Title: Growing annual flowers
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026119/00001
 Material Information
Title: Growing annual flowers
Alternate Title: Bulletin 92 ; Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Watkins, John V.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Publication Date: October, 1937
Copyright Date: 1937
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026119
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aab7703 - LTQF
amt7201 - LTUF
44697402 - OCLC
002570887 - AlephBibNum


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The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

(A Revision of Bulletin 73)

October, 1937


U.S.D.A. Photo
Fig. 1.-Dahlborg daisy (Thymophylla) is becoming very popular as
a winter edging plant. The border above is in the College of Agriculture
flower gardens.

Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon application to

Bulletin 92

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service
University of Florida, State College for Women
And United States Department of Agriculture
Wilmon Newell, Director



Asst. Horticulturist, University of Florida
College of Agriculture

GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville
R. P. TERRY, Miami
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent
R., W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist2
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman2
D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist2
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
A. E. MERCKER, Field Agent, Cooperative Interstate Marketing'
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist2
MARY E. KEO\N, M.S., State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist
A. A. TURNER, Local 'i.ltri.t AL~ent
BELLAH SHUTE, Local Di-triet Agent

1 In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
2 Part-time.


Aster, baby's breath, blanket flower, blue-eyed African daisy,
blue lace-flower, Browallia, butterfly flower, calendula, Cali-
fornia poppy, calliopsis, candytuft, carnation, chrysanthemum
(annual), clarkia, cornflower, cosmos (both species), delphin-
ium, Flora's paintbrush, floss flower, gilia, godetia, globe amar-
anth, hunnemania, larkspur, leptosyne, lupine, marigold, mig-
nonette, mourning bride, nasturtium, orange African daisy,
painted tongue, pansy, phlox, pinks, poppies, strawflower, scarlet
flax, snapdragon, stock, statice, sunflower, Swan River daisy,
sweet pea, zinnia.

Alyssum, blanket flower, blue-eyed African daisy, California
poppy, calliopsis, Chinese forget-me-not, cosmos (sulphureus),
floss flower, globe amaranth, larkspur, marigold, Moroccan toad-
flax, moss rose, nicotiana, petunia, phlox, poppies, sunflower,
torenia, zinnia.

Alyssum, balsam, carnation (Marguerite), double English
daisy, floss flower, lobelia, mignonette, moss rose, nasturtium,
pansy, petunia (dwarf), phlox, torenia, verbena.
Alyssum, butterfly flower, California poppy, candytuft, double
English daisy, Flora's paintbrush, floss flower (dwarf), lobelia,
mignonette, Moroccan toadflax, moss rose, orange African daisy,
pansy, petunia (dwarf), phlox, pinks, snapdragon (dwarf),
stock, torenia, verbena.

Cypress vine, gourd, morning glory, nasturtium (climbers),
sweet pea.
Alyssum, calendula, double English daisy, floss flower (dwarf),
phlox, snapdragon (dwarf), torenia, Tagetes, Thymophylla,
lobelia, marigold (dwarf), Moroccan toadflax, moss rose, pansy,
zinnia (lilliputs and Mexican hybrids).

Alyssum, baby's breath, blanket flower, blue-eyed African
daisy, Browallia, butterfly flower, calendula, California poppy,
calliopsis, candytuft, carnation, Chinese forget-me-not, clarkia,
cornflower, delphinium, double English daisy, Flora's paint-
brush, gilia, godetia, hunnemania, larkspur, leptosyne, lobelia,
lupine, mignonette, Moroccan toadflax, mourning bride, nico-
tiana, orange African daisy, painted tongue, pansy, petunia,
phlox, pinks. poppies, scarlet flax, snapdragon, stock, statice,
Swan River daisy, sweet peas, Thymophylla.

Aster, balsam, blue lace-flower, celosia, chrysanthemum (an-
nual), cosmos (both species), cypress vine, floss flower, globe
amaranth, gourd, marigold, morning glory, moss rose, nastur-
tium, strawflower, tniilo'wer, Tagetes, torenia, verbena, zinnia.




Annual flowering plants-those which grow from seeds, pro-
duce flowers and seeds and then die in one growing season-
comprise one of the most showy, dependable groups of plants
grown. Annuals are especially valuable in Florida, many of
them are in bloom during winter months, contributing splen-
didly toward a colorful garden and producing endless blossoms
for home decoration.
Other more tender annual species are depended upon to give
us flowers during the trying months of June, July, August, and
September, persistently blooming through the heat and heavy
rains that usually come during summer.
One may literally have a colorful garden and cut flowers every
month in the year by judiciously selecting varieties and planting
seeds at intervals to give a succession of plants for bedding.
Annual plants may be roughly divided into two groups as to
seasonal adaptation. First, and possibly most important, are
those hardy frost resisting, cool weather plants, the seeds of
which are sown in autumn, that they may take advantage of
the temperate climate of the months of November to May.
Second are those tender heat-tolerant, pest-resistant plants
that defy the high temperatures, heavy rains and numberless
garden pests of summer. Seeds of this second tender group are
best planted in the months of February through August in those
portions of the state that experience freezing temperatures, but
in frost-free areas they are planted at any time of the year.
The uses of annuals are endless. The variety of colors, the
differences in height and habit of growth, the ways in which
they lend themselves to effective flower arrangements, account
in part for the tremendous popularity of this group of blooming
plants. Indeed it is a drab garden that does.not display annuals
as edgings, as bold but incidental color masses in the prominent
shrubbery bays or in the bright striking borders that are so
essential in our modern gardens.
Although the permanent woody .shrubs are always to be pre-
ferred for foundation plantings about buildings, and to enclose
the garden, sometimes a temporary planting is desirable, and
then the annuals, especially the tall growing sorts, will serve
the purpose admirably.

Florida Cooperative Extension

As window box materials and porch plants, annuals are in-
dispensable for that necessary touch of color.
If it is not possible to use grass as a ground cover for a
sunny piece of ground, one might well consider these hardy,
pest-resistant annuals whose seeds may be sown broadcast and
forgotten. Many of our flowers such as annual phlox, alyssum,
annual blanket flower, coreopsis, and petunia can be used in
this manner; they will volunteer each year, supplying endless
numbers of colorful blossoms with the least possible care.

It is an established fact among successful growers that the
best seeds one can obtain are the only seeds worth planting. Of
course there, is no one best source or seed house, but an old
reliable concern that has a big turn-over, that buys large quan-
tities of seeds from established producers, can be depended
upon to distribute fresh seeds of excellent quality. In many
cases, experienced flower growers buy seeds direct from the
specialist who produces them and who has spent years of care-
ful work and study developing good strains. Fresh seeds from
true-to-name, robust parents contribute in, a large way toward
a successful garden of annuals.
One is attracted by the glowing accounts describing novelties
offered each year by seedsmen. and usually it is worth while
to try a packet or so of any new plant or variety that seems
especially attractive. It should be borne in mind that perhaps
these newer sorts have never been grown in your section and
may not be adapted to local conditions, but at the same time,
our gardens would certainly be commonplace if no one ever
tried a novelty. One should, of course, go in for novelties in
a small way, depending upon old and tried varieties for the
principal components of the garden.

,The greatest difficulty experienced by most gardeners is get-
ting a good stand of seedlings and protecting them from the
dread disease, damping-off. During August, September and
October, when most annual seeds are planted, the warm weather
is very favorable to the growth of damping-off organisms, and
the loss of seedlings is tremendous, if proper precautions are
not observed. ''

Growing Annual Flowers

There are, perhaps, as many different methods of planting
,seeds as there are gardeners. The method described herewith
has been used successfully at the horticultural grounds of the
College of Agriculture for the past 10 years, and though it is
not necessarily the best way to plant seeds, it has proven very
First of all, the autumn-sown annuals may be divided ar-
bitrarily into two classes-those which transplant readily and
those which do not. Seeds of the former are planted in flats,
while those of the latter are sown in the open ground where
the plants are to stand.
A flat is a shallow box of any convenient size that has plenty
of drainage holes or cracks in the bottom to allow water to pass
freely out of the soil. Thorough drainage is exceedingly im-
portant in soils where tender seedlings are grown, as a sour,
water-logged medium is fatal to most young garden plants. In
the bottom of the flat should be placed a layer of pine straw,
dead grass clippings or other coarse material so that the soil
will not wash through the drainage holes.
The soil used in flats may be any good grade of garden soil
which contains a fair amount of well-rotted organic matter such
as cow manure, oak leaves, peat moss, etc. The older the com-
post is, the better. Earth that is free from root-knot nematodes
is desirable and this may be secured in heavily wooded areas.
Firm the soil to within a half inch of the top of the flat with
a brick or a block of wood. Flood this gently packed medium
with a solution of one of the organic mercury compounds that
are indicated for the control of damping-off. After this solution
has drained off, sift the seeds, broadcast, on the wet surface.
Cover lightly, by sifting sand or sandy loam through a screen,
over the seeds. Covering seeds too deeply is a common error.
Generally speaking, if the seeds be just barely hidden, good
results may be expected. After the seeds have been covered
with soil, place a wet newspaper over the flat. Water should
be sprinkled on the paper whenever it becomes dry. In this
way, there is no danger of washing the seeds out, and the soil
is kept uniformly moist. The wet newspaper should remain
on the flat until the seeds germinate. Place the flats on boxes
or benches that are protected from ants which often carry
away the seeds. Some of the most popular of our autumn-sown
annuals, such as pansies, snapdragons, and larkspur, are dis-
tinctly cool weather plants and their seeds will not germinate

Florida Cooperative Extension

readily if the temperature is excessively high. For this reason,
to assure a fair stand, it is important that the flats should be
placed in the coolest possible situation. The north side of a
building, under a tree, or under an open shed should do nicely.
After germination, the flats must be placed where the seed-
lings can get an abundance of light; if they are left in the shade,
the seedlings will grow into weak, leggy plants. We have found
that a muslin shade, such as is used for celery or tobacco seed-
beds, allows sufficient light to penetrate to the young plants.
Shortly after
germination, the
flats should re-
ceive another ap-
plication of a
compound for the
control of damp-
ing off. Water
should be care-
fully applied
through a fine
When the seed-
lings show about
four true leaves,
they may be
transplanted t o
well prepared
beds where they
are to bloom.
Choose a cool,
cloudy afternoon
for transplanting
if it is at all pos-
sible, and set the
plants about 12 to
18 inches apart.
Fig. 2.-A garden of mixed annuals, showing a
desirable effect obtained by random planting. Close planting is
desirable to as-
sure bold color masses. As further insurance against damping-
off, it is often a good plan to use the damping-off control im-
mediately after transplanting. Great care should be exercised

Growing Annual Flowers

in watering the young plants until they are well established.
Over-watering can be as harmful as under-watering.
The second class of annuals, those which are planted in the
open ground where they are to bloom, may be handled much
the same as vegetables. Sow the seeds thinly in shallow
drills or trenches. Cover lightly with soil and sprinkle with a
damping-off control. The drills or rows may be covered with
wet strips of burlap. If this material is used, water will not
wash the seeds out of the soil, and the soil stays uniformly moist.
If ants are abundant, grits or cornmeal should be sprinkled lib-
erally along the rows. These will be taken in preference to the
seeds. As soon as the seeds germinate, the burlap must be
removed, and a second application of the damping-off control
should be made. When the plants are well established, thin so
that they stand about 12 to 18 inches apart.

Although the majority of annuals are grown from seeds, it
is sometimes desirable to propagate a particularly fine individual
by cuttings. Tip cuttings about 3 inches long inserted in clean,
coarse sand should root in two or three weeks. A box or flat
with plenty of drainage holes may be used to contain the sand.
The sand should be kept moist, the cuttings protected from sun,
wind or cold. When the roots are an inch or so in length the
cuttings may be potted up or planted where they are to bloom.
Some annuals that will grow readily from cuttings are carnation,
chrysanthemum (annual), petunia, pinks, snapdragons, torenia
and verbena.
Special preparation of the soil is usually necessary if thrifty
plants which produce large numbers of flowers of good substance
are expected. If the native soil be light, sandy and low in organic
matter, it should be built up by using good quantities of rotted
manure, rotted leaves, hammock soil, or peat moss. If the native
soil, on the other hand, is low and subject to flooding, adequate
drainage should be provided. Beds raised about 12 inches with
ditches between them should be satisfactory for annuals. The
writer is a firm believer in mulching and after the plants are set
where they are to bloom, a blanket of peat moss, rotted manure
or oak leaves will preserve the moisture, keep the roots cool,
and discourage weed growth.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Light bi-weekly applications of a good balanced fertilizer,.
which supplies nitrogen, phosphorus and potash, are important
to insure robust plants and an abundance of blooms. Nitrate of
soda or sulfate of ammonia dissolved in water at the rate of one
tablespoonful to the gallon is an excellent stimulant for vegeta-
tive growth, but these materials should be supplemented with
fertilizer which contains phosphorus and potash. Steamed bone
meal is an excellent food that will not burn the plants. It be-
comes available to the plant rather slowly, but its effect is lasting.

ALYSSUM (Alyssum maritimum)
The several varieties of sweet alyssum, with white or lilac
flowers, are among the best of annuals for edging and for plant-
ing in the rock garden. Low-growing, seldom exceeding a height
of 12 inches, this plant should have a place in every garden,
window box or hanging basket.
Of easiest culture, extremely hardy, sweet alyssum may be
sown every month in the year, except during mid-summer, and
will bloom in four to six weeks. Volunteer seedlings are usually
abundant, about older plants.
ASTER-CHINA ASTER (Callistephus hortensis)
The annual aster as we know it today is a highly developed
horticultural form, the parent of which was introduced from
China and should not be confused with the smaller flowered
perennial aster native to America.
The annual China aster is an old favorite, prized as a cut
flower on account of its variety of color and form and its grace
in a cut flower arrangement. Unfortunately, a host of insects
and diseases prey upon the China aster and for this reason great
care should be taken to grow the plant in new soil each year,
to give the plants a bit of shade and to keep them in a vigorous
growing condition at all times. Even with the most careful
grower, asters are all too often a failure. The new wilt-resistant
strains promise much toward a more successful culture.
BABY'S BREATH (Cypsophila elegans)
The white, rose or carmine flowers of the three varieties of
baby's breath are especially valuable in flower arrangements,
particularly if sturdy flowers such as blanket flowers, dwarf
sunflowers, carnations or pinks are the principal subject of the

Growing Annual Flowers

bouquet. The tiny flowers on wiry stems add a daintiness, a
softness to an arrangement that might be stiff and lacking in

Fig. 3.--Baby's breath adds daintiness and compactness to collections of
cut flowers.
Baby's breath blooms quickly from the time of sowing and
unfortunately passes quickly into seed production so several
plantings at monthly intervals are to be recommended.
BALSAM (Impatiens balsamina)
'Of easy culture, the quick growing, cheerful balsam is well
worth using as a window-box subject, porch plant or as a border
in a shady place. The newer kinds of this old favorite are
striking in form and color. The seedlings should be pinched
several times so as to assure stocky, well-shaped plants.
BLANKET FLOWER (Gaillardia pulchella picta)
The annual forms of the blanket flower, single, semi-double
and full double, are of great value in any garden. The red and
yellow daisy-like blossoms are desirable for cutting on account
of their cheerful colors, long stiff stems and excellent keeping
quality. The blanket flower is cosmopolitan, happy in almost
any type of soil, volunteering annually and producing abundant
flowers persistently, even on the poor light sands of the seashore.

Florida Cooperative Extension

BLUE-EYED AFRICAN DAISY (Arctoris grandis)
Graceful, light blue, daisy-like flowers about 2/ inches across
with steel blue centers are profusely borne by the plants of
Arctotis. One of the most easily grown of the hardy annuals,
like the blanket flower, it succeeds in trying situations, volun-
teering each year. The flowers close in the afternoon, so it is
best not to put the blue-eyed African daisies into a flower ar-
rangement that is to be used in the evening.
BLUE LACE-FLOWER (Trachymeme caerulea)
The globular blossoms of the blue lace-flower are composed of
many tiny light blue florets and resemble a sky blue scabiosa
flower. The plants are not attractive as garden subjects. Merit
lies solely in the blossoms as cut flowers which are rather out
of the ordinary and lend themselves well to attractive arrange-
ments. Apparently sometimes difficult to grow, the blue lace-
flower is not at all widely planted.
BROWALLIA (Browallia in several species)
This genus contains several species that have long been pop-
ular with professional gardeners. Of easiest culture, Browallias
grow from seeds or cuttings and blossom in a very short while.
Admirably suited to pot culture and to massing for color effect.
The plants should be kept stocky by pinching. Staking may
be necessary if the plants receive shade. Volunteers often
occur about old plants.
BUTTERFLY FLOWER (Schisanshus pinnatus)
This delicate, graceful plant, when properly grown, is covered
with tiny, orchid-like blooms and always attracts a great deal
of attention. Perhaps because it requires constant care and
the most favorable conditions and because it is easily injured
by slight cultural mistakes, the butterfly flower is not often
seen in Florida gardens.
CALENDULA (Calendula officials)
A universal favorite, the calendula is one of our most im-
portant winter-blooming annuals. The charming double flowers
in shades of orange and yellow are not only excellent as part
of the garden picture but they are unsurpassed as cut flowers.
If the seeds are sown in August and the seedlings are protected
from the direct sun for a month or so before bedding out, blos-

Growing Annual Flowers

Fig. 4.-The calendula
is a universal favorite as
a winter flower for cut-



Kb *


Florida Cooperative Extension

soms may be cut in December and throughout the winter into
the early spring, provided that extremely low temperatures are
not experienced. The plants will stand considerable cold; even
though the blossoms are blasted by the heavy frosts, others
will quickly open with the advent of warmer weather.
CALIFORNIA POPPY (Escholtsia californica)
The California poppy is especially effective when grown in
large groups in a
sun ny garden.
Recently seeds-
men have of-
feared varieties in
creams, white and
reds that are
striking devia-
tions from the
b typical yellows.
Very hardy, eas-
: ily grown from
l ir broadcast seeds,
the California
poppy should
have a place in
.,e every garden.
The blooms are
S... excellent as cut
flowers when ar-
A, ranged in low
containers with
their own foliage.
Photo b Harold Mowry Unfortunately
Fig. 5.-California poppy furnishes an abundance the flowers close
of warm tones of yellow and orange throughout
early spring. in the evening.
CALLIOPSIS (Coreopsis---several species)
The calliopsis or coreopsis is another type of the numerous
daisy-like flowers that play so important a part in an annual
border. The flowers in shades of yellow, some varieties with
maroon or terra cotta, are borne in profusion on stiff, wiry
stems, and are valuable both in the garden and in bouquets. Of
easy culture, growing in difficult places and often naturalizing in
large colonies, the calliopsis can be most highly recommended.

Growing Annual Flowers

CANDYTUFT '(Ieris in two species)
Candytuft in its varieties with white, lilac, crimson umbels
of flowers, is a good subject for edging, for the rock garden or
for cutting. It is similar to sweet alyssum, but is a taller plant
and the flowers are larger. Hardy and not difficult to grow, the
candytuft can fill the need, as does sweet alyssum, for a hardy,
dwarf, much branched flowering annual.
CARNATION (Dianthus in several species)
The hybrid annual carnations which have recently been de-
veloped by plant breeders, will supply everything save size, for
which the perfect florist carnations.are prized. The delightful
spicy fragrance, the charming variety of colors, the way in
which the flowers lend themselves to arrangements certainly
makes the annual carnation worth growing.
CELOSIA (Celosia in several species)
The red or yellow plumes of the celosias or cockscombs, borne
on robust, quickly growing plants, are often seen in summer
gardens and occasionally as dried bouquets. Tender, but of
easiest culture, the celosias succeed during the summer months.
However, root-knot is a serious pest to these plants and will
sometimes take, a heavy toll of the seedlings growing on soil
infested with nematodes.
CHINESE FORGET-ME.NOT (Cynoglossum amabile)
For blue flowers in the late spring garden, one should cer-
tainly consider the Chinese forget-me-not. Although it is in-
jured by frost, it is easy to grow, volunteers readily and blooms
in a comparatively short time. This charming annual deserves
a place in everyone's garden. Possibly its greatest use is for
blue color masses in the spring border, because the flower spikes
usually wilt badly when they are used as cut flowers.
CHRYSANTHEMUM--ANNUAL (Chrysanthemum-several species)
The perennial chrysanthemums are among the most important
of the flowers for cutting, and for blossoms that come earlier
than the perennial sorts, we might take advantage of the annual
varieties. These are tender and are best planted when there
is no danger of frost. The plants, which attain a height of 2
or 3 feet, should furnish during the summer months abundant
yellow, white or banded, small daisy-like flowers that are admir-

Florida Cooperative Extension

able for cutting. As the plants are robust growers, they should
be thinned to a stand two feet apart.
CLARKIA (Clarkia in two species)
Native to the Western United States, hardy and comparatively
easy to grow during the cool weather of the winter and early
spring, the Clark-
ia, although sel-
dom seen in Flor-
ida gardens, is
worthy of trial.
The plants, at-
taining a height
of about two
feet, produce
spikes of single
or double flowers
in shades of
white, pink,
salmon or red,
that are worth-
while additions
to the annual
border and to
flower arrange-
(Centaurea cyanus)
The cornflower
has long been a
favorite and
somehow seems
characteristic of
the old-fashioned
garden. The sin-
gle and double
flowers of white,
Fig. 6.-Cornflower is an excellent source of blue flowers of white,
in the early spring garden. pink, red, blue
and purple borne
in profusion in early spring, contribute beautiful clear colors
to the border and are excellent for cutting. Especially pleasing

Growing Annual Flowers

color combinations may be obtained by planting good seeds in
separate colors. Soil-borne diseases in the late spring some-
times are fatal to the plants and for this reason it is well to
sow the seeds early and thus have plants that bloom before the
advent of hot weather. Except for this trouble, the plants are
of easy culture, germinating promptly, transplanting well, and
withstanding considerable frost.

COSMOS-EARLY (Cosmos bipinnatus)

Single, crested o
red that are par-
ticularly good for
cutting, may be
had during June
and July if the
seeds of the ear-
ly cosmos are
planted in March.
Tall growing,
tender and sel-
dom very attrac-
tive as a garden
plant in Florida,
the chief value of
the cosmos lies in
the excellence of
its blossoms in
summer flower
The seeds ger-
minate easily, es-
pecially in the
single varieties,
the plants grow
rapidly and bloom
quickly. Staking
and careful tying
are recommended
to prevent the
wind from blow-

double daisy-like flowers in white, pink or

Photo by Harold Mory
Fig. 7.-Early cosmos is desirable as a cut flower,
lending itself very well to flower arrangements.

ing the plants over or breaking off the heavy branches.



Florida Cooperative EXtension

COSMOS, Late or Klondyke (Cosmos sulphureus)
Yellow flowers are produced in the autumn by many mem-
bers of the Compositae or Daisy family, and with us, one of the
most dependable of this class is the Late or Klondyke cosmos.
Volunteering year after year, the vigorous, rank growing plants
are covered with delightful single yellow blossoms in October.
This cosmos is apparently not at all particular as to its require-
ments, as it succeeds without any care whatsoever, thriving in
abandoned dooryards or very often escaping from cultivation.
The variety Orange Flare, earlier and smaller, has become ex-
tremely popular.
CYPRESS VINE (Ipomeae quamoclit)
A graceful vine whose finely cut foliage and attractive tiny
blossoms of white, red or salmon make it a good subject for
temporary small screens or trellises. It is said that the seeds
are so hard that they do not germinate readily unless they are
scarified, but given fair conditions, volunteers often grow where
the vine has seeded.
DELPHINIUM (Delphinium in several species)
During the last few years we see more and more plantings
of several species of Delphinium as annuals. The so-called
Belladonna, Bellamosum and Chinensis are coming in for con-
siderable popularity. Fresh seeds, comparatively cool weather,
a constant moisture supply, and a soil that is free from diseases
seem to be essential to a good stand of healthy seedlings. If
sown in early autumn, Delphinium should be blooming in March
and April. Always popular in flower arrangements and as sub-
jects for the spring border, Delphiniums are certainly worth
DOUBLE ENGLISH DAISY (Bellis perennis)
Although the English daisy or Bellis is really a perennial,
in Florida usually it will not thrive after the advent of warm
weather in May and is grown as a winter annual so that it may
enjoy the cool growing season. For edgings or for rock gardens
the English daisy is excellent. The plants are merely flat, tight
rosettes of shining green leaves from which the flower stems
arise. The charming double flowers of white, pink or red are
borne singly on stems about four inches long. If plants are
properly grown and set in close masses, the effect is particu-
larly delightful.

Growing Annual Flowers

FLORA'S PAINTBRUSH (Emilia flammea)
Clusters of gay scarlet, tassel-like or brush-like flowers on
stiff stems about 18 inches long are produced by Flora's paint-
brush in the
spring. The flow-
ers are rather
small and loosely
arranged to be of
great value in the
garden picture,
but they are val-
uable in a flower
arrangement if
scarlet is wanted.
They will furnish
a light airiness to
a bouquet which
might otherwise
be heavy or
For blue flow-
ers during the
summer, nothing
surpasses the-
floss flower o r
ageratum. Equal- b
Photo by Harold Mowry
ly desirable as Fig. 8.-Flora's paintbrush is valuable in a flower
garden material arrangement where a gay scarlet is wanted.
or for cutting,
the soft lacy flowers are an adjunct to every garden and lend
themselves very well to color combinations and special effects.
There are dwarf sorts as well as tall varieties in white, pink,
or shades of blue. The plants are of easiest culture, seedlings
usually volunteering in abundance about old plants. They are
injured by frost and should be grown after the danger of cold
has passed.

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Fig. 9.-The floss
fl o w e r withstands
considerable cultural
difficulties, including
heat. It volunteers
readily and is easily
established from cut-

GILIA (Gilia spp.)
Another b I u e
flower of merit
that blooms in
the late spring is
gilia. The foliage
is lacey, fern-like
and is an attrac-
tive feature in it-
self. The flowers
are rough, globu-
lar heads, about

Fig. 10. Gilia
produces small, glob-
ular blue flowers in
profusion. Should
be more widely
planted, especially
where blue is desired
in the spring garden
and for cutting.

Growing Annual Flowers

an inch in diameter, and are borne in profusion all over the
plant. As yet something of a novelty in Florida, the gilia has
proven its ability to thrive here and should be tried in every-
one's garden.
GLOBE AMARANTH (Gomphera globosa)
As this plant is sometimes called batchelor's button, it should
not be confused with the cornflower (Centaurea) which also goes
by that common name. The globe amaranth thrives during hot
weather, producing myriads of white or red, globular flowers
that resemble clover heads. In texture they are harsh, woody,
like strawflowers or statice and are used for permanent or
dried bouquets. Tender but of easy culture, volunteering in
great profusion, the globe amaranth can be depended upon to
succeed under almost any conditions during the summer.
GODETIA (Godetia spp.)
Although the Godetia or satin flower, like the gilia, is not
often seen, it will succeed in Florida, especially in a partially
shaded situation, and it undoubtedly deserves consideration as
a spring flowering annual. The open, primrose-like flowers of
white, rose or red are borne on spikes about 18 inches long.

Fig. 11.-Small fruited gourds are used extensively for table decoration.

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The seeds germinate well in the autumn and the young seed-
lings, which closely resemble snapdragon plants, grow off quickly
and the losses from transplanting are negligible.


The gourds in their many varieties are too well known to
warrant descriptions or discussions. Interesting, unusual fruits
of multitudinous shapes are borne on the annual vines which
are exceptionally vigorous and free from pests, except root-knot.
For temporary screens during the summer or to cover stumps
or small build-
Sings, they are
very useful. The
seeds should be
planted when
danger of frost
has passed.

h. (Hlunnemania
The hunne-
mania, sometimes
called tulip pop-
py, resembles a'
sulfur-yellow Cal-
ifornia poppy of
giant size, coarser
and of greater
substance. The
plants, about two
feet in height,
are very prolific,
Photo by Harold Mowry hardy and easy
Fig. 12.-Hunnemania, with flowers of pure, clear, of culture after
sulfur yellow, resembles the giant California poppy.
germination. Dif-
ficulty in getting a good stand is the general rule. Like the
poppies, the seedlings do not transplant readily and for this
reason the seeds should be sown where the plants are to bloom.
The hunnemania is excellent as a source of sulfur yellow color
in the late spring border and as a cut flower because of its
sprightly color and attractive tulip-like form.

Growing Annual Flowers

LARKSPUR (Delphinium spp.)
The well known larkspur is so popular, so widely grown,
that it seems hardly necessary to describe this most valuable
annual. Single and double flowers of white, buff, rose, blue,
lavender and purple are borne on tall, erect spikes during the
early spring. Some of the newer creations, named varieties
having very double flowers of clear colors, are very charming,
and should find places in every garden. These are especially
desirable if color combinations are to be worked out. Fre-
quently larkspur seeds fail to germinate if they are planted

Fig. 13.-Annual larkspur is one of the most striking, yet dependable
garden flowers for spring.

early in the fall. Because this is a distinctly cool-weather plant,
it is probably best to wait until November, then sow the seeds
thinly in shallow drills, firm them into the ground and water
with a fine spray without covering. Volunteer seedlings are
usually numerous where the plants bloomed the previous season.
These seedlings, however, usually produce single flowers in colors
that are not so clear nor so attractive as are the flowers pro-
duced from new seeds from the specialists. The young plants
are hardy, transplant very readily and react very favorably
to good care.

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LEPTOSYNE (Leptosyne spp.)
Two varieties of annual leptosyne will produce their yellow
flowers during the early spring in Florida. Good for cutting,
they are unusual, worthwhile annuals, although seldom seen.

LOBELIA (Lobelia erinus)
Lobelias, in their beautiful shades of blue, may be had in
the dwarf compact form, which is so desirable as an edging
and also in the trailing or hanging form which is used in rock
gardens, pots, boxes and baskets. The charming dwarf plants,
under six inches in height, of many tiny branches, are covered
with tiny blue flowers throughout the blooming season. Un-
fortunately, they demand cool weather, but cannot stand freez-
ing, so they must be grown during the winter and receive
protection on cold nights. The seeds germinate well and quickly
produce good stands of robust plants. For good color effects
the plants should be set no farther than 4 to 6 inches apart.

LUPINE (Lupinus app.)
As subjects for a tall border, the annual Lupines are very
effective, and they are no less striking as cut flowers. Their

Fig. 14.-Annual lupine, one of the tallest growing annuals, is desirable
for borders and for cutting.

Growing Annual Flowers

keeping quality is excellent. Long spikes of pea-like flowers of
white, pink and shades of blue are numerous in the spring. Sow
the seeds where the plants are to stand and thin the seedlings
to 12-inch intervals in the row. Usually the plants will need
staking at blooming time.

MARIGOLD (Tagetes spp.)
The African marigold is tall, erect, attaining a height of three
feet and bears large globular flowers that range in color from
lemon yellow to orange. This type is valuable at the back of
borders where height is desired. If the typical marigold odor
is not found objectionable, the blossoms are among the best of
the early autumn annuals for cutting.

Fig. 15.-Marigolds are dependable for color during September and October,
when most other annuals are out of bloom.

The French and Mexican marigolds are compact, dwarf, rarely
exceeding 16 inches in height, and are good subjects for edging
and for positions in front of other, taller plants.
In late September through October, when most annuals are
out of season, the marigolds, in their many forms and varieties,
contribute their striking yellow and orange flowers to our gardens
whose brightness has begun to wane. Withstanding heat and

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drought, thriving where many plants would perish, free from
pests, the marigolds are exceedingly useful both in the garden
and in the home. Recently several new sorts have been intro-
duced by the seedsmen and these are all worthy of wide trial.
Seeds germinate well and quickly, and the seedlings are easy
to handle.
MIGNONETTE (Reseda odorata)
Its delightful fragrance has won for mignonette a place in
everyone's heart. The dwarf plant which bears the odd flower
trusses of this old favorite should have a place in every garden.
Of no particular beauty so far as color or design is concerned,
the chief value of mignonette is its use in bouquets of flowers
which have no odor of their own. Difficulty is often encountered
in getting the seeds to germinate and hot weather is fatal to
the plants.
MORNING GLORY (lpomoea ppurrea)
As an annual vine, nothing can surpass the morning glory,
a vigorous rapid grower which is covered with glorious flowers
throughout the summer and fall. Seeds of the better kinds
offered by the seedsmen will produce plants that bear large
flowers of beautiful clear colors. Volunteer seedlings usually
have flowers of inferior quality. The morning glory is excel-
lent material with which to make a screen or as a covering
for unsightly objects during the summer.
MOROCCAN TOADFLAX (Linaria maroccana)
Since its introduction into Florida gardens some 10 years ago,
this little toadflax from ,Morocco has gained the popularity it
so rightfully deserves. It is a dwarf grower of exceeding hardi-
ness that bears its spikes of tiny snapdragon-like flowers
throughout the winter and early spring. The small dark green
leaves are narrow, delicate in texture; the flowers are white,
lemon, pink, blue and purple. The plant self-sows and volun-
teers most readily, apparently not deteriorating as regards the
quality or the color of the flowers even though the chance seed-
lings are used as planting stock year after year.
Blooming profusely, even during frosts, in poor sandy soil,
the toadflax is very much at home with us and can be most
highly recommended for edgings, borders, and for rock gardens.
Some of the larger seed houses are offering the seeds in im-
proved strains..

Growing Annual Flowers

MOSS ROSE (Portulacca grandiflora)
For a summer edging or rock garden plant, probably nothing
surpasses the moss rose. The leaves are narrow, thick, suc-
culent, and are
completely hid-
den in a blanket
of gay colors in
the mornings
when the flowers
open. Shades of
buff, salmon,
pink and red are
characteristic of
the double and
single blossoms.
The flowers are
about an inch and
a half in diame-
ter, the plants
attain a height
of about four
Always ex-
tremely popular,
flourishing under
the most trying
conditions of Fig. 16.-Moss rose, probably the best low edging
h e a t, drought plant for the summer.
and poor soil,
this little plant is one of the most satisfactory for summer
gardens. The seeds germinate best during warm weather, the
young plants can be moved with very little loss. Volunteer
seedlings, although numerous, should not be used because of
the possibility of mixing in plants of the wild type which have
inferior flowers. Seeds of the best double strains will give the
most satisfactory color effects. As the blooming season is short,
it is well to have small plants available by sowing seeds at
monthly intervals during the summer.

MOURNING BRIDE (Scabiosa atropurpurea)
The globular, tufted flowers of the mourning bride or pin-
cushion flower furnish a range of color found in no other annual.

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From white, through yellow, blue, rose, red, maroon, to an al-
most black purple, the colors are most charming, and are, of
course, always harmonious. The plants, which attain a height
of about three feet when well grown, are prolific, thrifty and
almost indispensable in the spring garden. The keeping quality
of the blossoms is good, the long stiff stems make for artistic
flower arrangements.

NASTURTIUM (Tropaeolum spp.)
Nasturtiums, if planted after the danger of frost has passed,
in the early spring, will furnish an abundance of delightful
color for a period of about two months. The many flowers
of yellow, orange and maroon make an attractive addition to

Fig. 17.-Nasturtiums in varied colors and vast quantities are easily
produced, and make attractive table decorations.

the garden and are good for cutting. A new race of double
flowers has met with considerable favor. Climbing varieties
make good screens, although only for a short time. Free from .
pests, and enjoying light soils, the nasturtium well deserves
its popularity.

Growing Annual Flowers

NICOTIANA (Nicotiana spp.)
Because the long, funnel-shaped flowers of most kinds of or-
namental tobaccos remain closed and are of little beauty during
the day, the principal value of this plant is for its perfume
which is delightful when the flowers open in the evening. Very
much like commercial tobaccos, the ornamental forms are large,
coarse annuals, to three feet, that succeed during the late spring
and summer. Several different colors are available.
ORANGE AFRICAN DAISY (Dimorphotheca aurantiaca)
Daisy-like flowers, about two inches across, in shades of yel-
low, are produced in considerable abundance by the dwarf
spreading plants of Dimorphotheca. The plants do not always
succeed and the flowers close in the evening. Hybrids, having
flowers of different colors, are available.
PAINTED TONGUE (Salpiglossis sinuata)
The striking, highly-colored, gold-banded and veined flowers
of the painted tongue resemble ornate petunias. A wide range
of bright, bizarre colors is exhibited by these funnel-shaped
blossoms, which unfortunately are not particularly numerous
on plants, that are, at best, rather difficult to grow. Germina-
tion of the seeds is satisfactory in cool weather, but even under
good cultural conditions, the small plants perish in such large
numbers that continual replacement is necessary. Painted
tongue is probably most successful in the northern and western
parts of the state on the heavier soils.
PANSY (Viola tricolor)
Nothing can approach pansies for edging or for bedding in
the late winter and early spring. The newer, highly-developed
strains are characterized by gigantic flowers of most striking
brilliance and endless variety of design. The pansy is distinctly
a cool weather plant, seeds will not germinate well in the warmth
of late summer, the young plants that are produced are sickly
and slow-growing. However, if fresh seeds are planted in a
cool, shaded place in late autumn, no difficulty should be experi-
enced. Set the plants 6 to 8 inches apart so as to obtain a con-
tinuous border without breaks. A stock of plants should be
kept on hand for a while so that dead or unthrifty plants in
the edging may be replaced. The loss from moving, if properly
done, is negligible. Pansies will ordinarily stand considerable
cold without injury.

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PETUNIA (Petunia axillaris)
No garden would be complete without petunias. The humble,
small single sorts are valuable for color effects, while the more
pretentious, single and double fringed and veined giants always
attract a great deal of attention because of their unusual tex-
ture, size and colors.

Fig. 18.-No spring garden is complete without petunias. This is the single,
bedding form. Strikingly beautiful double forms are available.
The small single varieties are very easily grown from seeds,
if the flats are protected from ants. Seeds of the large, fringed
types are rare and expensive, especially in the double flowered
varieties, because they are the result of hand pollination. Not
only are the seeds expensive, but germination is often slow and
uncertain. Poor stands of small, weak plants usually result
from the sowing of the seeds of the giant fringed petunias
unless the greatest care is observed in planting, watering and
transplanting. The smaller single sorts are more hardy than
are the giants, which should be protected when sub-freezing
weather is expected. The full, double-fringed varieties are
propagated by placing tip cuttings in coarse sand in order to
secure plants that are identical with the parent.

Growing Annual Flowers

PHLOX (Phlox drummondi)
Annual phlox is one of the easiest of all plants to grow from
seed. A wide variety of color is offered by the trusses of charm-
ing little flowers that cover the dwarf, spreading plants through-
out the early spring. Excellent as an edging, for ribbon beds,
as a ground cover for a sunny expanse, and for naturalizing.
Delightful effects are obtained by using a solid color as an
edging. Self-sown volunteers are numerous in the vicinity of
old plantings and even in places where discarded plants have
been piled. If true, rich, clear colors are wanted, it is best to
plant fresh seeds rather than to rely on volunteer seedlings,
because the colors deteriorate after about two years.

Fig. 19.-Phlox is a low annual, easily established, especially suitable for
ground cover in expansive, sunny areas.

Annual phlox is relatively free from pests, transplants most
easily, and succeeds in dry, light, sandy soils. The star phlox,
with its irregular, pointed petals, is an unusual and interesting
novelty that should be more widely grown. New strains of the
standard type bear gigantic flowers and are most highly recom-
PINKS (Dianthus in several species)
Pinks are very much at home with us, numerous kinds thriv-
ing as annuals, very often as perennials if they are cut back in
the early summer and fertilized for a second period of bloom.

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No attempt will be made to distinguish the species or hybrids
of Dianthus, but it is suggested that different kinds be tried,
so that the gardener can select those which are best suited to
his conditions. The hardiness of the plant, the old-fashioned

Fig. 20.-Annual pinks in many kinds are well adapted to Florida.
Attractive in the flower arrangement.

quaintness of the fragrant blossoms, in their many colors, the
ease with which the seeds sprout and grow, commend the annual
pinks to everyone who has a garden. Several new hybrid
Dianthus are charming annuals of considerable merit.
POPPY (Papaver in several species)
Poppies have long been garden favorites, and certainly they
can never lose the universal popularity they have always en-
joyed. The bold, bright colors of the hybrids of the opium
poppy and the fragile, fine-textured, delicately tinted flowers
of the Shirley group, offer us variety in substance, color and
design. The poppies do not transplant well, the seeds do not
sprout in hot weather; hence, it is best to sow the seeds in

Growing Annual Flowers

November, where the plants are to grow. As ants are very
fond of poppy seeds, grits should be sprinkled along the rows,
so that the seeds will be unmolested. Thin the seedlings to
stand a foot or a foot and a half apart. Some of the varieties
of the opium poppy volunteer so readily that they occupy the
same garden spot year after year.
SCARLET FLAX (Linum grandiflorum)
This red-flowered, annual variety of flax that is gradually
gaining popularity as a garden subject in Florida deserves every
gardener's consideration. A hardy, bushy annual, to two feet,

Fig. 21.-Scarlet flax adds a beautiful, clear red to the garden in the spring.
Of easy culture, it should be found in more Florida gardens.
of exceedingly graceful habit, it is covered with charming red
open flowers throughout the spring. The clear color is good
in the border or in a flower arrangement. Seedlings are easy
to grow and can be moved with little or no loss.
SNAPDRAGON (Antirrhinum majus)
Although the snapdragon is really a perennial, in Florida it
is treated as an annual because it rarely survives the high

Florida Cooperative Extension

temperatures and heavy rains of our summers. Like the pansy
and the larkspur it is distinctly a cool weather plant and is
really successful only when it is grown through the winter and
early spring months.

Fig. 22.-The snapdragon is one of the very best winter annuals for cutting.

The tiny seeds should be sown in a cool, shady place which
is protected from ants. After germination, culture is easy, as
the seedlings transplant and grow off readily, producing their
spikes of delightful blossoms in the early spring. Invaluable
as a cut flower, as well as a border subject, the snapdragon
in its highly-developed colors is well worth growing. The rust-
resistant strains are worth while if snapdragon rust has been
prevalent in a given area.

STATICE (Statice in several species)
The annual kinds of statice are well adapted to our gardens,
thriving, if necessary, under difficulties. Statice sinuata has,
in the spring., tall spikes of blue or white flowers arising from
dwarf, tight rosettes of lobed, spatulate leaves. S. bonduelli is
very similar in habit, but produces yellow flowers, while S.
suworori, the rat-tail statice, bears tall graceful spikes of deli-
cate pink flowers. This last-named species deserves wider trial

Growing Annual Flowers

as it is especially good, and receives favorable comment wher-
ever seen. All of these kinds are desirable garden plants, ex-
cellent for fresh
bouquets or as ev-
erlastings. Like
the strawflowers,
they are hung in
bundles, blossom
end down, to dry
before being
used. Germina-
tion is slow, but
the plants are
easily handled,
once they become
(Matthiola incana
Stocks are old
favorites t h a t
:have developed
wonderfully at
the hands of
plant breeders.
Full double vari-
-eties in many de-
lightful colors be-
longing to differ- Photo by Harold Mowry
ent strains, the Fig. 23.-Statice succeeds easily and can be used
ent trains, the either fresh or dried.
plants of which
vary in habit and time of bloom, are offered by the seed houses.
The seeds give a good stand and in transplanting it should be
'borne in mind that the smallest plants are often those whose
flowers will be most double, while the robust, thrifty seedlings
tend to produce the less desirable single blooms. The plants
should stand 8 to 12 inches apart. Aphids or plant lice are
fond of stocks and are sometimes very troublesome. A tobacco
spray or dust is used in controlling these pests. Several soil-
borne diseases that are prevalent during warm weather in old
garden sites, may be reduced by the use of soil-sterilizing

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STRAWFLOWER (Helichrysum bracteatum)
Tall, robust annuals which may attain a height of three feet
if well grown, the
strawflowers will
supply y attrac-
tive material for
dried bouquets.
Cut the flowers
when they are
about half open,
strip off the
leaves, and hang
in bundles, blos-
som end down, in
a shady place
until they dry.
A range of gay
colors is avail-
able. The plants
will stand some
cold, but are best
set out after the
danger of frost
has passed.
Strawflowers are
of some value in
the garden
Photo by Harold Mowor scheme, but
Fig. 24.-The strawflower is used principally in t h e r e are so
dried, permanent bouquets.
many plants that
give greater returns as regards color, that their chief merit
seems to lie in their use as dried bouquets.

SUNFLOWER (Helianthus in several species)
Great variation in height, habit and size of blossoms is avail-
able in this group of heat-tolerant annuals. They are good
material for screens, boundaries and for cutting during the
months of May through September if successive sowings of
seed are made. These should be sown where the plants are to
stand, and the seedlings should be thinned to two or three foot
intervals, depending upon the habit of the variety. Refined
types are being sold by the seedsmen that are a far cry from

Growing Annual Flowers

the old-fashioned, coarse kinds. Mildew attacks some varieties
but does little harm, apparently. It can be controlled by dust-
ing with sulfur.
SWAN RIVER DAISY (Brachycome iberidifolia)
An annual of very fine texture whose blossoms are admir-
ably adapted to use in miniature arrangements is available in
the Swan River daisy. The plants grow about a foot in height
and bear daisy-like blossoms that are blue, white or rose in
color. The plant may be used as an edging subject, but it is
probably best adapted to cutting.

SWEET PEA (Lathyrus odoratus)
Sweet peas are, without doubt, among the most important
of our winter and spring blooming annuals. Their fragrance,
delicacy of texture and design have won for them a place in
everyone's heart, but at the same time it must be conceded that
the host of pests which prey upon them are most alarming and
often most difficult to control.
The Spencers, now the most popular group, have reached a
remarkable state of perfection. Winter flowering or "early"
strains planted in the early fall should start blooming in Decem-
ber if conditions are favorable, and the spring or "late" flower-
ing strains, if planted in the winter, should produce a wealth
of bloom in March, April or May. The list of varieties is long
-no kinds can be recommended as being preferable to others,
one must try different sorts in order to discover which are
best for his purpose, or be content with the "mixed packets".
There are many ways of planting sweet pea seeds, many ideas,
often at variance, as to how to prepare the seedbeds. The
method described herewith, although not necessarily the best,
has proven satisfactory. If the soil is light, sandy, infested
with root-knot, remove it from a trench two feet deep where
the trellis is to stand. In the bottom of this trench place six
inches of rotted cow manure, fill to the ground level with a
good compost of rich hammock soil. Root-knot will probably
not be troublesome for the first season if the soil is taken from
a heavily shaded, wooded hammock. It is important to treat
the bed with a soil-sterilizing compound. Plant the seeds in
a staggered double row, so that the trellis may be erected be-
tween the rows. When the seedlings emerge treat the bed with
the soil-sterilizing compound to control damping-off. It is best

Florida Cooperative Extension

to thin the plants to stand a foot apart. When the plants are
six inches high apply steamed bone meal so as to make the
ground white, then stir it in lightly. A mulch of oak leaves
or peat moss is valuable in conserving the moisture. When
tendrils appear some sort of support must be provided. This may
be poultry netting stretched between posts, a trellis of cotton
cords running vertically over horizontal bars at top and bottom,
or a line of brush stuck firmly into the ground between the rows.
Frequent cutting of the blooms is essential to prevent forma-
tion of seedpods which will materially reduce the period of flow-
ering. When the stems begin to get short, app'y nitrate of
soda in a water solution at the rate of one tablespoonful to the
Aphids, frequent visitors to sweet peas, are controlled by
tobacco sprays, and red spiders are forestalled by dusting with
sulfur or syringing the vines with water under high pressure.
Sweet peas are hosts to diseases whose effects are most dis-
couraging. Little is known about their control. Remove and'
burn badly infected plants and continue to use soil disinfectants.
The vines will stand considerable cold but the flower buds
are so easily injured that protection on cold nights is suggested
after the plants have commenced to blossom.

TAGETES (Tageles signara pumila)
This little marigold relative seems to have been overlooked
by Florida gardeners. As a tender but heat-tolerant edging
plant, it should be a valuable form to take the place of the
pansies when they are removed from the garden in May. The
plants, about 12 inches tall, are covered with endless numbers
of tiny, single yellow blossoms. Of easiest culture this little
Tagetes may be grown with perfect success from seeds and-
from tip cuttings.

THYIMOPHYLLA (Thymophylla lenuiloba)
This little weed (Fig. 1) is an edging plant par excellence.
Native to Texas and Alexico, an escape from cultivation in parts
of Florida, the Thymophylla creates a very favorable impression
wherever it is seen. Tiny plants of excellent habit are covered
with half-inch yellow daisies throughout the spring. Apparently
free from insects and diseases and of easy culture, this annual'
cannot be too highly recommended to Florida gardeners. Ger-
mination of the seeds takes about 15 days.

Growing Annual Flowers

TORENIA (Torenia fournieri)
As an edging or rock garden subject that will withstand heat
and succeed with little attention, the Torenia deserves consid-
eration. The plants, not over a foot tall, are covered throughout
the summer with masses of unusual white or lavender, yellow
blotched flowers. The habit of this sun-tolerant annual is creep-
ing, the runners or stems rooting where they come into contact
with the ground. The rooted tips, of course, may be separated
and used as new plants. Chance seedlings are present under

Fig. 25.-Torenia is a
splendid summer edging
p.lan.. Note the "'wih-
hune" in the left center


Florida Cooperative Extension

favorable conditions. It is hoped that Torenia will receive wider
trial in Florida gardens.
VERBENA (Verbena hybrida)
The modern verbena, with its globular heads of large individ-
ual flowers, is a particularly desirable garden subject. Although
ordinarily a perennial in Florida, it may be treated as an annual.
Strong, clear colors are characteristic of this hardy, low growing
herb. If no particular color is wanted, the plants may be grown
from seeds, however, propagation of choice kinds should be by
ZINNIA (Zinnia elegans)
When one considers the remarkable thriftiness, the heat
tolerance of the zinnia, the facility with which it grows in
adverse conditions, it must be awarded a place of importance

Fig. 26.-The zinnia is a leading cut flower for the summer months.

Growing Annual Flowers

on our list of summer blossoming annuals. It is easily realized
that our gardens, from July to November, would be colorless,
indeed, if it were not for this most admirable of flowers.
Plant breeders have worked long and patiently with the zinnia
and now we may have many charming clear colors, in blossoms
that range in size from tiny Mexican hybrids to giant dahlia-
flowered kinds that are, perhaps, eight inches across. There
are pompom sorts, curled and crested, picotes, quilled and others
that contribute variety to the flower arrangement.
The seeds may be planted either in flats or in the garden
after danger of frost has passed. Sowings should be repeated
every six weeks so as to have a succession of new plants to
replace those which have ceased blooming. The lilliput kinds
should stand a foot apart, while the dahlia-flowered giants should
not be set closer than two feet, if they are to receive proper, care.
Abundant plant food and water should be available to these
gross feeders. As garden subjects, as well as for cutting, the
zinnias cannot be excelled during the summer and early fall
months. The Mexican hybrids and lilliputs are especially good
as edging plants.


When to Sow Approximate Tender or
Name Seeds Time in Bloom Hardy Page
Alyssum* ..........................Aug.-Jan............ Oct.-June.............Hardy ........... 10
Aster ...................................Feb.-April.......... July-Aug.............Tender ............ 10
Baby's Breath ........... .Aug...................Jan.-June............Hardy ............ 10
Balsam ................ ....Feb.-April.......... April-Nov...........Tender ............ 11
Blanket Flower* ................Sept.-Dec........... April-Aug.............Hardy ............ 11
Blue-Eyed African Daisy* Aug.-Jan. March-June. Hardy ............ 12
Blue Lace-Flower ..............Feb.-April...... .. July-Aug.... ..Tender ......... 12
Browallia ........ ....... ......... Aug.-Oct.. ............De.-May..........Hardy ............ 12
Butterfly Flower ................Aug.-Feb............ April-June..........Tender ............ 12
Calendula ..........................Aug.-Oct.............Dec.-June............Hardy ......... 12
California Poppy* ............Sept.-Dec...........March-June........Hardy ........... 14
Calliopsis ............................Oct.-Dec...... .. April-June..........Hardy .......... 14
Candytuft ..........................:Aug.-Dec............ March-June........Hardy .......... 15
Carnation ............. .... MarchJu...............Aug.-Dec........March-June..Hardy ....... 15
Celosia .................. ...........Feb.-April.......... May-Sept .. T n er ..... .. 15
Chinese Forget-Me-Not* ..Aug.-Feb ....... April-July. .... Hardy ........... 15
Chrysanthemumr (annual)Feb.-lMarch.. May-July............Tender ............ 15
Clarkia ............ ..............Sept.-Nov........ April-June ...... Hnrly ......... 16
Cornflower ................ Aug-Oct....... .-June......... ......Hardy ............ 16
Cosmos (bipinnatus) ........Feb.-April.........May-Aug........... Tender ............ 17
Cosmos (sulphureus)* ......May-Aug.............Oct.-Nov.............. Tender ............ 18
Cypress Vine* ....................March-May.........July-Sept...........Tender ............ 18

42 Florida Cooperative E.rt cusion

When to Sow Approximate Tender or
Name Seeds Time in Bloom Hardy Page
Delphinium ........ ........ Oct.-Nov.. ... March-May..... Ha dy ........... 18
Double English Daisy ......Sept.-Oct. ... Mlrch-May.. .Hardy ............ 18
Flora's Paintbrush* .. ..... Aug.-Dec. .........] arch-June.. Hardy ............ 19
Floss Floer .....................F.l..-April Iay-Aug Tender ........... 19
Cilia ...... ..... ........ ... Sep .-Dec....... April-June Hardy ........... 20
Globe Amaranth ........... latch-April... May-July.......Tende ......... 21
Godetia .............. ..............Sept.-Der.... .... April-June Haidy ............ 21
Gourd .... ....... .. ..... Feb.-Al.- l .. . . ............... 22
Hunnemania .... .... .. Nov.-Dei.. April-June ....Hardy ............ 22
Larkspur" ........ ...... Oct.-Dec. ..... March-May .Hardy ......... 23
Leptosyne ........ ............A lg.-No... March-June. .....Hardy .... ....... 24
Lobelia ....... ..... Sept.-March.. Nov.-lay.... Tender ............ 24
Lupine ....... .... ..... Aug.-Dec .. March-June .. Hardy ......... 24
Marigzold" .... .. Feb.-May. .....Sept.-Nov.. Tender ........ 25
Mignonette .. Set.-Nov..... Mlarch-May. Haidy .......... 26
Morning Glory . .. Feb.-Aplril .. May-Nov. .. Tender ........ 26
Moroccan T:.adnlal .... Sept.-Nr.v. Dec.-May Hardy ............ 26
Moss Rose .. .......................Feb.-July Mlay-Oct. Tender ............ 27
Mourning Bride ................Sept.-Dec. .. April-June Hardy ............ 27
Nasturtium .... ... .F...-MarchA, .Ap il-Junet .. .Tender ......... 28
Ni-otanan ............ ... Aug--Nov.. 1Match-June .Ha dy ............ 29
Orange African Daisy ... Aug.-Feb.. Ap.il-Ju.ly ....Hardy ............ 29
Painted Tongue ........ Aug.-Nov. April-May Hardy ............ 29
Pansy ............ .......... Aug.-N,,v.. Jan.-May ... H nidy ............ 29
Petunia* .............................. Aug.-Jan.. Jan.-July.. Hardly ............ 30
Phlox- ....... ........................Aug.-Feb. i.laiih-July .. ..Ha rdy ............. 31
Pinks ....... ............................Aug.-Feb... Jan.-July.. Hardy ............ 31
Poplies* ..............................Nov.-Dec... March-May.... Hardy ........... 32
Scarlet Flax ...... .-...-..........Sept.-Nov... April-June......... Hardy ............ 33
Snapdragon .....................Aug.-Dec... Feb.-June..... Hardy ... 33
Statice ... ........................... Aug.-Dec... April-Aug......... .Haidy- ............ 34
Stock ........... ........... Aug.-Dec. ... Feh.-May.. ..... Hardy ............ 35
Shtawflower ............ ...........Oct.-April .. Fe .-Aug ............ Tender ............ 36
Sunfoer ............ ... ..Fel.-April .... June-Aug. ......Tender .......... 836
Swan River Daisy . Sept.-Nov.. ... Ja.-April Hardy ........... 37
Sweet Pea .......... ...........Sept.-Nov. .... Jan.-April.... .Hardy .......... 37
Tagetes ............................... Feb.-Ap il.... April-July. Tender .... 38
Thymophylla* .................... Sept.-Nov. ....... Feb.-June..... Hardy ..... 38
T rienia* ......... ....................Feb.-May. ...... April-Sept.. .. Tender- ............ 39
Verbena ..............................Aug.-Dec ...... Feb.-July.. Hardy ............ 40
Zinnia* ................................ Feb.-Aug ...... M ay-Oct. ... Tender ............ 41

*Re-seed and 'olintcer readily.

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