the vine is most dormant, preferably in December.

SYSTEMS OF PRUNING AND TRAINING
There are only four systems of pruning and training recom-
mended for Florida conditions. These are:
The Munson Canopy System for bunch grapes
The Four-Cane Kniffin System
The Six-Arm Renewal System for muscadine grapes
The Overhead Arbor System
The Munson Canopy System is a modification of the Kniffin
system that is especially suited to southern conditions. Like







Florida Cooperative Extension


the Kniffin, it is a cane-renewal system. All four canes arise
from the head of the trunk.
The trellis used with this system requires posts about 16
feet apart and 51/ feet high on top of which are spiked 24-
to 30-inch cross arms. Two wires are stretched along the ends
of the cross arms, and a third wire is stapled to each post about
a foot below the top of the trellis. The posts with their cross
arms are placed 16 feet apart in 8- to 10-foot rows. The four
canes are tied to the lower wire, two extending in each direc-















/ / ?.- ---- -- -.

Fig. 5.-A mature vine properly pruned according to the Munson system

tion. The bearing shoots develop laterally and are supported
by the two upper wires. In December of each year the bear-
ing canes are removed as closely to the trunk as possible, and
replaced by canes of the previous season's growth. Spurs are
left at the head of the trunk to supply the bearing wood for
the next year. The length of the four canes varies from two
to five feet, depending on the variety and the individual vine.
The distance between the rows depends upon the type of culti-
vating, harvesting, and spraying machinery used. Under ordi-
nary conditions nine feet is about the right distance. Under
the table of varieties will be found the distance apart and the
length of canes for each variety.
The Kniffin Four-Cane System.-In this system the trellis
should have two wires, the lower one 21/2 feet and the upper
one 5 feet from the ground. The vine is brought up to the
lower wire and shoots are led out in opposite directions along







Bulletin 35, Grape Culture in Florida


it. As these develop, a third vertical shoot is trained to con-
tinue the trunk up to the upper wire, along which shoots are
trained in opposite directions. The canes are renewed every
year from short spurs left on the trunk at the base of the cane.
This system is used more generally in the eastern part of
North America than any other system, but it has two serious
faults. The fruit is not well protected from the sun and wind,
and spraying cannot be thoroly accomplished. In the opinion
of the writer, it is not especially suited to Florida conditions.










--S-







Fig. 6.-A mature vine properly pruned according to the Kniffin system
The Six-Arm Renewal System.-This is the best for musca-
dines when they are grown in commercial vineyards. The posts
used should be at least 5 feet above ground. The wires should
be 24, 42 and 60 inches from the ground. The trunk and arms
are formed as with the Kniffin system, but the arms are allowed
to remain three or four years. All shoots that arise from the
arms are cut back to three or four bud-spurs each year.
All arms should not be renewed at the same time: rather, two
arms should be replaced each year. This is much the best sys-
tem for muscadines, especially for varieties like the Thomas.
These varieties should always be pruned late in November or
early in December.
The Overhead Arbor System.-Under home conditions, espe-
cially where pruning and cultivation are neglected, some varieties
of muscadines, particularly the Scuppernong, do fairly well on







Florida Cooperative Extension


an overhead trellis. The posts for such a trellis should be 7 to
10 feet above the ground. The vines may be arranged in various
methods when they reach the top of the posts, one of which is
to have eight wires cross each post and to train an arm with



















Fig. 7.-A Thomas grape vine trained according to the Six-Arm renewal
system on a vertical three-wire trellis

spurs along each wire. Another method is to run a series of
parallel wires about a foot apart between stringers which are
at a level with the top of the posts. Arms with spurs are trained
along each wire. Even muscadines do not bear nearly as heavy
crops to the unit area when trained on overhead arbors. The
heavy cost of pruning and harvesting should bar this system
from the commercial vineyard.

CULTIVATION
It is highly desirable to keep the soil well-cultivated at all
times, and for this purpose an acme harrow is especially recom-
mended. The plow should be used only in turning under a cover
crop. It is a good practice on some soils to plant a leguminous
cover crop in early summer just as soon as the grapes have
been harvested, and for this purpose bunch velvet beans or
nematode-resistant cowpeas are particularly suited. The cheap-
est way to supply nitrogen and humus is by the use of such
crops.







Bulletin 35, Grape Culture in Florida


FERTILIZING

The various types of soil found within Florida prevent any
general recommendations as to fertilization. The grape vine
makes heavy demands on the soil for nitrogen, and, whenever
the leaves lose their healthy deep green color and the terminal
growth shortens, nitrogen must be available, or the crop for the


Fig. 8.-A mature Muscadine grape vine pruned according to the Six-Arm
renewal system

next year will be light. Much of this nitrogen should be in
organic form, altho some should be quickly available. On good
sandy loams with a fair humus content a fertilizer containing
the following ingredients will be successful:
200 pounds sulphate of ammonia
600 pounds cottonseed meal
750 pounds acid phosphate
200 pounds high-grade sulphate of potash
From 800 to 1500 pounds of this fertilizer should be used to
an acre of bearing vines, the amount varying with the age and
condition of the vines. If stable manure is available, it may be
substituted for the cottonseed meal, at the rate of from five tu
ten tons to the acre, to good advantage, altho the cottonseed
meal will keep in the soil longer and contains no weed seed.







Bulletin 35, Grape Culture in Florida 13


A LIST OF GRAPES SUITED TO FLORIDA CONDITIONS, GIVEN


IN THE ORDER OF RIPENING


Variety

Csaba

Headlight

Brilliant

Cloeta

Delaware

R. W. Mu

Niagara

Ives

Concord

Carman

Ellen Sco

Armalaga

Fern

Eden


Thomas

Scuppern

James

Mish

Flowers


y Origin

Europe

Texas


Texas
Texas

New
Jersey
nson Texas

[New York

Ohio

Mass.

Texas

tt Texas

[Texas

Texas

Georgia


IS. C.

ong N.C.

N. C.

(N. C.

N. C.


Race

iVinifera

iAestivalis
hybrid
SAestivalis
Hybrid
Aestivalis
hybrid
iAestivalis
|hybrid
Aestivalis
hybrid
ILabrusca

Aestivalis
hybrid
!Labrusca

|Aestivalis
'hybrid
Aestivalis
hybrid
[Aestivalis
'hybrid
Aestivalis
hybrid
Rotundi-
folia
hybrid
Rotundi-
[folia
Rotundi-
folia
Rotundi-
folia
Rotundi-
Ifolia
Rotundi-
folia


Vigor

[Medium

IWeak

[Medium

Very
vigorous
[Weak

[Very
Vigorous
IMedium

IVery
[vigorous
Medium

IVery
|vigorous
Very
vigorous
[Very
vigorous
Very
vigorous
Very
vigorous

Very
vigorous
Very
vigorous
Very
vigorous
Very
vigorous
Medium
vigor


Size of bunch Size of berry Color

SLarge Medium White

Small Small IRed

ILarge |Large IRed
I I I
| Large Large IBlack

Small Small Red

|Large Medium ck

I Large Large White

Large Medium Black

Medium ILarge Black

|Very large Medium Black

Very large 'Large Violet

Large [Large White

Medium Medium Black

Medium Medium Black


Small iLarge Red

Small Large Bronze

Small Very large Black

Small Large IBlack

Small Medium Black


Use Qualit,

Dessert IExcellent
and market
Dessert Excellent
4nd market
,Dessert Good
Ind market
Dessert, juice Good
and market
Dessert Excellent
and market
Dessert, juice Good
and market
Dessert Fair
and market
Juice Poor
and market
Dessert, juice Fair
and market
Dessert I Good
and market I
SDessert Excellent
and market
Dessert IExcellent
and market
Dessert Good
and market
Dessert Good
and market

dessert, juice Good
and market
Dessert Good
and juice
dessert Fair
Amd juice
Dessert, juice Excellent
_nd market 1
dessert Poor
and juice


y Distance Pruning
[to plant system
8 feet Munson

8 feet Munson

8 feet Munson

12 feet IMunson

8 feet [Upright
[or Fan
12 feet IMunson

feet Munson

8 feet Munson

8 feet Munson

12 feet Munson

112 feet Munson

12 feet Munson

12 feet Munson

16 feet [Six-Arm
[renewal

20 feet [Six-Arm
Ift renewal
20 feet Arbor or
I Six-Arm
16 feet [Upright
I [or Fan
S16feet [Six-Arm

16 feet [Six-Arm


Length Remarks
of cane
12 feet Must be grafted on resistant
S stock
12 feet Self-sterile. A very early
I| Delaware
[2 feet Shy bearer

3 feet Ripens unevenly

[2 feet Fine quality

[3 feet Self-sterile. Carman is a
good pollinator for it.
2 feet IShort-lived in Florida

2 feet Good for red grapejuice

2 feet Ripens unevenly and is short-
lived in Florida
[3 feet [A good shipper

[3 feet The best in quality and a
good shipper
3 feet A good shipper

3 feet Self-sterile. Latest good
bunch grape
6 feet Self-sterile. Does well on clay
soil. Very early muscadine

8 feet Self-sterile. Best for musca-
[dine products
8 feet Self-sterile

6 feet Self-sterile. The largest mus-
cadine
6 feet Self-sterile. Best muscadine
|in quality
6 feet Self-sterile. The latest mus-
S cadine


Florida Cooper~ative Extension






Florida Cooperative Extension


CARE OF YOUNG VINES
As already mentioned it is desirable to prune the vine back
to two buds at the time of planting. Only one of these buds
should be allowed to grow to become the trunk of the vine. How-
ever, the second bud is for insurance against damage to the
main shoot, and it is best to pinch out this second bud after it
has made two leaves.
As soon as the young vine is planted, a stake about five feet
high and one inch in diameter should be driven into the ground
beside it, in order to protect it against damage and to keep the
main shoot vertical. As the shoot grows it should be tied to
the stake, and all lateral shoots rubbed off as soon as they ap-
pear. On average soils and with fair treatment the main shoot
will reach the top of the stake by the first of June. By this
time the trellis should have been erected.
When the main shoot is four and a half feet high or up to the
lower wire, its tip should be pinched out, and the two upper
laterals allowed to grow out along the lower wire.
Two laterals should be allowed to develop at each wire when
the Kniffin system is used, but the vine will be longer in form-
ing. In the case of muscadines, the Six-Arm renewal system be-
ing used, the same process is practiced, except that arms are
formed at three different levels.
These directions for forming the vine the first season are at
variance with the usual practice elsewhere; but the long grow-
ing season in Florida makes it possible with ordinary care, if
varieties are suited especially to climate and soil, to produce
as large a vine in one year as would be produced in at least
two average seasons under northern conditions. After the trunk
and the main arms are formed, the vine should be allowed to
extend itself along the trellis at will, care being taken to pinch
out all laterals and suckers before the leaves upon them have
developed size and color.
If the two main canes have reached a good size, when they
are headed-in the next winter, six to ten buds may be left. If
growth is weak and the canes are slender, only two or three
buds should be left. If the vines are of the wrong variety or
have been poorly cared for, they may not reach the trellis. In
that case, pruning the following winter will consist in cutting
the vine back to two buds as when transplanted. Under such
conditions no crop may be expected the following season, but







Bulletin 35, Grape Culture in Florida


under proper care and training the vine should produce from
six to twenty bunches the second season, and should be in full
bearing by the third season.

CROSS POLLINATION AND SELF-STERILITY
With all varieties of muscadines and with a few varieties of
bunch grapes, it is impossible to grow a good crop without pollen
from other vines. In the case of .the muscadines, this pollen
should come from male vines of the same species and, unless
natural wild vines are in the neighborhood, it is essential to
plant male vines in the vineyard to insure satisfactory pollina-
tion. There should be one vigorous male vine to every ten
fruiting vines and it is important that it bloom at the same
time as the other vines. Among bunch grapes, there are all
grades of self-sterility, from vines that are completely self-
sterile to those that are almost completely self-fertile. If self-
sterile vines are planted, heavy pollen-bearing varieties which
bloom at the same time should be planted among them.

VARIETIES
It is impossible at present to recommend particular varieties
of grapes for the different sections of the state. Those being
used for shipping at present are the following: Ellen Scott,
Carman, Ives, Niagara and Csaba.
The short life and uneven ripening of the Concord in the
South makes it undesirable. The Niagara is also short-lived
and of indifferent quality. In Suwannee County the Ives is
being grown for shipment, but it is of poor quality as a table
grape, altho it makes a good juice grape, when fully ripened.
The Csaba is the earliest grape grown in the state, but it is
a pure vinifera, and must be grown on resistant stocks in order
to prevent damage from phylloxera (see page 18). However,
one grower has been fruiting this variety on resistant stock for
several years and doing it successfully. It is a good shipper
and its quality is excellent. The Carman has been quite gen-
erally planted, and altho it is of only fair quality, its large
bunches and good shipping qualities make it a desirable variety
where it succeeds. The R. W. Munson has many good qualities
for Florida conditions but the fact that it is self-sterile makes
it undesirable except in mixed plantings. The Ellen Scott is
the finest in quality of any grape grown in Florida, makes fine







Bulletin 35, Grape Culture in Florida


under proper care and training the vine should produce from
six to twenty bunches the second season, and should be in full
bearing by the third season.

CROSS POLLINATION AND SELF-STERILITY
With all varieties of muscadines and with a few varieties of
bunch grapes, it is impossible to grow a good crop without pollen
from other vines. In the case of .the muscadines, this pollen
should come from male vines of the same species and, unless
natural wild vines are in the neighborhood, it is essential to
plant male vines in the vineyard to insure satisfactory pollina-
tion. There should be one vigorous male vine to every ten
fruiting vines and it is important that it bloom at the same
time as the other vines. Among bunch grapes, there are all
grades of self-sterility, from vines that are completely self-
sterile to those that are almost completely self-fertile. If self-
sterile vines are planted, heavy pollen-bearing varieties which
bloom at the same time should be planted among them.

VARIETIES
It is impossible at present to recommend particular varieties
of grapes for the different sections of the state. Those being
used for shipping at present are the following: Ellen Scott,
Carman, Ives, Niagara and Csaba.
The short life and uneven ripening of the Concord in the
South makes it undesirable. The Niagara is also short-lived
and of indifferent quality. In Suwannee County the Ives is
being grown for shipment, but it is of poor quality as a table
grape, altho it makes a good juice grape, when fully ripened.
The Csaba is the earliest grape grown in the state, but it is
a pure vinifera, and must be grown on resistant stocks in order
to prevent damage from phylloxera (see page 18). However,
one grower has been fruiting this variety on resistant stock for
several years and doing it successfully. It is a good shipper
and its quality is excellent. The Carman has been quite gen-
erally planted, and altho it is of only fair quality, its large
bunches and good shipping qualities make it a desirable variety
where it succeeds. The R. W. Munson has many good qualities
for Florida conditions but the fact that it is self-sterile makes
it undesirable except in mixed plantings. The Ellen Scott is
the finest in quality of any grape grown in Florida, makes fine







Florida Cooperative Extension


bunches and ships fairly well, but it cannot stand poor drain-
age as well as can some other varieties. It is certainly the
best variety to plant in many parts of Florida.
As to the muscadine varieties, if they are to be planted on
arbors for home use, the Scuppernong should be chosen. How-
ever, best results will be obtained where these varieties are
grown on the three-wire vertical trellis, and, in such a case, three
or four varieties should be used to lengthen the season. These
grapes are undesirable for distance shipment, but may be used
in various products and for home use.
The many varieties and long season make it possible for the
home owner to have a succession of good table grapes from the
first of June until September, if the same attention is paid to
varietal selection, pruning, spraying and cultivation that is re-
quired with any other choice fruit. Extensive planting of any
variety in any part of Florida is inadvisable until it has been
tried out and found suited to the climate and soil.

DISEASES OF GRAPES
There are many fungous diseases that attack the grape in
this part of the United States, but they can be controlled by
thoro spraying. If one expects to grow bunch grapes success-
fully, he must learn to recognize and control insects and fungi.
Since there are many wild grapes thruout the state, no locality
is free from attacks of diseases or insects.
The most important diseases of the grape in Florida are
Downy Mildew (Plasmopara viticola), Anthracnose (Sphace-
loma ampelinum) and Black Rot (Guignardia bidwellii).
Downy Mildew.-This fungus attacks the foliage of many
grapes, especially those containing much vinifera blood. It is
particularly active when the air is warm and moist, and may
injure in a very short time any of the softer parts of the vine,
particularly the leaves, shoots and fruit. It first appears as
yellowish spots on the leaves. These spots change to a brownish
color, and, if the under side of the leaves is examined, a downy
whitish growth will be found. This growth consists principally
of white cigar-shaped spores, which soon ripen and scatter to
all parts of the vineyard, attacking all of the more active parts
of the vines not immune to it.
When young fruit is attacked, the disease first appears as a
brownish spot which later becomes gray and downy. This is







Bulletin 35, Grape Culture in Florida


called "gray rot." When older fruit is attacked, it produces
a soft, wrinkled, brownish mass that falls off at the slightest
touch. In the old leaves or fruit thicker, darker spores are
produced late in the season and survive the winter. It is
highly important that all old berries and leaves be destroyed,
in order to prevent carrying the disease over from year to
year. Proper spraying with bordeaux mixture as recommended
will keep the disease in check.
Anthracnose.-This disease is often called "bird's-eye rot,"
because of the appearance of infected grapes. It attacks the
young shoots and leaves, producing sunken dark brown spots
which crack when old. On the leaves the spots usually run
together making an irregular outline. On immature fruit they
are usually brown with a reddish margin. The spot gradually
enlarges until the fruit hardens and wrinkles. The spores are
borne in immense numbers closely packed together over the
surface of the cankers. Anthracnose is especially dangerous to
varieties containing much vinifera blood, and is very hard to
eradicate when once it gets a foothold. It is not known to
spread in packages after picking, and would not be found in
fruit that is properly sorted and graded.
The disease can be controlled best by spraying with commer-
cial lime-sulphur, 1 part to 9 parts water, when the vine is dor-
mant. Spray later with bordeaux mixture according to the
regular spray schedule given on page 21. All diseased parts
should be burned. This disease develops best in cool, moist
weather.
Black Rot is the most serious disease of the North, but it is
not so injurious to many of the varieties grown in Florida, except
the Niagara and the Concord, which are very susceptible.
There are two kinds of spores produced by this fungus, sum-
mer and winter spores. The winter spores are carried over in
diseased, wrinkled berries and infect the shoots, leaves and
young fruit. It may also attack the blossoms of certain varie-
ties, especially the Scuppernong. With the Scuppernong this
disease is the principal cause of the poor setting of fruit.
Black rot first appears on the upper side of the leaves as
reddish-brown circular spots about a quarter of an inch in diam-
eter. Near the edge of this spot may be distinguished a ring of
black pustules (pimple-like elevations), just visible to the eye.
Whitish, soft spots may appear on the fruit. These spots first
turn brown and then black. The berry dries, shrivels and be-







Florida Cooperative Extension


comes hard; and the same minute black pustules develop over
its surface. Winter spores form on the surface of these old
dried-out berries.
Sooner or later every vineyard becomes infected with the
fungus. The only sure means of control is by spraying. All old
mummies and infected shoots should be removed and burned.
There is no absolute cure when the disease has developed in the
clusters, but timely applications of bordeaux mixture will pre-
vent it.
INSECT ENEMIES OF THE GRAPE

The more important insect enemies of the grape in Florida
are, Grape Phylloxera (Phylloxera vitifoliae), Grape Berry-Moth
(Polychrosis viteana), Grape Leaf-Skeletonizer (Harrisina
americana), Grape Leaf-Folder (Desmia funeralis), GrapeLeaf-
Hopper (Typhlocybe comes), the Grape Curculio (Craponius
inaequalis) and the Brown Grape Aphis (Macrosiphum sp.).
The Grape Phylloxera is a small aphid that attacks the roots
of all grapes grown in the eastern part of North America. On
native varieties it apparently does little damage. However, vines
containing much vinifera blood and certain labrusca varieties
such as the Concord or Niagara may be destroyed in a short
time by this insect.
There are two methods of control, the grafting of non-resistant
varieties on resistant stock and the growing of resistant varieties.
The Csaba, a pure vinifera variety, is being successfully grown in
the state by grafting it on resistant stock. So far as the writer
knows, John Deiro, of Santa Rosa, Florida, is the first grower to
fruit successfully the vinifera on grafted stock in this state. The
phylloxera does least damage on very sandy soils, but on soils
underlaid with clay it is very destructive to susceptible varie-
ties. It is disseminated primarily thru the soil and does almost
its entire damage to the root systems, altho it often causes galls
on the leaves. Rotundifolia and aestivalis have almost complete
immunity, but hybrids between aestivalis and vinifera or labrus-
ca vary in their resistance.
The Grape Berry-Moth is the larva of a small moth that at-
tacks the flower cluster and fruit. The first brood to appear in
spring destroys the opening cluster, both buds and flowers, web-
bing together the little stems which support the fruit. The later-
appearing larvae enter the green fruit and feed upon the pulp
of one berry after another, ruining a large part of the cluster.







Bulletin 35, Grape Culture in Florida


It may be controlled by adding arsenate of lead to the bordeaux
mixture spray used for disease. It is desirable to pick off and
burn all affected berries in a small vineyard.
The Grape Leaf-Skeletonizer is also the larva of a moth. It
attacks the leaf, devouring all of it except the veins. It is a
small yellow caterpillar with four rows of black tubercles, or
knob-like prominences. The eggs are laid by moths on the under
surface of the leaves. The numerous larvae, feeding in straight
lines, soldier-like, rapidly consume the soft parts of the leaf. It
also may be controlled by arsenate of lead. When orly a few
vines are affected hand picking will keep the insects under con-
trol.
The Grape Leaf-Folder is the larva of another moth. When
the leaves have developed completely, this larva, by means of a
web that it secretes, bends one half of the leaf surface over on
the other half. After bending the leaf over it feeds upon the
surface from the inside of the fold. It does not attack varieties
that have no hairy or downy growth upon the upper surface of
the leaf. It may be controlled by lead arsenate.
The Grape Leaf-Hopper is a small sucking insect that feeds
and breeds on the under surface of the leaves, seldom appearing
in damaging numbers before summer. By means of its piercing
mouth parts, it sucks out the juices of the leaves, causing them
to yellow prematurely and die. Being a sucking insect, it can-
not be killed by arsenicals, but whenever present it may be con-
trolled by the addition of 1/ pint of nicotine sulphate (nicotine
40 percent) to every 50 gallons of bordeaux mixture. This spray
should be applied to the under surface of the leaves just before
the last molt of the nymphs of the first brood. Spraying in
the late summer and autumn is of little value.
The Grape Curculio, a true weevil, appears in spring when
the grapes are in bloom, and feeds upon the leaves until the
fruit has reached a certain size, or for a period of about two
weeks. It then deposits its egg in a little cavity cut in the berry.
When the egg hatches the resulting larva feeds upon the pulp
and seed. Because of its habit of feeding upon the leaves until
the berry is large enough for eggs to be laid in it, this insect can
be controlled by applying arsenicals to the leaves.
The Brown Grape Aphis.-This small brown aphis is gener-
ally distributed thruout the state. It usually attacks only
tender shoots. Ordinarily it is kept in check by predacious and







Florida Cooperative Extension


parasitic insects, so that it rarely does much damage. If it
threatens to become serious, it may be controlled by spraying
with nicotine sulphate, as suggested for the leaf-hopper.
Other Pests of the Grape.-Rabbits often damage young grape
vines by eating off the tender growth. The use of dried blood
as a fertilizer around the vines usually will prevent such injury.
There are several species of cut worms that do the same thing,
and these can be controlled best by planting on cleared land or
by the use of poisoned baits. Raccoons and birds often destroy
much fruit. The best remedy for them is to reduce their num-
bers by the use of the gun or trap. Where only a few vines
are grown, birds may take a large proportion of the fruit. Dam-
age may be avoided by bagging the fruit after the third or fourth
spraying.
TYPES OF SPRAYING MACHINES
There are four main types of spraying machines, the bucket-
pump, the compressed air pump, the barrel pump, and the power
sprayer. If only a few vines are grown for home use, either
the bucket or compressed pump will do, but when grapes are
grown for market, a pump with a larger capacity should be used.
The power sprayer is by far the most efficient, and should be
used in the regular vineyard. It is important that sufficient
pressure be used, so that the material will cover every part of
the vine.

SPRAY MATERIALS
The standard strength of bordeaux mixture for vineyards is
4-4-50; that is, 4 pounds of copper sulphate and 4 pounds of
stone lime to 50 gallons of water.. Make up stock solutions as
follows:
No. 1.-Add copper sulphate to water so that there will be 1
pound to every gallon of the water.
No. 2.-Slake the required amount of stone lime in a small
amount of water, and add water so that each gallon of the mix-
ture will contain 1 pound of lime. Stir stock solutions thoroly
before using.
To make up 4-4-50 bordeaux mixture, take 4 gallons of No. 1
and add it to 21 gallons of water in one container; take 4 gallons
of No. 2 and add it to 21 gallons of water in another container.
Pour the contents of the two containers together at the same
time into the spray tank, keeping the mixture thoroly stirred.







Florida Cooperative Extension


parasitic insects, so that it rarely does much damage. If it
threatens to become serious, it may be controlled by spraying
with nicotine sulphate, as suggested for the leaf-hopper.
Other Pests of the Grape.-Rabbits often damage young grape
vines by eating off the tender growth. The use of dried blood
as a fertilizer around the vines usually will prevent such injury.
There are several species of cut worms that do the same thing,
and these can be controlled best by planting on cleared land or
by the use of poisoned baits. Raccoons and birds often destroy
much fruit. The best remedy for them is to reduce their num-
bers by the use of the gun or trap. Where only a few vines
are grown, birds may take a large proportion of the fruit. Dam-
age may be avoided by bagging the fruit after the third or fourth
spraying.
TYPES OF SPRAYING MACHINES
There are four main types of spraying machines, the bucket-
pump, the compressed air pump, the barrel pump, and the power
sprayer. If only a few vines are grown for home use, either
the bucket or compressed pump will do, but when grapes are
grown for market, a pump with a larger capacity should be used.
The power sprayer is by far the most efficient, and should be
used in the regular vineyard. It is important that sufficient
pressure be used, so that the material will cover every part of
the vine.

SPRAY MATERIALS
The standard strength of bordeaux mixture for vineyards is
4-4-50; that is, 4 pounds of copper sulphate and 4 pounds of
stone lime to 50 gallons of water.. Make up stock solutions as
follows:
No. 1.-Add copper sulphate to water so that there will be 1
pound to every gallon of the water.
No. 2.-Slake the required amount of stone lime in a small
amount of water, and add water so that each gallon of the mix-
ture will contain 1 pound of lime. Stir stock solutions thoroly
before using.
To make up 4-4-50 bordeaux mixture, take 4 gallons of No. 1
and add it to 21 gallons of water in one container; take 4 gallons
of No. 2 and add it to 21 gallons of water in another container.
Pour the contents of the two containers together at the same
time into the spray tank, keeping the mixture thoroly stirred.







Bulletin 35, Grape Culture in Florida


If lead arsenate is not added, the 4-3-50 formula will give better
results. This is the same as the 4-4-50 formula, except that
there is one pound less of lime present. For chewing insects
lead arsenate should be added. If in the powdered form, 11/2
pounds will be sufficient for 50 gallons of the bordeaux mix-
ture; if in the paste form, 3 pounds will be necessary.
For sucking insects, 40 percent nicotine sulphate should be
used at the rate of 1 pint to 50 gallons of water or bordeaux
mixture. To increase the spreading and sticking qualities of
the spray, 1 pound of rosin fish-oil soap or 2 pounds of ordinary
yellow laundry soap may be added to 50 gallons of bordeaux,
nicotine sulphate, or lead arsenate, whether these are used sep-
arately or together.

A SPRAY SCHEDULE FOR GRAPES

No. Disease or Insect Spray Material Time of Application

1 ,Anthracnose Commercial lime- When vines are dor-
Black rot sulphur, 1 part to 9 mant. Cover vines,
parts of water posts and canes with
:the solution

2 Anthracnose Bordeaux mixture, A week before flower
'Black rot 4-4-50 formula, to which buds open
Downy mildew 11/2 lbs. dry lead
Grape berry-moth arsenate has been
Various insects added
3 Same as Nos. 1/Bordeaux mixture, As soon as blossoms
rand 2, for curcu- 4-4-50 formula, to which fall
lio and leaf- 112 lbs. of dry lead
hopper arsenate, 14 pint of 40-
percent nicotine
sulphate, and 1 lb. rosin
fish-oil (or 2 lbs. yellow
laundry) soap, have been
added
4 Same as No. 3 Same as No. 3 When fruit is half
grown
5 Same as No. 3 Same as No. 3 Two weeks after No. 4
6 Black rot Neutral copper acetate, Just before fruit colors
1 lb. to 50 gals. of water


Numbers 5 and 6. of the accompanying spray schedule will
be necessary only in case of severe infection with black rot or
anthracnose. With the muscadines spraying is unnecessary,
altho spraying with bordeaux mixture just before blossoming






Florida Cooperative Extension


will increase the crop by reducing black-rot damage, to which
the Scuppernong is especially liable. It is highly important that
all pruning residues, infected berries, shoots, and leaves be re-
moved from the vineyard and burned. It is also important that
a type of pruning, training and trellising be adopted that favors
the protection of the fruit from insects and diseases. When the
Munson system is properly used, it is much the best, as the
grapes are clustered along the lower wire, protected by the
canopy from the sun and rain, yet being open to every current
of air and easily reached and covered by sprays.
INSPECTION OF PLANTS
The grape grower, at best, will find that he has plenty of in-
sects and plant diseases to contend with. He should therefore
make sure, when purchasing grape vines, or securing vines or
cuttings from any source whatever, that they are accompanied
by the inspection certificate of the State Plant Board.
Not only is this precaution necessary for the grower's own
protection but, under the laws of Florida, grape vines and all
parts thereof, intended for propagation, are classed as nursery
stock and as such cannot be legally sold or removed from the
property where grown, unless accompanied by the Board's offi-
cial certificate, certifying to the apparent freedom of the plants
from injurious insects and diseases.
The State Plant Board makes inspections free of charge and
persons contemplating selling, shipping or otherwise distribut-
ing grape vines or cuttings should apply to the Board at Gaines-
ville for the necessary inspection and certification.
HARVESTING GRAPES
Most grapes habitually color from one to two weeks before
they are ripe. No grape can be really shipped far when it is
fully ripe, but, if it is to carry any distance, it must be picked
as soon as it has colored. After the grape is picked the ripening
process stops. In consequence, no one who buys grapes shipped
from a distance knows the quality of the variety. It results
from this that the grower who sells in a local market can wait
until the fruit is thoroly ripe before harvesting and can sell
this fruit readily when fruit shipped in from outside sells very
slowly. Even if the grape is to be shipped, there is much harm
done by picking too early. When grapes of poor quality are
shipped, the market for later shipments is lost.






Florida Cooperative Extension


will increase the crop by reducing black-rot damage, to which
the Scuppernong is especially liable. It is highly important that
all pruning residues, infected berries, shoots, and leaves be re-
moved from the vineyard and burned. It is also important that
a type of pruning, training and trellising be adopted that favors
the protection of the fruit from insects and diseases. When the
Munson system is properly used, it is much the best, as the
grapes are clustered along the lower wire, protected by the
canopy from the sun and rain, yet being open to every current
of air and easily reached and covered by sprays.
INSPECTION OF PLANTS
The grape grower, at best, will find that he has plenty of in-
sects and plant diseases to contend with. He should therefore
make sure, when purchasing grape vines, or securing vines or
cuttings from any source whatever, that they are accompanied
by the inspection certificate of the State Plant Board.
Not only is this precaution necessary for the grower's own
protection but, under the laws of Florida, grape vines and all
parts thereof, intended for propagation, are classed as nursery
stock and as such cannot be legally sold or removed from the
property where grown, unless accompanied by the Board's offi-
cial certificate, certifying to the apparent freedom of the plants
from injurious insects and diseases.
The State Plant Board makes inspections free of charge and
persons contemplating selling, shipping or otherwise distribut-
ing grape vines or cuttings should apply to the Board at Gaines-
ville for the necessary inspection and certification.
HARVESTING GRAPES
Most grapes habitually color from one to two weeks before
they are ripe. No grape can be really shipped far when it is
fully ripe, but, if it is to carry any distance, it must be picked
as soon as it has colored. After the grape is picked the ripening
process stops. In consequence, no one who buys grapes shipped
from a distance knows the quality of the variety. It results
from this that the grower who sells in a local market can wait
until the fruit is thoroly ripe before harvesting and can sell
this fruit readily when fruit shipped in from outside sells very
slowly. Even if the grape is to be shipped, there is much harm
done by picking too early. When grapes of poor quality are
shipped, the market for later shipments is lost.







Bulletin 35, Grape Culture in Florida


The bunches or clusters should not be torn from the vines,
but a pair of shears or orange clippers should be used. In re-
moving the clusters hold them by the stem rather than by the
fruit. The fruit itself should not be touched, especially if it
has a heavy bloom. Grapes should not be picked when wet with
dew or rain, as the moisture hastens decay in the container.
Neither should they be allowed to stand in the sun. The picker
should have a light table on which to place the picking baskets
or trays. As soon as a picking basket is filled it should be car-
ried to the packing shed, where the grapes are graded. In
grading, all bunches that are not full and of good size should
be culled out. Any grapes not fully colored or showing insect
or disease injury should also be put in the cull box. Rigid cull-
ing is necessary, if standard prices are to be obtained for the
product of the vineyard.

MARKETING GRAPES
There are several ways by which the crop may be marketed.
Some of the muscadines, particularly the Thomas, are much in
demand for culinary purposes. The Ives is especially suited for
the manufacture of a red grape juice. There is an active market
for first class table grapes, such as Ellen Scott, Csaba, and
Armalaga, wherever these varieties are known.
After Florida markets are supplied, there is a good demand
for our grapes in northern cities, providing they are first class
varieties and are properly harvested and shipped. At the prices
for which these grapes have sold in Florida and in the North,
there is a good profit for the Florida grape grower, if his vine-
yard is properly handled and the product placed upon the market
in the best possible condition.







Florida Cooperative Extension


DEFINITIONS FOR PARTS OF THE VINES
Trunk, the permanent upright portion of the vine.
Arm, the more or less permanent horizontal portion of the
vine.
Shoots, leafy stems of the current season's growth.
Canes, stems of the previous season's growth without leaves.
Spur, that portion which is left when all but from two to
four buds of a cane are removed.
Laterals, shoots arising from shoots.







PUBLICATIONS OF PARTICULAR VALUE TO THE FLOR-
IDA GRAPE GROWER
Hedrick's Manual of American Grape Growing, the Macmillan
Company, New York.
Munson's Foundations of American Grape Culture, Orange
Judd Company, New York.
Farmers' Bulletin 471, Grape Propagation, Pruning and Train-
ing.
Farmers' Bulletin 1220, Insect and Fungous Enemies of the
Grape.
Farmers' Bulletin 709, Muscadine Grapes.
This bulletin cannot completely cover the subject of grapes.
The reader is referred to the above publications for further in-
formation.







Florida Cooperative Extension


DEFINITIONS FOR PARTS OF THE VINES
Trunk, the permanent upright portion of the vine.
Arm, the more or less permanent horizontal portion of the
vine.
Shoots, leafy stems of the current season's growth.
Canes, stems of the previous season's growth without leaves.
Spur, that portion which is left when all but from two to
four buds of a cane are removed.
Laterals, shoots arising from shoots.







PUBLICATIONS OF PARTICULAR VALUE TO THE FLOR-
IDA GRAPE GROWER
Hedrick's Manual of American Grape Growing, the Macmillan
Company, New York.
Munson's Foundations of American Grape Culture, Orange
Judd Company, New York.
Farmers' Bulletin 471, Grape Propagation, Pruning and Train-
ing.
Farmers' Bulletin 1220, Insect and Fungous Enemies of the
Grape.
Farmers' Bulletin 709, Muscadine Grapes.
This bulletin cannot completely cover the subject of grapes.
The reader is referred to the above publications for further in-
formation.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs