• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Title Page
 Credits
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Selecting hog
 Treatment of hog before killin...
 Tools for hog killing
 Killing
 Scalding
 Opening carcass--removing internal...
 Chilling the carcass
 Cutting the carcass
 Curing pork
 Methods of curing
 Smoking meat
 To prevent meat from souring














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 81
Title: Butchering and curing pork on the farm
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026108/00001
 Material Information
Title: Butchering and curing pork on the farm
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 18 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sheely, W. J
Publisher: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1935>
 Subjects
Subject: Pork -- Preservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Walter J. Sheely.
General Note: "December, 1935."
General Note: "A revision of bulletin 71".
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026108
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570787
oclc - 44792079
notis - AMT7101

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Selecting hog
        Page 4
    Treatment of hog before killing
        Page 4
    Tools for hog killing
        Page 4
    Killing
        Page 5
    Scalding
        Page 5
    Opening carcass--removing internal organs
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Chilling the carcass
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Cutting the carcass
        Page 11
    Curing pork
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Methods of curing
        Page 16
    Smoking meat
        Page 17
    To prevent meat from souring
        Page 18
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Bulletin 81 (A Revision of Bulletin 711 tanbeo, '-93S

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMIC- B R A R Y
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914) RECEIVED
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF IqIlDA] IY36
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director


U. 8S Department of Agricultura


BUTCHERING AND CURING PORK

ON THE FARM

By WALTER J. SHEELY


Fig. 1.-Sticking the hog. Note that one man is holding the hog and the
other is holding the knife in position.

Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon application to the
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE,
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
-' *







BOARD OF CONTROL


GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville
A. H. BLENDING, Bartow
A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach
OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola
HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Assistant

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
AUBREY DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist2
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist2
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
A. E. MERCKER, M.S., Cooperative Marketing Specialist1

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent

1In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
2Part-time.










BUTCHERING AND CURING PORK

ON THE FARM

By WALTER J. SHEELY

CONTENTS
Page Page
Selecting hog .................... ................................. 4 Curing pork....................................----- 12
Treatment before killing................................ 4 Cold storage----. ........................................... 12
Tools for hog killing.......................... .. 4 Preservatives ........... ........... --.. 15
Killing .... ............... ....... ........ ................. 5 Methods of curing............ ..................... 16
Scalding..................... .... .......... ........ 5 Brine.......................................... ............ ...... 16
Opening carcass................... .......... ..... 6 Dry sugar cure............................. .... ... 17
Chilling the carcass...... .. .................. 9 Smoking meat.................................................... 17
Cutting the carcass................ ..................... 11 To prevent meat from souring................. 18

It is proper that the farmer, of all men, should have a bountiful
supply of the best there is in meats, both fresh and cured. The
curing of meats for future use has been in vogue for centuries.
Each generation brings forth new forms and varieties of cured
meats but the principle underlying the process of curing remains
practically unchanged.
Meat is a valuable perishable product that when properly
handled becomes a fine flavored, palatable farm asset that tends
toward a more abundant living. Not only can fresh meat be
enjoyed during the winter and at "hog killing" time, but it can
be cured and smoked to be used during the entire year. The
primary object of curing meat is to improve the flavor and pal-
atability of the most valuable farm product and to prepare for
the future home supply and thus reduce the cost of living.
There is no myth nor mystery about curing pork (meat) on
the farm. Anyone who can follow a few fundamental principles
can supply himself with and enjoy both fresh meat at "hog
killing" time and delicious high class cured meats (hams, shoul-
ders, and bacon) throughout the year. Meat of good quality,
cold weather (cold storage or ice box), vessels for holding the
meat and a few preservatives (salt, sugar, or syrup) are all
that is needed.
The economy of curing pork on the farm for best results de-
pends mainly upon the care with which the hogs and meat are
handled. It is practical for anyone to follow methods of killing
and curing meat to make most attractive and palatable ham,
bacon, and sausage.
Pictures in this bulletin are used through the courtesy of the Bureau of
Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture.










BUTCHERING AND CURING PORK

ON THE FARM

By WALTER J. SHEELY

CONTENTS
Page Page
Selecting hog .................... ................................. 4 Curing pork....................................----- 12
Treatment before killing................................ 4 Cold storage----. ........................................... 12
Tools for hog killing.......................... .. 4 Preservatives ........... ........... --.. 15
Killing .... ............... ....... ........ ................. 5 Methods of curing............ ..................... 16
Scalding..................... .... .......... ........ 5 Brine.......................................... ............ ...... 16
Opening carcass................... .......... ..... 6 Dry sugar cure............................. .... ... 17
Chilling the carcass...... .. .................. 9 Smoking meat.................................................... 17
Cutting the carcass................ ..................... 11 To prevent meat from souring................. 18

It is proper that the farmer, of all men, should have a bountiful
supply of the best there is in meats, both fresh and cured. The
curing of meats for future use has been in vogue for centuries.
Each generation brings forth new forms and varieties of cured
meats but the principle underlying the process of curing remains
practically unchanged.
Meat is a valuable perishable product that when properly
handled becomes a fine flavored, palatable farm asset that tends
toward a more abundant living. Not only can fresh meat be
enjoyed during the winter and at "hog killing" time, but it can
be cured and smoked to be used during the entire year. The
primary object of curing meat is to improve the flavor and pal-
atability of the most valuable farm product and to prepare for
the future home supply and thus reduce the cost of living.
There is no myth nor mystery about curing pork (meat) on
the farm. Anyone who can follow a few fundamental principles
can supply himself with and enjoy both fresh meat at "hog
killing" time and delicious high class cured meats (hams, shoul-
ders, and bacon) throughout the year. Meat of good quality,
cold weather (cold storage or ice box), vessels for holding the
meat and a few preservatives (salt, sugar, or syrup) are all
that is needed.
The economy of curing pork on the farm for best results de-
pends mainly upon the care with which the hogs and meat are
handled. It is practical for anyone to follow methods of killing
and curing meat to make most attractive and palatable ham,
bacon, and sausage.
Pictures in this bulletin are used through the courtesy of the Bureau of
Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture.








Florida Cooperative Extension


SELECTING HOG
Healthy, well-bred, well-finished, intermediate type young hogs
weighing from 165 to 225 pounds are most desirable for home
use. This size and type of hog will cut out the maximum amount
of desirable high quality hams, shoulders, loins and sides with
the minimum of waste.

TREATMENT OF HOG BEFORE KILLING
Withhold feed the last 12 to 24 hours before killing, but fur-
nish the hogs with plenty of fresh, clean water. It is easier to
get a good bleed when the hog's stomach is empty and easier to
remove and clean the intestines when they are not gorged. Then,
too, there is danger of puncturing the intestines of a gorged
hog, resulting in bad taste to the meat. Meat cures better when
the small blood vessels are free from blood and food products.
Kill hogs with empty stomachs and improve the meat. Confine
hogs in small quarters, avoid over-exercising and heating before
killing. Hogs killed under the most natural conditions make
the highest quality of meat. Any body bruises, such as those
caused by kicking or striking, will injure the meat and cause
trouble in curing.

TOOLS FOR HOG KILLING
An expensive "layout" of equipment is unnecessary, but a
set of good practical tools (Fig. 2) saves time, labor, and makes
meat cutting a pleasure.















Fig. 2.-Tools for hog killing: Singletree (to be used as a gambrel);
hook (for pulling hog out of barrel by nose); steel, skinning knife, boning
knife, saw, bell scraper and thermometer.








Florida Cooperative Extension


SELECTING HOG
Healthy, well-bred, well-finished, intermediate type young hogs
weighing from 165 to 225 pounds are most desirable for home
use. This size and type of hog will cut out the maximum amount
of desirable high quality hams, shoulders, loins and sides with
the minimum of waste.

TREATMENT OF HOG BEFORE KILLING
Withhold feed the last 12 to 24 hours before killing, but fur-
nish the hogs with plenty of fresh, clean water. It is easier to
get a good bleed when the hog's stomach is empty and easier to
remove and clean the intestines when they are not gorged. Then,
too, there is danger of puncturing the intestines of a gorged
hog, resulting in bad taste to the meat. Meat cures better when
the small blood vessels are free from blood and food products.
Kill hogs with empty stomachs and improve the meat. Confine
hogs in small quarters, avoid over-exercising and heating before
killing. Hogs killed under the most natural conditions make
the highest quality of meat. Any body bruises, such as those
caused by kicking or striking, will injure the meat and cause
trouble in curing.

TOOLS FOR HOG KILLING
An expensive "layout" of equipment is unnecessary, but a
set of good practical tools (Fig. 2) saves time, labor, and makes
meat cutting a pleasure.















Fig. 2.-Tools for hog killing: Singletree (to be used as a gambrel);
hook (for pulling hog out of barrel by nose); steel, skinning knife, boning
knife, saw, bell scraper and thermometer.








Florida Cooperative Extension


SELECTING HOG
Healthy, well-bred, well-finished, intermediate type young hogs
weighing from 165 to 225 pounds are most desirable for home
use. This size and type of hog will cut out the maximum amount
of desirable high quality hams, shoulders, loins and sides with
the minimum of waste.

TREATMENT OF HOG BEFORE KILLING
Withhold feed the last 12 to 24 hours before killing, but fur-
nish the hogs with plenty of fresh, clean water. It is easier to
get a good bleed when the hog's stomach is empty and easier to
remove and clean the intestines when they are not gorged. Then,
too, there is danger of puncturing the intestines of a gorged
hog, resulting in bad taste to the meat. Meat cures better when
the small blood vessels are free from blood and food products.
Kill hogs with empty stomachs and improve the meat. Confine
hogs in small quarters, avoid over-exercising and heating before
killing. Hogs killed under the most natural conditions make
the highest quality of meat. Any body bruises, such as those
caused by kicking or striking, will injure the meat and cause
trouble in curing.

TOOLS FOR HOG KILLING
An expensive "layout" of equipment is unnecessary, but a
set of good practical tools (Fig. 2) saves time, labor, and makes
meat cutting a pleasure.















Fig. 2.-Tools for hog killing: Singletree (to be used as a gambrel);
hook (for pulling hog out of barrel by nose); steel, skinning knife, boning
knife, saw, bell scraper and thermometer.







Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


KILLING
Sticking the hog without stunning or shooting causes the
blood to drain out more freely and aids curing. In commercial
packing plants, hogs are never stunned or shot.
Hold the hog squarely on its back (Fig. 1). One man stands
astride the hog holding each front foot; the man sticking the
hog stands squarely in front, holds down the hog's lower jaw
with one hand and the knife with the other hand; cuts the skin
about 2 inches in
front of the
breast bone, the
knife, edge down-
ward, should pass
straight in to the
breast bone, then
downward be-
tween the ribs to
the neck bone,
then toward the
head. This will
cut the arteries
and allow the
blood to flow out.
Do not stick the
heart, let it re-
main whole to
pump out the
blood. The ani-
mal should bleed
freely before be-
ing moved or put
into the scalding
barrel.

SCALDING
Slow scalding is
usually best. The
proper tempera-
ture of the water
for scalding is 145
degrees to 150 de-
grees F. On the Fig. 3.-Opening the hog.







Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


KILLING
Sticking the hog without stunning or shooting causes the
blood to drain out more freely and aids curing. In commercial
packing plants, hogs are never stunned or shot.
Hold the hog squarely on its back (Fig. 1). One man stands
astride the hog holding each front foot; the man sticking the
hog stands squarely in front, holds down the hog's lower jaw
with one hand and the knife with the other hand; cuts the skin
about 2 inches in
front of the
breast bone, the
knife, edge down-
ward, should pass
straight in to the
breast bone, then
downward be-
tween the ribs to
the neck bone,
then toward the
head. This will
cut the arteries
and allow the
blood to flow out.
Do not stick the
heart, let it re-
main whole to
pump out the
blood. The ani-
mal should bleed
freely before be-
ing moved or put
into the scalding
barrel.

SCALDING
Slow scalding is
usually best. The
proper tempera-
ture of the water
for scalding is 145
degrees to 150 de-
grees F. On the Fig. 3.-Opening the hog.







Florida Cooperative Extension


farms where it is not practical to re-heat the water, temperature
of from 155 degrees to 165 degrees F. is often used at the begin-
ning so that the water will not be too cold before the hog is com-
pletely scalded. Care must be exercised to keep the hog in motion
to keep from"set-
ting t he hair".
Scald the rear end
of the hog first.
When the hog is
completely scald-
ed, twist the hair
from the legs and
feet, pull off the
hoofs while hot
with a hook,
scrape the hog
from fore flank
to tail, clean head
and forequarters
before they get
cool. Get the hog
clean as quickly
as possible by
using warm water
and scrape with
knives and bell
scrape, then wash
with cold water
and hang the
carcass.
OPENING
CARCASS-
REMOVING
INTERNAL
ORGANS
Opening up and
dressing a hog is
simple and easy
if feed has been
withheld for from
12 to 24 hours,
Fig. 4.-By opening the hog in this manner, there 12 to 24 hours,
is no danger of cutting the intestines. for the intestines





Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


I


Fig. 5.-Removing the intestines. Hold carefully, and avoid tearing
or dropping.
will be empty and easily handled. Begin where the hog was stuck,
cut up through the full length of the breast bone (Fig. 3). In
young hogs the bone is easily cut, in older hogs it may be neces-
sary to use a saw. Now cut down between the hams, keeping the
knife in center to hit the white membrane that marks the middle






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 6.-Removing leaf fat from the carcass, which has been split
down the center of the backbone.
seam; then cut the hams apart. Remove the "bung", then put the
hand with the point of the knife out (Fig. 4), guarding the heel
of the knife with the finger and thumb and cut down to meet the
cut made in breast bone; then remove the intestines (Fig. 5).





Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


Wash the carcass with
then split the carcass
down the center of back-
bone with a saw (Fig. 6).
Remove leaf lard (Fig.
6) and let the carcass
cool. A carcass split in
two pieces and the leaf
fat removed cools more
quickly than a whole hog.

CHILLING THE
CARCASS
Chill the carcass as
quickly as possible to
prevent souring and
spoiling. On the farm,
butchering should be
done during the coolest
weather. Usually it is
safer to butcher in the
afternoon, cut off the
head and split the car-
cass and let cool out all
night. (DO NOT SALT
DOWN HOT MEAT.)
Or the hog may be cut
up and the individual
pieces hung up to cool
out over night, then put
in the cure. Where cold
storage is available it is
a simple matter to cool
out the carcass within
12 to 24 hours, then put
the meat in cure. Re-
member the quicker a
carcass can be cooled
down after killing the
surer will be the cure
and the less the loss.


clean, cool water, remove the head,


**w Y


Fig. 7.-Cuts of pork: a, ham; b, loin; c,
bacon (or side); d, shoulder; e,head; f,feet.





Florida Cooperative Extension


Consequently when cold storage is available get the carcass in
the coolers as quickly as possible, where the temperature is from

r


Fig. 8.-Cutting off the shoulder.


tr ..' Fig. 9.-Cutting off the ham, holding saw at right angles to shank.'





Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


34 degrees to 40 degrees. If ice box or refrigerator is used,
spread out the meat into these places quickly to cool before
packing down to cure.
"If the weather becomes warm and no cold storage is available,
the warm sides may be cut up and the individual pieces hung up
to air and cool, or immersed in a weak, ice-chilled salt brine
containing about 8 pounds of salt to each 7 gallons of water.
Sometimes insufficiently cooled pieces are salted with a dry-cure
mixture and spread on a rack where they will have as much
ventilation as possible. None of these methods are as safe or
as satisfactory as storing the meat at the proper temperature,
either natural or artificial." (Farmers' Bulletin 1186.)

CUTTING THE CARCASS
Clean, well-cut, nicely trimmed hams, bacon and shoulders can
be cooked and used to better advantage than pieces that have
been haggled and improperly handled.
There is no one best method of cutting up a hog. The best
method for each individual is that which suits his family and
community; still, certain fundamental principles of cutting and
curing should be observed.
The purpose of cutting is to produce the maximum amount of
meat to be cured and stored for future use, and prevent loss and
waste. Cut the thick lean ham, loin and shoulder from the thin
sides, fat and head (Fig. 7).
First, cut off head at first joint behind skull while the hog is
hanging up. Second, split the carcass down middle of backbone
before cooling and pull out the leaf fat (Fig. 6). Third, cut
off the shoulders between the third and fourth ribs, holding
saw at right angles to the body (Fig. 8). Fourth, cut out neck
bone from shoulder, leaving very little meat on the bones.
Fifth, cut off ham just behind the rise in the pelvic arch, holding
the saw at right angles to the shank (Fig. 9). Sixth, cut loin
from thin side or bacon (Fig. 10). Seventh, cut spareribs from
bacon, sawing across the ribs just below the curve in the back-
bone at shoulder and across the ribs at edge of tenderloin muscle
at ham end. Eighth, remove back fat from loin by cutting down
both sides of loin, then raise fat and loosen down the center.
Ninth, remove spareribs, keep edge of knife against ribs to leave
most of meat on bacon (Fig. 11).





Florida Cooperative Extension


Neat, smooth,
evenly trimmed
meat cures with-
a out loss from
over-cure of
three cornered
and tag ends and
bad cutting.
The ragged neck
.pieces and brisket
S are cut from the
shoulder, the tail
and flank from
the ham and the
uneven and jag-
ged edges from
sides. Leave a
little fat on inside
of ham for pro-
tection. Excess
,fat should be re-
moved from ends
of hams and
Fig. 10.-Cutting loin from bacon and ribs. shoulders.

CURING PORK
Packinghouses chill the pork, then cure at a temperature of
about 38 degrees F. ON THE FARM, MEAT SHOULD BE
CURED IN THE COOLEST SPOT TO BE FOUND. Cold stor-
age facilities make it possible to cure the meat with less loss,
and many Florida farmers have their pork cured by firms spe-
cializing in cold storage curing. Others use simple home ice boxes.
COLD STORAGE
With cold storage facilities, meat can be cured at any season
in the year. The carcasses should be chilled below 400 F. within
12 to 24 hours after slaughter. To chill properly, the carcasses
should be split, and after the leaf fat is pulled the halves should
be hung in coolers that drop below 400 F. within 10 to 12 hours.
Carcasses chill more rapidly in open air than at the same tem-
peratures in small coolers. Carcasses to be cured should not
be frozen.
Much meat is cured on the farm at temperatures of 40" and





Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


T


Fig. 11.-Removing spareribs from bacon.
even up to 500 F. It is also true that much meat is lost when
curing is attempted at these high levels. It is safer to cure at
around 36 to 380 F., as the packers do. Uniform temperatures
normally result in uniform saltiness and flavor development.
ICE BOX
A diagram of an ice box which has been used successfully in
curing meat is shown in Figure 12. It can be adapted to hold
fish or milk and may also be used on a community basis by
making the ice box longer (9-12').
Tests have shown that an inside temperature of 360 F. can be
secured and maintained when the outside temperature is between
70 and 800 F.
Note that the entrance to the box is a hinged lid. This type
is less convenient than side doors, but was selected because:
(1) It is lower in cost; (2) inexperienced workmen can build it;
(3) most of the materials are readily available; (4) ice con-
sumption is less; (5) desirable temperatures below 400 F. cannot
be obtained in overhead boxes with the use of ice alone.
The capacity of this box is from 1,800 to 2,000 pounds of meat
and 1,600 pounds of ice. It can be adapted to community use
if the length is increased.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 12.-Diagram showing an ice box that is satisfactory for curing
meat on the farm. It has a capacity of from 1,800 to 2,000 pounds of meat
and 1,600 pounds of ice. Length and height of box can be made to suit
capacity needed. Width of crate must not be increased.
BILL OF MATERIALS


Concrete: 1% Cu. Yds. 1:2:4 Mix
8 bags cement
% cu. yds. sand
14 cu. yds. gravel
Lumber
50-2"x4"x12'-0" cribbing
(cut 50 pcs. 6'-4" and 50 pcs. 5'-4")
2-2"x8"x14'-0" plates
2-2"x8"x16'-0" plates
1-2"x12"x14'-0" top rail
1-2"x12"x16'-0" top rail
1-2"x6"x16'-0" hinge plates
5-2"x4"x16'-0" corner post & top
1-2"x4"x14'-0" top
1-1%"x6"x 8'-0" sides of top
1-1%"x6"x14'-0" sides of top
300' BM T&G flooring sides & top
3-2"x2"x 6'-0" slat floor
7-1"x3"x10'-0" slat floor
1-1"xl"x 8'-0" slat floor
1-2"x4"x10'-0" removable crate


6-1"x4"x12'-0" removable crate
5-1"x3"x12'-0" removable crate
Miscellaneous
2 rolls tarred paper (216 sq. ft.)
90 bu. sawdust
7 sheets 26 gauge galv. metal
(3'x6')
2 sheets 26 gauge galv. metal
(2'x6')
10 lbs. asphalt
10 cork brick 4" thick 12"x36"
1 sheet 20 gauge metal (3'x6')
3 pair 10" galv. strap hinges
1 gal. paint for crib work
1%" drain pipe with trap to suit
local conditions
Nails
2 lbs. 20d common
10 lbs. 16d common
2 Ibs. 8d common
3 lbs. 8d finish


PLAN


..J t. .. -- --




SECTION A-A







Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


CONSTRUCTION
In building, the following points should be observed:
1. Mix concrete in the proportions of 1 part Portland cement,
2 parts sand, and 4 parts gravel, all measured by volume. (When
built on an existing concrete floor the lower 4-inch slab is not
needed.)
2. The cork should be bedded in a layer of hot asphalt floated
on the concrete floor and sealed on top and outside edges with
this material. Fit each cork board tightly against the sides
of the box and adjacent cork boards. Do not put hot asphalt
between the joints of the cork board.
3. Anchor the lower 2x4's and 2x8's to the concrete with bolts.
4. Stagger the corner joints of the crib work and paint the
top and ends of each 2x4 before spiking the next one in place
to secure tight joints and to protect the lumber from dampness.
5. Dry the sawdust thoroughly in the sun or an oven before
using to obtain its full insulating value, as most sawdust is
damp. Use waterproof (tar) paper on both sides of the insulated
spaces as shown on attached drawing.
6. Make top of box as flat as possible so the lid will fit closely.
Probably a lighter weight top could replace the more efficient
insulated one shown on the drawing.
7. Solder the galvanized metal bottom at joints and to the
drain and also to the lower part of the sides. The upper portion
of the sides could be lapped and nailed to the crib work; however,
soldering gives greater protection to the insulation. If possible,
float hot asphalt over concrete floor just prior to laying the metal
bottom, thus securing an unyielding base for the metal.
8. The meat rack has been made one inch shorter than the
inside length of the box to permit easy removal in case other
products are to be stored.
9. Locate the drain to permit cleaning, to provide a water
seal, and to prevent accumulation of drippings around the box.
PRESERVATIVES FOR CURING
Salt and sugar or syrup in combinations are the standard
preservatives. Pepper is sometimes used to add flavor; it tends
to repel insects. Salt preserves and dries the meat and has a
slightly germicidal effect. Too much salt impairs the flavor and
hardens the muscles. A good grade of table or dairy salt is
desirable.
Sugar or syrup or a mixture of sugar and syrup improves the
flavor and texture of the meat and prevents drying. Brown or







Florida Cooperative Extension


cane sugar or syrup may be used. Each gives its own character-
istic flavor. Salt and sugar or syrup are used in combinations
to produce good flavored meat. Saltpeter is used in small
quantities to preserve the color of the meat, fixing the bright
red color. Never use more saltpeter than is recommended.

METHODS OF CURING
Many people prefer sugar cure to the plain salt cure. Sugar
cure can be had either by the "dry cure" or "brine" method.

BRINE METHOD
In the brine or sweet-pickle cure, for each 100 pounds of
trimmed and weighed meat, use:
Salt 12 lbs. or 21 cups
Sugar 3 lbs. or 6 cups or 3 pints syrup
Saltpeter 2 ounces or 4 tablespoons
Water 6 gallons
Dissolve the salt, sugar or syrup and saltpeter, then boil the
mixture to sterilize. Let the brine thoroughly cool. Under ideal
conditions both meat and the brine will be cooled to a tempera-
ture of 38 degrees F.
Pack the chilled hams and shoulders snugly, skin down, in a
clean barrel, tub or crock, fitting them closely together; then
put the bacon, skin down, on top of the hams. Pour in the cold
brine until the meat begins to shift or float, showing that the
brine has come in contact with all parts of the meat. Then add
a clean weight to keep the meat below the surface (do not use
limestone rock for weight). The loins and spareribs may be put
in this cure and used as they are needed.
The hams and shoulders should be overhauled and re-packed
in the same brine after they have been in cure 5 or 10 days, then
again on the 15th and 30th days. This overhauling re-mixes
the brine and insures all parts coming into full contact with
the brine.
CURING TIME
Hams and shoulders cure in about four days per pound. A
15-pound ham cures in 60 days. Bacon (sides) cures about two
days per pound; a 10-pound side cures in 20 days.
Watch the brine; if a heavy, thick scum forms on top or the
brine becomes ropy, remove the meat and scrub it thoroughly
with warm water and a brush; replace in a clean barrel and
cover with new brine. Maintain the original curing schedule.







Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm


At the end of the curing period scrub the meat with warm water,
dry and smoke.
THE DRY SUGAR CURE
Here again salt is the basis, but if the sugar flavor and red
color are desired and the pepper flavor is wanted, then for each
100 pounds of trimmed and weighed meat, use:
Salt 8 pounds or 14 cups
Sugar 2 pounds or 4 cups (or 2 pints syrup)
Saltpeter 2 ounces or 4 tablespoons
Black pepper 2 ounces or 8% tablespoons (if desired)
Red pepper 2 ounces or 13 tablespoons (if desired)
These ingredients are mixed thoroughly and rubbed on the
chilled meat. Make sure that each piece of meat is thoroughly
rubbed on both sides and covered with this mixture. Sprinkle
a little of the mixture in the barrel, cover the flesh side of the
hams and shoulders with this salt, lay these pieces carefully in
the bottom of barrel or box that the salt may stick. On the
fifth day overhaul the meat; rub the mixture again on the meat;
do not add more salt. Use the same mixture; place the top layer
of the hams and shoulders on the bottom this time.
This method should be used only when there is an ample
supply of ice or when cold storage is available or during unusually
cold weather.
CURING TIME
Under ideal conditions, two days per pound is the standard
curing time for the dry method. However, it is better, under
farm conditions, to let the meat remain in cure 3 days per pound.
A 10-pound ham cures in 30 days. Sides or bacon will cure in
from 10 days to two weeks. At the end of the curing period, scrub
off the salt with warm water, let the meat dry and smoke it.

SMOKING MEAT
Smoking aids in the preservation and adds a desirable flavor
when the proper kind of fuel is used.
If the meat is to be used immediately, no further care is
necessary, except protection from insects and mice. A well
constructed screened cage will meet this requirement.
Properly cured and well smoked meat will keep and can be
satisfactorily stored in a well ventilated, dry, dark, cool place,
protected from rats and insects. Hams and shoulders can be
wrapped in paper thick enough to keep the grease from coming
through, then put in muslin bags, securely tied and hung up.







Florida Cooperative Extension


"Under the provision of the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the
use of liquid smoke, smoked salt and like preparations intended
to be applied to meat instead of smoking them is prohibited."
(Farmers' Bulletin No. 1186.)
To further protect the meat from insects, the sacks may be
painted with a yellow wash. The formula for the yellow wash
recommended by the U. S. Department of Agriculture is as fol-
lows: For 100 pounds of meat:
Barium sulphate 3 pounds
Yellow ocher 1% ounces
Glue (dry) 1 ounce
Flour 6 ounces
(Farmers' Bulletin No. 1186.)
Fill a pail half full of water and mix in the flour, breaking up
all lumps thoroughly. Mix the ocher in a quart of water in a
separate vessel, add the glue, and pour them into the flour-and-
water mixture. Bring this mixture to a boil and add the barium
sulphate slowly, stirring constantly. Make the wash the day
before it is required. Stir it frequently while using it and apply
it with a brush. Lime, clay, flour, or a similar substance mixed
with water to a rather thick consistency also may be used to
paint the bags.

TO PREVENT MEAT FROM SOURING
1. Avoid overheating of animals before killing.
2. Thorough, complete bleeding is necessary.
3. Low temperatures are essential.
4. Chill carcass before packing in cure.
5. Use pure salt, clean sugar or syrup and saltpeter.
6. Boil brine before using.
7. Scald barrel or other receptacles.
8. Practice cleanliness in handling meat.
The information contained herein supplements that contained in the
sections on cutting and curing in Bulletin 236 of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station. That bulletin is on swine production in Florida, and
contains valuable suggestions on producing and curing pork, and preventing
diseases and parasites.




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