• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Personnel
 Butchering and curing pork
 Selecting hog
 Treatment of hog before killin...
 Tools for hog killing
 Killing
 Scalding
 Opening carcass--removing internal...
 Chilling the carcass
 Cutting the carcass
 Curing pork
 Methods of curing
 Smoking meat
 To prevent meat from souring














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 71
Title: Butchering and curing pork
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026109/00001
 Material Information
Title: Butchering and curing pork
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 16 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sheely, W. J
Publisher: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1932>
 Subjects
Subject: Pork -- Preservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by W.J. Sheely.
General Note: "December, 1932."
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026109
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570640
oclc - 44791809
notis - AMT6953

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Personnel
        Page 2
    Butchering and curing pork
        Page 3
    Selecting hog
        Page 3
    Treatment of hog before killing
        Page 4
    Tools for hog killing
        Page 4
    Killing
        Page 4
    Scalding
        Page 5
    Opening carcass--removing internal organs
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Chilling the carcass
        Page 9
    Cutting the carcass
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Curing pork
        Page 12
    Methods of curing
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Smoking meat
        Page 15
    To prevent meat from souring
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








Bulletin 71


\ December, 1932


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND, HLOMiF ECONOMICS
(Acts of May'~s- li 30, 1914)


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director


BUTCHERING AND CURING PORK
By W. J. SHEELY


Fig. 1.-Sticking the hog. Note that one man is holding the hog and the
other is holding the knife in position.



Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERIVCE,
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


UUr lnfi A'








BOARD OF CONTROL

P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
A. H. BLENDING, Tampa
FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlande
GEO. H. BALDWIN, Jacksonville
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee


STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK

W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry'
J. E. TURLINGTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist2
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
W. R. BRIGGS, B.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Control'

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK

A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
ROSA J. BALLARD, Local District Home Demonstration Agent

lln cooperation with U. S. D. A.
2Part-time.











BUTCHERING AND CURING PORK
By WALTER J. SHEELY

It is proper that the farmer, of all men, should have a bounti-
ful supply of the best there is in meats, both fresh and cured.
The curing of meats for future use has been in vogue for cen-
turies. Each generation brings forth new forms and varieties of
cured meats but the principle underlying the process of curing
remains practically unchanged.
Meat is a valuable perishable product that when properly han-
dled becomes a fine flavored, palatable farm asset that tends to-
ward a more abundant living. Not only can fresh meat be en-
joyed during the winter and at "hog killing" time, but it can be
cured and smoked to be enjoyed during the entire year. The
primary object of curing meat is to improve the flavor and pal-
atability of the most valuable farm product and to prepare for
the future home supply and thus reduce the cost of living.
There is no myth nor mystery about curing pork (meat) on
the farm. Anyone who can follow a few fundamental princi-
ples can supply himself with and enjoy both fresh meat at "hog
killing" time and delicious high class cured meats (hams, should-
ers, and bacon) throughout the year. Meat of good quality, cold
weather (cold storage or ice box), vessels for holding the meat
and a few preservatives (salt, sugar, or syrup) are all that is
needed.
The economy of curing pork on the farm for best results de-
pends mainly upon the care with which the hogs and meat are
handled. It is practical for anyone to follow methods of killing
and curing meat to make most attractive and palatable ham,
bacon, and sausage.

SELECTING HOG
Healthy, well-bred, well-finished, intermediate type young
hogs weighing from 165 to 225 pounds are most desirable for
home use. This size and type of hog will cut out the maximum
amount of desirable high quality hams, shoulders, loins and
sides with the minimum of waste.
Pictures in this bulletin are used through the courtesy of the Bureau of
Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture.











BUTCHERING AND CURING PORK
By WALTER J. SHEELY

It is proper that the farmer, of all men, should have a bounti-
ful supply of the best there is in meats, both fresh and cured.
The curing of meats for future use has been in vogue for cen-
turies. Each generation brings forth new forms and varieties of
cured meats but the principle underlying the process of curing
remains practically unchanged.
Meat is a valuable perishable product that when properly han-
dled becomes a fine flavored, palatable farm asset that tends to-
ward a more abundant living. Not only can fresh meat be en-
joyed during the winter and at "hog killing" time, but it can be
cured and smoked to be enjoyed during the entire year. The
primary object of curing meat is to improve the flavor and pal-
atability of the most valuable farm product and to prepare for
the future home supply and thus reduce the cost of living.
There is no myth nor mystery about curing pork (meat) on
the farm. Anyone who can follow a few fundamental princi-
ples can supply himself with and enjoy both fresh meat at "hog
killing" time and delicious high class cured meats (hams, should-
ers, and bacon) throughout the year. Meat of good quality, cold
weather (cold storage or ice box), vessels for holding the meat
and a few preservatives (salt, sugar, or syrup) are all that is
needed.
The economy of curing pork on the farm for best results de-
pends mainly upon the care with which the hogs and meat are
handled. It is practical for anyone to follow methods of killing
and curing meat to make most attractive and palatable ham,
bacon, and sausage.

SELECTING HOG
Healthy, well-bred, well-finished, intermediate type young
hogs weighing from 165 to 225 pounds are most desirable for
home use. This size and type of hog will cut out the maximum
amount of desirable high quality hams, shoulders, loins and
sides with the minimum of waste.
Pictures in this bulletin are used through the courtesy of the Bureau of
Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture.






Florida Cooperative Extension


TREATMENT OF HOG BEFORE KILLING
Withhold feed the last 12 to 24 hours before killing, but fur-
nish the hogs with plenty of fresh, clean water. It is easier to
get a good bleed when the hog's stomach is empty and easier to
remove and clean the intestines when they are not gorged. Then,
too, there is danger of puncturing the intestines of a gorged hog,
resulting in bad taste to the meat. Meat cures better when the
small blood vessels are free from blood and food products. Kill
hogs with empty stomachs and improve the meat. Confine hogs
in small quarters, avoid over-exercising and heating before kill-
ing. Hogs killed under the most natural conditions make the
highest quality of meat. Any body bruises, such as those caused
by kicking or striking, will injure the meat and cause trouble in
curing.

TOOLS FOR HOG KILLING
An expensive "layout" of equipment is unnecessary, but a
set of good practical tools (Fig. 2) saves time, labor, and makes
meat cutting a pleasure.
















Fig. 2.-Tools for hog killing: Singletree (to be used as a gambrel); hook
(for pulling hog out of barrel by nose); steel, skinning knife, boning
knife, saw, bell scraper and thermometer.

KILLING
Sticking the hog without stunning or shooting causes the blood
to drain out more freely and aids curing. In commercial packing
plants, hogs are never stunned or shot.
Hold the hog squarely on its back (Fig. 1). One man stands
astride the hog holding each front foot; the man sticking the






Florida Cooperative Extension


TREATMENT OF HOG BEFORE KILLING
Withhold feed the last 12 to 24 hours before killing, but fur-
nish the hogs with plenty of fresh, clean water. It is easier to
get a good bleed when the hog's stomach is empty and easier to
remove and clean the intestines when they are not gorged. Then,
too, there is danger of puncturing the intestines of a gorged hog,
resulting in bad taste to the meat. Meat cures better when the
small blood vessels are free from blood and food products. Kill
hogs with empty stomachs and improve the meat. Confine hogs
in small quarters, avoid over-exercising and heating before kill-
ing. Hogs killed under the most natural conditions make the
highest quality of meat. Any body bruises, such as those caused
by kicking or striking, will injure the meat and cause trouble in
curing.

TOOLS FOR HOG KILLING
An expensive "layout" of equipment is unnecessary, but a
set of good practical tools (Fig. 2) saves time, labor, and makes
meat cutting a pleasure.
















Fig. 2.-Tools for hog killing: Singletree (to be used as a gambrel); hook
(for pulling hog out of barrel by nose); steel, skinning knife, boning
knife, saw, bell scraper and thermometer.

KILLING
Sticking the hog without stunning or shooting causes the blood
to drain out more freely and aids curing. In commercial packing
plants, hogs are never stunned or shot.
Hold the hog squarely on its back (Fig. 1). One man stands
astride the hog holding each front foot; the man sticking the






Florida Cooperative Extension


TREATMENT OF HOG BEFORE KILLING
Withhold feed the last 12 to 24 hours before killing, but fur-
nish the hogs with plenty of fresh, clean water. It is easier to
get a good bleed when the hog's stomach is empty and easier to
remove and clean the intestines when they are not gorged. Then,
too, there is danger of puncturing the intestines of a gorged hog,
resulting in bad taste to the meat. Meat cures better when the
small blood vessels are free from blood and food products. Kill
hogs with empty stomachs and improve the meat. Confine hogs
in small quarters, avoid over-exercising and heating before kill-
ing. Hogs killed under the most natural conditions make the
highest quality of meat. Any body bruises, such as those caused
by kicking or striking, will injure the meat and cause trouble in
curing.

TOOLS FOR HOG KILLING
An expensive "layout" of equipment is unnecessary, but a
set of good practical tools (Fig. 2) saves time, labor, and makes
meat cutting a pleasure.
















Fig. 2.-Tools for hog killing: Singletree (to be used as a gambrel); hook
(for pulling hog out of barrel by nose); steel, skinning knife, boning
knife, saw, bell scraper and thermometer.

KILLING
Sticking the hog without stunning or shooting causes the blood
to drain out more freely and aids curing. In commercial packing
plants, hogs are never stunned or shot.
Hold the hog squarely on its back (Fig. 1). One man stands
astride the hog holding each front foot; the man sticking the







Butchering and Curing Pork


hog stands squarely in front, holds down the hog's lower jaw with
one hand and the knife with the other hand; cuts the skin about
2 inches in front of the breast bone. The knife, edge downward,
should pass straight in to the breast bone, then downward be-
tween the ribs to the neck bone, then toward the head. This will
cut the arteries and allow the heart to pump out the blood. Do
not stick the heart, let it remain whole to pump out the blood.
The animal should bleed freely before being moved or put into
the scalding barrel.

SCALDING
Slow scalding is
usually best. The
proper tempera-
ture of the water
for scalding is 145
degrees to 150 de-
grees F. On the
farms where it is
not practical to
re-heat the water,
temperature of
from 155 degrees
to 165 degrees F. F
is often used at
the beginning so
that the water
will not be too
cold before the
hog is completely
scalded. Care
must be exercised
to keep the hog in
motion to keep
from "setting the
hair". Scald the
rear end of the
hog first. When
the hog is com-
pletely scalded,
twist the hair
from the legs and
feet, pull off the Fig. 3.-Opening the hog.






Florida Cooperative Extension


hoofs while hot with a hook, scrape the hog from fore flank to
tail, clean head and forequarters before they get cool. Get the
hog clean as quickly as possible by using warm water and scrape
with knives and bell scrape, then wash with cold water and
hang the carcass.

OPENING CAR-
CASS-REMOV-
ING INTERNAL
ORGANS

Opening up and
dressing a hog is
simple and easy
if feed has been
withheld for from
12 to 24 hours, for
the intestines will
be empty and
easily handled.
Begin where the
hog was stuck,
cut up through
the full length of
the breast bone
r_ r(Fig. 3). In young
hogs the bone is
easily cut, in older
hogs it may be
necessary to use a
saw. Now cut
down between the
hams, keeping the
knife in center to
hit the white
membrane that
marks the middle
seam; then cut
the hams apart.
Remove the
"bung", then put
the hand with the
Fig. 4.-By opening the hog in this manner, there is point of the knife
no danger of cutting the intestines.







Butchering and Curing Pork


Fig. 5.-Removing the intestines. Hold carefully, and avoid tearing
or dropping.

out (Fig. 4), guarding the heel of the knife with the finger and
thumb and cut down to meet the cut made in breast bone; then
remove the intestines (Fig. 5).
Wash the carcass with clean, cool water, remove the head,


7 ~
N A
le


/-* <.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 6.-Removing leaf fat from the carcass, which has been split down
the center of the backbone.

then split the carcass down the center of backbone with a saw
(Fig. 6). Remove leaf lard (Fig. 6) and let the carcass cool.
A carcass split in two pieces and the leaf fat removed cools more
quickly than a whole hog.






Butchering and Curing Pork


CHILLING THE CARCASS
Chill the carcass as quickly as possible to prevent souring and
spoiling. On the farm,
butchering should be
done during the coolest
weather. Usually it is
safer to butcher in the
afternoon, cut off the
head and split the carcass
and let cool out all night.
(DO NOT SALT DOWN
HOT MEAT.) Or the hog
may be cut up and the in-
dividual pieces hung up p. -
to cool out over night,
then put in the cure.
Where cold storage is
available it is a simple
matter to cool out the car-
cass within 12 to 24 hours,
then put the meat in cure.
Remember the quicker a
carcass can be cooled
down after killing the
surer will be the cure and
the less the loss.
Consequently when
cold storage is available .
get the carcass in the
coolers as quickly as pos- .
sible, where the tempera- :
ture is from 34 degrees to
40 degrees. If ice box or
refrigerator is used,
spread out the meat into
these places quickly to
cool before packing down
to cure.
"If the weather be-
comes warm and no cold L
storage is available, the
sides maFig. 7.-Cuts of pork: a, ham; b, loin; c,
warm sides may be cut up bacon (or side); d, shoulder; e, head; f, feet.






Florida Cooperative Extension


and the individual pieces hung up to air and cool, or immersed
in a weak, ice-chilled salt brine containing about 8 pounds of salt
to each 7 gallons of water. Sometimes insufficiently cooled pieces
are salted with a dry-cure mixture and spread on a rack where
they will have as much ventilation as possible. None of these
methods are as safe or as satisfactory as storing the meat at the
proper temperature, either natural or artificial." (Farmers'
Bulletin 1186.)

CUTTING THE CARCASS
Clean, well-cut, nicely trimmed hams, bacon and shoulders can
be cooked and used to better advantage than pieces that have
been haggled and improperly handled.
There is no one best method of cutting up a hog. The best
method for each individual is that which suits his family and
community; still, certain fundamental principles of cutting and
curing should be observed.
The purpose of cutting is to produce the maximum amount of
meat to be cured and stored for future use, and prevent loss and
waste. Cut the thick lean ham, loin and shoulder from the thin
sides, fat and head (Fig. 7).
First, cut off head at first joint behind skull while the hog
is hanging up. Second, split the carcass down middle of
backbone before cooling and pull out the leaf fat (Fig. 6). Third,


Fig. 8.-Cutting off the shoulder.






Butchering and Curing Pork


cut off the shoulders between the third and fourth ribs, holding
saw at right angles to the body (Fig. 8). Fourth, cut out neck
bone from shoulder, leaving very little meat on the bones. Fifth,
cut off ham just behind the rise in the pelvic arch, holding the
saw at right angles to the shank (Fig. 9). Sixth, cut loin
from thin side or bacon (Fig. 10). Seventh, cut spareribs from
bacon, sawing across the ribs just below the curve in the back-


I A


Fig. 9.-Cutting off the ham, holding saw at right angles to shank.

bone at shoulder and across the ribs at edge of tenderloin mus-
cle at ham end. Eighth, remove back fat from loin by cutting
down both sides of loin, then raise fat and loosen down the cen-
ter. Ninth, remove spareribs, keep edge of knife against ribs
to leave most of meat on bacon (Fig. 11).
Neat, smooth, evenly trimmed meat cures without loss from
over-cure of three cornered and tag ends and bad cutting. The
ragged neck pieces and brisket are cut from the shoulder, the
tail and flank from the ham and the uneven and jagged edges
from sides. Leave a little fat on inside of ham for protection.
Excess fat should be removed from ends of hams and should-
ers.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CURING PORK
Packinghouses chill the pork, then cure at a temperature at
about 38 degrees F. ON THE FARM, MEAT SHOULD BE
CURED IN THE COOLEST SPOT TO BE FOUND.

PRESERVATIVES FOR CURING
Salt and sugar or syrup in combinations are the standard pre-
servatives. A small quantity of saltpeter is used to preserve the
color. Pepper is sometimes used to add flavor; it tends to repel
insects. Salt preserves and dries the meat and has a slightly
germicidal effect. Too much salt impairs the flavor and hardens
the muscles. A good grade of table or dairy salt is desirable.
Sugar or syrup or a mixture of sugar and syrup improves the
flavor and texture
of the meat and
prevents drying
out. Brown or
cane sugar or
syrup may be
used. Each gives
.- its own charac-
teristic flavor.
Salt and sugar or
syrup are used in
,4- combinations to
produce good fla-
vored meat. Salt-
peter is used in
small quantities
to preserve the
color of the meat,
fixing the bright
red color. Never
use more salt-
peter than is rec-
ommended.
Fig. 10.-Cutting loin from bacon and ribs.

METHODS OF CURING
Many people prefer sugar cure to the plain salt cure. Sugar
cure can be had either by the "dry cure" or "brine" method.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CURING PORK
Packinghouses chill the pork, then cure at a temperature at
about 38 degrees F. ON THE FARM, MEAT SHOULD BE
CURED IN THE COOLEST SPOT TO BE FOUND.

PRESERVATIVES FOR CURING
Salt and sugar or syrup in combinations are the standard pre-
servatives. A small quantity of saltpeter is used to preserve the
color. Pepper is sometimes used to add flavor; it tends to repel
insects. Salt preserves and dries the meat and has a slightly
germicidal effect. Too much salt impairs the flavor and hardens
the muscles. A good grade of table or dairy salt is desirable.
Sugar or syrup or a mixture of sugar and syrup improves the
flavor and texture
of the meat and
prevents drying
out. Brown or
cane sugar or
syrup may be
used. Each gives
.- its own charac-
teristic flavor.
Salt and sugar or
syrup are used in
,4- combinations to
produce good fla-
vored meat. Salt-
peter is used in
small quantities
to preserve the
color of the meat,
fixing the bright
red color. Never
use more salt-
peter than is rec-
ommended.
Fig. 10.-Cutting loin from bacon and ribs.

METHODS OF CURING
Many people prefer sugar cure to the plain salt cure. Sugar
cure can be had either by the "dry cure" or "brine" method.







Butchering and Curing Pork


BRINE METHOD
In the brine or sweet-pickle cure, for each 100 pounds of
trimmed and weighed meat, use:
Salt 12 lbs. or 21 cups
Sugar 3 lbs. or 6 cups or 3 pints syrup
Saltpeter 2 ounces or 4 tablespoons
Water 6 gallons
Dissolve the salt, sugar or syrup and saltpeter, then boil the mix-
ture to sterilize. Let the brine thoroughly cool. Under ideal con-
ditions both meat and the brine will be cooled to a tempera-
ture of 38 degrees F.


Fig. 11.-Removing spareribs from bacon.

Pack the chilled hams and shoulders snugly, skin down, in a
clean barrel, tub or crock, fitting them closely together; then
put the bacon, skin down, on top of the hams. Pour in the cold
brine until the meat begins to shift or float, showing that the
brine has come in contact with all parts of the meat. Then add a
clean weight to keep the meat below the surface (do not use lime-
stone rock for weight). The loins and spareribs may be put in
this cure and used as they are needed.
The hams and shoulders should be overhauled and re-packed in
the same brine after they have been in cure 5 or 10 days, then






Florida Cooperative Extension


again on the 15th and 30th days. This overhauling re-mixes the
brine and insures all parts coming into full contact with the
brine.

CURING TIME
Hams and shoulders cure in about four days per pound. A
15-pound ham cures in 60 days. Bacon (sides) cures about 2
days per pound; a 10-pound side cures in 20 days.
Watch the brine, if a heavy, thick scum forms on top or the
brine becomes ropy, remove the meat and scrub it thoroughly
with warm water and a brush; replace in a clean barrel and cover
with new brine. Maintain the original curing schedule. At the
end of the curing period scrub the meat with warm water, dry
and smoke.

THE DRY SUGAR CURE
Here again salt is the basis, but if the sugar flavor and red
color are desired and the pepper flavor is wanted, then for each
100 pounds of trimmed and weighed meat, use:
Salt 8 pounds or 14 cups
Sugar 2 pounds or 4 cups (or 2 pints syrup)
Saltpeter 2 ounces or 4 tablespoons
Black pepper 2 ounces or 8%/ tablespoons (if desired)
Red pepper 2 ounces or 13 tablespoons (if desired)
These ingredients are mixed thoroughly and rubbed on the
chilled meat. Make sure that each piece of meat is thoroughly
rubbed on both sides and covered with this mixture. Sprinkle
a little of the mixture in the barrel, cover the flesh side of the
hams and shoulders with this salt, lay these pieces carefully in
the bottom of barrel or box that the salt may stick. On the
fifth day overhaul the meat; rub the mixture again on the meat;
do not add more salt. Use the same mixture; place the top layer
of the hams and shoulders on the bottom this time.
This method should be used only when there is an ample supply
of ice or when cold storage is available or during unusually cold
weather.
CURING TIME
Under ideal conditions, two days per pound is the standard cur-
ing time for the dry method. However, it is better, under farm
conditions, to let the meat remain in cure 3 days per pound. A
10-pound ham cures in 30 days. The sides or bacon will cure in






Butchering and Curing Pork


from 10 days to two weeks. At the end of the curing period,
scrub off the salt with warm water, let the meat dry and smoke
it.
SMOKING MEAT
Smoking aids in the preservation and adds a desirable flavor
when the proper kind of fuel is used.
If the meat is to be used immediately, no further care is neces-
sary, except protection from insects and mice. A well constructed
screened cage will meet this requirement.
Properly cured and well smoked meat will keep and can be
satisfactorily stored in a well ventilated, dry, dark, cool place,
protected from rats and insects. Hams and shoulders can be
wrapped in paper thick enough to keep the grease from coming
through, then put in muslin bags, securely tied and hung up.
"Under the provision of the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the
use of liquid smoke, smoked salt and like preparations intended
to be applied to meat instead of smoking them is prohibited."
(Farmers' Bulletin No. 1186.)
To further protect the meat from insects, the sacks may be
painted with a yellow wash. The formula for the yellow wash
recommended by the U. S. Department of Agriculture is as fol-
lows: For 100 pounds of meat:
Barium sulphate 3 pounds
Yellow ocher 1 ounces
Glue (dry) 1 ounce
Flour 6 ounces
(Farmers' Bulletin No. 1186.)

Fill a pail half full of water and mix in the flour, breaking up all
lumps thoroughly. Mix the ocher in a quart of water in a sep-
arate vessel, add the glue, and pour them into the flour-and-water
mixture. Bring this mixture to a boil and add the barium sul-
phate slowly, stirring constantly. Make the wash the day before
it is required. Stir it frequently while using it and apply it with
a brush. Lime, clay, flour, or a similar substance mixed with
water to a rather thick consistency may also be used to paint the
bags.

TO PREVENT MEAT FROM SOURING
1. Avoid overheating of animals before killing.
2. Thorough, complete bleeding is necessary.
3. Low temperatures are necessary.






Butchering and Curing Pork


from 10 days to two weeks. At the end of the curing period,
scrub off the salt with warm water, let the meat dry and smoke
it.
SMOKING MEAT
Smoking aids in the preservation and adds a desirable flavor
when the proper kind of fuel is used.
If the meat is to be used immediately, no further care is neces-
sary, except protection from insects and mice. A well constructed
screened cage will meet this requirement.
Properly cured and well smoked meat will keep and can be
satisfactorily stored in a well ventilated, dry, dark, cool place,
protected from rats and insects. Hams and shoulders can be
wrapped in paper thick enough to keep the grease from coming
through, then put in muslin bags, securely tied and hung up.
"Under the provision of the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the
use of liquid smoke, smoked salt and like preparations intended
to be applied to meat instead of smoking them is prohibited."
(Farmers' Bulletin No. 1186.)
To further protect the meat from insects, the sacks may be
painted with a yellow wash. The formula for the yellow wash
recommended by the U. S. Department of Agriculture is as fol-
lows: For 100 pounds of meat:
Barium sulphate 3 pounds
Yellow ocher 1 ounces
Glue (dry) 1 ounce
Flour 6 ounces
(Farmers' Bulletin No. 1186.)

Fill a pail half full of water and mix in the flour, breaking up all
lumps thoroughly. Mix the ocher in a quart of water in a sep-
arate vessel, add the glue, and pour them into the flour-and-water
mixture. Bring this mixture to a boil and add the barium sul-
phate slowly, stirring constantly. Make the wash the day before
it is required. Stir it frequently while using it and apply it with
a brush. Lime, clay, flour, or a similar substance mixed with
water to a rather thick consistency may also be used to paint the
bags.

TO PREVENT MEAT FROM SOURING
1. Avoid overheating of animals before killing.
2. Thorough, complete bleeding is necessary.
3. Low temperatures are necessary.






16 Florida Cooperative Extension

4. Chill carcass before packing in cure.
5. Use pure salt, clean sugar or syrup and saltpeter.
6. Boil brine before using.
7. Scald barrel or other receptacles.
8. Practice cleanliness in handling meat.

The information contained herein supplements that contained in the sec-
tions on cutting and curing in Bulletin 236 of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station. That bulletin is on swine production in Florida, and
contains valuable suggestions on producing and curing pork, and preventing
diseases and parasites.




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