• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 Summary of tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Group Title: Soil survey of DeSoto County, Florida. 1989.
Title: Soil survey of DeSoto County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026091/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of DeSoto County, Florida
Physical Description: 1 case (1 v., 8 maps) : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1989]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- De Soto County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- De Soto County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 95-96).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 90-86-P.
General Note: "Issued July 1989"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026091
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001532414
notis - AHE5830
oclc - 21172091

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    Summary of tables
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Foreword
        Page ix
        Page x
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    How this survey was made
        Page 6
        Map unit composition
            Page 7
            Page 8
    General soil map units
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Use and management of of the soils
        Page 49
        Crops and pasture
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Range and grazeable woodland
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 54
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 55
        Recreation
            Page 56
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Engineering
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
    Soil properties
        Page 63
        Engineering index properties
            Page 63
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 64
        Soil and water features
            Page 65
            Page 66
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
        Engineering index test data
            Page 70
    Classification of soils
        Page 71
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 71
        Anclote series
            Page 72
        Basinger series
            Page 72
        Bradenton series
            Page 72
            Page 73
        Cassia series
            Page 74
        Chobee series
            Page 74
        Delray series
            Page 75
        Durban series
            Page 76
        EauGallie series
            Page 76
        Farmton series
            Page 77
        Felda series
            Page 77
        Floridana series
            Page 78
        Gator series
            Page 79
        Immokalee series
            Page 79
        Malabar series
            Page 80
        Myakka series
            Page 81
        Ona series
            Page 81
        Pineda series
            Page 82
        Pinellas series
            Page 83
        Pomello series
            Page 83
        Pompano series
            Page 84
        Punta series
            Page 84
        Samsula series
            Page 85
        Satellite series
            Page 85
        Smyrna series
            Page 86
        Tavares series
            Page 86
        Terra Ceia series
            Page 87
        Valkaria series
            Page 88
        Wabasso series
            Page 88
        Wulfert series
            Page 89
        Zolfo series
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
    Formation of the soils
        Page 93
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 93
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 94
    References
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Glossary
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Tables
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    General soil map
        Page 171
    Index to map sheets
        Page 172
        Page 173
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
Full Text


United States
Department of
Agriculture
Soil
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with the
University of Florida,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and
Soil Science Department;
and the
Florida Department of
Agriculture and
Consumer Services


Soil Survey of

DeSoto County,

Florida


I. ~
*
.~


-J

1
















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps


The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas.


To find information about
your area of interest,
locate that area on the
Index to Map Sheets,
which precedes the soil
maps. Note the number of
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet.


Locate your area of
interest on the map
sheet. Note the map unit
symbols that are in that
area. Turn to the Index
to Map Units (see Con-
tents), which lists the map
units by symbol and
name and shows the
page where each map
unit is described.


I 1 J 4



1 7 -
id 1 1.. 1 .o
INDEX TO MAP SHEETS









MAP SEET



MAP SHEET


Sok( mo E



MAP SHEET


AREA OF INTEREST
NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
survey may consist only of numbers or
letters, or they may be a combination
of numbers and letters.


The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal part
of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1985. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1986. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1985. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil Science Department; the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services; and the Florida Department of Transportation. It is part
of the technical assistance furnished to the Peace River Soil and Water
Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: The historic Peace River traverses DeSoto County through Bradenton, Felda, and
Chobee soils. (Photograph by Charles Nickolson, Action Photography)


















Contents


Index to map units ............................... iv
Summary of tables ............................... v
Foreword ........................................ ix
General nature of the county ...................... 1
How this survey was made..................... .. 6
Map unit composition ............. ............ 7
General soil map units ............................ 9
Detailed soil map units ...................... 15
Use and management of the soils............... 49
Crops and pasture ............ ............ 49
Range and grazeable woodland ................ 52
Woodland management and productivity ......... 54
Windbreaks and environmental plantings ......... 55
Recreation ............................... 56
W wildlife habitat ................................. 56
Engineering ............ ................. 58
Soil properties .................................. 63
Engineering index properties .................... 63
Physical and chemical properties ................ 64
Soil and water features ......................... 65
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses
of selected soils .......................... 67
Engineering index test data ..................... 70
Classification of the soils ........................ 71
Soil series and their morphology................... 71
Anclote series ................................. 72
Basinger series ............. .............. 72
Bradenton series ............................... 72
C assia series .................. ............... 74
Chobee series ................................. 74
D elray series .................................. 75


Durbin series .................................. 76
EauGallie series ............................... 76
Farmton series ................................. 77
Felda series ................................... 77
Floridana series ................................ 78
Gator series ................................... 79
Immokalee series .............................. 79
Malabar series ................................. 80
Myakka series ................................. 81
O na series ................ .............. 81
Pineda series ................................ 82
Pinellas series . ...................... 83
Pom ello series . ..................... 83
Pompano series ............................... 84
Punta series ............. ............... 84
Samsula series ............. .............. 85
Satellite series ................ .............. 85
Smyrna series .................... .......... 86
Tavares series ............. . ..... 86
Terra Ceia series .............................. 87
Valkaria series ................................. 88
Wabasso series ................................ 88
Wulfert series ................................ 89
Zolfo series .................................. 90
Formation of the soils .......................... 93
Factors of soil formation ........................ 93
Processes of soil formation .................... 94
References ..................................... 95
Glossary........................................ 97
Tables ......................................... 105


Issued July 1989

















Index to Map Units


2-Anclote mucky fine sand, depressional.......... 15
3-Basinger fine sand ............................ 16
4-Basinger fine sand, frequently flooded .......... 17
5-Basinger fine sand, depressional .............. 17
6-Bradenton fine sand........... ............. 18
7-Bradenton-Felda-Chobee complex, occasionally
flooded ....................... ............. 18
8-Bradenton-Felda-Chobee complex, frequently
flooded ..................................... 20
9- Cassia fine sand.............. ............. 22
10-Chobee muck, depressional ................. 22
11-Delray mucky fine sand, depressional.......... 23
12-Durbin and Wulfert mucks, frequently flooded... 24
13- EauGallie fine sand .................. .. 24
14-Farmton fine sand ...................... 26
15- Felda fine sand .............................. 26
16-Felda fine sand, frequently flooded ............ 28
17-Felda fine sand, depressional................ 28
18-Floridana mucky fine sand, depressional ....... 29
19-Gator muck, depressional ................... 30
20-Immokalee fine sand ......................... 30
21-Malabar fine sand ............................ 31


22- Malabar fine sand, high ......................
23-Malabar fine sand, depressional...............
24- Myakka fine sand .............................
25- Ona fine sand ...............................
26-Pineda fine sand ......................
27-Pineda fine sand, frequently flooded ...........
28-Pineda fine sand, depressional................
29-Pineda-Pinellas fine sands .................
30-Pomello fine sand......................
31-Pompano fine sand .......... ......... ..
32-Punta fine sand .......................
33-Quartzipsamments, nearly level ...............
34-Samsula muck, depressional..................
35- Satellite fine sand ............................
36-Smyrna fine sand ......................
37-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.....
38-Terra Ceia muck, depressional................
39-Terra Ceia muck, frequently flooded ...........
40- Valkaria fine sand ............................
41- W abasso fine sand ..........................
42- Zolfo fine sand ..............................

















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) ............................... 106

Freeze data (table 2)................................................... 107

Suitability and limitations of map units on the general soil map (table 3)..... 108
Extent of area. Limitations for community development.
Suitability for-Citrus, Improved pasture, Vegetables.
Potential productivity for woodland.

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) ................... 109
Acres. Percent.

Land capability classes and yields per acre of cropland and pasture (table 5)
................. .............................. ...................... 110
Oranges. Grapefruit. Watermelons. Cucumbers.
Bahiagrass.

Capability classes and subclasses (table 6) .................... . 113
Total acreage. Major management concerns.

Rangeland productivity (table 7) ......................................... 114
Range site. Potential annual production for kind of growing
season.

Woodland management and productivity (table 8) .......... ........... 116
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.

Recreational development (table 9) .................................... 121
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.

W wildlife habitat (table 10) ............... ............................... 125
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.

Building site development (table 11) ........................ ........... 128
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.



















Sanitary facilities (table 12) ........................... ..... .......... 132
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.

Construction m materials (table 13) ................. ...................... 136
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.

Water management (table 14)........................................... 139
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.

Engineering index properties (table 15) .. ....... .... ............... 144
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 16)................... 150
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.

Soil and water features (table 17) ..................... ................. 154
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.

Depth to water table in selected soils (table 18) ................. 157
Year. Month.

Physical analyses of selected soils (table 19) . ................. 158
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.

Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 20) ............................ 162
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate-dithionate extractable.





















Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 21) .................... . 166
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay minerals.

Engineering index test data (table 22) .............................. 168
Classification. Mechanical analysis. Liquid limit. Plasticity
index. Moisture density.

Classification of the soils (table 23) . ......... ..................... 170
Family or higher taxonomic class.




















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in DeSoto County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected
land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the
management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and
pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are too unstable to be used
as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to
use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly
suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service

















































































Location of DeSoto County in Florida.













Soil Survey of

DeSoto County, Florida


By W. Dean Cowherd, Warren G. Henderson, Jr., Edward J. Sheehan, and
Susan T. Ploetz, Soil Conservation Service

Additional fieldwork by William E. Perkis, Robert E. Evon,
Richard J. Schantz, Fred J. Simeth, and Gary L. McCoy,
Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department, and with the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services


DESOTO COUNTY is in the southwestern part of
peninsular Florida and is bisected, north to south, by
the Peace River. It is bordered on the north by Hardee
County, on the east by Highlands County, on the South
by Charlotte County, and on the west by Manatee and
Sarasota Counties. DeSoto County covers 406,867
acres including bodies of water, or about 639 square
miles. The county is about 30 miles long and 21 miles
wide. Arcadia, the county seat, is in the west-central
part of the county.
The economy of DeSoto County is based primarily on
agriculture, namely cattle, citrus, and vegetable crops.
The largest nonagricultural enterprises are the G.
Pierce Wood Memorial Hospital, the DeSoto
Correctional Institution, and the Central Maloney
Transformer Division.

General Nature of the County
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that
affect the use and management of the soils in DeSoto
County are described. These factors are climate, history
and development, and physiography, geology, and
hydrology.


Climate

Prepared by the National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North
Carolina.
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation
for the survey area as recorded at Arcadia in the period
1951 to 1980 (18). Table 2 shows freeze data based on
probability of later date in spring (thru July 31) than
indicated, probability of earlier date in fall (beginning
August 1) than indicated, and freeze free period.
In winter the average temperature is 62 degrees F,
and the average daily minimum temperature is 49
degrees. The lowest temperature on record, which
occurred at Arcadia on December 13, 1962, is 18
degrees. In summer the average temperature is 81
degrees, and the average daily maximum temperature
is 92 degrees. The highest recorded temperature, which
occurred at Arcadia on May 27, 1953, is 101 degrees.
The total annual precipitation is 53 inches. Of this, 37
inches, or 70 percent, usually falls in April through
September. The growing season for most crops falls
within this period. In 2 years out of 10, the rainfall in
April through September is less than 15 inches. The
heaviest 1-day rainfall during the period of record was 7






Soil Survey


inches at Arcadia on September 21, 1962.
Thunderstorms occur on about 90 days each year, and
most occur late in the afternoon.
The average relative humidity in midafternoon is
about 57 percent. Humidity is higher at night, and the
average at dawn is about 87 percent. The sun shines
61 percent of the time possible in summer and 63
percent in winter. The prevailing wind is from the east-
northeast. Average windspeed is highest, 7.8 miles per
hour, in March.

History and Development
DeSoto County's history is one of success over
impossible odds. It took a special breed of pioneer to
overcome the obstacles of the humid, mosquito- and
tick-infested swampland and to build one of the state's
major agricultural counties (6).
DeSoto County's history begins with the history of
Manatee County, which split from Hillsborough County
in 1855. At that time most of the settlers lived in areas
along the coast. As settlers moved to the interior, they
settled along the rivers and creeks. Early settlers in
eastern Manatee County had to travel the entire width
of the county to visit the courthouse in the village of
Manatee. A committee to select a more central site for
a new county seat recommended that Pine Level, which
was several miles west of the Peace River, be
designated the new county seat. This site was approved
in 1866. The Pine Level area was surrounded by a vast
wilderness that had numerous panthers, bears, wolves,
wildcats, alligators, and pestiferous insects (10).
Fort Ogden was a major trading post for the area. It
was originally a military fort, known as Camp Ogden,
that was built by the United States Army during the
Second Seminole War.
DeSoto County was created from Manatee County in
May 1887. At that time, the county covered about 3,800
square miles. It was named for the Spanish explorer,
Hernando de Soto. The county seat was moved to
Arcadia in December 1888. The towns of Brownville,
Nocate, and Zolfo Springs were also considered for the
county seat. Pine Level, once a bustling town, gradually
began to disappear. Today, the Pine Level Methodist
Church, which was established in 1868, is still in use.
Arcadia, which began as a small settlement along the
Peace River in the 1870's, was first known as
Waldron's Landing, then Tater Hill Bluff. The name was
changed to Arcadia in 1883. The Peace River was the
lifeblood of the county's commerce until 1886, when the
railroad was completed along the east side of the river
from Bartow to Arcadia.


Phosphate was first discovered in Florida near
Arcadia. Mining operations in DeSoto County began
when it was learned that phosphate could be extracted
from the bottom of the Peace River. By 1900, mining
operations had moved out of the county to better grade
inland deposits, which could be mined more readily.
Phosphate mining is feasible in DeSoto County, but
operations are not being expanded at present because
of the economic conditions.
The Army Signal Corps built the Carlstrom and Dorr
Airfields near Arcadia. These fields were used for
training centers and were reactivated for training during
World War II. The state later purchased these fields
from the Federal government and established a branch
of the State Hospital at Chattahoochee, which is now
the G. Pierce Wood Memorial Hospital. Dorr Field later
became the site of the DeSoto Correctional Institution.
In 1921, DeSoto County was divided to form Glades,
Hardee, Highlands, and Charlotte Counties. Arcadia
remains the county seat, and other communities include
Owens, Fort Winder, and Hull. According to the 1980
census, the population of DeSoto County is about
20,000.
The cattle industry has been significant to both the
economy and history of DeSoto County. In the 1890's,
cattle rustling and gunfights were common, and Arcadia
was known as one of the wildest towns in Florida. The
first official rodeo in Florida was held in Arcadia in
1929, and rodeos are still held twice a year.
DeSoto County is on the fringe of Florida's citrus
belt. Great strides in producing and processing citrus
have been made in recent years.
Although cattle and citrus are the main
agribusinesses in the county, plant nurseries, sod
companies, and such commodities as poultry,
vegetables, and watermelons are also important to the
economy.

Physiography, Geology, and Hydrology

Kenneth M. Campbell, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee,
Florida, helped prepare this section.

Physiography
Several authors have discussed the physiography of
the Florida peninsula, but for the purposes of this
report, W.A. White's (19) classification will be used.
Most of DeSoto County lies within the DeSoto Plain (fig.
1). Part of the county, in the southwest corner, falls
within the boundaries of the Gulf Coastal Lowlands.







DeSoto County, Florida


GULF COASTAL 5 0 5 10 15 20 miles IMMOKALEE RISE
LAGOONS I 1 I I I I

Figure 1.-Most of DeSoto County is in the DeSoto Plain
physiographic area.



The elevation within the county ranges from very
near sea level in the southwest corner along the lower
Peace River Valley to about 90 feet in the northeast
corner of the county. The elevation increases almost
imperceptibly from the southwest toward the northeast.
The topography tends to be flat with relatively steeper
slopes in the vicinity of streams. Much of the
interstream area is poorly drained. Many swamps,
marshes, and ponds are throughout the county. Peace
River, Horse Creek, and Joshua Creek are the major
streams within the county.
DeSoto Plain. The DeSoto Plain is a very flat area
primarily in Manatee, Hardee, DeSoto, Highlands,
Glades, and Charlotte Counties. It is a submarine plain
probably formed under Pleistocene Wicomico seas (70
to 100 feet above present sea level). The notable
absence of relict shoreline features is evidence of the
submarine origin of the DeSoto Plain (19).
Gulf Coastal Lowlands. The southwest corner of
DeSoto County is within the Gulf Coastal Lowlands. The
prominent topographic features include scarps and
terraces, developed during Pleistocene sea level
stands, and the entrenched Peace River Valley (19).
The Pamlico and Talbot Terraces are within the Gulf
Coastal Lowlands in DeSoto County (8). The Pamlico
Terrace is at an elevation of about 8 to 25 feet above


mean sea level. The Talbot Terrace is at 25 to 42 feet.
These terraces extend up the entrenched Peace River
Valley. The terraces are poorly defined elevation zones
except for those in Peace River Valley. The flood plain
of the Peace River lies as much as 30 feet below the
surrounding upland surface in this area.

Geology
Surface and near surface sediments in DeSoto
County consist of quartz sand, clay, limestone, and
dolomite. These sediments range in age from Oligocene
(38 to 22.5 million years ago) to Holocene (10,000
years ago to present).

Oligocene Series
Suwannee Limestone. The Suwannee Limestone is
below the surface throughout DeSoto County (fig. 2). It
is creamy white to light yellowish gray limestone that
ranges in texture from wackestone to packstone and is
indurated to well indurated and variably recrystallized.
The upper part of this sediment is highly fossiliferous,
predominantly poorly preserved Foraminifera, with
mollusc, echinoid, and coral. Moldic and vuggy porosity
is common.
The top of the Suwannee Limestone is about 350
feet below mean sea level in the northeastern and
northwestern corners of the county and dips generally
to the south and south-southeast. In the southeastern
corner of the county, the top of the Suwannee
Limestone is at a depth of about 700 feet below mean
sea level (12, 20). The Suwannee Limestone ranges in
thickness from about 140 feet to more than 400 feet
within the county (20). The thinnest part is in extreme
northeastern DeSoto County, and the thickest part is
along the central part of the western edge of the county.

Miocene Series
Hawthorn Group. The Hawthorn Group, which was
raised from formation status to group status, includes
sediments that were previously included in the Tampa,
Hawthorn, and Bone Valley Formations (12). In DeSoto
County, the Hawthorn Group consists of, in ascending
order, the Arcadia Formation and the Peace River
Formation.
The Arcadia Formation is named after the town of
Arcadia in DeSoto County. The type section is in the
core W12050 between 96 and 216 feet below mean sea
level. The Arcadia Formation contains, in ascending
order, the Nocatee and Tampa Members and an
unnamed member.












HARDEE CO. DESOTO CO.

W-12942
T36S R24E S15ad


W-12948
T37S R24E S34CEN.


ARCADIA FORMATION


DESOTO CO. CHARLOTTE CO.
W-11907
T41S R25E S5CEN.


ARCADIA FORMATION






BASEOF HAWTHORN GROUP


SUWANNEE LIMESTONE


100FT.


0 MILES


SUWANNEE LIMESTONE


Figure 2.-Suwannee Limestone underlies the soils throughout DeSoto County.


The Nocatee Member of the Arcadia Formation,
named for the town of Nocatee in central DeSoto
County, is throughout the county. The sediments
included in this member were previously called the
"sand and clay unit" of the Tampa Limestone.
Lithologically, this member is a complex interbedded
sequence of variably phosphatic quartz sand, clay, and
carbonates, but it is predominantly a clastic (sand and
clay) unit. Quartz sand is typically fine to coarse
grained, sometimes silty, clayey, calcareous or
dolomitic, and variably phosphatic. Clay beds are
common. The clay is variably quartz sandy and silty,


phosphatic, and calcareous to dolomitic. Carbonate
beds are subordinate within the Nocatee Member (12).
The top of the Nocatee Member is at an elevation of
about 200 to 450 feet below mean sea level (12). The
upper surface dips to the south and south-southeast.
The Nocatee Member ranges from about 125 to slightly
more than 200 feet in thickness.
The Tampa Member of the Arcadia Formation is
lithologically similar to the Tampa Formation but has a
slightly greater phosphate content (1 to 3 percent) and
greater areal extent. This member is white to tan quartz
sandy limestone that has a carbonate mud matrix.


Soil Survey







DeSoto County, Florida


Varying amounts of clay are generally disseminated
throughout the rock. Some beds within the Tampa
Member contain more than 50 percent quartz sand, but
dolomite is relatively uncommon (9, 12). The Tampa
Member is recognizable throughout most of the county;
however, the unit becomes indistinct because of a
facies change in eastern DeSoto County and south of
the DeSoto/Charlotte county line. The top of the Tampa
Member is between 150 and 200 feet below mean sea
level. This member ranges from 50 to 100 feet in
thickness.
The upper (unnamed) member of the Arcadia
Formation includes sediments that were previously
referred to as the "Hawthorne carbonate unit."
Lithologically, these sediments consist of white to
yellowish gray, quartz sandy, phosphatic and
sometimes clayey, dolomites and limestones
(uncommon). Carbonate-rich quartz sand and thin clay
beds are occasionally present. This upper member of
the Arcadia Formation is throughout DeSoto County. In
those areas where the Tampa and Nocatee Members
are not recognized, the entire formation remains
undifferentiated. The top of the Arcadia Formation
ranges from near mean sea level in the northern part of
the county to slightly more than 100 feet below mean
sea level. It dips generally in a south-southeast
direction. Where the Arcadia Formation is differentiated,
the upper member is about 100 to 140 feet thick. The
entire Arcadia Formation ranges from slightly less than
300 feet to more than 500 feet in thickness (12).
The Peace River Formation in DeSoto County
consists of those sediments previously described as
"upper Hawthorn clastics." The type section is well
12050 (section 16, township 38S, range 26E), which is
between 41 feet above and 97 feet below mean sea
level (fig. 3). Lithologically, these sediments consist of
yellowish gray to light olive green interbedded
phosphatic sand, clayey sand, clay, and dolomite
stringers.
The top of the Peace River Formation is at or near
mean sea level throughout much of the county;
however, it is 50 feet above mean sea level in the
northwestern part of the county. The base of the Peace
River Formation is gradational with the underlying
Arcadia Formation and is picked at the point where the
sediment changes from predominantly clastic to
predominantly carbonate (12). The Peace River
Formation dips and thickens in a general southeasterly
direction. This formation is about 50 feet thick in the
northeastern and southwestern corners of the county. It
is more than 160 feet thick in the southeastern corner.


Pliocene-Pleistocene Series
Undifferentiated surficial sands and shell. Surficial
deposits of Pliocene-Pleistocene age (5.3 to 0.01 million
years ago) blanket the county. These deposits consist
of silty, clayey, and shelly sand and variably indurated
shell beds. The shell beds generally are limited to the
southern third of the county. The undifferentiated
surficial sands and shell range from 10 to 30 feet in
thickness. Surficial sediments thicken in the south-
central part of the county and along the DeSoto/
Highlands county line.
Clean quartz sand of Pleistocene age (1.6 to 0.01
million years ago) forms a veneer over the clayey and
shelly sand. These deposits consist of unconsolidated
very fine to medium grained quartz sand. The sand is
white to light brown and contains trace amounts of
phosphate sand and limestone or shell fragments.
Holocene Series
Deposits of Holocene age are primarily limited to
present-day stream flood plains, beaches, swamps,
marshes, and lakes. These sediments consist of sand,
silt, clay, and organic material.

Hydrology
Ground water in DeSoto County is obtained from the
surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer
system, and the Floridan Aquifer. The aquifers are
separated by confining layers that restrict vertical water
movement between the aquifer systems.
The surficial aquifer consists primarily of quartz sand
and undifferentiated surficial sand and shell as well as
the uppermost part of the Peace River Formation. With
the exception of some lithified shell beds, these
sediments are unconsolidated.
The top of the surficial aquifer is the ground water
table, and water within this aquifer is generally under
unconfined conditions. The base of this aquifer system
is formed by the clayey, less permeable beds of the
Peace River Formation. This system underlies
essentially all of DeSoto County and is used primarily
for irrigation of lawns and water for stock (20).
The intermediate aquifer system contains water under
confined conditions and consists primarily of the
limestone and dolomite of the Arcadia Formation. This
aquifer corresponds with the upper unit of the Floridan
Aquifer. The upper confining layer of the intermediate
aquifer system consists of the clayey sediment of the
Peace River Formation. The lower confining layer
consists of the Nocatee Member of the Arcadia
Formation. In DeSoto County, the intermediate aquifer
is about 200 feet thick. Typical wells yield up to several







Soil Survey


SARASOTA CO. DESOTO CO.
W-12983 W-15303
T38S R22E S21ba T38S R23E S14bb


1 -X


PEACE RIVER




ARCADIA


W-12948
T37S R24E S34CEN.


SSIRFICIAL SANDSC


FORMATION




FORMATION


W-l
T38S R2


PrCAP DIVCD


ARCADIA


B'

W-12311
2050 T37S R27E S26cc
6E SI6dd



FORMATION MI


FORMATION


SUWANNEE LIMESTONE

lOOFT.


0
0 MILES B

DESOTO COUNTY


-100

- -200

- -300

- -400

- -500


Figure 3.-The Peace River Formation is near sea level throughout DeSoto County.


hundred gallons per minute; however, yield is highly
variable (20). This aquifer is used for domestic and
public water supplies.
The Floridan Aquifer consists of the limestone and
dolomite of the Suwannee Limestone and the
underlying Ocala Group and Avon Park Limestone. This
aquifer contains water under confined conditions. In
DeSoto County, the upper confining layer consists of
the Nocatee Member of the Arcadia Formation. The top
of this aquifer is about 300 feet below mean sea level in
the northwestern corner of the county and dips to about
750 feet below mean sea level in the southeastern
corner (5). Wells developed in the Floridan Aquifer yield
large quantities of water, often in excess of 1,000
gallons per minute. The primary use of water from this
aquifer is large-scale irrigation. The water quality is
generally poorer than that of the surficial and


intermediate aquifers. Water quality in both the Floridan
and the intermediate aquifer decreases in a general
southwesterly direction (20).
Both the intermediate and the Floridan aquifers are
under confined conditions and may contribute to the
artesian flow in the southwestern part of the county (7).
This area encompasses the entire Peace River Valley,
portions of the Horse Creek and Joshua Creek
drainages, and the Gulf Coastal Lowlands, as well as
the southwestern edge of the DeSoto Plain. The
potentiometric surface elevation is 40 to 50 feet above
mean sea level for much of the same area (3).


How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about
the soils in the survey area. The information includes a


100

MSL

-100

-200


-300

-400

-500


-600

-700

-800


I --


S --R FICI AL SANDSnL III R


-








DeSoto County, Florida


description of the soils and their location and a
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of
slopes; the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of
crops and native plants growing on the soils; and the
kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil
profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or
horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface
down into the unconsolidated material from which the
soil formed. The unconsolidated material is devoid of
roots and other living organisms and has not been
changed by other biological activity.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly
pattern that is related to the geology, the landforms,
relief, climate, and the natural vegetation of the area.
Each kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, soil reaction,
and other features that enable them to identify soils.
After describing the soils in the survey area and
determining their properties, the soil scientists assigned
the soils to taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic
classes are concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set
of soil characteristics with precisely defined limits. The
classes are used as a basis for comparison to classify
soils systematically. The system of taxonomic
classification used in the United States is based mainly
on the kind and character of soil properties and the
arrangement of horizons within the profile. After the soil
scientists classified and named the soils in the survey
area, they compared the individual soils with similar
soils in the same taxonomic class in other areas so that


they could confirm data and assemble additional data
based on experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
of the soils in the area are generally collected for
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
scientists interpreted the data from these analyses and
tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
the soil properties in terms of expected behavior of the
soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of the
soils were field tested through observation of the soils
in different uses under different levels of management.
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
sources, such as research information, production
records, and field experience of specialists. For
example, data on crop yields under defined levels of
management were assembled from farm records and
from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can state
with a fairly high degree of probability that a given soil
will have a high water table within certain depths in
most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
specific date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.

Map Unit Composition

A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
the soils are natural objects. In common with other
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including










areas of soils of other taxonomic classes. Frequently,
every map unit is made up of the soil or soils for which
it is named and some soils that belong to other
taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units, these
latter soils are called inclusions or included soils. In the
general soil map units, they are called soils of minor
extent.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The contrasting


soils are named and mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.

















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map
unit consists of one or more major soils and some
minor soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils
making up one unit can occur in other units but in a
different pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or a building or other
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other
characteristics that affect management.
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their
potential for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent
of the map units shown on the general soil map. It lists
the suitability and potential of each, in relation to that of
the other map units, for major land uses and shows soil
properties that limit use. Soil suitability ratings are
based on the practices commonly used in the survey
area to overcome soil limitations. These ratings reflect
the ease of overcoming the limitations and the problems
that will persist even if such practices are used.
Each map unit is rated for community development,
citrus, improved pasture, vegetables, and woodland.
Community development includes residential and
industrial use. Citrus includes fruits that generally
require intensive management. Improved pasture
includes grasses grown for livestock grazing. The
vegetable crops are those grown extensively in the
survey area. Woodland refers to areas of native or
introduced trees.

Soils of the Sandy Ridges
This general soil map unit consists of nearly level
and gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained to


moderately well drained soils. The soils are sandy
throughout. Some have a dark colored subsoil below a
depth of 40 inches.

1. Zolfo-Tavares

Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
and moderately well drained soils that are sandy
throughout; some have a dark colored subsoil at a depth
of more than 40 inches
In this map unit, the landscape is sandhill areas on
uplands. Most areas border the flood plains of the
Peace River, Horse Creek, and other well defined
drainageways in the county. This map unit consists of
deep soils that are intermixed with small areas of poorly
drained soils. The natural vegetation is slash pine,
longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak, turkey oak, and an
understory of native grasses and annual forbs.
This map unit makes up 13,695 acres, or about 3
percent of the county. It is about 57 percent Zolfo soils,
27 percent Tavares soils, and 16 percent soils of minor
extent.
Zolfo soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
they have a gray fine sand surface layer about 5 inches
thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of about 59
inches is fine sand. It is grayish brown in the upper
part, pale brown in the middle part, and light yellowish
brown in the lower part. The subsoil to a depth of 80
inches is fine sand that is dark brown in the upper part
and very dark brown in the lower part.
Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
they have a dark grayish brown fine sand surface layer
about 6 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth
of 80 inches is fine sand. It is light yellowish brown in
the upper part, very pale brown in the middle part, and
white in the lower part.
The minor soils are Satellite, Cassia, Pomello, Ona,
and Smyrna soils. Satellite, Cassia, and Pomello soils
are in landscape positions similar to those of the Zolfo
soils. Ona and Smyrna soils are on the wetter parts of
the landscape where drainage is needed for some uses.







Soil Survey


The soils of this map unit are used mainly for citrus
or improved pasture. In some areas, they are used for
urban development or they remain in native vegetation.

Soils of the Flatwoods
The two general soil map units in this group consist
of nearly level, poorly drained soils. Some of the soils
are sandy throughout, and some are loamy below a
depth of 40 inches. Most of these soils have a dark
colored subsoil.

2. Smyrna-Myakka-Immokalee

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy
throughout and that have a dark colored subsoil at a
depth of 10 to 51 inches
In this map unit, the landscape is nearly level, pine
and saw palmetto flatwoods interspersed with small,
grassy, wet depressions and cypress and hardwood
swamps. Some of the depressions are connected by
narrow, wet, poorly defined drainageways. Areas of this
map unit are scattered throughout the county. The
natural vegetation on the broad flatwoods is slash pine,
saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, running oak, and
native grasses.
This map unit makes up 199,379 acres, or about 49
percent of the county. It is about 25 percent Smyrna
soils, 19 percent Myakka soils, 17 percent Immokalee
soils, and 39 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Smyrna soils have a dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 12 inches is gray fine sand.
The subsoil to a depth of about 19 inches is fine sand
that is dark reddish brown in the upper part and dark
yellowish brown in the lower part. The next layer to a
depth of about 37 inches is light yellowish brown fine
sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is fine
sand that is very dark grayish brown in the upper part
and dark reddish brown in the lower part.
Typically, the Myakka soils have a dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 22 inches is light gray fine
sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 32 inches is fine
sand that is very dark brown in the upper part and dark
brown in the lower part. The substratum to a depth of
about 80 inches is fine sand. It is pale brown in the
upper part, light gray in the middle part, and grayish
brown in the lower part.
Typically, the Immokalee soils have a dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 43 inches is white fine sand.


The subsoil to a depth of about 65 inches is fine sand
that is black in the upper part and dark brown in the
middle and lower parts. The middle part of the subsoil
has black ortstein fragments. The substratum to a depth
of about 80 inches is brown fine sand.
The minor soils are Basinger, EauGallie, Farmton,
and Anclote soils. Basinger soils are in sloughs.
EauGallie and Farmton soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Smyrna, Myakka, and Immokalee
soils. Anclote soils are in depressions and are ponded
for long periods.
The soils of this map unit are used mainly for
improved pasture. In some areas, they are used as
native range. Other areas have been cleared and
bedded and are used for citrus and cultivated crops. In
a few areas, these soils are used for residential
development. In the wooded areas, they provide food
and cover for wildlife, especially for birds and small
animals.

3. Farmton-EauGallie-Malabar

Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have a dark
colored subsoil or a yellowish subsoil within a depth of
51 inches that is underlain by loamy material
In this map unit, the landscape is nearly level, pine
and saw palmetto flatwoods interspersed with small,
grassy, wet depressions and cypress and hardwood
swamps. Some of the depressions are connected by
narrow, wet, poorly defined drainageways. Areas of this
map unit are scattered throughout the county. The
natural vegetation on the broad flatwoods is slash pine,
saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, running oak, and
native grasses.
This map unit makes up 106,677 acres, or about 26
percent of the county. It is about 29 percent Farmton
soils, 21 percent EauGallie soils, 6 percent Malabar
soils, and 44 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Farmton soils have a dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 34 inches is fine sand that is
gray in the upper part and light gray in the lower part.
The subsoil to a depth of about 48 inches is fine sand.
It is black in the upper part, very dark gray in the middle
part, and dark brown in the lower part. The subsoil to a
depth of about 80 inches is sandy clay loam that is light
brownish gray in the upper part and pale olive in the
lower part.
Typically, the EauGallie soils have a very dark gray
fine sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer to a depth of about 29 inches is fine







DeSoto County, Florida


sand that is gray in the upper part and light gray in the
lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about 47 inches is
fine sand that is black in the upper part and dark brown
in the lower part. The next layer to a depth of about 68
inches is yellowish brown fine sand. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is grayish
brown fine sandy loam in the upper part and light olive
gray sandy clay loam in the lower part.
Typically, the Malabar soils have a dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 13 inches is fine sand that is
pale brown in the upper part and yellowish brown in the
lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about 40 inches is
brownish yellow fine sand. The next layer to a depth of
about 52 inches is pale brown fine sand. The lower part
of the subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
It is gray fine sandy loam in the upper part and gray
sandy clay loam in the lower part.
The minor soils are Wabasso, Immokalee, Myakka,
and Felda soils. These soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Farmton, EauGallie, and Malabar
soils and have the same limitations.
The soils of this map unit are used mainly for
improved pasture. In some areas, they are used as
native range. Other areas have been cleared and
bedded and are used for citrus and cultivated crops. In
a few areas, these soils are used for residential
development. In the wooded areas, they provide food
and cover for wildlife, especially for birds and small
animals.

Soils of the Sloughs
The two general soil map units in this group consist
of nearly level, poorly drained soils. Some of the soils
are sandy throughout, some are loamy at a depth of 20
to 40 inches, and some are loamy at a depth of more
than 40 inches.

4. Malabar-Pineda-Felda

Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have a
loamy subsoil below a depth of 20 inches
In this map unit, the landscape is nearly level, broad
sloughs and poorly defined drainageways interspersed
with numerous wet depressions and low flatwood knolls.
Areas of this map unit are mainly in the eastern half of
the county. During periods of high rainfall, the soils of
this map unit are covered by slow moving, shallow
water. The natural vegetation in the broad sloughs is St.
Johnswort, maidencane, scattered oaks, cabbage
palms, and bluestems and other grasses.


This map unit makes up 25,411 acres, or about 6
percent of the county. It is about 34 percent Malabar
soils, 20 percent Pineda soils, 12 percent Felda soils,
and 34 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Malabar soils have a gray fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 12 inches is yellowish brown fine
sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 50 inches is fine
sand. It is light yellowish brown in the upper part,
yellowish brown in the middle part, and light olive brown
in the lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about 80
inches is gray fine sandy loam.
Typically, the Pineda soils have a black fine sand
surface layer about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 15 inches is fine sand that is light
brownish gray in the upper part and pale brown in the
lower part. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 41
inches. It is yellowish brown fine sand in the upper part,
yellow fine sand in the middle part, and gray fine sandy
loam in the lower part. The substratum to a depth of 80
inches is gray loamy sand and light gray fine sand.
Typically, the Felda soils have a black fine sand
surface layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 29 inches is fine sand that is
grayish brown in the upper part and light gray in the
lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about 42 inches is
gray fine sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of
about 80 inches is loamy sand. The upper part is gray,
and the lower part is light olive gray.
The minor soils are the Basinger, Valkaria, Floridana,
Delray, and Immokalee soils. Basinger and Valkaria
soils are in landscape positions similar to those of the
Malabar, Pineda, and Felda soils. Floridana and Delray
soils are in depressions and are ponded for long
periods. Immokalee soils are in slightly higher positions
on the landscape and generally are not as productive
for range.
The soils of this map unit are used mainly as native
range. In some areas, they are used for improved
pasture. Other areas have been cleared, drained, and
bedded and are used for citrus and cultivated crops.

5. Valkaria-Basinger-Malabar

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy
throughout or sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches
and underlain by loamy material
In this map unit, the landscape is nearly level, broad
sloughs and poorly defined drainageways interspersed
with numerous wet depressions and low flatwood knolls.
Areas of this map unit are mainly in the eastern half of






Soil Survey


the county. During periods of high rainfall, the soils of
this map unit are covered by slow moving, shallow
water. The natural vegetation in the broad sloughs is St.
Johnswort, maidencane, scattered oaks, cabbage
palms, and bluestems and other grasses.
This map unit makes up 33,272 acres, or about 8
percent of the county. It is about 40 percent Valkaria
soils, 15 percent Basinger soils, 11 percent Malabar
soils, and 34 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Valkaria soils have a dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 25 inches is fine sand that is
gray in the upper part and pale brown in the lower part.
The subsoil to a depth of about 31 inches is brownish
yellow fine sand. The substratum to a depth of about 80
inches is fine sand that is light gray in the upper part
and grayish brown in the lower part.
Typically, the Basinger soils have a dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 22 inches is light gray fine
sand. The next layer to a depth of about 30 inches is
gray fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 54
inches is dark brown fine sand. The substratum to a
depth of about 80 inches is yellowish brown fine sand.
Typically, the Malabar soils have a gray fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 12 inches is yellowish brown fine
sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 50 inches is fine
sand. It is light yellowish brown in the upper part,
yellowish brown in the middle part, and light olive brown
in the lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about 80
inches is gray fine sandy loam.
The minor soils are Pompano, Anclote, and
Immokalee soils. Pompano soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Valkaria, Basinger, and
Malabar soils. Anclote soils are in depressions and are
ponded for long periods. Immokalee soils are in slightly
higher positions and generally are not as productive for
range.
The soils of this map unit are used mainly as native
range. In some areas, they are used for improved
pasture. Other areas have been cleared, drained, and
bedded and are used for citrus and cultivated crops.

Soils of the Wet Depressions, Swamps, Tidal
Marshes, and Flood Plains
The four general soil map units in this group consist
of nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained
soils. Some of the soils have a sandy surface layer and
a loamy subsoil, some are loamy throughout, and some


are organic material underlain by loamy or sandy
material.

6. Floridana-Delray-Felda

Nearly level, very poorly drained, sandy soils that have a
loamy subsoil below a depth of 20 inches
In this map unit, the landscape is nearly level,
freshwater marshes, cypress and hardwood swamps,
and depressions. Narrow, wet, poorly defined
drainageways are along the edges of and connecting
the depressions in some places. Areas of this map unit
are throughout the county. The natural vegetation is
maidencane, pickerelweed, St. Johnswort, sawgrass,
smartweed, sedges, swamp primrose, water oak,
cypress, sweetgum, hickory, and other water-tolerant
plants.
This map unit makes up 3,318 acres, or less than 1
percent of the county. It is about 18 percent Floridana
soils, 18 percent Delray soils, 17 percent Felda soils,
and 47 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Floridana soils have a black mucky fine
sand surface layer about 22 inches thick. The
subsurface layer to a depth of about 34 inches is gray
fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 45 inches is
fine sandy loam that is gray in the upper part and
greenish gray in the lower part. The substratum to a
depth of about 80 inches is gray loamy fine sand.
Typically, the Delray soils have a black mucky fine
sand surface layer about 23 inches thick. The
subsurface layer to a depth of about 65 inches is fine
sand that is grayish brown in the upper part and gray in
the lower part. The subsoil extends to a depth of about
80 inches or more. It is grayish brown fine sandy loam
in the upper part, gray fine sandy loam in the middle
part, and gray loamy sand in the lower part.
Typically, the Felda soils have a very dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 32 inches is fine sand that is
light gray in the upper part and grayish brown in the
lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about 49 inches is
fine sandy loam that is grayish brown in the upper part
and gray in the lower part. The substratum to a depth of
about 80 inches is light gray fine sand.
The minor soils are Basinger, Gator, Malabar,
Samsula, Pineda, and Anclote soils. These soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Floridana,
Delray, and Felda soils and are ponded for long
periods.
The soils of this map unit are used for range and






DeSoto County, Florida


native pasture except in areas where the soils are
ponded. These soils also provide habitat for wildlife.

7. Gator-Terra Cela

Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are organic to
a depth of 16 to more than than 51 inches; some are
underlain by loamy material; some are subject to flooding
In this map unit, the landscape is nearly level,
freshwater marshes and hardwood swamps. Areas of
this map unit are in the southeastern part of the county
and along the southern part of the Peace River flood
plain, which is subject to flooding. The natural
vegetation in the hardwood swamps consists of red
maple, sweetgum, cypress, hickory, water oak, cabbage
palm, magnolia, and an understory of maidencane,
ferns, grapevine, saw palmetto, and various aquatic
plants. In the freshwater marshes, the vegetation
consists of pickerelweed, sawgrass, maidencane,
smartweed, sedges, swamp primrose, and other water-
tolerant plants.
This map unit makes up 6,667 acres, or about 2
percent of the county. It is about 49 percent Gator soils,
30 percent Terra Ceia soils, and 21 percent soils of
minor extent.
Typically, the Gator soils have a black muck surface
layer about 22 inches thick. The underlying material to
a depth of about 80 inches is fine sandy loam. It is
black and very dark grayish brown in the upper part,
dark grayish brown in the middle part, and dark gray in
the lower part.
Terra Ceia soils are in large marshes and on the
Peace River flood plain. Typically, the surface layer is
about 58 inches thick. It is black muck in the upper part
and dark reddish brown muck in the lower part. The
underlying material to a depth of about 80 inches is
dark gray loamy sand in the upper part and light
brownish gray sandy clay in the lower part.
The minor soils are Samsula, Floridana, Delray,
Anclote, Chobee, and Felda soils. These soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Gator and
Terra Ceia soils. Ponding or flooding are major
management concerns in areas of these soils.
Most areas of this map unit are in natural vegetation.
The area around Long Island Marsh has been cleared
and drained and is used for truck crops. The soils of
this map unit provide good habitat for wildlife.

8. Durbin-Wulfert

Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are organic to


a depth of 16 to more than 51 inches and are underlain
by sandy material; subject to frequent flooding by tides
In this map unit, the landscape is tidal marshes and
swamps. Areas of this map unit are located on the
Peace River flood plain in the southern part of the
county. The soils of this map unit are flooded daily by
high tides. The natural vegetation in the tidal marshes is
sawgrass, bulrush, elephant ear, and other salt-tolerant
grasses and shrubs.
This map unit makes up 1,266 acres, or less than 1
percent of the county. It is dominantly Durbin and
Wulfert soils, and no soils of minor extent are mapped.
Typically, the Durbin soils have a very dark brown
muck surface layer about 4 inches thick. The next layer
to a depth of 75 inches is black muck. The underlying
material to a depth of about 80 inches is brown sand.
Typically, the Wulfert soils have a dark reddish brown
muck surface layer about 4 inches thick. The next layer
to a depth of about 26 inches is very dark grayish
brown muck. The underlying material to a depth of
about 80 inches is grayish brown sand in the upper part
and light brownish gray fine sand in the lower part.
Most areas of this map unit remain in native
vegetation and provide good habitat for wildlife.

9. Bradenton-Felda-Chobee

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
that are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and
underlain by loamy material or that are loamy throughout;
subject to flooding
In this map unit, the landscape is low first bottoms of
rivers and streams. Areas of this map unit are
interspersed with shallow river and creek channels and
are flooded frequently. They are along streams and
rivers throughout the county but are dominantly
adjacent to the Peace River and Horse Creek. The
natural vegetation is dense and consists of water oak,
cypress, cabbage palm, sweetgum, hickory, red maple,
cutgrass, maidencane, sawgrass, swamp primrose,
buttonbush, smartweed, sedges, and other water-
tolerant plants.
This map unit makes up 19,358 acres, or about 5
percent of the county. It is about 44 percent Bradenton-
Felda-Chobee complex, frequently flooded; 33 percent
Bradenton-Felda-Chobee complex, occasionally
flooded; and 23 percent soils of minor extent.
Bradenton soils are poorly drained. Typically, they
have a dark gray fine sand surface layer about 3 inches
thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of about 10
inches is light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil to a









depth of about 65 inches is fine sandy loam that is
brown in the upper part and light brownish gray in the
lower part. The substratum to a depth of about 80
inches is light gray loamy fine sand in the upper part
and white fine sand in the lower part.
Felda soils are poorly drained. Typically, they have a
dark gray fine sand surface layer about 8 inches thick.
The subsurface layer to a depth of about 30 inches is
fine sand that is gray in the upper part and light
brownish gray in the lower part. The subsoil extends to
a depth of about 75 inches. It is grayish brown fine
sandy loam in the upper part and light brownish gray
sandy clay loam in the lower part. The substratum to a
depth of about 80 inches is light gray loamy sand.
Chobee soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they
have a very dark gray loamy fine sand surface layer


about 18 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of about
68 inches is very dark gray fine sandy loam in the
upper part, dark gray sandy clay loam in the middle
part, and gray fine sandy loam in the lower part. The
substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is gray loamy
sand.
The minor soils are Bradenton, Felda, and Wabasso
soils that are not subject to flooding. These soils are in
higher positions than those of the major soils. They are
important sites for uses that are affected by the flooding
of the major soils.
The soils of this map unit are used mainly as range
or native pasture. Small areas have been cleared and
are used as improved pasture. These soils provide
habitat for wildlife.
















Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area.
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more
soils for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils
of a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Basinger fine sand,
depressional, is one of several phases in the Basinger
series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or
undifferentiated groups.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar
in all areas. Bradenton-Felda-Chobee complex,
frequently flooded, is an example.


An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
made up of all of them. Durbin and Wulfert mucks,
frequently flooded, is an undifferentiated group in this
survey area.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named.
Some of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
areas have little or no soil material and support little or
no vegetation. Miscellaneous areas are shown on the
soil maps. Some that are too small to be shown are
identified by a special symbol on the soil maps.
Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.

2-Anclote mucky fine sand, depresslonal. This
soil is deep, nearly level, and very poorly drained. It is
in depressions. Slope is 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is about 14 inches thick.
The upper 10 inches is black mucky fine sand, and the
lower part is black fine sand. The underlying material to
a depth of about 80 inches is fine sand. It is gray in the
upper part, grayish brown in the middle part, and light
brownish gray in the lower part.

Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Floridana, and Valkaria soils. Basinger and
Valkaria soils do not have a thick, dark colored sandy







Soil Survey


surface layer, and they generally are near the edges of
delineations. In addition, Basinger soils have a slightly
darkened subsoil, and Valkaria soils have a brightly
colored subsoil. Floridana soils have a loamy subsoil.
These soils are in landscape positions similar to those
of the Anclote soil. The included soils make up about 15
percent of the map unit.
This Anclote soil has a high water table that usually
covers the surface for 6 months or more. The available
water capacity is moderate. The permeability is rapid.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, pasture, or citrus. The high water
table, which is above the surface much of the year,
severely restricts plant growth. Establishing an
adequate water control system is difficult because
suitable outlets are not available in most locations;
however, if a system can be installed, this soil can be
made suitable for improved pasture grasses that
tolerate wetness.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
rushes, and other herbaceous plants in an area where
the soil generally is saturated or covered with water for
long periods. If this range site is properly managed,
using such practices as proper stocking, the potential
forage production is higher than that of any other range
site. Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane dominate
the drier parts of the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds
range site, and maidencane is dominant in the wetter
parts. Other desirable forage plants include cutgrass,
bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low panicums.
Periodic high water levels provide a natural deferment
from excessive grazing. Carpetgrass, an introduced
plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of this site
under excessive grazing conditions.
This soil is not suited to commercial pine tree
production because of ponding. Outlets generally are
not available, and drainage is not practical in these
areas. Baldcypress has been planted in a few areas of
this soil.
This soil is not suited to urban development.
The Anclote soil is in capability subclass VIIw.

3-Basinger fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly
level, and poorly drained. It is in sloughs. Slope is 0 to
1 percent.
Typically, the Basinger soil has a dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 22 inches is light gray fine sand.
The next layer to a depth of 30 inches is gray fine sand.
The subsoil to a depth of 54 inches is dark brown fine


sand. The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is
yellowish brown fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Myakka, Immokalee, EauGallie, and Valkaria soils.
Myakka, Immokalee, and EauGallie soils are in slightly
higher positions on the landscape than the Basinger
soil. Myakka and Immokalee soils have a better
developed subsoil, and EauGallie soils have a loamy
subsoil below a depth of 40 inches. Valkaria soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Basinger soil
and have a brownish yellow sandy subsoil. The
included soils make up about 15 percent of the map
unit.
This Basinger soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years.
During periods of high rainfall, the surface is covered by
shallow, slowly moving water for 1 to 7 days or more.
The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
rapid.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants are
panolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and limpograss.
Grazing management, brush control, protection from
wildfire, and proper location of stockwater and fences
are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Slough
range site. This site can be identified by an open
expanse of grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area
where the soil is saturated during the rainy season. If
this range site is properly managed, using such
practices as deferred grazing, the potential for forage
production is almost as high as that of the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. Desirable forage plants
include blue maidencane, maidencane, chalky
bluestem, toothachegrass, and South Florida bluestem.
Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to dominate this
site under excessive grazing conditions.
In its natural condition, this Basinger soil is poorly
suited to cultivated crops because of wetness and poor
soil quality. Only a limited number of crops can be
grown unless very intensive management practices are
used; however, this soil can be made suitable for
several vegetable crops. A water control system is
needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and to
provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It can be made suitable for citrus by installing a
water control system that maintains the water table at
an effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a







DeSoto County, Florida


plant cover needs to be maintained between the trees.
Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are major concerns in management.
Bedding of rows helps in establishing seedlings by
increasing the depth to the water table.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
urban development. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Preserving the existing plant cover during
construction helps to control erosion.
This Basinger soil is in capability subclass IVw.

4-Basinger fine sand, frequently flooded. This soil
is deep, nearly level, and poorly drained. It is adjacent
to streams and well defined drainageways. Slope is 0 to
2 percent.
Typically, this Basinger soil has a dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 16 inches is light brownish gray fine
sand. The subsoil to a depth of 36 inches is dark
grayish brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of
about 80 inches is fine sand. It is grayish brown in the
upper part and light gray in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Malabar, Pompano, and Valkaria soils. These soils are
in landscape positions similar to those of the Basinger
soil. Malabar soils have loamy material below a depth of
about 40 inches. Pompano soils do not have a dark
subsoil, and Valkaria soils have a brightly colored
subsoil. The included soils make up about 15 percent of
the map unit.
This Basinger soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years.
Flooding occurs in most years. The available water
capacity is low. The permeability is rapid.
The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, laurel
oak, live oak, cabbage palm, saw palmetto, and
pineland threeawn.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, citrus trees, or improved pasture
because of the hazard of flooding. It is moderately
suited to improved pasture grasses if excess water is
removed. A water control system is needed to remove
excess surface water after heavy rains, and flooding
should be controlled. Suitable pasture plants are
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Proper stocking, pasture rotation,
and timely deferment of grazing help keep the pasture
in good condition.


This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
pine if water control measures are used. Equipment
limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
major concerns in management. Bedding of rows helps
in establishing seedlings by increasing the depth to the
water table.
This soil is not suited to urban development.
This Basinger soil is in capability subclass VIw. It is
not assigned to a range site.

5-Basinger fine sand, depressional. This soil is
deep, nearly level, and very poorly drained. It is in
depressions. Slope is 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, this Basinger soil has a black fine sand
surface layer about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 34 inches is fine sand. It is grayish
brown in the upper part and light gray in the lower part.
The subsoil to a depth of about 45 inches is mixed
grayish brown and black fine sand. The substratum to a
depth of about 80 inches is fine sand. It is pale brown in
the upper part and light gray in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Anclote, Floridana, and Pompano soils. Anclote and
Floridana soils are in lower positions within the
depressions. Anclote soils have a thick, dark colored
surface layer. Floridana soils have a loamy subsoil.
Pompano soils are in positions similar to those of the
Basinger soil. They do not have a slightly darkened
subsoil layer and are sandy throughout. The included
soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
This Basinger soil has a high water table that usually
covers the surface for 6 months or more. The available
water capacity is low. The permeability is rapid.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, pasture, or citrus. The high water table
severely restricts plant growth. Establishing an
adequate water control system is difficult because
suitable outlets are not available in most locations;
however, if a system can be installed, this soil can be
made suitable for improved pasture grasses that
tolerate wetness.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
rushes, and other herbaceous plants in an area where
the soil generally is saturated or covered with water for
long periods. If this range site is properly managed,
using such practices as proper stocking, the potential
for forage production is higher than that of any other
range site. Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane
dominate the drier parts of the Freshwater Marshes and
Ponds range site, and maidencane is dominant in the






Soil Survey


wetter parts. Other desirable forage plants include
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a natural
deferment from excessive grazing. Carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
this range site under excessive grazing conditions.
This soil is not suited to commercial pine tree
production because of ponding. Outlets generally are
not available, and drainage is not practical. Baldcypress
has been planted in a few areas of this soil.
This soil is not suited to urban development.
This Basinger soil is in capability subclass VIIw.

6-Bradenton fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly
level, and poorly drained. It is on low-lying hammocks.
Typically, this Bradenton soil has a dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 15 inches is fine sand that is
gray in the upper part and grayish brown in the lower
part. The subsoil to a depth of about 26 inches is light
brownish gray fine sandy loam. The substratum to a
depth of about 80 inches is loamy fine sand that is gray
in the upper part and dark gray and gray in the lower
part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Felda and Wabasso soils. These soils are in positions
similar to those of the Bradenton soil. Felda soils have
a sandy surface layer 20 to 40 inches thick. Wabasso
soils have a dark colored subsoil within 20 to 30 inches
of the surface. The included soils make up about 15
percent of the map unit.
This Bradenton soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is moderate. The
permeability is moderate.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants are
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Grazing management, brush control, protection from
wildfire, and proper location of stockwater and fences
are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Cabbage
Palm Hammock range site. This site is readily identified
by thick stands of cabbage palm with a few scattered
oak (fig. 4). It occurs in slightly elevated areas within
the Slough and South Florida Flatwoods range sites.
The dense canopy and relatively open understory
provide shade and resting areas for cattle. Desirable
forage plants on this site include chalky bluestem,


creeping bluestem, switchgrass, low panicum, and
south Florida bluestem.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of wetness and poor soil
quality. Only a limited number of crops can be grown
unless very intensive management practices are used;
however, this soil can be made suitable for several
vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to
remove excess water in wet seasons and to provide
water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Flow-
through and micro-jet irrigation systems work well on
this soil. The organic matter content can be maintained
by using all crop residue, by plowing under cover crops,
and by using a suitable cropping system. Crops
respond well to lime and fertilizer. Cucumbers, bell
peppers, squash, watermelons, and citrus are the main
crops grown.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It can be made suitable by installing a water
control system that maintains the water table at an
effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover needs to be maintained between the trees.
Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis.
This soil has high potential productivity for slash pine.
Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
competition are major concerns in management.
Bedding of rows helps in establishing seedlings by
increasing the depth to the water table.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
urban development because of wetness. It can be made
suitable by using the proper water control system.
Drainage is needed to overcome wetness, and fill
material is needed for most urban uses. Preserving the
existing plant cover during construction helps to control
erosion.
This Bradenton soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

7-Bradenton-Felda-Chobee complex, occasionally
flooded. These soils are nearly level and are poorly
drained to very poorly drained. They are on flood plains
of rivers and streams. The areas of these Bradenton,
Felda, and Chobee soils are too intricately mixed to be
mapped separately at the selected scale. Slope is 0 to
2 percent.
This complex is about 40 percent Bradenton soil,
about 30 percent Felda soil, about 15 percent Chobee
soil, and about 15 percent other soils.
Typically, this Bradenton soil has a dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 3 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 10 inches is light brownish








DeSoto County, Florida


Figure 4.-The native vegetation on Bradenton fine sand is mainly a thick stand of cabbage palms.


gray fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 65
inches is fine sandy loam that is brown in the upper part
and light brownish gray in the lower part. The upper
part of the substratum is light gray loamy fine sand. The
lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is white fine
sand.
This Bradenton soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is moderate. The
permeability is moderate. On the average, flooding


occurs less than once every 2 years. The duration and
extent of flooding are variable and are related directly to
the intensity and frequency of rainfall.
Typically, this Felda soil has a dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 30 inches is gray fine sand. The
subsoil to a depth of about 75 inches is grayish brown
fine sandy loam in the upper part and light brownish
gray sandy clay loam in the lower part. The substratum
to a depth of 80 inches is light gray loamy sand.







Soil Survey


This Felda soil has a high water table within a depth
of 12 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years. The
available water capacity is low. The permeability is
moderate or moderately rapid. On the average, flooding
occurs less than once every 2 years.
Typically, this Chobee soil has a very dark gray
surface layer about 18 inches thick. It is mucky loamy
fine sand in the upper part and grades to loamy fine
sand in the lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about
68 inches is very dark gray fine sandy loam in the
upper part, dark gray sandy clay loam in the middle
part, and gray fine sandy loam in the lower part. The
substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is gray loamy
sand.
This Chobee soil has a high water table that usually
covers the surface for 6 months or more. The available
water capacity is moderate. The permeability is slow or
very slow.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of Floridana, Pompano, and Wabasso soils. Floridana
soils are in depressions and have a loamy subsoil
between 20 and 40 inches of the surface. Pompano
soils are in higher positions on flood plains and are
dominantly adjacent to the stream. Wabasso soils are
also in higher positions on the flood plain and have a
dark colored subsoil underlying a loamy 'ayer. Soils that
are frequently flooded are in some lower lying areas.
The natural vegetation is mostly water oak, live oak,
red maple, blackgum, and scattered saw palmetto.
Pickerelweed is dominant in most of the depressional
areas.
The Bradenton, Felda, and Chobee soils are only
moderately suited to pasture because of the potential
hazard of flooding. Fertilizer and lime are needed for
optimum growth of grasses and legumes. Suitable
pasture plants are pangolagrass and improved
bahiagrass.
These soils are not used for cultivated crops and
citrus because of the potential hazard of flooding.
The Bradenton soil has high potential productivity for
slash pine, and the Felda soil has moderately high
potential productivity. The Chobee soil is not suited to
commercial pine tree production. Equipment limitations,
seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main
concerns in managing the soils in this complex for
timber production. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
seedlings by increasing the depth to the water table.
Baldcypress has been planted in a few areas of the
Chobee soil.
These soils are not suited to urban development
because of the hazard of flooding (fig. 5).
The Bradenton, Felda, and Chobee soils are in


capability subclass IIIw. Ponded areas of t-e Chobee
soil would be in capability subclass Vllw if mapped
separately. The soils in this complex are not assigned
to a range site.

8-Bradenton-Felda-Chobee complex, frequently
flooded. These soils are nearly level and are poorly
drained to very poorly drained. They are oi flood plains
of rivers and streams. The areas of these Bradenton.
Felda, and Chobee soils are too intricately mixed to be
mapped separately at the selected scale. Slope is 0 to
2 percent.
This complex is about 35 percent Bradenton soil.
about 35 percent Felda soil, about 15 percent Chobee
soil, and about 15 percent other soils.
Typically, this Bradenton soil has a dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 3 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 10 inches is light brownish
gray fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 65
inches is fine sandy loam that is brown in the upper part
and light brownish gray in the lower part. --he upper
part of the substratum is light gray loamy fine sand. The
lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is white fine
sand.
This Bradenton soil has a high water tale within a
depth of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is moderate. The
permeability is moderate. Flooding occurs frequently
during the rainy season. The duration and extent of
flooding are variable and are related directly to the
intensity and frequency of rainfall.
Typically. this Felda soil has a dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 30 inches is fine sand that is gray in
the upper part and light brownish gray in the lower part.
The subsoil to a depth of about 75 inches is grayish
brown fine sandy loam in the upper part and light
brownish gray sandy clay loam in the lower part. The
substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray
loamy sand.
This Felda soil has a high water table within a depth
of 12 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years. The
available water capacity is low. The permeability is
moderate or moderately rapid. Flooding occurs
frequently during the rainy season.
Typically. this Chobee soil has a very dark gray
loamy fine sand surface layer about 18 inches thick.
The subsoil to a depth of about 68 inches is very dark
gray fine sandy loam in the upper part, dark gray sandy
clay loam in the middle part, and gray fine sandy loam
in the lower part. The substratum to a depth of about 80
inches is gray loamy sand.







DeSoto County, Florida


Figure 5.-Bradenton-Felda-Chobee complex, occasionally flooded, is not suitable for urban development because of flooding.


This Chobee soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 3 to 9 months during most years.
Flooding in most years is for a very long duration. The
available water capacity is moderate. The permeability
is slow or very slow.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of Pompano, Floridana, and Terra Ceia soils. Pompano
soils are in higher positions on flood plains, occur
dominantly adjacent to the stream, and are sandy to a
depth of 80 inches. Floridana soils are in depressions
and have a loamy subsoil between 20 and 40 inches of
the surface. Terra Ceia soils are in lower positions on


flood plains and have organic material to a depth of
more than 51 inches. In places are soils that have a
loamy subsoil more than 40 inches below the surface.
Some areas of occasionally and rarely flooded soils
occur dominantly on the outer edge of flood plains away
from the stream.
The natural vegetation is mostly red maple, water
oak, live oak, and blackgum. Pickerelweed is dominant
in some of the wetter areas.
The Bradenton, Felda, and Chobee soils are only
moderately suited to pasture because of the potential
hazard of flooding. Fertilizer and lime are needed for







Soil Survey


optimum growth of grasses and legumes. Suitable
pasture plants are pangolagrass and improved
bahiagrass.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops and
citrus because of the potential hazard of flooding.
The Bradenton soil has high potential productivity for
slash pine, and the Felda soil has moderately high
potential productivity. Equipment limitations, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns
in producing and harvesting timber on these soils.
Bedding of rows helps in establishing seedlings by
increasing the depth to the water table. The Chobee soil
is not suited to commercial pine tree production;
however, baldcypress is planted in a few areas of this
soil.
These soils are not suited to urban development
because of the hazard of flooding.
The Bradenton, Felda, and Chobee soils are in
capability subclass Vw. These soils are not assigned to
a range site.

9-Cassia fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly level,
and poorly drained. It is on low-lying knolls on
flatwoods. Slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this Cassia soil has a gray fine sand
surface layer about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is gray fine sand to a depth of about 22 inches. The
upper part of the subsoil to a depth of about 28 inches
is dark reddish brown fine sand. The next layer to a
depth of about 40 inches is dark brown fine sand. To a
depth of about 55 inches, the soil is pale brown fine
sand. The lower part of the subsoil to a depth of about
80 inches is fine sand that is dark grayish brown in the
upper part and very dark grayish brown in the lower
part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Myakka, Pomello, and Zolfo soils. Myakka soils are in
lower positions on the landscape than the Cassia soil.
Pomello soils are in higher positions and have a sandy
subsoil between 30 and 50 inches below the surface.
Zolfo soils are in landscape positions similar to those of
the Cassia soil and have a sandy subsoil more than 50
inches below the surface. The included soils make up
about 15 percent of the map unit.
This Cassia soil has a high water table at a depth of
18 to 42 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
moderate or moderately rapid.
This soil is only moderately suited to pasture
because of droughtiness and very low fertility. Fertilizer
and lime are needed for optimum growth of grasses and


legumes. Suitable pasture plants are pangclagrass and
bahiagrass.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Sand Pine
Scrub range site. This site can be identified by a fairly
dense stand of sand pine trees and a dense understory
of oaks, saw palmetto, and other shrubs. Because of
past timber management practices, sand pines are not
in all areas of this range site. The drought nature of
this soil limits the potential for producing native forage.
If this range site is properly managed, using such
practices as deferred grazing and brush control, it has
the potential to produce limited amounts of lopsided
indiangrass, creeping bluestem, and beaked panicum.
Livestock generally does not use this range site if more
productive sites are available. Summer shade, winter
protection, and dry bedding during the wet seasons are
provided on this range site.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops because of droughtiness and poor soil
quality; however, it can be made suitable by supplying
sufficient water with a well designed irrigation system
and by adding sufficient nutrients for plant growth. Crop
residue left on or near the surface helps to conserve
moisture, maintain tilth, and control erosion. Frequent
applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed
to improve soil quality.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It can be made suitable by installing a water
control system that maintains the water table at an
effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover should be maintained between the trees.
Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular, basis.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are major concerns in management.
Because of wetness, this soil is only moderately
suited to urban development. Proper drainage is
needed to overcome wetness, and fill material is
needed for most urban uses.
This Cassia soil is in capability subclass VIs.

10-Chobee muck, depressional. This soil is deep,
nearly level, and very poorly drained. It is in
depressions. Slope is 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, this Chobee soil has a dark reddish brown
muck surface layer about 2 inches thick. The next layer
to a depth of about 7 inches is black sandy clay loam.
The subsoil to a depth of about 65 inches is black
sandy clay loam in the upper part and grayish brown
fine sandy loam in the lower part. The substratum to a







DeSoto County, Florida


depth of about 80 inches is greenish gray fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Delray, Felda, Floridana, and Gator soils. Delray soils
are in landscape positions similar to those of the
Chobee soil and have loamy material more than 40
inches below the surface. Felda soils are in slightly
higher positions generally near the edge of delineations.
They do not have a thick, dark surface layer or loamy
material within 20 inches of the surface. Floridana soils
are in positions similar to those of the Chobee soil and
have loamy material within 20 to 40 inches of the
surface. Gator soils are in the lowest positions, and
they are organic. In places are soils similar to the
Chobee soil except they do not have a significant
increase in clay within the subsoil. The included soils
make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
This Chobee soil has a high water table that usually
covers the surface for 6 months or more. The available
water capacity is moderate. The permeability is slow or
very slow.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, pasture, or citrus. The high water table
severely restricts plant growth. Establishing an
adequate water control system is difficult because
suitable outlets are not available in most locations;
however, if a system can be installed, this soil can be
made suitable for improved pasture grasses that
tolerate wetness.
This soil is characterized by the Freshwater Marshes
and Ponds range site. This site can be identified by an
open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and other
herbaceous plants in an area where the soil generally is
saturated or covered with water for long periods. If this
range site is properly managed, using such practices as
proper stocking, the potential for forage production is
higher than that of any other range site. Chalky
bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the drier parts
of the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site, and
maidencane is dominant in the wetter parts. Other
desirable forage plants include cutgrass, bluejoint
panicum, sloughgrass, and low panicums. Periodic high
water levels provide a natural deferment from excessive
grazing. Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to
dominate the drier parts of this site under excessive
grazing conditions.
This soil is not suited to commercial pine tree
production; however, baldcypress has been planted in a
few areas.
This soil is not suited to urban development.
This Chobee soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

11-Delray mucky fine sand, depressional. This


soil is deep, nearly level, and very poorly drained. It is
in depressions. Slope is 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, this Delray soil has a black mucky fine
sand surface layer about 23 inches thick. The
subsurface layer to a depth of about 65 inches is fine
sand that is grayish brown in the upper part and gray in
the lower part. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80
inches or more. It is grayish brown fine sandy loam in
the upper part, gray fine sandy loam in the middle part,
and gray loamy sand in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Anclote, Gator, and Samsula soils. Anclote soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Delray soil
and are sandy throughout. Gator and Samsula soils are
in the lowest positions. Gator soils are organic soils that
have loamy material within 51 inches of the surface.
Samsula soils are organic soils that have sandy
material within 51 inches of the surface. In places are
soils similar to the Delray soil except they have a dark
colored surface layer that is more than 24 inches thick.
The included soils make up about 15 percent of the
map unit.
This Delray soil has a high water table that usually
covers the surface for 6 months or more. The available
water capacity is moderate. The permeability is
moderate or moderately rapid.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, pasture, or citrus. The high water table
severely restricts plant growth. Establishing an
adequate water control system is difficult because
suitable outlets are not available in most locations;
however, if a system can be installed, this soil can be
made suitable for improved pasture grasses that
tolerate wetness.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
rushes, and other herbaceous plants in an area where
the soil generally is saturated or covered with water for
long periods. If this range site is properly managed, the
potential for forage production is higher than that of any
other range site. Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane
dominate the drier parts of the Freshwater Marshes and
Ponds range site, and maidencane is dominant in the
wetter parts. Other desirable forage plants include
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a natural
deferment from excessive grazing. Carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
this site under excessive grazing conditions.
This soil is not suited to commercial pine tree
production because of ponding. Outlets generally are






Soil Survey


not available, and drainage is not practical. Baldcypress
has been planted in a few areas of this soil.
This soil is not suited to urban development.
This Delray soil is in capability subclass VIIw.

12-Durbin and Wulfert mucks, frequently flooded.
These soils are nearly level and very poorly drained.
They are on the tidal-influenced part of the Peace River
flood plain in the southernmost part of the county. The
Durbin and Wulfert soils do not occur in a regular and
repeating pattern. Individual areas of each soil are large
enough to map separately; however, because of
present and predicted use, they were not separated in
mapping. Slope is 0 to 2 percent.
This map unit is about 50 percent Durbin soil, 45
percent Wulfert soil, and 5 percent other soils.
Typically, this Durbin soil has a very dark brown
muck surface layer about 4 inches thick. The next layer
to a depth of about 75 inches is black muck. The
underlying material to a depth of about 80 inches is
brown sand.
Typically, this Wulfert soil has a dark reddish brown
muck surface layer about 4 inches thick. The next layer
to a depth of about 26 inches is very dark grayish
brown muck. The underlying material is grayish brown
sand in the upper part. The lower part to a depth of
about 80 inches is light brownish gray fine sand.
Durbin and Wulfert soils are flooded daily by high
tides. The available water capacity is very high or high
for salt-tolerant plants. The permeability is rapid.
Included in this map unit are.small areas of Samsula
and Terra Ceia soils. These soils are on the flood plain,
and the content of sulfur is low. Samsula soils have
organic material that is less than 51 inches thick, and
Terra Ceia soils have organic material that is more than
51 inches thick. Some better drained soils that are
occasionally or rarely flooded are in elongated areas
adjacent to the stream.
The Durbin and Wulfert soils are not suitable for
pasture, crops, citrus, pine trees, or urban development
because of flooding during high tides.
Typically, the Durbin soil is characterized by the Salt
Marsh range site. This site can be identified by level,
tidal marsh areas. It has potential for producing
significant amounts of smooth cordgrass, marshhay
cordgrass, seashore saltgrass, and numerous other
forage grasses and forbs.
Because tidal action saturates these soils with salt
water to a depth of a few inches, some areas are soft
and cannot support the weight of a large animal. In
areas that are suitable for grazing, the potential for
producing desirable forage is almost as high as on a


freshwater marsh. Proper stocking is needed. Poorly
managed salt marshes generally are dominated by
rushes and sawgrass.
These Durbin and Wulfert soils are in capability
subclass VIllw.

13-EauGallie fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly
level, and poorly drained. It is on flatwoods. Slope is 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, this EauGallie soil has a very dark gray
fine sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer to a depth of 29 inches is fine sand
that is gray in the upper part and light gray in the lower
part. The subsoil to a depth of about 47 inches is fine
sand that is black in the upper part and dark brown in
the lower part. The next layer to a depth of about 68
inches is yellowish brown fine sand. To a depth of
about 80 inches, the subsoil is grayish brown fine sandy
loam underlain by light olive gray sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Myakka, Immokalee, Farmton, and Wabasso soils.
Myakka soils are in landscape positions similar to those
of the EauGallie soil, but they do not have a loamy
subsoil. The Immokalee and Farmton soils are in
slightly higher positions on the landscape and have a
well developed subsoil between 30 and 50 inches below
the surface. Wabasso soils have a loamy subsoil less
than 40 inches below the surface. The included soils
make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
This EauGallie soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
slow or moderately slow.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants are
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Grazing management, brush control, protection from
wildlife, and proper location of stockwater and fences
are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South
Florida Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified
by scattered pine trees and an understory of saw
palmetto and grasses. If this range site is properly
managed, using such practices as deferred grazing and
brush control, it has the potential to produce significant
amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
chalky bluestem, and various panicums. As range
deterioration occurs because of poor grazing
management, this site is dominated by saw palmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass).








DeSoto County, Florida


j&4 -t\ j -0L k
. fV


Figure 6.-Irrigation and drainage furrows and window protection for young plants improve the suitability of EauGallie fine sand for
vegetable crops.


The EauGallie soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops
because of wetness and poor soil quality. Only a limited
number of crops can be grown unless very intensive
management practices are used. With good water
control and soil-improving measures, this soil can be
made suitable for several vegetable crops (fig. 6). A
water control system is needed to remove excess water
in wet seasons and to provide water for subsurface
irrigation in dry seasons. Row crops should be rotated
with close-growing, soil-improving crops that are on the
land three-fourths of the time. Crop residue and soil-


improving crops should be used to maintain organic
matter content. Seedbed preparation should include
bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be
added according to the need of the crops. Cucumbers,
watermelons, bell peppers, and squash are the main
crops grown.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless it is
intensively managed for this use. A carefully designed
water control system must be installed to maintain the
water table at an effective depth. Trees should be
planted on beds to increase the effective depth to the







Soil Survey


water table, and a plant cover needs to be maintained
between the trees. Fertilizer and lime are needed on a
regular basis.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity
for slash pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are major concerns in
management. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
seedlings by increasing the depth to the water table.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
urban development. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Preserving the existing plant cover during
construction helps to control erosion.
This EauGallie soil is in capability subclass IVw.

14-Farmton fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly
level, and poorly drained. It is on flatwoods. Slope is 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, this Farmton soil has a dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 34 inches is fine sand that is gray in
the upper part and light gray in the lower part. The
subsoil to a depth of 48 inches is fine sand that is black
in the upper part, very dark gray in the middle part, and
dark brown in the lower part. To a depth of about 80
inches, the subsoil is sandy clay loam that is light
brownish gray in the upper part and pale olive in the
lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Immokalee, Myakka, EauGallie, and Malabar soils.
Immokalee soils are in landscape positions similar to
those of the Farmton soil, and they do not have a loamy
subsoil. Myakka, EauGallie, and Malabar soils are in
slightly lower positions on the landscape. Myakka soils
have a shallower subsoil and do not have loamy
material in the lower part of the subsoil. The upper part
of the subsoil in EauGallie soils is shallower than that of
the Farmton soil. Malabar soils have a brightly colored
subsoil. The included soils make up about 15 percent of
the map unit.
This Farmton soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
slow or very slow.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants are
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Grazing management, brush control, protection from
wildfire, and proper location of stockwater and fences
are needed.


Typically, this soil is characterized by the South
Florida Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified
by scattered pine trees and an understory of saw
palmetto and grasses. If this range site is properly
managed, using such practices as deferred grazing and
brush control, it has the potential to produce significant
amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
chalky bluestem, and various panicums. As range
deterioration occurs because of poor grazing
management, this site is dominated by saw palmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of wetness and poor soil
quality. Only a limited number of crops can be grown
unless very intensive management practices are used;
however, this soil can be made suitable for several
vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to
remove excess water in wet seasons and to provide
water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. A flow-
through irrigation system works well on this soil. The
organic matter content can be maintained by using all
crop residue, planting cover crops, and using a suitable
cropping system. Crops respond to lime and fertilizer.
Cucumbers, bell peppers, squash, and watermelons are
the main crops grown.
In its natural condition, this Farmton soil is poorly
suited to citrus. It can be made suitable by installing a
carefully designed water control system that maintains
the water table at an effective depth. Trees should be
planted on beds to increase the effective depth to the
water table, and a plant cover needs to be
maintained between the trees. Fertilizer and lime are
needed on a regular basis.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are major concerns in management.
Bedding of rows helps in establishing seedlings by
increasing the depth to the water table.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
urban development. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Preserving the existing plant cover during
construction helps to control erosion.
This Farmton soil is in capability subclass IVw.

15-Felda fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly level,
and poorly drained. It is in sloughs and on low-lying
hammocks (fig. 7). Slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this Felda soil has a black fine sand
surface layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 29 inches is fine sand that is
grayish brown in the upper part and light gray in the








DeSoto County, Florida


Figure 7.-Nesting and grazing for wildlife, particularly deer and turkey, are provided in most areas of Felda fine sand.


lower part. The subsoil to a depth of 42 inches is gray
fine sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of about 80
inches is loamy sand that is gray in the upper part and
light olive gray in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bradenton, Pineda, Pinellas, and Malabar soils. These
soils are in landscape positions similar to those of the
Felda soil. Bradenton soils have a loamy subsoil within
20 inches of the surface. Pineda soils have yellowish
horizons above a loamy subsoil. Pinellas soils have
calcareous horizons. Malabar soils have a loamy
subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches. Small areas
of Felda soils are in depressions. The included soils


make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
This Felda soil has a high water table within a depth
of 12 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years. The
available water capacity is low. The permeability is
moderate or moderately rapid. In sloughs, the surface is
covered by shallow, slowly moving water for 1 to 7 days
or more during periods of high rainfall.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants are
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Grazing management, brush control, protection from







Soil Survey


wildfire, and proper location of stockwater and fences
are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Slough
range site. This site can be identified by an open
expanse of grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area
where the soil is saturated during the rainy season. If
this range site is properly managed, using such
practices as deferred grazing, the potential for forage
production is almost as high as that of the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. Desirable forage plants
include blue maidencane, maidencane, chalky
bluestem, toothachegrass, and South Florida bluestem.
Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to dominate this
site under excessive grazing conditions.
In its natural condition, this Felda soil is poorly suited
to cultivated crops because of wetness and poor soil
quality. Only a limited number of crops can be grown
unless very intensive management practices are used;
however, this soil can be made suitable for several
vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to
remove excess water in wet seasons and to provide
water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Flow-
through and micro-jet irrigation systems work well on
this soil. The organic matter content can be maintained
by using all crop residue, planting cover crops, and
using a suitable cropping system. Crops respond well to
lime and fertilizer. Cucumbers and watermelons are the
main crops grown.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It can be made suitable by installing a water
control system that maintains the water table at an
effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover needs to be maintained between the trees.
Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity
for South Florida slash pine. Equipment limitations,
seedling mortality, and plant competition are major
concerns in management. Bedding of rows helps in
establishing seedlings by increasing the depth to the
water table.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
urban development. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Preserving the existing plant cover during
construction helps to control erosion.
This Felda soil is in capability subclass Illw.

16-Felda fine sand, frequently flooded. This soil is
deep, nearly level, and poorly drained. It is adjacent to
streams and well defined drainageways. Slope is 0 to 2
percent.


Typically, this Felda soil has a very dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 22 inches is fine sand that is
grayish brown in the upper part and light brownish gray
in the lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about 65
inches is fine sandy loam. It is grayish brown in the
upper part, dark grayish brown in the middle part, and
light brownish gray in the lower part. The substratum to
a depth of about 80 inches is light gray sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Pineda, and Pompano soils. These soils are
in landscape positions similar to those of the Felda soil.
Basinger soils have a slightly darkened subsoil and are
sandy throughout. Pineda soils have a brightly colored
subsoil. Pompano soils do not have a subsoil and are
sandy throughout. The included soils make up about 15
percent of the map unit.
This Felda soil has a high water table within a depth
of 12 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years,
Flooding occurs in most years. The available water
capacity is low. The permeability is moderate or
moderately rapid.
The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, laurel
oak, live oak, cabbage palm, saw palmetto, and
pineland threeawn.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
pasture, cultivated crops, or citrus because of the
hazard of flooding. It is moderately suited to improved
pasture grasses if excess water is removed. A water
control system is needed to remove excess surface
water after heavy rains, and flooding should be
controlled. Suitable pasture plants are pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover. Fertilizer and
lime are needed for optimum growth of grasses and
legumes. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and timely
deferment of grazing help keep the pasture in good
condition.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity
for slash pine if water control measures are used.
Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
competition are major concerns in management.
Bedding of rows helps in establishing seedlings by
increasing the depth to the water table.
This soil is not suited to urban development.
This Felda soil is in capability subclass Vw. It is not
assigned to a range site.

17-Felda fine sand, depressional. This soil is
deep, nearly level, and very poorly drained. It is in
depressions. Slope is 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, this Felda soil has a very dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface







DeSoto County, Florida


layer to a depth of about 32 inches is fine sand that is
light gray in the upper part and grayish brown in the
lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about 49 inches is
fine sandy loam that is grayish brown in the upper part
and gray in the lower part. The substratum to a depth of
about 80 inches is light gray fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Floridana, and Pineda soils. These soils are
in landscape positions similar to those of the Felda soil.
Basinger soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches.
Floridana soils have a thick, dark colored surface layer.
Pineda soils have a brightly colored subsoil. The
included soils make up about 15 percent of the map
unit.
This Felda soil has a high water table that usually
covers the surface for 6 months or more. The available
water capacity is low. The permeability is moderate or
moderately rapid.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, pasture, or citrus. The high water table
severely restricts plant growth. Establishing an
adequate water control system is difficult because
suitable outlets are not available in most locations;
however, if a system can be installed, this soil can be
made suitable for improved pasture grasses that
tolerate wetness.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
rushes, and other herbaceous plants in an area where
the soil generally is saturated or covered with water for
long periods. If this range site is properly managed,
using such practices as proper stocking, the potential
for forage production is higher than that of any other
range site. Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane
dominate the drier parts of the Freshwater Marshes and
Ponds range site, and maidencane is dominant in the
wetter parts. Other desirable forage plants include
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a natural
deferment from extensive grazing. Carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
this site under excessive grazing conditions.
This soil is not suited to commercial pine tree
production because of ponding. Outlets generally are
not available, and drainage is not practical. Baldcypress
has been planted in a few areas of this soil.
This soil is not suited to urban development.
This Felda soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

18-Floridana mucky fine sand, depressional. This
soil is deep, nearly level, and very poorly drained. It is


in depressions. Slope is 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, this Floridana soil has a black mucky fine
sand surface layer about 22 inches thick. The
subsurface layer to a depth of about 34 inches is gray
fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 45 inches is
fine sandy loam that is gray in the upper part and
greenish gray in the lower part. The substratum is gray
loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Malabar, Felda, and Pineda soils. Malabar soils are in
slightly higher positions generally near the outer edges
of the delineation. These soils do not have a dark
surface layer and have a loamy subsoil that is more
than 40 inches below the surface. Felda soils are in
depressions and do not have a dark surface layer.
Pineda soils are in slightly higher positions on the
landscape than the Floridana soil. These soils do not
have a dark surface layer and have tonguing of the
surface layer into the loamy subsoil. The included soils
make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
This Floridana soil has a high water table that usually
covers the surface for 6 months or more. The available
water capacity is moderate. The permeability is slow or
very slow.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, pasture, or citrus. The high water table
severely restricts plant growth. Establishing an
adequate water control system is difficult because
suitable outlets are not available in most locations;
however, if a system can be installed, this soil can be
made suitable for improved pasture grasses that
tolerate wetness.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
rushes, and other herbaceous plants in an area where
the soil generally is saturated or covered with water for
long periods. If this range site is properly managed, the
potential for forage production is higher than that of any
other range site. Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane
dominate the drier parts of the Freshwater Marshes and
Ponds range site, and maidencane is dominant in the
wetter parts. Other desirable forage plants include
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a natural
deferment from excessive grazing. Carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
this site under excessive grazing conditions.
This soil is not suited to commercial pine tree
production; however, baldcypress has been planted in a
few areas.
This soil is not suited to urban development.







Soil Survey


This Floridana soil is in capability subclass VIIw.

19-Gator muck, depressional. This soil is deep,
nearly level, and very poorly drained. It is in marshes,
swamps, and depressional areas. Slope is 0 to 1
percent.
Typically, this Gator soil has a black muck surface
layer about 22 inches thick. The underlying material to
a depth of about 80 inches is fine sandy loam. It is
black and very dark grayish brown in the upper part,
dark grayish brown in the middle part, and dark gray in
the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Floridana and Terra Ceia soils. Floridana soils are
mineral soils that have a thick, dark colored surface
layer and a loamy subsoil. These soils are in slightly
higher positions on the landscape than the Gator soil.
Terra Ceia soils are on the same landscape as that of
the Gator soil and are muck to a depth of more than 51
inches. The included soils make up about 15 percent of
the map unit.
This Gator soil has a high water table that usually
covers the surface for 6 months or more. The available
water capacity is high. The permeability is slow or very
slow. If this soil is drained, the organic material initially
shrinks on drying to about half the original thickness
and then subsides further as a result of compaction and
oxidation. These losses are most rapid during the first 2
years this soil is drained. If drainage is continued, this
soil continues to subside at the rate of about 1 inch per
year. The lower the water table, the more rapid the loss.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
improved pasture, cultivated crops, citrus, or
commercial pine tree production. Baldcypress has been
planted in a few areas of this soil.
If water is properly controlled, this soil can be made
suitable for improved pasture. A water control system
that maintains the water table near the surface helps to
prevent excessive oxidation of the organic material.
Suitable pasture plants are pangolagrass, improved
bahiagrass, and white clover.
A well designed and maintained water control system
can improve the suitability of this soil for cultivated
crops. Excess water must be removed when crops are
on the land, and the soil should be saturated with water
the rest of the time. Fertilizers that contain phosphate,
potash, and minor elements are needed. All crop
residue and cover crops should be used to maintain
organic matter content. Sorghum and sod are the main
crops grown.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be


identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
rushes, and other herbaceous plants in an area where
the soil generally is saturated or covered with water for
long periods. If this range site is properly managed,
using such practices as proper stocking, the potential
for forage production is higher than that of any other
range site. Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane
dominate the drier parts of the Freshwater Marshes and
Ponds range site, and maidencane is dominant in the
wetter parts. Other desirable forage plants include
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a natural
deferment from excessive grazing. Carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
this site under excessive grazing conditions.
This soil is not suited to urban development.
This Gator soil is in capability subclass VIIw.

20-Immokalee fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly
level, and poorly drained. It is on flatwoods. Slope is 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, this Immokalee soil has a dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 43 inches is white fine sand.
The subsoil to a depth of about 65 inches is fine sand
that is black in the upper part and dark brown in the
middle and lower parts. Black, firm ortstein fragments
are in the middle part of the subsoil. The substratum to
a depth of about 80 inches is brown fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Myakka, Smyrna, Punta, and Farmton soils. Myakka
and Smyrna soils are in lower positions on the
landscape and have a shallower subsoil than the
Immokalee soil. Punta and Farmton soils are in
positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Immokalee soil. Punta soils have a deeper subsoil, and
Farmton soils have a loamy subsoil. The included soils
make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
This Immokalee soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
moderate.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants are
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Grazing management, brush control, protection from
wildfire, and proper location of stockwater and fences
are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South
Florida Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified







DeSoto County, Florida


by scattered pine trees and an understory of saw
palmetto and grasses. If this range site is properly
managed, using such practices as deferred grazing and
brush control, it has the potential to produce significant
amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
chalky bluestem, and various panicums. As range
deterioration occurs because of poor grazing
management, this site is dominated by saw palmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
In its natural condition, this Immokalee soil is poorly
suited to cultivated crops because of wetness and poor
soil quality. Only a limited number of crops can be
grown unless very intensive management practices are
used; however, this soil can be made suitable for
several vegetable crops. A water control system is
needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and to
provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. A
flow-through irrigation system works well on this soil.
The organic matter content can be maintained by using
all crop residue, planting cover crops, and using a
suitable cropping system. Crops respond to lime and
fertilizer. Cucumbers, bell peppers, squash, and
watermelons are the main crops grown.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It can be made suitable by installing a water
control system that maintains the water table at an
effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover needs to be maintained between the trees.
Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are major concerns in management.
Bedding of rows helps in establishing seedlings by
increasing the depth to the water table.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
urban development. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Preserving the existing plant cover during
construction helps to control erosion.
This Immokalee soil is in capability subclass IVw.

21-Malabar fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly
level, and poorly drained. It is in sloughs and low-lying
hammocks. Slope is 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, this Malabar soil has a gray fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 12 inches is yellowish brown fine
sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 50 inches is fine
sand that is light yellowish brown in the upper part,
yellowish brown in the middle part, and light olive brown


in the lower part. To a depth of about 80 inches, it is
gray fine sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Delray, Felda, Pineda, and Valkaria soils. Delray soils
are in depressions and have a thick, dark surface layer.
Felda, Pineda, and Valkaria soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Malabar soil. Felda soils
do not have a brightly colored subsoil. Pineda soils
have tonguing of the sandy subsurface layer into the
loamy subsoil. Valkaria soils are sandy throughout. In
places are small areas of soils similar to the Malabar
soil except they do not have a brightly colored subsoil.
The included soils make up about 15 percent of the
map unit.
This Malabar soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
slow or very slow. In sloughs, the soil surface can be
covered by shallow, slowly moving water for 1 to 7 days
or more during periods of heavy rainfall.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants are
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Grazing management, brush control, protection from
wildlife, and proper location of stockwater, walkways,
and fences are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Slough
range site. This site can be identified by an open
expanse of grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area
where the soil is saturated during the rainy season. If
this range site is properly managed, using such
practices as deferred grazing, the potential for forage
production is almost as high as that of the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. Desirable forage plants
include blue maidencane, maidencane, chalky
bluestem, toothachegrass, and South Florida bluestem.
Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to dominate this
site under excessive grazing conditions.
In its natural condition, this Malabar soil is poorly
suited to cultivated crops because of wetness and poor
soil quality. Only a limited number of crops can be
grown unless very intensive management practices are
used; however, this soil can be made suitable for
several vegetable crops. A water control system is
needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and to
provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. A
flow-through irrigation system works well on this soil.
The organic matter content can be maintained by using
all crop residue, planting cover crops, and using a








Soil Survey


suitable cropping system. Crops respond well to lime
and fertilizer. Cucumbers and watermelons are the main
crops grown.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It can be made suitable by installing a water
control system that maintains the water table at an
effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover needs to be maintained between the trees.
Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
pine. Potential productivity is attainable only in areas
that have adequate surface drainage. Equipment
limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
major concerns in management. Bedding of rows helps
in establishing seedlings by increasing the depth to the
water table.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development
because of wetness. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Preserving the existing plant cover during
construction helps to control erosion.
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass IVw.

22-Malabar fine sand, high. This soil is deep,
nearly level, and poorly drained. It is on flatwoods and
hammocks. Slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this Malabar soil has a dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 13 inches is fine sand that is pale
brown in the upper part and yellowish brown in the
lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about 40 inches is
brownish yellow fine sand. The next layer to a depth of
about 52 inches is pale brown fine sand. The lower part
of the subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 inches.
It is gray fine sandy loam in the upper part and gray
sandy clay loam in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
EauGallie, Farmton, and Pineda soils. EauGallie and
Farmton soils are on flatwoods and have a dark colored
subsoil. Pineda soils have a sandy subsurface layer
that tongues into a loamy subsoil. In places are small
areas of soils similar to the Malabar soil; some do not
have the brightly colored subsoil and others have a
secondary accumulation of carbonates in the subsoil.
The included soils make up about 15 percent of the
map unit.
This Malabar soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
slow or very slow.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on


the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants are
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Grazing management, brush control, protection from
wildfire, and proper location of stockwater and fences
are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South
Florida Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified
by scattered pine trees and an understory of saw
palmetto and grasses. If this range site is properly
managed, using such practices as deferred grazing and
brush control, it has the potential to produce significant
amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
chalky bluestem, and various panicums. As range
deterioration occurs because of poor grazing
management, this site is dominated by saw palmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
In its natural condition, this Malabar soil is poorly
suited to cultivated crops because of wetness and poor
soil quality. Only a limited number of crops can be
grown unless very intensive management practices are
used; however, this soil can be made suitable for
several vegetable crops. A water control system is
needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and to
provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. A
flow-through irrigation system works well on this soil.
The organic matter content can be maintained by using
all crop residue, planting cover crops, and using a
suitable cropping system. Crops respond well to lime
and fertilizer. Cucumbers and watermelons are the main
crops grown.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It can be made suitable by installing a water
control system that maintains the water table at an
effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover needs to be maintained between the trees.
Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are major concerns in management.
Bedding of rows helps in establishing seedlings by
increasing the depth to the water table.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
urban development. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Preserving the existing plant cover during
construction helps to control erosion.
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

23-Malabar fine sand, depressional. This soil is








DeSoto County, Florida


deep, nearly level, and very poorly drained. It is in
depressions. Slope is 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, this Malabar soil has a very dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 2 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 25 inches is light gray fine
sand. The subsoil is yellowish brown fine sand in the
upper part. The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches
is grayish brown sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Delray, Felda, and Pineda soils. Delray soils are in the
lowest positions. Felda and Pineda soils are in positions
similar to those of the Malabar soil. Delray soils have a
thick, dark surface layer. Felda soils do not have a
brightly colored subsoil, and Pineda soils have tonguing
of the sandy subsurface layer into the loamy subsoil.
Pineda and Felda soils have a loamy subsoil at a
shallower depth than that of the Malabar soil. In places
are small areas of soils similar to the Malabar soil;
some do not have the brightly colored subsoil and
others do not have a loamy subsoil. The included soils
make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
This Malabar soil has a high water table that usually
covers the surface for 6 months or more. The available
water capacity is low. The permeability is slow or very
slow.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture. The high
water table severely restricts plant growth. Establishing
an adequate water control system is difficult because
suitable outlets are not available in most locations;
however, if a system can be installed, this soil can be
made suitable for improved pasture grasses that
tolerate wetness.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
rushes, and other herbaceous plants in an area where
the soil generally is saturated or covered with water for
2 months or more during the year. If this range site is
properly managed, the potential for forage production is
higher than that of any other range site. Chalky
bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the drier parts
of the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site, and
maidencane is dominant in the wetter parts. Other
desirable forage plants include cutgrass, bluejoint
panicum, sloughgrass, and low panicums. Periodic high
water levels provide a natural deferment from excessive
grazing. Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to
dominate the drier parts of this site under excessive
grazing conditions.
This soil is not suited to commercial pine tree
production because of ponding. Outlets generally are


not available, and drainage is not practical. Baldcypress
has been planted in a few areas of this soil.
This soil is not suited to urban development.
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

24-Myakka fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly
level, and poorly drained. It is on flatwoods. Slope is 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, this Myakka soil has a dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 22 inches is light gray fine sand.
The subsoil to a depth of about 32 inches is fine sand
that is very dark brown in the upper part and dark
brown in the lower part. The substratum to a depth of
about 80 inches is fine sand that is pale brown in the
upper part, light gray in the middle part, and grayish
brown in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Smyrna, Basinger, Immokalee, and EauGallie soils.
Smyrna and Basinger soils are in slightly lower
positions on the landscape than the Myakka soil.
Smyrna soils have a shallower subsoil, and Basinger
soils have a slightly darkened sandy subsoil. Immokalee
soils are in slightly higher positions on the landscape
and have a deeper subsoil. EauGallie soils are in
positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Myakka soil and have a loamy subsoil more than 40
inches below the surface. The included soils make up
about 15 percent of the map unit.
This Myakka soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
moderate or moderately rapid.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Suitable pasture plants are pangolagrass, improved
bahiagrass, and white clover.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South
Florida Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified
by scattered pine trees and an understory of saw
palmetto and grasses. If this range site is properly
managed, using such practices as deferred grazing and
brush control, it has the potential to produce significant
amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
chalky bluestem, and various panicums. As range
deterioration occurs because of poor grazing
management, this site is dominated by saw palmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of wetness and poor soil
quality. Only a limited number of crops can be grown
unless very intensive management practices are used;







Soil Survey


however, this soil can be made suitable for several
vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to
remove excess water in wet seasons and to provide
water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. A flow-
through irrigation system works well on this soil. Crops
respond well to lime and fertilizer.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It can be made suitable by installing a water
control system that maintains the water table at an
effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover needs to be maintained between the trees.
Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are major concerns in management.
Bedding of rows helps in establishing seedlings by
increasing the depth to the water table.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
urban development. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses.
This Myakka soil is in capability subclass IVw.

25-Ona fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly level,
and poorly drained. It is on flatwoods. Slope is 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, this Ona soil has a black fine sand surface
layer about 5 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of
about 31 inches is fine sand that is very dark brown in
the upper part and dark grayish brown in the lower part.
The next layer to a depth of 46 inches is pale brown
fine sand. To a depth of about 80 inches, the soil is
black fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, EauGallie, and Smyrna soils. Basinger soils
are in lower positions on the landscape than the Ona
soil and have a slightly darkened subsoil. EauGallie
soils are in positions on the landscape similar to those
of the Ona soil and have a loamy subsoil at a depth of
more than 40 inches. Smyrna soils have a deeper
subsoil than that of the Ona soil. The included soils
make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
This Ona soil has a high water table within a depth of
12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The
available water capacity is low. The permeability is
moderate.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants are
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.


Grazing management, brush control, protection from
wildfire, and proper location of stockwater and fences
are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South
Florida Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified
by scattered pine trees and an understory of saw
palmetto and grasses. If this range site is properly
managed, using such practices as deferred grazing and
brush control, it has the potential to produce significant
amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
chalky bluestem, and various panicums. As range
deterioration occurs because of poor grazing
management, this site is dominated by saw palmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of wetness and poor soil
quality. Only a limited number of crops can be grown
unless very intensive management practices are used;
however, this soil can be made suitable for several
vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to
remove excess water in wet seasons and to provide
water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. A flow-
through irrigation system works well on this soil. The
organic matter content can be maintained by using all
crop residue, plowing under cover crops, and using a
suitable cropping system. Crops respond well to lime
and fertilizer. Cucumbers and watermelons are the main
crops grown.
In its natural condition, this Ona soil is poorly suited
to citrus. It can be made suitable by installing a water
control system that maintains the water table at an
effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover needs to be maintained between the trees.
Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are major concerns in management.
Bedding of rows helps in establishing seedlings by
increasing the depth to the water table.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
urban development. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Preserving the existing plant cover during
construction helps to control erosion.
This Ona soil is in capability subclass Ill1w.

26-Pineda fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly level,
and poorly drained. It is in sloughs. Slope is 0 to 1
percent.
Typically, this Pineda soil has a black fine sand
surface layer about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer








DeSoto County, Florida


to a depth of about 15 inches is fine sand that is light
brownish gray in the upper part and pale brown in the
lower part. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 41
inches. It is yellowish brown fine sand in the upper part,
yellow fine sand in the middle part, and gray fine sandy
loam in the lower part. The substratum to a depth of 80
inches is gray loamy sand and light gray fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Felda, Malabar, and Valkaria soils. These soils are in
positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Pineda soil. Felda soils do not have a brightly colored
subsoil. Malabar soils have a deeper, loamy subsoil.
Valkaria soils do not have a loamy subsoil. Small areas
of Pineda soils are in slightly higher positions on the
landscape. The included soils make up about 10
percent of the map unit.
This Pineda soil has a high water table within a depth
of 12 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years. The
available water capacity is iow. The permeability is slow
or very slow during periods of high rainfall. This soil is
covered by slowly moving, shallow water for 1 to 7 days
or more.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants are
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Grazing management, brush control, protection from
wildfire, and proper location of stockwater and fences
are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Slough
range site. This site can be identified by an open
expanse of grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area
where the soil is saturated during the rainy season. If
this range site is properly managed, using such
practices as deferred grazing, the potential for forage
production is almost as high as that of the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. Desirable forage plants
include blue maidencane, maidencane, chalky
bluestem, toothachegrass, and South Florida bluestem.
Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to dominate this
site under excessive grazing conditions.
In its natural condition, this Pineda soil is poorly
suited to cultivated crops because of wetness and poor
soil quality. Only a limited number of crops can be
grown unless very intensive management practices are
used; however, this soil can be made suitable for
several vegetable crops. A water control system is
needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and to
provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. A
flow-through irrigation system works well on this soil.
The organic matter content can be maintained by using


all crop residue, planting cover crops, and using a
suitable cropping system. Crops respond well to lime
and fertilizer. Cucumbers, bell peppers, squash, and
watermelons are the main crops grown.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It can be made suitable by installing a water
control system that maintains the water table at an
effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover needs to be maintained between the trees.
Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity
for slash pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are major concerns in
management. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
seedlings by increasing the depth to the water table.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
urban development. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Preserving the existing plant cover during
construction helps to control erosion.
This Pineda soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

27-Pineda fine sand, frequently flooded. This soil
is deep, nearly level, and poorly drained. It is adjacent
to streams and well defined drainageways. Slope is 0 to
2 percent.
Typically, this Pineda soil has a very dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 3 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 16 inches is grayish brown
fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 37
inches. It is brownish yellow fine sand in the upper part,
and the lower part is light gray fine sandy loam that has
pockets of light gray fine sand. The substratum to a
depth of about 80 inches is fine sand. It is light
brownish gray in the upper part, light gray in the middle
part, and light brownish gray in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Felda, and Pompano soils. These soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Pineda soil.
Basinger soils have a slightly darkened subsoil and are
sandy throughout. Felda soils do not have a brightly
colored subsoil or sandy intrusions in the loamy subsoil.
Pompano soils do not have a subsoil and are sandy
throughout. The included soils make up about 15
percent of the map unit.
This Pineda soil has a high water table within a depth
of 12 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years.
Flooding occurs in most years. The available water
capacity is low. The permeability is slow or very slow.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
pasture, cultivated crops, or citrus because of the








Soil Survey


hazard of flooding. This soil is moderately suited to
pasture grasses if excess water is removed. A water
control system is needed to remove excess surface
water after heavy rains, and flooding should be
controlled. Suitable pasture plants are pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover. Fertilizer and
lime are needed for optimum growth of grasses and
legumes. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and timely
deferment of grazing help keep the pasture in good
condition.
This soil is characterized by the Slough range site.
This site can be identified by an open expanse of
grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area where the soil
is saturated during the rainy season. If this range site is
properly managed, using such practices as deferred
grazing, the potential for forage production is almost as
high as that of the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds
range site. Desirable forage plants include blue
maidencane, maidencane, chalky bluestem,
toothachegrass, and South Florida bluestem.
Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to dominate this
site under excessive grazing conditions.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity
for slash pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are major concerns in
management. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
seedlings by increasing the depth to the water table.
This soil is not suited to urban development.
This Pineda soil is in capability subclass Vw.

28-Pineda fine sand, depressional. This soil is
deep, nearly level, and very poorly drained. It is in
depressions. Slope is 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, this Pineda soil has a very dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 15 inches is light grayish
brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 24 inches is
brownish yellow fine sand. The next layer to a depth of
38 inches is light yellowish brown fine sand. The lower
part of the subsoil to a depth of about 66 inches is fine
sandy loam that is grayish brown in the upper part and
gray in the lower part. The next layer to a depth of
about 80 inches is light gray fine sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Felda, Floridana, and Malabar soils. These soils are in
depressions. Felda soils do not have a brightly colored
subsoil. Floridana soils have a thick, dark colored
surface layer. Malabar soils have a loamy subsoil that is
more than 40 inches below the surface. The included
soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
This Pineda soil has a water table that usually covers


the surface for 6 months or more. The available water
capacity is low. The permeability is slow or very slow.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, pasture, or citrus. The high water table
severely restricts plant growth. Establishing an
adequate water control system is difficult because
suitable outlets are not available in most locations;
however, if a system can be installed, this soil can be
made suitable for improved pasture grasses that
tolerate wetness.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
rushes, and other herbaceous plants in an area where
the soil generally is saturated or covered with water for
2 months or more during the year. If this range site is
properly managed, using such practices as proper
stocking, the potential for forage production is higher
than that of any other range site. Chalky bluestem and
blue maidencane dominate the drier parts of the
Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site, and
maidencane is dominant in the wetter parts. Other
desirable forage plants include cutgrass, bluejoint
panicum, sloughgrass, and low panicums. Periodic high
water levels provide a natural deferment from excessive
grazing. Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to
dominate the drier parts of this site under excessive
grazing conditions.
This soil is not suited to commercial pine tree
production because of ponding; however, baldcypress
has been planted in a few areas.
This soil is not suited to urban development.
This Pineda soil is in capability subclass VIlw.

29-Pineda-Pinellas fine sands. These soils are
nearly level and poorly drained. They are mostly on
hammocks and in sloughs. Pineda and Pinellas soils
are too intricately mixed to be mapped separately at the
selected scale. Slope is 0 to 1 percent. The Pineda soil
makes up about 45 percent of the complex, the Pinellas
soil makes up about 35 percent, and similar soils make
up about 20 percent.
Typically, this Pineda soil has a gray fine sand
surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 16 inches is pale brown fine sand.
The subsoil to a depth of about 24 inches is brownish
yellow fine sand. It is gray sandy clay loam to a depth
of about 50 inches and gray fine sandy loam to a depth
of about 70 inches. The substratum is grayish brown
fine sand to a depth of about 80 inches or more.
This Pineda soil has a high water table within a depth








DeSoto County, Florida


of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The
available water capacity is low. The permeability is slow
or very slow.
Typically, this Pinellas soil has a dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 20 inches is fine sand that is light
brownish gray in the upper part and grayish brown in
the lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about 42
inches is light gray fine sand in the upper part and light
gray fine sandy loam in the lower part. The substratum
to a depth of about 80 inches is fine sand that is very
pale brown in the upper part and light greenish gray in
the lower part.
This Pinellas soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
moderate.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of EauGallie, Farmton, and Wabasso soils. These soils
are in landscape positions similar to those of the Pineda
and Pinellas soils. EauGallie soils have a dark colored
subsoil within 20 inches of the surface, and Farmton
soils have a dark colored subsoil within 30 inches of the
surface. Wabasso soils do not have a brightly colored
subsoil layer or calcareous material.
The Pineda and Pinellas soils are well suited to
pasture. Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum
growth of grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants
are pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
clover.
Typically, these soils are characterized by the Slough
range site. This site can be identified by an open
expanse of grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area
where the soil is saturated during the rainy season. If
this range site is properly managed, using such
practices as deferred grazing, the potential for forage
production is almost as high as that of the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. Desirable forage plants
include blue maidencane, maidencane, chalky
bluestem, toothachegrass, and South Florida bluestem.
Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to dominate this
site under excessive grazing conditions.
In their natural condition, these soils are poorly suited
to cultivated crops because of wetness and poor soil
quality. Only a limited number of crops can be grown on
the soils unless very intensive management practices
are used; however, these soils can be made suitable for
several vegetable crops. A water control system is
needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and to
provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. A
flow-through irrigation system works well on these soils.
The organic matter content can be maintained by using


all crop residue, planting cover crops, and using a
suitable cropping system. Crops respond to lime and
fertilizer.
In their natural condition, the Pineda and Pinellas
soils are poorly suited to citrus. They can be made
suitable by installing a water control system that
maintains the water table at an effective depth. Trees
should be planted on beds to increase the effective
depth to the water table, and a plant cover needs to be
maintained between the trees. Fertilizer and lime are
needed on a regular basis.
The Pineda soil has moderately high potential
productivity for slash pine, and the Pinellas soil has
moderate potential productivity. Equipment limitations,
seedling mortality, and plant competition are concerns
in management. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
seedlings by increasing the depth to the water table.
In their natural condition, these soils are poorly suited
to urban development. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Preserving the existing plant cover during
construction helps to control erosion.
The Pineda and Pinellas soils are in capability
subclass IIIw.

30-Pomello fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly
level, and moderately well drained. It is on low ridges
on flatwoods. Slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this Pomello soil has a gray fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 46 inches is white fine sand. The
subsoil to a depth of about 66 inches is fine sand. It is
black in the upper part, dark reddish brown and dark
brown in the middle part, and dark yellowish brown in
lower part. The substratum to a depth of about 80
inches is light yellowish brown fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Punta and Immokalee soils. Punta soils are lower on
the landscape and have a deeper subsoil than the
Pomello soil. Immokalee soils are still lower on the
landscape and have a higher water table. In places are
some soils that have a dark subsoil that is more than 50
inches below the surface. The included soils make up
about 10 percent of the map unit.
This Pomello soil has a high water table at a depth of
24 to 42 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is very low. The
permeability is moderately rapid.
This soil is only moderately suited to pasture
because of droughtiness and low fertility. Drought-
tolerant species are suitable for planting. This soil is
better suited to bahiagrass than to any other grass.







Soil Survey


Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Grazing management, brush
control, protection from wildfire, and proper location of
stockwater and fences are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Sand Pine
Scrub range site. This site can be identified by a fairly
dense stand of sand pine trees and a dense understory
of oaks, saw palmetto, and other shrubs. Because of
past timber management practices, sand pines are not
in all areas of this range site. The drought nature of
this soil limits the potential for producing native forage.
If this range site is properly managed, using such
practices as deferred grazing and brush control, it has
the potential to produce limited amounts of lopsided
indiangrass, creeping bluestem, and beaked panicum.
Livestock generally do not use this range site if more
productive sites are available. Summer shade, winter
protection, and dry bedding during the wet seasons are
provided on this range site.
In its natural condition, this Pomello soil is not suited
to cultivated crops because of droughtiness and poor
soil quality; however, it can be made suitable by
supplying sufficient water with a well designed irrigation
system and by adding sufficient nutrients for plant
growth. Crop residue left on or near the surface helps to
conserve moisture, maintain tilth, and control erosion.
Crops respond well to lime and fertilizer.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus because of the very low available water capacity
and poor soil quality. It can be made suitable if
sufficient water is supplied with a well designed
irrigation system. Micro-jet irrigation systems work well
on this soil.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for
longleaf pine. Seedling mortality, plant competition, and
equipment limitations are major concerns in
management.
This soil is well suited to urban development.
Preserving the existing plant cover during construction
helps to control erosion.
This Pomello soil is in capability subclass VIs.

31-Pompano fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly
level, and poorly drained. It is in sloughs and poorly
defined drainageways. Slope is 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, this Pompano soil has a very dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 5 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of 80 inches is fine sand. It is gray
to a depth of 12 inches, light brownish gray to a depth
of 29 inches, grayish brown to a depth of 61 inches,
and white below that depth.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of


Basinger, Valkaria, and Anclote soils. Basinger and
Valkaria soils are in landscape positions similar to those
of the Pompano soil. Basinger soils have a slightly
darkened subsoil, and Valkaria soils have a brightly
colored layer in the subsoil. Anclote soils are in
depressions and have a thick, dark surface layer. The
included soils make up about 15 percent of the map
unit.
This Pompano soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is very low. The
permeability is rapid. The soil surface can be covered
by shallow, slowly moving water for 1 to 7 days or more
during periods of heavy rain.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants are
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Grazing management, brush control, protection from
wildfire, and proper location of stockwater and fences
are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Slough
range site. This site can be identified by an open
expanse of grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area
where the soil is saturated during the rainy season (fig.
8). If this range site is properly managed, using such
practices as deferred grazing, the potential for forage
production is almost as high as that of the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. Desirable forage plants
include blue maidencane, maidencane, chalky
bluestem, toothachegrass, and South Florida bluestem.
Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to dominate this
site under excessive grazing conditions.
In its natural condition, this Pompano soil is poorly
suited to cultivated crops because of wetness and poor
soil quality. Only a limited number of crops can be
grown unless very intensive management practices are
used; however, this soil can be made suitable for
several vegetable crops. A water control system is
needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and to
provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. A
flow-through irrigation system works well on this soil.
The organic matter content can be maintained by using
all crop residue, planting cover crops, and using a
suitable cropping system. Crops respond well to lime
and fertilizer. Cucumbers and watermelons are the main
crops grown.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It can be made suitable by installing a water
control system that maintains the water table at an
effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to







DeSoto County, Florida


Figure 8.-The native range on Pompano fine sand is an open expanse of grasses, sedges, and rushes.


increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover needs to be maintained between the trees.
Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
pine. Potential productivity is attainable only in areas of
this soil that are adequately drained. Equipment
limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
major concerns in management. Bedding of rows helps
in establishing seedlings by increasing the depth to the
water table.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development
because of wetness. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Preserving the existing plant cover during
construction helps to control erosion.
This Pompano soil is in capability subclass IVw.

32-Punta fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly level,
and poorly drained. It is on flatwoods. Slope is 0 to 2
percent.


Typically, this Punta soil has a gray fine sand surface
layer about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 60 inches is fine sand that is light gray in
the upper part and white in the lower part. The subsoil
to a depth of about 80 inches is fine sand. It is black in
the upper part and is very dark brown in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Immokalee and Satellite soils. Immokalee soils are in
positions on the landscape similar to those of the Punta
soil and have a shallower subsoil. Satellite soils are
better drained and do not have a subsoil. The included
soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
This Punta soil has a high water table within a depth
of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The
available water capacity is very low. The permeability is
moderate.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants are






Soil Survey


improved bahiagrass, hairy indigo, and bermudagrass.
Grazing management, brush control, protection from
wildfire, and proper location of stockwater and fences
are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South
Florida Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified
by scattered pine trees and an understory of saw
palmetto and grasses. If this range site is properly
managed, using such practices as deferred grazing and
brush control, it has the potential to produce significant
amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
chalky bluestem, and various panicums. As range
deterioration occurs because of poor grazing
management, this site is dominated by saw palmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
This Punta soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops
because of wetness, low fertility, and high acidity. Good
results from growing a limited number of suitable crops
can be obtained if very intensive management practices
are used. Adequate water-control and soil-improving
measures can make this soil more suitable for several
vegetable crops. Cucumbers, bell peppers,
watermelons, and squash are the main crops grown.
Crops respond well to lime and fertilizer.
In its natural condition, this Punta soil is poorly suited
to citrus because of wetness and low fertility. It can be
made suitable by installing a water control system that
maintains good drainage. Planting trees on beds helps
to provide good surface drainage. A good cover of
close-growing vegetation is needed between the young
trees to protect the soil from blowing. Regular
applications of fertilizer and occasional applications of
lime are needed. A micro-jet irrigation system works
well on this soil.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
pine; however, adequate water control is needed before
the potential can be attained. Equipment limitations,
seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main
concerns in management. Bedding of rows helps in
establishing seedlings by increasing the depth to the
water table.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
urban development. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Preserving the existing plant cover during
construction helps to control erosion.
This Punta soil is in capability subclass IVw.

33-Quartzipsamments, nearly level. These soils
are deep and consist of sandy material that has been
dredged and pumped over natural soils. The former
areas were flatwoods, sloughs, and depressions. Slope


ranges from 0 to 3 percent. The primary area of
Quartzipsamments in DeSoto County is 30 to 50 feet of
pumped-in sandy material.
The color and thickness of this material vary from
one area to another. One of the more com-non profiles
has a light gray or white fine sand surface layer about
18 inches thick. The next layer to a depth of about 38
inches is light gray fine sand mixed with la-ge pockets
of brown fine sand. A layer of light brownish gray fine
sand extends to a depth of about 72 inches. The
underlying material to a depth of about 80 inches is
brown fine sand.
Included with these soils in mapping are soils similar
to the Quartzipsamments; some have less than 20
inches of fill material and others differ only by having
fragments of dark, weakly cemented material or small
amounts of such soil material as sandy loam or sandy
clay loam. The included soils make up about 20 percent
of the map unit.
Quartzipsamments have a water table that is
dominantly below a depth of 72 inches but ranges from
a depth of 20 to more than 80 inches. The available
water capacity is variable but is generally very low
throughout the soils. The permeability is primarily very
rapid but ranges from very rapid to moderate.
These soils are not suited to pasture, cultivated
crops. commercial tree production, or citrus because of
their extremely drought nature.
These soils are well suited to urban development.
These Quartzipsamments have not been assigned to
a capability subclass or a range site.

34-Samsula muck, depressional. This soil is deep,
nearly level, and very poorly drained. It is in marshes,
swamps, and depressional areas. Slope is 0 to 1
percent.
Typically, this Samsula soil has a muck surface layer
about 19 inches thick. It is black in the upper part and
dark reddish brown in the lower part. The underlying
material is black fine sand in the upper part. The lower
part to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Anclote and Terra Ceia soils. Anclote soils are mineral
soils that have a thick, dark colored surface layer. They
are in slightly higher positions generally near the outer
edges of delineations. Terra Ceia soils have muck more
than 51 inches thick. The included soils make up about
15 percent of the map unit.
This Samsula soil has a high water table that usually
covers the surface for 6 months or more. The available
water capacity is moderate. The permeability is rapid. If
this soil is drained, the organic material initially shrinks








DeSoto County, Florida


on drying to about half the original thickness and then
subsides further as a result of compaction and
oxidation. These losses are most rapid during the first 2
years this soil is drained. If drainage continues, this soil
continues to subside at the rate of about 1 inch per
year. The lower the water table, the more rapid the loss.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
improved pasture, cultivated crops, citrus, or pine tree
production. Baldcypress has been planted in a few
areas of this soil.
If water is properly controlled, this soil can be made
suitable for improved pasture. A water control system
should maintain the water table near the surface to
prevent excessive oxidation of the organic layers.
Suitable pasture plants are pangolagrass, improved
bahiagrass, and white clover.
A well designed and maintained water control system
can improve the suitability of this soil for cultivated
crops. Excess water must be removed when crops are
on the land, and the soil should be saturated with water
at all other times. Fertilizers that contain phosphate,
potash, and minor elements are needed. Sorghum and
sod are the main crops grown.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site (fig. 9). This site can be
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges.
rushes, and other herbaceous plants in an area where
the soil generally is saturated or covered with water for
long periods. If this range site is properly managed,
using such practices as proper stocking, the potential
for forage production is higher than that of any other
range site. Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane
dominate the drier parts of the Freshwater Marshes and
Ponds range site, and maidencane is dominant in the
wetter parts. Other desirable forage plants include
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a natural
deferment from excessive grazing. Carpetgrass. an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
this site under excessive grazing conditions.
This soil is not suited to urban development.
This Samsula soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

35-Satellite fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly
level, and somewhat poorly drained. It is on low knolls
and ridges on flatwoods. Slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this Satellite soil has a gray fine sand
surface layer about 4 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of about 80 inches is white fine
sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of


Punta, Tavares. and Zolfo soils. Punta soils are in a
slightly lower landscape position than that of the
Satellite soil and have a well developed subsoil below a
depth of 50 inches. Tavares soils are better drained.
Zolfo soils are in the same landscape position as the
Satellite soil and have a subsoil below a depth of 50
inches. In places are some soils that have colors similar
to those of the Satellite soil and are moderately well
drained. The included soils make up about 15 percent
of the map unit.
This Satellite soil has a high water table at a depth of
12 to 30 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is very low. The
permeability is very rapid.
This soil is only moderately suited to pasture
because of droughtiness and very low fertility. Fertilizer
and lime are needed on a regular basis.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Sand Pine
Scrub range site. This site can be identified by a fairly
dense stand of sand pine trees and a dense understory
of oaks, saw palmetto, and other shrubs. Because of
past timber management practices, sand pines are not
in all areas of this range site. The drought nature of
this soil limits the potential for producing native forage.
If this range site is properly managed, using such
practices as deferred grazing and brush control, it has
the potential to provide limited amounts of lopsided
indiangrass, creeping bluestem, and beaked panicum.
Livestock generally do not use this range site if more
productive sites are available. Summer shade, winter
protection, and dry bedding during the wet seasons are
provided on this range site.
This Satellite soil is not suited to cultivated crops.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus because of droughtiness, very low fertility, and
wetness. It can be made suitable by installing a water
control system that maintains the water table at an
effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover should be maintained between the trees.
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are generally
needed to improve soil quality. Because of the drought
nature of this soil, irrigation is essential particularly in
the dry season. Micro-jet irrigation systems work well on
this soil.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for
longleaf pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are major concerns in
management.
This soil is moderately suited to urban development.
Drainage is needed to overcome wetness, and fill








Soil Survey


d ~Mt A

.~f 'Ai'4A~'~'-h'~ a

*1


Figure 9.-Samsula muck, depressional, is used mainly as native range.


material is needed for most urban uses. Preserving the
existing plant cover during construction helps to control
erosion.
This Satellite soil is in capability subclass VIs.

36-Smyrna fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly
level, and poorly drained. It is on flatwoods. Slope is 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, this Smyrna soil has a dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 12 inches is gray fine sand. The
subsoil to a depth of about 19 inches is fine sand that is
dark reddish brown in the upper part and dark yellowish
brown in the lower part. The next layer to a depth of


about 37 inches is light yellowish brown fine sand. To a
depth of 80 inches, the subsoil is fine sand that is very
dark grayish brown in the upper part and dark reddish
brown in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Myakka, Immokalee, Basinger, and EauGallie soils.
Myakka and Immokalee soils are in slightly higher
positions on the landscape and have a deeper subsoil
than the Smyrna soil. Basinger soils are in lower
positions on the landscape and have a slightly darkened
sandy subsoil. EauGallie soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Smyrna soil and have a
loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches. The included
soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.







DeSoto County, Florida


This Smyrna soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
moderate or moderately rapid.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants are
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Grazing management, brush control, protection from
wildfire, and proper location of stockwater and fences
are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South
Florida Flatwoods range site (fig. 10). This site can be


identified by scattered pine trees and an understory of
saw palmetto and grasses. If this range site is properly
managed, using such practices as deferred grazing and
brush control, it has the potential to produce significant
amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
chalky bluestem, and various panicums. As range
deterioration occurs because of poor grazing
management, this site is dominated by saw palmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of wetness and poor soil
quality. Only a limited number of crops can be grown
unless very intensive management practices are used;
however, this soil can be made suitable for several


Figure 10.-Pine trees, saw palmetto, and grasses make up the native range on Smyrna fine sand.







Soil Survey


vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to
remove excess water in wet seasons and to provide
water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. A flow-
through irrigation system works well on this soil. The
organic matter content can be maintained by using all
crop residue, planting cover crops, and using a suitable
cropping system. Crops respond well to lime and
fertilizer. Cucumbers, bell peppers, squash, and
watermelons are the main crops grown.
In its natural condition, this Smyrna soil is poorly
suited to citrus. It can be made suitable by installing a
water control system that maintains the water table at
an effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover needs to be maintained between the trees.
Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are major concerns in management.
Bedding of rows helps in establishing seedlings by
increasing the depth to the water table.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
urban development. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Preserving the existing plant cover during
construction helps to control erosion.
This Smyrna soil is in capability subclass IVw.

37-Tavares fine sand. 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
soil is deep and moderately well drained. It is on nearly
level and gently sloping ridges.
Typically, this Tavares soil has a dark grayish brown
fine sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
fine sand. It is light yellowish brown to a depth of 11
inches, very pale brown to a depth of 54 inches, and
white below that depth.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Zolfo and Pomello soils. These soils are in slightly lower
positions on the landscape than the Tavares soil. Zolfo
soils have a dark subsoil more than 50 inches below
the surface. Pomello soils have a well expressed, dark
subsoil within 30 to 50 inches of the surface. In places
are some soils that are moderately well drained and
have a slightly darkened subsoil. The included soils
make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
This Tavares soil has a high water table at a depth of
42 to 72 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is very low. The
permeability is rapid or very rapid.
In its natural condition, this soil is only moderately
suited to pasture because of droughtiness and low


fertility. Drought-tolerant species are suitable for
planting. Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum
growth of grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants
are pangolagrass and improved bahiagrass. Grazing
management, brush control, protection from wildfire,
and proper location of stockwater and fences are
needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleaf
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. This range site
generally is on rolling land that has nearly level to
strong slopes. It is easily recognized by the landform
and by the dominant vegetation of longleaf pine and
turkey oak. The natural fertility is low because of the
rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through the
soil. The forage production and quality are poor, and
cattle do not readily utilize this range site if other sites
are available. Proper stocking is needed. Desirable
forage plants include creeping bluestem, lopsided
indiangrass, and low panicums.
In its natural condition, this Tavares soil is poorly
suited to most cultivated crops because of droughtiness
and rapid leaching of plant nutrients. It can be made
suitable by installing the proper irrigation system and
supplying sufficient plant nutrients. Crops respond well
to lime and fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to citrus (fig. 11). Micro-jet
irrigation systems work well to provide sufficient water.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
longleaf pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are the main concerns in
management.
This soil is well suited to urban development.
This Tavares soil is in capability subclass Ills.

38-Terra Ceia muck, depressional. This soil is
deep, nearly level, and very poorly drained. It is in
marshes, swamps, and depressions. Slope is 0 to 1
percent.
Typically, this Terra Ceia soil has a muck surface
layer about 58 inches thick. It is black in the upper part
and dark reddish brown in the lower part. The
underlying material is dark gray loamy said in the
upper part. The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches
is light brownish gray sandy clay.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Floridana. Gator, and Samsula soils. Flordana soils are
mineral soils that have a thick, dark colored surface
layer and a loamy subsoil. Gator soils are organic soils
that have loamy material at a depth of 16 to 51 inches.
Samsula soils are organic soils that have sandy
material at a depth of 16 to 51 inches. The included
soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.








DeSoto County, Florida


Mai


Figure 11.-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is used mainly for citrus. Irrigation is necessary for optimum management.


This Terra Ceia soil has a high water table that
usually covers the surface for 6 months or more. The
available water capacity is very high. The permeability
is rapid. If this soil is drained, the organic material
initially shrinks on drying to about half the original
thickness and then subsides further as a result of
compaction and oxidation. These losses are most rapid
during the first 2 years this soil is drained. If drainage is
continued, this soil continues to subside at the rate of
about 1 inch per year. The lower the water table, the
more rapid the loss.


In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
improved pasture, cultivated crops, citrus, or
commercial pine tree production. Baldcypress has been
planted in a few areas of this soil.
If water is properly controlled, this soil can be made
suitable for improved pasture. The water control system
should maintain the water table near the surface to
prevent excessive oxidation of the organic layers.
Suitable pasture plants are pangolagrass, improved
bahiagrass, and white clover.
A well designed and maintained water control system







Soil Survey


can improve the suitability of this soil for cultivated
crops. Excess water must be removed when crops are
on the land, and the soil should be saturated the rest of
the time. Fertilizers that contain phosphate, potash, and
minor elements are needed. All crop residue and cover
crops should be used to maintain organic matter.
Sorghum and sod are the main crops grown.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
rushes, and other herbaceous plants in an area where
the soil generally is saturated or covered with water for
long periods. If this range site is properly managed,
using such practices as proper stocking, the potential
for forage production is higher than that of any other
range site. Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane
dominate the drier parts of the Freshwater Marshes and
Ponds range site, and maidencane is dominant in the
wetter parts. Other desirable forage plants include
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a natural
deferment from excessive grazing. Carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
this site under excessive grazing conditions.
This soil is not suited to urban development.
This Terra Ceia soil is in capability subclass VIIw.

39-Terra Ceia muck, frequently flooded. This soil
is deep, nearly level, and very poorly drained. It is on
the Peace River flood plain in the southern part of the
county. Slope is 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, this Terra Ceia soil has a very dark brown
muck surface layer about 12 inches thick. The next
layer to a depth of about 72 inches is very dark grayish
brown muck. The underlying material to a depth of
about 80 inches is light brownish gray sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Gator and Samsula soils. These soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Terra Ceia soil. Gator
soils have loamy material within 51 inches of the
surface, and Samsula soils have sandy material within
51 inches of the surface. The included soils make up
about 20 percent of the map unit.
This Terra Ceia soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 6 to 12 months during most
years. Flooding in most years is for a very long
duration. The available water capacity is very high. The
permeability is rapid.
The natural vegetation is mostly red maple, bay
trees, blackgum, water tupelo, cypress, and royal fern.
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to
improved pasture, cultivated crops, citrus, or


commercial pine tree production because of a severe
hazard of frequent flooding. Baldcypress, however, can
be planted.
This soil is not suited to urban development.
This Terra Ceia soil is in capability subclass VIIw and
is not assigned to a range site.

40-Valkaria fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly
level, and poorly drained. It is in sloughs. Slope is 0 to
1 percent.
Typically, this Valkaria soil has a dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of 25 inches is fine sand that is gray in the
upper part and pale brown in the lower part. The subsoil
is brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of 31 inches.
The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is fine
sand that is light gray in the upper part and grayish
brown in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pineda, Malabar, and Basinger soils. These soils are in
positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Valkaria soil. Pineda soils have a loamy subsoil less
than 40 inches below the surface. Malabar soils have a
loamy subsoil more than 40 inches below the surface.
Basinger soils have a slightly darkened subsoil. The
included soils make up about 10 percent of the map
unit.
This Valkaria soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
rapid.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Suitable pasture plants are pangolagrass, improved
bahiagrass, and white clover. Grazing management,
brush control, protection from wildfire, and proper
location of stockwater and fences are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Slough
range site. This site can be identified by an open
expanse of grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area
where the soil is saturated during the rainy season. If
this range site is properly managed, using such
practices as deferred grazing, the potential for forage
production is almost as high as that of the Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds range site. Desirable forage plants
include blue maidencane, maidencane, chalky
bluestem, toothachegrass, and South Florida bluestem.
Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to dominate this
site under excessive grazing conditions.
In its natural condition, this Valkaria soil is poorly
suited to cultivated crops because of wetness and poor
soil quality. Only a limited number of crops can be








DeSoto County, Florida


grown unless very intensive management practices are
used; however, this soil can be made suitable for
several vegetable crops. A water control system is
needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and to
provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It can be made suitable by installing a water
control system that maintains the water table at an
effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover needs to be maintained between the trees.
Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity
for slash pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are major concerns in
management. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
seedlings by increasing the depth to the water table.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
urban development. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses.
This Valkaria soil is in capability subclass IVw.

41-Wabasso fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly
level, and poorly drained. It is on flatwoods. Slope is 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, this Wabasso soil has a dark gray sand
surface layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 26 inches is fine sand that is gray in
the upper part and light gray in the lower part. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches. It is black fine
sand in the upper part, brown and grayish brown fine
sandy loam in the middle part, and gray sandy clay
loam in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Myakka, Smyrna, EauGallie, and Farmton soils. Myakka
and Smyrna soils are in the same position on the
landscape as the Webasso soil, but they do not have a
loamy subsoil. EauGallie soils have a deeper, loamy
subsoil. Farmton soils are in a slightly higher position
on the landscape and have thicker surface and
subsurface layers. The included soils make up about 15
percent of the map unit.
This Wabasso soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
slow or very slow.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Excessive water on
the surface can be removed by shallow ditches.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. Suitable pasture plants are
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.


Grazing management, brush control, protection from
wildfire, and proper location of stockwater and fences
are needed.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South
Florida Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified
by scattered pine trees and an understory of saw
palmetto and grasses. If this range site is properly
managed, using such practices as deferred grazing and
brush control, it has the potential to produce significant
amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
chalky bluestem, and various panicums. As range
deterioration occurs because of poor grazing
management, this site is dominated by saw palmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of wetness and poor soil
quality. Only a limited number of crops can be grown
unless very intensive management practices are used;
however, this soil can be made suitable for several
vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to
remove excess water in wet seasons and to provide
water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. The
organic matter content can be maintained by using all
crop residue, planting cover crops, and using a suitable
cropping system. Crops respond well to lime and
fertilizer. Cucumbers, bell peppers, squash, and
watermelons are the main crops grown.
In its natural condition, this Wabasso soil is poorly
suited to citrus. It can be made suitable by installing a
water control system that maintains the water table at
an effective depth. Trees should be planted on beds to
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover needs to be maintained between the trees.
Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity
for slash pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are major concerns in
management. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
seedlings by increasing the depth to the water table.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
urban development. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Preserving the existing plant cover during
construction helps to control erosion.
This Wabasso soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

42-Zolfo fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly level,
and somewhat poorly drained. It is on low ridges on
flatwoods. Slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this Zolfo soil has a gray fine sand surface
layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 59 inches is fine sand. It is grayish










brown in the upper part, pale brown in the middle part,
and light yellowish brown in the lower part. The subsoil
to a depth of about 80 inches is fine sand that is dark
brown in the upper part and very dark brown in the
lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Tavares soils. Tavares soils are in slightly higher
positions on the landscape than the Zolfo soil. They are
better drained and do not have a subsoil. In places are
small areas of soils that have a shallower seasonal high
water table and do not have a subsoil. The included
soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
This Zolfo soil has a high water table at a depth of 18
to 36 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The
available water capacity is low. The permeability is
moderate.
This soil is only moderately suited to pasture
because of droughtiness and low fertility. Fertilizer and
lime are needed on a regular basis. Suitable pasture
plants are pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and
white clover.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleaf
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. This site is easily
recognized by the dominant vegetation of longleaf pine
and turkey oak. The natural fertility is low because of
the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through


the soil. The forage production and quality are poor,
and cattle do not readily utilize this range site if other
sites are available. Proper stocking is needed.
Desirable forage plants include creeping bluestem,
lopsided indiangrass, and low panicums.
In its natural condition, this Zolfo soil is poorly suited
to cultivated crops because of periodic wetness;
however, it can be made suitable by installing a proper
drainage system. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed.
In its natural condition, this soil is only moderately
suited to citrus because of wetness. It can be made
suitable by installing a water control system that
maintains the water table at an effective depth. Trees
should be planted on beds to increase the effective
depth to the water table, and a plant cover should be
maintained between the trees. Fertilizer and lime are
needed on a regular basis.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are major concerns in management.
Because of wetness, this soil is only moderately
suited to urban development; however, a drainage
system can help to overcome this limitation.
This Zolfo soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavior
characteristics of the soils in the survey area. They
collect data on erosion, droughtiness, flooding, and
other factors that affect various soil uses and
management. Field experience and collected data on
soil properties and performance are used as a basis for
predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary
facilities, highways and other transportation systems,
and parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil
properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with
nature.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
other specialists may also find this soil survey useful.
The survey can help them plan the safe disposal of
wastes and locate sites for pavements, sidewalks,
campgrounds, playgrounds, lawns, and trees and
shrubs.


Crops and Pasture
John D. Lawrence, state conservation agronomist, and Steven
Mozley, area range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service,
helped prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
According to estimates from Primary Sampling Units
of the National Resource Inventory, about 263,000
acres in DeSoto County was used for crops and
pasture. Of this, 213,000 acres was used for pasture,
more than 41,000 acres was used for citrus, and 9,000
acres was used for special crops, mainly cucumbers,
watermelons, cantaloupes, peppers, squash, sod, and
nursery plants.
The potential for increased food production is good.
About 4,000 acres of potentially good cropland currently
is used as woodland. Additional land that is presently
used as woodland or pasture could be used as
cropland, but intensive conservation measures are
needed to control soil blowing in those areas. In
addition, food production could be increased
considerably by extending the latest technology to all
cropland in the county. This soil survey can greatly
facilitate the application of such technology.
Soil erosion generally is a hazard on the more
sloping soils if the surface is not protected by a plant
















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavior
characteristics of the soils in the survey area. They
collect data on erosion, droughtiness, flooding, and
other factors that affect various soil uses and
management. Field experience and collected data on
soil properties and performance are used as a basis for
predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary
facilities, highways and other transportation systems,
and parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil
properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with
nature.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
other specialists may also find this soil survey useful.
The survey can help them plan the safe disposal of
wastes and locate sites for pavements, sidewalks,
campgrounds, playgrounds, lawns, and trees and
shrubs.


Crops and Pasture
John D. Lawrence, state conservation agronomist, and Steven
Mozley, area range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service,
helped prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
According to estimates from Primary Sampling Units
of the National Resource Inventory, about 263,000
acres in DeSoto County was used for crops and
pasture. Of this, 213,000 acres was used for pasture,
more than 41,000 acres was used for citrus, and 9,000
acres was used for special crops, mainly cucumbers,
watermelons, cantaloupes, peppers, squash, sod, and
nursery plants.
The potential for increased food production is good.
About 4,000 acres of potentially good cropland currently
is used as woodland. Additional land that is presently
used as woodland or pasture could be used as
cropland, but intensive conservation measures are
needed to control soil blowing in those areas. In
addition, food production could be increased
considerably by extending the latest technology to all
cropland in the county. This soil survey can greatly
facilitate the application of such technology.
Soil erosion generally is a hazard on the more
sloping soils if the surface is not protected by a plant






Soil Survey


cover. Erosion is also a hazard if the slope is more than
2 percent on the moderately well drained Tavares soil.
Loss of the surface layer through erosion is
damaging. Productivity is reduced as the surface layer
is lost and as part of the subsoil is incorporated into the
plow layer. Soil erosion on farmland also results in
sediment entering streams. Control of erosion
minimizes the pollution of streams by sediment and
improves the quality of water for municipal use,
recreation, and fish and wildlife.
Erosion control practices provide a protective surface
cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. A
cropping system that keeps a plant cover on the soil for
extended periods can hold soil losses to amounts that
do not reduce the productive capacity of the soils. On
livestock farms that require pasture and hay, the
legumes and grasses grown for forage in the cropping
system can reduce erosion on sloping soils. They also
provide nitrogen and improve tilth for the following crop.
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the
surface increase infiltration and reduce runoff and
erosion. These practices can be adapted to most soils
in the survey area.
Soil blowing is a major hazard on sandy and organic
soils. It damages or destroys crops by sandblasting;
spreads plant diseases, insects, and weed seeds; and
creates health hazards and cleaning problems. Soil
blowing can damage soils and tender crops in a few
hours if the winds are strong and the soil is dry and
bare of vegetation and surface mulch. Maintaining a
plant cover or mulch on the surface minimizes soil
blowing. About three-fourths of the cropland in DeSoto
County is subject to soil blowing.
Wind erosion reduces soil fertility by removing the
finer soil particles and organic matter from the soil.
Control of wind erosion minimizes duststorms and
improves the quality of air.
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such
as Carolina cherry laurel, slash pine, Southern
redcedar, and Japanese privet, and strip crops of small
grains, effectively reduce wind erosion and crop
damage. Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow
plantings made at right angles to the prevailing wind
and at specific intervals across the field. The intervals
depend upon the erodibility of the soil and upon the
susceptibility of the crop to damage from sandblasting.
Soil drainage is a major management concern on
much of the acreage used for crops in the survey area.
Some soils are naturally so wet that the production of
crops common to the area is generally not practical.
These are the poorly drained Basinger, Bradenton,
EauGallie, Farmton, Felda, Immokalee, Malabar,


Myakka, Ona, Pineda, Pinellas, Pompano, Punta,
Smyrna, Valkaria, and Wabasso soils. Soil drainage is
also a concern on much of the acreage used for
pasture; however, excess water on the surface can be
removed by shallow ditches.
Unless bedded, the somewhat poorly drained soils in
some areas are wet enough in the root zone to cause
damage to citrus crops in most years during the wet
seasons. Included in this category are Cassia, Satellite,
and Zolfo soils.
The very poorly drained soils are very wet during
rainy periods. Water stands on the surface in most
areas of these soils, and the production of good quality
pasture is not possible if artificial drainage is not used.
Anclote, Chobee, Delray, Durbin, Floridana. Gator,
Samsula, Terra Ceia, and Wulfert soils are very poorly
drained. In addition, Durbin and Wulfert soils are
affected by the daily rising and falling of tides containing
salt and sulfur.
The design of surface drainage and subsurface
irrigation systems varies with the kind of soil and the
pasture. For intensive pasture production, a
combination of these systems is needed. Information on
the drainage and irrigation needed for each soil is
contained in the "Technical Guide," which is available
at local offices of the Soil Conservation Service.
Soil fertility is naturally low in most soils in the survey
area. Most of the soils have a sandy surface layer and
are light in color. Bradenton, Felda, Malabar, Pineda,
and Pinellas soils have a loamy subsoil. Anclote,
Pompano, Satellite, Tavares, Valkaria, and Zolfo soils
have sandy material to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Basinger, Cassia, EauGallie, Farmton, Immokalee,
Myakka, Ona, Pomello, Punta, Smyrna, and Wabasso
soils have a dark colored sandy subsoil that has organic
carbon.
The surface layer in most of the soils is strongly acid
or very strongly acid. Applications of ground limestone
are required to raise the pH level sufficiently for good
growth of crops. The levels of nitrogen, potassium, and
available phosphorus are naturally low in most of the
soils. Additions of lime and fertilizer should be based on
the results of soil tests, on the needs of the crops, and
on the expected level of yields. The Cooperative
Extension Service can help in determining the kind and
amount of fertilizer and lime to apply.
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
seeds and in the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils
that have good tilth are granular and porous.
Except for the Anclote, Chobee, Delray, Floridana,
Gator, Terra Ceia, and Samsula soils, the soils in
DeSoto County have a sandy surface layer that is high








DeSoto County, Florida


in content of organic matter. Gator, Terra Ceia, and
Samsula soils are organic soils and have an organic
surface layer. Generally, the structure of the surface
layer of most soils is weak. Most of the moderately well
drained soils and the somewhat poorly drained Satellite
soils are low in content of organic matter and are
drought. Planting cover crops adds organic matter,
which improves soil structure and increases the
available water capacity of the soil.
Field crops are grown on a small acreage in DeSoto
County. The acreage of corn, grain sorghum,
sunflowers, and sugarcane could be increased if
economic conditions warrant an increase. Rye is the
most common close-growing crop.
Special crops grown commercially are citrus,
watermelons, cantaloupes, cucumbers, peppers,
squash, nursery plants, and sod. If economic conditions
are favorable, the acreage of nursery plants and sod
can be increased.
If irrigated, the Tavares soils are very well suited to
citrus and vegetables. If adequately drained, the
Basinger, Bradenton, EauGallie, Farmton, Felda,
Immokalee, Malabar, Myakka, Ona, Pineda, Pinellas,
Pompano, Punta, Smyrna, Valkaria, and Wabasso soils
are well suited to vegetables and citrus. Soils in low
areas where air drainage is poor and frost pockets are
common generally are poorly suited to early vegetables,
small fruits, and citrus.
The latest information on special crops can be
obtained from local offices of the Cooperative Extension
Service and the Soil Conservation Service.
Pasture is used to produce forage for beef and dairy
cattle. Commercial cow-calf operations are the major
livestock production systems. These beef cattle
operations range from several hundred animals to
smaller operations that have a hundred animals or less.
The larger operations generally depend upon a
combination of rangeland and tame (introduced or
improved) perennial pasture for forage, while smaller
operations generally use only tame pastures. Common
tame pasture grasses include bahiagrass, limpograss,
and bermudagrass. Bahiagrass is the most popular. Key
rangeland grasses include creeping bluestem, chalky
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and maidencane.
In recent years, higher fertilizer and equipment costs
have slowed the conversion of rangeland to
pastureland. Some Florida ranchers, aware of the value
of our native grasses, have moved away from the
intensive agronomic management approach to a more
extensive ecologically based management of Florida's
resources.
The moderately well drained Tavares soil is


moderately suited to bahiagrass, improved
bermudagrass, and pangolagrass. If this soil is properly
managed, hairy indigo, alsike clover, and
aeschynomene can be grown in summer and fall.
The somewhat poorly drained Zolfo soil is moderately
suited to bahiagrass, improved bermudagrass, and
legumes, such as sweet clover, but adequate lime and
fertilizer are needed.
If drained, Basinger, Bradenton, EauGallie, Farmton,
Felda, Pinellas, Pompano, Punta, Smyrna, Valkaria,
and Wabasso soils are well suited to bahiagrass and
hemarthria grass. Subsurface irrigation increases the
length of the growing season and total forage
production. Legumes, such as white clover, are suitable
if adequate amounts of lime and fertilizer are added to
the soil.
In some parts of the county, pasture is greatly
depleted by continuous excessive grazing. Yields of
pasture are increased by adding lime and fertilizer, and
most important of all, by practicing good grassland
management.
Differences in the amount and kind of pasture yields
are closely related to the kind of soil. Management of
pasture is based on the relationship of soils, pasture
plants, lime, fertilizer, moisture, and management. The
latest information about pasture can be obtained from
local offices of the Cooperative Extension Service and
the Soil Conservation Service.
Expected yields of bahiagrass, under optimum
management, are shown in table 5. The yields are in
animal unit months (AUM), which is the amount of
forage needed for one cow and her calf for 1 month.
Table 7 gives the pounds per acre of forage that can be
expected from rangeland.

Yields Per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management
are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table
because of variations in rainfall and other climatic
factors.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain the indicated
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Management can include drainage,
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop







Soil Survey


varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable
soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
and green manure crops; and harvesting that insures
the smallest possible loss.
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a
minimum.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
likely to increase as new production technology is
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
about the management and productivity of the soils for
those crops.

Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general
way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops
that require special management are excluded. The
soils are grouped according to their limitations for field
crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops,
and the way they respond to management. The criteria
used in grouping the soils do not include major, and
generally expensive, landforming that would change
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for
interpretations designed to show suitability and
limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for
woodland, and for engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey. These
levels are defined in the following paragraphs.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIll. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
use.


Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate
conservation practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIll soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The
letter e shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion
unless a close-growing plant cover is maintained; w
shows that water in or on the soil interferes with plant
growth or cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be
partly corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the
soil is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or
stony; and c, used in only some parts of the United
States, shows that the chief limitation is climate that is
very cold or very dry.
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V
are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland,
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V
contains only the subclasses indicated by w, s, or c.
The acreage of soils in each capability class and
subclass is shown in table 6. The capability
classification of each map unit is given in the section
"Detailed Soil Map Units."

Range and Grazeable Woodland
Steven Mozley, area range conservationist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
Native range plants provide a significant part of the
year-round supply of forage for livestock in DeSoto
County. This forage is readily available, is economical,
and provides important roughage needed by cattle. With
today's high costs, the economical maintenance of tame
pastures is a major challenge on the low fertility soils of







DeSoto County, Florida


Florida. These factors have sparked a renewed interest
that is moving away from the intensive agronomic
management approach to a more extensive ecologically
based management of Florida's forage resources.
About 96,000 acres throughout the county is used as
native range by domestic livestock. Of this, 94,000
acres is used strictly as range and 2,000 acres is
grazeable woodland.
In areas that have similar climate and topography,
differences in the kind and amount of vegetation
produced on rangeland are closely related to the kind of
soil. Effective management is based on the relationship
of the soils, vegetation, and water.
Table 7 shows, for each soil, the range site and the
total annual production of vegetation in favorable,
average, and unfavorable years. Only those soils that
are used as rangeland or that are suited to rangeland
are listed. Explanation of the column headings in table
7 follows.
A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that
produces a characteristic natural plant community that
differs from natural plant communities on other range
sites in kind, amount, or proportion of range plants. The
relationship between soils and vegetation was
established during this survey; thus, range sites
generally can be determined directly from the soil map.
Soil properties that affect moisture supply and plant
nutrients have the greatest influence on the productivity
of range plants. Soil reaction, salt content, and a
seasonal high water table are also important.
Potential annual production is the amount of
vegetation that can be expected to grow annually on
well managed rangeland that is supporting the climax
plant community. Total production includes all
vegetation, whether or not it is palatable to grazing
animals. It includes the current year's growth of leaves,
twigs, and fruits of woody plants, but it does not include
the increase in stem diameter of trees and shrubs. It is
expressed in pounds per acre of air-dry vegetation for
favorable, average, and unfavorable years. In a
favorable year, the amount and distribution of
precipitation and the temperatures make growing
conditions substantially better than average. In a normal
year, growing conditions are about average. In an
unfavorable year, growing conditions are well below
average, generally because of low available soil
moisture.
Dry weight is the total annual yield per acre of air-dry
vegetation. Yields are adjusted to a common percent of
air-dry moisture content. The relationship of green
weight to air-dry weight varies according to such factors


as exposure, amount of shade, recent rains, and
unseasonable dry periods.
Range management requires a knowledge of the
kinds of soil and of the climax plant community. It also
requires an evaluation of the present range condition.
Range condition is determined by comparing the
present plant community with the potential climax plant
community on a particular range site. The more closely
the existing community resembles the climax
community, the better the range condition. Range
condition is an ecological rating only. It does not have a
specific meaning that pertains to the present plant
community in a given use.
The objective in range management is to control
grazing so that range plants growing on a site are about
the same in kind and amount as we would expect to
find in an undisturbed plant community for that site.
Such management generally results in the optimum
production of vegetation, reduction of undesirable brush
species, conservation of water, and control of water and
wind erosion. Sometimes, it is desirable to manage the
range condition somewhat below the potential if it
meets grazing needs, provides wildlife habitat, protects
soil and water resources, and is ecologically and
economically sound.
The range sites in DeSoto County are Freshwater
Marshes and Ponds, Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills,
Sand Pine Scrub, Slough, South Florida Flatwoods, Salt
Marsh, and Cabbage Palm Hammock.
Grazeable woodland is forest that has understory of
native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory is
an integral part of the forest plant community. The
native plants can be grazed without significantly
impairing other forest values. On such forest land,
grazing is compatible with timber management if the
grazing is controlled or managed in such a manner that
timber and forage resources are maintained or
enhanced.
Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs,
shrubs, and other plants used by livestock or by grazing
or browsing wildlife. A well managed wooded area can
produce enough understory vegetation to supply food to
large numbers of livestock and wildlife.
The amount of forage production varies according to
the different kinds of grazeable woodland, the amount
of shade cast by the canopy, the accumulation of fallen
needles, the influence of time and intensity of grazing
on the herbage, and the number, size, and spacing of
tree plantings. The method of site preparation is also
important.








Soil Survey


Woodland Management and Productivity
Dave Ultley, forest area supervisor, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Service, Division of Forestry, helped
prepare this section.
DeSoto County provides an excellent opportunity for
timber management; however, because the county was
too far from the coast for development by early land
speculators, most of the pine flatwoods were cleared for
agricultural purposes, especially for rangeland and
citrus production. The recent problems affecting these
markets have drastically reduced profits, and timber
production has become more attractive to many
landowners.
Pine pulpwood prices have more than tripled in the
last 15 years and are projected to keep rising steadily.
Timber management has always been considered a
long-term investment with a return in 20 to 25 years.
Comparisons among tracts of land recently sold,
however, proved that those with an established pine
plantation sell for a higher price than those with
scattered trees.
Hardwood species, such as oak, gum, and red
maple, generally are in lower lying areas, especially
along streambeds or swamp margins. These forests
provide excellent wildlife habitat and can be managed
to provide good hunting. They also yield some choice
hardwood sawtimber, which is used mainly for pallet
material or railroad ties.
Baldcypress is the most valuable timber species in
DeSoto County. The majority of the cypress heads were
harvested some time ago. Regeneration from these
cutover stands should be ready for a second harvest in
10 to 20 years.
Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth,
fertility, texture, and the available water capacity
influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate
determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site.
Available water capacity and depth of the root zone
have major effects on tree growth.
This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
planning ways to increase the productivity of forest
land. Some soils respond better to fertilization than
others, and some are more susceptible to erosion after
roads are built and timber is harvested. Some soils
require special efforts to reforest. For each map unit in
the survey area suitable for producing timber, the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units" presents information
about productivity, limitations for harvesting timber, and
management concerns for producing timber. The
common forest understory plants are also listed. Table
8 summarizes this forestry information and rates the


soils for a number of factors to be considered in
management. Slight, moderate, and severe are used to
indicate the degree of the major soil limitations to be
considered in forest management.
The first tree listed for each soil under the column
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil.
An indicator species is a tree that is common in the
area and that is generally the most productive on a
given soil.
Table 8 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential
productivity is based on the site index and the point
where mean annual increment is the greatest.
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and
management. The letter W indicates a soil in which
excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes
a significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry,
sandy soil. If a soil has more than one limitation, the
priority is as follows: W and S.
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability
that damage may occur if site preparation activities or
harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is slight
if no particular preventive measures are needed under
ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion control
measures are needed for particular silvicultural
activities; and severe if special precautions are needed
to control erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings
of moderate or severe indicate the need for construction
of higher standard roads, additional maintenance of
roads, additional care in planning of harvesting and
reforestation operations, or use of specialized
equipment.
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the
use of forest management equipment, year-round or
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope,
wetness, stoniness, or susceptibility of the surface layer
to compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On
the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be used.
On the steepest slopes, even tracked equipment cannot
operate; more sophisticated systems are needed. The
rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by soil
wetness for less than 2 months and if special
equipment is not needed. The rating is moderate if
slopes are steep enough that wheeled equipment
cannot be operated safely across the slope, if soil
wetness restricts equipment use from 2 to 6 months per
year, if stoniness restricts ground-based equipment, or








DeSoto County, Florida


if special equipment is needed to avoid or reduce soil
compaction. The rating is severe if slopes are steep
enough that tracked equipment cannot be operated
safely across the slope, if soil wetness restricts
equipment use for more than 6 months per year, if
stoniness restricts ground-based equipment, or if
special equipment is needed to avoid or reduce soil
compaction. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate a
need to choose the most suitable equipment and to
carefully plan the timing of harvesting and other
management operations.
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
death of naturally occurring or properly planted
seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as
influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features.
Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much
water or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil
for seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer,
depth and duration of the water table, rock fragments in
the surface layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of the
slope. Mortality generally is greatest on soils that have
a sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk is slight if,
after site preparation, expected mortality is less than 25
percent; moderate if expected mortality is between 25
and 50 percent; and severe if expected mortality
exceeds 50 percent. Ratings of moderate or severe
indicate that it may be necessary to use containerized
or larger than usual planting stock or to make special
site preparations, such as bedding, furrowing, installing
surface drainage, or providing artificial shade for
seedlings. Reinforcement planting is often needed if the
risk is moderate or severe.
Ratings of windthrow hazard indicate the likelihood of
trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting
depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth
can be restricted by a high water table, fragipan, or
bedrock, or by a combination of such factors as soil
wetness, texture, structure, and depth. The risk is slight
if strong winds cause trees to break but do not uproot
them; moderate if strong winds cause an occasional
tree to be blown over and many trees to break; and
severe if moderate or strong winds commonly blow
trees over. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate the
need for care in thinning or possibly not thinning.
Specialized equipment may be needed to avoid damage
to shallow root systems in partial cutting operations. A
plan for periodic salvage of windthrown trees and the
maintenance of a road and trail system may be needed.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
competition becomes more severe on the more
productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils


having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The
risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants
inhibits adequate natural or artificial reforestation but
does not necessitate intensive site preparation and
maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from
undesirable plants inhibits natural or artificial
reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation
and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if
competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate
natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is
intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or
severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to
ensure the development of an adequately stocked
stand. Managers must plan site preparation measures
to ensure reforestation without delays.
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil
is expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in
the order of their observed general occurrence.
Generally, only two or three tree species dominate.
For the soils that are commonly used to produce
timber, the yield is predicted in cubic meters. The yield
is predicted at the point where mean annual increment
culminates.
The site index is determined by taking height
measurements and determining the age of selected
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the
average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a
specified number of years. This index applies to fully
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. The procedure
and technique for determining site index are given in
the site index tables used for this survey (11, 13, 17).
The productivity class represents an expected volume
produced by the most important trees, expressed in
cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per
hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by
multiplying by 14.3. It can be converted to board feet by
multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, a
productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected
to produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at the point
where mean annual increment culminates, or about 568
board feet per acre per year.
Trees to plant are those that are used for
reforestation or, if suitable conditions exist, natural
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and will
produce a commercial wood crop. Desired product,
topographic position (such as a low, wet area), and
personal preference are three factors of many that can
influence the choice of trees to use for reforestation.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings

Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards







Soil Survey


from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several
rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous
trees and shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind, help to keep snow on the fields, and provide
food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and on planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service, or from a nursery.

Recreation

In table 9, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 9, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are favorable and that any limitations are
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset by soil reclamation, special design, intensive
maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of these
measures.


The information in table 9 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
12 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
and for local roads and streets in table 11.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few
or no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level .and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after
rains, and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed,
the depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should
be considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They
have moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
DeSoto County has some large areas of good wildlife
habitat. The best areas are along the Peace River and







Soil Survey


from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several
rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous
trees and shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind, help to keep snow on the fields, and provide
food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and on planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service, or from a nursery.

Recreation

In table 9, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 9, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are favorable and that any limitations are
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset by soil reclamation, special design, intensive
maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of these
measures.


The information in table 9 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
12 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
and for local roads and streets in table 11.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few
or no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level .and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after
rains, and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed,
the depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should
be considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They
have moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
DeSoto County has some large areas of good wildlife
habitat. The best areas are along the Peace River and







DeSoto County, Florida


larger creeks. The large areas of relatively undisturbed
flatwoods also provide good habitat for wildlife. The
acreage that has been converted to citrus and improved
pasture does not provide as valuable wildlife habitat,
and the complete clearing of wildlife cover for vegetable
farming and tame pasture rotations has been very
detrimental for wildlife.
The primary game species are white-tailed deer, wild
turkey, bobwhite quail, gray squirrel, mourning dove,
and feral hogs. Other wildlife includes gray fox, skunk,
burrowing owls, snipe, raccoon, opossum, bobcat,
armadillo, and a variety of songbirds, woodpeckers,
wading birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The wood duck
is a year-round resident of the wooded swamps, and
the Florida duck is in marsh areas.
Species that are listed as endangered or threatened
include the Bald eagle, the American alligator, and the
wood stork. A number of other threatened species may
be in DeSoto County. A detailed list of endangered and
threatened wildlife with information on range and habitat
is available from the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat
can be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable
plants.
In table 10, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
the intensity of management needed for each element
of the habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult


and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain
and seed crops are corn, soybeans, browntop millet,
and grain sorghum.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood
hazard, and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture
are also considerations. Examples of grasses and
legumes are bahiagrass, panolagrass, deervetch,
clover, and sesbania.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod,
beggarweed, ragweed, pokeweed, partridge pea, and
low panicums.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
these plants are oak, saw palmetto, gallberry, cabbage
palm, elderberry, and catbriers. Examples of fruit-
producing shrubs that are suitable for planting on soils
rated good are American beautyberry and pyracantha.
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, and
juniper.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial, wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.







Soil Survey


Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
plants are smartweed, wild millet, maidencane, cattail,
rushes, sedges, and reeds.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water-control
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
ponds.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described
in the following paragraphs.
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas
produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,
and wild herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to
these areas include bobwhite quail, dove, sparrow
hawk, meadowlark, field sparrow, cottontail, and cattle
egret.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
turkey, owls, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
raccoon, and deer.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy,
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore
birds, otter, and alligator.

Engineering
In 1980, about 11,000 acres in the county was in
urban uses. This acreage has increased about 10
percent a year for the past 10 years, according to
estimates of the Central Florida Regional Planning
Council.
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use


planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet,
and because of the map scale, small areas of different
soils may be included within the mapped areas of a
specific soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this
section. Local ordinances and regulations must be
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the
surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity,
shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, and
other behavioral characteristics affecting engineering
uses.
This information can be used to: evaluate the
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
and recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and predict performance of proposed
small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same
or similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil
maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
this survey can be used to make additional
interpretations.







DeSoto County, Florida


Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Glossary.

Building Site Development
Table 11 shows the degree and kind of soil
limitations that affect shallow excavations, dwellings
with and without basements, small commercial
buildings, local roads and streets, and lawns and
landscaping. The limitations are considered slight if soil
properties and site features are favorable for the
indicated use and limitations are minor and easily
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features
are somewhat restrictive for the indicated use and
special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
properties or site features are so unfavorable that
special design, soil reclamation, and possibly increased
maintenance are required. Special feasibility studies
may be required where the soil limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to
bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer,
stone content, soil texture, and slope. The time of the
year that excavations can be made is affected by the
depth to a seasonal high water table and the
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of
the excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is
affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are
made for small commercial buildings without
basements, for dwellings with basements, and for
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on
soil properties, site features, and observed performance
of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrink-swell
potential, and organic layers can cause the movement
of footings. Depth to a high water table, depth to
bedrock or to a cemented pan, large stones, and
flooding affect the ease of excavation and construction.
Landscaping and grading that require cuts and fills of
more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.
They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base


of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, depth
to a high water table, flooding, large stones, and slope
affect the ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength
(as inferred from the engineering classification of the
soil), shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high water
table affect the traffic-supporting capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Soil reaction, depth to a high water table,
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, the available
water capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the content
of salts, sodium, and sulfidic materials affect plant
growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, stoniness, and the
amount of sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface
layer affect trafficability after vegetation is established.

Sanitary Facilities
Table 12 shows the degree and the kind of soil
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
are considered slight if soil properties and site features
are favorable for the indicated use and limitations are
minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil properties
or site features are moderately favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if one or more soil properties or
site features are unfavorable and if special design, extra
maintenance, or alteration is required.
Table 12 also shows the suitability of the soils for
use as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good
indicates that soil properties and site features are
favorable for the use and that good performance and
low maintenance can be expected; fair indicates that
soil properties and site features are moderately
favorable for the use and one or more soil properties or
site features make the soil less desirable than the soils
rated good; and poor indicates that one or more soil
properties or site features are unfavorable for the use
and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires
special design, extra maintenance, or costly alteration.
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is







Soil Survey


evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to a high water table, depth to
bedrock or to a cemented pan, and flooding affect
absorption of the effluent. Large stones and bedrock or
a cemented pan interfere with installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material
beneath the absorption field to filter the effluent
effectively. Many local ordinances require that this
material be a certain thickness.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the
solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly
level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
required to minimize seepage and contamination of
ground water.
Table 12 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. Considered in
the ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high
water table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
flooding, large stones, and content of organic matter.
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the
level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to
function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is
excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high
content of organic matter is detrimental to proper
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic
activity. Slope, bedrock, and cemented pans can cause
construction problems, and large stones can hinder
compaction of the lagoon floor.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in
successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste


is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin
layer of soil from a source away from the site.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
needs to be considered.
The ratings in table 12 are based on soil properties,
site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
depth to a water table, slope, and flooding affect both
types of landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly
organic layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and
sodium affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise
stated, the ratings apply only to that part of the soil
within a depth of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a
limitation rated slight or moderate may not be valid.
Onsite investigation is needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil
blowing.
After soil material has been removed, the soil
material remaining in the borrow area must be thick
enough over bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water
table to permit revegetation. The soil material used as
final cover for a landfill should be suitable for plants.
The surface layer generally has the best workability,
more organic matter, and the best potential for plants.
Material from the surface layer should be stockpiled for
use as the final cover.

Construction Materials
Table 13 gives information about the soils as a
source of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils
are rated good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and
topsoil. They are rated as a probable or improbable
source of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on
soil properties and site features that affect the removal
of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
compaction, minor processing, and other standard
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
and used in road embankments in another place. In this
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low








DeSoto County, Florida


embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
exacting in design than higher embankments.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
their profile. The table showing engineering index
properties provides detailed information about each soil
layer. This information can help determine the suitability
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not
considered in the ratings.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. The
thickness of suitable material is a major consideration.
The ease of excavation is affected by large stones, a
high water table, and slope. How well the soil performs
in place after it has been compacted and drained is
determined by its strength (as inferred from the
engineering classification of the soil) and shrink-swell
potential.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to
the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have
layers of suitable material, but the material is less than
3 feet thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand
and gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 13,
only the probability of finding material in suitable
quantity is evaluated. The suitability of the material for
specific purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that
affect excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source
of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as
indicated by the engineering classification of the soil),
the thickness of suitable material, and the content of
rock fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification
are given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of
grain sizes is given in the table on engineering index
properties.


A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of
clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is
up to 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at
least 3 feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight,
large stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as
shale and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and
gravel.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
can be established and maintained. The upper 40
inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also
evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow
area.
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of
less than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble
salts, are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer,
and are not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have
a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20
to 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts,
or soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils
are not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large
amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes
of more than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water
table at or near the surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
for topsoil because of its organic matter content.
Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and
retention of moisture and releases a variety of plant-
available nutrients as it decomposes.

Water Management
Table 14 gives information on the soil properties and
site features that affect water management. The degree
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil
properties and site features are favorable for the
indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features









are somewhat restrictive for the indicated use and
special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
properties or site features are so unfavorable that
special design, increased maintenance, or alteration of
the site may be required.
This table also gives the restrictive features that
affect each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and
diversions, and grassed waterways.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage
capacity of the reservoir area.
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
constructed to impound water or to protect land against
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the
soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about
5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly
mixed and compacted during construction.
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth greater than the height of the embankment can
affect performance and safety of the embankment.
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
determine these properties.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features
include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high
content of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts
or sodium. A high water table affects the amount of
usable material. It also affects trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
impound water 3 feet or more above the original
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a
permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and
the salinity of the soil. Depth to bedrock and the content
of large stones affect the ease of excavation.


Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth
to a high water table or depth of standing water if the
soil is subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to
flooding; subsidence of organic layers; and potential
frost action. Excavating and grading and the stability of
ditchbanks are affected by depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan, large stones, slope, and the hazard of
cutbanks caving. The productivity of the soil after
drainage is adversely affected by extreme acidity or by
toxic substances in the root zone, such as salts,
sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is not
considered in the ratings.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The
design and management of an irrigation system are
affected by depth to the water table, the need for
drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The
construction of a system is affected by large stones and
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan. The
performance of a system is affected by the depth of the
root zone, the amount of salts or sodium, and soil
reaction.
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
combination of channels and ridges constructed across
a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the
construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or water erosion,
an excessively coarse texture, and restricted
permeability adversely affect maintenance.
Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available
water capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic
substances such as salts or sodium, and restricted
permeability adversely affect the growth and
maintenance of the grass after construction.

















Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during
the course of the soil survey. The data and the
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are
explained on the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity,
and compaction characteristics. These results are
reported in table 22.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 15 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the
upper 5 or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay


in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary.
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
for example, SP-SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO
classification for soils tested, with group index numbers

















Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during
the course of the soil survey. The data and the
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are
explained on the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity,
and compaction characteristics. These results are
reported in table 22.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 15 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the
upper 5 or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay


in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary.
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
for example, SP-SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO
classification for soils tested, with group index numbers








Soil Survey


in parentheses, is given in table 22.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates
determined mainly by converting volume percentage in
the field to weight percentage.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area,
or from nearby areas, and on field examination.

Physical and Chemical Properties

Table 16 shows estimates of some characteristics
and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey
area. The estimates are based on field observations
and on test data for these and similar soils.
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink-
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving
operations.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at
1/3 bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential,
available water capacity, total pore space, and other
soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates
the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk
density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and


root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by
texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil
structure.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of
movement of water through the soil when the soil is
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil
drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and
construction where the rate of water movement under
saturated conditions affects behavior.
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
plants. The capacity for water storage in each major soil
layer is stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The
capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect
the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
The most important properties are the content of
organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
design and management of irrigation systems. Available
water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
water actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
corrosion.
Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
of the saturation extract, in millimohs per centimeter at
25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
laboratory measurements at representative sites of
nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
construction material, and the potential of the soil to
corrode metal and concrete.
Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
minerals with water and varies with the amount and
type of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on
the soil and the magnitude of the change in soil








DeSoto County, Florida


moisture content influence the amount of swelling of
soils in place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For
others, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind
and amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
measurements of similar soils.
If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
often needed.
Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change
of less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and
high, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9
percent, is sometimes used.
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil
to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre
per year. These estimates are based primarily on
percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4
percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values
of K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the
more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by
water.
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water
that can occur over a sustained period without affecting
crop productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre
per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the
susceptibility of soil to soil blowing. Soils are grouped
according to the following distinctions:
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult
to establish.
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops
can be grown if intensive measures to control soil
blowing are used.
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy
loams, and very fine sandy Ioams. These soils are
highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive
measures to control soil blowing are used.
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35


percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can
be grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing
are used.
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay
loams that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils
are moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if
measures to control soil blowing are used.
5. Loamy soils that are less than 20 percent clay
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium
carbonate and sandy clay loams and sandy clays that
are less than 5 percent finely divided calcium
carbonate. These soils are slightly erodible. Crops can
be grown if measures to control soil blowing are used.
6. Loamy soils that are 20 to 35 percent clay and
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate,
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly
erodible. Crops can easily be grown.
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent
clay and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium
carbonate. These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops
can easily be grown.
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject
to soil blowing.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
soil at various stages of decomposition.
In table 16, the estimated content of organic matter is
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The content of organic matter of a soil can be
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
other nutrients for crops.

Soil and Water Features

Table 17 gives estimates of various soil and water
features. The estimates are used in land use planning
that involves engineering considerations.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
groups. They are grouped according to the intake of
water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
precipitation from long-duration storms.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained
sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of
water transmission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate






Soil Survey


when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or
well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to
moderately coarse texture. These soils have a
moderate rate of water transmission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate
(high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These
consist chiefly of clays that have high shrink-swell
potential, soils that have a permanent high water table,
soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the
surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly
impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate
of water transmission.
Some of the soils in table 17 are shown as having
dual hydrologic groups, such as B/D. A B/D listing
means that under natural conditions the soil belongs to
hydrologic group D, but by artificial methods the water
table can be lowered sufficiently so that the soil fits in
hydrologic group B. Since there are different degrees of
drainage or water table control, onsite investigation is
needed to determine the hydrologic group of the soil at
a particular location.
Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface
by flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by
runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high
tides. Shallow water standing or flowing for short
periods after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered
flooding. Standing water in swamps and marshes or in
a closed depression is considered ponding.
Table 17 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
and the time of year when flooding is most likely to
occur.
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of
occurrence are estimated. Frequency generally is
expressed as none, rare, occasional, or frequent. None
means that flooding is not probable. Rare means that
flooding is unlikely but possible under unusual weather
conditions (there is a near 0 to 5 percent chance of
flooding in any year). Occasional means that flooding
occurs infrequently under normal weather conditions
(there is a 5 to 50 percent chance of flooding in any
year). Frequent means that flooding occurs often under
normal weather conditions (there is more than a 50
percent chance of flooding in any year). Duration is
expressed as very brief (less than 2 days), brief (2 to 7
days), long (7 days to 1 month), and very long (more
than 1 month). The time of year that floods are most


likely to occur is expressed in months. November-May,
for example, means that flooding can occur during the
period November through May. About two-thirds to
three-fourths of all flooding occurs during the stated
period.
The information on flooding is based on evidence in
the soil profile, namely, thin strata of gravel, sand, silt,
or clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in
organic matter content with increasing depth; and
absence of distinctive horizons, which are characteristic
of soils that are not subject to flooding.
Also considered is local information about the extent
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific
than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
levels.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils.
The estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
soil. Indicated in table 17 are the depth to the seasonal
high water table; the kind of water table, that is,
perched, artesian, or apparent; and the months of the
year that the water table commonly is highest. A water
table that is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not
indicated in table 17. Table 18 gives data on the depth
to the water table in some of the soils in the survey
area.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. An
artesian water table is under hydrostatic head, generally
below an impermeable layer. When this layer is
penetrated, the water level rises in an uncased
borehole. A perched water table is water standing
above an unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or
perched, water table is separated from a lower one by a
dry zone.
The two numbers in the "High water table-Depth"
column indicate the normal range in depth to a
saturated zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot.
The first numeral in the range indicates the highest
water level. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
indicates that the water table is above the surface of
the soil. "More than 6.0" indicates that the water table
is below a depth of 6 feet or that it is within a depth of 6
feet for less than a month.
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of








DeSoto County, Florida


saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
results from either desiccation and shrinkage or
oxidation of organic material, or both, following
drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually
over a period of several years. Table 17 shows the
expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of
drainage, and total subsidence, which results from a
combination of factors.
Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
water throughout an extensive area as a result of
lowering the water table.
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion
of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the
soil. Special site examination and design may be
needed if the combination of factors creates a severely
corrosive environment. The steel in installations that
intersect soil boundaries or soil layers is more
susceptible to corrosion than steel in installations that
are entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil
layer.
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed
as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage
class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field
capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation
extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation
extract.

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
Analyses of Selected Soils

Dr. Victor W. Carlisle, professor of soil science, and Dr. Mary E.
Collins, assistant professor of soil science, University of Florida,
Agricultural Experiment Station, helped prepare this section.
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical
properties of representative pedons sampled in DeSoto
County are in tables 19, 20, and 21. The analyses were
conducted and coordinated by the Soil Characterization
Laboratory at the University of Florida. Detailed profile
descriptions of analyzed soils are given in alphabetical
order in the section "Classification of the Soils."
Laboratory data and profile information for additional
soils in DeSoto County, as well as for other counties in


Florida, are on file at the University of Florida, Soil
Science Department.
Typifying pedons were sampled from pits at carefully
selected locations. Samples were air dried, crushed,
and sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most
analytical methods used are outlined in Soil Survey
Investigations Report No. 1 (16).
Particle-size distribution was determined using a
modified pipette method with sodium
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil
cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at
100 centimeters water (1/o bar) and 345 centimeters
water (/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water
percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were
oven dried and ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and
the 15-bar water retention was determined. Organic
carbon was determined by a modification of the
Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils
with normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0.
Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined
by flame emission. Calcium and magnesium were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Extractable acidity was determined by the barium
chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. The sum of
cations, which can be considered a measure of cation-
exchange capacity, was calculated by adding the values
for extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base
saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation-
exchange capacity expressed in percent. The pH
measurements were made with a glass electrode using
a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01 molar calcium chloride
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and normal
potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio.
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
a condutivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were
extracted from probable spodic horizons with 0.1 molar
sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and
iron was by atomic absorption, and determination of
extracted carbon was by the Walkley-Black wet
combustion method.
Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 2 microns
was ascertained by x-ray diffraction. Peak heights at 18,
14, 7.2, and 4.31 angstrom positions represent
montmorillonite, interstratified expandable vermiculite or
14 angstrom intergrades, kaolinite, and quartz,







Soil Survey


respectively. Peaks were measured, summed, and
normalized to give the percent of soil minerals identified
in the x-ray diffractograms. These percentage values do
not indicate absolute determined quantities of soil
minerals but do imply a relative distribution of minerals
in a particular mineral suite. Absolute percentages
would require additional knowledge of particle size,
crystallinity, unit structure substitution, and matrix
problems.
Most soils sampled for laboratory analyses in DeSoto
County were inherently sandy (table 19). Some had an
argillic horizon in the lower part of the solum. Total
sand content exceeded 90 percent in one horizon or
more of all soils. Basinger, Ona, Pomello, Pompano,
Satellite, Smyrna, Tavares, Valkaria, and Zolfo soils
contained more than 90 percent total sand to a depth of
2 meters or more. EauGallie, Farmton, Immokalee, and
Malabar soils contained more than 90 percent total
sand to a depth of slightly more than 1 meter. Clay
content in these excessively sandy horizons was rarely
more than 2 percent. Frequently, but not always, silt
content was slightly higher than the clay content.
Deeper argillic horizons in the Bradenton, Chobee,
EauGallie, Farmton, Malabar, and Wabasso soils
contained enhanced amounts of clay ranging from 8.7
to 27.8 percent. Silt content exceeded 10 percent in one
horizon of the Chobee soil but rarely exceeded 4
percent in horizons of other soils. Fine sand dominated
the sand fractions in all horizons of all soils. At least
one horizon of all soils sampled contained more than 50
percent fine sand. All horizons of Basinger, Immokalee,
Ona, and Valkaria soils contained more than 70 percent
fine sand. Very coarse sand was barely detectable in
many soils and totally absent in the Basinger,
Bradenton, Farmton, Immokalee, Malabar, Ona,
Satellite, Smyrna, Tavares, and Zolfo soils. Coarse
sand content was less than 1 percent in the Bradenton,
Immokalee, and Ona soils and generally was less than
4 percent in other soils. Medium sand content generally
ranged from 10 to 20 percent with somewhat lesser and
somewhat greater amounts occurring in a few soils. The
content of very fine sand generally ranged from 10 to
20 percent. Sandy soils in DeSoto County rapidly
become drought during periods of low precipitation
when rainfall is widely scattered, and they are rapidly
saturated when high amounts of rainfall occur.
Hydraulic conductivity values generally ranged from
20 to 40 centimeters per hour in the upper part of the
solum and throughout the entire Typic Quartzipsamment
pedons, but they rarely exceeded 0.5 centimeter per
hour in the deeper argillic horizons. Higher clay content
in the Bradenton and Chobee soils resulted in low


hydraulic conductivity values at depths that could affect
the design and function of septic tank absorption fields.
Low hydraulic conductivity values were recorded for
spodic horizons in the Farmton, Immokalee, Ona, and
Smyrna soils, but the hydraulic conductivity values for
the Bh horizon in the Zolfo soil were higher than those
generally recorded for spodic horizons of most Florida
soils. The available water for plants can be estimated
from bulk density and water content data. Excessively
sandy soils, such as Tavares and Satellite fine sands,
retain very low amounts of available water. Conversely,
soils that have a higher content of organic matter, such
as Chobee muck, retain much larger amounts of
available water.
Chemical soil properties (table 20) show that a wide
range of extractable bases are in the soils of Desoto
County. Except for the Bradenton and Chobee soils,
these soils have one horizon or more that has less than
1 milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable bases.
Bradenton soils ranged from 5.23 to 17.04, and Chobee
soils ranged from 6.85 to 75.37 milliequivalents per 100
grams extractable bases. Pomello, Pompano, and Zolfo
soils contained less than 1 milliequivalent per 100

grams extractable bases throughout the pedon. The
mild, humid climate of DeSoto County results in
depletion of basic cations (calcium, magnesium,
sodium, and potassium) through leaching.
Calcium was the dominant base in all soils.
Magnesium exceeded the amount of calcium in the
argillic horizon of Farmton fine sand and in no more
than one horizon of several other soils. All soils except
the Farmton, Immokalee, Pomello, Pompano, Satellite,
and Zolfo soils had one horizon in which the calcium
content exceeded 2 milliequivalents per 100 grams.
Extractable magnesium contents of 2 milliequivalents or
more occurred only in one horizon or more of the
Bradenton, Chobee, Samsula, and Wabasso soils. The
highest amount of extractable calcium and magnesium
occurred in the Chobee soil. Sodium generally occurred
in amounts that were well less than 0.2 milliequivalents
per 100 grams; however, the upper horizons of Chobee
muck and Samsula muck exceeded this value. All soils
had one horizon or more that had 0.07 milliequivalents
per 100 grams or less extractable potassium. Basinger,
EauGallie, Farmton, Immokalee, Malabar, Ona,
Pomello, Pompano, Samsula, Satellite, Smyrna,
Valkaria, Wabasso, and Zolfo soils had horizons with
nondetectable amounts of potassium.
Values for cation-exchange capacity, an indicator of
plant nutrient-holding capacity, exceeded 10
milliequivalents per 100 grams in the surface horizon of
the Chobee, EauGallie, Immokalee, Samsula, and







DeSoto County, Florida


Wabasso soils. An enhanced cation-exchange capacity
paralleled the higher clay content in deeper horizons of
Bradenton, EauGallie, Farmton, Malabar, and Wabasso
soils. Soils that have low cation-exchange capacities in
the surface horizon, such as the Malabar soil, require
only small amounts of lime or sulfur to significantly alter
both the base status and soil reaction. Generally, soils
of low inherent soil fertility are associated with low
values for extractable bases and low cation-exchange
capacities. Fertile soils are associated with high values
for extractable bases, high base saturation values, and
high cation-exchange capacities.
The content of organic carbon was less than 1
percent in all horizons of the Malabar and Tavares soils
and in all horizons below the surface layer in the
Basinger, Bradenton, Farmton, Pompano, Satellite, and
Valkaria soils. Chobee and Samsula soils have horizons
with more than 6 percent organic carbon. The Bh
horizon of the EauGallie, Farmton, Immokalee, Ona,
Pomello, Smyrna, Wabasso, and Zolfo soils has
enhanced amounts of organic carbon ranging from 0.79
percent in the Farmton soil to 3.11 percent in the
Smyrna soil. In all other soils, organic carbon content
decreased rapidly with pedon depth. Since the content
of organic carbon in the surface horizon is directly
related to soil nutrient- and water-holding capacities of
sandy soils, management practices that conserve and
maintain the amount of organic carbon are highly
desirable.
Electrical conductivity values were all very low,
ranging from nondetectable to 0.78 millimohs per
centimeter, which occurred in the surface layer of
Samsula muck. These data indicate that the soluble salt
content of soils sampled in DeSoto County was
insufficient to detrimentally affect the growth of salt
sensitive plants.
Soil reaction in water ranged from pH 3.7 in the
surface layer of the Pompano soil to pH 8.2 in the
deepest horizon of the Bradenton soil. Values for soil
reaction were frequently lower, from 0.5 to 1.0 pH units,
when determined in potassium chloride and calcium
chloride solutions. Maximum plant nutrient availability
generally is attained when soil reaction is between pH
6.5 and 7.5; however, under Florida conditions,
maintaining soil reaction above pH 6.5 is not
economically feasible for most agricultural production
purposes.
The ratio of pyrophosphate extractable carbon and
aluminum to clay in the Bh horizon of EauGallie,
Farmton, Immokalee, Ona, Pomello, Smyrna, Wabasso,
and Zolfo soils was sufficient to meet chemical criteria
established for spodic horizons. Pyrophosphate


extractable iron and aluminum ratio to citrate-dithionite
extractable iron and aluminum was also sufficient to
meet spodic horizon criteria. Sodium pyrophosphate
extractable iron was 0.06 percent or less in the spodic
horizons of these soils.
Citrate-dithionite extractable iron in the Bt horizon of
Bradenton, Chobee, EauGallie, Farmton, and Wabasso
soils ranged from 0.03 to 1.4 percent. Aluminum
extracted by citrate-dithionite from the Bt horizon in
these soils ranged from 0.03 to 0.24 percent. Larger
amounts of citrate-dithionite iron generally occurred in
the Bt horizon as compared to the Bh horizon. The
amounts of iron and aluminum in the soils in DeSoto
County were not sufficient to detrimentally affect
phosphorus availability.
Sand fractions of 2 to 0.05 millimeters were siliceous,
and quartz was overwhelmingly dominant in all pedons.
Small amounts of heavy minerals occurred in most
horizons with the greatest concentrations in the very
fine fraction. No weatherable minerals were observed.
Crystalline mineral components of the clay fraction of
less than 0.002 millimeter are shown in table 21 for
major horizons of the pedons sampled. The clay
mineralogical suite was composed mostly of
montmorillonite, a 14 angstrom intergrade, kaolinite,
and quartz.
A large amount of montmorillonite was in the
Bradenton, Chobee, Samsula, and Wabasso soils.
Montmorillonite was nondetectable in the Farmton, Ona,
and Valkaria soils. The 14 angstrom intergrade was not
detected in Bradenton, Chobee, and Samsula soils.
Many soils had at least one horizon in which the 14
angstrom intergrade was not detected. Kaolinite
occurred in all horizons for which determinations for
clay identification were performed except in the Cg
horizon of the Chobee soil, the Ap horizon of the
EauGallie soil, the A horizon of the Pompano soil, and
the Bh horizon of the Smyrna soil. Varying amounts of
quartz occurred in all horizons of all pedons.
Montmorillonite appears to have been inherited by
DeSoto County soils. Occurrence of relatively large
amounts of montmorillonite in Bradenton and Chobee
soils suggests that it is among the most stable mineral
species in this neutral to alkaline weathering
environment. The Chobee soil contained a large amount
of clay, which was mostly montmorillonitic. Considerable
volume change could result from shrinking upon drying
and swelling upon wetting of montmorillonitic soil
materials that have a high clay content. This soil
property can be detrimental for most types of
construction.
Large amounts of 14 angstrom intergrade minerals










and quartz occurred in soils with an acidic environment.
The stability of these mineral species appears to be
enhanced under these weathering conditions. Clay-
sized quartz has primarily resulted from decrements of
the silt fraction. A tendency for kaolinite to increase as
pedon depth increases exists, but it is somewhat
inconsistent. Soils that are dominated by
montmorillonite have a much higher cation-exchange
capacity and retain more plant nutrients than soils
dominated by 14 angstrom intergrade materials,
kaolinite, and quartz. In most DeSoto County soils, the
clay mineralogy influences use and management less
frequently than the total clay content.

Engineering Index Test Data
Table 22 contains engineering test data determined
by the Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of
Transportation, Bureau of Materials and Research, for
some of the major soil series in the county. These tests
were made to help evaluate the soils for engineering
purposes. The classifications given are based on data
obtained by mechanical analyses and by tests to
determine liquid limits and plastic limits.
The mechanical analyses were made by combined
sieve and hydrometer methods (4). The various grain-
size fractions were calculated on the basis of all the
material in the soil sample, including that coarser than 2
millimeters in diameter. These mechanical analyses


should not be used in naming textural classes of soil.
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important
in earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a
successively higher moisture content, assuming that the
compactive effort remains constant, the density of the
compacted material increases until the optimum
moisture content is reached. After that, density
decreases with increase in moisture content. The
highest dry density obtained in the compactive test is
termed maximum dry density. As a rule, maximum
strength of earthwork is obtained if the soil is
compacted to maximum dry density.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
water on the strength and consistence of the soil
material. As the moisture content of a clayey soil is
increased from a dry state, the material changes from a
semisolid to a plastic state.
If the moisture content is further increased, the
material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil
material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state,
and the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the
soil material changes from a plastic state to a liquid
state. The plasticity index is the numerical difference
between the liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates
the range of moisture content within which soil material
is plastic. The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in
this table are based on laboratory tests of soil samples.
















Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (15).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or on laboratory measurements. Table 23 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu,
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm,
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great


group. An example is Typic Psammaquents.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic
Typic Psammaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
of the surface layer or of the substratum within a series.
The Pompano soils in DeSoto County are siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (14). Many
of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in Soil Taxonomy (15). Unless otherwise stated,
colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following
the pedon description is the range of important
characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
















Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (15).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or on laboratory measurements. Table 23 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu,
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm,
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great


group. An example is Typic Psammaquents.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic
Typic Psammaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
of the surface layer or of the substratum within a series.
The Pompano soils in DeSoto County are siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (14). Many
of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in Soil Taxonomy (15). Unless otherwise stated,
colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following
the pedon description is the range of important
characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."







Soil Survey


Anclote Series
The Anclote series consists of deep, very poorly
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine
sediment. These soils are in depressions. Slopes are 0
to 1 percent. Anclote soils are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Haplaquolls.
Anclote soils are associated on the landscape with
Basinger, Floridana, and Valkaria soils. Basinger and
Valkaria soils do not have a mollic epipedon. Floridana
soils have a loamy argillic horizon between depths of 20
and 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Anclote mucky fine sand,
depressional; about 800 feet east and 1,900 feet north
of the southwest corner of sec. 3, T. 39 S., R. 26 E.

A1-0 to 10 inches; black (N 2/0) mucky fine sand;
massive; very friable; many fine and very fine roots;
neutral; clear smooth boundary.
A2-10 to 14 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
common medium distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1)
mottles; weak medium granular structure; very
friable; many fine roots; neutral; clear wavy
boundary.
Cgl-14 to 35 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grained; nonsticky and nonplastic; moderately
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg2-35 to 65 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; common medium distinct dark brown (10YR
4/3) mottles; single grained; nonsticky and
nonplastic; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
boundary.
Cg3-65 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; single grained; nonsticky and nonplastic;
moderately alkaline.

Reaction ranges from strongly acid to moderately
alkaline.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of 2.
Gray mottles are in some pedons. This horizon is 11 to
22 inches thick. Texture is mucky fine sand, fine sand,
or sand.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Mottles in shades of brown or
grayish brown are in some pedons. Texture is sand,
fine sand, or loamy fine sand.

Basinger Series
The Basinger series consists of deep, poorly drained
and very poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds
of sandy marine sediment. These soils are in sloughs,


on flood plains, and in depressions. Slopes are 0 to 2
percent. Basinger soils are siliceous, hyperthermic
Spodic Psammaquents.
Basinger soils are associated on the landscape with
Anclote, Smyrna, and Myakka soils. Anclote soils have
a black surface layer that is more than 10 inches thick.
Smyrna soils have a well developed spodic horizon
within 20 inches of the surface. Myakka soils have a
spodic horizon between depths of 20 and 30 inches.
Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand (fig. 12); in a
slough about 400 feet west and 2,000 feet south of the
northeast corner of sec. 22, T. 38 S., R. 27 E.

Ap-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; salt-
and-pepper appearance if unrubbed; single grained;
loose; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary.
E-5 to 22 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
E/Bh-22 to 30 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; dark
grayish brown (10YR 4/2) streaks; single grained;
loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bh-30 to 54 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand;
few very dark grayish brown (1 OYR 3/2) weakly
cemented ortstein fragments ranging up to 1 inch in
diameter; single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
C-54 to 80 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; nonsticky and nonplastic;
strongly acid.

Reaction ranges from extremely acid to neutral.
Texture is sand or fine sand in all horizons except for
the A horizon, which is fine sand.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Combined thickness of the A and E
horizons ranges from 19 to 38 inches.
The E/Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
chroma of 2 to 4, or value of 5 and chroma of 3 or 4. In
most pedons, this horizon has few to many weakly
cemented ortstein fragments that have hue of 10YR,
value of 3, and chroma of 2.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 2 to 4.

Bradenton Series
The Bradenton series consists of deep, poorly
drained soils that formed in loamy and sandy marine







Soil Survey


Anclote Series
The Anclote series consists of deep, very poorly
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine
sediment. These soils are in depressions. Slopes are 0
to 1 percent. Anclote soils are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Haplaquolls.
Anclote soils are associated on the landscape with
Basinger, Floridana, and Valkaria soils. Basinger and
Valkaria soils do not have a mollic epipedon. Floridana
soils have a loamy argillic horizon between depths of 20
and 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Anclote mucky fine sand,
depressional; about 800 feet east and 1,900 feet north
of the southwest corner of sec. 3, T. 39 S., R. 26 E.

A1-0 to 10 inches; black (N 2/0) mucky fine sand;
massive; very friable; many fine and very fine roots;
neutral; clear smooth boundary.
A2-10 to 14 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
common medium distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1)
mottles; weak medium granular structure; very
friable; many fine roots; neutral; clear wavy
boundary.
Cgl-14 to 35 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grained; nonsticky and nonplastic; moderately
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg2-35 to 65 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; common medium distinct dark brown (10YR
4/3) mottles; single grained; nonsticky and
nonplastic; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
boundary.
Cg3-65 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; single grained; nonsticky and nonplastic;
moderately alkaline.

Reaction ranges from strongly acid to moderately
alkaline.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of 2.
Gray mottles are in some pedons. This horizon is 11 to
22 inches thick. Texture is mucky fine sand, fine sand,
or sand.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Mottles in shades of brown or
grayish brown are in some pedons. Texture is sand,
fine sand, or loamy fine sand.

Basinger Series
The Basinger series consists of deep, poorly drained
and very poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds
of sandy marine sediment. These soils are in sloughs,


on flood plains, and in depressions. Slopes are 0 to 2
percent. Basinger soils are siliceous, hyperthermic
Spodic Psammaquents.
Basinger soils are associated on the landscape with
Anclote, Smyrna, and Myakka soils. Anclote soils have
a black surface layer that is more than 10 inches thick.
Smyrna soils have a well developed spodic horizon
within 20 inches of the surface. Myakka soils have a
spodic horizon between depths of 20 and 30 inches.
Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand (fig. 12); in a
slough about 400 feet west and 2,000 feet south of the
northeast corner of sec. 22, T. 38 S., R. 27 E.

Ap-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; salt-
and-pepper appearance if unrubbed; single grained;
loose; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary.
E-5 to 22 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
E/Bh-22 to 30 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; dark
grayish brown (10YR 4/2) streaks; single grained;
loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bh-30 to 54 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand;
few very dark grayish brown (1 OYR 3/2) weakly
cemented ortstein fragments ranging up to 1 inch in
diameter; single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
C-54 to 80 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; nonsticky and nonplastic;
strongly acid.

Reaction ranges from extremely acid to neutral.
Texture is sand or fine sand in all horizons except for
the A horizon, which is fine sand.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Combined thickness of the A and E
horizons ranges from 19 to 38 inches.
The E/Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
chroma of 2 to 4, or value of 5 and chroma of 3 or 4. In
most pedons, this horizon has few to many weakly
cemented ortstein fragments that have hue of 10YR,
value of 3, and chroma of 2.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 2 to 4.

Bradenton Series
The Bradenton series consists of deep, poorly
drained soils that formed in loamy and sandy marine







Soil Survey


Anclote Series
The Anclote series consists of deep, very poorly
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine
sediment. These soils are in depressions. Slopes are 0
to 1 percent. Anclote soils are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Haplaquolls.
Anclote soils are associated on the landscape with
Basinger, Floridana, and Valkaria soils. Basinger and
Valkaria soils do not have a mollic epipedon. Floridana
soils have a loamy argillic horizon between depths of 20
and 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Anclote mucky fine sand,
depressional; about 800 feet east and 1,900 feet north
of the southwest corner of sec. 3, T. 39 S., R. 26 E.

A1-0 to 10 inches; black (N 2/0) mucky fine sand;
massive; very friable; many fine and very fine roots;
neutral; clear smooth boundary.
A2-10 to 14 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
common medium distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1)
mottles; weak medium granular structure; very
friable; many fine roots; neutral; clear wavy
boundary.
Cgl-14 to 35 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grained; nonsticky and nonplastic; moderately
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg2-35 to 65 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; common medium distinct dark brown (10YR
4/3) mottles; single grained; nonsticky and
nonplastic; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
boundary.
Cg3-65 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; single grained; nonsticky and nonplastic;
moderately alkaline.

Reaction ranges from strongly acid to moderately
alkaline.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of 2.
Gray mottles are in some pedons. This horizon is 11 to
22 inches thick. Texture is mucky fine sand, fine sand,
or sand.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Mottles in shades of brown or
grayish brown are in some pedons. Texture is sand,
fine sand, or loamy fine sand.

Basinger Series
The Basinger series consists of deep, poorly drained
and very poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds
of sandy marine sediment. These soils are in sloughs,


on flood plains, and in depressions. Slopes are 0 to 2
percent. Basinger soils are siliceous, hyperthermic
Spodic Psammaquents.
Basinger soils are associated on the landscape with
Anclote, Smyrna, and Myakka soils. Anclote soils have
a black surface layer that is more than 10 inches thick.
Smyrna soils have a well developed spodic horizon
within 20 inches of the surface. Myakka soils have a
spodic horizon between depths of 20 and 30 inches.
Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand (fig. 12); in a
slough about 400 feet west and 2,000 feet south of the
northeast corner of sec. 22, T. 38 S., R. 27 E.

Ap-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; salt-
and-pepper appearance if unrubbed; single grained;
loose; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary.
E-5 to 22 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
E/Bh-22 to 30 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; dark
grayish brown (10YR 4/2) streaks; single grained;
loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bh-30 to 54 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand;
few very dark grayish brown (1 OYR 3/2) weakly
cemented ortstein fragments ranging up to 1 inch in
diameter; single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
C-54 to 80 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; nonsticky and nonplastic;
strongly acid.

Reaction ranges from extremely acid to neutral.
Texture is sand or fine sand in all horizons except for
the A horizon, which is fine sand.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Combined thickness of the A and E
horizons ranges from 19 to 38 inches.
The E/Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
chroma of 2 to 4, or value of 5 and chroma of 3 or 4. In
most pedons, this horizon has few to many weakly
cemented ortstein fragments that have hue of 10YR,
value of 3, and chroma of 2.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 2 to 4.

Bradenton Series
The Bradenton series consists of deep, poorly
drained soils that formed in loamy and sandy marine







DeSoto County, Florida


T.U E- '. creeks. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Bradenton
Ssoils are coarse-loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
Ochraqualfs.
.^ Bradenton soils are associated on the landscape with
Felda, Pineda, Wabasso, Farmton, and Myakka soils.
Felda and Pineda soils have a sandy A horizon that is
20 to 40 inches thick. Wabasso and Farmton soils have
a spodic horizon that is underlain by a loamy argillic
horizon. Myakka soils have a spodic horizon and are
sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typical pedon of Bradenton fine sand; in a pasture
2 about 2,200 feet west and 2,100 feet south of the
northeast corner of sec. 29, T. 37 S., R. 26 E.

SAp-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10OYR 4/1) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
roots; medium acid; clear smooth boundary.
,t E E1-4 to 9 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; neutral; clear smooth
boundary.
E2-9 to 15 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; mildly
alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.
Btg-15 to 26 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sandy loam; common medium distinct yellowish
.6 brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium
Ssubangular blocky structure; very friable; few fine
roots; mildly alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.
Cgl -26 to 34 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) loamy fine sand;
common medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR
5/8) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
friable; few fine roots; mildly alkaline; gradual
smooth boundary.
Cg2-34 to 58 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) loamy fine sand;
pockets of fine sandy loam; many medium distinct
light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles; weak fine subangular
blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; neutral;
gradual smooth boundary.
Cg3-58 to 80 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) and gray (5Y
5/1) loamy fine sand; pockets of sandy clay loam
and sandy clay; weak fine subangular blocky
structure; friable; moderately alkaline.
The solum ranges from 20 to 50 inches in thickness.
Reaction ranges from medium acid to neutral in the A
Figure 12.-Basinger fine sand has a slightly darkened subsoil at horizon, from strongly acid to mildly alkaline in the E
a depth of about 24 inches. horizon, from slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the
Btg horizon, and from neutral to moderately alkaline in
the Cg horizon.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10OYR, value of 2 to
sediments. These soils are on low-lying hammocks and 4, and chroma of 1.
along the flood plain of the Peace River and major The E horizon has hue of 10OYR, value of 5 or 6, and







Soil Survey


chroma of 1 or 2, or value of 4 and chroma of 2.
Mottles in shades of brown, yellow, or gray are in some
pedons. Combined thickness of the A and E horizons
ranges from 10 to 17 inches. Texture of the E horizon is
sand or fine sand.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
and chroma of 1 or 2, or value of 7 and chroma of 2;
hue of 7.5YR, value of 4 or 7, and chroma of 2; or hue
of 5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1. This horizon
has mottles in shades of yellow or brown. Texture is
loamy fine sand, fine sandy loam, or sandy loam.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, 5GY, or 5Y,
value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2, or hue of 5Y,
value of 4, and chroma of 1. Mottles in shades of
yellow, brown, or gray are in some pedons. Texture is
fine sand, loamy fine sand, or fine sandy loam.

Cassia Series
The Cassia series consists of deep, somewhat poorly
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine
sediment. These soils are on flatwoods. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. Cassia soils are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Haplohumods.
Cassia soils are associated on the landscape with
Pomello, Smyrna, and Zolfo soils. Pomello soils have a
spodic horizon between 30 and 50 inches of the
surface. Smyrna soils are wetter than the Cassia soils
and have a spodic horizon within 20 inches of the
surface. Zolfo soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of
more than 50 inches.
Typical pedon of Cassia fine sand; about 1,400 feet
south and 1,300 feet west of the northeast corner of
sec. 23, T. 36 S., R. 23 E.

A-0 to 3 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; salt-and-
pepper appearance if unrubbed; single grained;
loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly acid;
abrupt smooth boundary.
E-3 to 22 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly
acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
Bh-22 to 28 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fine
sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
BE-28 to 40 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
E'-40 to 55 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; abrupt
smooth boundary.
B'hi-55 to 59 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)


fine sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
B'h2-59 to 80 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) fine sand; common medium black (10YR 2/1)
ortstein fragments less than 1 inch in diameter;
single grained; loose; strongly acid.

The solum ranges from 30 to 80 inches or more in
thickness. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
medium acid.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 1.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and
chroma of 1. Combined thickness of the A and E
horizons ranges from 20 to 25 inches.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3,
and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma of
2. Texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy sand.
The BE horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
chroma of 3 or 4. Texture is sand or fine sand. Some
pedons do not have a BE horizon.
The E' horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 3 or less. Texture is sand or fine sand. Some
pedons do not have an E' horizon.
The B'h horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or less,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Ortstein fragments are in some
pedons. Texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy sand.
Some pedons have a C horizon, which has hue of
10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is
sand or fine sand.

Chobee Series
The Chobee series consists of deep, very poorly
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and
loamy marine sediments. These soils are in depressions
and on flood plains of major rivers and creeks. Slopes
are 0 to 1 percent. Chobee soils are fine-loamy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls.
Chobee soils are associated on the landscape with
Felda, Floridana, Gator, Malabar, Farmton, Pineda, and
Wabasso soils. Felda, Malabar, Farmton, Pineda, and
Wabasso soils do not have a mollic epipedon, and they
do not have an argillic horizon within 20 inches of the
surface. Floridana soils also do not have an argillic
horizon within 20 inches of the surface. Farmton and
Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon. Gator soils are
organic.
Typical pedon of Chobee muck, depressional; about
2,000 feet east and 700 feet north of the southwest
corner of sec. 21, T. 37 S., R. 23 E.







Soil Survey


chroma of 1 or 2, or value of 4 and chroma of 2.
Mottles in shades of brown, yellow, or gray are in some
pedons. Combined thickness of the A and E horizons
ranges from 10 to 17 inches. Texture of the E horizon is
sand or fine sand.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
and chroma of 1 or 2, or value of 7 and chroma of 2;
hue of 7.5YR, value of 4 or 7, and chroma of 2; or hue
of 5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1. This horizon
has mottles in shades of yellow or brown. Texture is
loamy fine sand, fine sandy loam, or sandy loam.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, 5GY, or 5Y,
value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2, or hue of 5Y,
value of 4, and chroma of 1. Mottles in shades of
yellow, brown, or gray are in some pedons. Texture is
fine sand, loamy fine sand, or fine sandy loam.

Cassia Series
The Cassia series consists of deep, somewhat poorly
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine
sediment. These soils are on flatwoods. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. Cassia soils are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Haplohumods.
Cassia soils are associated on the landscape with
Pomello, Smyrna, and Zolfo soils. Pomello soils have a
spodic horizon between 30 and 50 inches of the
surface. Smyrna soils are wetter than the Cassia soils
and have a spodic horizon within 20 inches of the
surface. Zolfo soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of
more than 50 inches.
Typical pedon of Cassia fine sand; about 1,400 feet
south and 1,300 feet west of the northeast corner of
sec. 23, T. 36 S., R. 23 E.

A-0 to 3 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; salt-and-
pepper appearance if unrubbed; single grained;
loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly acid;
abrupt smooth boundary.
E-3 to 22 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly
acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
Bh-22 to 28 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fine
sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
BE-28 to 40 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
E'-40 to 55 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; abrupt
smooth boundary.
B'hi-55 to 59 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)


fine sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
B'h2-59 to 80 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) fine sand; common medium black (10YR 2/1)
ortstein fragments less than 1 inch in diameter;
single grained; loose; strongly acid.

The solum ranges from 30 to 80 inches or more in
thickness. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
medium acid.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 1.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and
chroma of 1. Combined thickness of the A and E
horizons ranges from 20 to 25 inches.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3,
and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma of
2. Texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy sand.
The BE horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
chroma of 3 or 4. Texture is sand or fine sand. Some
pedons do not have a BE horizon.
The E' horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 3 or less. Texture is sand or fine sand. Some
pedons do not have an E' horizon.
The B'h horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or less,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Ortstein fragments are in some
pedons. Texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy sand.
Some pedons have a C horizon, which has hue of
10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is
sand or fine sand.

Chobee Series
The Chobee series consists of deep, very poorly
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and
loamy marine sediments. These soils are in depressions
and on flood plains of major rivers and creeks. Slopes
are 0 to 1 percent. Chobee soils are fine-loamy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls.
Chobee soils are associated on the landscape with
Felda, Floridana, Gator, Malabar, Farmton, Pineda, and
Wabasso soils. Felda, Malabar, Farmton, Pineda, and
Wabasso soils do not have a mollic epipedon, and they
do not have an argillic horizon within 20 inches of the
surface. Floridana soils also do not have an argillic
horizon within 20 inches of the surface. Farmton and
Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon. Gator soils are
organic.
Typical pedon of Chobee muck, depressional; about
2,000 feet east and 700 feet north of the southwest
corner of sec. 21, T. 37 S., R. 23 E.








DeSoto County, Florida


Oa-0 to 2 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2.5/2)
muck; about 30 percent unrubbed fiber, about 5
percent rubbed; moderate medium granular
structure; very friable; many fine roots; medium
acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
A-2 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sandy clay loam;
common brown (10YR 5/3) sand streaks; moderate
medium subangular blocky structure: firm; common
fine roots; medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
Bt-7 to 47 inches; black (N 2/0) sandy clay loam;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm:
few thin discontinuous clay films; medium acid:
gradual wavy boundary.
Btg-47 to 65 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sandy loam; common fine distinct dark yellowish
brown (10YR 4/6) stains along root channels;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm;
medium acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
Cg-65 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 5/1) fine
sand; massive: nonsticky and nonplastic: medium
acid.

The solum ranges from 46 to more than 80 inches in
thickness. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral
in the Oa horizon and from medium acid to mildly
alkaline in the other horizons.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3,
and chroma of 1; has hue of 5YR, value of 2.5, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or is neutral and has value of 2. This
horizon is 2 to 6 inches thick. Some pedons do not
have an Oa horizon.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1. This horizon is 5 to 18 inches thick.
Texture is mucky loamy fine sand, loamy fine sand, fine
sandy loam, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1; or it is neutral and has value of 2 or 3.
Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay
loam.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5.
and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 2; or hue of 5Y, value of 5, and chroma of 1.
The number of carbonate coatings or nodules ranges
from none to many. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy
loam, or sandy clay loam.
Some pedons have a Btkg horizon, which has colors
similar to those of the Btg horizon. The number of
carbonate coatings on ped faces ranges from few to
many.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
chroma of 1; hue of 5GY, value of 5 or 6, and chroma
of 1; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 2.


Texture is fine sand, loamy sand, or sandy clay loam.
Some pedons do not have a C horizon within a depth of
80 inches.

Delray Series

The Delray series consists of deep, very poorly
drained soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine
sediments. These soils are in depressions. Slopes are 0
to 1 percent. Delray soils are loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Grossarenic Argiaquolls.
Delray soils are associated on the landscape with
Anclote, EauGallie, Malabar, and Wabasso soils.
Anclote soils do not have an argillic horizon. EauGallie,
Malabar, and Wabasso soils do not have a mollic
epipedon. EauGallie soils have a spodic horizon
between 20 and 40 inches of the surface. Malabar soils
have a Bw horizon. Wabasso soils have an argillic
horizon within 40 inches of the surface.
Typical pedon of Delray mucky fine sand;
depressional; about 1,400 feet west and 1,800 feet
north of the southeast corner of sec. 26, T. 38 S., R. 27
E.

A-0 to 23 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine and
medium roots; about 10 percent organic matter;
neutral; gradual smooth boundary.
Egl-23 to 53 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand: single grained; nonsticky and nonplastic;
neutral: gradual smooth boundary.
Eg2-53 to 65 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grained; nonsticky and nonplastic; neutral; clear
smooth boundary.
Btg1-65 to 70 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; neutral;
gradual smooth boundary.
Btg2-70 to 75 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sandy
loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
nonsticky and nonplastic; neutral; clear smooth
boundary.
BC-75 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) loamy sand;
massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; neutral.

Reaction is medium acid to neutral in the A horizon,
slightly acid or neutral in the Eg horizon, and neutral to
mildly alkaline in all other horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1; or it is neutral and has value of 2. This
horizon is 12 to 24 inches thick.
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,







Soil Survey


and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is sand or fine sand.
Combined thickness of the A and E horizons ranges
from 40 to 74 inches.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5Y, value of 5, and
chroma of 1; or hue of 5GY, value of 5, and chroma of
1. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy
clay loam.
The BC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
chroma of 2, or hue of 5Y, value of 6, and chroma of 1.
Texture is loamy sand, loamy fine sand, or fine sandy
loam.

Durbin Series

The Durbin series consists of deep, very poorly
drained soils that formed in well decomposed
herbaceous organic material. These soils are in tidal
areas. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Durbin soils are euic,
hyperthermic Typic Sulfihemists.
Durbin soils are associated on the landscape with
Samsula, Terra Ceia, and Wulfert soils. Samsula and
Terra Ceia soils are not tidal influenced. Wulfert soils
have mineral layers at a depth of less than 51 inches.
Typical pedon of Durbin muck, in an area of Durbin
and Wulfert mucks, frequently flooded; in a tidal marsh
350 feet east and 4,100 feet south of the northwest
corner of sec. 26, T. 39 S., R. 23 E.

Oal-0 to 4 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) muck;
about 25 percent unrubbed fiber, about 5 percent
rubbed; massive; slightly sticky; common fine roots;
estimated 0.7 percent sulfur; neutral; gradual
smooth boundary.
Oa2-4 to 75 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 10
percent unrubbed fiber, about 3 percent rubbed;
massive; slightly sticky; many fine and medium
roots; estimated 2.5 percent sulfur; neutral; gradual
wavy boundary.
C-75 to 80 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; many
coarse distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
streaks; single grained; nonsticky and nonplastic;
mildly alkaline.

Measured in 0.01 molar calcium chloride solution,
reaction ranges from extremely acid to neutral in the Oa
horizon and from extremely acid to moderately alkaline
in the C horizon. After drying, reaction is one-half to
one unit lower. At least part of the control section has a
pH of 4.5 or higher.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5YR or 7.5YR, value of 3, and


chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2, and chroma of
1. This horizon is 55 to 80 inches thick. Estimated sulfur
content ranges from 0.7 to 3 percent.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
chroma of 2 or 3. Streaks in shades of gray or brown
are in some pedons. Texture is sand, fine sand, or
loamy fine sand. Some pedons do not have a C
horizon.

EauGallie Series
The EauGallie series consists of deep, poorly drained
soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy
marine sediments. These soils are on flatwoods. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent. EauGallie soils are sandy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Alfic Haplaquods.
EauGallie soils are associated on the landscape with
Farmton, Pineda, Immokalee, and Myakka soils.
Farmton soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of more
than 30 inches. Pineda soils have an argillic horizon
between 20 and 40 inches of the surface. Immokalee
and Myakka soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80
inches.
Typical pedon of EauGallie fine sand; about 1,200
feet east and 50 feet south of the northwest corner of
sec. 21, T. 38 S., R. 23 E.

Ap-0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
many uncoated sand grains; weak fine granular
structure; very friable; many fine and medium roots;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E1-7 to 14 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E2-14 to 29 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Bhl-29 to 32 inches; black (10YR 2/1) f ne sand; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; very friable;
few fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Bh2-32 to 47 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) fine sand;
very dark brown (10YR 2/2) stains along old root
channels; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; very friable; few fine roots; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
BE-47 to 68 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) stains
along old root channels; single grained; nonsticky
and nonplastic; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
Btgl-68 to 75 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine







Soil Survey


and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is sand or fine sand.
Combined thickness of the A and E horizons ranges
from 40 to 74 inches.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5Y, value of 5, and
chroma of 1; or hue of 5GY, value of 5, and chroma of
1. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy
clay loam.
The BC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
chroma of 2, or hue of 5Y, value of 6, and chroma of 1.
Texture is loamy sand, loamy fine sand, or fine sandy
loam.

Durbin Series

The Durbin series consists of deep, very poorly
drained soils that formed in well decomposed
herbaceous organic material. These soils are in tidal
areas. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Durbin soils are euic,
hyperthermic Typic Sulfihemists.
Durbin soils are associated on the landscape with
Samsula, Terra Ceia, and Wulfert soils. Samsula and
Terra Ceia soils are not tidal influenced. Wulfert soils
have mineral layers at a depth of less than 51 inches.
Typical pedon of Durbin muck, in an area of Durbin
and Wulfert mucks, frequently flooded; in a tidal marsh
350 feet east and 4,100 feet south of the northwest
corner of sec. 26, T. 39 S., R. 23 E.

Oal-0 to 4 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) muck;
about 25 percent unrubbed fiber, about 5 percent
rubbed; massive; slightly sticky; common fine roots;
estimated 0.7 percent sulfur; neutral; gradual
smooth boundary.
Oa2-4 to 75 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 10
percent unrubbed fiber, about 3 percent rubbed;
massive; slightly sticky; many fine and medium
roots; estimated 2.5 percent sulfur; neutral; gradual
wavy boundary.
C-75 to 80 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; many
coarse distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
streaks; single grained; nonsticky and nonplastic;
mildly alkaline.

Measured in 0.01 molar calcium chloride solution,
reaction ranges from extremely acid to neutral in the Oa
horizon and from extremely acid to moderately alkaline
in the C horizon. After drying, reaction is one-half to
one unit lower. At least part of the control section has a
pH of 4.5 or higher.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5YR or 7.5YR, value of 3, and


chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2, and chroma of
1. This horizon is 55 to 80 inches thick. Estimated sulfur
content ranges from 0.7 to 3 percent.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
chroma of 2 or 3. Streaks in shades of gray or brown
are in some pedons. Texture is sand, fine sand, or
loamy fine sand. Some pedons do not have a C
horizon.

EauGallie Series
The EauGallie series consists of deep, poorly drained
soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy
marine sediments. These soils are on flatwoods. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent. EauGallie soils are sandy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Alfic Haplaquods.
EauGallie soils are associated on the landscape with
Farmton, Pineda, Immokalee, and Myakka soils.
Farmton soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of more
than 30 inches. Pineda soils have an argillic horizon
between 20 and 40 inches of the surface. Immokalee
and Myakka soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80
inches.
Typical pedon of EauGallie fine sand; about 1,200
feet east and 50 feet south of the northwest corner of
sec. 21, T. 38 S., R. 23 E.

Ap-0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
many uncoated sand grains; weak fine granular
structure; very friable; many fine and medium roots;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E1-7 to 14 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E2-14 to 29 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Bhl-29 to 32 inches; black (10YR 2/1) f ne sand; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; very friable;
few fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Bh2-32 to 47 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) fine sand;
very dark brown (10YR 2/2) stains along old root
channels; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; very friable; few fine roots; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
BE-47 to 68 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) stains
along old root channels; single grained; nonsticky
and nonplastic; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
Btgl-68 to 75 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine







DeSoto County, Florida


sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Btg2-75 to 80 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) sandy
clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; very strongly acid.

The solum ranges from 48 to 80 inches or more in
thickness. Reaction is very strongly acid to medium acid
in the A and E horizons, very strongly acid to slightly
acid in the Bh and BE horizons, and very strongly acid
to mildly alkaline in the Btg horizon.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
4, and chroma of 1; or it is neutral and has value of 2.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR or 10YR, value of 2
or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3, or hue of 7.5YR. value of 3,
and chroma of 2. Texture is sand or fine sand.
The BE horizon has hue of 10YR, value or 4 or 5,
and chroma of 3 or 4. Texture is sand or fine sand.
Some pedons do not have a BE horizon.
Some pedons have an E' horizon above the Btg
horizon. This E' horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to
7, and chroma of 1 to 3.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value
of 4 to 7, and chroma of 3 or less. The number of
mottles in shades of brown, yellow, and gray ranges
from none to many. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy
loam, or sandy clay loam.
Some pedons have a Cg horizon, which has hue of
10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or 3.

Farmton Series
The Farmton series consists of deep, poorly drained
soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy
marine sediments. These soils are on flatwoods. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent. Farmton soils are sandy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Ultic Haplaquods.
Farmton soils are associated on the landscape with
Immokalee and EauGallie soils. Immokalee soils do not
have an argillic horizon. EauGallie soils have a spodic
horizon within 30 inches of the surface.
Typical pedon of Farmton fine sand; about 800 feet
west and 1,800 feet north of the southeast corner of
sec. 21, T. 38 S., R. 25 E.

A-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary.
E1-4 to 14 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single


grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary.
E2-14 to 34 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
Bhl-34 to 36 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bh2-36 to 40 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sand; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bh3-40 to 48 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) fine sand;
massive; very friable; very strongly acid; abrupt
smooth boundary.
Btg1-48 to 62 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
sandy clay loam; common fine distinct light olive
brown (2.5Y 5/4) mottles; few intrusions of dark
brown (10YR 3/3) in upper part of horizon;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; extremely acid;
abrupt irregular boundary.
Btg2-62 to 80 inches; pale olive (5Y 6/3) sandy clay
loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; very
strongly acid.

The solum ranges from 60 to 80 inches in thickness.
Reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid.
The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
4, and chroma of 1.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1, or value of 5 or 7 and chroma of 2. This
horizon is 31 to 45 inches thick. Texture is sand or fine
sand.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4,
and chroma of 1 to 3, or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3 or 4,
and chroma of 2. Texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy
fine sand.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 6
or 7, and chroma of 1 or 2, or hue of 5Y, value of 6,
and chroma of 3. It has very dark gray, dark brown, or
light olive brown mottles or intrusions. Texture is fine
sandy loam, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
Some pedons have a C horizon, which has hue of
10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2.

Felda Series
The Felda series consists of deep, poorly drained
and very poorly drained soils that formed in sandy and
loamy marine sediments. These soils are in sloughs, on
hammocks, in depressions, and on flood plains of major







DeSoto County, Florida


sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Btg2-75 to 80 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) sandy
clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; very strongly acid.

The solum ranges from 48 to 80 inches or more in
thickness. Reaction is very strongly acid to medium acid
in the A and E horizons, very strongly acid to slightly
acid in the Bh and BE horizons, and very strongly acid
to mildly alkaline in the Btg horizon.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
4, and chroma of 1; or it is neutral and has value of 2.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR or 10YR, value of 2
or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3, or hue of 7.5YR. value of 3,
and chroma of 2. Texture is sand or fine sand.
The BE horizon has hue of 10YR, value or 4 or 5,
and chroma of 3 or 4. Texture is sand or fine sand.
Some pedons do not have a BE horizon.
Some pedons have an E' horizon above the Btg
horizon. This E' horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to
7, and chroma of 1 to 3.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value
of 4 to 7, and chroma of 3 or less. The number of
mottles in shades of brown, yellow, and gray ranges
from none to many. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy
loam, or sandy clay loam.
Some pedons have a Cg horizon, which has hue of
10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or 3.

Farmton Series
The Farmton series consists of deep, poorly drained
soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy
marine sediments. These soils are on flatwoods. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent. Farmton soils are sandy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Ultic Haplaquods.
Farmton soils are associated on the landscape with
Immokalee and EauGallie soils. Immokalee soils do not
have an argillic horizon. EauGallie soils have a spodic
horizon within 30 inches of the surface.
Typical pedon of Farmton fine sand; about 800 feet
west and 1,800 feet north of the southeast corner of
sec. 21, T. 38 S., R. 25 E.

A-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary.
E1-4 to 14 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single


grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary.
E2-14 to 34 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
Bhl-34 to 36 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bh2-36 to 40 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sand; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bh3-40 to 48 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) fine sand;
massive; very friable; very strongly acid; abrupt
smooth boundary.
Btg1-48 to 62 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
sandy clay loam; common fine distinct light olive
brown (2.5Y 5/4) mottles; few intrusions of dark
brown (10YR 3/3) in upper part of horizon;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; extremely acid;
abrupt irregular boundary.
Btg2-62 to 80 inches; pale olive (5Y 6/3) sandy clay
loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; very
strongly acid.

The solum ranges from 60 to 80 inches in thickness.
Reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid.
The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
4, and chroma of 1.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1, or value of 5 or 7 and chroma of 2. This
horizon is 31 to 45 inches thick. Texture is sand or fine
sand.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4,
and chroma of 1 to 3, or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3 or 4,
and chroma of 2. Texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy
fine sand.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 6
or 7, and chroma of 1 or 2, or hue of 5Y, value of 6,
and chroma of 3. It has very dark gray, dark brown, or
light olive brown mottles or intrusions. Texture is fine
sandy loam, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
Some pedons have a C horizon, which has hue of
10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2.

Felda Series
The Felda series consists of deep, poorly drained
and very poorly drained soils that formed in sandy and
loamy marine sediments. These soils are in sloughs, on
hammocks, in depressions, and on flood plains of major







Soil Survey


rivers and creeks. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Felda soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic
Ochraqualfs.
Felda soils are associated on the landscape with
Pineda and Wabasso soils. Pineda soils have a high-
chroma Bw horizon within 30 inches of the surface.
Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Felda fine sand: in a slough 2,300
feet south and 500 feet west of the northeast corner of
sec. 29, T. 26 S., R. 25 E.

Ap-0 to 7 inches: black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; single
grained: loose: many fine and very fine roots;
slightly acid, clear smooth boundary.
Egl-7 to 19 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand: single grained; loose; common fine and very
fine roots; slightly acid: clear smooth boundary.
Eg2-19 to 29 inches: light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
many coarse prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
mottles: single grained; loose: medium acid; clear
wavy boundary.
Btgl-29 to 38 inches: gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam;
many fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and
reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) mottles: moderate
medium subangular blocky structure: slightly sticky
and slightly plastic: neutral: clear smooth boundary.
Btg2-38 to 42 inches: gray (5Y 6/1) fine sandy loam:
common fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
mottles: moderate medium subangular blocky
structure: slightly sticky and slightly plastic: neutral:
clear wavy boundary.
Cgl-42 to 55 inches: gray (5Y 6/1) loamy sand;
common medium distinct prominent yellowish brown
(10YR 5,4, 5/6) mottles: massive; nonsticky and
nonplastic: mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg2-55 to 80 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) loamy
sand: common medium distinct olive (5Y 5/4)
mottles; massive; nonsticky and nonplastic; mildly
alkaline.

The solum ranges from 42 to more than 80 inches in
thickness. Reaction is strongly acid to mildly alkaline in
the A and E horizons, neutral or mildly alkaline in the
Btg horizon, and slightly acid to moderately alkaline in
the Cg horizon.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
4, and chroma of 1. This horizon is 3 to 8 inches thick.
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2. It has common or many yellowish
brown or brownish yellow mottles. Combined thickness
of the A and E horizons ranges from 20 to 39 inches.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,


and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5, and
chroma of 2: or hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma
of 1 or 2. The number of mottles in shades of yellow or
brown ranges from none to many. Texture is sandy
loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value
of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The number of
yellowish brown or olive mottles ranges from none to
many. The number of shell fragments also ranges from
none to many. Texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy
sand.

Floridana Series

The Floridana series consists of deep, very poorly
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and
loamy marine sediments. These soils are i-i
depressions. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Floridana soils
are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Argiaquolls.
Floridana soils are associated on the landscape with
Malabar. Felda, and Pineda soils. Malabar, Felda, and
Pineda soils do not have a mollic epipedon. In addition,
Malabar soils do not have an argillic horizon within 40
inches of the surface.
Typical pedon of Floridana mucky fine sand,
depressional: about 600 feet east and 1,500 feet south
of the northwest corner of sec. 28, T. 36 S., R. 23 E.

A-0 to 22 inches; black (N 2/0) mucky fine sand;
massive: nonsticky and nonplastic; many fine and
very fine roots; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Eg-22 to 34 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; slightly acid: clear smcoth boundary.
Btg1-34 to 41 inches: gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam;
weak medium subangular blocky structure; slightly
sticky and slightly plastic; slightly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Btg2-41 to 45 inches; greenish gray (5GY 5/1) fine
sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; slightly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg-45 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) loamy fine sand;
massive; nonsticky and nonplastic; slightly acid.

The solum ranges from 43 to 80 inches in thickness.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to moderately
alkaline.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1; or it is neutral and has value of 2. Texture
is fine sand or mucky fine sand.
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Combined thickness of the A and







DeSoto County, Florida


E horizons ranges from 20 to 39 inches. Texture of the
E horizon is sand or fine sand.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4. and
chroma of 1; hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value of 5 or 6,
and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 5GY, value of 5. and
chroma of 1. Texture is sandy loam. fine sandy loam, or
sandy clay loam.
The Cg horizon has hue of 5Y or 2.5Y, value of 5 to
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is sand, loamy sand.
or loamy fine sand.

Gator Series
The Gator series consists of deep, very poorly
drained, organic soils that formed in beds of hydrophytic
plant remains overlying beds of loamy and sandy
marine deposits. These soils are in marshes, in
swamps, and on flood plains. Slopes are less than 1
percent. Gator soils are loamy, siliceous, euic,
hyperthermic Terric Medisaprists.
Gator soils are associated on the landscape with
Felda, Floridana, and Terra Ceia soils. Felda and
Floridana soils are mineral soils and have an argillic
horizon. Floridana soils also have a mollic epipedon.
Terra Ceia soils have organic material more than 51
inches thick.
Typical pedon of Gator muck, depressional; about
2,700 feet east and 1.700 feet north of the southwest
corner of sec. 2, T. 39 S.. R. 24 E.

Oal-0 to 7 inches; black (N 2/0) sapric material
(muck); about 20 percent fiber, less than 2 percent
rubbed; weak fine granular structure; very friable:
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Oa2-7 to 22 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sapric material
(muck); about 10 percent fiber, less than 2 percent
rubbed; weak fine granular structure; very friable:
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C1-22 to 30 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy loam;
massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic: neutral;
gradual wavy boundary.
C2-30 to 40 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) fine sandy loam; common medium distinct
black (10YR 2/1) mottles; massive; slightly sticky
and slightly plastic; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
Cgl-40 to 50 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
fine sandy loam; pockets of sandy clay loam;
massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; neutral:
gradual wavy boundary.
Cg2-50 to 80 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) fine sandy
loam; massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;


many carbonate nodules in lower part; moderately
alkaline.

Reaction ranges from slightly acid to mildly alkaline
in the Oa horizon by the Hellige-Truog method and from
extremely acid to very strongly acid in 0.01 molar
calcium chloride. It ranges from slightly acid to
moderately alkaline in the C horizon. At least part of the
control section has pH of 4.5 or higher. The organic
material ranges from 16 to 50 inches in thickness. In
some pedons the organic material is underlain by a
layer of fine sand or loamy fine sand, which is underlain
by sandy clay loam. Some pedons also have thin layers
of limnic material.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1 or 2; has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or is neutral and has value of 2.
Rubbed fiber content is less than 15 percent.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1; has hue of 2.5Y, value of 3, and chroma
of 2; or is neutral and has value of 2. Texture is fine
sandy loam, loam, or sandy clay loam.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 4 to
6. and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is fine sandy loam,
loam, or sandy clay loam. The number of carbonate
nodules ranges from none to many.

Immokalee Series

The Immokalee series consists of deep, poorly
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine
sediment. These soils are on flatwoods. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. Immokalee soils are sandy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Haplaquods.
Immokalee soils are associated on the landscape
with Myakka, Smyrna, and Farmton soils. Myakka soils
have a spodic horizon within 30 inches of the surface,
and Smyrna soils have a spodic horizon within 20
inches of the surface. Farmton soils have an argillic
horizon below the spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Immokalee fine sand; about 500
feet west and 2,000 feet south of the northeast corner
of sec. 2, T. 38 S., R. 25 E.

A-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; many fine, medium, and coarse
roots; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary.
E-5 to 43 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; many fine, medium, and coarse
roots; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
Bhl-43 to 47 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;







DeSoto County, Florida


E horizons ranges from 20 to 39 inches. Texture of the
E horizon is sand or fine sand.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4. and
chroma of 1; hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value of 5 or 6,
and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 5GY, value of 5. and
chroma of 1. Texture is sandy loam. fine sandy loam, or
sandy clay loam.
The Cg horizon has hue of 5Y or 2.5Y, value of 5 to
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is sand, loamy sand.
or loamy fine sand.

Gator Series
The Gator series consists of deep, very poorly
drained, organic soils that formed in beds of hydrophytic
plant remains overlying beds of loamy and sandy
marine deposits. These soils are in marshes, in
swamps, and on flood plains. Slopes are less than 1
percent. Gator soils are loamy, siliceous, euic,
hyperthermic Terric Medisaprists.
Gator soils are associated on the landscape with
Felda, Floridana, and Terra Ceia soils. Felda and
Floridana soils are mineral soils and have an argillic
horizon. Floridana soils also have a mollic epipedon.
Terra Ceia soils have organic material more than 51
inches thick.
Typical pedon of Gator muck, depressional; about
2,700 feet east and 1.700 feet north of the southwest
corner of sec. 2, T. 39 S.. R. 24 E.

Oal-0 to 7 inches; black (N 2/0) sapric material
(muck); about 20 percent fiber, less than 2 percent
rubbed; weak fine granular structure; very friable:
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Oa2-7 to 22 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sapric material
(muck); about 10 percent fiber, less than 2 percent
rubbed; weak fine granular structure; very friable:
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C1-22 to 30 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy loam;
massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic: neutral;
gradual wavy boundary.
C2-30 to 40 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) fine sandy loam; common medium distinct
black (10YR 2/1) mottles; massive; slightly sticky
and slightly plastic; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
Cgl-40 to 50 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
fine sandy loam; pockets of sandy clay loam;
massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; neutral:
gradual wavy boundary.
Cg2-50 to 80 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) fine sandy
loam; massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;


many carbonate nodules in lower part; moderately
alkaline.

Reaction ranges from slightly acid to mildly alkaline
in the Oa horizon by the Hellige-Truog method and from
extremely acid to very strongly acid in 0.01 molar
calcium chloride. It ranges from slightly acid to
moderately alkaline in the C horizon. At least part of the
control section has pH of 4.5 or higher. The organic
material ranges from 16 to 50 inches in thickness. In
some pedons the organic material is underlain by a
layer of fine sand or loamy fine sand, which is underlain
by sandy clay loam. Some pedons also have thin layers
of limnic material.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1 or 2; has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or is neutral and has value of 2.
Rubbed fiber content is less than 15 percent.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1; has hue of 2.5Y, value of 3, and chroma
of 2; or is neutral and has value of 2. Texture is fine
sandy loam, loam, or sandy clay loam.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 4 to
6. and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is fine sandy loam,
loam, or sandy clay loam. The number of carbonate
nodules ranges from none to many.

Immokalee Series

The Immokalee series consists of deep, poorly
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine
sediment. These soils are on flatwoods. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. Immokalee soils are sandy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Haplaquods.
Immokalee soils are associated on the landscape
with Myakka, Smyrna, and Farmton soils. Myakka soils
have a spodic horizon within 30 inches of the surface,
and Smyrna soils have a spodic horizon within 20
inches of the surface. Farmton soils have an argillic
horizon below the spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Immokalee fine sand; about 500
feet west and 2,000 feet south of the northeast corner
of sec. 2, T. 38 S., R. 25 E.

A-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; many fine, medium, and coarse
roots; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary.
E-5 to 43 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; many fine, medium, and coarse
roots; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
Bhl-43 to 47 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;




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