• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Personnel
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Selecting hogs
 Treatment of hog before killin...
 Tools for hog killing
 Killing
 Scalding
 Opening carcass--removing internal...
 Chilling the carcass
 Cutting the carcass
 Curing the pork
 Methods of curing
 Smoking meat
 To prevent meat from souring
 Some meat preparations
 Notice














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 120
Title: Butchering and curing pork on the farm
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026111/00001
 Material Information
Title: Butchering and curing pork on the farm
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 21 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sheely, W. J
Publisher: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1943>
 Subjects
Subject: Pork -- Preservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Walter J. Sheely.
General Note: "March, 1943."
General Note: "A revision of Bulletin 81."
General Note: <Revision of no. 71 Dec., 1932>
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026111
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002571141
oclc - 44716462
notis - AMT7456

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Personnel
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Selecting hogs
        Page 4
    Treatment of hog before killing
        Page 4
    Tools for hog killing
        Page 4
    Killing
        Page 5
    Scalding
        Page 5
    Opening carcass--removing internal organs
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Chilling the carcass
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Cutting the carcass
        Page 11
    Curing the pork
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Methods of curing
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Smoking meat
        Page 19
    To prevent meat from souring
        Page 20
    Some meat preparations
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Notice
        Page 22
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Bulletin 120


(A Revision of Bulletin 81)


March, 1943


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director




BUTCHERING AND CURING PORK

ON THE FARM


By WALTER J. SHEELY


Fig. 1.-Sticking the hog. Note that one man is holding the hog and the
other is holding the knife in position.



Single copies free to Florida residents upon application to the
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA














BOARD OF CONTROL

H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
T. T. SCOTT,. Live Oak THOSE. W. BRYANT, Lakeland
R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director of Extension1
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor'
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor1
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor'
FRANK M. DENNIS, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'
Cooperative Agricultural Demonstration Work
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Coordinator with AAA
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist and District Agent
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Coordinator with AAA
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
N. H. McQUEEN, B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman'
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
V. V. BOWMAN, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist'
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., Soil Conservationist

Cooperative Home Demonstration Work
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Specialist
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation

Negro Extension Work
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

1 Part-time.









BUTCHERING AND CURING PORK

ON THE FARM

By WALTER J. SHEELY

CONTENTS
Page Page
Selecting hogs ................................................ 4 Preservatives ................................ 17
Treatment before killing ......................... 4 Methods of curing ..................................... ... 17
Tools for hog killing ...................................... 4 Brine ................................................ 17
Killing .................................. .. 5 Dry sugar cure ............. ......... .... 18
Scalding .......... .. .. ... .. ................ 5 Sm oking m eat ..... .......................................... 19
Opening carcass ...................................... 6 To prevent meat from souring .................... 20
Chilling the carcass ...... ................................ 9 Some meat preparations ................................ 20
Cutting the carcass .......... .. .... .. 11 Fresh sausage ............. .... ........................ 20
Curing pork ............ ................................ .... 12 Liver Pudding .......................................... 21
Cold storage ........................ ............... 13 Rendering and Storing Lard .................. 21

It is proper that the farmer, of all men, should have a bountiful
supply of the best there is in meats, both fresh and cured. The
curing of meats for future use has been in vogue for centuries.
Each generation brings forth new forms and varieties of cured
meats but the principle underlying the process of curing remains
practically unchanged.
Meat is a valuable perishable product that when properly
handled becomes a fine flavored, palatable farm asset that tends
toward a more abundant living. Not only can fresh meat be
enjoyed during the winter and at "hog killing" time, but it can
be cured and smoked to be used during the entire year. The
primary object of curing meat is to improve the flavor and
palatability of this most valuable farm product and to prepare
for the future home supply and thus reduce the cost of living.
There is neither myth nor mystery about curing pork (meat)
on the farm. Anyone who can follow a few fundamental princi-
ples can supply himself with and enjoy both fresh meat at "hog
killing" time and delicious high class cured meats (hams, shoul-
ders, and bacon) throughout the year. Meat of good quality,
cold weather (cold storage or ice box), vessels for holding the
meat and a few preservatives (salt, sugar, or syrup) are all
that is needed.
The economy of curing pork on the farm for best results de-
pends mainly upon the care with which the hogs and meat are
handled. It is practical for anyone to follow methods of killing
and curing meat to make most attractive and palatable ham,
bacon, and sausage.

Pictures in this bulletin are used through the courtesy of the Bureau of
Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture.









BUTCHERING AND CURING PORK

ON THE FARM

By WALTER J. SHEELY

CONTENTS
Page Page
Selecting hogs ................................................ 4 Preservatives ................................ 17
Treatment before killing ......................... 4 Methods of curing ..................................... ... 17
Tools for hog killing ...................................... 4 Brine ................................................ 17
Killing .................................. .. 5 Dry sugar cure ............. ......... .... 18
Scalding .......... .. .. ... .. ................ 5 Sm oking m eat ..... .......................................... 19
Opening carcass ...................................... 6 To prevent meat from souring .................... 20
Chilling the carcass ...... ................................ 9 Some meat preparations ................................ 20
Cutting the carcass .......... .. .... .. 11 Fresh sausage ............. .... ........................ 20
Curing pork ............ ................................ .... 12 Liver Pudding .......................................... 21
Cold storage ........................ ............... 13 Rendering and Storing Lard .................. 21

It is proper that the farmer, of all men, should have a bountiful
supply of the best there is in meats, both fresh and cured. The
curing of meats for future use has been in vogue for centuries.
Each generation brings forth new forms and varieties of cured
meats but the principle underlying the process of curing remains
practically unchanged.
Meat is a valuable perishable product that when properly
handled becomes a fine flavored, palatable farm asset that tends
toward a more abundant living. Not only can fresh meat be
enjoyed during the winter and at "hog killing" time, but it can
be cured and smoked to be used during the entire year. The
primary object of curing meat is to improve the flavor and
palatability of this most valuable farm product and to prepare
for the future home supply and thus reduce the cost of living.
There is neither myth nor mystery about curing pork (meat)
on the farm. Anyone who can follow a few fundamental princi-
ples can supply himself with and enjoy both fresh meat at "hog
killing" time and delicious high class cured meats (hams, shoul-
ders, and bacon) throughout the year. Meat of good quality,
cold weather (cold storage or ice box), vessels for holding the
meat and a few preservatives (salt, sugar, or syrup) are all
that is needed.
The economy of curing pork on the farm for best results de-
pends mainly upon the care with which the hogs and meat are
handled. It is practical for anyone to follow methods of killing
and curing meat to make most attractive and palatable ham,
bacon, and sausage.

Pictures in this bulletin are used through the courtesy of the Bureau of
Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SELECTING HOGS
Healthy, well-bred, well-finished, intermediate type young hogs
weighing from 165 to 225 pounds are most desirable for home
use. This size and type of hog will cut out the maximum amount
of desirable high quality hams, shoulders, loins and sides with
the minimum of waste.
TREATMENT OF HOG BEFORE KILLING
Withhold feed the last 12 to 24 hours before killing, but fur-
nish the hogs with plenty of fresh, clean water. It is easier to
get a good bleed when the hog's stomach is empty and easier to
remove and clean the intestines when they are not gorged. Then,
too, there is danger of puncturing the intestines of a gorged
hog, and imparting a bad taste to the meat. Meat cures better
when the small blood vessels are free from blood and food pro-
ducts. Kill hogs with empty stomachs and improve the meat.
Confine hogs in small quarters, avoid over-exercising and heat-
ing before killing. Hogs killed under the most natural conditions
make the highest quality of meat. Any body bruises, such as
those caused by kicking or striking, will injure the meat and
cause trouble in curing.
TOOLS FOR HOG KILLING
An expensive "layout" of equipment is unnecessary, but a
set of good practical tools (Fig. 2) saves time and labor and
makes meat cutting a pleasure.















Fig. 2.-Tools for hog killing: Singletree (to be used as a gambrel);
hook (for pulling hog out of barrel by nose); steel, skinning knife, boning
knife, saw, bell scraper and thermometer.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SELECTING HOGS
Healthy, well-bred, well-finished, intermediate type young hogs
weighing from 165 to 225 pounds are most desirable for home
use. This size and type of hog will cut out the maximum amount
of desirable high quality hams, shoulders, loins and sides with
the minimum of waste.
TREATMENT OF HOG BEFORE KILLING
Withhold feed the last 12 to 24 hours before killing, but fur-
nish the hogs with plenty of fresh, clean water. It is easier to
get a good bleed when the hog's stomach is empty and easier to
remove and clean the intestines when they are not gorged. Then,
too, there is danger of puncturing the intestines of a gorged
hog, and imparting a bad taste to the meat. Meat cures better
when the small blood vessels are free from blood and food pro-
ducts. Kill hogs with empty stomachs and improve the meat.
Confine hogs in small quarters, avoid over-exercising and heat-
ing before killing. Hogs killed under the most natural conditions
make the highest quality of meat. Any body bruises, such as
those caused by kicking or striking, will injure the meat and
cause trouble in curing.
TOOLS FOR HOG KILLING
An expensive "layout" of equipment is unnecessary, but a
set of good practical tools (Fig. 2) saves time and labor and
makes meat cutting a pleasure.















Fig. 2.-Tools for hog killing: Singletree (to be used as a gambrel);
hook (for pulling hog out of barrel by nose); steel, skinning knife, boning
knife, saw, bell scraper and thermometer.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SELECTING HOGS
Healthy, well-bred, well-finished, intermediate type young hogs
weighing from 165 to 225 pounds are most desirable for home
use. This size and type of hog will cut out the maximum amount
of desirable high quality hams, shoulders, loins and sides with
the minimum of waste.
TREATMENT OF HOG BEFORE KILLING
Withhold feed the last 12 to 24 hours before killing, but fur-
nish the hogs with plenty of fresh, clean water. It is easier to
get a good bleed when the hog's stomach is empty and easier to
remove and clean the intestines when they are not gorged. Then,
too, there is danger of puncturing the intestines of a gorged
hog, and imparting a bad taste to the meat. Meat cures better
when the small blood vessels are free from blood and food pro-
ducts. Kill hogs with empty stomachs and improve the meat.
Confine hogs in small quarters, avoid over-exercising and heat-
ing before killing. Hogs killed under the most natural conditions
make the highest quality of meat. Any body bruises, such as
those caused by kicking or striking, will injure the meat and
cause trouble in curing.
TOOLS FOR HOG KILLING
An expensive "layout" of equipment is unnecessary, but a
set of good practical tools (Fig. 2) saves time and labor and
makes meat cutting a pleasure.















Fig. 2.-Tools for hog killing: Singletree (to be used as a gambrel);
hook (for pulling hog out of barrel by nose); steel, skinning knife, boning
knife, saw, bell scraper and thermometer.






Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


KILLING
Sticking the hog without stunning or shooting causes the blood
to drain out more freely and aids curing. In commercial packing
plants hogs are never stunned or shot.
Hold the hog squarely on its back (Fig. 1). One man stands
astride the hog holding each front foot; the man sticking the
hog stands squarely in front, holds down the hog's lower jaw
with one hand and the knife with the other hand; cuts the skin
about 2 inches in
front of the
breast bone. The
knife, edge down-
ward, should pass
straight in to the
breast bone, then
downward be-
tween the ribs to
the neck bone,
then toward the
head. This will
cut the arteries
and allow the /
blood to flow out.
Do not stick the
heart, let it re-
main whole to
pump out the
blood. The ani-
mal should bleed
freely before be-
ing moved or put
into the scalding
barrel.

SCALDING
Slow scalding is
usually best. The
proper tempera-
ture of the water
for scalding is 145
degrees to 150 de-
grees F. On the Fig. 3.-Opening the hog.






Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


KILLING
Sticking the hog without stunning or shooting causes the blood
to drain out more freely and aids curing. In commercial packing
plants hogs are never stunned or shot.
Hold the hog squarely on its back (Fig. 1). One man stands
astride the hog holding each front foot; the man sticking the
hog stands squarely in front, holds down the hog's lower jaw
with one hand and the knife with the other hand; cuts the skin
about 2 inches in
front of the
breast bone. The
knife, edge down-
ward, should pass
straight in to the
breast bone, then
downward be-
tween the ribs to
the neck bone,
then toward the
head. This will
cut the arteries
and allow the /
blood to flow out.
Do not stick the
heart, let it re-
main whole to
pump out the
blood. The ani-
mal should bleed
freely before be-
ing moved or put
into the scalding
barrel.

SCALDING
Slow scalding is
usually best. The
proper tempera-
ture of the water
for scalding is 145
degrees to 150 de-
grees F. On the Fig. 3.-Opening the hog.






Florida Cooperative Extension


farm where it is not practical to re-heat the water, temperature
of from 155 degrees to 165 degrees F. is often used at the begin-
ning so that the water will not be too cold before the hog is com-
pletely scalded. Care must be exercised to keep the hog in motion
to keep from "set-
ting the hair."
Scald the rear end
of the hog first.
When the hog is
completely scald-
ed, twist the hair
from the legs and
feet, pull off the
hoofs while hot
with a hook,
scrape the hog
from fore flank
to tail, clean head
and forequarters
before they get
cool. Get the hog
clean as quickly
as possible by
using warm water
and scrape with
knives and bell
scrape, then wash
with cold water
and hang the
carcass.
OPENING
CARCASS-
REMOVING
INTERNAL
ORGANS
Opening up and
dressing a hog is
simple and easy
if feed has been
withheld for from
12 to 24 hours,
Fig. 4.-By opening the hog in this manner, there for the intestines
is no danger of cutting the intestines.






Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm 7


















I .




















Fig. 5.-Removing the intestines. Hold carefully, and avoid tearing
or dropping.
will be empty and easily handled. Begin where the hog was stuck,
cut up through the full length of the breast bone (Fig. 3). In
young hogs the bone is easily cut, in older hogs it may be neces-
sary to use a saw. Now cut down between the hams, keeping the
knife in center to hit the white membrane that marks the middle







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 6.-Removing leaf fat from the carcass, which has been split
down the center of the backbone.

seam; then cut the hams apart. Remove the "bung," then put the
hand with the point of the knife out (Fig. 4), guarding the heel
of the knife with the finger and thumb and cut down to meet the
cut made in breast bone; then remove the intestines (Fig. 5).







Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


Wash the carcass with
then split the carcass
down the center of back-
bone with a saw (Fig. 6).
Remove leaf lard (Fig.
6) and let the carcass
cool. A carcass split in
two pieces and the leaf
fat removed cools more
quickly than a whole hog.

CHILLING THE
CARCASS
Chill the carcass as
quickly as possible to
prevent souring and
spoiling. On the farm,
butchering should be
done during the coolest
weather. Usually it is
safer to butcher in the
afternoon, cut off the
head and split the car-
cass and let cool out all
night. (DO NOT SALT
DOWN HOT MEAT.)
Or the hog may be cut
up and the individual
pieces hung up to cool
out over night, then put
in the cure. Where cold
storage is available it is
a simple matter to cool
out the carcass within
12 to 24 hours, then put
the meat in cure. Re-
member the quicker a
carcass can be cooled
down after killing the
surer will be the cure
and the less the loss.


clean, cool water, remove the head,


Fig. 7.-Cuts of pork: a, ham; b, loin; c,
bacon (or side); d, shoulder; e, head; f, feet.







10 Florida Cooperative Extension

Consequently when cold storage is available get the carcass
in the coolers as quickly as possible (not more than one hour
should elapse from the time the hog is killed until the carcass

r










*4i ---


Fig. 8.-Cutting off the shoulder.


Fig. 9.-Cutting off the ham, holding saw at right angles to shank.







Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


is in the cooler), where the temperature is from 34 degrees to
40 degrees. If ice box or refrigerator is used, spread out the
meat into these places quickly to cool before packing down to
cure.
"If the weather becomes warm and no cold storage is available,
the warm sides may be cut up and the individual pieces hung up
to air and cool, or immersed in a weak, ice-chilled salt brine
containing about 8 pounds of salt to each 7 gallons of water.
Sometimes insufficiently cooled pieces are salted with a dry-cure
mixture and spread on a rack where they will have as much
ventilation as possible. None of these methods is as safe or as
satisfactory as storing the meat at the proper temperature,
either natural or artificial." (Farmers' Bulletin 1186.)

CUTTING THE CARCASS
Clean, well-cut, nicely trimmed hams, bacon and shoulders can
be cooked and used to better advantage than pieces that have
been haggled and improperly handled.
There is no one best method of cutting up a hog. The best
method for each individual is that which suits his family and
community; still, certain fundamental principles of cutting and
curing should be observed.
The purpose of cutting is to produce the maximum amount of
meat to be cured and stored for future use, and prevent loss and
waste. Cut the thick lean ham, loin and shoulder from the thin
sides, fat and head (Fig. 7).
When hams and shoulders are cut according to the methods
later described, each will weigh about 7 percent of the live weight
of the hog. Each bacon strip and loin will weigh about 5 percent
and the head 7 percent. The weight of lard rendered from a
200-pound live hog will range between 9 and 13 percent of the
live weight of the hog; and that from a 250- to 300-pound hog,
between 14 and 18 percent.
First, cut off head at first joint behind skull while the hog is
hanging up. Second, split the carcass down middle of backbone
before cooling and pull out the leaf fat (Fig. 6). Third, cut
off the shoulders between the third and fourth ribs, holding
saw at right angles to the body (Fig. 8). Fourth, cut out neck
bone from shoulder, leaving very little meat on the bones. Fifth,
cut off ham just behind the rise in the pelvic arch, holding the
saw at right angles to the shank (Fig. 9). Sixth, cut loin from
thin side or bacon (Fig. 10). Seventh, cut spareribs from bacon,






Florida Cooperative Extension


sawing across the ribs just below the curve in the backbone at
shoulder and across the ribs at edge of tenderloin muscle at ham


end. Eighth, remove back fat from loin


Fig. 10.-Cutting loin from bacon and ribs.
even and jagged edges from sides. Leave a
of ham for protection. Excess fat should
ends of hams and shoulders.


cutting down both
sides of loin, then
raise fat and
loosen down the
center. Ninth, re-
move spareribs,
keep edge of
knife against ribs
to leave most of
meat on bacon
(Fig. 11).
Neat, smooth,
evenly trimmed
meat cures with-
out loss from
over-cure of three
cornered and tag
ends and bad cut-
* ting. The ragged
neck pieces and
brisket are cut
from the shoul-
der, the tail and
flank from the
ham and the un-
little fat on inside
be removed from


CURING PORK
Meat in cure normally develops a more uniform, desirable
flavor if it can be held at an even temperature of about 380 F.
On the farm, temperatures are not easily controlled but every
effort should be made to approximate those mentioned.
Packinghouses run carcasses directly from the killing and
dressing floor to the chilling room, chill the pork, and then cure
at a temperature of about 380 F. ON THE FARM, MEAT
SHOULD BE CURED IN THE COOLEST SPOT TO BE
FOUND. Cold storage facilities make it possible to cure the
meat with less loss, and many Florida farmers have their pork







Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


cured by firms specializing in cold storage curing. Others use
simple home ice boxes.

CURING PORK IN COLD STORAGE
With cold storage facilities, meat can be cured at any season
of the year. Within an hour after killing the carcasses should
be put in cold storage and chilled below 400 F. within 12 to 24
hours. To chill properly, the carcasses should be split and, after
the leaf fat is pulled, the halves should be hung in coolers that
drop below 400 F. within 10 to 12 hours. Carcasses chill more
rapidly in open air than at the same temperatures in small
coolers. Carcasses to be cured should not be frozen.


Fig. 11.-Removing spareribs from bacon.


Throughout the peanut and hog producing counties of Florida,
a number of ice plants and mechanical refrigeration plants are
equipped to cure meat for farmers. During the winter of 1941-
42, 47 cold storage plants cured more than 5,000,000 pounds of
pork for farmers. Most of these plants use a mild cure and
produce excellent cured hams and bacon.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Meat delivered to curing plants is placed in a chilled room
where the temperature should be 34 to 380 F. for approximately
24 hours. The meat is then given a covering of salt, taken to
the curing room, usually maintained at 360 to 380 F., where it
is packed in bins with the flesh side up. After about 10 days
the meat is given a second covering of salt and placed back in
the bins with the flesh side up. Low temperatures are the best
means known to prevent the growth of spoilage organisms in
meat until the salt has completed the task of curing. Curing
rooms should be kept at a constant level of 360 to 38 F. through-
out the curing period.
To produce delicious, wholesome meat for farm families car-
casses should be placed in the chilling room as soon as possible
after killing. This chilling before curing aids in producing whole-
some meat.
Much meat is cured on the farm at temperatures of 400 and
even up to 50 F. It is also true that much meat is lost when
curing is attempted at these high temperatures. It is safer to
cure at around 36 to 380 F., as the packers do. Uniform tem-
peratures normally result in uniform saltiness and flavor de-
velopment.

Fig. 12.-Meat curing in cold storage bins.








-' 47- ^ MI
VkB




d^^^^*^^^^^*^ ^







Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


ICE BOX

A diagram of an ice box which has been used successfully in
curing meat is shown in Figure 13. It can be adapted to hold
fish or milk and may also be used on a community basis by
making the ice box longer (9-12').
Tests have shown that an inside temperature of 36 F. can be
secured and maintained when the outside temperature is between
70 and 800 F.
Note that the entrance to the box is a hinged lid. This type
is less convenient than side doors, but was selected because:
(1) It is lower in cost; (2) inexperienced workmen can build it;
(3) most of the materials are readily available; (4) ice con-
sumption is less; (5) desirable temperatures below 40 F. cannot
be obtained in overhead boxes with the use of ice alone.


Fig. 13.-Diagram showing an ice box that is satisfactory for curing
meat on the farm. It has a capacity of from 1,800 to 2,000 pounds of meat
and 1,600 pounds of ice. Length and height of box can be made to suit
capacity needed. Width of crate must not be increased.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The capacity of this box is from 1,800 to 2,000 pounds of meat
and 1,600 pounds of ice. It can be adapted to community use
if the length is increased.

BILL OF MATERIALS


Concrete: 1% Cu. Yds. 1:2:4 Mix
8 bags cement
% cu. yds. sand
11/ cu. yds. gravel
Lumber
50-2"x4"x12'-0" cribbing
(cut 50 pcs. 6'-4" and 50 pcs. 5'-4")
2-2"x8"x14'-0" plates
2-2"x8"x16'-0" plates
1-2"x12"x14'-0" top rail
1-2"x12"x16'-0" top rail
1-2"x6"x16'-0" hinge plates
5-2"x4"x16'-0" corner post & top
1-2"x4"x14'-0" top
1-1'/s"x6"x 8'-0" sides of top
1--11/s"x6"x14'-0" sides of top
300' BM T&G flooring sides & top
3-2"x2"x 6'-0" slat floor
7-1"x3"x10'-0" slat floor
1-1"xl"x 8'-0" slat floor
1-2"x4"x10'-0" removable crate


6-1"x4"x12'-0" removable crate
5-1"x3"x12'-0" removable crate
Miscellaneous
2 rolls tarred paper (216 sq. ft.)
90 bu. sawdust
7 sheets 26 gauge galv. metal
(3'x6')
2 sheets 26 gauge galv. metal
(2'x6')
10 lbs. asphalt
10 cork brick 4" thick 12"x36"
1 sheet 20 gauge metal (3'x6')
3 pair 10" galv. strap hinges
1 gal. paint for crib work
11/2" drain pipe with trap to suit
local conditions
Nails
2 lbs. 20d common
10 lbs. 16d common
2 lbs. 8d common
3 lbs. 8d finish


CONSTRUCTION
In building, the following points should be observed:
1. Mix concrete in the proportions of 1 part Portland cement,
2 parts sand, and 4 parts gravel, all measured by volume. (When
built on an existing concrete floor the lower 4-inch slab is not
needed.)
2. The cork should be bedded in a layer of hot asphalt floated
on the concrete floor and sealed on top and outside edges with
this material. Fit each cork board tightly against the sides
of the box and adjacent cork boards. Do not put hot asphalt
between the joints of the cork board.
3. Anchor the lower 2x4's and 2x8's to the concrete with bolts.
4. Stagger the corner joints of the crib work and paint the
top and ends of each 2x4 before spiking the next one in place
to secure tight joints and to protect the lumber from dampness.
5. Dry the sawdust thoroughly in the sun or an oven before
using to obtain its full insulating value, as most sawdust is
damp. Use waterproof (tar) paper on both sides of the insulated
spaces as shown on attached drawing.
6. Make top of box as flat as possible so the lid will fit closely.
Probably a lighter weight top could replace the more efficient
insulated one shown on the drawing.






Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


7. Solder the galvanized metal bottom at joints and to the
drain and also to the lower part of the sides. The upper portion
of the sides could be lapped and nailed to the crib work; however,
soldering gives greater protection to the insulation. If possible,
float hot asphalt over concrete floor just prior to laying the metal
bottom, thus securing an unyielding base for the metal.
8. The meat rack has been made 1 inch shorter than the
inside length of the box to permit easy removal in case other
products are to be stored.
9. Locate the drain to permit cleaning, to provide a water
seal, and to prevent accumulation of drippings around the box.

PRESERVATIVES FOR CURING
Salt and sugar or syrup in combinations are the standard
preservatives. Pepper is sometimes used to add flavor; it tends
to repel insects. Salt preserves and dries the meat and has a
slightly germicidal effect. Too much salt impairs the flavor and
hardens the muscles. A good grade of table or dairy salt is
desirable.
Sugar or syrup or a mixture of sugar and syrup improves the
flavor and texture of the meat and prevents drying. Brown or
cane sugar or syrup may be used. Each gives its own character-
istic flavor. Salt and sugar or syrup are used in combinations
to produce good flavored meat. Saltpeter is used in small quan-
tities to preserve the color of the meat, fixing the bright red
color. Never use more saltpeter than is recommended.


METHODS OF CURING
Many people prefer sugar cure to the plain salt cure. Sugar
cure can be had either by the "dry cure" or "brine" method.

BRINE METHOD
In the brine or sweet-pickle cure, for each 100 pounds of
trimmed and weighed meat, use:
Salt 12 pounds or 21 cups
Sugar 3 pounds or 6 cups or 3 pints syrup
Saltpeter 2 ounces or 4 tablespoons
Water 6 gallons
Dissolve the salt, sugar or syrup and saltpeter, then boil the
mixture to sterilize. Let the brine thoroughly cool. Under ideal
conditions both meat and the brine will be cooled to a tempera-
ture of 38 degree F.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Pack the chilled hams and shoulders snugly, skin down, in a
clean barrel, tub or crock, fitting them closely together; then
put the bacon, skin down, on top of the hams. Pour in the cold
brine until the meat begins to shift or float, showing that the
brine has come in contact with all parts of the meat. Then add
a clean weight to keep the meat below the surface (do not use
limestone rock for weight). The loins and spareribs may be put
in this cure and used as they are needed.
The hams and shoulders should be overhauled and re-packed
in the same brine after they have been in cure 5 or 10 days, then
again on the 15th and 30th days. This overhauling re-mixes
the brine and insures all parts coming into full contact with
the brine.
CURING TIME
Hams and shoulders cure in about four days per pound. A
15-pound ham cures in 60 days. Bacon (sides) cures about two
days per pound; a 10-pound side cures in 20 days.
Watch the brine; if a heavy, thick scum forms on top or the
brine becomes ropy, remove the meat and scrub it thoroughly
with warm water and a brush; replace in a clean barrel and
cover with new brine. Maintain the original curing schedule.
At the end of the curing period scrub the meat with warm water,
dry and smoke.
THE DRY SUGAR CURE
Here again salt is the basis, but if the sugar flavor and red
color are desired and the pepper flavor is wanted, then for each
100 pounds of trimmed and weighed meat, use:
Salt 8 pounds or 14 cups
Sugar 2 pounds or 4 cups (or 2 pints syrup)
Saltpeter 2 ounces or 4 tablespoons
Black pepper 2 ounces or 8% tablespoons (if desired)
Red pepper 2 ounces or 13 tablespoons (if desired)
These ingredients are mixed thoroughly and rubbed on the
chilled meat. Make sure that each piece of meat is thoroughly
rubbed on both sides and covered with this mixture. Sprinkle
a little of the mixture in the barrel, cover the flesh side of the
hams and shoulders with this salt, lay these pieces carefully in
the bottom of barrel or box that the salt may stick. On the
fifth day overhaul the meat; rub the mixture again on the meat;
do not add more salt. Use the same mixture; place the top layer
of the hams and shoulders on the bottom this time.






Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


This method should be used only when there is an ample
supply of ice or when cold storage is available or during un-
usually cold weather.
CURING TIME
Under ideal conditions 2 days per pound is the standard cur-
ing time for the dry method. However, it is better, under farm
conditions, to let the meat remain in cure 3 days per pound.
A 10-pound ham cures in 30 days. Sides or bacon will cure in
from 10 days to two weeks. At the end of the curing period,
scrub off the salt with warm water, let the meat dry and smoke it.

SMOKING MEAT
Smoking aids in the preservation and adds a desirable flavor
when the proper kind of fuel is used.
If the meat is to be used immediately, no further care is
necessary, except protection from insects and mice. A well
constructed screened cage will meet this requirement.
Properly cured and well smoked meat will keep and can be
satisfactorily stored in a well ventilated, dry, dark, cool place,
protected from rats and insects. Hams and shoulders can be
wrapped in paper thick enough to keep the grease from coming
through, then put in muslin bags, securely tied and hung up.
Under the provision of the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the
use of liquid smoke, smoked salt and like preparations intended
to be applied to meat instead of smoking them is prohibited.
To further protect the meat from insects, the sacks may be
painted with a yellow wash. The formula for the yellow wash
recommended by the U. S. Department of Agriculture is as fol-
lows: For 100 pounds of meat:
Barium sulphate 3 pounds
Yellow ocher 1% ounces
Glue (dry) 1 ounce
Flour 6 ounces
(Farmers' Bulletin No. 1186)
Fill a pail half full of water and mix in the flour, breaking up
all lumps thoroughly. Mix the ocher in a quart of water in a
separate vessel, add the glue, and pour them into the flour-and-
water mixture. Bring this mixture to a boil and add the barium
sulphate slowly, stirring constantly. Make the wash the day
before it is required. Stir it frequently while using it and apply
it with a brush. Lime, clay, flour, or a simliar substance mixed
with water to a rather thick consistency also may be used to
paint the bags.






Florida Cooperative Extension


TO PREVENT MEAT FROM SOURING
1. Avoid overheating of animals before killing.
2. Thorough, complete bleeding is necessary.
3. Low temperatures are essential.
4. Chill carcass before packing in cure.
5. Use pure salt, clean sugar or syrup and saltpeter.
6. Boil brine before using.
7. Scald barrel or other receptacles.
8. Practice cleanliness in handling meat.


SOME MEAT PREPARATIONS

FRESH SAUSAGE
The fresh trimmings from which pork sausage is made should
be about one-third fat and two-thirds lean. If more fat is in-
cluded, the sausage may be too rich and will have a large cooking
loss. Less fat will make the cooked patties rather hard and dry
and difficult to brown.
In making a small quantity of sausage to test the recipe, the
following measurements may be used:
4 pounds trimmings
5 level teaspoons salt
4 level teaspoons ground sage
2 level teaspoons ground pepper
1/2 level teaspoon ground cloves or
1 level teaspoon ground nutmeg (if desired)

For 50 pounds of trimmings use the following:

1 pound salt
1 to 2 ounces ground sage
1 to 2 ounces ground pepper
1/4 to 1/2 ounce red pepper (if desired)
The seasoning should be well mixed, spread over the trim-
mings, and the whole quantity ground through the fine plate.
Some persons prefer to grind the unseasoned meat through a
plate with ~/-inch holes and then mix it with the spices and
regrind through a plate with 1/-inch holes.
If the sausage is to be put into casings it should be stuffed
immediately after grinding. It should then be soft enough to
pack tightly in the casings without the addition of cold water.
It may also be fried down or canned.






Florida Cooperative Extension


TO PREVENT MEAT FROM SOURING
1. Avoid overheating of animals before killing.
2. Thorough, complete bleeding is necessary.
3. Low temperatures are essential.
4. Chill carcass before packing in cure.
5. Use pure salt, clean sugar or syrup and saltpeter.
6. Boil brine before using.
7. Scald barrel or other receptacles.
8. Practice cleanliness in handling meat.


SOME MEAT PREPARATIONS

FRESH SAUSAGE
The fresh trimmings from which pork sausage is made should
be about one-third fat and two-thirds lean. If more fat is in-
cluded, the sausage may be too rich and will have a large cooking
loss. Less fat will make the cooked patties rather hard and dry
and difficult to brown.
In making a small quantity of sausage to test the recipe, the
following measurements may be used:
4 pounds trimmings
5 level teaspoons salt
4 level teaspoons ground sage
2 level teaspoons ground pepper
1/2 level teaspoon ground cloves or
1 level teaspoon ground nutmeg (if desired)

For 50 pounds of trimmings use the following:

1 pound salt
1 to 2 ounces ground sage
1 to 2 ounces ground pepper
1/4 to 1/2 ounce red pepper (if desired)
The seasoning should be well mixed, spread over the trim-
mings, and the whole quantity ground through the fine plate.
Some persons prefer to grind the unseasoned meat through a
plate with ~/-inch holes and then mix it with the spices and
regrind through a plate with 1/-inch holes.
If the sausage is to be put into casings it should be stuffed
immediately after grinding. It should then be soft enough to
pack tightly in the casings without the addition of cold water.
It may also be fried down or canned.






Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


To make bulk sausage that will slice and fry without crum-
bling, add a scant half cup of cold water to each 4 pounds of
ground seasoned sausage and knead with the hands until the
meat becomes very sticky and doughlike. Pack tightly in small
molds or pans and allow it to chill before slicing.
LIVER PUDDING
The liver, heart, kidney, tongue, head, feet, and skin can be
used fresh or cooked, seasoned, and stuffed for future use as
liver pudding.
Cook heads, kidneys, tongues, and hearts, skins and feet in
sufficient water to cover all parts. Simmer till meat is well done
and slips easily from the bone. Scald livers last and cook about
10 minutes in with other materials. Liver adds a definite flavor,
and there should be 1 part of liver to 4 parts of the other meat.
Grind all these materials and add about one-fifth as much soup
(broth), or enough to make the mixture soft but not soupy.
Season to taste and mix thoroughly. Many meat eaters like the
following proportions of seasoning: To each 100 pounds of liver
pudding add 2 to 21/2 pounds of salt, 2 to 4 ounces of black
pepper, and sage to taste.
Thoroughly mix in the seasoning, stuff the mixture into large
casings, and simmer in water 10 to 30 minutes or until the cas-
ing floats. Remove from hot water, plunge the stuffed casings
in cold water, and chill for about 30 minutes. Hang up the cas-
ing to drain and store in cool place.
RENDERING AND STORING LARD
The leaf fat, back fat and fat trimmings should be cut into
small pieces or coarsely ground before cooking. The caul and
ruffle fat from the offal yield dark lard and should be cooked
separately from the leaf fat. Cook the fat slowly till cracklings
begin to float. As the cooking proceeds the cracklings begin
to sink to bottom, indicating that cooking is nearly complete.
Take care that the cracklings do not scorch, but drive most of
the moisture from the lard.
Place hot lard in clean containers, fill the vessels to the top
and seal with tight cover. Store lard in a dark, cool place.
The information contained herein supplements that contained
in the sections on cutting and curing in Bulletin 111. That
bulletin is on swine production in Florida, and contains valuable
suggestions on producing and curing pork, and preventing dis-
eases and parasites.

















DURING THE WAR EMERGENCY

FARMERS WHO BUTCHER

AND SELL MEAT

are required to have slaughter permits, to stamp
their meat with government grades, to sell at
fair prices, to stay within their quotas, and to
keep records of their transactions.
Killing and curing of a home supply is not re-
stricted; rather, it is encouraged.
Fats of all kinds are badly needed in the war
effort. Those who butcher and cure pork at home
will save every ounce of fat from the hogs. Every-
one will help by saving and salvaging used fats.




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