• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Table of Contents
 General instructions
 Corn clubs
 Peanut clubs
 Sweet potato clubs
 Sugar cane clubs
 Citrus fruit clubs
 Pig clubs
 Beef calf clubs
 Dairy calf clubs
 Bee clubs














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Division of Agricultural Extension ; no. 25
Title: Boys' agricultural club guide
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026113/00001
 Material Information
Title: Boys' agricultural club guide
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 43 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Herrington, G. L ( Garvin Leon )
Publisher: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extention
Place of Publication: <Gainesville Fla.>
Publication Date: 1920
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural education -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Boys -- Societies and clubs -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by G.L. Herrington.
General Note: "January, 1920".
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026113
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570043
oclc - 47285582
notis - AMT6349

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    General instructions
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Corn clubs
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Peanut clubs
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Sweet potato clubs
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Sugar cane clubs
        Page 29
    Citrus fruit clubs
        Page 29
    Pig clubs
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Beef calf clubs
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Dairy calf clubs
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Bee clubs
        Page 42
        Page 43
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Bulletin No. 25


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL
EXTENSION AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING
P. H. ROLFS, Director




BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB

GUIDE
By G. L. HERRINGTON
Boys' Club Agent

CONTENTS
Page
General Instructions.---.....------ ...-...--- ..... 1
Corn Clubs .........-...-- ..---- -.. ---. .....--....... 5
Peanut Clubs......---..----.--.-.....--.----.........----........... 13
Sweet Potato Clubs...... ..------~~- .... ........----- 21
Sugar Cane Clubs ----..-........----... ........ 29
Citrus Fruit Clubs ......-...... ----- -----...--- ...... 29
Pig Clubs -----..........----..-----.......-----... 30
Beef Calf Clubs -----......--.. --- -- ... ---..--....... 38
Dairy Calf Clubs.......... ----.. --..........-.....- 40
Bee Clubs ----.. ....-...... -----......... -.....-. 42



GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
The following branches of club work are outlined for the boys
of Florida: corn, peanut, sweet potato, sugar cane, pig, beef calf,
dairy calf and bee clubs. Rules governing these clubs are out-
lined in circular A-74 published by the United States Department
of Agriculture except for sugar cane, citrus fruit and bees,
which are given in this bulletin.
When a boy desires to become a member of the club work he


January, 1920







Bulletin No. 25


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL
EXTENSION AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING
P. H. ROLFS, Director




BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB

GUIDE
By G. L. HERRINGTON
Boys' Club Agent

CONTENTS
Page
General Instructions.---.....------ ...-...--- ..... 1
Corn Clubs .........-...-- ..---- -.. ---. .....--....... 5
Peanut Clubs......---..----.--.-.....--.----.........----........... 13
Sweet Potato Clubs...... ..------~~- .... ........----- 21
Sugar Cane Clubs ----..-........----... ........ 29
Citrus Fruit Clubs ......-...... ----- -----...--- ...... 29
Pig Clubs -----..........----..-----.......-----... 30
Beef Calf Clubs -----......--.. --- -- ... ---..--....... 38
Dairy Calf Clubs.......... ----.. --..........-.....- 40
Bee Clubs ----.. ....-...... -----......... -.....-. 42



GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
The following branches of club work are outlined for the boys
of Florida: corn, peanut, sweet potato, sugar cane, pig, beef calf,
dairy calf and bee clubs. Rules governing these clubs are out-
lined in circular A-74 published by the United States Department
of Agriculture except for sugar cane, citrus fruit and bees,
which are given in this bulletin.
When a boy desires to become a member of the club work he


January, 1920







Florida Cooperative Extension


should have his name placed on the list of club members in the
office of the State Boys' Club Agent. This may be done by call-
ing on or writing to the County Agent who has charge of the
county club in which the boy lives.
Each club member can help to increase the enrollment if he
will induce his boy friends to join. A large number of success-
ful boys will make the work more interesting to everyone and
this will result in more good being accomplished.
KEEPING RECORDS
Every club member is requested to keep a record of his work
thruout the season. A record book is provided for each
branch of the club work and furnished free to club boys. Each
time the crop is worked, feed weighed or measured for the
animal, or anything important occurs, it should be recorded in
the record book. Too many boys who do good work, fail to
submit reports at the end of the season. This is important,
and is the only way for anyone to show what success he has
made. The report is always submitted at the county contest
with the exhibits.
HOW TO MEASURE AN ACRE OF LAND
There are 43,560 square feet in one acre of land, and if it
is square each side must be 209 feet. To find the area of a
square, multiply one side by itself. Example: 209 X 209=-
43,681. This is the closest we can get to a square acre without
using fractions.
If the acre must be rectangular, measure off the width you
expect to make it. The number of feet in width divided into
the number of square feet in an acre will indicate the length the
rectangle must be to contain one acre. Suppose it is 120 feet
wide, how long must it be to contain one acre? Example:
43,560 120 = 363. Proof: 120 X 363 = 43,560.
If the acre is in the shape of a triangle, you should at least
make it a right triangle. Suppose the perpendicular or short
side of the triangle is 240 feet. You will divide half its length
into the number of square feet in one acre in order to determine
how long the acre must be. Example: 240 2 2 = 120. 43,560
120 = 363.
An acre may have any dimensions. The figures suggested
above are only used for illustration. In measuring land always
use a tape line or some other device as reliable.








Boys' Agricultural Club Guide








44
0q
(D
OS


209 feet
Diagram of square acre of land


363 feet
Diagram of rectangular acre of land


363 feet
Diagram of triangular acre of land






Florida Cooperative Extension


Since one-eighth of an acre is the size plat used in the sweet
potato and sugar cane clubs, the members of those clubs will
be interested in knowing the best methods of measuring their
plats. One-eighth acre contains 5,445 square feet. The
dimensions may vary if necessary, but it is important that the
area of the plat be one-eighth of an acre. If the plats are made
100 feet long and 55 feet wide they will closely approximate
the correct area.
BREAKING
The date that land should be broken will depend largely upon
the type of soil and the amount of vegetation to be turned under.
Where heavy crops of velvet beans or beggarweed are on the
land it should be turned early in January, and December is not
too early. This allows time for the vegetation to decay. The
stiff, clay soils will also yield better if broken early in the winter.
The light sandy soils, and especially where there is no vegetation
to turn under, may be broken in late winter or early spring.
The small turning plow drawn by one horse is a handicap to
good farming, for the land cannot be broken deep enough. It
is essential to have the land broken from seven to ten inches
deep and to have this done thoroly. Every breaking plow
should therefore be drawn by two or more good horses or mules.
The plant roots will feed from the soil as deep as it is broken
and this is the reason for breaking seven to ten inches.
The disk breaking plow, generally drawn by three animals,
does the most successful work. It gives a thoro mixing of
the vegetation, soil and subsoil. Where the disk is not available,
the two-horse steel beam turning plow is advised. There are
many types of breaking implements and the club boy will of
course use the kind that is available on his father's farm.
Many club boys have only one horse and their implements are
one-horse implements. The one-horse plow is small but will
do good work if put into the ground deep enough. If two boys
living in the same community have single plows and only one
horse each, it is suggested that they put both animals to one
of the plows and break twice as deep as they have been doing.
In other words, make one team of the two horses until both
acres of land are broken.
As soon as the land is broken it should be harrowed with a
disk harrow. If the disk harrow is not available, then use the
spike tooth or acme harrow. Harrowing cuts the vegetation,








Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


crushes clods, leaves the surface smooth and level, and prevents
the evaporation of moisture.

CORN CLUBS
The corn club is our oldest branch of club work and has done
more to increase the production of corn in Florida than any-
thing else. The past five-year average yield for all club boys
who submitted reports is 37.9 bushels per acre. That is a
splendid record, but it is now possible to even increase the
average yield during the next five years.
All boys who enter the corn club should make their plans as
early in the year as possible so that these plans may be put into
practice at the proper time. The first step is to select an acre
of land and it is advisable to select one of the most productive
acres on the farm.


Fig. 1.-Peanuts growing between corn, a method practiced on two acres
of land each by six Hernando County boys

Muck lands when well drained will generally produce greater
yields of corn than any other. Where drainage is insufficient
a corn crop on muck soil is not successful during seasons of
excessive rains.
The low hammock lands also require good drainage, and when
this is done, large yields of corn are frequently obtained. The







Florida Cooperative Extension


high hammock soils, that is, the high, firm soils that produce
hardwood timber as a natural growth, give splendid yields.
Large areas of flatwood and high pine lands are cultivated to
corn and in general farming produce from 12 to 15 bushels
per acre. It is very doubtful if these yields would be profitable
were it not for the fact that velvet beans or peanuts were grown
with the corn, thereby getting two crops from the land in
one season.
PLANTING
Where possible, use a planter. It saves much labor, places
the grains a regular distance apart in the drill, covers the corn
the desired depth, and a more regular stand will come. With
the planter the club boy can lay off the rows, drop the corn
and cover it at one time. If the hand method is used the rows
must be laid off, the corn dropped and then covered. All of
these savings in labor will lower the cost of producing the corn.
In the planting, the land should be smooth and well cultivated.
The opener should go about five inches deep. The corn is then
covered approximately two inches deep which will leave it about
five inches below the surface. This method is more desirable
than to plant in a low water furrow. On some of the low soils
that are not well drained the corn should be planted on slight
beds. Early plantings are usually covered less than two inches
deep, while late -plantings should be covered more than two
inches.
The productiveness of the soil will indicate the width the
corn rows should be made, as a general rule from 4 to 5 feet
being advisable. On lands that will make 25 bushels or more
per acre, the rows should be about 4 feet wide as this width
is convenient in cultivating. On thin lands the rows should be
41/2 or 5 feet wide. On very thin lands the rows are generally
put 7 feet apart and a row of peanuts or velvet beans drilled
between the corn rows. This is practiced on the farm basis, but
the club boy should get a more productive acre if possible.
The distance of the plants in the drills depends also on the
fertility of the land. On very rich soils the stalks may be left
10 to 15 inches apart while on the thin lands 24 to 30 inches
should be allowed. There is a tendency not to leave enough corn
on the land; however, the judgment of a person who is familiar
with the type of soil in question is worth more than any definite
rule for all.







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


USE GOOD SEED CORN
The use of good seed corn will be a good investment. Seed
corn usually sells for $4 or $5 a bushel. The club boy can buy
enough for 50 or 75 cents to plant his acre. Five or six quarts
will plant the acre. If this increases the yield only two bushels
it would more than pay for the seed, but in many instances the
yield will be increased 5 to 10 bushels.
BARNYARD MANURE
The best kind of fertilizer for corn in Florida is barnyard
manure. Any amount from one to ten tons can be used if
properly applied. If no more than five two-horse wagon loads
are available, it is all right to drill it on the land, but if more
than five loads are used it should be applied broadcast.
Barnyard manure should be applied after the land is broken
and a few weeks before time for planting. It is then disked
and mixed well with the soil. If a disk is not available, a
shallow rebreaking is often advisable. If the land is not broken
until a short time before planting, the manure may be applied
before breaking in order to give it a thoro mixing with the soil.
COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS
If we practice safe farming we must limit the amount of
fertilizer applied to corn, for in case the season is unfavorable,
it is easy to almost lose the crop and the investment in fertilizer
will be lost too. Some experiments have indicated that 300
pounds per acre is as much as can be used profitably. Large
applications do not increase the yields much more than do small
ones.
A good mixture for many of the uplands of Florida is as
follows: 200 pounds acid phosphate, 25 pounds sulphate of
ammonia and 25 pounds muriate of potash. This may be applied
at the time of planting or just before the second cultivation.
It is usually drilled with the one-horse distributor. When the
corn is waist high, or just before the last cultivation, 50 pounds
of nitrate of soda scattered in the middles will be profitable.
All of the ingredients except nitrate of soda may be purchased
and mixed on the farm if a large quantity is to be used on the
main crop. But if no other crops are to be fertilized, it will
be advisable for the club boy to purchase commercially mixed
fertilizers. An equal amount of dried blood may be used instead
of the sulphate of ammonia if desirable. If no other fertilizer
is used, the nitrate of soda applied late in the season is advisable.







Florida Cooperative Extension


TIME TO PLANT
The dates for planting corn might rest largely with the
preference and convenience of the individual. As a general
rule, however, plant early. In the farthest counties south in-
cluding the Everglades, January and February are the proper
months. In central counties, the latter part of February and
thru March will be most desirable. In North and West Florida
from March 15 until late in April is the best time for planting.
Insect pests will be worse on late corn. The idea that plant-
ing may be done to suit certain periods of season and drouth does
not work out the same way every year.
CULTIVATION
The shallow, comparatively level method of cultivating corn
is advised. The good results of shallow cultivations as compared
with deep cultivations that break the roots off the plants are
very apparent in midsummer if there comes a drouth. The
advantage in keeping the land level rather than in ridges is
equally important, because there is less surface exposed to wind
and sun which causes it to dry out rapidly.
The first cultivation should generally be made with a weeder


Fig. 2.-Club boy showing county agent he has followed instructions
regarding level cultivation







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


about the time the corn is coming well out of the ground. The
weeder is a great labor saving device and by using it a club boy
can cultivate his acre in less than an hour.
By the use of a two-horse cultivator one boy can do as much
work as two who use one-horse cultivators. If there is a two-
horse implement of this kind on the farm it is hoped the club
boy will form the habit of using it, but where such an imple-
ment is not available the one-horse cultivator is to be used.
Light cultivators or harrows that will never go more than two
inches deep are the right kind. The heelsweep is also a valuable
implement for cultivating corn, and if used every second or third
working, all weeds and grass will be kept out.

SELECTING SEED
Seed corn should be selected in the field as soon as mature.
If it is delayed the ears may become infested with weevils, grain
moths and their eggs. Selecting seed corn in the field is as
easy, more satisfactory, and much more profitable than selecting
from cribs in the spring.
With the assumption that like produces like we can influence
the type of ear and stalk by selecting along definite lines. The
stalk should be 8 to 10 feet tall, the base large and somewhat
flat, tapering gently from base to tassel. Select seed from
stalks without suckers for such seed will produce stalks that
have fewer suckers than will seed taken from sucker bearing
stalks.
In all prolific varieties, select from stalks that have at least
two fully developed ears to the stalk. The ears should be borne
upon strong, short shanks 4 or 5 inches long that permit them
to hang down. They should be about 4 feet from the ground.
Every ear should be snugly covered with a thick shuck. The
stalk from which seed ears are to be selected should not occupy
more than normal space, should not stand at the end of missing
hills, nor at the end of the row.
Every stalk in the vicinity of the seed stalk should be well
fruited. If barren or weak plants stand near a normal one,
the ears from the normal stalk will not be suitable for seed for
it is possible for it to have become mixed with the undesirable
kind. Be careful to select stalks that are free from disease
and that do not stand near diseased plants.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 3.-Putnam County Agent, L. Cantrell, lecturing to his club boys
on the selection of seed corn

VARIETIES OF CORN
There are certain varieties of corn adapted to different sections
of Florida. Along the east coast and in all counties south of
Polk it is recommended that Nassau and Cuban flint varieties
be used. These varieties have very thick, tight fitting shucks
that protect the ears from weevils. The grains are very dense
and flinty which make it more difficult for the weevils to eat
them after thoroly ripe. The hairy nature of the leaves and
shucks makes this variety of corn almost free from attacks of
the corn ear worm in communities where other varieties are
often destroyed. The yields of the Cuban flint and Nassau are
not as high as that of other varieties, but their keeping qualities
warrant their use.
In the central part of the State the variety known as Marion
county white is used by many club boys. It is a good yielder,
good sized ear, and well adapted to all general farming localities
in the state. This variety has been selected for about 30 years
in Marion county.
A variety known locally in Putnam county as the Florida
weevil proof, and which has been grown and selected on the muck
lands near Florahome, seems well adapted to localities where the
weevils do great damage. This is a large eared variety and since
it has been grown on muck lands it seems more adapted to that







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


type of soil. It has the advantage over the Cuban flint in that
it yields better, but it will not stand the conditions in the
southern counties as well.
In West Florida there is a popular variety of corn known as
Smith's. It is well adapted to most types of soil found in North
and West Florida, and is recommended to club boys. It has been
selected in Gadsden county for several years.
For those boys who are interested in producing large yields,
the Hastings' prolific variety is popular. This is a very heavy
yielding variety, but very soft and the weevils and ear worms
attack it seriously. Where the Hastings' prolific is grown it
should be harvested as soon as mature and treated to kill weevils.
Names and addresses of parties having these varieties of corn
for sale will be furnished club boys who will notify their County
Agent or the State Boys' Club Agent.
Seed corn should be shucked, put in a tight box or barrel
and treated with carbon bisulphide to kill the weevils according
to descriptions given in Bulletin 10 of the Extension Division of
the University. This treatment should be repeated in mid-
winter. The corn should be stored in a dry place, secure from
rats or mice.
EXHIBITS
When the corn is harvested the club member should select
10 ears to carry to his county contest. A good ear for exhibition
is not always a good seed ear, nor is a good seed ear always what
you would want for show purposes, but by constant selection
for seed and exhibition there is no doubt but what the yields
generally will be increased. The 10 ears should be uniform in
size, shape, color and shape of kernels.
The ideal exhibit ear is nearly cylindrical in shape, tapering
only slightly from butt to tip. The rows of corn should be
straight and compact, commencing close to the shank and with
good depth of grain almost the entire length of the ear. The
cob should be of medium size. Extra long or extra large ears
should be avoided as well as very small ones. You have a right
to remove two kernels from each ear, about one-third of the
distance from the butt to the tip, to make an examination. All
the cobs should be the same color. If the variety is a red cob
variety, all the cobs should be red, and if the variety is a white
variety, all the cobs should be white. See that tips and butts
are well filled out.







Florida Cooperative Extension


j : BOYACULTUDAL CUV
4- ,i P k Iu


Fig. 4.-Club boys' exhibit at the 1919 State Fair


In preparing the corn for the exhibit each ear should be well
wrapped in newspaper and the paper twisted tightly around each
end. When each ear is wrapped, they should all be wrapped
together in one package with strong paper and a twine tied
around them. In this way the corn can be carried to the contest
without shelling off the grains.

MEASURING CORN
Weigh up the entire crop of corn when thoroly dry, divide the
total weight by 70, and according to the laws of Florida this will
indicate the number of bushels.
Perhaps a still more accurate way is to weigh the entire crop
in the husk when it is in a dry condition, and then weigh out 50
pounds separately. Husk and shell this 50 pounds and weigh
the shelled corn. Multiply the weight of all the corn in the
husk by the weight of this shelled corn. Point off the two right
hand figures and divide by 28. The results will be the yield in
bushels of shelled corn. In every case where there is a prospec-
tive yield of 100 bushels or more, notice should be sent to the
State Boys' Club Agent before harvesting.







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


Suppose when your corn is weighed up in the shuck you have
6,000 pounds. Then you take 50 pounds and shell it and the
shelled corn weighs 42 pounds. You will now calculate as
follows: 6,000 X 42 = 252,000. Pointing off the two right hand
ciphers: 2,520 28 = 82.5. The yield then would be 82.5
bushels of corn.
Where large scales are not available, a club member is allowed
to measure his corn in a barrel, box or basket. With this
method, care must be exercised to fill the container each time
so that there will be no variation in the amount of corn put into
it. Keep accurate account of the number of barrels or measures
of corn grown on the acre.
Shuck, shell and weigh the amount of shelled corn in one con-
tainer. Multiply the weight of shelled corn by the number of
containers of corn grown on the acre and this will give the total
number of pounds of shelled corn. Since there are 56 pounds of
shelled corn in a bushel, we may get the number of bushels by
dividing 56 into the total number of pounds of shelled corn.
Suppose a boy finds that his crop measured 42 barrels of corn.
He then shucks, shells and weighs one barrel and finds that it
contains 60 pounds of shelled corn. The final yield may be
calculated as follows: 42 X 60 =2,520. 2,520 56 = 45.
Where a boy produces not more than 25 bushels, he need not
have witnesses attest the measurements, but his own statement
will be accepted.

PEANUT CLUBS

The most productive peanut soil in Florida is a well drained
medium fine sandy loam, underlaid with a porous clay 18 inches
to 3 feet from the surface. Rolling high pine land or well
drained sandy hammock lands, the original timber growth of
which was oak and hickory with scattering pines, are considered
the best. Good crops are also produced on flatwoods pine land
where drainage is provided, and the soil is well cultivated and
limed. Wherever a 25 bushel corn crop can be produced, a good
crop of peanuts may be expected.

FERTILIZING
The fertilizer should be thoroly mixed with the soil before
planting and it would be policy to run the planter just by the







Florida Cooperative Extension


side of the drill containing the fertilizer rather than plant in
the same row as the tender peanut sprout is easily damaged by
coming in direct contact with the fresh acid fertilizer. The
fertilizers most necessary are phosphates, potash and lime. An
application of 300 to 400 pounds of acid phosphate and 100 to
150 pounds of kainit per acre will be sufficient for suitable soils
that have been properly prepared. In case the soil is deficient
in organic ammonia and lacking in humus, 100 to 200 pounds
per acre of blood and bone added to the mixture will be profitable.
The fertilizer should be applied before the crop is planted. After
the ground has been plowed, broadcast the fertilizer over the
surface and then work it into the soil with a harrow or disk.
Stable manure may be applied for peanuts only when well
rotted and then in limited quantities. Heavy applications of
fresh stable manure applied at planting time will produce heavy
tops and a small yield of nuts. An application given to thin
sandy land long enough in advance of planting to insure thoro
mixing with the soil is beneficial and improves conditions by
adding organic nitrogen and humus, both of which make soil
conditions more favorable for the nitrogen gathering bacteria.
Peanuts thrive best on limestone or marl soils and even these
are frequently benefited by the addition of lime. An application
of two or three tons of ground lime rock to the acre will have a
beneficial effect. Part of this lime will be taken up by the plant
as fertilizer, but the greatest benefits will come from sweetening
the soil and improving its mechanical condition. In case the
lime is not applied in the fall, which is the best time, hydrated
lime, at the rate of 800 pounds per acre just before planting,
should be used in preference to ground lime rock. The hydrated
form is more active than ground limestone and will begin to
neutralize the acidity in the soil at once, and the peanut plants
will get its benefit while they are small.
An application of three to four hundred pounds of gypsum
applied just before the bloom opens can be substituted for the
lime and will produce good results.

VARIETIES
Four main varieties of peanuts are grown in Florida. The
Florida runner is grown most extensively and used almost
entirely for stock feed. It is a rank grower and the vines spread
over the ground, making an excellent quality of hay on account
of the fine stems, which yield from three-quarters to one ton per







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


acre on the average. It is a heavy yielder and the pods form
along the stems. The pod is medium size and usually contains
two and sometimes three seeds. It requires about 150 days to
mature and should be planted early. This variety may stay in
the ground several months after ripening without sprouting
and, consequently, is especially suitable for hog feeding during
fall and winter.
The Little Spanish is next in importance to the Florida runner
for stock feed and is the leading variety for the production of oil.
It will produce good crops on more widely differing soils than
any other variety grown in Florida. It requires about 100 days
to ripen and may be planted as late as July 15. If planted early
two crops may be grown in one season. The pods are small,
usually containing two seeds. The color of the seed is light
brown. The pods cluster close around the base of the plant and
adhere well when digging.
On account of the upright habit of growth, the little Spanish
is somewhat easier to mow for hay than the spreading varieties,
yet it has a coarser stem and the quality of hay is not so good.
It is a splendid yielder, producing 50 to 75 bushels per acre under
exceptionally good conditions.
The improved Spanish resembles the little Spanish variety
very closely. It has a larger pod, the shelled nuts are larger and
it is said to produce a heavier yield of hay. Otherwise it is
practically the same.
The principal objection to the Spanish varieties is their habit
of sprouting as soon as the nuts are ripe. The riper nuts
frequently begin to sprout before the others on the same plant
are mature. Much of this trouble can be avoided by harvesting
promptly.
The Valencia is a comparatively new variety. It makes a
strong upright growth with coarse stems. The pods cluster
around the roots and adhere well during digging. The pods are
usually well filled with three and sometimes four seeds. The
color of the seed is carmine red. This variety, altho a fair
yielder, is not a general favorite because of the tendency to
sprout as soon as ripe if the ground is moist, and because the
large stems make coarse hay. It matures in about 120 days and
is grown for the manufacture of peanut butter and blanched or
salted peanuts. The yield averages from 20 to 30 bushels and
under exceptionally good conditions 60 to 75 bushels per acre.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PLANTING
The Florida runner makes heavier yields if planted in March
or April, altho fair crops are often produced when planted as
late as June 15. Early plants bloom and peg down during dry
weather when they are more easily cultivated and kept free
from grass or weeds. Late crops may bloom during the rainy
season and the bloom spurs enter the ground when it is
saturated, which causes them to rot instead of producing nuts.
When peanuts make a quick growth while still young the vines
grow upright so that many of the bloom pegs cannot enter the
soil.
Two bushels of seed in the hull or eight to ten quarts shelled
will be sufficient to plant an acre. The seeds should be shelled
before planting to avoid the possibility of planting pops or
shriveled seeds. Furthermore, varieties having two or more
seeds to the pod will often give more than one plant to the hill,
which is usually not desirable. In case unhulled seeds are
planted in dry soil they will be slow to germinate. It is also
necessary to shell the seeds to plant them with a planter.
The Florida runner should be planted in rows 31/2 feet apart
with one seed every 14 inches. The Valencia, Spanish and other
varieties that grow upright should be planted in rows 21/2 feet
apart with one plant every 6 inches in the row.
Peanuts should be planted on the level except where the land
is likely to become wet before the crop is ripe. A ridge 4 to 6
inches high should give sufficient elevation. Land requiring a
higher ridge will not be suitable for peanuts. After smoothing
the surface the rows are laid off with a marker, going ahead of
the planter. The seed should be covered about 2 inches deep.
Germination will be hastened if the soil is well packed over the
seed with the press wheel of the planter. If the weather is
favorable the plants should be up in eight to ten days. Should
there be any missing plants after two weeks it is advisable to
replant.
CULTIVATION
Peanuts should be cultivated frequently to conserve soil
moisture and prevent weeds and grass from growing. Weeds
and grass are especially harmful as they prevent the bloom stems
from piercing the ground, and in addition rob the crop of soil
moisture. The soil must be kept loose, otherwise the ovary on
the seed stem cannot pierce the soil readily and will become
destroyed before entering the ground and no nuts will be formed.







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


Where the crop is planted on land free from stumps the use
of a weeder is always advisable for the main cultivation. This
tool should be run over the land before the peanuts are up and
at intervals of from five to eight days thereafter until the vines
are of sufficient growth to interfere with the spiking-down
process.
Cultivation close to the plant should not be continued after
the plants have pegged down, or the nuts will be destroyed.
Should grass grow in the rows after the nuts are set it may be
necessary to work with hand tools, hence, the necessity of thoro
cultivation before the nuts are set. Any shallow-working culti-
vator may be used. A weeder does excellent work when the
plants are small, and a wide winged sweep after the plants begin
to peg down.
HARVESTING
Only a careful investigation of the individual field can deter-
mine the exact time for harvesting. It is of course desirable to
bring as many of the nuts as possible to maturity before harvest-
ing, and care should be taken not to gather while the bulk of the
crop is immature, even tho a few of the nuts may have sprouted.
While the Florida runner will remain solid several weeks after
ripening, the tops die, and thus impair the quality of hay. The
nuts will also separate from the stems, making harvest more
difficult.
Peanuts are usually harvested in Florida by running a turn-
ing plow just below the roots to cut them loose. The moldboard
is taken off so that no dirt is thrown on the vines. The vines
and nuts are gathered by hand and the sand is shaken off. Many
large growers employ a machine similar to the potato digger.
One of these machines, pulled by three or four work animals, will
dig 8 to 12 acres a day. In addition to lifting the plants, the
machine shakes off most of the soil and leaves the peanuts lying
on the surface of the ground.

HARVESTING WITH HOGS
Many boys let hogs harvest their peanuts. This is usually
an economical method and will produce pork at a low cost. The
vines are returned to the soil and are beneficial as humus; or
may be mowed off and cured for hay and the hogs turned in to
dig the nuts. This plan of harvesting is not recommended
except where the yield is very poor. Hogs should always be









00
































Fig. 5.-The upper photograph shows the boys attending the 1919 Short Course at the College of Agriculture. The
photograph was made in front of the Experiment Station Building. The bottom photograph shows a bunch of the
boys attending the Short Course receiving instruction on grasses.







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


turned into the field to gather the nuts which have been pulled off
during digging, and which would otherwise be wasted.

STACKING
The pole method of stacking and curing peanuts is the most
practical way on the average farm. Round or split stakes 3 or
4 inches in diameter and 8 feet long are used. Both ends should
be sharpened. A supply of stakes should be ready in advance
and may be kept and used from year to year.
For setting the stakes in the ground a post hole digger, a bar
of iron or crowbar is necessary to make the holes. The stakes
should be set in the ground 15 inches, and if the land is very
sandy they should be set 18 inches deep. The ground should be
well tramped around the stakes to make them stand.
Some growers nail cross pieces to the stake 12 or 15 inches
from the ground as a base to begin stacking the peanuts. Where
cordwood or poles are plentiful a more desirable method is to
use four pieces on which to make the stack. These are not nailed
to the stake, but are placed with the ends interlocked. One end
of each piece is placed on the ground while the other end is
placed on another piece of the wood so they will stand up to the
proper height from the ground.
The peanuts and vines are gathered up soon after digging,
the dirt shaken off and stacked around the poles. In starting to
build the stack a few vines are laid across the pieces of lath and
the stack then built up by successive layers of vines, the pods
being kept well to the center against the stake and the tops to
the outside. The stems should have sufficient outward slope to
shed water. Occasionally a few vines should be hung around the
stake in order to tie the stack together. By this method the pods
will be near the center and around the stake, where there is an
upward circulation of air and general protection. When the
stack has reached the desired height a bunch of vines is rolled
together and pressed down over the point of the stack to form a
top, or a little dry grass or weeds may be used for this purpose.
It is not advisable to use anything for topping off the small
stacks that will prevent the circulation of air. A heavy cover or
a covering of green or wet hay will invariably cause the peanuts
to spoil. One of the important points to consider in stacking is
the necessity of thoro ventilation.







20 Florida Cooperative Extension
1
PICKING
The nuts are usually picked from the vines by hand but this
is slow and laborious and where there is sufficient acreage in a
community, a peanut picker can be operated profitably. The
picker will pay for itself many times in one season from the
enormous amount of labor saved.
Other advantages of machine picking over hand picking are
that the machine separates the pops from the full nuts, leaving
only heavy, marketable nuts; the sand sifts out from the vines,
giving a much better quality of hay; and the vines coming from
the picker are more or less torn in shreds, making a finer grade
of hay and in a much better condition to handle.
PEANUT HAY
Since the peanut is a leguminous crop the vines are rich in
protein and make valuable hay. The vines must be cured before
they become too ripe, or they will be dry and woody. As soon
as the nuts are ripe the vines should be gathered. Excellent hay
can be produced if the vines are mowed at the right stage of
maturity, properly cured and stored. Peanut hay is usually of
a better quality if it can be cured under cover. Where hogs will
gather the nuts in the field mowing the vines is practicable, but
where the crop is to be picked the vines should remain standing
until the nuts are harvested. The finer the stem the better the
quality of hay, consequently the Valencia and other large
stemmed varieties do not make a good grade of hay. The hay
from the running varieties is usually preferred on account of
the fine stems, altho it is more difficult to mow than that from
the varieties that grow more upright. Peanut hay is palatable
for all kinds of farm stock, and particularly valuable for feeding
dairy cows.
MEASURING PEANUTS
To determine the yield in bushels, weigh the peanuts in the
vine when they have been thoroly cured. Then weigh out 50
pounds separately. Pick the peanuts from this 50 pounds and
weigh the picked nuts. Multiply the weight of all the peanuts
and vines by the weight of the picked nuts. Point off the two
right hand figures and divide by 22, the number of pounds in one
bushel of nuts. The result will be the yield in bushels of picked
peanuts. To determine the weight of the hay, subtract from
the entire weight the result obtained after pointing off two right
hand figures in the above.







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


If all the peanuts are picked it is more accurate to weigh the
entire crop of picked nuts and divide by the number of pounds
in one bushel. This is an easy plan when you have access to a
picker. If this plan is followed the hay may be estimated where
there are no scales large enough to weigh it.

EXHIBITS
Each boy should exhibit one gallon of clean, well selected
peanuts at his county contest. Three vines with peanuts on
them will be accepted as a part of the exhibit and the boy who
exhibits the vines with his gallon of peanuts will be given credit.
However, the boy who does not bring the vines will by no means
be ruled out because some will have trouble in getting vines to
the contest.

SWEET POTATO CLUBS

Sweet potatoes are grown in all parts of Florida for home use
and in a few places as a market crop. Boys' sweet potato clubs
will be helpful in the selection of seed, the use of the best
adapted varieties, the increase of yields and establishment of
markets. The size plat for each member of this club to use is
one-eighth of an acre.

TYPE OF SOIL
A light well-drained sandy loam with a clay subsoil is ideal
for sweet potatoes, altho the crop can be grown with success on
a wide range of soils. Sweet potatoes can be grown in almost
pure sand, and with a reasonable amount of commercial fertilizer
good results may be obtained. On very fertile soils the crop
tends to run to vines at the expense of the potatoes; moreover,
the potatoes formed are likely to be rough and irregular in
appearance, which reduces their market value. A moderate
quantity of organic matter in the soil is very essential for the
best results.
This crop is particularly adapted to newly cleared lands, such
as the cut-over pine lands.
Good drainage is important. It is never practicable to plant
on low soil unless it is fairly well drained, and even then in most
cases it is advisable to plant on ridges to keep the surface water
from standing around the plants. The surface soil should be
7 to 10 inches in depth.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PREPARATION OF THE LAND
The plowing and fitting of the land for this crop are practically
the same as for corn. The work necessary for thoro preparation
will be well repaid by the ease of handling the crop later.
The depth of plowing has considerable influence upon the
character of the product. The depth of plowing advised in
preparing for corn will prove satisfactory for sweet potatoes.
It is important that the land be harrowed within a few hours
after plowing. Further fitting may be deferred until later, and
if the soil is inclined to be lumpy the work of pulverizing may
best be done shortly after a shower and while the lumps are
mellow. When the primary work of preparation is finished, the
soil should be mellow to a depth of 7 inches and the surface
smooth and even.
If level culture is to be practiced it is only necessary to run
the harrow over the soil once, and then mark in both directions
the desired distances for planting. The marking is generally
done with either a one-horse plow or a disk marker. The disk
marker is well adapted to this work, as it throws up a slight ridge
which furnishes fresh earth in which to plant. Those who
practice level culture mark the ground with a small one-horse
plow and throw up a slight ridge upon which to plant.
Where the usual method of planting is employed the soil is
thrown up by means of a turnplow or disk. The ridges should
be made at least one week before planting, in order that the soil
may become settled and compact.

COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS
The yield of sweet potatoes is increased by a judicious use of
commercial fertilizer. Every boy should make a study of his
soil requirements and apply those fertilizers that give the best
results.
From 100 to 125 pounds may be applied broadcast but it is
believed that not over 60 pounds on the one-eighth acre should be
applied in the row, as a larger amount may injure the plants.
When applied in the row, the fertilizer should be thoroly mixed
with the soil. Perhaps it is best to make two applications of
the fertilizer.
The first should be applied a week or more before setting the
plants. This allows it to become more thoroly incorporated with
the soil. Very serious mistakes are often made by setting plants
too soon after applying fertilizer, especially if a heavy applica-
tion has been made. The roots coming in contact with the







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


fertilizer in a concentrated form are seriously injured. The second
application of fertilizer should be made at the second cultivation.
Where level culture is intended or where the land is very poor
the fertilizer should be applied broadcast and at a higher rate
than where it is applied in the row.
Experiments at the Florida experiment station for four years
in succession with eight kinds of fertilizer under potatoes grown
on high pine land found the following mixture to produce highest
yields: 112 pounds dried blood, 84 pounds muriate of potash, and
224 pounds of acid phosphate per acre. This would be at the
rate of 52 pounds for one-eighth acre.
STABLE MANURE
On soils deficient in organic matter stable manure gives good
results. Where no rotation is followed and practically all vege-
tation is removed from the soil, the club member must keep up
the organic content of the soil by the use of stable manure. The
time of application is very important. If applied when prepar-
ing the land for planting, the difficulty in keeping down weeds
will be increased and the growth of vines stimulated at the
expense of root growth. The manure should be applied broad-
cast in the early winter and thoroly worked into the soil early in
the spring before planting. Spread it broadcast with forks or
apply with manure spreaders at the rate of one to two tons on
the one-eighth acre.
VINE CUTTINGS
The main crop on the farm is usually grown from vine
cuttings. In this case enough roots are bedded to produce
sufficient slips for about one-eighth of the crop to be planted,
and when the vines begin to run cuttings are taken for planting
the remainder of the field. This plan may also be followed by
the club boy, which will of course be on a very small scale.
When slips alone are used, a half bushel of seed potatoes will
be required to produce enough draws for the eighth acre, when
two or three pulling are made. With good roots in well-made
and well-managed beds the number of slips produced will be
more than needed, but any excess can usually be disposed of
at a profit.
Whatever method is used in propagating the plants, precau-
tions against sweet potato diseases should be taken.
GROWING THE "DRAWS"
In Florida sweet potato "draws" for the main crop are pro-
duced in open beds. A well protected location, preferably on






Florida Cooperative Extension


the south side of a building or tight fence is selected for the bed.
The drainage should be away from the bed. An excavation is
made, 5 or 6 inches deep, and as large as needed for the quantity
of potatoes to be bedded. About 4 inches of sand is put in the
excavation and leveled; then the potatoes are placed by hand as
close together as practicable without allowing them to touch.
After the potatoes are bedded they are covered to the depth of
an inch with sand or loose loam. The bed is then watered
thoroly. When the plants begin to show thru the surface an
inch or two more soil is added, in order to develop a good root
system. Some growers cover the sweet potato bed with straw,
hay or leaves to prevent the surface from drying out too rapidly
and to protect it from cold early in the season.
PULLING THE "DRAWS"
As a general rule sweet potato plants are set in the field soon
after a rain. To avoid delay in planting draw the slips as soon
as the rain ceases falling and place them in crates or baskets
ready for carrying to the field. They should be covered with a
burlap bag, a piece of old carpet or with hay, straw or other
material to prevent drying while being carried to the field.
When pulling the plants it is a good plan to have at hand a
large pail or tub containing water and a quantity of clay and
cow manure which has been stirred until it forms a thin slime.
As the plants are pulled from the bed they are taken in small
bunches and their roots dipped into this mixture. This process,
termed "puddling," covers the roots with a coating which not
only prevents their becoming dry in handling but insures a
direct contact with the soil when they are planted in the field.
In case the "puddled" plants become dry in handling they must be
"puddled" again before planting, for a covering of dry, caked
clay on the roots is a detriment rather than a help.
The plants are not all ready at once, and only -those that have
formed good roots are drawn, the others being left until later.
In drawing the plants the seed potato is held down with one
hand, while the plants are removed with the thumb and finger
of the other hand. It often happens that five or six plants will
cling together at the base, and these should be separated to
avoid loss of time in the field. The roots should all be kept in
one direction.
SETTING THE PLANTS
Many boys plan to set the plants during a "season," or a period
when the conditions are suitable for quick growth, either just







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


before or soon after a rain. The essential requirements are to
get the roots in contact with moist earth and the soil firmly
pressed about them.
In the sandy loam soils of Florida most of the potato setting
is done by hand. The tips of the fingers are placed on the roots
of the plant and thrust four inches into the soil, leaving the top
well above the surface. The soil is then pressed tightly around
the plant. The surface of the soil around the plant after setting
should be lower than the general surface so that the plants can
be watered properly. If a more rapid method, such as the
machine for this purpose is used for the general crop the club
boy is of course at liberty to use it. The trowel or a wooden peg
is often used when setting potatoes on stiff soils.
The use of water around the roots of the plants is desirable
under most circumstances. It not only moistens the soil but
assists in settling it about the roots. A large quantity of water
is not necessary, half a pint to each plant being generally con-
sidered sufficient. If the plants are "puddled," as previously
suggested, they can be set without danger of loss even when
the soil is dry.
The distance plants are set apart in the field depends upon
the fertility of the soil and the method of culture used. Where
the drainage is good and where a great deal of cultivation is
necessary level culture is advised. By this method the plants
are set in a 28-inch check, allowing for cultivation in two
directions. This eliminates hand hoeing and greatly reduces the
cost of cultivation. Growing the potatoes on ridges is the most
popular method in most sections. Small ridges from 30 to 48
inches apart are thrown up with a turnplow. On good sandy
loam soil the plants are sometimes set on ridges 28 to 30 inches
apart and 14 to 18 inches apart in the row, but on the poorer
sandy soils the ridges are spaced 32 to 48 inches and the plants
set 14 to 24 inches apart in the row. With plants set 30 inches
apart each way, 875 for one-eighth acre will be required. If the
ridges are 30 inches apart and the plants 14 to 18 inches in the
row, 1,200 to 1,400 plants will be required to set an eighth acre.
Good sweet potato land will readily support 1,250 plants on this
area.
VARIETIES
The Porto Rico and Nancy Hall varieties are the most
popular in the state and are especially recommended. The
Triumph may be grown for early market.







Florida Cooperative Extension


EXHIBITS
Each member of the club must exhibit one peck of well
selected potatoes at the county club contest. They should be
handled carefully to avoid bruising, which will always cause them
to decay. It will be time well spent if each club member would
wrap his potatoes in paper to bring them to the county contest.
After wrapping they should be put in a box or basket as they
cannot be carried in a sack without bruising.
CULTIVATION
The methods of cultivating sweet potatoes do not differ
materially from those employed with ordinary farm and garden
crops. Within a few days after planting a sweep or a one-
horse plow should be run in the middles. The loose earth in
the middles should be worked toward the rows until a broad, flat
ridge is formed upon which a small-tooth cultivator can be run
close to the plants. After each rain the soil should receive a
shallow cultivation, and during dry weather cultivation is
necessary when the surface becomes settled. About two hand
hoeings are generally necessary to keep the rows free from weeds
and the soil loose around the plants. Where sweet potatoes are
planted in checkrows and worked in both directions, the hand
work required will be reduced to a minimum, but a certain
amount of hoeing is always necessary.
When the vines begin to interfere with further cultivation
the crop may be laid by; that is, receive a final working in which
the soil is drawn well up to the ridges. To do this it is often
necessary to turn the vines first to one side of the row and then
to the other. This can be easily done with a stick or wooden
rake. After laying by the vines may be allowed to take full
possession of the land, and very little attention is required until
time for harvesting the crop.
HARVESTING
Where sweet potatoes are grown for the early market they
may be harvested when the tubers reach marketable size, regard-
less of season or maturity. In this case the potatoes are dug,
crated and sent to the market for immediate consumption. The
main crop of sweet potatoes, which is intended for storage or
for shipping to distant markets at harvesting time, should be
well matured before digging.
Sweet potato vines are injured readily by a light frost, which
does not materially injure the potatoes, but should the vines







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


become frozen there is danger of the frozen sap passing down
into the potatoes, causing them to decay within a short time
after harvesting. If the vines have been killed by frost and
it is impossible to dig the potatoes at once the vines should be
cut away.
To dig the eighth acre a spading fork is satisfactory, but for
a large crop a turnplow with colters on the beam or, preferably,
special sweet potato plows should be used. Such plows have
sharp rolling colters on the beam to cut the vines ahead of the
plow and iron rods projecting from the moldboard which free
the potatoes from the soil and vines. In some sections vine
cutters are used to run over the rows in advance of the plow.
A disk harrow is sometimes used for this purpose by removing
the central disks and running the improvised implement down
the rows. This cuts the vines well, but at the same time cuts
many of the potatoes near the surface.
They should not be exposed to the sun very long and should
not be left out over night. It is a bad practice to throw several
rows of potatoes together, as they will become bruised and
more susceptible to decay. It is desirable that the soil be com-
paratively dry at the time of harvesting, and clear weather is
best for the proper handling of the crop.
When they are to be stored a good plan is to gather the sweet
potatoes directly from the row into padded baskets, haul to the
storage house and dump carefully into the bins. In grading the
potatoes in the field, first go over the row and pick up all the
marketable potatoes; then pick up all the very large, the very
small and the injured ones. These should be placed in separate
bins in storage.
SELECTION OF SEED
The selection of seed is a matter of vital importance in the
successful growing of sweet potatoes. Careful seed selection
aids greatly in controlling diseases, increasing yield and improv-
ing the type. Before starting selection work the club boy should
become familiar with the ideal type for the variety he is using
and should select only potatoes which conform nearest to this
ideal. Selection should be made in the field at harvest time. In
this way you can see the vine growth, the yield per hill, and the
relative size and shape of the potatoes. Select only medium-
sized well-shaped potatoes from productive hills free from
disease. To insure keeping during storage, these potatoes should
be well matured and free from injuries of any kind. The seed







Florida Cooperative Extension


potatoes should be kept separate in storage and receive special
care. They should not be handled or sorted until bedding time
in the spring, as the more the potatoes are disturbed in storage
the greater will be the loss by decay. At bedding time they
should be sorted carefully, using only those free from disease
and uniform in type. Potatoes from vine cuttings are very
desirable for seed, as the danger of transmitting disease from
the plant bed to the field is lessened.
STORAGE
The sweet potato requires a dry atmosphere and a warm,
uniform temperature while in storage. Where a large quantity
of potatoes is to be stored a specially built storage house should

4 r
















Fig. 6.-Boys at Short Course, College of Agriculture, attending
lecture on sweet potato curing plant
be provided. A great deal of the success of storage will depend
on the careful handling of the crop at harvesting time, thoro
curing of the potatoes as soon as they are placed in storage, and
keeping the house free from moisture. But the club boy can
store his crop in boxes or barrels kept in some of the farm
buildings.
MARKETING
A bag should never be used as a container for sweet potatoes,
as it furnishes no protection, and the contents are easily bruised,
scarred and skinned. Potatoes that are bruised in handling







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


turn dark-in a short time and decay starts almost immediately.
The market value of many lots of sweet potatoes is ruined
because of the use of bags.
When packing use care not to bruise or otherwise injure the
potatoes by rough handling. Bruises and cuts injure the appear-
ance and lower the grade and may cause considerable loss thru
presenting an opportunity for rot spores or organisms to enter.

SUGAR CANE CLUBS
Sugar cane clubs have been recommended because this is one
of the staple crops thruout the state, and if more farms produce
plenty of syrup it will help to solve our sugar problem. In
certain sections of South Florida where some other branches of
club work are not applicable the boys have an unusual oppor-
tunity in growing sugar cane.
The size plat to cultivate to sugar cane is the same as in the
potato club, which is one-eighth acre. The exhibit will consist
of six well selected stalks of cane. The following score will be
used in the contests:
Yield in tons of cane or gallons of syrup---.............--30%
Profit on investment----- .....------------..................... 30%
Exhibit ---- ------........................................ ----- 20%
Record and essay_...................-------------------20%
For all information concerning the growing of cane and
making syrup, the club boys will use Extension Bulletin No. 14
of the University of Florida, College of Agriculture.

CITRUS FRUIT CLUBS
Each member of the citrus fruit club must plant and cultivate
twelve young fruit trees or care for twelve bearing trees. This
work will include cultivating, pruning, spraying, fertilizing and
harvesting the fruit. It would take a comprehensive volume to
outline instructions on all of these phases, so the club member
will be furnished bulletins from the Florida Experiment Station
that will give this information, and the county agents in the
citrus fruit belt will give personal assistance to club boys in
their respective counties.
Each boy must number his trees from one to twelve and keep
a record of growth, condition and yields of each on his books.
If bearing trees are used the exhibit will be composed of one
dozen oranges, grapefruit or whatever fruit is being grown.







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


turn dark-in a short time and decay starts almost immediately.
The market value of many lots of sweet potatoes is ruined
because of the use of bags.
When packing use care not to bruise or otherwise injure the
potatoes by rough handling. Bruises and cuts injure the appear-
ance and lower the grade and may cause considerable loss thru
presenting an opportunity for rot spores or organisms to enter.

SUGAR CANE CLUBS
Sugar cane clubs have been recommended because this is one
of the staple crops thruout the state, and if more farms produce
plenty of syrup it will help to solve our sugar problem. In
certain sections of South Florida where some other branches of
club work are not applicable the boys have an unusual oppor-
tunity in growing sugar cane.
The size plat to cultivate to sugar cane is the same as in the
potato club, which is one-eighth acre. The exhibit will consist
of six well selected stalks of cane. The following score will be
used in the contests:
Yield in tons of cane or gallons of syrup---.............--30%
Profit on investment----- .....------------..................... 30%
Exhibit ---- ------........................................ ----- 20%
Record and essay_...................-------------------20%
For all information concerning the growing of cane and
making syrup, the club boys will use Extension Bulletin No. 14
of the University of Florida, College of Agriculture.

CITRUS FRUIT CLUBS
Each member of the citrus fruit club must plant and cultivate
twelve young fruit trees or care for twelve bearing trees. This
work will include cultivating, pruning, spraying, fertilizing and
harvesting the fruit. It would take a comprehensive volume to
outline instructions on all of these phases, so the club member
will be furnished bulletins from the Florida Experiment Station
that will give this information, and the county agents in the
citrus fruit belt will give personal assistance to club boys in
their respective counties.
Each boy must number his trees from one to twelve and keep
a record of growth, condition and yields of each on his books.
If bearing trees are used the exhibit will be composed of one
dozen oranges, grapefruit or whatever fruit is being grown.







Florida Cooperative Extension


This will be judged according to the way in which it measures
up to the requirements for that variety in general appearance,
quality, etc.
The basis of awards in a citrus fruit club will be as follows:
Yield, 30%; profit, 30%; exhibit, 20%; essay, 20%.
If young trees are being used, the record book, general develop-
ment and condition of the trees will decide the contest. The
condition and growth of the trees will amount to 80% and the
record of the work will be 20%.

PIG CLUBS
This is the largest branch of the boys' agricultural clubs,
which makes it even more necessary that they carry on the corn
and peanut club work so there will be plenty of feed for the pigs.
Without an abundance of feed no livestock farming can be
successful.
Pig club work in Florida was organized in 1915 and the main
idea has been to produce pure bred pigs. This organization has
done more to rid small farms of razorback hogs and replace them
with pure bred animals than all other agencies combined.
Three general phases of pig club work have been followed by


Fig. 7.-Oliver Fowler, of Hernando County, feeding his Duroc







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


club members in the past. First, to purchase a bred gilt and
raise a litter of pigs; second, to purchase a weaned gilt and raise
her before attempting to raise a litter; and third, to raise a boar.
A bred gilt is the quickest way of getting started with a small
herd of pure bred pigs, but there are some disadvantages. The
initial cost is much greater than it would be to buy a small pig.
The club boy will generally make a better success raising a
litter if he first has the experience of raising one pig. Most
boys have entered the work by purchasing a pure bred gilt about
three months old.
Boars have been purchased for pig club work usually in com-
munities where there were several boys using gilts in order that
there would be no difficulty in getting the gilts bred to a pure
bred male at the proper time. All boys buy gilts except one and
this one buys a boar of the same breed. Where two brothers
have taken up the work it is usually advised that one take a boar.
It is also advisable for the boar to be owned by a boy whose
father has a herd of grade or scrub hogs. By breeding them to
the pure bred animal the stock will be greatly improved.
The demand for pure bred pigs as breeding stock has made it
possible for all boys to sell with profit all the good pigs they
could raise. In a few instances boys have been disappointed,
however, because they could not dispose of their pure bred pigs
at breeding animal prices. The fact was that while they were
pure bred animals, some were not suitable for breeding stock
because they had not been given proper attention. Then too, the
requirements for a good brood sow are much higher than they
were four years ago. An animal that would have been con-
sidered a valuable brood sow at that time would now be fattened
and slaughtered for pork.
Only the very best pigs should be selected for breeding stock.
By the time the pigs are three or four months old, it is possible
to only estimate the value for breeding purposes. It is all right
to select the gilts at this age, but a boar should be eight or ten
months old before he should be accepted as a herd boar. For
this reason it is advisable for the club boy to castrate all his
males and make pork of them. Better boars may be purchased
from successful swine breeders and will not cost as much as it
would cost the average farmer or club boy to raise them.
On the inside of the cover page of the pig club record book
there is a leaflet showing the prices of feeds, pasture and garbage
that should be charged by each boy. Market price is charged







Florida Cooperative Extension


for all concentrated feeds whether bought or raised by the club
member, but soilage crops and others that have no market price
quoted should be valued as suggested in the record book.
Weighing the pig once a month is an important part of the
work. In this way it is possible for each boy to know just how
much progress he is making. The other club boys in the com-
munity learn of the gain each pig is making and it will cause
every one to work harder.
SELECTING THE PIG
When developed and in a thrifty, growing condition the pig
should weigh about as follows:
One month old, 19 to 20 pounds; three months, 50 to 60
pounds; five months, 125 to 150 pounds; six months, 155 to 175
pounds; eight months, 185 to 235 pounds; and twelve months,
300 pounds or more.




















Fig. 8.-"Where there's a will there's a weigh"

The ultimate purpose of pure bred stock as well as grades
and razorbacks is for meat and lard. We must get away from
the belief that nothing but razorbacks should be used for pork
and that every animal eligible to registration should be kept
for breeding stock. Since the club boys have learned to raise
good hogs they see that it is impossible for every person to sell







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


for high prices all their animals as breeding stock. For this
reason it is advisable for club boys to turn their attention more
to the production of good market hogs. A large percentage of
club boys and farmers will make more money raising hogs for
pork than to attempt to raise only breeding stock.
The proper time for a boy to begin the pig club work is early
in the spring since the county contests are held in October and
November. If the feeding of a pig three months old is begun in
March, April or May it will be large enough to have a fair chance
in the pig shows during the fall. Another advantage of
beginning early in the spring is that the animal will be mature
enough to be bred in the early winter so that she will farrow a
litter the next spring. Sows should be bred so they will farrow
in October and March, and if they begin farrowing in midwinter
or midsummer it is hard to change to the right months.
Most pigs are entered into the feeding contests when three
months old. It is very important at this time that their growth
should not be checked. If it is possible to feed skim milk with
the grain ration and pasture they will develop rapidly.
When pigs are two to six months old a good ration will be 45
pounds of corn, 45 pounds of peanut meal or shorts, and 10
.pounds of meat meal or tankage, mixed together and fed in the
self-feeder. It is necessary for both breeding and fattening
hogs to be fed a balanced ration while young as they must develop
a good frame. Where the pigs are to be used for brood sows
this ration will be sufficient after they are six months old. It
is also suitable for sows with suckling pigs.
Fattening hogs may be fed a greater percentage of corn after
they are six or seven months old. From six to eight months old
they may be fed 60 pounds of corn and 40 pounds of peanut meal
or wheat shorts. After they are eight months old the ration
might be made up of 85 pounds of corn and 15 pounds peanut
meal.
Breeding stock should be allowed to run on pasture at all
times. Meat hogs may be kept on pasture until they are seven
or eight months old or until time to "finish off" when they should
be put into small lots so they cannot take too much exercise and
prevent fattening.
While pigs are small, usually about weaning time, they should
be inoculated with serum and virus to prevent cholera. After
they have been inoculated it is still necessary to be very careful
not to allow the cholera germ to be carried near them. Bulletin







Florida Cooperative Extension


No. 13 of the Extension Division of the College of Agriculture,
describes hog cholera and its control and will be sent to all boys
who desire it.
SELF-FEEDERS
Every boy interested in building a self-feeder should write to
the Extension Division of the Agricultural College for Bulletin
No. 20, which was written principally for club boys. At the
camp of the Hillsboro County boys in the summer of 1919, a self-
feeder was built in about two hours one afternoon. The lumber,
nails and hinges cost only $1.58.









%-





Fig. 9.-Club boys building self-feeder for pigs

FORAGE CROPS
The buying of high-priced commercial feeds on which to grow
or fatten the hogs is not desirable, but the boys should plant
some crops which may be grazed off.
The money derived from the sale of the fattened hogs can
often be profitably used for preparing hog crops the following
year or for inclosing a permanent pasture for the hogs. Parents
should always encourage the boys by paying them a fair price
for their fat hogs when they are used for home consumption.
PASTURING A CLUB PIG WITH OTHERS
If it is desired to keep the pig in the same pasture with other
hogs, the boy should make a small pen in a convenient place in
the pasture so that he can feed his hog separate from the rest.
If it can be built under a tree to furnish shade, so much the
better. It need not be over 8 feet square and should have a







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


sliding door, which may be raised to let the pig enter and
immediately dropped to keep out other hogs. The boy's pig
should be kept from the other hogs when they are being fed in
order that he will not get feed which would not be charged
against him.
HOG SHELTERS
In case a boy can not obtain material to build a house, he
should get whatever material is available on the farm and build
a shelter for his pigs. It can be made out of waste planks, for
any shelter that will protect the hogs from cold winds and rain
and give them a dry bed, at the same time permitting the sun
to shine in during a portion of the day, will be quite an improve-
ment over conditions existing on so many farms at present.



















Fig. 10.-A self-feeder built by club boys

A shelter to be used during the summer months may be made
by setting four poles or posts into the ground and securely nail-
ing 2 by 6 inch material around these about 3 feet from the
ground. Upon these a few light poles may be put crosswise and
straw or coarse hay piled on top. The straw should be piled
higher in the middle than at the edges and smoothed down so
the rain will run off. This will furnish shade during the greater
part of the day. No shelter should be built where water can run
under it from the surrounding ground.







Florida Cooperative Extension


MANAGEMENT OF SOW AND PIGS
A hog lot should be built where the sun will shine in some
portion of it at all hours of the day. Sunshine is one of the
greatest factors for destroying germs and keeping down diseases.
A supply of clean, fresh water at all times is essential. The
troughs should be kept clean and not so much feed given at one
time that it will be left to become sour and filthy. They should
be frequently washed out and placed where the sun will shine
in them. This is especially true of troughs used for feeding
small pigs. Cleanliness of the feed is essential in this case to
prevent scours, which is the cause of death among so many pigs.
Avoid sudden changes of feed for the sow just before farrowing
or while suckling her pigs. Do not give a sow too much feed at
this time. She should have about four pounds of dry feed for
each 100 pounds of live weight.
Some clean, dry straw should be placed in every house for
bedding, as it is essential that the sow have a warm, dry bed
when she farrows. Many young pigs are lost each year from
cold and exposure at farrowing time. The young pigs must be
kept warm, dry and have plenty of sunshine until several weeks
old in order to do well. Sows that get plenty of exercise and are
not too fat will need no help in farrowing, but it is well to be
present to give aid if necessary and to keep any pigs from being
crushed. Clip off the small tusks the day after the pigs are
born. Give them the best of care for the first ten days and the
death rate will be reduced greatly.
A flat-bottomed trough with sides not over 3 inches high may
be used for feeding the small pigs. Feeding should be started as
soon as they begin to eat, or when they are about four weeks old.

CHOLERA
No attempt to give a discussion on hog cholera will be given
here since Bulletin No. 13, of the Extension Division of the
College of Agriculture, discusses this disease in detail, and will
be sent all club boys who apply for it. As a word of warning
the following statement is taken from this bulletin:
"Immediately upon the outbreak of hog cholera in a herd,
healthy animals should be vaccinated and removed to non-in-
fected quarters and proper quarantine established. They should
be well supplied with good drinking water. The feed should be
light in character and of exceptionally good quality, such as
grain, milk, clean swill and green fodder. All unnecessary ex-







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


citement should be avoided. All dead animals should be burned
and the premises which they have occupied thoroly cleansed and
disinfected."
SCOURS
If the pigs show indications of scouring, keep a charcoal
mixture where the sow can eat it at will, or give her 15 grains
of copperas in her slop every night and morning until effective.
In cases of severe scouring with little pigs each may be given
five to ten grains of subnitrate of bismuth, after changing the
sow's feed and giving her the copperas.
If hogs get plenty of exercise and are fed slop or soft feeds
they will seldom become constipated. In case a pregnant sow
becomes very constipated give her one-fourth of a pound of
Epsom salts in her slop once daily until her bowels become
normal.
WORMS
The cause of the greatest loss of hogs in Florida is worms.
One of the best preventive measures is to keep a mixture of
charcoal, ashes, lime, salt, sulphur and copperas where the hogs
can eat it at will. It may be made up in the following pro-
portions: Charcoal, 1/ bushel; hardwood ashes, 1/2 bushel; salt,
4 pounds; air-slacked lime, 4 pounds; sulphur, 2 pounds;
pulverized copperas, 1 pound.
Mix the lime, salt and sulphur thoroly and then mix with the
charcoal and ashes. Dissolve the copperas in one quart of hot
water and sprinkle over the whole mass, mixing it thoroly. Store
this in a barrel under shelter but keep some of it in a shallow
box for the hogs at all times.
If they are already wormy, turpentine may be given in the
slop each morning for three mornings at the rate of one teaspoon-
ful for each 80 pounds of live weight. Also give the charcoal
mixture.
LICE
Examine the hogs frequently about the ears, neck, flank and
the inside of the legs to see if they are lousy. Lice cause
unthriftiness among hogs of any age and death among many
pigs. To get rid of them wash or dip the hogs in a solution of
any of the coal-tar disinfectants, which may be purchased at a
drug store. Directions for the dilution of the material are
always given with it. A very effective method of cleaning the
hogs of lice during the summer months is to pour some crude







Florida Cooperative Extension


oil on the water in the wallow. A thin layer of oil will get on
the hogs and will kill the lice without injuring the hogs.

BEEF CALF CLUBS
Beef calf clubs were started in 1919, when 40 head of calves
of beef type were distributed among as many boys. All of these
boys made splendid success, and it is believed that their results
only indicate what a large number of boys can accomplish.
There are almost a million cattle in Florida. To be exact,
the government live stock report for 1919 gave as an estimate
936,000 head. This is a splendid showing from the standpoint


Fig. 11.-First prize winning calf at Alachua County Fair. All boys
should fit their animals for show like this one

of numbers, but we still have too many scrub cattle. As the
scrub cattle are slaughtered or shipped to market they should
be replaced by pure bred stock.
We have not reached the point where it is advisable to take
up the baby beef or fattening clubs. We must first raise more







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


pure bred cattle and also improve the blood lines in the present
beef cattle.
The club boy is at liberty to use any breed of cattle he may
choose. Care in selecting the individual is very important,
regardless of the breed.
As a rule it is advisable for boys to begin this work with
weaned calves, which are usually five or six months old at
weaning time.
A great many boys prefer to get heifers for this club, while
a large number used bulls in 1919. Where a heifer is used
the club member will be able to develop a small herd of pure
bred animals earlier, but in every community where a bull is
raised the offspring of the native cattle bred to him will be
greatly improved.

















Fig. 12.-Club boys judging Hereford calves at State Fair

Cows of beef breeds should be bred at about two years of age,
and it is desirable that they be bred so they will calve in March.
The calf will live entirely on milk for the first month or so, and
by the time it is ready to begin eating, the tender pasture grasses
will be coming on. If good pasturage is available, the calf will
grow rapidly without any other feed until late summer. Grain
rations should be given in small quantities before the pastures
begin to fail and while the calves are still with the cows. By
the time they are weaned they should be on full rations so there
will be no danger of checking growth.







Florida Cooperative Extension


A good ration for a calf the first winter after it is weaned is
a mixture of the following: 55 pounds chopped corn, 30 pounds
peanut meal, 14 pounds cottonseed meal, 1 pound salt.
The following ration is also suggested: 50 pounds chopped
corn, 35 pounds oats, 14 pounds cottonseed meal, 1 pound salt.
The calves should be fed twice daily and should be given all
they will eat well each time.















Fig. 13.-Alachua County boys' calf show

DAIRY CALF CLUBS
To permit boys to take part in the movement for better dairy-
ing and the raising of better dairy cattle and to help supply the
demand for dairy products, the dairy calf clubs have been
organized. Every member of this club should use a pure bred
or high-grade animal.
There are three general plans: first, the club member may
begin his work with a calf about a week old; second, he may
begin with a weaned calf; and third, he may use a bred heifer.
The first plan, that is, where a young calf is used, is recom-
mended only when a boy can get a well bred calf from a dairy
for almost nothing. Such calves are often killed when the
dairymen do not wish to raise them, but would be sold to the
club boys for almost nothing. The young calf must be fed milk
and will require special attention for its proper development.
Weaned calves may be purchased at reasonable prices and
many boys will find this plan most desirable. The animal must
be cared for for about two years before any returns are realized.







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


However, the club member in raising her is learning valuable
lessons about dairy cattle that will help him in the future.
If bred heifers are used they must be purchased outside the
state for the supply in Florida is too limited. The shipping
charges added to the already high price of the animals will make
the final cost to the club boy rather high. But bred heifers have
to be cared for only a short while before they begin producing
milk, when they will begin paying for themselves. Another
attractive feature about the bred heifer method is that as soon
as she freshens the owner can start raising a calf from the
beginning.

















Fig. 14.-Club boys at Short Course judging dairy cattle

It is believed that any of the three methods will be successful
under some conditions found in Florida. Any breed of dairy
cattle may be used and indications are the Jerseys, Holsteins and
Guernseys will be favorites among the Florida boys and girls.
Boys who begin with young calves or weaned calves will be
furnished Extension Circular No. 9, "Raising Calves," and
Farmers' Bulletin No. 777, and those who use bred heifers will
be supplied with Experiment Station Bulletin No. 142 on "Dairy-
ing in Florida."
When the cows begin giving milk the owners will be supplied
with cards to nail on the wall of the barn so that the weight of
milk may be recorded at each milking. At the end of each'
month the total amount produced during the month may be






Florida Cooperative Extension


entered in the dairy calf club record book. In this same record
book, all information concerning the feed, care and development
of the animal may be kept.

BEE CLUBS
Bee clubs have been given some attention and much con-
sideration. There are great possibilities for boys who keep
bees, and those who enter this work will be given every possible
assistance to make a success. Bees are interesting creatures,
and the more one learns about them the more he finds this to
be true.
Each member of the bee club must begin in the spring with
one or more colonies of bees. If they are in the old style hives
or gums, they must be transferred into improved frame hives.
No one will be admitted into the club who expects to continue
using the old boxes or gums.
Transferring from boxes and gums into their new homes is
generally the most difficult task with bees, and for any club
member who learns to do this there is promise of his becoming
a successful beekeeper. There are several methods of trans-
ferring, but only one will be recommended for beginners. This
is the one where a part of the brood comb is transferred with the
bees into the new hive.
It is best done by laying the box hive on its side a few feet
in front of where it stood. If it is placed on another box a foot
high the work can be done more conveniently. The bottom end
of the box hive should extend in the direction of where it stood.
The new hive is now placed exactly where the old one stood.
The frames are kept out and the cover is still off.
Remove the top from the old hive. If the bees have made any
honey it will be at the top of the hive. Smoke them toward the
other end and remove all comb that is filled with honey. When
this is done take an axe and gently lay the hive open so that
you can get to the large pieces of brood comb.
Take the larger pieces of brood comb in the hands, shake the
bees off into the new hive, and then place the pieces on a board so
they can be trimmed with a knife to fit into the frames. Wire
clamps should be used to hold the brood comb in the frames, but
may be taken out three or four days after the bees have been
transferred. When all frames are filled or all the brood comb
is used, the bees remaining in the old hive may be brushed off







Boys' Agricultural Club Guide


into the new hive or may be jarred off just in front of it. A
full set of frames are fitted in the new hive and the cover put on.
If the bees in front of the hive are not inclined to go into it they
may be attracted into it by light drumming on the side of the
hive.
Transferring should be done in early spring and it is said that
during the fruit blossom season is the best time. If a club boy
can obtain a colony of bees already in a frame hive, it will
eliminate this part of the work.
The ten frame hive of Langstroth style and Hoffman style
frames are recommended. If boys wish to make their own
hives they should buy one for a pattern, or at least get the correct
dimensions, since beekeepers have adopted certain standard sizes.
It is usually best to purchase the supplies. The names of
dealers will be furnished all who apply to their county agent or
the Boys' Club Agent.
The main object in the bee clubs will be to produce extracted
honey. To do this the half or full sized supers will be used on
the hives. It will also be advisable to multiply the number of
colonies as much as possible the first year or so in order to get
several colonies to work. The first year in the bee club will
in fact be only getting ready to accomplish more in the future.
In those counties where bee clubs are organized there will be
prizes offered as in all other clubs, and the same is true at the
State and South Florida fairs. For this reason every boy should
show by his exhibit the kind of honey he produces.
The individual exhibit will be one quart of white or amber
honey extracted and in glass. Wax may also be shown which
will make the individual exhibit a little more complete.
The basis of awarding prizes in the bee club contests will be
as follows:
Yield of extracted honey ................ ... ........-..... ...30%
Increase in colonies of bees ......------ ...--......-...- .30%
Exhibit ..- -----.. --.... ------.... .. ....... ................20%
Essay and record of work .-. .......--..-- .......-.....20%
The following farmers' bulletins on bee culture may be had on
application to the State Boys' Club Agent at Gainesville, Fla., or
the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.:
"Transferring Bees to Modern Hives," No. 961; "Bees," No.
447; and "The Control of European Foulbrood," No. 975.




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