• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 The farmer's decalogue
 What is an adequate diet?
 Rich sources of necessary food...
 Your food dollar
 Essential foods for the family
 Milk
 Cereal
 Fruits and vegetables
 Eggs, meat, fish, cheese, nuts,...
 Fats and sweets
 Summary of weekly food needs for...
 Menus for a week
 Market order for menus to cost...
 Inexpensive nourishing recipes
 Vegetable plate suggestions
 Meat substitutes
 Directions and time tables for...
 Ways to use milk
 Vegetables
 Eggs
 Time-table for meat cookery
 Baking
 Thrift suggestions
 References
 Weekly record of home-produced...
 Weekly record of foods purchas...
 Measures
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 69
Title: Buy health with your food dollar
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026107/00001
 Material Information
Title: Buy health with your food dollar
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 47 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sikes, Anna Mae
Publisher: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: <1932>
 Subjects
Subject: Nutrition extension work -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: written and compiled by Anna Mae Sikes.
General Note: "September, 1932."
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026107
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570638
oclc - 44791750
notis - AMT6951

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    The farmer's decalogue
        Page 4
    What is an adequate diet?
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Rich sources of necessary food factors in an adequate diet
        Page 7
    Your food dollar
        Page 8
    Essential foods for the family
        Page 9
    Milk
        Page 10
    Cereal
        Page 11
    Fruits and vegetables
        Page 12
    Eggs, meat, fish, cheese, nuts, dried beans, peas and lentils
        Page 13
    Fats and sweets
        Page 14
    Summary of weekly food needs for all age groups
        Page 15
    Menus for a week
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Market order for menus to cost $7.63 per week
        Page 18
    Inexpensive nourishing recipes
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Vegetable plate suggestions
        Page 32
    Meat substitutes
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Directions and time tables for cooking
        Page 35
    Ways to use milk
        Page 36
    Vegetables
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Eggs
        Page 39
    Time-table for meat cookery
        Page 40
    Baking
        Page 41
    Thrift suggestions
        Page 42
        Page 43
    References
        Page 44
    Weekly record of home-produced foods consumed
        Page 45
    Weekly record of foods purchased
        Page 46
    Measures
        Page 47
    Back Cover
        Page 48
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director



BUY HEALTH
WITH

YOUR FOOD DOLLAR
------


WRITTEN AND COMPILED
by
ANNA MAE SIKES
EXTENSION NUTRITIONIST
Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the
State Home Demonstration Office
Tallahassee, Florida


Bulletin 69


September 1982























"Eat what you want
AFTER
you have eaten
what you SHOULD"

-E. V. McCovLUM, PH.D.,
School of Hygiene and Public Health
Johns Hopkins University









CONTENTS


What is an Adequate Diet .......................................................................................... 5
Rich Sources of Necessary Food Factors in an Adequate Diet 7
Your Food Dollar .................................................................. ........................... 8
Essential Foods for the Family ................................................................. 9
M ilk ............................................................................................. ............................ ........... 1 0
Bread and Cereals .......................... .. ................................................ 11
Fruits and Vegetables ....................................................................................... 12
Eggs, Meat, Fish, Cheese, Nuts, Dried Beans, Peas and
L en tils ............................... .................................................................. 13
F ats an d S w eets ............................................................................................................... 14
Summary of Weekly Food Needs for all Age Groups .............. 15
Menus for the W eek .................................................. .............................. ..... 16
Market Order for the Week ...................................... ............................... 18
Inexpensive Nourishing Recipes ................................ ......... ................. 19
O n e D ish M eals ....................................................................... ............. ............... 31
Vegetable Plate Suggestions .................................................................................... 32
M eat Sub stitu tes ...................................................................... .................................. 33
L eft O v ers .................................................................................................................................... 3 4
Directions and Time Tables for Cooking ......................................... ............ 35
How to Cook Cereals ............................. ................ ............................ 35
Ways to Use Milk ........................................................... ............................ 36
F ru its ............................................................................................. .................................... 3 6
Vegetable Cookery (Boiling) ........................................................................... 37
Vegetable Cookery (Baking) ............................. ..................................... 38
Vegetable Cookery (Steaming) .......................... ........... ........... ... 38
E g g C o ok ery ................................................................................. ..................................... 39
Time Table for Meat Cookery ................................ ............................... 40
B a k in g .......................................... ..................................................................... ............. 4 1
T h rift S ug g estion s ............................................................................................................... 42
R efe ren ces .................................................................................................................................... 4 4
R e co rd s ......................................................................................... ........................... ............. 4 5
Foods Purchased ........................... .. ................ ............................... 45
F oods P rodu ced ............................................................................................................... 46
M e a su res ....................................................................................................................................... 4 7












THE FARMER'S DECALOGUE


By C. A. McCUE

1. Thou shalt not fail to provide plenty of
fresh vegetables for thy family.
2. Thou shalt not fail to provide vegetables
for winter storage and use.
3. Thou shalt not fail to grow plenty of
vegetables for canning for family use.
4. Thou shalt not fail to provide fresh fruit
for thy family.
5. Thou shalt not fail to provide plenty of
fresh milk for thy family.
6. Thou shalt not fail to provide plenty of
fresh eggs for thy family.
7. Thou shalt not fail to provide home
grown meats for thy family.
8. Thou shalt not fail to grow sufficient
good feed for thy livestock.
9. Thou shalt not sell the products of thy
labor until thy family and thy livestock
have been provided for.
10. Thou shalt keep thy yearnings within
thy earnings.

-Leaflet, University of Delaware Agri-
cultural Extension Service.







What Is An Adequate Diet?


BY ANNA MAE SIKES
An adequate diet not pnly nourishes the individual thus con-
tributing to health and happiness but provides for reproduction
and the rearing of the young, the normal growth and develop-
ment of the young, the maintenance of vigorous health building
up a resistance to infections, and prevents premature old age.
A diet, complete and satisfactory from the standpoint of
human nutrition, must provide for these essential requirements:

1. Fuel or energy value to meet the daily requirement of
the human machine.
2. Protein of good quality to build, replace and maintain
body tissues.
3. Minerals for growth and regulation of body processes.
4. Vitamins in sufficient quantity and type for reproduction,
growth, and general well being.
5. Water to act as a solvent, a carrier and a regulator.
In addition the diet should be furnished in a form that is easily
digested, palatable, and sufficiently laxative to insure normal
elimination.
An individual food may fulfil only one, or several functions,
but all the essential requirements must be provided for by the
diet as a whole, in order to maintain the body. Foods can fulfil
more than one function because they are mixtures of a number
of different chemical substances. The necessary substances
which are found in foods are grouped into the following classifi-
cation:
Carbohydrates are sugars, starches, and cellulose. Sugars and
starches furnish energy and maintain heat. Cellulose adds bulk
to the diet, thereby aiding in the elimination. Excess carbo-
hydrates are stored as the adipose tissues of the body.






Fats furnish energy and heat. Excess fats are also stored as
the adipose tissues of the body.
Proteins are necessary to build, repair and maintain body
tissues and furnish materials for growth. They also supply
energy but at a greater cost than carbohydrates and fats.
Minerals, calcium, phosphorus, and iron are the principal ones
which have special and important functions in relation to growth
and repair of the body. Calcium builds strong teeth and bones
and aids in the prevention of rickets. It regulates the heart
beat, the nerve and muscle action. Phosphorus builds teeth and
bones, helps to prevent rickets. It regulates nerve action, and
forms a necessary part of all fluids and soft tissues of the body.
Iron builds hemoglobin, a very necessary part of the blood and
prevents anemia.
Water is present in all tissues and fluids of the body and con-
stitutes two-thirds of the body weight, therefore its abundant
use is necessary.
Vitamins are essential for growth, health, development and
for protection against deficiency diseases. The specific func-
tions of the vitamins are briefly summarized as follows:
Vitamin A increases resistance of the lining of air passages,
glands of the mouth, lungs, sinuses and ears, the eye, the diges-
tive tract, the reproduction organs and the bladder to bacterial
infection.
Vitamin B stimulates the appetite, promotes good digestion
and assimulation of food.
Vitamin C increases resistance to bacterial infections, aids in
the prevention of tooth decay and scurvy.
Vitamin D aids in the utilization of calcium and phosphorus.
It is essential for bone and tooth development and in prevention
of rickets.
Vitamin E is associated with reproduction and lactation.
Vitamin G promotes good nutrition and aids in preventing
pellagra.








RICH SOURCES OF NECESSARY FOOD FACTORS IN AN
ADEQUATE DIET
Cereal grains and their products
Carbohydrates Sugars, candies and syrups
Fruits
Some vegetables
Butter
Cream
Fats Lard and other animal fats
Vegetable oils
Nuts


Eggs
Meat
Milk
Cheese
Legumes
Nuts
Calcium-
Milk
Cheese
Vegetables, especially leafy
Egg yolk
Phosphorus-
Cheese
Egg yolk
Milk
Meat
Whole grains
Iron-
Egg yolk
Leafy vegetables
Meat, especially liver
Whole grains
Vitamin A
Butter
Cream
Whole milk
Cheese
Egg-yolk
Green vegetables
Yellow pigmented
vegetable
Codliver oil

Vitamin C
Fresh fruits
Fruit juices, especially
citrus
Tomatoes
Raw vegetables

Vitamin E
Wheat embryo
Green leaves
Seeds


Vitamin B
Yeast
Green vegetables
Whole grains
Legumes
Root vegetables
Nuts
Fruit
Milk

vitamin D
Egg-yolk
Butter
Whole milk
Green vegetables
Codliver oil

Vitamin G
Yeast
Eggs
Milk
Meat
Legumes


Proteins


Minerals


Vitamins







YOUR FOOD DOLLAR


DIVIDE YOUR FOOD DOLLAR INTO FIVE PARTS


-LIKE THIS
FOR A FAMILY WITH
CHILDREN.


-LIKE THIS
FOR A FAMILY WITHOUT
CHILDREN.


25 cents ................................ Milk and cheese ................................ 15 cents
25-20 cents ...................... Vegetables and fruit ........................ 30-25 cents
15-20 cents ............ Flour, wheat, cornmeal, oats, rice ........... 15-20 cents
grits, bread and other grain foods
20-15 cents ........ Butter, lard, other fats, sugar, molasses ............ 20 cents
15-20 cents ............................ Meat, fish, eggs ................................ 20 cents












ESSENTIAL FOODS FOR THE FAMILY


MILK


VEGETABLES AND
FRUITS


CEREALS AND BREADS


Use bread, cereals or both at
each meal.
Choose-
Whole grain cereals once a
day; oatmeal, wheat cereal,
corn meal, flour, rice, maca-
roni, etc.
Use some whole wheat bread
as well as white bread each
day.



EGGS, MEATS, DRIED BEANS,
ETC.


Use-
One or more daily.
Choose-
Meat not more than once a
day.

Dried beans, cheese, eggs,
peas, etc., in place of meat.


FATS AND SWEETS


Use daily-
% to 1 quart for each child
1 pint for each adult
Choose-
Pasteurized or certified
whole milk.
Unsweetened evaporated milk
or powdered milk.


Use-
Potatoes and at least one
other vegetable daily.
Choose-
Cabbage, at least twice a
week (part raw).
Green or yellow vegetables
when possible.
Fruit or tomatoes three or
four times a week.


Use-
Small amounts of fats and sweets.
Choose-
Fats-Lard, salt pork, butter, margarine and vegetable oil.
Sweets-Cane molasses, corn sirups, honey, and sugar.







MILK


Milk contains practically all the food
elements necessary for a well-balanced
diet and is the foundation upon which
the diet can be built most safely and
easily. Milk owes its importance in the
diet to its excellent quality of proteins
and their supplementing value of
cereal proteins; its complete assortment
of mineral elements, except iron, and
the proportion in which they occur and
notably the high content of calcium
with a desirable amount of phosphorus,
to the presence of a generous quantity
of vitamin A and B and an appreciable amount of vitamin D.
No matter how limited the income, milk should never be
omitted from the diet for there is a minimum amount below
which the health of children and adults is endangered. The
lower the food budget the more important is milk in the day's
food plan. If possible allow a quart of milk a day for every child
and pregnant or nursing mother and a pint for each adult.
Pasteurized milk is safer than raw milk since the pasteuriza-
tion kills the bacteria. If raw milk is used it should be clean
fresh milk from healthy animals. Evaporated milk (not sweet-
ened condensed) can be substituted for fresh milk. A "tall can"
of evaporated milk when diluted with an equal amount of water
is the equivalent to a quart of fresh milk. Skim milk may be
used provided a sufficient amount of either butter or codliver oil
is a regular part of the daily diet. Dried milk restored to liquid
form compares favorably with fresh milk. Buttermilk is very
similar to skim milk and may be served as a beverage or used
practically the same way as sour milk in cooking.
It is not necessary nor is it always wise to take all the milk as
a drink. It lends itself well to many combinations with a variety
of foods, and can be served equally well for breakfast, lunch,
supper, dinner and refreshments for all occasions. Milk may be
used to give variety and zest to the diet through the preparation
of soups, cereals, creamed vegetables, custards, creams, sherbets,
puddings and other dishes which require milk as a foundation.
10







BREADS AND CEREALS


Cereal foods as a class are primarily
a source of energy, valuable because of
their abundance, economy and ease of
digestion. When eaten freely cereals
become significant sources of protein
but not of such quality or quantity to
be relied upon as a sole source.
As the income decreases it is advis-
able to increase the bread and cereals
in the diet because they are the cheap-
est source of fuel. When economy is
necessary, serve a well cooked cereal
every day. Home cooked cereals are
less expensive than ready-to-serve cereals and should be used by
the older members of the family as well as the children. A child
needs something hot for breakfast and cooked cereals serve this
purpose in addition to providing high food value at low cost.
Even where cost is not the most important consideration, a cer-
tain amount of cereal food in the growing child's diet is desirable
because of its blandness and ease of digestion. A cereal of dif-
ferent type from that usually served for breakfast often can be
used as the main dish for supper. The most important point is
the thoroughness of cooking, so that the cellulose is softened in
the highest degree as the flavor of the grain is developed. Some
form of dry (rather than hard) bread, preferably of whole
wheat or other dark flour, should be included in each meal of
the child for the sake of tooth and jaw delevopment.
Some inexpensive whole cereal preparations are oatmeal, un-
polished rice, whole cornmeal, wheatena, shredded wheat,
graham and whole wheat bread. Milk supplements the nutritive
qualities of the grain products at more points than does any
other food and does this effectively and at relatively small ex-
pense, hence when there is little money to spend, the diet will
be most satisfactory for good nutrition if it is built around grain
products and milk. Bread made with milk is of greater value
in the diet and when possible it is advisable to use milk in pre-
paration of cereals instead of water. Corn meal mush, oatmeal,
cracked whole wheat, brown rice, hominy or hominy grits, are
much improved both in food value and in flavor by cooking with
milk. For this purpose evaporated or dried skim milk can be
used instead of fresh milk.







FRUITS AND VEGETABLES


Fruits and vegetables are significant
because of their mineral constituents
and vitamins. Only certain members of
the group are good sources of energy
and still fewer are important as sources
of protein. Green vegetables are valu-
able as a source of iron. Thin green
leaves are as a rule rich in vitamins A,
B and C. Vegetables with green leaves
and stems supply roughage. The min-
eral of fruits is usually alkaline and of
such character as to help greatly in
maintaining the normal neutrality of
the blood. Fruits and vegetables when eaten raw contribute
significant amounts of vitamin C. As a source of vitamins vege-
tables and fruits are almost indispensable.
Fruits add variety, color, palatability and attractiveness to
what might otherwise be a monotonous and colorless diet. Two
servings of fruits daily are recommended one of which may be
dried fruits. All dried fruits are comparatively inexpensive and
may be used freely when economy is necessary, but they should
not replace fresh fruits in the diet. The regular inclusion of
fruits high in vitamin content, such as oranges, is important to
the health of the teeth. When there is a small amount of money
for fruit, oranges or tomatoes should be included in the diet at
least three or four times a week.
Vegetables should be a regular part of the diet. A potato
once a day is a good rule, as a potato is not only an excellent,
inexpensive source of readily available fuel but also of vitamin
B and C as well as minerals. In addition to the potato, serve a
leafy and a green or yellow vegetable each day. When only one
vegetable in addition to a potato can be served daily it is desir-
able to use as often as possible the vegetables which can be eaten
raw or which need only a few minutes cooking. Cabbage and
tomatoes (raw or canned) are inexpensive foods which can be
eaten this way and each should be used at least twice a week.
Select the vegetables that the local market supplies at the lowest
price. Canned vegetables contribute to variety in diet as well
as ease in preparation. Vegetables are improved both in food
value and in flavor by cooking with milk. Potatoes scalloped
in milk, cabbage, onions, or summer squash served in milk have
a delicate flavor and a high food value whether the milk used be
fresh, evaporated or dried.







EGGS, MEAT, FISH, CHEESE, NUTS, DRIED BEANS, PEAS
AND LENTILS

Eggs, cheese, meat and other flesh
foods are grouped together because they
possess the common property of con-
tributing to the diet proteins of the
highest quality in amounts which are
significant. Nuts, dried beans, peas and
lentils are also included in this group
because their proteins are of good
quality and they have as much protein
in proportion to total calories as fat
meats.
Eggs are important for iron and phos-
phorus and for vitamins A, B and D, as
well as protein. Eggs deserve special emphasis for their growth
promoting properties, cheese represents a concentration of the
protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, iron and vitamin A of the milk
from which it is made. Lean meat is high in protein, phos-
phorus and iron.
At least one of these foods should be used daily but meat
never more than once a day. It is desirable to have at least
three or four eggs a week and every child should have one each
day. Their cost, however, does not always justify such liberal
use, and if milk and green vegetables are generously supplied
they are not indispensable.
Fresh fish, locally caught or inexpensive canned fish or a
corresponding amount of dried fish, may be used in the low-
cost diet. The tempting flavor of meat may lead to the use of
more than is actually necessary. Meat should always be ac-
companied by plenty of vegetables. For children, a little meat
may be incorporated into soups with vegetables, or made into
cereal and vegetable combinations. The economical cuts of meat
make attractive meals, provided they are given time and care in
the cooking. They can be used for pot roast, meat pie, braising,
hamburg steak, stew, meat loaf, steam roasting, and Swiss
steak.
Dried beans and lentils should be used freely in low-cost diets
as meat substitutes. They have a higher nutritive value when
combined with milk. Cheese should likewise supplement the
other protein foods served during the week. Since it is a con-
centrated food cheese should be served with bread or other
cereal. If the cheese is to be cooked, bread crumbs or cereal
should be mixed throughout so that the product will be smooth
and tender.
Where an adequate diet must be provided at minimum cost,
meat should not be bought until after a good allowance of milk,
fruits and vegetables, and fats, especially butter, have been
provided.






FATS AND SWEETS


Fats are primarily a source of energy
but they also help to make a high
cereal diet palatable. Milk fat, whether
S as cream or butter, is rich in vitamin A
and on this account is of higher value
than other common food fats, such as
lard and seed oils. Lard may be used as
the chief fat in the family diet only
when whole milk is liberally used. Fats
are very one-sided foods and need to be
supplemented in the diet by milk and
fruits and vegetables, which are the best
sources of those necessary food ele-
ments which the fats lack. It is therefore quite necessary where
oil or other fat is used in place of butter that plenty of green
leafy vegetables, eggs and whole milk be used to supply the
missing vitamin A in the diet. Fats tend to retard digestion
and due to the fact that there is practically no residue from fat-
rich foods constipation is apt to result when such foods, form a
large proportion of the diet.
Sugar and other sweets owe their place in the diet for their
fuel value and to the popularity of their flavor. Wise use im-
plies great moderation as to quantity and care as to the time of
eating sweets. Corn syrup and cane sugar yield calories only,
but pure molasses is a concentrated vegetable juice, rich in
sugar and also in calcium and iron and is recommended in very
limited diets. Sweets are better at the end of the meal because
they spoil the appetite for other foods. When the appetite is
dulled by sweets, foods like milk and vegetables do not appeal
unless they are as highly flavored as meat or more sweets.
Sugar is so concentrated that it is fermented in the digestive
tract if eaten alone or in large quantities. Cookies, cake, ice
cream, candies and other sweets are energy foods and should
be eaten as a part of and at the end of the meal in order not to
impair the appetite for the more all-around nourishing foods.
Fruits, fresh or dried, contain sugar and are the best form of
sweets, especially for children. Other sweets may be taken in
the form of cocoa, custards, fruit drinks and simple desserts.
14






SUMMARY OF WEEKLY FOOD NEEDS FOR ALL AGE GROUPS


Food
Milk
Eggs
Meat & Fish
Fat
Fruit
fresh2
dried
Vegetables
green and root
potatoes
Legumes
Cheese
Breads
Cereals and flour
Sugar and sirup


1 to 2 years
7 quarts
3-4

2 oz. (butter)

4 (oranges)
4 oz.


1 lb.


1 lb.
8 oz.


3 to 5 years
31-5 qts.1
3-4
0- lb.
3-5 oz. (butter)

12-2 lbs.
3 oz.

2-3 lbs.
2-2/2 lbs.

1-2 oz.
2 lbs.
8-12 oz.
4-6 oz.


6 to 12 years
3/2 qts.1
3-4
1/2-1 lb.
2-1 lb.

2-3 lbs.
3-6 oz.

2-4 lbs.
2-3/2 lbs.
2-6 oz.
2-3 lbs.
1-2 Ibs.
4-6 ozs.


13 to 16 years
3/2 qts.1
3-4
1-1 lb.
1-1 lbs.

2-3 lbs.
4-8 oz.

3-4 lbs.
21/2-6 Ibs.

6-8 oz.
2/2-4 lbs.
1-22 lbs.
8-12 oz.


Over 16 years
3Y2 qts.'
3-4
1-1Y lb.
1-1 Ibs.

2-3 Ibs.
4-8 oz.

2-4 lbs.
3-7 lbs.

6-8 oz.
2-4 Ibs.
2-3 lbs.
12-20 cz.


(Used by permission of Dr. Margaret R. Sandels, Florida State College for Women)
1. Increase milk to 7 qts. weekly wherever possible.
2. Use citrus fruit or tomato juice at least 2 or 3 times weekly.
3. Where bread (either quick or yeast) is made at home, substitute three-fourths pound of flour or cornmeal for
each pound bread omitted from market order.










MENUS FOR A WEEK



GUIDE TO LOW COST MEALS

GIVE THE WHOLE FAMILY-


Every Day
Bread and other grain foods, like
cracked wheat, corn-meal mush,
oatmeal, rice, grits.
Potatoes.
Milk: Fresh, evaporated, or dried.
One or more vegetables or fruits,
especially vegetables of green
or yellow color.
Molasses, sugar, other sweets.
Butter, lard, fat meat, other fats.
Plenty of water to drink.


Several Times a Week
Tomatoes, raw cabbage, or raw
fruit.
Dried beans, peas, or peanuts.
Some lean meat, poultry, eggs,
fresh fish, canned salmon, or
cheese.
Give Young Children-
Milk at every meal.
Tomato or orange juice every day.
Several eggs a week, if possible.


The following menus are planned for the good health needs
of a working man's family of five, including three active,
growing children on a food budget of $7.63 per week.


BREAKFASTS LUNCHES OR SUPPERS DINNERS

Whole orange* Spanish rice* Meat loaf
Soft cooked egg Vegetable slaw Riced potatoes*
Whole wheat toast. Bread and butter Buttered carrots*
Butter Baked custard* Whole wheat bread,
Milk* or cocoa*, Milk* Butter
coffee Fruit cup*
Milk*


Stewed dried apricots*
Wheatena*
Toast and butter
Milk* or cocoa*, coffee


Macaroni and cheese
Buttered beets*
Whole wheat bread,
Butter
Gingerbread
Milk*


Cottage meat pie
Spinach or greens*
Cornbread and butter
Fruit jelo*
or
Sliced bananas
Milk*


*These dishes especially good for children.









MENUS FOR A WEEK-(Continued)


BREAKFASTS LUNCHES OR SUPPzRS DINNERS


Grapefruit* Potato and onion soup Baked fish with
Oatmeal and milk* Bread and butter dressing
Green beans*
Toast and butter Chocolate blanc Cornbread and butter
Milk* or cocoa*, coffee mange* Oatmeal cookies*
Milk* Milk*



Tomato juice* Baked stuffed potato* Meat stew with
Farina with top milk* Creamed carrots* vegetables
Toast and butter ,Turnip greens* Lettuce salad*
Milk* or cocoa*, coffee Cornbread and butter Bread and butter
Brown Betty* Rice pudding with
Milk* raisins*
Milk*


Stewed prunes* Cream of tomato soup* Liver loaf
Oatmeal cooked in Cottage cheese salad Baked potatoes*
milk* Bread and butter Raw carrot sticks*
Toast and butter Milk* Bread and butter
Coffee Tapioca cream*



Orange* Split pea soup* Baked beans with side
Poached egg* Whole wheat bread, meat
Toast and butter Butter Cole slaw
Milk* or cocoa*, coffee Stewed fruit and Brown bread
cookies* Butter
Milk* Caramel pudding*


Berries with top milk
Whole grain cereal
with milk*
Toast and butter
Milk* or cocoa*, coffee


Vegetable chowder*
Bread and butter
Soft custard*
Milk*


Roast shoulder of pork
Baked potatoes*
Broccoli or spinach, or
other greens*
Bread and butter
Baked apples*
Milk*


*These dishes especially good for children.






MARKET ORDER FOR MENUS TO COST $7.63 PER WEEK


For a Family of Five (2 Adults and 3 Children)
The following table is based on average prices taken from seven Florida
cities in March 1932. These combinations of proportions of food give
good returns for a limited outlay and while they are not considered
optimum yet they are adequate for a typical family group of five. Families
of fewer than five persons or with more than $7.63 to spend, can order
larger quantities. Larger families and those with less to spend, will have
to reduce either the quantities or the variety. In general the low-cost diet
differs from a moderate-priced diet chiefly in its lower proportion of
meats, fish, poultry and eggs, although the quantities of fats, vegetables
and fruit may be slightly reduced.


Classes
of Food


Food Weekly
Used Cost


I. Milk 28 quarts $2.80
Whole or evaporated,
unsweetened (Use half
whole and half evaporated).
II. Bread and Cereals .85
Bread, whole wheat 4 loaves
Bread, white 3 loaves
Cornmeal 2' lbs.
Farina '/ pkg.
Flour, white 4 lbs.
Flour, graham 14 lb.
Oatmeal 1 pkg.
Macaroni 1 pkg.
Rice 1 lb.
Tapioca 3 tbsps.
Wheatena 1/8 pkg.
Whole wheat cereal 1/4 b.
m. Fruits and Vegetables $1.63
Apples 5 lbs.
Apricots 1/4 lb.
Bananas 1 lb.
Berries 1 qt.
Beans, green 1 lb.
Beets 1 lb.
Broccoli or squash 1 Ib.
Cabbage 2 Ibs.
Carrots 2 lbs.
Grapefruit 3
Celery Leaves or stalks
Greens 4 lbs.
Lemons 2
Lettuce 1 head
Onions 1 Ib.
Oranges 12
Potatoes 10 lbs.
Pepper, green 1
Prunes 1/2 Ib.
Raisins 1/ lb.
Tomato juice 1 can
Tomatoes, No 2 cans 3 cans
Turnips 1/ lb.


Classes Food Weekly
of Food Used Cost

IV. Eggs, Meat, Fish, Cheese,
Dried Beans, Peas, Lentils $1.46
Beef liver 1 lb.
Beans, navy 1/2 lbs.
Cheese /2 lb.
Eggs 22
Fish 2 lbs.
Ground meat 11/ lbs.
Pork shoulder 2 lbs.
Split peas /2 lb.
Stew meat 1 lb.
V. Fats and Sweets .74
Butter 2 Ibs.
Lard 1/2 lb.
Molasses 18 oz. can
Salad oil /2 qt.
Salt pork 1/2 lb.
Sugar, brown /z lb.
Sugar, white 3 lbs.
VI. Miscellaneous .15
Cocoa
Coffee
Condiments
Cornstarch
Salt
Spices
Vanilla
Vinegar, etc.


$7.63


Total






INEXPENSIVE NOURISHING RECIPES
(These recipes will serve 5 or 6 persons)
These recipes have been planned to use the foods in the
suggested Market Order and to suggest other inexpensive foods.
ORANGE JUICE
Orange juice should always be served fresh, since flavor is
lost when juice stands. A mechanical or electrical extractor
is an aid, but a good hand reamer may be used. Strain or not
as preferred. Chill if desired. Serve in glass goblet. (An 8
or 9 ounce size is preferable where juice accompanies meals.)
Grapefruit juice is prepared the same way.

ORANGE-LEMON JUICE
For a beverage of increased flavor, add juice of /2 lemon
to the glass of orange juice. Serve as above.
ORANGE-GRAPEFRUIT JUICE
Combine equal parts of freshly extracted orange juice and
grapefruit juice. Serve as above.
Especially suitable served for:
Breakfast, first course Invalid diet (in colds, fevers. On
Beverage with luncheon or dinner physician's order only, if illness ia
Mid-meal beverage severe).
ORANGE SLICES
Pare oranges, removing all outer skin and inner enveloping
membrane. Cut in thin, even slices. Arrange on serving plate.
Slices are easier to handle with a fork if they are halved or
quartered.
If desired, sweeten each serving with 2 tablespoons honey
or maple syrup.
ORANGE SEGMENTS
Pare oranges as above. Cut on either side of each dividing
membrane and remove pulp, segment by segment. Chill and
arrange in star or flower-petal pattern on serving plate. Sweet-
en if desired.
ORANGE PIECES
Pare and segment oranges. Cut each segment in 2 or 3
pieces. Serve in sherbet glass alone or as a fruit cup combined
with other fruits in season. Sweeten if desired.
Equally Suitable Served For:
Breakfast, first course.
Cocktails, salads or beverages (combined with other fruit
if desired).






COCOA
2 cups canned milk 3 cups water
3 tablespoons cocoa 3 tablespoons sugar
Mix the cocoa and sugar with 1 cup of water and cook
slowly for 5 minutes. Mix the 2 cups of canned milk to the
cocoa and heat until it begins to boil.

WHOLE WHEAT COOKED IN MILK
1 cup ground whole wheat 1 teaspoon salt
4-5 cups milk
The wheat grain may be bought very cheaply at feed stores.
To prepare this for cooking it should be thoroughly washed
through several waters, then dried and run through a meat
chopper. Wheat is also available in package form already
prepared for cooking.
To PREPARE: Use milk instead of water in cooking cereal.
Whole grain requires 5 to 6 hours. A fireless cooker is a great
advantage in cooking this cereal. Because it is coarsely ground
it requires 4 or 5 times its measure in liquid. Mix cereal with
scalded milk and cook in double boiler 5 to 6 hours.

POTATO AND ONION SOUP
4 medium potatoes 2 small onions chopped fine and
boiled with potato until mushy.
Add 3 cups milk or 1 cup evaporated milk and 2 cups of
water. Add butter, salt and pepper to season.

POTATO AND ONION SOUP
% lb. soup meat 1 Ib. onions
2 lbs. potatoes
Cut soup meat in small pieces. Salt and cook in enough
water to cover. Pare potatoes and onions, cut in small pieces
and add to soup stock. When meat begins to get tender add
enough water to make 5 servings.

CREAM OF TOMATO SOUP
(1) (2)
1 medium can tomatoes 1 quart milk
% onion /2 cup flour
1 tablespoon sugar 4 tablespoons butter
1/2 teaspoon soda 1-3 teaspoon salt
Cook together tomato, onion, sugar for 15 minutes. Strain,
then add soda. Make cream sauce by melting butter, then add
flour. Stir until thoroughly mixed, add milk, one-third at a
time, stirring to avoid lumps. Cook until the raw taste is
gone. Just before serving and while hot combine (1) and (2)
by pouring the tomato mixture into the cream sauce. Whipped
cream or butter may be put on top.
20







SPLIT PEA SOUP
1 cup dried peas 1 small onion
1 slice of salt pork, ham bone or 3 cups water
skin, or 3 cups milk
3 tablespoons fat 3 tablespoons flour
Wash peas, soak over night in cold water. Cook in the
same water with pork or ham bone and finely chopped onion
until peas are soft. Remove ham bone or skin. Rub peas
through a strainer or mash. Mix flour with water and add
to peas. Add milk, salt to taste, and fat if pork or ham was
not used. Let stand for at least 15 minutes to flavor through.
Heat and serve. This makes 6 to 10 servings.

VEGETABLE CHOWDER
'/2 lb. cabbage 1 onion
1/2 Ib. carrots Soup celery
11/2 lb. potatoes 3 cups milk
Prepare vegetables and cut them into small pieces. Cook
together in a small quantity of boiling salted water until tender.
Add milk, salt, and pepper.

CORN CHOWDER
1 quart diced raw potatoes /2 teaspoon salt
1 pint boiling water Pepper
4 tablespoons diced salt pork 2 tablespoons chopped parsley
1 onion, chopped Celery
2 cups canned corn (No. 2 can) 1 pt. milk
Cook the potatoes in the boiling salted water for 15 minutes.
Fry the salt pork until crisp. Remove the pork and cook the
onion about 2 minutes in the fat. Add the onion and corn to
the potatoes. Cook until the potatoes are tender. Add the
milk, salt, and pepper. Bring the mixture to the boiling point
and add the crisped salt pork, chopped parsley or celery. Serve
over toast.

MEAT LOAF
/4 cup rice 1 small onion, finely chopped
1/4 cup bread crumbs 1 teaspoon salt
% lb. ground meat Pepper
Boil the rice until tender, drain. Mix all ingredients and
use the hands to mix thoroughly. Lay a piece of parchment
paper on a rack in an open pan. Mold the meat loaf on the
paper with two knives. Bake the loaf in a moderate oven about
1 hour.

COTTAGE MEAT PIE
1 cup cooked meat (left-over meat 2 teaspoons onion
loaf) 11/2 cups mashed potatoes
1 cup gravy or white sauce
Fill greased pan with meat and gravy mixture seasoned to
taste. Make a crust of mashed potatoes. Brown in oven.
21







BAKED SHOULDER OF PORK
2 lbs. shoulder pork 2 teaspoons salt
Flour 4 carrots
Fat for browning 6 small onions
2 teaspoons salt
Have lean shoulder pork cut in pieces as for stew. Roll in
flour and brown on all sides in hot fat. Place in baking dish
and cover with boiling water. Add the carrots cut in quarters
lengthwise, the onions, and the seasoning. Cover and cook at
a simmering temperature, just under the boiling point, for two
or three hours. Serve from the baking dish.
ROAST SHOULDER OF PORK
Have the bones removed from a shoulder of pork. Fill the
cavity with bread dressing. To make the dressing, soak several
pieces of stale bread in hot water, pouring off any that the
bread will not soak up. Mash the bread, season with salt and
pepper, a chopped onion, two stalks of celery, finely minced, a
pinch of sage, and a green pepper, finely chopped. Mix the
dressing well and stuff the shoulder; sew up the opening, and
roast 25 to 30 minutes to the pound. In carving, cut down
through the roast, serving both meat and vegetables.
SHORT RIBS OF BEEF IN CASSEROLE
3 lbs. short ribs 6 small onions chopped
1 carrot 4 tablespoons fat
Y2 cup rice 4 teaspoon pepper
1/2 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon sugar
2 cups canned tomatoes
Melt the fat in frying pan, add onions, and beef and brown
well. Put into a casserole. Mix tomatoes, rice, sliced carrots
and sugar, and pour over the beef. Add enough hot water to
cover all ingredients, cover and cook in a slow oven for 3 hours.
MEAT STEW
11/ lb. meat 1 Ib potatoes, diced
1 onion, chopped Salt
1/2 lb. carrots, diced Pepper
2 lb. turnips, diced
Wipe the meat with a damp cloth and cut it into small
pieces. Fry out the meat fat in a frying pan. Roll the meat
lightly in flour, and put it in the fat in the pan with the onion.
Stir and cook, until both are brown. Add 1 quart of water,
cover, and simmer until the meat is almost tender. Add the
diced vegetables and continue the cooking until the meat and
vegetables are tender. Season with salt and pepper to taste
and serve very hot.






BAKED STUFFED FISH
Clean the fish, stuff and sew. Dot with drippings or butter
or place strips of fat salt pork over it. Dredge with flour,
salt and pepper. Bake in a hot oven until done.

STUFFING FOR FISH
2 cups fine bread crumbs 2 teaspoons chopped onion
1 teaspoon salt pepper to taste
3 tablespoons melted fat 1/4 cup hot milk
1 tablespoon lemon juice, if desired
Mix the ingredients and use as stuffing for fish.
Cracker crumbs may be substituted for bread crumbs in the
recipe.

LIVER LOAF
1 lb. liver 1 egg
1/2 cup grated onion 1 teaspoon pepper
1 teaspoon salt 4 tablespoons cold water
4 tablespoons oil or drippings 4 cup flour
2 cups soft bread crumbs
Put the liver through a meat chopper. Mix all ingredients
thoroughly together. Shape into a loaf, roll in flour. Place
in a hot oven (400 degrees) for 10 minutes, then reduce the
heat to moderate (350 degrees) for 35 minutes.

SPANISH RICE
1-3 cup raw rice 1 tablespoon chopped, green
2 cups canned tomatoes pepper
1 cup hot water 1 cup cheese-cut small
3 tablespoons chopped onion 2 teaspoons salt
A speck of red pepper
Mix all the ingredients together in a baking dish. Bake
slowly until the rice is soft-about one hour. Stir occasionally.

MACARONI AND CHEESE
1%2 cups macaroni (6 ounces) 2 cups milk
'8 lb. cheese 1 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons fat 1 cup bread crumbs
2 tablespoons flour
Wash the macaroni and cook it in boiling salted water
until tender, and drain. Make a white sauce of the fat, flour,
milk, and salt. Add the cheese and stir until melted. Mix
the macaroni with the sauce. Pour into a greased baking dish,
cover with the crumbs, and bake in a moderate oven until
brown on top.






MACARONI AND HAM IN CASSEROLE
1 cup macaroni (uncooked) % to 1 lb. smoked ham (1 slice Y2
2 tablespoons butter inch thick)
1/2 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons flour
14 cups milk V2 teaspoon pepper
Cook the macaroni in rapidly boiling salted water until
tender. Arrange in a buttered casserole in layers, alternating
with a layer of the sliced smoked ham cut in finger length
portions, 2 inches wide. Sprinkle with flour and seasonings
and gradually pour milk over all. Dot with butter. Bake in
moderate oven for 11/ hours.

AMERICAN CHOP SUEY
1 green pepper 2 cups cooked spaghetti or rice
2 onions : teaspoon salt
1 lb. chopped beef, round "i teaspoon pepper
1 can tomatoes 4 tablespoons fat (bacon)
Melt fat, add chopped pepper and onion. Brown, then add
chopped beef, tomato and cooked spaghetti. Bake in a slow oven
thirty minutes.

BAKED BEANS
1 pint pea beans 1 small onion
Ys lb. salt pork, part fat and part /2 teaspoon salt
lean 2 tablespoons molasses
/2 teaspoon dry mustard
Soak beans in cold water overnight. In the morning drain
and turn them into a bean-pot; or place them in fresh water
and simmer gently until the skins begin to burst, being careful
that they do not cook long enough to become mushy; and then
put them into the bean-pot. Pour boiling water over the salt
pork. Scrape the rind until white, score it in half-inch strips,
and bury the meat in the beans, leaving only the rind exposed.
Mix salt, mustard and molasses, place in a cup, fill the cup
with hot water, stir until well mixed, and pour the liquid over
the pork and beans. Add enough water to cover the beans,
and bake in a slow oven (250F), six to eight hours, adding
water to keep them covered until the last hour, when the cover
should be removed and the pork should be raised to the surface
to crisp.
If pork is disliked, half a pound of fat and lean corned beef
may be used instead; or the meat may be omitted, but in that
case more salt must be used together with one-third cup of
butter or dripping.






RICED POTATOES
Pare and cook in salted water allowing 7 potatoes to 1 table-
spoon of salt. Force hot boiled potatoes through potato ricer
or course strainer. Serve piled lightly in a hot vegetable dish.
BUTTERED BEETS
1 lb. beets Butter
Salt
Wash and cook the whole beets in boiling water until tender.
Plunge in cold water and remove skins. Slice and season with
butter, salt and pepper.
BAKED STUFFED POTATOES
Scrub potatoes well. Prick with a fork. Bake in oven until
soft.
To STUFF: Cut in half and remove potato from shell, mash,
add salt, milk, and fat. Put back in shell and brown in oven.
Cheese may be sprinkled over top before browning.
BUTTERED CARROTS
% lb. carrots Salt
Butter Pepper
Wash and scrape the carrots and cut them into strips. Cook
until tender in a small quantity of slightly salted boiling water.
Season with butter, salt and pepper.
FIVE-MINUTE CABBAGE
1/2 cups shredded cabbage 2 teaspoons flour
1 cup milk Salt
2 teaspoons butter
Cook the cabbage for 2 minutes in the milk, over direct heat.
Blend the butter and flour, pour in some of the hot milk, stir
until smooth and add to the remaining milk and cabbage.
Season with salt and cook over water for 3 or 4 minutes.
VEGETABLE SLAW
11/2 cups shredded cabbage 2 teaspoons oil
2 tablespoons grated raw carrot 1 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon minced onion Dash of paprika
4 teaspoons vinegar
Mix together thoroughly all the ingredients with a fork.
Chill before serving.
LETTUCE SALAD
Take sufficient dark green leaf lettuce for servings required.
Wash thoroughly and dry with absorbent towel. Lay together
on cutting board and shred across leaf. Put in salad bowl with
finely cut onion (if desired) and, at the last minute before
serving pour over it enough French dressing to saturate. Mix
well and serve from the bowl or on salad plates. This may be
served with thousand-island dressing also.






THOUSAND ISLAND DRESSING
1 teaspoon minced green pepper 1 teaspoon grated onion
1/4 cup minced pickle 1 hard cooked egg, chopped fine
2 teaspoons chili sauce 2-3 cup cooked mayonnaise
Combine first five ingredients and cut and fold into the
mayonnaise. Keep chilled until ready to serve. Sufficient for
six salads.
COTTAGE CHEESE
Heat very slowly 1 quart sour milk to lukewarm over warm
water and turn into strainer lined with cheesecloth. Pour over
1 quart warm water, and as soon as water has drained through,
pour over another quart; then repeat. Gather cheesecloth
around curd to form a bag and let hang until curd is free from
whey. Moisten with melted butter and heavy cream and add
salt to taste.
COTTAGE CHEESE SALAD
1/2 head lettuce 4 ounces dates
1/4 lb. cottage cheese 3 tablespoons French dressing
Wash and arrange the lettuce leaves on individual plates.
Wash the dates and remove the stones. Mix sufficient milk
with the cottage cheese to soften it, and add a little salt.
Arrange the cheese on the lettuce leaves and place the
chopped dates over it. Serve with French dressing.
FRENCH DRESSING
6 tablespoons olive oil, Wesson oil 1 teaspoon salt
or Mazola Onion salt (3 or 4 shakes from
4 teaspoons sugar bottle)
2 tablespoons vinegar Pepper, if desired
Have oil and vinegar cold. Beat hard (or shake in bottle)
till thick. Use while well mixed.
COLE SLAW
1 small onion 1 small carrot, if desired
1 small head of cabbage
Wash cabbage, scrape carrot. Chop finely with onion.
Season to taste with salt and pepper or salad dressing or with
vinegar and oil. (5 servings).
BOILED SALAD DRESSING
3 tablespoons Wesson oil 1 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon flour 1 teaspoon mustard
1 tablespoon sugar Va teaspoon cayenne
1 cup milk, sweet or slightly sour 1 egg
/2 cup mild vinegar
Stir the dry ingredients into Wesson oil which has been put
in a double boiler top. Add milk and cook, stirring constantly,
until the mixture takes on the consistency of cream. Beat the
egg slightly, add the vinegar, pour into first mixture and cook
until thickened, stirring constantly.

26







EGG SALAD
4 hard cooked eggs 2 tablespoons French dressing
1/ head lettuce
Remove the shells and cut the eggs in half. Place the eggs
on crisp lettuce and pour the dressing over the eggs and lettuce.

BROWN BREAD
% cup Graham flour 1 teaspoon soda
1/2 cup white flour /2 cup molasses
/4 cup yellow corn meal 1 cup sour milk
1/2 teaspoon salt
Mix the dry ingredients well. Add the molasses and milk
and mix thoroughly. Pour into a greased bread pan and bake
in a moderate oven for 45 minutes.

CORNBREAD
2 cups corn meal 2 cups sour milk
2 teaspoons salt 2 eggs
1 teaspoon soda 2 tablespoons fat
2 teaspoons baking powder
Sift the dry ingredients. Add the milk, the well beaten
eggs, and the melted fat. Pour into a very hot, well-greased
pan. Bake from 40 to 50 minutes in a moderately hot oven.

BAKED CUSTARD
4 to 6 eggs /2 teaspoon vanilla
1 quart milk Butter
6 to 8 tablespoons sugar Nutmeg
Y4 teaspoon salt
Heat the milk, sugar, and salt. Stir the hot milk slowly
into the lightly beaten eggs. Add the vanilla. Pour the mix-
ture into custard cups, add a bit of butter to each, and sprinkle
lightly with nutmeg. Bake in a moderate oven (350F.) on a
rack in a pan of water until the custards are set. When the
point of a thin knife comes out clean, the custard is done and
should be removed at once from the hot water to keep it from
cooking too much. Serve either hot or cold in the custard
cups. A spoonful of bright jelly may be placed on top just
before serving.

SOFT CUSTARD
4 to 6 eggs '/4 teaspoon salt
1 quart milk 1 teaspoon vanilla
6 to 8 tablespoons sugar
Heat the milk, sugar, and salt in a double boiler. Beat the
eggs lightly and mix in some of the hot milk. Pour back into
the double boiler, and stir constantly until the custard coats
the spoon. Remove at once from the heat, and set in a bowl
of cold water. Add the vanilla.






SOFT CUSTARD VARIATIONS
To make floating island, reserve two of the egg whites and
make custard of the remaining ingredients listed above. Cook
the stiffly beaten whites by floating portions in a covered pan
of hot water for a few minutes. Serve the cooked egg whites
on top of the custard. Or, make small baked meringues of the
two egg whites to serve on top of the soft custard. For baked
meringues, add gradually one-half cup of fine granulated sugar
to two stiffly beaten egg whites containing one-eighth teaspoon
of salt. Beat the mixture until stiff enough to hold its shape.
Flavor with one-fourth teaspoon of vanilla. Drop rounded
teaspoonfuls of the mixture on oiled paper and bake in a slow
oven (250" to 275"F.) for about one hour. Place the baked
meringues on top of the custard immediately before serving.
Thin custard made of three eggs or six egg yolks to 1 quart
of milk, with sugar and flavoring to taste may be served as
a sauce with fruits or puddings.

FRUIT CUP
1 tablespoon sugar 2 apples
Y4 cup water 1 banana
3 oranges
Make a sirup by boiling the sugar and water together. Peel
the oranges, and cut into pieces. Pare the apples and cut into
pieces. Skin and scrape the bananas and slice them. Mix the
fruit and pour the cooled sirup over the fruit. Chill well before
serving.

CHOCOLATE BLANC MANGE
112 squares bitter chocolate /4 teaspoon salt
1 cup evaporated milk diluted, or 1 cup boiling water
cup fresh milk 1-3 cup sugar
1-3 cup cold water 2 teaspoons cornstarch
1 teaspoon vanilla 1 egg
Melt chocolate over hot water. Add diluted milk and
continue heating until mixture is smooth. Mix cornstarch,
sugar and salt thoroughly, add cold water and stir to a smooth
paste. Pour slowly into hot chocolate mixture, stirring con-
stantly to prevent lumping. Cook 20 minutes, stirring occa-
sionally to keep smooth. Beat egg thoroughly, add some of
hot mixture, stirring vigorously, then add egg mixture to blanc
mange and cook 2 minutes longer. (Beaten eggs should never
be added to hot cooking mixture because the egg cooks in
strings and does not blend well.) Remove from fire, add vanilla
and pour into molds. Chill.







CHOCOLATE PUDDING
2 cups milk 1/8 teaspoon salt
2%1 tablespoons cornstarch 2 tablespoons cocoa
4 tablespoons sugar Few drops vanilla
Heat the milk in a double boiler. Mix the cornstarch, sugar,
salt, and cocoa together. Add the scalded milk slowly, stirring
all the time. Cook in a double boiler until the mixture thickens.
Cover and cook for 30 minutes. Beat well. Add vanilla and
pour into a dish, which has been rinsed in cold water and allow
the pudding to chill before serving.
TAPIOCA CREAM
1/2 cups milk 1-3 cup sugar
4 tablespoons Minute tapioca 1/2 teaspoon salt
Put milk in top of double boiler; add sugar, salt and washed
and drained Minute tapioca; cook 20 minutes. Serve plain.
GINGERBREAD
2 cups sifted flour % cup baking molasses
2 tablespoon ginger 2 tablespoons cooking oil
/2 tablespoon cinnamon 1 egg
/2 teaspoon soda /2 cup milk
/2 teaspoon salt /4 cup water
Sift the dry ingredients together twice. Add the molasses,
oil, beaten egg, milk, and water. Stir until well mixed. Pour
the batter into a shallow oiled pan and bake in a moderate oven
about 25 minutes. Serve hot.
OATMEAL COOKIES
11/2 cups flour 1-3 cup cooking oil
% teaspoon salt 1/cup chopped raisins
% teaspoon cinnamon 11/2 cups oatmeal
/2 teaspoon soda 1 egg
%cup sugar 7 tablespoons milk
Sift the flour, salt, cinnamon and soda. Mix the sugar with
the oil and the raisins with the oatmeal. Put all of these in-
gredients together and add the beaten egg and the milk. Stir
until well mixed. Drop by teaspoonfuls on greased pans, about
2 inches apart. Bake in a moderately hot oven from 10 to 12
minutes or until lightly browned. This recipe makes about 3
dozen cookies.
BROWN BETTY
2 cups buttered bread crumbs (Brown sugar may be used)
1 quart sliced apples 1 lemon grated rind and juice
1 cups sugar for tart apples- 1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
less if sweet (other fruits may be substituted)
Place in baking dish alternate layers of sliced apples and
buttered bread crumbs. Sprinkle sugar, cinnamon and lemon
over apples. Bake in moderate oven until apples are cooked
and bread crumbs well browned. Serve with custard sauce or
top milk.






CARAMEL PUDDING
1 pint milk 1 cup brown sugar
3 tablespoons flour 1 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon butter 1 teaspoon vanilla
Heat milk over hot water. Mix sugar and flour and salt.
Add milk gradually to this mixture and return to double boiler
and cook well until thickened, stirring to prevent lumping.
Add fat or omit; vanilla if desired, and turn into a pan to cool.
This may also be used as a sauce over baked apples or Brown
Betty.

RAISIN BREAD PUDDING OR RICE PUDDING
2 cups stale white bread or cooked 1 egg
rice 2 tablespoons sugar
2 cups milk /4 cup raisins
Soak the stale bread in hot milk. Add the beaten egg,
sugar, and raisins. Pour into a greased pudding dish and bake
in a moderate oven until lightly browned.

BAKED APPLES
Make a syrup of 1 cup boiling water and 1 cup sugar. Wash
and core 6 cooking apples. Peel the top of each apple. With
a sharp knife, loosen the skin from the apples about 1/2 inch
down. Place the apples in a pudding dish, cover with the syrup,
cover and cook gently on top of stove for 15 minutes. Uncover,
sprinkle with sugar and bake in a moderate oven (375"),
basting occasionally till apples are cooked. Remove from oven.
Wtih a spoon, put remaining syrup over apples and in the core
cavities. A few cinnamon candies, added to the syrup while
cooking, will give a pleasing red tinge to the apples and syrup.

APPLE SAUCE
10 apples Cinnamon
1 cup hot water Salt
8 tablespoons sugar
Wash the apples well, remove the stem and blossom ends
and cut the apples into thin slices. Add the water, cover and
cook quickly until the apples are soft.
Press through a colander, add the sugar and a little cinna-
mon and salt. Serve hot or cold.

STEWED FRUITS
(Raisins, figs, prunes, apricots and peaches)
Wash carefully and soak over night 1 pound of dried fruit,
add about 1 cup of sugar and cook slowly until tender in the
same water in which the fruit has soaked.







ONE-DISH MEALS


TOMATO RAREBIT
2 tablespoons fat 2 tablespoons flour
/2 cup evaporated milk 1 cup canned tomatoes
1/ teaspoon soda 2 cups finely cut cheese
2 eggs slightly beaten Salt
/8 teaspoon mustard Paprika
Melt fat, and add flour. Pour on milk gradually, and as
soon as the mixture thickens add tomatoes mixed with soda,
cheese, eggs, and seasonings. As soon as cheese has melted,
serve on whole wheat toast.

CASSEROLE OF RICE AND VEAL
1 lb breast of veal, cut in cubes 1 small onion, minced
2 tablespoons fat 1 tablespoon flour
2 cups steamed rice Salt and pepper
Saute the veal, cover with water, add the onion, salt and
pepper, and simmer for 30 minutes. Add the flour, blended
with water. Line a baking dish with steamed rice, fill the
center of the mould with the veal, cover with rice and cracker
crumbs and put into hot oven until browned.

SPAGHETTI WITH HAMBURGER
12 lb. Hamburger 1 small onion, minced
1/4 lb. grated cheese 2 teaspoons salt
2 cups strained canned tomatoes 1 package spaghetti, boiled
2 tablespoons fat
Cook the beef and onion in the fat until well browned. Add
other ingredients and cook slowly for one hour.


PLATE LUNCH SUGGESTIONS
Boiled Ham Creamed Chipped Beef Swiss Steak
on Toast
Scalloped Corn Mashed Potatoes
String Beans
Half of Baked Apple Buttered Peas
Apple Pineapple Salad



Meat Loaf Scalloped Corn with Creamed Peas and
Bacon Strips Carrots
Buttered Cabbage Carrots Mashed Potatoes
Vegetable Salad Bread and Butter-
Spinach Timbales 2 slices
1/2 pint milk






VEGETABLE PLATE SUGGESTIONS


Baked beans
Creamed onions
Braised carrots
Collards, spinach, or
kale




Kidney beans
Creamed cabbage
Apple sauce


Peas-creamed
Buttered cabbage
Celery stuffed with
cream cheese
Candied sweet
potatoes




Baked potato
Peas
Cauliflower
Pineapple




Baked noodles (with
cheese)
Scalloped tomatoes
Stuffed prune salad


Lima beans
Scalloped tomatoes
Cole slaw






Spaghetti with cheese
Stewed tomatoes
Wilted lettuce


Scalloped potatoes
Hard cooked eggs
Buttered beets
Creamed spinach





Corn fritters
String beans
Carrots
Apple




Scalloped corn with
cheese
Asparagus-buttered
and on toast
Fried apples


Boiled rice
Creamed carrots and
onions
Lettuce salad





Baked potato
Green peppers stuffed
with tomatoes and
toast
Baked apple


Creamed cauliflower
Buttered yellow beans
Buttered greens
Shredded lettuce with
thousand-island
dressing




Lima beans
Cabbage
Fried egg plant
Tomato




Creamed peas
Baked styled potatoes
Glazed carrots
Tomato salad
Apple sauce and cookie







MEAT SUBSTITUTES


BAKED LIMA BEANS
Wash and soak over night 2 cups dried limas, drain, put in
greased casserole, season with salt and pepper. Add a 2 inch
cube of fat salt pork, 1/2 cup or more of small carrot cubes. Add
water to cover, put on cover and bake in a slow oven. Add
more water as beans cook, if necessary. A little onion and green
pepper may be added if desired.
CREAMED EGGS ON TOAST
Allow 1 egg to a person 2 teaspoons fat
1 pt. of milk 1 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons flour
Make white sauce. Cover eggs with boiling water and cook
just below the boiling point for 15 to 20 minutes. Remove shells
and cut into eighth lengthwise, fold carefully into white sauce
just before serving.
CHEESE FONDUE
1 1-3 cups bread crumbs 1 cup hot water
1Y2 cups grated cheese 2 eggs
V2 teaspoon baking powder 1/2 teaspoon salt
Mix bread crumbs, cheese, salt and hot water. Add beaten
egg yolks. Fold in stiffly beaten whites to which the baking
powder has been added. Pour into greased baking dish, set in
pan of hot water. Bake in moderate oven 30-35 minutes.
OMELET
4 eggs /2 cup mashed potatoes
4 tablespoons milk or water Salt
1 tablespoon fat
Separate yolks from whites. Mix yolks, add milk or water,
salt and potatoes. Beat whites until stiff and mix all together.
Pour into hot greased pan. Cover and cook slowly or bake in
oven. Any cooked vegetable or rice or half cup white sauce may
be used instead of potatoes. Spanish omelet is plain omelet
served with a sauce made with
1 cup canned tomatoes 1 teaspoon sugar
1 onion sliced salt and pepper
MACARONI AND CHEESE
1 pkg. macaroni 1 teaspoon salt
1 pt. milk 1/2 lb. of grated cheese
2 tablespoons flour 1 egg
2 teaspoon fat
Cook macaroni until tender in boiling water. Make white
sauce; melt cheese in this white sauce. Add this slowly to the
beaten egg. Combine with the well drained macaroni. Put in
greased baking dish. Bake in moderate oven until egg is cooked.






LEFTOVERS
JELLIED VEGETABLES
2 tablespoons gelatin /z cup vinegar
2 cup cold water 2 cups boiling water
1 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup sugar
VEGETABLES
Soak gelatin in cold water. Add vinegar, hot water, sugar
and salt. When mixture begins to thicken, add any leftover
vegetables on hand, such as string beans, peas, beets, chopped
cabbage, a few stalks of celery, a little cucumber or pepper.
Turn into a mold and chill.
CASSEROLE OF VEGETABLES
2 tablespoons butter 1 cup milk
1 tablespoon flour 2 cups cooked vegetables
/2 teaspoon salt 2 cup soft bread crumbs
Ya teaspoon pepper Grated cheese
Asparagus tips
Make a white sauce of butter, flour, salt, pepper and milk.
Put vegetables and bread crumbs in a greased baking dish and
add white sauce. Arrange asparagus tips on top and sprinkle
with grated cheese. Cover and keep in refrigerator until nearly
meal time. Then bake about 20 or 30 minutes and serve hot.
LEFT-OVER CEREALS
When using Wheatena, cornmeal mush, Cream of Wheat, or
Ralston's, make twice the amount needed for breakfast. Put
what remains in a deep dish, press down until firm. The next
morning, slice in 1/ inch slices, roll in flour and fry in drippings
till a thin crust forms. Serve with any sirup preferred.
OLD-FASHIONED POTATO SALAD
2 cups sliced boiled potatoes Salt
2 thin slices bacon Pepper
1 tablespoon flour 2 tablespoons chopped parsley
/4 cup water 1/2 cup vinegar
Slice cold boiled potatoes into medium thick slices. Cut
the strips of bacon into small cubes and fry until crisp in a
frying pan. Stir the flour into the hot fat, and add vinegar
and water. Season well with salt and pepper and pour it hot
over the potatoes, mixing carefully so as not to break the slices.
Add chopped parsley last. Serve warm if desired, or allow to
cool.
SPANISH RICE
2cups left-over rice 1 onion
Y4 green pepper Bread crumbs
2 tablespoons bacon fat 1 small can of tomatoes
(Left-over meat if wanted)
Fry onion and green pepper in fat till tender. Add tomatoes
and thoroughly heat. Pour over rice and mix thoroughly. Put
in baking dish and sprinkle with bread crumbs, bake for one-
half hour.








DIRECTIONS AND TIME TABLES FOR COOKING




HOW TO COOK CEREALS


CEREAL


AMOUNT


Oatmeal 1
Rolled oats 1 cuI
Cornmeal .................... 1 "
Hominy (coarse) ...... 1 "
Hominy (fine) .......... 1
Wheatena
Rasjton (
Pettijohn
Cream of wheat
Farina


SALT


WATER COOKING TIME


S 1/2 to 3 teaspoon 2 to 3 cups 1 hour


6
4 "
4


1 to 11/2


4 to 6 cups 30 minutes
to 1 hour


1. Boil the necessary amc
double boiler and add the salt.


nunt of water in upper part of


2. When the water boils rapidly, add the cereal slowly,
stirring constantly.


3. Cook directly over the fire for at least 5 minutes, then
cook over hot water from 30 minutes to 3 hours, according to
cereal directions. Cereal for babies, small children and sick
people should be cooked as physician directs.


4. It is a good plan to cook such cereals as oatmeal, corn-
meal and hominy in a fireless cooker over night. Other cereals
may be cooked the night before and reheated in the morning.


5. Cook cereal in milk for added food value. A few chopped
dates, raisins or figs stirred into the cereal before serving
change its flavor.
6. Left-over cereals should be saved as they can be made
into palatable and nourishing dishes.


3 "
3 "
1 "







WAYS TO USE MILK


Milk to drink, as whole milk, buttermilk and skimmilk.
In cocoa, chocolate, cream soups, cream sauces, escalloped
dishes, milk puddings, ice creams, cookies, cakes and bread.
On cereals and desserts.

White Sauce
MATERIALS THIN MEDIUM THICK
Milk 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup
Flour 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons 3 tablespoons
Fat 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons 2 tablespoons
Salt 1/3 teaspoon 1/3 teaspoon 1/3 teaspoon
Pepper to taste. Melt the fat. Add flour and seasonings
and stir until smooth. Add milk slowly, stirring constantly.
Cook over the fire for three minutes. Or cook in a double
boiler for 10 minutes. The thin sauce is used for making cream
soups, the medium sauce for creamed and escalloped dishes and
the thick sauce for binding together meat loaves or croquettes.


FRUITS

RAW FRUITS ARE BEST FOR THOSE WHO DIGEST THEM WELL
1. Much flavor and health value of fruits are lost by over-
cooking. Cook only enough to make tender. Use a very small
quantity of water and a tightly covered vessel. Use very little
sugar; add it just before removing from the fire.
2. Dried fruits, such as apples, pears, peaches and prunes
should, as a rule, be cooked. Wash thoroughly, then soak over-
night in lukewarm water. Cook in tightly covered vessel, in.
the same water in which the fruit is soaked. A few slices of
orange or lemon improve the flavor greatly. Sugar is not
necessary for dried fruits.
3. Dried fruits may be used as dessert, in salads, mixed with
cooked dishes and as confections.






VEGETABLES
TIME-TABLE FOR VEGETABLE COOKERY
BOILING


VEGETABLES


Asparagus

Beans, green
Beets, young
Beets, old
Brussels sprouts
Cabbage, green
Cabbage, white
Cabbage, red
Carrots
Cauliflower

co Celery
SOnions, white
Onions, yellow
Parsnips

Peas, green
Potatoes, Irish

Potatoes, sweet

Rutabagas

Spinach


Squash

Turnips


How TO PREPARE


Woody ends cut off

Whole
Whole
Whole
Whole
Quartered or shredded
Quartered or shredded
Quartered or shredded
Cut in halves or thirds lengthwise
Whole or separated in flowerlets

Cut up
Whole or partially quartered
Whole or partially quartered
Cut crosswise in two pieces or
lengthwise in halves or thirds
Shelled
Whole with or without jackets
or pared and cut into halves
lengthwise
Whole in jackets or pared and
cut crosswise in two pieces or
lengthwise in halves
Cut lengthwise into slices V2
inch thick
Stems removed or not removed

Pared and cut into pieces 2x3
inches
Pared, whole or sliced


-------------- I


AMOUNT OF WATER
Enough to cover

Enough to keep from burning
Enough to keep from burning
Enough to keep from burning
Enough to cover
Large amount
Large amount
Large amount
Enough to keep from burning
Large amount

Enough to keep from burning
Large amount
Large amount
Enough to cover

Enough to keep from burning
Enough to cover

Enough to cover or if pared
to keep from burning

Large amount

Stems removed-large amount
Not removed-enough to keep
from burning
Enough to keep from burning

Large amount


COVERED
No

No
Yes-No
Yes-No
No
No
No
No
Yes-No
No

Yes-No
No
No
No

No
Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No


TIME-MINUTES
Tips 5-10
Butts 15-30
30-35
30-45
120-240
8-12
6-9
8-10
20-25
20-25
Whole 10-15
Flowerlets 8-10
15-25
25-40
20-25
25-30

15-30
30-40

25-35

25-30

With stems 8-12
Without stems 3-8
20

20-30







VEGETABLES


TIME-TABLE FOR VEGETABLE COOKERY (Continued)


BAKING


VEGETABLE TEMPERATURE TIME
Potatoes, Irish 450oF 45-60 minutes
Potatoes, sweet 450P 45-60 minutes
Squash, Hubbard 450"F 20 minutes
and
400F 30-40 minutes longer



STEAMING

TIME TO COOK
VEGETABLES How TO PREPARE IN IN PRESSURE
STEAMER COOKER
Minutes Minutes Pounds
Pressure
Beets Whole 60-90 Young 15
15
Old
30 15
Carrots Sliced crosswise Young:
25-30 Old
Old: 10-15 10
40-50
Parsnips Cut crosswise in two pieces
and lengthwise in halves 25-35
Potatoes, Irish Quartered 30-45
Potatoes, Sweet Cut crosswise in two pieces
and lengthwise in halves 25-35
Spinach (Young) Stem removed 8-10
Squash (Hubbard) Pared and cut in 2-inch
squares 20-25


Emphasis is placed on short time cooking of vegetables. A rule to
follow is to cook vegetables only until they are barely tender, never until
they are soft and mushy. Test them for tenderness with the sharp point
of a steel fork, blunt tines frequently break the food, making it unsightly.
If vegetables are cooked too long, at least two of the vitamins, B and C,
are destroyed. Many of the valuable mineral substances, like iron, and
the vitamins dissolve in water. This is the reason the vegetables should
be cooked in a small amount of water whenever possible.








EGGS


THE WAY EGGS SHOULD LOOK WHEN DONE


METHOD OF
COOKING
Soft cooked

Medium cooked


Hard cooked

Poached

Fried





Omelet


French omelet

Scrambled


WHITE

Even coagulation
Tender

Even coagulation
Rather firm but
tender
Firm but tender
No dark spots
Thoroughly co-
agulated. Tender
Tender


YOLK

Soft


Thick but not
hard

Dry but not
powdery. Tender


GENERAL
APPEARANCE
Jelly-like
consistency

Creamy
consistency

Firm consistency


Yolk covered with Regular in shape
film of white No ragged edges.


White coating
over yolk. Yolk
in center of
white


White and yolk uniformly mixed.
Sufficiently coagulated but tender.
Well seasoned.

Completely coagulated but tender.
Well seasoned.

Coagulated but moist enough to
hold together. Tender. Well
seasoned.


Round or nearly
so. Slightly
browned on
bottom


Very light and
fluffy. Delicately
browned.

Delicately
browned.
Creamy. Shiny
when cooked.


FOLLOW THESE DIRECTIONS IN COOKING EGGS
Soft Cooked Eggs: Use enough water to cover eggs; the exact
amount will depend upon the size of the container. Bring water to
boiling point, place eggs in water and cover. Remove from heat and
allow to stand for five minutes if a heavyaluminum utensil is used,
and seven minutes if a lighter aluminum or granite utensil is used.
Medium-Cooked Eggs: Follow directions for soft-cooked eggs, letting
them stand in water for 9 or 11 minutes.
Hard-Cooked Eggs: Follow directions for soft-cooked eggs, letting
them stand 15 or 17 minutes.
Fried Eggs: Method I: Heat butter or other fat in frying pan
(enough to keep egg from sticking), drop in egg, cook until white is
firm, turn over once while cooking. Cook slowly.
Method II: Heat a large quantity bacon or other
fat in frying pan, and drop in egg. As egg cooks, keep pouring the hot
fat over top of egg. Cook slowly
Method III: Oil frying pan just enough to keep
eggs from sticking. Break egg and drop into pan. Cover, cook very
slowly. A little water may be added, so that the steam will help form
a coat of white over the top of the egg.







TIME-TABLE FOR MEAT COOKERY


BROILING OR PANBROILING
STEAK
1 inch thick, medium rare .......................................................... 8-10 minutes
1/2-2 inches thick, medium rare ................................................20-25 minutes
LAMB CHOPS
Loin, single, %-1 inch thick .....................................................10-15 minutes
double, 1 1-2 inches thick ................................................25-30 minutes
Rib, single .........................................................................................10-15 m minutes
double ........................................................................................30-35 m minutes
Shoulder ..............................................................................................10-15 m minutes
HAM
V4 inch thick ...................................................-............. ................. 3 m minutes
/2 inch thick .......................................................................................... 5 m minutes

ROASTING
BEEF (RIBS)
Sear 20-30 minutes at 500F; finish roasting at 3001F.
Allow 16 minutes per pound for rare roast
20 minutes per pound for medium roast
30 minutes per pound for well-done roast
PORK
Sear 15 minutes at 500F; then finish roasting at 300*F.
Allow 30 minutes per pound plus searing for 4-5 pound loin
25-30 minutes per pound plus searing for fresh shoulder
25-30 minutes per pound plus searing for fresh ham
45-50 minutes per pound plus searing for fresh butt
HAM
Allow 25 minutes per pound for 10-12 pound ham
20 minutes per pound for larger hams
30 minutes per pound for half hams
LAMB
Sear 30 minutes at 480*F; finish roasting at 300*F.
Allow 30 minutes per pound.
VEAL
Sear 25 minutes at 500F.
Allow 20 minutes per pound at 250*F.



BRAISING
Pot Roast, 4-6 pounds ......................................................3-3 hours
Swiss steak .................................. ..............................................1.. -1% hours
Veal cutlet ............................................................................... 45 m inutes-1 hour
Pork chops .......... ..................... .......................... .........................30-45 minutes



COOKING IN WATER (SIMMERING)
Beef, 4-5 pounds ................................................................................about 3 hours
Ham ............................... ..p.... ..... ................................. 25 minutes per pound







BAKING


OVEN TEMPERATURES FOR BAKING
Custards-250* F., very slow
Meringues
Sponge cake 300"F., slow
Angel cake
Gingerbread-350F., moderate
Plain cakes
Cookies -375*F., moderate
Bread )
Muffins -410F., hot
Popovers-425 F., hot
Parker-house rolls--435F., hot
Baking powder biscuits-425"F., very hot
Pastry-425F., very hot



MEASURING INGREDIENTS
Correct measuring is one of the most important factors in
making good baked products. Note the directions given below:
1. All measurements given in standard recipes are level unless
otherwise stated.
2. To measure a cupful of a dry ingredient, fill the cup and then
level it off with the straight side of a knife.
3. To measure either a teaspoonful or a tablespoonful of a dry
ingredient, dip the spoon into the material and level off
with the straight side of a knife. Divide the level spoonful
lengthwise with a knife for a half spoonful; divide a half
crosswise for a quarter.
4. Always sift flour once before measuring.
5. Do not dip measuring cup into flour, sugar, milk, etc. Such
practice not only is untidy but wastes the material being
measured and may result in inaccurate measurements. Use
a tablespoon or a small scoop to fill the cup.
6. An accurate measure of shortening (butter, lard, or other
fat) especially if it is hard, can be obtained by packing it
down. Another method, if a fraction of a cupful is to be
used, is the water method. From a full cup of water, pour
off a fraction equivalent to the amount of fat to be used.
Then put in fat until the water reaches the "full" mark.
Pour off the water and you have an accurate measure of
fat.






THRIFT SUGGESTIONS


"A Penny Saved is a Penny Earned."
When every penny must count, buy first milk, fruits, vege-
tables, breads and cereals. Milk, fruit and green vegetables are
good safeguards for family health.
Do not destroy food value, especially vitamins, by over-
cooking vegetables. Never add soda to the cooking water.
Use water in which pared and leafy vegetables have been
cooked for soups, sauces, etc. Delicious salads can be made
from left-over vegetables.
A whole dinner in one dish makes an inexpensive, time-
saving meal.
White eggs are no more nourishing than brown eggs and
are sometimes more expensive.
Skimmilk, cottage cheese and buttermilk are good, inexpen-
sive foods.
It is possible to use unsweetened evaporated milk without
loss of food value. One tall can of evaporated milk takes the
place of one quart of fresh milk. As your income decreases
more of your money should be spent for milk, cereals, and
vegetables and less for meats, sweets and fats.
Ordinary foods are more palatable when attractively served.
Use as many as possible of the low-priced vegetables that are
good to eat raw, such as carrots, cabbage, turnips, cucumbers,
tomatoes, onions and lettuce. This saves time and fuel.
Watch for sales of oranges, ripe bananas, and apples. The
savings on canned goods, especially milk, vegetables and cook-
ing molasses, if bought in large cans, instead of small, is
considerable.
It is often a saving to shop for less perfect fruits and vege-
tables for immediate use. Small sized fruits and vegetables are
also cheaper. Prices are sometimes reduced late in the day.
Select vegetables and fruits that your local market affords
at lowest price.
Day-old bread may often be bought at a reduced price.
An all day picnic with both lunch and supper out in the
open air can be achieved on a low cost food budget.
Plan for the day, or for several days, rather than for each
separate meal.







Dried fruits such as apples, apricots, dates, figs, peaches,
prunes, raisins, and the like, are usually less expensive than
fresh fruits out of season.
The homemaker should go to the store to select her foods,
especially meats, fresh fruits and vegetables.
Staple foods that keep well can be purchased more econom-
ically in as large quantities as can be stored. The cost of
materials in bulk if compared with the cost of the same foods
in smaller packages will show the larger purchase to be a
substantial saving. Buy only in clean stores and where fresh
supplies come often. Foods sold in ready-to-eat form cost more
because of the expense of preparing them.
Canned foods come in a variety of sizes which go by num-
bers. The use of No. 2 or 3 size can saves money. The grade
called "Standard" is the most satisfactory for family use.
Watch for sales of canned foods. Canned foods are safe.
The label on all canned or package goods, tells something
the purchaser needs to know, especially about the weight of
the contents.
Fresh or canned tomatoes and oranges are practically inter-
changeable as far as their food value is concerned. Either or
both, depending upon which one is cheaper, belong in low cost
diets.
Care should be used to keep foods from spoiling. In summer
ice may more than pay for itself. In winter a small out-of-door
cupboard is useful.
Prepare enough vegetables, cereals and meats for more than
one meal at a time, saving fuel and labor.
Produce as much of your food as possible and can the sur-
plus for future use.
Use cheese, dried beans, peas and lentils as meat substitutes.
The cheapest cuts of meat, if used for stews, do not consume
much fuel because they are cooked on top of the stove.
Some of the cheapest cuts of meat, such as shin, neck, flank,
rump chuck, bottom round, heart, liver, tripe, can be made
attractive by good cooking. The food value is just as high as
in more expensive cuts. Vegetables can be used with meat for
flavor. Dumplings give variety.
In purchasing meat not only the cost per pound should be
considered, but the amount of bone and fat in proportion to
lean meats.







Meat trimmings should be used. Bones and lean bits should
be put into soup. The fat should be tried out for cooking. A
soup bone frequently has enough meat on it for hash or meat
pie.
A small amount of meat combined with macaroni, rice or
potatoes and other vegetables will serve a large family.
Consider first of all what you have on hand to be used.
Small pieces of leftover meat and other food can be chopped
and combined with different things to make a main dish for
another meal.
Attractive seasonings can be grown in the flower pots,
hanging baskets, window boxes. Parsley, thyme and mint will
grow rapidly this way.
Do not waste anything. Be sure to leave no food clinging
to pans.
Regular hours for meals served in family groups is import-
ant. A happy meal hour will help much to make simple food
satisfactory.



REFERENCES
"Chemistry of Foods," Henry C. Sherman. (Macmillan.)
"Foundation of Nutrition," Mary Schwartz Rose. (Macmillan.)
"Growth and Development of the Child," Part III, Nutrition-Report of
Committee on Growth and Development, White House Conference.
(Century.)
"Nutrition and Physical Fitness," L. Jean Bogert. (W. B. Saunders Co.)
"Nutrition Work with Children," Lydia J. Roberts. (University of Chi-
cago Press.)
"Hows and Whys of Cooking," Halliday & Noble. (University of Chi-
cago press.)
"The Most Nearly Perfect Food," Crumbine & Toby. (Williams & Wil-
kins.)
"Food Facts for Every Day," Florence E. Winchell. (J. B. Lippincott
Co.)
Publications, Bureau of Home Economics, United States Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
Leaflets, Philadelphia Child Health Society.
Meat Cookery Table. National Live Stock and Meat Board.
Eggs Cookery Table. Beulah V. Gillaspie. McCall's Magazine.
The following material to supplement this bulletin may be obtained from
the State Home Demonstration Department, Tallahassee, Florida.
"Suggestions for the Planning of Economical Meals."
"Quick Bread and Cereals."
"Practical Milk Recipes."
"Meats."





WEEKLY RECORD OF HOME-PRODUCED FOODS CONSUMED Date: From ..................... Through ....................
Fats and Oils,
Eggs, Meat, Fish Butter, Lard,
Cereals, Fruits and Cheese, Dried Salt Pork
Milk Bread Vegetables Beans, Peas, Other Foods
Lentils Sweets-Sugar,
Sirups, etc.

Amt. Cost Amt. Cost Amt. Cost Amt. Cost Amt. Cost Amt. Cost
__ $ 1 1$ ___ $ __ __ $ _$


$


Totals







WEEKLY RECORD OF FOODS PURCHASED


Date: From ............................... Through .................................


Eggs, Meat, Fish
Cheese, Dried
Beans, Peas,
Lentils


Fats and Oils,
Butter, Lard,
Salt Pork
Sweets-Sugar,
Sirups, etc.


Milk


Cereals,
Bread


Fruits and
Vegetables


Other Foods














MEASURES


1 lb. apricots .......................................50-60 halves
1 lb. bacon .............................................20-25 slices
1 lb. beans, dried ...............................2 cups
1 lb. butter ............................................2 cups
1 lb. cheese, grated ........................4 cups
1 lb. coffee, ground .......................5 cups
1 lb. cornmeal ....................................2-1/3 cups
1 lb. flour ............................................ .4 cups
1 lb. hominy ..........................................3 cups
1 lb. lard .............................................. ..2 cups
1 lb. peanuts, shelled .................2 cups
1 lb. potatoes .......................................3 to 4
1 lb. rice ................................................... 2 cups
1 lb. sugar, granulated ...............2 cups
1 lb. sugar, brown ...........................2-2/3 cups
Size No. 1 can....................................... to 1% cups
Size No. 2 can .......................................2 to 2% cups
Size No. 2 can .................................2 to 2-2/3 cups
Size No. 3 can .......................................4 cups









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