• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 How to use this survey
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 Summary of tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Prime farmland
 Woodland management and produc...
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Map
 Index to map sheets






Title: Soil survey of Columbia County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026089/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Columbia County, Florida
Physical Description: l case (l v., 17 maps) : ill., 1 col. map ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Howell, David A
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
United States -- Forest Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1984]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Columbia County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Columbia County   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 105.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Issued October 1984"--P. iii.
General Note: Item 102-B-9
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026089
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001307246
notis - AGF8057
oclc - 11731496
lccn - 84604191

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title
    How to use this survey
        Page ia
        Page ib
    Front Matter
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    Summary of tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    How this survey was made
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Map unit composition
            Page 7
            Page 8
    General soil map units
        Page 9
        Soil descriptions
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 19
        Soil description
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
    Prime farmland
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Woodland management and productivity
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Woodland grazing
            Page 64
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
    Soil properties
        Page 73
        Engineering index properties
            Page 73
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 74
        Soil and water features
            Page 75
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 76
            Page 77
        Engineering index test data
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
    Classification of the soils
        Page 81
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Formation of the soils
        Page 103
    Formation of the soils
        Page 103
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 103
            Page 104
    References
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Glossary
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Tables
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
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        Page 125
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        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
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        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
    General soil map
        Page 188
        Page 189
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Index to map sheets
        Page 190
Full Text

United States
Department of
Agriculture
Soil
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with
United States Department
of Agriculture,
Forest Service;
University of Florida,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations,
Soil Science Department;
and Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services


Soil Survey of

Columbia County

Florida





HOW TO U1


Locate your area of interest on
the "Index to Map Sheets:'


Locate your area of interest
*. on the map sheet.


Note the number of the map
2* sheet and turn to that sheet.


4 List the map unit symbols
that are in your area.


Symbols

- 27C
-56B
-131B
--134A
-148B
S151C


1.







HIS SOIL SURVEY





STurn to "Index to Soil Map Units"

5 which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described.


See "Summary of Tables" (following the

6. Contents) for location of additional data

on a specific soil use.


Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.

This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or

7, agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,

builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;

for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.


I
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This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1981. Fieldwork in the
Osceola National Forest was completed in June 1973 by the U.S. Department
of Agriculture, Forest Service. The information was revised and correlated by
the Soil Conservation Service and incorporated in this report. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1981. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1981. This survey was
made by the Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with the U.S. Department
of Agriculture, Forest Service; the University of Florida Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science
Department; and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the Santa Fe Soil and Water
Conservation District. The Columbia County Board of Commissioners
contributed financially to the publication of this survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.


Cover. Falling Creek in an area of the Plummer-Pelham-Albany map unit.

















Contents


Index to map units...................................................
Summary of tables ............................. .............
Foreword......................................................................
General nature of the county.....................................
How this survey was made .........................................
Map unit composition..............................................
General soil map units............................................
Soil descriptions ................................... ..............
Detailed soil map units .............:...........................
Soil descriptions ................................... ...............
Prime farmland .................................... .............
Use and management of the soils ..........................
Crops and pasture..................................................
Woodland management and productivity ................
Woodland grazing................................. .............
Recreation ............................................ ...............


iv

vii
1
5
7
9
9
19
19
55
57
57
62
64
64


Wildlife habitat ...................................... ...............
Engineering .............................................................
Soil properties ........................................ ...............
Engineering index properties......................................
Physical and chemical properties............................
Soil and water features.......................... .............
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
selected soils.............................. ...............
Engineering index test data......................................
Classification of the soils.......................................
Soil series and their morphology.................................
Formation of the soils......................... .............
Factors of soil formation......................... ............
References .............................................................
Glossary .......................................... ....................
Tables ......................................................................


Soil Series


Albany series ............................ ..........................
Alpin series...............................................................
Bigbee series ............................................ ..............
Blanton series ........................................................
Bonneau series........................................................
Chiefland series....................................... ..................
Chipley series...........................................................
Dorovan series........................................ ................
Electra Variant ......................................... ...............
Fort Meade Variant ................................... ............
Goldsboro series .................................... ...............
Hurricane series...................................... ................
Ichetucknee series .................................... ............
Lakeland series ......................................... .............
Leefield series..........................................................
Leon series...............................................................


81
82
83
83
84
85
85
86
86
87
88
89
89
90
90
91


Lucy series ...............................................................
Mandarin series ........................................ ..............
Mascotte series ......................................... .............
Ocilla series..............................................................
Oleno series .................................................................
Olustee series...................... ................................
Orangeburg series ............................... ..............
Pamlico series..........................................................
Pantego series..........:...................................................
Pedro Variant ............................................. ..............
Pelham series ........................................... ..............
Plummer series ........................................ ...............
Sapelo series ........................................... ...............
Surrency series ........................................ ...............
Troup series ............................................. ................


Issued October 1984


65
67
73
73
74
75

76
78
81
81
103
103
105
107
115


92
93
93
94
95
96
97
97
98
98
99
99
100
101
101

















Index to Map Units


1-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes...............
2-Albany fine sand, occasionally flooded ..............
3-Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes..................
4-Alpin fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes................
5-Alpin fine sand, occasionally flooded ..................
6-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes ..............................
7-Bigbee fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ..............
8-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............
9-Blanton fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.............
10-Blanton fine sand, occasionally flooded...............
11-Blanton-Bonneau-lchetucknee complex, 2 to 5
percent slopes .................................. ................
12-Blanton-Bonneau-lchetucknee complex, 5 to 8
percent slopes ................................ ............
13-Bonneau fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes...........
14-Bonneau fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes...........
15-Bonneau-Blanton complex, 2 to 5 percent
slopes............................................... ...........
16-Bonneau-Blanton complex, 5 to 8 percent
slopes............................................... ...................
17-Chiefland-Pedro Variant complex, 0 to 5
percent slopes ................................... .............
18-Chiefland-Pedro Variant complex, 5 to 8
percent slopes ....................................... ..............
19-Chiefland-Pedro Variant complex, occasionally
flooded ......................................................... .........
20-Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.............
21- Dorovan m uck .........................................................
22-Electra Variant fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
23-Electra Variant fine sand, occasionally flooded..
24-Fort Meade Variant loamy fine sand, 0 to 5
percent slopes ................................... .............
25-Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes............................................................ .........
26-Hurricane fine sand....................................... ....
27-lchetucknee fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.....
28-- chetucknee fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.....


19
20
20
22
22
23
23
23
24
24
25
26
27
28

28
29
30
31
31
32
32
33
33
34
35
35
36
36


29-Lakeland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ..........
30-Lakeland fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes........
31-Leefield fine sand..............................................
32-Leon fine sand.................................. ..............
33-Leon fine sand, occasionally flooded ...................
34-Lucy loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.......
35-Lucy loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.......
36-Mandarin fine sand ............................................
37-Mascotte fine sand ........................................
38-Mascotte fine sand, depressional ..................
39-Mascotte fine sand, occasionally flooded............
40-Ocilla fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...............
41-Oleno clay ...... ........................................................
42-Olustee fine sand, thick surface..........................
43-Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes.................................................. ...........
44-Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes............................................................ ........
45-Pamlico muck, loamy substratum.......................
46-Pamlico, loamy substratum-Dorovan complex.....
47-Pantego fine sandy loam.....................................
48-Pelham fine sand ..............................................
49-Pelham fine sand, occasionally flooded...............
50- Pits ................................................... .................
51-Plummer fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes...........
52-Plummer fine sand, depressional ........................
53-Plummer fine sand, occasionally flooded.............
54-Plummer muck, depressional...............................
55-Plummer, depressional-Pamlico, loamy
substratum, complex...........................................
56-Sapelo fine sand .................................................
57-Surrency fine sand.............................................
58-Surrency fine sand, occasionally flooded.............
59-Troup fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes................
60-Troup fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ..............
61-Udorthents, 0 to 2 percent slopes......................


37
37
38
38
39
39
40
40
41
41
42
43
43
44

44

45
45
46
46
46
47
47
48
48
48
49

49
50
50
51
51
52
52

















Summary of Tables


Temperature and Precipitation (table 1)......................................................... 116
Freeze Probabilities (table 2) ............................................................................. 117
Soil Ratings and Limitations of General Soil Map Units (table 3)................. 118
Percent of map unit. Cropland. Pasture. Woodland.
Sanitary facilities. Building sites. Recreation areas.
Acreage and Proportionate Extent of the Soils (table 4)............................... 123
Acres. Percent.
Yields Per Acre of Crops and Pasture (table 5)............................................ 124
Corn. Soybeans. Tobacco. Peanuts. Watermelons.
Improved bermudagrass. Bahiagrass.
Capability Classes and Subclasses (table 6)................................................ 127
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Woodland Management and Productivity (table 7)....................................... 128
Ordination symbol Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational Development (table 8)............................................................... 132
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife Habitat (table 9)..................................................................................... 137
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building Site Development (table 10)............................................................. 140
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary Facilities (table 11) .............................................................................. 145
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction Materials (table 12) .................................................................... 149
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
Water Management (table 13) .......................................................................... 152
Limitations for-Embankments, dikes, and levees; Aquifer-
fed excavated ponds. Features affecting-Drainage,
Irrigation, Terraces and diversions, Grassed waterways.


V




















Engineering Index Properties (table 14)..................................... ....... 156
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and Chemical Properties of the Soils (table 15).............................. 164
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Reaction. Salinity Shrink-swell potential.
Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.
Soil and Water Features (table 16)........................................................... 169
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bedrock.
Subsidence. Risk of corrosion.
Physical Properties of Selected Soils (table 17) ..................................... 173
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density Water content.
Chemical Properties of Selected Soils (table 18) ........................................... 178
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate-dithionite extractable.
Clay Mineralogy of Selected Soils (table 19)................................................... 183
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay minerals.
Engineering Index Test Data (table 20) ......................................................... 185'
Classification. Grain-size distribution. Liquid limit. Plasticity
index. Moisture density.
Classification of the Soils (table 21)...................................... ........ 187
Family or higher taxonomic class.


I















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Columbia County, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior
for selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards
inherent in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the
impact of selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters,
and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the
management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






/James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
SSoil Conservation Service


vii

































PENSACOLA


APPROXIMATE SCALES


0 50 100
I I I
MILES


0 100 200
i I I i I
KILOMETERS














State Agricultural Experiment Station


D ,. m


Location of Columbia County in Florida.













Soil Survey of

Columbia County, Florida


By David A. Howell, Soil Conservation Service


Fieldwork by T. B. Houston (retired), William J. Alien,
Ernest Genter, and Robert L. Weatherspoon, Soil Conservation Service,
and Kenneth C. Bracy, Forest Service


United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service;
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department;
and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services


COLUMBIA COUNTY is in the Suwannee River region
of northern peninsular Florida. It extends more than 50
miles from the Florida-Georgia state line south to the
Santa Fe River. Its maximum width, between Suwannee
and Baker Counties, is about 20 miles. Columbia County
is bounded on the east by Baker County and is
separated from Union County in the southeast by
Olustee Creek. The Santa Fe River separates it from
Alachua and Gilchrist Counties in the south, and the
Ichetucknee River separates it from Suwannee County in
the southwest. The Suwannee River, made famous
around the world by Stephen Foster's song, separates
Columbia County from Hamilton County in the northwest.
The total area within Columbia County is 503,040
acres, or 786 square miles. Of this area, 77,895 acres is
part of the Osceola National Forest. The county seat is
Lake City, located in the center of the county. The town
of Fort White is the other incorporated settlement in the
county. It is about 18 miles southwest of Lake City.
The county's population was about 35,000 in 1980, an
increase of 40 percent since 1970. The population of
Lake City was about 9,200, a decrease of 12 percent in
10 years. Townspeople and newcomers are attracted to
housing developments and apartments located outside
the city limits (fig. 1).
Agriculture and forestry are the principal businesses in
the county. The county supports some light industry.


General Nature of the County
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that
affect the use and management of soils in Columbia
County are discussed. The factors are climate,
settlement, physiography and drainage, water resources,
farming, and transportation.

Climate
Columbia County has a moderate climate. It is
favorable for the production of crops, livestock, and pine
forests. The summers are long, hot, and humid. Winters,
although punctuated with periodic invasions of cool to
occasionally cold air from the north, are mild because
the county is in the southern latitudes and is a short
distance from the relatively warm ocean waters.
Mean annual precipitation in Columbia County for the
period 1951-74 was about 54 inches (12). Rainfall is
heaviest from June through September; October and
November are the driest months. About 49 percent of
the annual rainfall occurs in the summer and results from
afternoon and evening thundershowers. The remainder
of the precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the
rest of the year. In about once in 10 years, however,
there is excessive rainfall in the spring. These storms
have caused rivers to overflow.


1







2


Soil Survey


Figure 1.-One of the increasing number of outlying subdivisions in the survey area. The Bonneau soil in this area supports excellent
grass and tree growth and helps provide an ideal environment for residential development.


Heavy summer thundershowers can produce 2 or 3
inches of rainfall in 1 or 2 hours. Daylong rains in the
summer are rare. When they do occur, they are usually
associated with tropical storms. The average relative
humidity is about 75 percent.
Hail falls occasionally during thundershowers, but the
hailstones generally are small and seldom cause much
damage. Snow is very rare and usually melts as it hits
the ground.
Tropical storms can affect the area at any time from
early in June through November. Columbia County,
because it is inland, gets only fringe effects of tropical
storms (11). These effects include moderately higher
wind velocities, several days of overcast skies, and some
rainfall.
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation
for the survey area as recorded at Lake City in the
period 1951 to 1974. Table 2 shows freeze probabilities.
In winter the average temperature is 55 degrees F,
and the average daily minimum temperature is 43


degrees. The lowest temperature on record, which
occurred in 1962, is 10 degrees. In summer the average
temperature is 80 degrees, and the average daily
maximum temperature is 91 degrees. The highest
recorded temperature, which occurred in 1954, is 105
degrees.

Settlement
Mrs. Nettie Black Ozaki, Columbia County historian, helped prepare
this section.
Florida was obtained from Spain by treaty on February
21, 1821 (4). Columbia County was established by the
legislative council on February 4, 1832. It was named
after the poetical name of the United States. As
established, Columbia County included the areas that
now make up Suwannee, Bradford, Baker, and Union
Counties and Newnansville which is now in Alachua
County. Suwannee County was established in 1838 and
Baker and Bradford Counties in 1862.






Columbia County, Florida


3


The area was originally occupied by the Timucuan
Indians, as noted in 1539 by Spanish explorer Don
Hernando de Soto on his travels through the area that is
now Lake City. Spanish missionaries venturing out of St.
Augustine in the early 1600's established missions in the
vicinity of Ichetucknee Springs and converted many of
the Timucuan Indians to Christianity.
With the help of the Yamasses, Creeks, and Carolinian
Indians of Carolina, the English gained control of Florida
in 1763. The Spanish regained control in 1783.
The Seminole Indians occupied much of the area
during the early 1800's. It was during this time that the
Seminole village of Alligator was established on the
northeast side of Alligator Lake. In 1813, Chief Halpatter
Tustenuggee, who was called Chief Alligator by the white
men, led the Seminoles out of Alligator to an area further,
south. The village of Alligator later became the county
seat and was renamed Lake City.
Settlement came rapidly to the area. In 1830, the
United States census of Alachua County, which at that
time included the present Columbia County, listed 27
households in the Alligator community and a population
of 227.
Georgia and South Carolina were the two states most
represented by the early settlers of Columbia County.
Camden County, Georgia, in particular, was the home of
many of Columbia County's pioneer families. Columbia
County's population increased from 2,102 in 1840 to
4,646 in 1860.
Much of the prosperity and growth during this period
was associated with the expansion of cotton growing.
The textile mills of England and New England were
clamoring for southern Sea Island cotton. Although
cotton was the dominant cash crop in the county, Cuban
tobacco, livestock, and vegetables also played an
important role in the area's development. The arrival of
the railroad in 1860 also contributed greatly to the
county's development.
Fort White was incorporated in 1884. It was the
second largest community in the county and was also
undergoing considerable expansion during the latter part
of the 19th century. Fort White and the surrounding area
had a population close to 2,000 by the year 1900. This
area had a varied economy based on timber, cotton, and
phosphate. After 1890, when phosphate was discovered
in the area and in southern Suwannee County, mining
phosphate became one of the largest industries in the
Fort White area. A small tram road and a small wood-
burning locomotive carried the phosphate to Fort White
from where it was transported by railroad to Fernandina
for export.

Physiography and Drainage
Columbia County is divided into two physiographic
provinces-the Northern Highlands and the Gulf Coastal
Lowlands (5). About two-thirds of the county is within the


Northern Highlands where the elevation ranges from 100
to more than 200 feet above mean sea level. The
Okefenokee terrace occupies most of the Northern
Highlands. The Coastal Lowlands are in the southern
third of the county where the elevation ranges from 25 to
100 feet above mean sea level.
Physiographic features and marine terraces determine
the drainage in Columbia County (6). The central ridge,
the Okefenokee terrace, and the Coastal Lowlands are
each characterized by unique topography, soils, and
subsurface geologic conditions, which influence local
drainage patterns.
The Coharie and Sunderland terraces form a broad
ridge extending across the county in an east-west
direction. Lake City is located on this ridge.
North of the central ridge, the Okefenokee terrace
slopes gently toward the Florida-Georgia state line and
the Okefenokee Swamp. The flat terrain is responsible
for the slow runoff of surface water and sluggish
streamflow. Low sandy ridges rise above low areas and
depressions that support swamps and wetlands. The
Hawthorn Formation, a marine deposit consisting of
phosphoritic sands, clays, marls, and sandy limestones,
underlies the surficial sands deposited during the
Pleistocene Epoch. Surface water drains west toward the
Suwannee River or east toward St. Marys River.
The southern part of the terrace consists of 4and west
of Lake City lying between U.S. Interstate Highway 10
and State Road 47 and south of Lake City between U.S.
Interstate Highway 75 and State Road 100. Areas on
higher elevations south of the interchange and U.S.
Highway 41 are also part of the Okefenokee terrace.
The steeper slopes of the scarp zone facilitate the
removal of surface water, which results in better
developed drainage patterns. Undifferentiated sediments
consisting primarily of clay and clayey sand of the
Hawthorn and Alachua Formations lie beneath the
ground surface. These formations are not so thick south
of the ridge as they are to the north. Pleistocene terrace
deposits, consisting of unconsolidated sands, are
underlain by clay. The slow absorption of water into the
clay results in the development of a high water table in
the overlying sand during the rainy season.
Drainage on the Okefenokee terrace south of the ridge
is divided into four general areas. The first of these is
land lying north of U.S. Highway 90. Topographically, the
area is characterized by rolling hills and numerous basins
and sinkholes. Most of the lakes in Columbia County are
located in or near this area. Six large basins and their
drainageways form the principal drainage features in this
area. Two of these, Lake Jeffrey-Indian Mound Swamp
and Tiger Branch, have outlets to the Suwannee River.
The remaining four, Gwen Lake, Lake Wilson, Hancock
Lake and Turkey Prairie, are closed systems.
The second drainage area is land lying between U.S.
Highway 90 and Florida Highway 247. South of U.S.
Highway 90, the rolling hills level out as the ORefenokee






Soil Survey


terrace approaches the flatlands of the Coastal
Lowlands. Sinkholes and solution-formed basins are
widespread in the area. Many support wetland vegetation
or form ponds and lakes. In the vicinity of U.S. Highway
90, solution-formed lakes and ponds are more frequent.
Other than the depressions and sinkholes, there are no
surface-water features in the area. Rainfall percolates
directly into the ground, and runoff collects in
depressions and sinkholes where it either seeps into the
geological formations below or evaporates into the
atmosphere.
The third drainage area is made up of south-central
Columbia County. That part of the Okefenokee terrace
lying between Lake City, Ellisville, and Lulu falls within
the rolling hills of the scarp zone. Numerous depressions
and sinkholes dot the landscape. Drainage is good in the
area because the sloping ground facilitates the runoff of
surface water. Price Creek collects runoff from the Lake
City Municipal Airport and from the wetlands in the pine
flatwoods further south and east. Price Creek discharges
into the southeast corner of Alligator Lake south of Lake
City. A drainageway extending south from Alligator Lake
channels overflow from the lake into Clayhole Creek.
Originating in wetlands southwest of Lake City, Cannon
Creek runs east of U.S. Interstate Highway 75 until it
enters Clayhole Creek. Rose Creek rises in wetlands
along State Road 100. Several forks of the creek collect
overflow from wetlands in the southeastern part of the
Okefenokee terrace and higher elevations of the Coharie
terrace. Both Clayhole and Rose Creeks flow in a
southwesterly direction across the Okefenokee terrace
into the Gulf Coastal Lowlands physiographic province.
The fourth drainage area is made up of southeast
Columbia County. The Okefenokee terrace extends
along the Olustee Creek valley from the ridge near the
Columbia-Baker County line in a southwesterly direction
past the U.S. Interstate Highway 75 and U.S. Highway
441 interchange to within several miles of Fort White.
The rolling hills of the scarp zone extend south along the
U.S. Interstate Highway 75 corridor. Depressions and
sinkholes are common throughout the area.
Interconnected swamps collect runoff from the poorly
drained pine flatwoods and discharge their overflow into
Olustee Creek through many small and, in many places,
intermittent streams. Further southwest in the scarp
zone, drainage is better. Hammock Branch rises in
wetlands on remnants of the Coharie terrace near
Mikesville. It flows southeast until it discharges into the
Buzzard Roost Prairie north of O'Leno State Park.
Overflow from the prairie makes its way to the Santa Fe
River in the O'Leno State Park.
The land north of U.S. Highway 90 and east of Lake
City drains into Falling Creek through swamps and
marshy channels. Falling Creek is captured by a
sinkhole, but some water eventually reaches the Atlantic
Ocean through the St. Marys River.


Drainage in the area south of U.S. Highway 90 is
through interconnected wetlands which form the
headwaters of several streams.
West of Lake City and State Road 100, drainage
occurs through large basins and solution-formed lakes
located mainly on the Okefenokee terrace. Drainage on
the western part of the ridge is better than that on the
eastern part. Water percolates into the ground, collects
in ponds and lakes, or flows into large basins that
formed in the adjacent Okefenokee terrace.
Much of the land south of Lake City lies within the Gulf
Coastal Lowlands physiographic province. These
lowlands extend up the valleys of the Suwannee and
Sante Fe Rivers and Olustee Creek. Limestone caverns
have collapsed and have formed sinkholes and
depressions throughout the Coastal Lowlands. Sands
and clays overlie the limestone and fill depressions in
the limestone. These sands and clays are a source of
water for the Floridan Aquifer.
Very few surface-water features are found in the
Coastal Lowlands because water percolates rapidly into
the ground. The Ichetucknee River is the only stream
that originates in the area. Clayhole and Rose Creeks
are probably parts of an ancestral drainage system that
included the Ichetucknee River. A dry channel or karst
valley connects Clayhole and Rose Creeks with the
sinkholes that receive their drainage. The dry streambed
can easily be traced from the settlement of Columbia
City to the Ichetucknee River. These dry streambeds
collect the overflow from Clayhole and Rose Creeks.
Although the Coastal Lowlands were terraced by the
seas during the Pleistocene Epoch, the ground surface
has been so modified by erosion and limestone solution
that their presence has been greatly masked.

Water Resources
Potable water is currently drawn from ground-water
sources in Columbia County (6). The two types of water
supply are individual wells and public water systems. The
individual water-supply systems are found on many
residential lots scattered throughout the county. Most of
these systems are deep wells, ranging in depth from 120
feet to 150 feet. About half of the community water-
supply systems serve commercial activities. These
systems serve subdivisions, mobile-home parks,
institutions, and businesses, mostly at the U.S. Highway
90 and U.S. Interstate Highway 75 interchange. Two
community water-supply systems are operated by Lake
City. One serves most of the incorporated areas and
some parts of the unincorporated fringe, and the other
system supplies potable water to the Lake City
Community College area. Wells operated by the city
range in depth from 275 feet to 300 feet within the city
and from 309 feet to 372 feet in the college area.
Fort White residents are served mainly by private
individual wells. The town does not own or operate a


4






Columbia County, Florida


municipal water-supply system; however, there are
noncommunity systems in the town.
The major source of irrigation water for crops is deep
wells. Because of the types of soil in the area, overhead-
sprinkler irrigation systems mainly are used. Irrigation
water is pumped from small lakes and ponds where
sufficient suitable water is available.
Columbia County is characterized by many solution
sinks and depressions that usually contain water. Small
streams of relatively short length empty into many of
them. Larger streams and creeks, including Deep Creek,
Little Suwannee River, and Olustee Creek, empty into
the larger rivers bordering the county. Falling Creek,
which is captured by a sinkhole, is typical of the creeks
in the karst topography. Clayhole and Rose Creeks
terminate in a group of sinkholes near Columbia City.
Alligator Lake is the largest lake in the county, but it
dries up occasionally as a result of water loss through a
sinkhole. The Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers on the
county boundaries receive most of the surface drainage
and eventually empty into the Gulf of Mexico. These
rivers supply large quantities of water for sports and
recreation. Numerous lakes also provide large quantities
of water for recreation and for the irrigation of crops in
Columbia County. Some of these are the Alligator,
Jeffrey, DeSoto, Harris, Ogden, Isabelle, and Watertown
Lakes.

Farming
Columbia County is a general farming and tree
producing area. The main crops are corn, tobacco,
soybeans, peanuts, watermelon, small grains, and a few
vegetables (fig. 2). Most of the cropland is in the south-
central and northwestern parts of the county. In 1978,
according to the Census of Agriculture of that year, the
market value of agricultural products totaled about 18
million dollars. Many farmers in the area raise cattle,
swine, poultry, and a few goats.
Most of the soils in Columbia County that are used for
crops are deep, drought sands that are subject to water
and wind erosion. Historically, deep plowing and clean
cultivation have been used in the county; however,
because of the high cost of energy, loss of the soil
surface layer, and loss of natural fertility, there is an
increasing interest in no-till methods of crop production.
Gully control structures, grassed waterways, windbreaks,
and permanent vegetative cover also are needed to help
control erosion.
The enactment of legislation in 1937 to create Soil
Conservation Districts stirred the interest of many
landowners in Columbia County. The Santa Fe Soil and
Water Conservation District was organized and chartered
by the State of Florida on December 4, 1942. The district
was very active in promoting farming and was
instrumental in getting the first combines, tree planters,
and other farm implements into the county during the


1940's and 1950's. Its aim is to assist farmers, public
agencies, and other land users with problems related to
soil and water conservation. This soil survey is part of
that assistance.
For more information on farming, see the section
"Crops and Pasture" in this publication.

Transportation
In Columbia County, many county, state, and federal
highways facilitate the transport of goods from farm to
market. Rail, bus, and charter air service are available
within the county.


How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about the
soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management
of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed
the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general
pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants
growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The
profile extends from the surface down into the
unconsolidated material in which the soil formed. The
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other
living organisms and has not been changed by other
biologic activity.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern
that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief,
climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each
kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil
scientists must determine the boundaries between the
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented
by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in
an area and to determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and
other features that enable them to identify soils. After


5






Soil Survey


Figure 2.-Soybeans In an area of Blanton-Bonneau-chetucknee complex, 2 to 5 percent slops.


describing the soils in the survey area and determining
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
classified and named the soils in the survey area they
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
confirm data and assemble additional data based on
experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of
the soils in the area generally are collected for laboratory
analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists
interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as


well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil
properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils
under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils
were field tested through observation of the soils in
different uses under different levels of management.
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
sources, such as research information, production
records, and field experience of specialists. For example,
data on crop yields under defined levels of management
were assembled from farm records and from field or plot
experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have







Columbia County, Florida


a high water table within certain depths in most years,
but they cannot assure that a high water table will
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific
date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.
Interpretations of soils shown in the west half of
sections 18 and 19, township 6 S., range 18 E., atlas
sheet 16 are based on photographs. Field observations
were prohibited by the property owner.

Map Unit Composition
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or several
kinds of soil. A map unit is identified and named
according to the taxonomic classification of the dominant
soil or soils. Within a taxonomic class there are precisely
defined limits for the properties of the soils. On the
landscape, however, the soils are natural objects. In
common with other natural objects, they have a
characteristic variability in their properties. Thus, the
range of some observed properties may extend beyond
the limits defined for a taxonomic class. Areas of soils of
a single taxonomic class rarely, if ever, can be mapped
without including areas of soils of other taxonomic
classes. Consequently, every map unit is made up of the


soil or soils for which it is named and some soils that
belong to other taxonomic classes. These latter soils are
called inclusions or included soils.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas
and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of
contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.






9


General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up
one unit can occur in other units but in a different
pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure.
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that
affect management.
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their
potential for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent
of the map units on the general soil map. It lists the
potential of each, in relation to that of the other map
units, for major land uses and shows soil properties that
limit use. Soil potential ratings are based on the
practices commonly used in the survey area to
overcome soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease
of overcoming the limitations. They also reflect the
problems that will persist even if such practices are
used.
Each map unit is rated for cultivated crops, pasture,
woodland, urban uses, and recreation areas. Cultivated
crops are those grown extensively in the survey area.
Pasture refers to the improved pasture grasses
commonly grown in the survey area. Woodland refers to
areas of native pine trees. Urban uses include sanitary
facilities and building sites. Recreation areas are
campsites, picnic areas, playgrounds, and other areas
that are subject to heavy foot traffic.

Soil Descriptions

Soils of the Sand Ridges
The three map units in this group consist of
excessively drained to moderately well drained, nearly
level to strongly sloping soils. Some soils are sandy
throughout or are sandy to a depth of 20 to 80 inches


and loamy below that. The soils are mainly in the
western and southern parts of the county.

1. Blanton-Alpin-Troup

Nearly level to strongly sloping, moderately well drained
to excessively drained soils that are sandy to a depth of
80 inches or more or are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80
inches and loamy below
This map unit consists mostly of broad, rolling areas.
One of these areas is in the northwestern part of the
county bordering the Suwannee County line. It is south
of the Suwannee River flood plains. This area is about 8
miles long and about 3 miles wide from north to south. A
second area is in Lake City along the north side of
Alligator Lake.
The landscape consists of broad, nearly level to
strongly sloping, low ridges interspersed with numerous
lakes and intermittent ponds. Many of these ponds are
dry most of the time. The lakes are as much as 100
acres in size and are connected by intermittent, mostly
subterraneous drainage systems. The water level in the
lakes and ponds fluctuates considerably, depending on
rainfall and seepage from the surrounding deep, sandy
over loamy soils.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine, live
and turkey oak, sassafras, and wild persimmon and an
understory of grasses and shrubs.
This map unit makes up 5 percent of Columbia
County. It takes in an area of about 25,152. It is about
40 percent Blanton soils, 25 percent Alpin soils, 10
percent Troup soils, and 25 percent minor soils.
The Blanton soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is gray and very pale brown
fine sand, and the subsurface layer is light gray and
white fine sand that extends to a depth of 52 inches.
The subsoil is fine sandy loam. It is light yellowish brown
in the upper part and very pale brown and light brownish
gray with brown mottles in the lower part.
The Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, they
are fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. They are
grayish brown in the upper 6 inches, pale brown to a
depth of 27 inches, very pale brown to 52 inches, and
very pale brown with horizontal bands of yellowish brown
loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.
The Troup soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
layer is dark brown fine sand 8 inches thick. The upper






9


General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up
one unit can occur in other units but in a different
pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure.
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that
affect management.
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their
potential for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent
of the map units on the general soil map. It lists the
potential of each, in relation to that of the other map
units, for major land uses and shows soil properties that
limit use. Soil potential ratings are based on the
practices commonly used in the survey area to
overcome soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease
of overcoming the limitations. They also reflect the
problems that will persist even if such practices are
used.
Each map unit is rated for cultivated crops, pasture,
woodland, urban uses, and recreation areas. Cultivated
crops are those grown extensively in the survey area.
Pasture refers to the improved pasture grasses
commonly grown in the survey area. Woodland refers to
areas of native pine trees. Urban uses include sanitary
facilities and building sites. Recreation areas are
campsites, picnic areas, playgrounds, and other areas
that are subject to heavy foot traffic.

Soil Descriptions

Soils of the Sand Ridges
The three map units in this group consist of
excessively drained to moderately well drained, nearly
level to strongly sloping soils. Some soils are sandy
throughout or are sandy to a depth of 20 to 80 inches


and loamy below that. The soils are mainly in the
western and southern parts of the county.

1. Blanton-Alpin-Troup

Nearly level to strongly sloping, moderately well drained
to excessively drained soils that are sandy to a depth of
80 inches or more or are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80
inches and loamy below
This map unit consists mostly of broad, rolling areas.
One of these areas is in the northwestern part of the
county bordering the Suwannee County line. It is south
of the Suwannee River flood plains. This area is about 8
miles long and about 3 miles wide from north to south. A
second area is in Lake City along the north side of
Alligator Lake.
The landscape consists of broad, nearly level to
strongly sloping, low ridges interspersed with numerous
lakes and intermittent ponds. Many of these ponds are
dry most of the time. The lakes are as much as 100
acres in size and are connected by intermittent, mostly
subterraneous drainage systems. The water level in the
lakes and ponds fluctuates considerably, depending on
rainfall and seepage from the surrounding deep, sandy
over loamy soils.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine, live
and turkey oak, sassafras, and wild persimmon and an
understory of grasses and shrubs.
This map unit makes up 5 percent of Columbia
County. It takes in an area of about 25,152. It is about
40 percent Blanton soils, 25 percent Alpin soils, 10
percent Troup soils, and 25 percent minor soils.
The Blanton soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is gray and very pale brown
fine sand, and the subsurface layer is light gray and
white fine sand that extends to a depth of 52 inches.
The subsoil is fine sandy loam. It is light yellowish brown
in the upper part and very pale brown and light brownish
gray with brown mottles in the lower part.
The Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, they
are fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. They are
grayish brown in the upper 6 inches, pale brown to a
depth of 27 inches, very pale brown to 52 inches, and
very pale brown with horizontal bands of yellowish brown
loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.
The Troup soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
layer is dark brown fine sand 8 inches thick. The upper







Soil Survey


Figure 3.-A golf course on Alpin fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This soil Is very drought and requires Irrigation if used for crops or
grasses.


30 inches of the subsurface layer is reddish yellow loamy
sand; the lower 14 inches is strong brown loamy sand.
The subsoil is strong brown fine sandy loam 6 inches
thick and is underlain by yellowish red sandy clay loam.
Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Chipley, and
Plummer soils.
Most of this map unit is pine woodland or cropland. A
few areas are used for improved pasture. Most of the
Lake City area is used for community development and
recreation (fig. 3).

2. Blanton-Alpin-Bonneau
Nearly level to strongly sloping, moderately well drained


and excessively drained soils that are sandy to a depth
of 20 to 40 inches or 40 to 80 inches and loamy below
or are sandy throughout
This map unit consists of broad, rolling and undulating
areas. The largest of these areas is south of U.S.
Highway 90 in a rectangular block adjoining Suwannee
County. It is about 14 miles long and 6 miles wide from
north to south. A second area extends south to
Ichetucknee Springs along U.S. Highway 27 to Fort
White.
The landscape consists of broad, mostly nearly level
to gently sloping, undulating terrain with many
depressions and sinkholes surrounded by strong slopes.






Columbia County, Florida


This area drains by percolation and by subterraneous
movement through interbedded deep materials. The
depressions are usually circular and have somewhat
wetter soils in their center. They collect water from
surrounding slopes. There are usually no defined surface
drainageways.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine;
turkey, water, live, and laurel oak; chinkapin; wild cherry;
blackberry; and pineland threeawn.
This map unit makes up about 50,304 acres, or about
10 percent of Columbia County. It is about 45 percent
Blanton soils, 15 percent Alpin soils, 15 percent
Bonneau soils, and 25 percent minor soils.
The Blanton soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is gray and very pale brown
fine sand, and the subsurface layer is light gray and
white fine sand that extends to a depth of 52 inches.
The subsoil is fine sandy loam. It is light yellowish brown
in the upper part and very pale brown and light brownish
gray with brown mottles in the lower part.
The Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, they
are fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. They are
grayish brown in the upper 6 inches, pale brown to a
depth of 27 inches, very pale brown to 52 inches, and
very pale brown with horizontal bands of yellowish brown
loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.
The Bonneau soils are moderately well drained.
Generally, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 23 inches
thick. The upper 17 inches is pale brown, and the next 6
inches is pale brown with very pale brown mottles. The
subsoil is brownish yellow fine sandy loam 3 inches
thick; the next 27 inches is brownish yellow sandy clay
loam; the next 12 inches is mottled, brownish yellow,
light gray, and red sandy clay loam; and the lower 8
inches is light gray sandy clay loam with light yellowish
brown and red mottles.
The minor soils in this unit are the Ichetucknee,
Goldsboro, Albany, Surrency, and Plummer soils.
Most of this map unit is used as slash pine plantations.
Many areas are cultivated and planted to corn, tobacco,
soybeans, and other row crops.

3. Lakeland-Alpin-Chiefland

Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained and
excessively drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 80
inches or more or are sandy over loamy and underlain
by limestone at a depth of 40 inches or less
This map unit consists of broad, rolling, dry sand
ridges and plains with numerous sinkholes and limestone
outcrops. The area forms a bow along the Ichetucknee
and Santa Fe Rivers in the southern tip of the county
and extends 2 to 3 miles inland. The eastern end of the
bow extends to Interstate Highway 75; the western end
stops at the Ichetucknee River. Also, a 2-mile-long,
strongly sloping area follows an old riverbed from U.S.


Highway 27 to the Santa Fe River. A small part of the
map unit is on river flood plains.
About 1 to 3 percent of the surface is dotted with
boulders. Most sinkholes are surrounded by strongly
sloping, concave, circular areas. The soils are very
drought and are drained mainly by percolation.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine,
turkey and shrub live oak, and hickory and an understory
of grasses and shrubs. In part of the map unit the natural
vegetation is red maple, hackberry, red mulberry,
boxelder, and southern magnolia.
This map unit makes up about 27,667 acres, or 5.5
percent of Columbia County. It is about 60 percent
Lakeland soils, 10 percent Alpin soils, 10 percent
Chiefland soils, and 20 percent minor soils.
The Lakeland soils are excessively drained. Typically,
they are fine sand to a depth of more than 80 inches.
The surface layer is grayish brown. It is 6 inches thick.
The next layer, about 14 inches thick, is light yellowish
brown. The layer below that, about 35 inches thick, is
very pale brown with light yellowish brown splotches.
The next layer, which extends to a depth of 80 inches, is
very pale brown with yellow mottles.
The Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, they
are fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. They are
grayish brown in the upper 6 inches, pale brown to a
depth of 27 inches, very pale brown to 52 inches, and
very pale brown with horizontal bands of yellowish brown
loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.
The Chiefland soils are well drained. Typically, the
surface layer is brown fine sand about 8 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is pale brown fine sand 25 inches
thick. The subsoil is strong brown fine sandy loam to a
depth of 39'inches. It is underlain by soft limestone.
Minor soils in this unit are the Troup, Chipley, Bigbee,
Blanton, and Oleno soils and the Pedro Variant soils.
Most of this map unit is in pine woodland or improved
pasture. A few areas are used for cultivated crops.

Soils of the Gently Rolling Uplands
The three map units in this group consist of somewhat
poorly drained to well drained, nearly level to sloping
soils. Some soils are sandy to a depth of 20 inches and
clayey below or are sandy to a depth of 20 to 80 inches
and are loamy below. The soils are mainly in the south-
central and southeastern parts of the county.

4. Bonneau-Blanton-lchetucknee
Nearly level to sloping, somewhat poorly drained and
moderately well drained soils that are sandy to a depth
of 20 inches, 20 to 40 inches, or 40 to 80 inches and are
loamy or clayey below
This map unit consists mostly of broad, gently rolling
and undulating areas in the uplands. Small areas of this
unit are in the western part of the county adjoining
Suwannee County. The largest area is in the south-


11






Soil Survey


central part of the county. This 4.5-mile-wide strip
extends from south of Lake City to within about 5 miles
of Fort White. Another area of this map unit parallels
U.S. Highway 27. It is north of the highway and is 10
miles long and about 3 miles wide.
The landscape consists of small knolls and broad,
rolling areas of clay outcrops and depressions that occur
in irregular patterns. The area is drained by percolation
and runoff.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine; live,
laurel, and water oak; black cherry; wild persimmon;
sassafras; red maple; partridgepea; and blackberry and
grasses and shrubs.
This map unit makes up about 57,850 acres, or 11.5
percent of Columbia County. It is about 45 percent
Bonneau soils, 25 percent Blanton soils, 5 percent
Ichetucknee soils, and 25 percent minor soils.
The Bonneau soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 23 inches
thick. In the upper 17 inches it is pale brown fine sand,
and in the next 6 inches it is pale brown fine sand with
very pale brown mottles. The subsoil extends to a depth
of 80 inches. The upper 3 inches is brownish yellow fine
sandy loam; the next 27 inches is brownish yellow sandy
clay loam; the next 12 inches is mottled, brownish
yellow, light gray, and red sandy clay loam; and the
lower 8 inches is light gray sandy clay loam with light
yellowish brown and red mottles.
The Blanton soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is gray and very pale brown
fine sand, and the subsurface layer is light gray and
white fine sand that extends to a depth of 52 inches.
The subsoil is fine sandy loam. It is light yellowish brown
in the upper part and very pale brown and light brownish
gray with brown mottles in the lower part.
The Ichetucknee soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand 5 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand 8
inches thick. Below this is pale brown and yellowish red
clay. Limestone is at a depth of 55 inches.
Minor soils in this unit are the Goldsboro, Ocilla,
Chipley, Albany, and Plummer soils and Udorthents.
Most of this map unit is in pine woodland, cropland, or
pasture.

5. Bonneau-Blanton
Nearly level to sloping, moderately well drained soils that
are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches or 40 to 80
inches and are loamy below
This map unit consists of broad, undulating areas in
the uplands. A small area is in the western part of the
county adjoining Suwannee County. A large area is in
southern Columbia County. This area is south of Florida
Highway 349 along Florida Highway 131 and is about 7
miles long and 1.5 miles wide.


The landscape consists of small knolls and broad
rolling areas interspersed with depressions, long swales,
and colluvial spots. The areas are drained mainly by
percolation and runoff. Surface erosion is common.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine; live,
laurel, and water oak; blackberry; wild persimmon;
sassafras; and black cherry and grasses and shrubs.
This map unit makes up about 15,091 acres, or 3
percent of Columbia County. It is about 55 percent
Bonneau soils, 20 percent Blanton soils, and 25 percent
minor soils.
The Bonneau soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
23 inches thick. The upper 17 inches is pale brown; the
next 6 inches is pale brown with very pale brown
mottles. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. The upper 3 inches is brownish yellow fine sandy
loam; the next 27 inches is brownish yellow sandy clay
loam; the next 12 inches is mottled, brownish yellow,
light gray, and red sandy clay loam; and the lower 8
inches is light gray sandy clay loam with light yellowish
brown and red mottles.
The Blanton soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is gray and very pale brown
fine sand, and the subsurface layer is light gray and
white fine sand that extends to a depth of 52 inches.
The subsoil is fine sandy loam. It is light yellowish brown
in the upper part and very pale brown and light brownish
gray with brown mottles in the lower part.
Minor soils in this unit are the Goldsboro, Ocilla,
Chipley, Albany, and Plummer soils.
Most of this map unit is pine woodland, cropland, or
pasture.

6. Blanton-Troup-Lucy
Nearly level to sloping, moderately well drained to well
drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80
inches or 20 to 40 inches and are loamy below
This map unit consists mostly of broad, gently rolling
areas and long, narrow ridges in the uplands. There are
only two areas of this map unit in Columbia County. The
smaller area is in the southeastern part of the county
south of Florida Highway 18 and east of Interstate
Highway 75. The other area occurs as a long ridge south
of Florida Highway 349 along Interstate Highway 75 to
about 2 miles from Alachua County.
The landscape consists of narrow to broad ridges that
are distinctly higher than the surrounding landscape.
Concretions and other coarse fragments on the surface
are typical. Most areas are drained by percolation and by
surface runoff into Olustee Creek and the Santa Fe
River.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine,
maple, hickory, bluejack and live oak, ash, and smilax
and other shrubs and grasses.






Columbia County, Florida


This map unit makes up about 17,606 acres, or 3.5
percent of Columbia County. It is about 60 percent
Blanton soils, 10 percent Troup soils, 5 percent Lucy
soils, and 25 percent minor soils.
The Blanton soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is gray and very pale brown
fine sand, and the subsurface layer is light gray and
white fine sand that extends to a depth of 52 inches.
The subsoil is fine sandy loam. It is light yellowish brown
in the upper part and very pale brown and light brownish
gray with brown mottles in the lower part.
The Troup soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
layer is dark brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is dark brown loamy sand and extends
to a depth of 52 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth
of 80 inches. In the upper 6 inches, it is strong brown
fine sandy loam; below that, it is yellowish red sandy clay
loam.
The Lucy soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
layer is dark brown loamy fine sand, and the subsurface
layer is yellowish brown and strong brown loamy sand
and loamy fine sand. The subsoil extends from 29 to 80
inches. It is yellowish red fine sandy loam, and it has
strong brown mottles in the lower 10 inches.
Minor soils in this unit are the Fort Meade Variant,
Bonneau, Goldsboro, Orangeburg, and Ocilla soils.
Most of this map unit is used for cultivated crops and
improved pasture. A few areas are planted to pines, and
the remaining areas are in native hardwoods.

Soils of the Low Ridges and Knolls
The two map units in this group consist of somewhat
poorly drained to moderately well drained, nearly level to
sloping soils. Some soils are sandy to a depth of 20 to
80 inches and are loamy below or are sandy to a depth
of more than 80 inches. The soils are mainly in the
northwestern, western, southeastern, and central parts of
the county.

7. Albany-Blanton-Chipley
Nearly level to sloping, somewhat poorly drained and
moderately well drained soils that are sandy to a depth
of 40 to 80 inches and loamy below or are sandy to a
depth of more than 80 inches
This map unit consists mostly of undulating areas
interspersed with swales and wet depressions. Small
swamps and ponded areas are common. Areas of this
unit are adjacent to the Suwannee River flood plains
along the western county line. They are also in isolated
patches bounded by the Suwannee River to the north,
U.S. Highway 441 to the east, and Florida Highway 242
to the south. Another area is adjacent to the east and
west boundaries of Alligator Lake.
The landscape consists of ridges and knolls that are
slightly higher than the adjacent flats. Some of these
knolls are broad and cover areas as large as 600 acres.


Many lakes, ponds, and intermittent drainage systems
are on the landscape.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine; live,
laurel, and water oak; inkberry; and waxmyrtle. Pineland
threeawn is the dominant native grass.
This map unit.makes up about 35,213 acres, or 7
percent of Columbia County. It is about 40 percent
Albany soils, 20 percent Blanton soils, 20 percent
Chipley soils, and 20 percent minor soils.
The Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand 7
inches thick. The subsurface layer is 48 inches of fine
sand. The upper 8 inches is pale brown, the next 15
inches is pale brown mottled with yellow and white, and
the next 25 inches is white mottled with brownish yellow.
The subsoil is pale yellow loamy fine sand underlain by
gray sandy clay loam mottled with yellowish brown.
The Blanton soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand 7 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is very pale brown and light
gray fine sand that extends to a depth of 52 inches. The
fine sandy loam subsoil is light yellowish brown in the
upper part and very pale brown and light brownish gray
with brown mottles in the lower part.
The Chipley soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand 7 inches
thick. The fine sand substratum extends to a depth of 80
inches. The upper 23 inches is very pale brown; the next
10 inches is light gray with very pale brown mottles; the
20 inches below that is very pale brown with brownish
yellow, white, and yellowish red mottles; the next 6
inches is white; and the lowermost 14 inches is white
with brownish yellow and yellow mottles.
Of minor extent in this unit are the Ocilla, Hurricane,
Lakeland, and Leon soils.
Most of this map unit is in woodland or pasture. Some
areas are in cultivated crops.

8. Albany-Ocilla-Hurricane

Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
soils that are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches or 40
to 80 inches and loamy below or are sandy to a depth of
more than 80 inches
This map unit consists mostly of broad, nearly level
areas interspersed with low ridges and knolls. Five
separate areas occur in the county. Two of these are
east and west of Interstate Highway 75, north of the
Santa Fe River. One area is a 2-mile-wide band
extending north to south along Price Creek road. A small
area is in the town of Lulu. The remaining areas are
northwest of Lake City between Interstate Highway 75
and U.S. Highway 41.
The landscape consists of broad flats and low knolls
dissected by intermittent drainageways. There are many
small swamps and wet depressions. In some areas,
relatively broad ridges slope down to the drainageways.






Soil Survey


The natural vegetation is slash pine, water oak, live
oak, laurel oak, waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, inkberry,
fetterbush, and pineland threeawn.
This map unit makes up about 27,667 acres, or 5.5
percent of Columbia County. It is about 40 percent
Albany soils, 37 percent Ocilla soils, 13 percent
Hurricane soils, and 10 percent minor soils.
The Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand 7
inches thick. The fine sand subsurface layer extends to a
depth of 55 inches. The upper 8 inches is pale brown;
the next 15 inches is pale brown mottled with yellow and
white; and the next 25 inches is white mottled with
brownish yellow. The subsoil is pale yellow loamy fine
sand underlain by gray sandy clay loam mottled with
yellowish brown.
The Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand 9
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand. The
upper 10 inches is grayish brown; the next 7 inches is
light brownish gray; and the next 6 inches is pale brown.
The subsoil in the upper 20 inches is mottled light
brownish gray, strong brown, and pale brown fine sandy
loam. Below that, it is gray fine sandy loam with strong
brown and pale brown mottles. The substratum extends
from 68 inches to 80 inches or more. It is light gray clay
with strong brown mottles.
The Hurricane soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, they are fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more. The surface layer is very dark gray about 8 inches
thick. The upper 10 inches of the subsurface layer is
grayish brown, the next 14 inches is pale brown with
yellowish brown and light gray mottles, and the next 24
inches is light gray with gray mottles. The subsoil in the
upper 9 inches is dark brown fine sand stained with
black organic matter. Below that, it is black fine sand.
The minor soils in this unit are the Blanton, Chipley,
Plummer, Leon, and Sapelo soils.
Most of this map unit is in pine woodland or pasture.
Some areas are cultivated cropland.

Soils of the Flatwoods
The three map units in this group consist of very
poorly drained to somewhat poorly drained, nearly level
to gently sloping soils. Some soils are sandy to a depth
of 20 to 80 inches and are loamy below or are sandy to
a depth of more than 80 inches. The soils are mainly in
the Osceola National Forest and in large areas to the
north, west, and south. They also are in scattered areas
south and west of Alligator Lake.

9. Mascotte-Olustee-Surrency
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
that are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy
below or have slowly permeable layers stained with
organic matter at a depth of 20 inches or less


This map unit consists mostly of very broad, nearly
level flatwoods in the central highlands. This map unit is
mainly in the Osceola National Forest and the Lake
Butler Wildlife Management Area.
The landscape consists of broad flatwoods
interspersed with swamps, solution depressions, and
sloughs, most of which are linked by intermittent
drainageways. The area north of U.S. Highway 90 drains
north into the Suwannee and St. Marys Rivers; the area
south of U.S. Highway 90 drains south into the Olustee,
Clayhole, and Rose Creeks and the Santa Fe River.
The natural vegetation of the flatwoods is slash pine,
longleaf pine, inkberry, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle,
fetterbush, pineland threeawn, blueberry, huckleberry,
bluestem, and brackenfern. The dominant vegetation of
the swamps and depressions is pond cypress, blackgum,
slash pine, sweet bay, fetterbush, and smilax (fig. 4).
This map unit makes up about 145,882 acres, or 29
percent of Columbia County. It is about 40 percent
Mascotte soils, 20 percent Olustee soils, 20 percent
Surrency soils, and about 20 percent minor soils.
The Mascotte soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray fine sand 9 inches thick. The
upper 10 inches of the subsoil is black and dark reddish
brown fine sand stained with organic matter; the next 10
inches is yellowish brown fine sand; and the next 2
inches is black fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil is
light gray and gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 67
inches. The substratum is light olive gray loamy sand to
a depth of 80 inches.
The Olustee soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black and very dark gray fine sand 18
inches thick. Below this is 5 inches of dark reddish
brown fine sand stained with organic matter. Below this
is 14 inches of light gray fine sand, 26 inches of light
brownish gray fine sandy loam, and 17 inches of light
brownish gray loamy fine sand.
The Surrency soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
the surface layer is black and very dark gray fine sand
16 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand
22 inches thick. The subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay
loam with yellowish brown mottles.
Minor soils in this unit are the Albany, Sapelo, Leefield,
Leon, Electra Variant, Pelham, Plummer, Pamlico, and
Hurricane soils.
Most of this map unit is planted to pines. A few areas
are used for improved pasture. Some areas are used for
woodland grazing.

10. Plummer-Pelham-Albany

Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained and
somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy to a depth
of 20 to 40 inches or 40 to 80 inches and are loamy
below







Columbia County, Florida


Figure 4.-Mixed hardwood and cypress trees on Surrency fine sand. Ths area s co with as much as 2 feet of water during seasons
of intense rainfall


This map unit consists mostly of small, nearly level
areas interspersed with slightly higher knolls. These
knolls are better drained than the nearly level areas.
There are two areas of this map unit. The larger area is
between U.S. Highways 41 and 441 just south of the
Suwannee River flood plain. The second area is in the
southeastern part of the county adjacent to Alligator
Lake.
The nearly level landscape receives surface water
runoff from higher soils and is dissected by creeks and
streams. Falling Creek flows through tnis map unit.
The natural vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine,


blackgum, sweetgum, cypress, live oak, water oak, laurel
oak, waxmyrtle, inkberry, scattered sawpalmetto,
pineland threeawn, and brackenfern.
This map unit makes up about 10,061 acres, or 2
percent of Columbia County. It is about 50 percent
Plummer soils, 35 percent Pelham soils, 8 percent
Albany soils, and 7 percent minor soils.
The Plummer soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray and dark grayish brown
fine sand 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 18
inches of gray fine sand underlain by white fine sand to
a depth of 56 inches. The subsoil is light gray fine sandy


15






Soil Survey


loam underlain by sandy clay loam to a depth of 80
inches.
The Pelham soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches
thick. The upper 10 inches of the subsurface layer is
grayish brown fine sand, and the lower 15 inches is dark
gray fine sand. The upper 20 inches of the subsoil is
gray sandy clay loam, and the lower 15 inches is mottled
gray, light gray, and yellowish red sandy clay loam. The
substratum is gray fine sandy loam.
The Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand 7
inches thick. The upper 8 inches of the subsurface layer
is pale brown fine sand; the next 15 inches is pale brown
fine sand mottled with yellow and white; and the next 25
inches is white fine sand, mottled with brownish yellow.
The subsoil is pale yellow loamy fine sand underlain by
gray sandy clay loam mottled with yellowish brown.
Minor soils in this unit are the Blanton, Ocilla,
Hurricane, Electra Variant, Surrency, and Plummer soils.
Most areas are in native woodland or are planted to
pines.
11. Leon-Hurricane-Mandarin
Nearly level, poorly drained and somewhat poorly
drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or
more and have slowly permeable layers stained with
organic matter
This map unit consists mostly of broad, nearly level
areas that are slightly higher than the flatwoods. It is
mainly on the east to west ridge of the county along U.S.
Highway 90. This unit is about 1 mile wide from Baker
County to Watertown Lake.
Topographically, this unit represents the dividing line
between drainage to the north and drainage to the
south.
The natural vegetation is slash pine, running oak,
longleaf pine, waxmyrtle, inkberry, sawpalmetto, dwarf
huckleberry, and scattered turkey oak.
This map unit makes up about 7,546 acres, or 1.5
percent of Columbia County. It is about 65 percent Leon
soils, 10 percent Hurricane soils, 7 percent Mandarin
soils, and 18 percent minor soils.
Leon soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is black fine sand 8 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is gray fine sand about 11 inches thick. The upper
8 inches of the subsoil is black underlain by very dark
brown fine sand that is coated with organic matter. The
next 27 inches is dark yellowish brown fine sand. The
lower part of the subsoil is dark brown underlain by black
fine sand that is coated with organic matter.
The Hurricane soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, they are fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more. The surface layer is very dark gray about 8 inches
thick. The upper 10 inches of the subsurface layer is
grayish brown; the next 14 inches is pale brown with
yellowish brown and light gray mottles; the next 24


inches is light gray with gray mottles. The subsoil in the
upper 9 inches is dark brown fine sand stained with
black organic matter. Below that, it is black line sand.
The Mandarin soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, they are fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more. The surface layer is gray about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light gray about 11 inches thick. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 64 inches or more. To a
depth of 26 inches it is very dark brown, dark reddish
brown, and dark brown stained with organic matter.
Below that, in sequence, 7 inches is dark yellowish
brown, 12 inches is light yellowish brown, 14 inches is
light gray, 5 inches is grayish brown, and the lowermost
part is very dark brown.
Minor soils in this unit are the Leefield, Sapelo,
Chipley, and Surrency soils. Also included are areas of
Pamlico muck, loamy substratum, and Plummer muck,
depressional.
Most of this map unit is planted to pines or is in native
longleaf pine. A few areas are used for community
development.

Soils of the Broad Swamps
This group consists of poorly drained and very poorly
drained, nearly level soils. Some of the soils are sandy
to a depth of 40 to 80 inches and are loamy below;
some are organic to a depth of 16 to 51 inches and
sandy over loamy below.

12. Plummer-Pamlico
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
that are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches and loamy
below or are organic to a depth of 16 to 51 inches and
sandy over loamy below
This map unit consists mostly of nearly level soils in
broad swamps and bays in the northern part of Columbia
County. The area includes Sandlin Bay, Pinhook Swamp,
Otter Bay, and Impassable Bay. Most of this area
borders Baker County and the southern end of the
Okefenokee Swamp.
The landscape consists of broad fetterbush and smilax
swamps that contain organic materials highly variable in
depth. Most of the area is under water for long periods
of time. The soils in this area slope northward, and the
surface runoff drains west to the Suwannee River or east
to the St. Marys River. The Little Suwannee River is one
of the main tributaries draining these swamps into the
Suwannee River.
The natural vegetation is loblollybay, sweet bay,
blackgum, cypress, smilax, fetterbush, Virginia willow,
sweet pepperbush, buttonbush, inkberry, rushes, and
sedges (fig. 5).
This map unit makes up about 70,426 acres or 14
percent of Columbia County. It is about 37 percent
Plummer depressional soils; 28 percent Pamlico loamy
substratum soils; and 35 percent minor soils.


16






Columbia County, Florida


Figure 5.-A typical area of the Plummer-Pamlco map unit. ost areas remain In native vegetation.


The Plummer soils are poorly drained and ponded.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand 5 inches


thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a
depth of 57 inches. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam


1 1.


k.
r.

J9. ?t


t






18


with yellow and brown mottles to a depth of 75 inches.
The substratum is white fine sand. Some of these soils
have a black muck surface layer about 8 inches thick.
The Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
the surface layer is black muck 24 inches thick. The
upper part of the substratum is dark gray and dark
grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 48 inches. The
lower part of the substratum is dark gray sandy clay
loam.
Minor soils in this unit are the Dorovan, Mascotte,
Olustee, Pantego, Surrency, Pelham, and Sapelo soils.
Most of this map unit remains in native vegetation and
is used as habitat for alligators and other reptiles, otter,
mink, raccoon, bear, and wading birds.
Soils of the Flood Plains
This group consists of excessively drained and poorly
drained, nearly level to level soils. Some soils are sandy
throughout or are sandy to a depth of 20 to 80 inches
and loamy or clayey below; others are clayey to a depth
of 20 to 40 inches and loamy or clayey below. The soils
are mainly along the major rivers in the extreme
southern and northwestern parts of the county.
13. Plummer-Bigbee-Oleno
Nearly level, excessively drained and poorly drained soils
subject to flooding; some are sandy to a depth of 80
inches or more; some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 80
inches and loamy or clayey below; others are clayey to a
depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy or clayey below
This map unit consists mostly of flood plains along the
Suwannee, Santa Fe, and Ichetucknee Rivers and along
Olustee Creek. These streams are in the extreme
southern and northwestern parts of Columbia County.
The landscape consists of the natural levees,
undulating areas that are influenced by water action, and


flats along the major rivers in the county. Extreme
variations in water level in the river affect the water table
in the soils of this map unit.
The natural vegetation is shrub live oak, live oak, slash
pine, huckleberry, blackgum, cypress, cabbage palmetto,
red maple, hickory, poison ivy, and longleaf Jniola.
This map unit makes up about 12,576 acres, or 2.5
percent of Columbia County. It is about 35 percent
Plummer soils, 15 percent Bigbee soils, 10 percent
Oleno soils, and 40 percent minor soils.
The Plummer soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark gray fine sand 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of 55
inches. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam.
The Bigbee soils are excessively drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 7
inches thick. The lower layers are all fine sand. In
sequence downward, 7 inches is yellowish brown, 16
inches is light yellowish brown, 18 inches is yellow, and
the lowermost layer is white mottled with light yellowish
brown and brownish yellow.
The Oleno soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark gray clay 6 inches thick. The next
26 inches is gray clay. Below this is grayish brown fine
sandy loam 10 inches thick, 13 inches of gray fine sandy
loam, 16 inches of dark gray fine sandy loam, and 6
inches of gray sandy clay loam underlain by greenish
gray clay.
Minor soils in this unit are the occasionally flooded
phases of the Chiefland-Pedro Variant complex and the
Electra Variant soil. Also of minor extent are Leon,
Albany, Blanton, Pelham, Alpin, Surrency, and Mascotte
soils.
Most areas of this map unit are planted to pines. The
wetter areas remain in native vegetation.






19


Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils
for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of
a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil _
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Plummer fine sand,
depressional, is one of several phases in the Plummer
series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar
in all areas. The Blanton-Bonneau-lchetucknee complex
is an example.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some


small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
have little or no soil material and support little or no
vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
maps.
Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.

Soil Descriptions

1-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is
a somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping
soil on broad flats bordering poorly defined drainageways
and in undulating areas. The areas of this soil range
from about 4 to more than 200 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
and extends to a depth of 55 inches. In the upper 8
inches, it is pale brown; in the next 15 inches, it is pale
brown mottled with yellow and white; and in the next 25
inches, it is white with brownish yellow mottles. The
upper 10 inches of the subsoil is pale yellow loamy fine
sand and has yellowish brown and white mottles. Below
that, the subsoil is gray sandy clay loam with yellowish
brown mottles to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton, Chipley, Ocilla, and Plummer soils. Also
included are small areas of somewhat wetter soils that
have deposits of colluvial material over the original
surface layer. These soils make up less than 15 percent
of the map unit.
This Albany soil has a water table at a depth of 12 to
30 inches for 1 to 4 months in most years (fig. 6). The
water table is at a depth of 30 to 50 inches most of the
time and below a depth of 50 inches in the dry months.
The available water capacity is low in the subsurface
layer and in the lower part of the subsoil. It is medium in
the surface layer and in the upper part of the subsoil.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers, moderately rapid in the upper part of the subsoil,
and moderate in the lower part of the subsoil. Natural






19


Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils
for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of
a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil _
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Plummer fine sand,
depressional, is one of several phases in the Plummer
series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar
in all areas. The Blanton-Bonneau-lchetucknee complex
is an example.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some


small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
have little or no soil material and support little or no
vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
maps.
Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.

Soil Descriptions

1-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is
a somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping
soil on broad flats bordering poorly defined drainageways
and in undulating areas. The areas of this soil range
from about 4 to more than 200 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
and extends to a depth of 55 inches. In the upper 8
inches, it is pale brown; in the next 15 inches, it is pale
brown mottled with yellow and white; and in the next 25
inches, it is white with brownish yellow mottles. The
upper 10 inches of the subsoil is pale yellow loamy fine
sand and has yellowish brown and white mottles. Below
that, the subsoil is gray sandy clay loam with yellowish
brown mottles to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton, Chipley, Ocilla, and Plummer soils. Also
included are small areas of somewhat wetter soils that
have deposits of colluvial material over the original
surface layer. These soils make up less than 15 percent
of the map unit.
This Albany soil has a water table at a depth of 12 to
30 inches for 1 to 4 months in most years (fig. 6). The
water table is at a depth of 30 to 50 inches most of the
time and below a depth of 50 inches in the dry months.
The available water capacity is low in the subsurface
layer and in the lower part of the subsoil. It is medium in
the surface layer and in the upper part of the subsoil.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers, moderately rapid in the upper part of the subsoil,
and moderate in the lower part of the subsoil. Natural






Soil Survey


fertility is low. The content of organic matter is moderate
in the surface layer and low in the subsurface layer and
subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
pines and water oak. Inkberry, waxmyrtle, and sassafras
are the main shrubs. Pineland threeawn is the dominant
native grass.
Wetness and the hazard of erosion severely limit the
use of the Albany soil for cultivated crops. Water control
is needed, including drains which intercept surface
runoff. Stripcropping that alternates row crops with
close-growing crops, crop rotation, and minimum tillage
are needed to control erosion. Windbreaks should be
planted to reduce soil loss caused by wind erosion.
Because of its low natural fertility, regular applications of
fertilizer are needed on this soil.
The soil has moderate limitations for improved pasture
grasses. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
vigor for maximum yields.
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees is
high. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
competition are the main management concerns. Slash
and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
Wetness- severely limits the use of this Albany soil for
most sanitary facilities and for building sites.:
This Albany soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

2-Albany fine sand, occasionally flooded. This is a
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping
soil on broad flats and low-lying, undulating terrain in
flood-prone areas. This soil is flooded occasionally (7)
for long periods after intense, heavy rainfall, and it has
been flooded in March or April about once every 10
years. The areas of this soil range from 10 to 40 acres.
The slope ranges from 0 to 5 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
and extends to a depth of 55 inches. In the upper 8
inches, it is pale brown; in the next 15 inches, it is pale
brown with yellow and white mottles; and in the lower 25
inches, it is white with brownish yellow mottles. The
subsoil is gray sandy clay loam with yellowish brown
mottles, and it extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
occasionally flooded Blanton and Plummer soils. Also
included are small areas of soils that are similar to the
Albany soil but have stratified layers of sand or are
underlain by clay. These soils make up about 20 percent
of the map unit.
This Albany soil has a water table at a depth of 12 to
30 inches for 1 to 4 months in most years. The water
table is at a depth of 30 to 50 inches most of the time
and is below 50 inches in the driest months. The
available water capacity is very low in the surface and
subsurface layers, low in the upper part of the subsoil,
and medium in the lower part of the subsoil. Permeability
is rapid in the layers of sand and moderate in the


subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter content
are low.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
pines, water oak, sawpalmetto, inkberry, waxmyrtle, and
huckleberry. Pineland threeawn is the dominant native
grass.
Wetness, flooding, and low natural fertility are severe
limitations for the use of this Albany soil for crops.
This soil has moderate limitations for improved pasture
grasses. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
vigor for maximum yields.
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees is
high. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
competition are the main management concerns. Slash
and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
Wetness and flooding are severe limitations to the use
of this soil for sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Albany soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

3-Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is an
excessively drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil on
broad, slightly elevated ridges. The areas of this soil
range from 4 to about 2,000 acres and are circular to
irregularly elongated.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
and extends to a depth of 52 inches. In the upper 9
inches, it is pale brown; in the next 12 inches, it is pale
brown with common uncoated sand grains; in the next
11 inches, it is very pale brown with few uncoated sand
grains; and in the lowermost 14 inches, it is very pale
brown with light yellowish brown mottles. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is very pale
brown fine sand and has common uncoated sand grains
and common yellowish brown horizontal bands of loamy
fine sand 0.1 to 0.5 inch thick.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton, Lakeland, Chipley, and Albany soils. Also
included are small areas of soils that have limestone at a
depth of 80 inches. These soils make up less than 20
percent of the map unit.
This Alpin soil does not have a water table within a
depth of 80 inches at any time. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is rapid in the subsurface
layer and moderately rapid in the surface layer and
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. The organic matter
content is moderately low in the surface layer and low in
all layers below that.
The natural vegetation consists of scattered slash and
longleaf pines and turkey, post, blackjack, and bluejack
oaks. The understory vegetation consists of chinkapin,
bluestem, low panicum, fringeleaf paspalum, and annual
forbs. In most areas, the soil is planted to slash pine.
The low organic matter content, excessive nutrient
leaching, lack of a water table, and low available water
capacity of this Alpin soil very severely limit its use for
cultivated crops. Intensive soil management is required if









Columbia County, Florida


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3 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 43 48 53


WATER TABLE DEPTH (Inches)


--- Mascotte Series Location: NWSF; Sec. 28, T.


2 S., R. 16 E.


--- Albany Series Location: SErNW Sec. 28, T. 2 S., R. 16 E.



-I I-+o Hurricane Series Location: SE4NW Sec. 27, T. 2 S., R. 16 E.




Figure 6.-Measured depth from soil surface to water table from 130 to 138 observations In the period 1972-77. In the Albany soil, for
example, a high water table of 13 Inches was observed 7 out of 130 observations.


21


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_






Soil Survey


the soil is cultivated. Strips of row crops should be
alternated with strips of close-growing crops. Crop
rotation should include close-growing plants at least
three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving cover crops and
all crop residue should be left on the ground.
Windbreaks are needed to reduce wind erosion. Only a
few crops produce good yields without irrigation.
Irrigation of these crops is usually feasible where
irrigation water is readily available. Regular applications
of fertilizer are essential.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Deep-rooting plants, such as improved
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted to this
soil, but yields are reduced by periodic drought. Regular
fertilizing and liming are needed. Grazing should be
controlled to maintain plant vigor for best yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for production
of pines. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
the main management concerns. Slash and loblolly pines
are the best trees to plant.
The sandy texture severely limits the use of this soil
for shallow excavations; otherwise, there are no
limitations for building sites. Seepage slightly limits the
use of the soil for septic tank absorption fields, but it
severely limits its use for other sanitary facilities.
Droughtiness can be a limitation for lawns and
landscaping.
This Alpin soil is in capability subclass IVs.

4-Alpin fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This is
an excessively drained, sloping to strongly sloping soil
on side slopes of broad, slightly elevated ridges. The
areas of this soil range from 2 to 40 acres and are
circular to irregularly elongated.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
and extends to a depth of 65 inches. In the upper 25
inches, it is pale brown; in the next 14 inches, it is very
pale brown; and in the lower 23 inches, it is very pale
brown with few uncoated sand grains. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is very pale
brown fine sand and has common uncoated sand grains
and many light yellowish brown horizontal bands of fine
sandy loam 0.1 to 0.5 inch thick.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton, Lakeland, Troup, Chipley, and Albany soils.
These soils make up less than 15 percent of the map
unit.
This Alpin soil does not have a water table within a
depth of 80 inches at any time. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is rapid in the subsurface
layer and moderately rapid in the surface layer and
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. The organic matter
content is moderately low in the surface layer and low
below that.
The natural vegetation consists of scattered slash and
longleaf pines and turkey, post, blackjack, and bluejack


oaks. The understory vegetation consists of bluestem,
low panicum, fringeleaf paspalum, and annual forbs. In
most areas, the soil is planted to pines.
The sandy texture, steepness of slope, and
susceptibility to erosion severely limit the use of this
Alpin soil for cultivated crops.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture. Deep-
rooting plants, such as improved bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, are moderately well adapted to the soil, but
yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor for high
yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for production
of pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling
mortality are the main management concerns. Slash and
loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
Seepage severely limits the use of this soil for most
sanitary facilities. The slope moderately limits use for
septic tank absorption fields. There are moderate
limitations to use of the soil as building sites. The
steepness of the slope is a severe limitation to use for
small commercial buildings. The sandy texture severely
limits the use of this soil for shallow excavations. Cut
banks are likely to cave in.
This Alpin soil is in capability subclass Vis.

5-Alpin fine sand, occasionally flooded. This isan
excessively drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil on
narrow ridges in the flood-prone areas adjacent to rivers.
These areas are flooded occasionally (7) for brief
periods after unusually high rainfall. They have been
flooded during March or April about once every 10 years.
The areas of this soil range from 10 to about 200 acres
and are circular to irregularly elongated. The slope
ranges from 0 to 5 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
to a depth of 50 inches. In the upper 9 inches, it is pale
brown; in the next 12 inches, it is pale brown with
common uncoated sand grains; in the next 11 inches, it
is very pale brown with few uncoated sand grains; and in
the last 14 inches, it is very pale brown with light
yellowish brown mottles. The subsoil extends to a depth
of 80 inches or more. It is very pale brown fine sand and
has common uncoated sand grains and common
horizontal bands of yellowish brown loamy fine sand.
The bands are 0.1 to 0.5 inch thick and about 3 to 5
inches apart.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
the occasionally flooded Blanton, Albany, Leon, and
Electra Variant soils. Areas of the Bigbee soils are also
included. These soils make up about 20 percent of the
map unit.
This Alpin soil has a water table below a depth of 80
inches. The available water capacity is very low in the
surface and subsurface layers and low in the subsoil.


22





Columbia County, Florida


Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderately rapid in the subsoil. Natural fertility and
the organic matter content are very low.
The natural vegetation consists of scattered slash
pine, turkey oak, and post oak. Bluestem, low panicum,
and fringeleaf paspalum are the dominant grasses.
Flooding and the sandy texture severely limit the use
of this Alpin soil for cultivated crops.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Deep-rooting plants, such as improved
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted to the
soil, but yields are reduced by periodic drought. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor for best
yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for production
of pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling
mortality are the main management concerns. Slash and
loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
Seepage and flooding severely limit the use of this soil
for sanitary facilities. Flooding severely limits its use as a
site for most buildings.
This Alpin soil is in capability subclass IVs.

6-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes. These are nearly
level to gently sloping soils that have been reworked in
earthmoving operations and are used dominantly as
trench-type sanitary landfills. The individual areas of
these soils range from 1 to 160 acres.
The upper 2 to 3 feet of these soils is a mixture of
sandy materials interbedded with fragments or pieces of
loamy subsoil material or weakly cemented sandy subsoil
material, or both. This material is underlain by 2 to 20
feet of garbage and refuse. In some areas, the mixture
of sandy materials is used as a daily cover for stratified
layers of garbage.
Some areas of this map unit are former pits. In other
areas, material has been dumped on the surface of
undisturbed soils. Included in mapping are areas that do
not have fragments or pieces of subsoil material and
ponds or depressions that have been filled with various
materials other than garbage and refuse.
Arents soils have a variable water table that is
dependent upon the water table of the surrounding soils.
Permeability is variable but generally ranges from very
rapid to moderately rapid. Natural fertility is low. The
content of organic matter and the available water
capacity are variable.
This soil is not used for cultivated crops.
For esthetic purposes, grasses or pine trees can be
established with high-level management. Commercial
production, however, generally is not practical. Slash and
loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
Arents have not been assigned a capability subclass.

7-Blgbee fine sand. This is a nearly level,
excessively drained soil on low terraces along rivers. The


areas of this soil range from 10 to 80 acres and are
circular to irregularly elongated.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand about 7 inches thick. The substratum is fine sand
and extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. In the
upper 7 inches, it is yellowish brown; in the next 16
inches, it is light yellowish brown with common uncoated
sand grains; and in the next 18 inches, it is yellow with
faint brownish yellow mottles and uncoated sand grains.
In the lower 32 inches, the substratum is white with light
yellowish brown and brownish yellow mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
the occasionally flooded Electra Variant, Leon, Alpin, and
Blanton soils. Also included are soils that are similar to
the Bigbee soil but have weakly cemented, organic-
coated layers that have tongues of white sand. These
soils make up about 20 percent of the map unit.
This Bigbee soil has a water table at a depth of 20 to
40 inches for brief periods and at a depth of 40 to 70
inches for 1 to 2 months. A permanent water table is at
a depth of more than 80 inches during the rest of the
year. This soil is flooded occasionally for long periods
during seasons of high rainfall. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility and
the organic matter content are low.
The natural vegetation consists of shrub live oak,
willow oak, live oak, slash pine, huckleberry, and
persimmon. The understory vegetation includes
sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, dwarf huckleberry, and
sparkleberry.
Droughtiness and flooding severely limit the use of this
soil for cultivated crops.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Deep-rooting plants, such as improved
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted to the
soil, but yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor for best
yields.
This soil has high potential for production of slash and
loblolly pines, but flooding is a hazard. After stands have
been established for a few years, this soil produces high
yields of timber.
Flooding and wetness severely limit the use of this soil
for sanitary facilities. The sandy texture and flooding also
severely limit its use for building sites.
This Bigbee soil is in capability subclass Ills.

8-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is
a moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping
soil on broad ridges and undulating side slopes. The
areas of this soil range from about 20 to 1,000 acres and
are irregular in shape.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 7
inches thick. The subsurface layer is very pale brown
fine sand in the upper 30 inches and light gray fine sand
in the lower 15 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of


23






Soil Survey


80 inches. In the upper 10 inches, it is light yellowish
brown fine sandy loam with brownish yellow mottles; in
the next 5 inches, it is very pale brown with strong brown
and pale brown mottles; and in the lower part, it is light
brownish gray fine sandy loam with strong brown
mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Alpin, Chipley, Lakeland, Ocilla, Troup, and
Bonneau soils. These soils make up less than 15
percent of the map unit.
This Blanton soil has a water table at a depth of 5 to 6
feet most of the year. In wet seasons, a perched water
table is above the subsoil for less than a month. The
available water capacity is medium in the surface layer
and low in the subsurface layer and subsoil. Permeability
is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic
matter content are low.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, live and
blackjack oaks, ferns, huckleberry, sassafras, pineland
threeawn, and other grasses and shrubs.
This Blanton soil has severe limitations for most
cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce
potential yields of adapted crops. Crop rotations should
include close-growing cover crops at least two-thirds of
the time. Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue
should be left on the ground. Minimum tillage helps
control erosion and saves energy. Irrigation of high-value
crops is usually feasible where water is readily available.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Deep-rooting Coastal bermudagrass and the
improved bahiagrasses are well adapted to this soil, but
yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for best
yields. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
vigor and a good ground cover.
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees is
moderately high. Equipment limitations, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are the main
management concerns. Slash and loblolly pines are the
best trees to plant.
The sandy texture severely limits the use of this soil
for sanitary facilities and shallow excavations. Wetness is
a moderate limitation to use of the soil as septic tank
absorption fields and for dwellings with basements.
Droughtiness is a severe limitation in maintenance of
lawns and landscaping.
This Blanton soil is in capability subclass Ills.

9-Blanton fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This is
a moderately well drained, sloping soil on undulating
landscapes. The areas of this soil range from 20 to 200
acres and are irregular in shape.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand 4 inches
thick. The subsurface layer, which extends to a depth of
about 49 inches, is very pale brown and light gray fine


sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. In the upper 15 inches, it is pale brown sandy
loam with yellow and strong brown mottles. The lower
part of the subsoil is light gray fine sandy loam with
strong brown mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Alpin, Chipley, Lakeland, and Ocilla soils. These
soils make up less than 15 percent of the malp unit.
This Blanton soil has a water table at a depth of 5 to 6
feet most of the year. A perched water table is above
the subsoil for less than a month during wet seasons.
The available water capacity is medium in the surface
layer and low in the subsurface layer and subsoil.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the
organic matter content are low.
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
'pines, live and blackjack oaks, ferns, huckleberry,
sassafras, pineland threeawn, and other grasses and
shrubs.
This Blanton soil has very severe limitations for most
cultivated crops. Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant
nutrients, and slope greatly limit the choice of plants and
reduce potential yields of adapted crops. Strips of row
crops should be alternated with strips of close-growing
crops. Crop rotation should include close-growing cover
crops at least three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving
cover crops and all crop residue should be left on the
surface. This soil is too steep to be effectively irrigated.
Minimum tillage helps control erosion and saves energy.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Deep-rooting Coastal bermudagrass and the
improved bahiagrasses are well adapted to the soil, but
yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for best
yields. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
vigor and a good ground cover.
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees is
moderately high. Equipment limitations, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are the main
management concerns. Slash and loblolly pines are the
best trees to plant.
The sandy texture severely limits the use of this soil
for sanitary facilities and shallow excavations. Wetness is
a moderate limitation for septic tank absorption fields
and for dwellings with basements. The slope moderately
limits use of the soil for small commercial buildings.
Droughtiness is a severe limitation in maintenance of
lawns and landscaping.
This Blanton soil is in capability subclass IVs.

10-Blanton fine sand, occasionally flooded. This is
a moderately well drained, nearly level to sloping soil on
the flood plains of rivers and streams. It is flooded
occasionally when heavy and prolonged rainfall causes
an overflow of the rivers and streams. In the lower
areas, the soil remains flooded for approximately 30


24






Columbia County, Florida


days each year. This soil has been flooded in March and
April about once every 10 years (7). The slope ranges
from 0 to 8 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is light brownish gray fine
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
gray fine sand in the upper 25 inches and is white fine
sand in the lower 20 inches. The subsoil begins at a
depth of 52 inches. In the upper 10 inches, it is light
yellowish brown fine sandy loam; in the next 5 inches, it
is very pale brown fine sandy loam with strong brown
and pale brown mottles; and in the lower part it is gray
fine sandy loam with strong brown mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bigbee soils and some occasionally flooded areas of
Albany and Alpin soils. Also included are soils that have
clay and chunks of coral or sand in the substratum,
otherwise they are similar to the Blanton soil. The
included soils make up approximately 25 percent of the
map unit.
This Blanton soil has a water table at a depth of 5 to 6
feet most of the year. In wet seasons, a perched water
table is above the subsoil for less than a month. This soil
is covered by floodwater for up to 30 days during years
of intense rainfall. The available water capacity is
medium in the surface layer and low in the subsurface
layer and subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil.
Natural fertility is low. The organic matter content is
moderate in the surface layer and very low below that.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, live and
blackjack oaks, ferns, huckleberry, sassafras, pineland
threeawn, and other grasses and shrubs.
The hazard of flooding and poor soil qualities severely
limit the use of this soil for most cultivated crops.
The occasional flooding of this Blanton soil is a
moderate limitation for pasture and hay crops. Deep-
rooting Coastal bermudagrass and the improved
bahiagrasses are well adapted to this soil, but yields are
reduced by periodic droughts. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed for best yields. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor and a good
ground cover.
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees is
moderately high. Equipment limitations, occasional
flooding, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
the main management concerns. Slash pine is the best
tree to plant.
The sandy texture and flooding severely limit the use
of this soil for sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Blanton soil is in capability subclass IVs.

11-Blanton-Bonneau-lchetucknee complex, 2 to 5
percent slopes. This complex consists of nearly level to
gently sloping soils on upland knolls and on broad,
elevated, undulating karst landscapes. The areas of this
complex mostly range from 5 to 500 acres, but some are
as small as one-quarter acre. These soils are in areas


that are so small or so intermingled that it was not
practical to map them separately.
The Blanton soil makes up about 35 percent of this
complex. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The upper 30 inches of the
subsurface layer is very pale brown fine sand, and the
lower 15 inches is light gray fine sand. The subsoil
begins at a depth of 52 inches. In the upper 10 inches, it
is light yellowish brown fine sandy loam; in the next 5
inches, it is very pale brown fine sandy loam with strong
brown and pale brown mottles; and in the lower part, it is
light brownish gray fine sandy loam with strong brown
mottles.
The Blanton soil has a water table at a depth of 5 to 6
feet most of the year. In wet seasons, a perched water
table is between depths of 60 and 72 inches for 1 to 3
months during most years. The available water capacity
is medium in the surface layer and low in the subsurface
layer and subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
fertility and the organic matter content of this soil are
both low.
The Bonneau soil makes up about 25 percent of this
complex. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown
fine sand 7 inches thick. The upper'8 inches of the
subsurface layer is yellowish brown fine sand and the
lower 12 inches is brownish yellow fine sand. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. In the
upper 9 inches, it is yellowish brown fine sandy loam; in
the next 38 inches, it is mottled very pale brown,
yellowish red, and grayish brown sandy clay loam; and in
the lower part, it is mottled, gray and pink sandy clay
loam.
The Bonneau soil has a water table at a depth of 48
to 72 inches for a few weeks during the normal rainy
season of most years. In some areas, a perched water
table is above the subsoil for a day or two after intense
rainfall. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate. The
organic matter content is moderately low in the surface
layer, low in the subsurface layer and upper part of the
subsoil, and very low in the lower part of the subsoil.
The Ichetucknee soil makes up about 15 percent of
the complex. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is about
8 inches thick. It is light gray fine sand with very pale
brown splotches. The subsoil is clay and extends to a
depth of 55 inches. In the upper 26 inches, it is pale
brown with gray, red, and yellow mottles; and in the
lower 16 inches, it is yellowish red. It is underlain by soft
limestone.
The Ichetucknee soil has a water table at a depth of
1.5 to 3 feet after intense rainfall. The available water
capacity is medium in the surface and subsurface layers
and lower part of the subsoil and is low in the upper part
of the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and


25






Soil Survey


subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility
is moderate. The organic matter content is moderate in
the surface layer and moderately low in the subsurface
layer and subsoil.
Included with this complex in mapping are a few small
areas of Albany, Alpin, Chiefland, Pedro Variant, Chipley,
Lakeland, and Ocilla soils. Not all of these soils are in
each mapped area. These soils make up about 25
percent of the complex.
The natural vegetation of the complex consists of
slash pine, live and blackjack oak, ash, ferns,
huckleberry, sassafras, blackberry, pineland threeawn,
and other grasses and shrubs.
Poor soil quality and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
moderately limit the use of the Bonneau soil and
severely limit the use of the Blanton soil for cultivated
crops. Wetness, the hazard of erosion, and a restricted
root zone very severely limit the use of the Ichetucknee
soil for cultivated crops. Strips of row crops should be
alternated with strips of close-growing crops. Soil-
improving cover crops and all crop residue should be left
on the ground. Irrigation of high-value crops is usually
feasible in dry periods. Ground cover should be
maintained on the Ichetucknee soil at least three-fourths
of the time. Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed
for best yields. Minimum tillage reduces erosion and
saves energy.
The Bonneau soil is slightly limited for pasture and hay
crops, and the Blanton and Ichetucknee soils are
moderately limited. Deep-rooting Coastal bermudagrass
and the improved bahiagrasses are well adapted, but
yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for best
yields. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
vigor and a good ground cover.
The potential of the Bonneau and Ichetucknee soils
for the production of pine trees is high and that of the
Blanton soil is moderately high. Seedling mortality and
plant competition are the main management concerns.
Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
Wetness and the sandy texture severely limit the use
of the soils of this complex for most sanitary facilities.
The sandy texture severely limits the use of the Blanton
soil for shallow excavations and also for lawns and
landscaping. Wetness is a moderate limitation to use of
the Blanton soil for septic tank absorption fields.
Wetness moderately limits the use of the Bonneau soil
for shallow excavations, dwellings with basements,
septic tank absorption fields, and area-type sanitary
landfills. The Bonneau soil is well suited as daily cover
for landfills. Droughtiness moderately limits the use of
this soil for lawns and landscaping.
Wetness severely limits the use of the Ichetucknee
soil for shallow excavations and dwellings with
basements. It also moderately limits the use of this soil
for dwellings without basements, small commercial
buildings, and sanitary landfills and also for lawns and


landscaping. Low soil strength severely limits use of the
soil for local roads and streets.
These soils are in capability subclass Ills.

12-Blanton-Bonneau-lchetucknee complex, 5 to 8
percent slopes. This complex is on undulating
landscapes. The areas of this complex mostly range
from 3 to 40 acres, but some are as small as one-
quarter acre. These soils are in areas that are so small
or so intermingled that it was not practical to map them
separately.
The Blanton soil makes up about 30 percent of the
complex. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand 4
inches thick. The subsurface layer, which extends to a
depth of about 49 inches, is very pale brown and white
fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches
or more. In the upper 15 inches, it is pale brown sandy
loam with yellow and strong brown mottles. In the lower
part, it is light gray fine sandy loam with strong brown
mottles.
The Blanton soil has a water table below a depth of 6
feet most of the year. A perched water table is above
the subsoil for less than a month during wet seasons.
The available water capacity is medium in the surface
layer and low in the subsurface layer and subsoil.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the
organic matter content are both low.
The Bonneau soil makes up about 25 percent of the
complex. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown
fine sand 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is pale
brown fine sand to a depth of 24 inches and pale brown
fine sand with very pale brown mottles to a depth of 30
inches. From the top, the subsoil is 3 inches of brownish
yellow fine sandy loam; 15 inches of brownish yellow
sandy clay loam; 12 inches of brownish yellow sandy
clay loam with light yellowish brown and gray mottles; 12
inches of mottled brownish yellow, light gray, and red
sandy clay loam with about 2 percent plinthite; and
below that, light gray sandy clay with light yellowish
brown and red mottles.
The Bonneau soil has a water table at a depth of 48
to 72 inches for a few weeks during most years. The
available water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid in
the surface and subsurface layers and slow in the
subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate. The organic matter
content is moderately low in the surface layer, low in the
subsurface layer and upper part of the subsoil, and very
low in the lower part of the subsoil.
The Ichetucknee soil makes up about 20 percent of
the complex. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
dark grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
subsoil is clay and extends to a depth of 80 inches. It is
yellowish brown in the upper 9 inches; mottled pale
brown, yellowish brown, gray, and yellowish red to a
depth of 38 inches; gray with strong brown and red


26






Columbia County, Florida


mottles to a depth of 55 inches; and mottled gray,
yellowish brown, and red clay in the lower part.
The Ichetucknee soil has a water table at a depth of
1.5 to 3 feet after intense rainfall. The available water
capacity is medium in the surface and subsurface layers
and lower part of the subsoil, and it is low in the upper
part of the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid in
the surface and subsurface layers and very slow in the
subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate. The organic matter
content is moderate in the surface layer and moderately
low in the subsurface layer and subsoil.
Included with this complex in mapping are a few small
areas of Albany, Alpin, Chiefland, Pedro Variant, Chipley,
Lakeland, and Ocilla soils. Not all of these soils are in
each mapped area. These soils make up about 25
percent of the map unit.
The natural vegetation of the complex consists of
slash pine, live and blackjack oaks, ash, ferns,
huckleberry, sassafras, blackberry, pineland threeawn,
and other grasses and shrubs.
The soils of this complex have very severe limitations
for most cultivated crops. Droughtiness, rapid leaching of
plant nutrients, and slope greatly limit the choice of
plants and reduce potential yields of adapted crops. In
addition, the Ichetucknee soil is restricted by wetness.
Strips of row crops should be alternated with strips of
close-growing crops. Crop rotation should include close-
growing cover crops at least three-fourths of the time.
Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue should
be left on the ground. The soils of this complex are too
steep to be effectively irrigated. Because these soils
erode easily, windbreaks, grassed waterways, and
minimum tillage should be used. Applications of fertilizer
and lime are also needed for best yields.
The soils have moderate limitations for pasture and
hay crops. Deep-rooting Coastal bermudagrass and the
improved bahiagrasses are well adapted to these soils,
but yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for best
yields. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
vigor and a good ground cover.
The potential of the Bonneau and Ichetucknee soils
for production of pine trees is high and that of the
Blanton soil is moderately high. Seedling mortality and
plant competition are the main management concerns.
Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
The sandy texture and wetness severely limit the use
of the soils for most sanitary facilities. The sandy texture
severely limits the use of the Blanton soil for shallow
excavations and also for lawns and landscaping. The
steep slopes and wetness moderately limit the use of
this soil for dwellings with basements and small
commercial buildings.
Wetness moderately limits the use of the Bonneau soil
for shallow excavations, dwellings with basements,
septic tank absorption fields, and area-type sanitary
landfills. The Bonneau soil is well suited to use as daily


cover for landfills. Steepness of slope moderately limits
the use of this soil for small commercial buildings.
Droughtiness moderately limits its use for lawns and
landscaping.
Wetness severely limits the use of the Ichetucknee
soil for shallow excavations and dwellings with
basements. It moderately limits use for dwellings without
basements, small commercial buildings, and area-type
sanitary landfills and also for lawns and landscaping.
Low soil strength severely limits use for local roads and
streets.
These soils are in capability subclass IVs.

13-Bonneau fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This
is a moderately well drained, gently sloping soil on
uplands and on knolls in the uplands. The areas of this
soil range from 3 to 200 acres and are circular.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
about 20 inches thick. In the upper 8 inches, it is
yellowish brown, and below that, it is brownish yellow
with very pale brown splotches. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches. In the upper 9 inches, it is yellowish
brown fine sandy loam; in the next 22 inches, it is very
pale brown, yellowish red, and grayish brown sandy clay
loam; in the next 16 inches, it is very pale brown,
yellowish red, and grayish brown sandy clay loam with
pockets of fine sandy loam; and in the lower part it is
gray and pink sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Lucy, Ocilla, Blanton, Goldsboro, and Ichetucknee soils.
These soils make up less than 20 percent of the map
unit.
This Bonneau soil has a water table at a depth of 48
to 72 inches for 1 or 2 months during rainy periods in
most years. Otherwise, the water table is below a depth
of 72 inches. The available water capacity is low in the
surface and subsurface layers and upper part of the
subsoil and medium in the lower part of the subsoil.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate.
The organic matter content is very low.
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
pines; laurel, live, and water oaks; black cherry; wild
persimmon; sassafras; maple; and hickory. The
understory vegetation includes partridgepea, blackberry,
foxtail, pawpaw, broomsedge bluestem, sumac, low
panicum, and mint.
The thick sandy surface layer of this Bonneau soil
moderately limits its use for cultivated crops. It can be
cultivated safely with ordinary good farming methods, but
droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
the choice of crops and reduce potential yields of
adapted crops. With good management, such crops as
corn, soybeans, watermelons, peanuts, and tobacco can
be grown. Strips of row crops should be alternated with
strips of cover crops. Crop rotation should include cover


27






Soil Survey


crops at least half the time. These cover crops and all
residue should be left on the ground. Good seedbed
preparation and regular applications of fertilizer and lime
are required for best yields. Irrigation of some high-value
crops, such as tobacco, is usually feasible where
irrigation water is readily available. Minimum tillage
reduces erosion and helps store moisture for plants.
The soil has slight limitations for pasture. Deep-rooting
plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass,
are well adapted to the soil. It produces well when
fertilizer and lime are applied. Grazing should be
controlled to maintain plant vigor for maximum yields and
to maintain a good ground cover.
This soil has high potential for production of pine
trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
the main management concerns. Loblolly and slash
pines are the best trees to plant.
The high water table severely limits the use of this soil
for trench-type sanitary landfills. It moderately limits the
soil's use for septic tank absorption fields, area-type
sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and dwellings with
basements. Because of the sandy texture, seepage is a
severe hazard and limits the use of the soil for sewage
lagoons. This soil is well suited to use as daily cover for
landfills. Droughtiness is a moderate limitation for lawns
and landscaping.
This Bonneau soil is in capability subclass IIs.

14-Bonneau fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
is a moderately well drained, sloping soil on short
hillsides in the uplands. The areas range from 3 to 40
acres and are circular.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
about 17 inches thick. The upper 7 inches is yellowish
brown; the next 7 inches is light yellowish brown; the
lower 3 inches is pale brown. The subsoil in the upper 6
inches is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. Below that,
yellowish brown, pale brown, and strong brown mottled
sandy clay loam extends to a depth of 36 inches. Below
that, sandy clay loam with yellowish brown, brownish
yellow, yellowish red, and light brownish gray mottles
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
the Ichetucknee, Ocilla, Goldsboro, and Lucy soils.
These included soils make up less than 20 percent of
the map unit.
This Bonneau soil has a perched water table at a
depth of 48 to 72 inches for 1 to 2 months during rainy
periods in most years. Otherwise, the water table is at a
depth of more than 72 inches. The available water
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. The natural fertility is moderate, and the organic
matter content is very low.


The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
pine; laurel, live, and water oak; black cherry; wild
persimmon; sassafras; maple; and hickory. The
understory vegetation includes partridgepea, blackberry,
foxtail, pawpaw, broomsedge bluestem, sumac, low
panicum, and mint.
The thick sandy surface layer and the hazard of
erosion are severe limitations to use of this Bonneau soil
for cultivated crops. The soil requires special
management. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
nutrients severely limit the use of this soil for most row
crops. The steepness of the slope makes cultivation
difficult and increases the hazard of erosion. Strips of
cultivated row crops should be alternated with wider
strips of close-growing, soil-improving crops. Crop
rotation should include close-growing crops at least two-
thirds of the time. All crops should be fertilized and
limed. Soil-improving cover crops and residue of all other
crops should be left on the ground. Minimum tillage and
windbreaks reduce soil erosion.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture. Deep-
rooting plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, are well adapted to the soil. Fertilizer and
lime help produce good stands of grass. Grazing should
be controlled to maintain plant vigor and to maintain a
good protective ground cover.
This soil has high potential for production of pine
trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
the main management concerns. Loblolly and slash
pines are the best trees to plant.
The high water table severely limits the use of this soil
for trench-type sanitary landfills. It moderately limits the
soil's use for septic tank absorption fields, area-type
sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and dwellings with
basements. Because of the sandy texture, seepage is a
severe hazard and limits the use of the soil for sewage
lagoons. This soil is well suited to use as daily cover for
landfills. Droughtiness is a moderate limitation for lawns
and landscaping. The steepness of slope moderately
limits the use of the soil for small commercial buildings.
This Bonneau soil is in capability subclass Ille.

15-Bonneau-Blanton complex, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. This complex consists of gently sloping,
moderately well drained soils on the uplands. These soils
are in areas that are so small and form such an intricate
pattern that it was not practical to map them separately.
The areas of this complex range from 8 to 540 acres.
The Bonneau soil makes up 40 to 50 percent of the
complex. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown
fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
fine sand about 20 inches thick. The upper 8 inches is
yellowish brown, and the lower 12 inches is brownish
yellow. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches. The
upper 9 inches is yellowish brown fine sandy loam; the
next 22 inches is mottled very pale brown, yellowish red,
and grayish brown sandy clay loam. That part is


28





Columbia County, Florida


underlain by 16 inches of very pale brown, yellowish red,
and grayish brown sandy clay loam with pockets of fine
sandy loam. From a depth of 74 to 80 inches, the
subsoil is gray and pink sandy clay loam.
The Bonneau soil is rapidly permeable in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderately permeable in the
subsoil. The available water capacity is low. The organic
matter content is moderately low in the surface layer,
low in the subsurface layer and upper part of the subsoil,
and very low below that. Natural fertility is very low. This
soil has a water table at a depth of 48 to 72 inches for 1
to 2 months in most years under normal conditions. The
rest of the year, the water table is below 72 inches.
The Blanton soil makes up 35 to 45 percent of the
complex. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
about 45 inches thick. The upper 30 inches is very pale
brown with common medium white splotches, and the
lower 15 inches is light gray with very pale brown
mottles. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. The upper 10 inches is light yellowish brown fine
sandy loam with few fine brownish yellow mottles; the
next 5 inches is very pale brown fine sandy loam with
many medium strong brown and common medium pale
brown mottles; and the lower 13 inches is light brownish
gray fine sandy loam with many medium strong brown
mottles.
The Blanton soil is rapidly permeable in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderately permeable in the
subsoil. The available water capacity is medium in the
surface layer and low in the subsurface layer and
subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter content
are low. This soil has a water table at a depth of 5 to 6
feet during rainy periods in most years.
About 25 percent of the complex is small areas of
Albany, Alpin, Chiefland, Chipley, Lakeland, Lucy, Ocilla,
Pedro Variant, and Ichetucknee soils. Not all of these
soils are in each mapped area.
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
pine; water, live, and laurel oak; wild cherry; blackberry;
ferns; and pineland threeawn. Most areas of this soil are
cultivated, but many areas are planted to pines or
pasture grasses.
Droughtiness, rapid leaching of nutrients, and low
natural fertility moderately limit the use of the Bonneau
soil and severely limit the use of the Blanton soil for
cultivated crops. With good management, crops that are
adapted to this soil, such as corn, peanuts, watermelon,
tobacco, and soybeans, can be grown. Strips of row
crops should be alternated with strips of cover crops.
Crop rotation should include close-growing cover crops
at least two-thirds of the time. Cover crops and all other
crop residue should be left on the ground. Irrigation of
some high-value crops is usually feasible where water is
readily available. Minimum tillage and windbreaks are
needed to reduce wind erosion during the planting
season.


The Bonneau soil has slight limitations for pasture, and
the Blanton soil has moderate limitations. Deep-rooting
grasses, such as Coastal bermudagrass and the
improved bahiagrasses, are well adapted to the soils, but
yields are\reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor for maximum
yields and to maintain a good ground cover.
The potential for production of pine trees is high on
the Bonneau soil and moderately high on the Blanton
soil. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
competition are the main management concerns.
Loblolly and slash pines are the best trees to plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture are
moderate to severe limitations to use of the soils for
most sanitary facilities. The Bonneau soil, however, is
well suited to use as daily cover for landfills. The high
water table and the sandy texture moderately limit the
use of these soils for shallow excavations, dwellings with
basements, and lawns and landscaping.
These soils are in capability subclass IIs.

16-Bonneau-Blanton complex, 5 to 8 percent
slopes. This complex consists of sloping, moderately
well drained soils on uplands. The areas of the Bonneau
and Blanton soils are so small and form such an intricate
pattern that it was not practical to map them separately.
The areas of the complex range from 6 to 35 acres.
The Bonneau soil makes up 40 to 50 percent of the
complex. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown
fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
fine sand 23 inches thick. The upper 17 inches is pale
brown, and the lower 6 inches is pale brown with very
pale brown mottles. The subsoil extends to a depth of
80 inches or more. The upper 3 inches is brownish
yellow fine sandy loam; the next 15 inches is brownish
yellow sandy clay loam; the next 12 inches is brownish
yellow sandy clay loam with light yellowish brown and
light gray mottles; the next 12 inches is mottled brownish
yellow, light gray, and red sandy clay loam with about 2
percent plinthite; and the lowermost 8 inches is light gray
sandy clay loam with light yellowish brown and red
mottles.
'The Bonneau soil is rapidly permeable in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderately permeable in the
subsoil. The available water capacity is low. The natural
fertility is low. The organic matter content is moderately
low in the surface layer, low in the subsurface layer and
upper part of the subsoil, and very low below that. This
soil has a water table at a depth of 48 to 72 inches for 1
to 2 months during rainy seasons in most years under
normal conditions. The rest of the year, the water table
is below 72 inches.
The Blanton soil makes up 35 to 45 percent of the
complex. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
about 45 inches thick. It is very pale brown and white.


29





Soil Survey


The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The upper 15 inches is pale brown fine sandy loam with
yellow and strong brown mottles, and the lower 16
inches is light gray fine sandy loam with strong brown
mottles.
The Blanton soil is moderately rapidly permeable in
the surface and subsurface layers and slowly permeable
in the subsoil. The available water capacity is medium in
the surface layer and low in the subsurface layer and
subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter content
are low. The Blanton soil has a water table at a depth of
5 to 6 feet during rainy periods in most years.
About 25 percent of the complex is small areas of
Albany, Alpin, Lucy, Chiefland, Chipley, Lakeland, Ocilla,
Pedro Variant, and Ichetucknee soils. Not all of these
soils are in each mapped area.
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
pine; water, live, and laurel oak; wild cherry; blackberry;
ferns; and pineland threeawn. In most areas, the soils of
this complex are planted to pines, but in many areas
they are cultivated for crops.
Rapid leaching of plant nutrients, droughtiness, the
hazard of erosion, and low soil fertility severely limit the
use of the Bonneau and Blanton soils for cultivated
crops. With very good management, high-value crops
that are adapted to the soils can be grown. Strips of row
crops should be alternated with strips of close-growing
cover crops. Crop rotation should include cover crops at
least two-thirds of the time. Cover crops and all other
crop residue should be left on the ground. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. These soils
are generally too steep for effective irrigation. Minimum
tillage and windbreaks are needed to reduce wind
erosion.
The Bonneau and Blanton soils have moderate
limitations for pasture. Deep-rooting grasses, such as
Coastal bermudagrass and improved bahiagrasses, are
well adapted to the soils, but yields can be reduced by
periodic drought. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to
maintain plant vigor for maximum yields and to maintain
a good ground cover.
The potential of the Bonneau soil for production of
pine trees is high, and that of the Blanton soil is
moderately high. Equipment limitations, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are the main
management concerns. Slash and loblolly pines are the
best trees to plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture are
moderate to severe limitations to the use of these soils
for most sanitary facilities and building sites. The
Bonneau soil is well suited to use as daily cover for
landfills. The high water table and the sandy texture are
only slight limitations to the use of these soils for
dwellings without basements and for local roads and
streets.
These soils are in capability subclass Ills.


17-Chlefland-Pedro Variant complex, 0 to 5
percent slopes. This complex consists of nearly level to
gently sloping, well drained soils on an upland karst
landscape in the southern part of the county. The areas
of these soils are so small or so intermingled that it was
not practical to map them separately. The areas of this
complex range from 5 to 800 acres.
The Chiefland soil makes up about 45 percent of the
complex. Typically, the surface layer is brown fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is pale brown
fine sand to a depth of 33 inches. The subsoil is strong
brown fine sandy loam that extends to a depth of 39
inches. It is underlain by limestone.
The Chiefland soil has no water table within a depth of
72 inches. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
available water capacity is very low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. The natural
fertility and organic matter content are very low.
The Pedro Variant soil makes up about 35 percent of
the complex. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine
sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark
brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is dark
brown sandy clay loam about 3 inches thick. It is
underlain by about 3 inches of soft weathered limestone.
Below that, hard limestone extends to a depth of 80
inches or more.
The Pedro Variant soil has no water table within a
depth of 72 inches. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderately rapid in the
subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in the
surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
subsoil. The natural fertility and organic matter content
are very low.
Soils of minor extent make up about 20 percent of the
complex. These include Alpin, Lakeland, Troup, and
Albany soils. Not all of these soils are in each mapped
area. Small areas of rock outcrops and sinkholes are
common.
The natural vegetation is laurel, water, and live oak;
hickory; wild persimmon; slash, loblolly, and spruce pine;
wild grape; red maple; ash; smilax; poison-ivy; sweetgum;
ferns; and redcedar.
Droughtiness and poor soil quality severely limit the
use of the Chiefland soil for cultivated crops.
Droughtiness, poor soil quality, and shallowness to
limestone very severely limit use of the Pedro Variant
soil for crops. Crops such as corn or soybeans can be
grown if shallow areas are avoided. Close-growing crops
should be kept on the land at least three-fourths of the
time. All cover-crop residue should be left on the ground.
Good seedbed preparation, fertilization, and irrigation are
needed for best yields.
The soils have moderate limitations for pasture and
hay crops. Droughtiness and poor soil quality are the
main management concerns. Applications of fertilizer are






Columbia County, Florida


needed for best yields. Improved bermudagrass and
bahiagrass are moderately well suited to these soils.
These soils have moderately high potential for
production of pine trees. Equipment limitations and
seedling mortality are the main management concerns.
Slash pine is the most suitable tree to plant.
The sandy texture and the shallowness to bedrock
severely limit the use of these soils for sanitary facilities.
Shallowness severely limits use of the Pedro Variant soil
for building site development and moderately limits use
of the Chiefland soil for dwellings with basements. The
sandy texture severely limits the Chiefland soil for
shallow excavations and for lawns and landscaping.
These soils are in capability subclass Ills.

18-Chiefland-Pedro Variant complex, 5 to 8
percent slopes. This complex consists of sloping, well
drained soils on an upland karst landscape in the
southern part of the county. The individual areas of each
soil are so small or so intermingled that it was not
practical to map them separately at the scale selected
for mapping. The areas of this complex range from 5 to
50 acres.
The Chiefland soil makes up about 45 percent of the
complex. Typically, the surface layer is brown fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is pale brown
fine sand to a depth of 30 inches. The subsoil is strong
brown fine sandy loam that extends to a depth of 35
inches. It is underlain by limestone.
The Chiefland soil has no water table within a depth of
72 inches. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
available water capacity is very low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility and the organic matter content are very low.
The Pedro Variant soil makes up about 35 percent of
the complex. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine
sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark
brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is dark
brown sandy clay loam about 3 inches thick. It is
underlain by about 3 inches of soft weathered limestone.
Below that, hard limestone extends to a depth of 80
inches or more.
The Pedro Variant soil has no water table within a
depth of 72 inches. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderately rapid in the
subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in the
surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter content
are very low.
Soils of minor extent make up about 20 percent of the
complex. These include small areas of the Alpin,
Lakeland, Troup, and Albany soils. Not all of these soils
are in each mapped area. Small areas of rock outcrop
and sinkholes are common.
The natural vegetation is laurel oak, water oak, live
oak, hickory, wild persimmon, slash pine, loblolly pine,


spruce pine, wild grape, red maple, ash, smilax, poison-
ivy, sweetgum, ferns, and redcedar.
Droughtiness, poor soil quality, and slope very
severely limit the use of the soils for cultivated crops.
Furthermore, the shallowness to limestone in the Pedro
Variant soil is a severe limitation. Strips of row crops
should be alternated with strips of close-growing crops.
Close-growing crops should be kept on the land at least
three-fourths of the time. All cover crop residue should
be left on the ground. Good seedbed preparation,
fertilization, and irrigation are needed for best yields.
The soils have moderate limitations for pasture and
hay crops. Seeding and maintenance may be hindered in
areas of shallow soils. Applications of fertilizer are
needed for best yields. Coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass are moderately well adapted to these soils.
These soils have moderately high potential for
production of pine trees. Equipment limitations and
seedling mortality are the main management concerns.
Slash pine is the most suitable tree to plant.
The sandy texture and the shallowness to bedrock
severely limit the use of these soils for sanitary facilities.
On the Pedro Variant soil, shallowness is a severe
limitation to use for building sites. On the Chiefland soil,
shallowness is a moderate limitation for dwellings with
basements. The sandy texture severely limits the use of
the Chiefland soil for shallow excavations and for lawns
and landscaping. Steep slopes moderately limit the use
of the Chiefland soil for small commercial buildings.
These soils are in capability subclass IVs.

19-Chiefland-Pedro Variant complex, occasionally
flooded. This complex consists of nearly level to sloping
soils that are within 3 miles of rivers and creeks
interspersed with numerous sinkholes. These soils are
flooded periodically from river overflow after unusually
high rainfall. There have been three major floods since
1948. They occurred in the period April to June. The
areas of these soils are so small or so intermingled that
it was not practical to map them separately. The areas
of this complex range from 5 to 80 acres.
The Chiefland soil makes up about 41 percent of the
complex. Typically, the surface layer is about 5 inches of
dark grayish brown fine sand. The subsurface layer is
light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 23 inches.
The upper 3 inches of the sandy clay loam subsoil is
dark brown, and the lower part is strong brown. It is
underlain by limestone.
The Chiefland soil has no water table within a depth of
72 inches. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
available water capacity is very low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. The natural
fertility and organic matter content are very low.
The Pedro Variant soil makes up about 39 percent of
the complex. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine
sand about 3 inches thick. The fine sand subsurface


31






Soil Survey


layer is dark brown about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is
dark brown sandy clay loam about 3 inches thick. It is
underlain by about 3 inches of soft weathered limestone.
Below that, hard limestone extends to a depth of 80
inches or more.
The Pedro Variant soil has no water table within a
depth of 72 inches. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderately rapid in the
subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in the
surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
subsoil. The natural fertility and organic matter content
are low.
Soils of minor extent make up about 20 percent of the
complex. These include Alpin, Lakeland, Troup, and
Albany soils. Not all of these soils are in each mapped
area. Small areas of rock outcrop and sinkholes are
common.
The natural vegetation is laurel oak, water oak, live
oak, hickory, wild persimmon, slash pine, loblolly pine,
spruce pine, wild grape, red maple, ash, smilax, poison-
ivy, sweetgum, ferns, and redcedar.
Droughtiness, poor soil quality, and the hazard of
flooding very severely limit the use of the soils for
cultivated crops. Furthermore, shallowness to limestone
in the Pedro Variant soil is a severe limitation. Crops
such as corn or soybeans can be grown if shallow areas
are avoided. High-value crops should not be grown
because of possible losses caused by flooding. Close-
growing crops should be kept on the land at least three-
fourths of the time. All cover-crop residue should be left
on the ground. Good seedbed preparation, fertilization,
and irrigation are needed for best yields.
The soils have moderate limitations for pasture and
hay crops. Seeding may be hindered in areas of shallow
soils. Applications of fertilizer are needed for best yields.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass are moderately
well adapted to these soils.
These soils have moderately high potential for
production of pine trees. Equipment limitations and
seedling mortality are the main management concerns.
Slash pine is the most suitable tree to plant.
Flooding, the shallowness to bedrock, and the sandy
texture severely limit the use of these soils for sanitary
facilities and building sites.
These soils are in capability subclass IVs.

20-Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
is a moderately well drained, nearly level to gently
sloping soil in somewhat depressed areas and on flats in
the uplands. The areas range from 3 to 800 acres and
are circular to irregularly elongated.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 7
inches thick. Fine sand extends to a depth of 80 inches.
In sequence downward, 23 inches is very pale brown
and has yellow mottles; the next 10 inches is light gray
and has very pale brown mottles; the next 20 inches is
very pale brown and has brownish yellow, white, and


yellowish red mottles; and the lowermost 20 inches is
white with brownish yellow and yellow mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton, Alpin, Lakeland, Albany, and Hurricane soils.
These soils make up less than 15 percent of the map
unit.
This Chipley soil has a water table at a depth of 20 to
40 inches for 2 to 4 months in most years. The water
table is usually at a depth of 40 to 60 inches during the
rest of the year. It recedes, however, to a depth of more
than 60 inches during very dry periods. The available
water capacity is very low, and permeability is rapid
throughout the soil. Natural fertility and the organic
matter content are low.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
pine and scattered bluejack, post, live, and laurel oak.
Pineland threeawn is the dominant grass. There are
some areas of Florida bluestem and low panicums.
This Chipley soil has severe limitations for cultivated
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
limit the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of
adapted crops. The high water table, which is within 40
inches of the surface in wet seasons, affects the
availability of water in the root zone and provides water
through capillary rise to supplement the low available
water capacity of the soil. In very dry seasons, the water
table drops well below the root zone and little capillary
water is available to plants. Soil management should
include planting alternate strips of row crops and close-
growing crops. Crop rotations should include close-
growing crops at least two-thirds of the time. All crops
should be limed and fertilized. Soil-improving cover crops
and all crop residue should be left on the ground.
Irrigation of high-value crops is usually feasible where
irrigation water is readily available. Tile drains or other
kinds of drains are needed to protect some crops from
damage caused by the high water table during the
growing season. Minimum tillage and windbreaks are
needed to reduce wind erosion.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay.
Such plants as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass
are well adapted to this soil, but they require applications
of fertilizer and lime. Grazing should be controlled to
maintain plant vigor for maximum yields.
This soil has high potential for production of pine
trees. Equipment limitations and plant competition are
the main management concerns. Slash and loblolly pines
are the best trees to plant.
The sandy texture and the high water table severely
limit the use of this soil for sanitary facilities, shallow
excavations, dwellings with basements, and lawns and
landscaping. The high water table moderately limits the
use of this soil as a site for other kinds of buildings.
This Chipley soil is in capability subclass Illw.
21-Dorovan muck. This is a very poorly drained,
nearly level organic soil in large swamps and






Columbia County, Florida


drainageways. The areas range from 50 to 1,000 acres
and are circular to irregular in shape. The slope is less
than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown muck
about 14 inches thick. It has 45 percent fiber unrubbed.
The underlying layers are dark reddish brown muck with
30 percent fiber unrubbed in the upper 36 inches and 25
percent fiber unrubbed below 50 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pamlico muck, loamy substratum; Plummer muck,
depressional; and Surrency soils. These soils generally
border the Dorovan soil and make up about 15 percent
of the map unit.
This Dorovan soil has a water table at or above the
surface for 6 to 12 months during most years. The
available water capacity is very high, and permeability is
moderate. Natural fertility is moderate, and the organic
matter content is very high.
The natural vegetation consists of cypress, sweetgum,
black tupelo, fetterbush, and smilax.
Excessive wetness very severely limits the use of the
Dorovan soil for cultivated crops. Unless an extensive
water-control program is carried out, this soil cannot be
used for the crops that are common to the area.
Drainage outlets generally are not available. If water can
be controlled, this soil is suited to some vegetable crops
or ornamental plants. It should be saturated when the
cropping season is over to minimize soil loss caused by
oxidation. Applications of phosphate and potash
fertilizers that contain minor elements are needed.
This Dorovan soil has severe limitations for pasture
grasses unless an extensive water-control program is
carried out. Applications of fertilizer high in potassium,
phosphorus, and minor elements are needed. Grazing
should be controlled for maximum yields. The soil should
be kept saturated to minimize oxidation of organic
materials.
The potential of this soil for production of trees is
moderate. Seedling mortality and equipment limitations
are the main management concerns. Baldcypress is the
most suitable tree to plant.
Flooding, ponding, and the high content of organic
matter severely limit the use of this soil for sanitary
facilities and building site development.
This Dorovan soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

22-Electra Variant fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes. This is a somewhat poorly drained, nearly level
to gently sloping soil on low ridges adjacent to
drainageways and around swamps or depressions. The
areas range from 7 to 300 acres and are irregularly
elongated in shape.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4
inches thick. The fine sand subsurface layer extends to a
depth of 38 inches. The upper 20 inches is white with
brown streaks; the next 10 inches is light gray with dark
grayish brown streaks; and the lower 4 inches is light


brownish gray with dark grayish brown streaks. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches. The upper part
is dark brown fine sand 13 inches thick; the next 2
inches is dark yellowish brown fine sand; the next 4
inches is yellowish brown fine sandy loam with pale
brown mottles; and the lower 23 inches is light brownish
gray fine sandy loam with red and brownish yellow
mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Plummer, Mascotte, Sapelo, Leon, Hurricane,
and Pelham soils. Also included are some soils that are
similar to the Electra Variant soil but have iron
concretions in the subsurface layer and in the subsoil.
These soils make up about 20 percent of the area.
This Electra Variant soil has a water table at a depth
of 25 to 40 inches for about 4 months during most years.
The water table recedes to a depth of more than 40
inches the rest of the year. The available water capacity
is low in the surface layer, very low in the subsurface
layer, and medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in
the surface layer, moderately rapid in the subsurface
layer, moderate in the sandy part of the subsoil, and
slow in the loamy part of the subsoil. The organic matter
content is moderately low in the surface layer, very low
in the subsurface layer, moderate in the upper part of
the subsoil, and very low in the lower part. Natural
fertility is low.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, running
oak, and sawpalmetto. Low panicums and pineland
threeawn are the dominant grasses. In most areas, the
soil is used as woodland.
Low natural fertility and a seasonal high water table
severely limit the use of this soil for cultivated crops. The
available water capacity is very low, and response to
fertilizer is slight. Soil management should include
applications of lime and fertilizer and irrigation. Additions
of organic supplements are needed for fair crop yields.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture.
Grasses, such as improved bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, produce fair growth if fertilized. Clovers are
not adapted to this soil. The low natural fertility and
droughtiness are the main management concerns.
This soil has a moderate potential for production of
trees, and droughtiness is the main limitation for this use.
Management problems include severe seedling mortality
and moderate equipment limitations. Slash and sand
pines are the best trees to plant.
The sandy texture and the high water table severely
limit the use of this soil for sanitary facilities. The high
water table moderately to severely limits the use of this
soil for building sites. This soil is well suited to lawns and
landscaping.
This Electra Variant soil is in capability subclass VIs.

23-Electra Variant fine sand, occasionally
flooded. This is a somewhat poorly drained, nearly level
to gently sloping soil on flood plains along rivers, creeks,


33






Soil Survey


and other drainageways. This soil is flooded occasionally
during March and April from abnormally heavy and
prolonged rainfall over most of the Suwannee River and
Santa Fe River drainage area (7). The lowlands remain
flooded for about 30 days; the depressions that drain by
percolation and seepage remain flooded for longer
periods. Major floods occurred in March and April of
1948, 1959, and 1973. The areas of this soil range from
10 to 50 acres and are irregularly elongated in shape.
The slope ranges from 0 to 5 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 2
inches thick. The fine sand subsurface layer extends to a
depth of 39 inches. The upper 6 inches is light gray, the
next 28 inches is white, and the lowermost 3 inches is
grayish brown. The upper part of the subsoil is fine sand
and extends to a depth of 54 inches. In the upper 11
inches, it is dark brown; and in the next 4 inches, it is
dark yellowish brown. A layer of brown sandy loam 4
inches thick is between the upper and lower parts of the
subsoil. The lower part of the subsoil extends to a depth
of 80 inches or more. In the upper 3 inches, it is light
yellowish brown fine sandy loam; in the next 13 inches, it
is gray sandy clay loam; and in the lowermost 6 inches,
it is gray sandy clay loam with yellowish brown mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Plummer muck, depressional; Bigbee and Mascotte soils;
and Leon and Albany soils in areas that are occasionally
flooded. Also included are soils that are similar to the
Electra Variant soil but have iron concretions in the
subsurface layer and subsoil. These soils make up about
20 percent of the area.
This Electra Variant soil has a water table at a depth
of 25 to 40 inches for about 4 months in most years.
The water table recedes to a depth of more than 40
inches the rest of the year. This soil is flooded by the
river during abnormal rainy conditions. The available
water capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface
layers and medium in the subsoil. The available water
capacity is low in the layer between the upper and lower
parts of the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface
layer and moderately rapid in the subsurface layer. It is
moderate in the upper part of the subsoil and slow in the
lower part of the subsoil, but it is moderately rapid in the
layer between the upper and lower parts of the subsoil.
Organic matter content is moderately low in the surface
layer; very low in the subsurface layer, in the lower parts
of the subsoil, and in the layer between the upper and
lower parts of the subsoil; and moderate in the upper
part of the subsoil. Natural fertility is very low.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, running
oak, huckleberry, and sawpalmetto. Low panicums and
pineland threeawn are the dominant grasses. In most
areas, the soil is used as woodland.
Very low natural fertility, flooding, and a seasonal high
water table severely limit the use of this soil for
cultivated crops.


This soil has moderate limitations for improved
pasture. Grasses, such as improved bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, produce fair growth if fertilizer is used.
Clovers are not adapted to this soil.
The potential of this soil for production of trees is
moderate. Droughtiness is the main limitation for this
use. Management problems include severe seedling
mortality and moderate equipment limitations. Slash and
sand pines are the best trees to plant.
Flooding and the sandy texture are severe limitations
to use of this soil for sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Electra Variant soil is in capability subclass VIs.

24-Fort Meade Variant loamy fine sand, 0 to 5
percent slopes. This is a well drained, nearly level to
gently sloping soil on uplands. The areas range from 5 to
40 acres and are circular to irregularly elongated.
Typically, the loamy fine sand surface layer is 16
inches thick. The upper 7 inches is very dark gray, and
the lower 9 inches is dark brown. The fine sand subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches. The upper 17 inches is
dark brown, and the lower part is yellowish brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
the Ocilla, Lucy, Troup, and Chipley soils. Also included
are soils that are similar to the Fort Meade Variant soil,
but some have a surface layer that ranges to 30 inches,
in thickness, some are seasonally saturated to a depth
of 50 to 72 inches, and some have a dark colored buried
surface layer at a depth of more than 50 inches. The
included soils make up about 20 percent of the map unit.
This Fort Meade Variant soil has no water table within
a depth of 72 inches during most years. The available
water capacity is medium. Permeability is rapid. Natural
fertility is low. The organic matter content is moderately
low in the surface layer and low in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists of slash and loblolly
pine; laurel, turkey, and blackjack oak; dogwood;
magnolia; and hickory. In most areas, the soil is planted
to corn, tobacco, and peanuts.
This Fort Meade Variant soil has moderate limitations
for cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
plant nutrients are the main limitations. Crop rotation,
good management of cover crops and crop residue,
irrigation, liming, and fertilization are needed to improve
the soil.
This soil has slight limitations for improved pasture.
Deep-rooting grass plants grow well if they are regularly
fertilized and limed.
This soil has a moderately high potential for production
of slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines. Plant competition is
the main management concern. Slash pine is the best
tree to plant.
The sandy texture severely limits the use of this soil
for most sanitary facilities. The limitations are slight for
septic tank absorption fields and building site
development. Because of the sandy texture, cutbanks in
shallow excavations can cave in.






Columbia County, Florida


This Fort Meade Variant soil is in capability subclass
Ills.

25-Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. This is a moderately well drained, gently sloping
soil on knolls and ridges in the uplands. The areas range
from 1 to 40 acres and are circular to irregularly
elongated.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown loamy fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The loamy fine sand
subsurface layer extends to a depth of 13 inches and is
light yellowish brown. The subsoil extends to a depth of
80 inches or more. The upper 5 inches is light yellowish
brown fine sandy loam with yellowish brown mottles. The
next 5 inches is light yellowish brown sandy clay loam
with brownish yellow mottles. The next 7 inches is light
yellowish brown sandy clay loam with light gray and
yellowish brown mottles. The next 15 inches is brownish
yellow sandy clay loam with light gray and yellowish
brown mottles. The lower 35 inches is light yellowish
brown sandy clay with light gray and yellowish brown
mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bonneau, Ocilla, and Lucy soils and of a soil that is
similar to the Goldsboro soil but is somewhat poorly
drained. Also included are soils that are similar to the
Goldsboro soil but have iron, phosphatic, and limestone
nodules. In some areas the Goldsboro soil has a thinner
surface layer and the slope ranges from 2 to 8 percent.
The included soils make up about 20 percent of the map
unit.
This Goldsboro soil has a water table at a depth of 2
to 3 feet after heavy rains for less than a month in most
years. It is at a depth of 3 to 5 feet for 1 to 4 months
and at a depth of more than 5 feet the remainder of the
year. The available water capacity is low in the surface
and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the
subsoil, and moderately slow in the lower part of the
subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate. The organic matter
content is low.
The natural vegetation consists of loblolly, slash, and
longleaf pine; laurel and live oak; sweetgum; and
flowering dogwood. The understory vegetation includes
American beautyberry, common greenbrier, Virginia
creeper, and wild blackberry. Grasses include pineland
threeawn, panicums, and bluestems.
This Goldsboro soil has slight limitations for cultivated
crops. Most areas are used for cultivated crops. The
variety of crops adapted to this soil is somewhat limited
by occasional wetness. The soil reponds moderately well
to fertilizers. Erosion control is needed. Crop rotations
should keep cover crops on the land at least one-half of
the time. Crop residue and soil-improfing cover crops
should be left on the ground. Good seedbed preparation


and fertilization and liming are needed for maximum
yields.
This soil has slight limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Fertilizer, lime, and controlled grazing are needed
to maintain plant vigor and a good ground cover.
Clovers, tall fescue, improved bermudagrass, and
bahiagrass are well adapted to this soil.
The potential of this soil for production of trees is high.
Plant competition is the main management concern.
Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
The high water table is a moderate to severe limitation
to use of the soil for building sites and sanitary facilities.
There are slight limitations to use of this soil for lawns
and landscaping. This soil is fairly suited to use as daily
cover for landfills.
This Goldsboro soil is in capability subclass lie.

26-Hurricane fine sand. This is a somewhat poorly
drained, nearly level soil on flats and in areas adjacent
to depressions and poorly defined drainageways. The
areas range from 10 to 200 acres and are circular to
elongated. The slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The fine sand subsurface layer
extends to a depth of 56 inches. The top 10 inches is
grayish brown, the next 14 inches is pale brown, and the
lower 24 inches is light gray. The subsoil is dark brown
fine sand, about 9 inches thick, over black fine sand that
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The black color
of the subsoil is due to the organic matter coating the
sand grains.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Chipley, Leon, Plummer, and Sapelo soils. Also
included are soils that are similar to the Hurricane soil
but have a loamy subsurface layer. The included soils
make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
This Hurricane soil has a water table at a depth of 20
to 30 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
Occasionally it rises above 20 inches for short periods. It
recedes to a depth of 45 inches or more during dry
periods. (See fig. 6, p. 21.) The available water capacity is
low throughout. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderately rapid in the subsoil.
Natural fertility is low. The organic matter content is
medium in the surface layer, very low in the subsurface
layer, and medium in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, water
oak and live oak, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, pineland
threeawn, chalky bluestem, dwarf huckleberry, inkberry,
and fetterbush.
Wetness is a severe limitation to use of the soil for
cultivated crops; however, many areas are used for
crops. Comprehensive water control is needed if the soil
is to be used as highly productive cropland. The sandy
surface and subsurface layers of this soil allow rapid
leaching of nutrients needed by the plants. Also, in dry
periods, very little moisture is available to the plants.


35






Soil Survey


Wind erosion is an additional hazard. Minimum tillage
reduces erosion and saves energy.
This soil has slight limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass grow well
if well managed. A drainage system to remove the
excess surface water in times of high rainfall is needed.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are also
needed. Grazing should be carefully controlled to
maintain plant vigor for best yields.
This soil has high potential for production of pine
trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
the main management concerns. Slash pine is the best
tree to plant.
The sandy texture and the high water table are
moderate to severe limitations to the use of this soil for
sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Hurricane soil is in capability subclass Illw.

27--chetucknee fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
This is a somewhat poorly drained, gently sloping soil on
small knolls and undulating terrain on erosional uplands.
The areas range from 5 to 70 acres and are irregularly
shaped.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
with very pale brown splotches about 8 inches thick. The
clay subsoil extends to a depth of 55 inches. The upper
26 inches is pale brown with gray, red, and brownish
yellow mottles, and the lower 16 inches is yellowish red.
Limestone bedrock is at a depth of 55 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bonneau and Goldsboro soils. Also included are areas of
soils that are similar to the Ichetucknee soil, but some
have a clayey surface layer, some are saturated for 2 to
4 months because of hillside seepage, and some have
bedrock within a depth of 40 inches. The included soils
make up about 25 percent of the map unit.
This Ichetucknee soil has a perched water table at a
depth of 1 1/2 to 3 feet for 1 to 4 months. The soil is
saturated after heavy rains. The available water capacity
is medium in the surface and subsurface layers and in
the lower part of the subsoil. It is low in the upper part of
the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility
is moderate. The organic matter content is moderate in
the surface layer and moderately low in the subsurface
layer and subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists of laurel oak and
water oak, ironwood, slash pine, wild cherry, poison-ivy,
sparkleberry, wild grape, and blackberry. In many areas,
the soil is planted to bahiagrass or Coastal
bermudagrass.
Wetness, the hazard of erosion, and a restricted root
zone very severely limit the use of this soil for cultivated
crops. Erosion control and drainage are needed. The soil
is not suitable for terracing, so erosion control requires
the use of vegetative cover. Row crops should be


planted in narrow strips that alternate with wilder strips of
cover crops. Cover crops should be left on the land at
least three-fourths of the time. All crop residue should be
left on the ground. Applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed for best yields. Minimum tillage reduces erosion
and saves energy.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture. Coastal
bermudagrass and bahiagrass are moderately adapted to
this soil. They need applications of fertilizer and lime and
protection from overgrazing to maintain good plant
growth and to maintain a good plant cover.
This soil has high potential for the production of trees.
Equipment limitations are the main management
concerns. Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to
plant.
The clayey texture and the high water table
moderately to severely limit the use of this soil for
sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Ichetucknee soil is in capability subclass IVe.

28-Ichetucknee fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
This is a somewhat poorly drained, sloping soil on
upland hillsides. The areas of this soil range from 3 to 20
acres and are irregularly shaped.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 4 inches thick. It is underlain by 3 inches of dark
grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil is yellowish brown
clay in the top 9 inches; mottled, pale brown, yellowish
brown, gray, and yellowish red clay in the next 22
inches; gray clay with brown and red mottles in the next
17 inches; and mottled gray, yellowish brown, and red
clay to a depth of 75 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a
depth of 75 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Goldsboro and Ocilla soils. Also included are small areas
of poorly drained, sloping soils that have a clayey
surface layer and some soils that have bedrock within a
depth of 40 inches. In many of these areas, the surface
layer is clay because the original sandy surface layer has
eroded away. The included soils make up about 20
percent of the map unit.
This Ichetucknee soil has a perched water table at a
depth of 1 1/2 to 3 feet for 1 to 2 months. This soil is
usually saturated because of seepage. The available
water capacity is medium in the surface and subsurface
layers and in the lower part of the subsoil. It is low in the
upper part of the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil.
Natural fertility is moderate. The organic matter content
is moderate in the surface layer and moderately low in
the subsurface layer and subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists of laurel oak and
water oak, ironwood, slash pine, wild cherry, poison-ivy,
sparkleberry, wild grape, and blackberry. Most areas of
this soil are planted to pine or are used as improved
permanent pasture.







Columbia County, Florida


The steep slopes severely limit the use of this soil for
cultivated crops. Permanent vegetative cover should be
maintained on this soil.
This soil has severe limitations for pasture and hay.
Grasses that are adapted to this soil, such as Coastal
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, grow moderately well if
carefully managed. Grazing must be restricted to
maintain a dense cover.
This soil has high potential for production of trees.
Equipment limitations are the main management
concerns. Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to
plant.
The high water table and the clayey texture are
moderate to severe limitations to use of this soil for
sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Ichetucknee soil is in capability subclass Vie.

29-Lakeland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
is an excessively drained, nearly level to gently sloping
soil on broad, slightly elevated ridges. The areas range
from 8 to 1,500 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 6 inches thick. Below that, in sequence, there is,
to a depth of 20 inches, light yellowish brown fine sand;
to a depth of 55 inches, very pale brown fine sand with
light yellowish brown splotches; and to a depth of 80
inches or more, very pale brown fine sand with yellow
mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Alpin, Blanton, Troup, and Chipley soils. Also included
are soils that are similar to the Lakeland soil except that
they have limestone deposits within a depth of 80
inches. The included soils make up less than 10 percent
of the map unit.
This Lakeland soil does not have a water table within
a depth of 80 inches at any time. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility and
the content of organic matter are very low.
The natural vegetation consists of blackjack, turkey,
and post oaks, poison oak, pricklypear, persimmon,
cherry, sumac, slash pine, and chinkapin.
This Lakeland soil has very severe limitations for
cultivated crops. Intensive soil management is
necessary. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
nutrients reduce the variety of crops that can be grown
and also reduce the potential yields of adapted crops.
Crop rotations should include close-growing cover crops
at least three-fourths of the time. All crop residue should
be left on the ground. Irrigation and fertilization and
liming are usually feasible. Minimum tillage reduces
erosion and reduces the loss of moisture in the surface
layer.
This soil has moderate limitations for improved
pasture. Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted to this
soil, but yields are reduced by periodic drought. Regular


applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for best
yields.
The Lakeland soil has a moderately high potential for
production of slash and longleaf pines. Equipment
limitations, seedling mortality, and droughtiness are the
main management concerns. Slash and loblolly pines are
the best trees to plant.
The sandy texture severely limits the use of this soil
for most sanitary facilities: The limitations to use of the
soil as septic tank absorption fields are slight. Because
of the sandy texture, cutbanks in shallow excavations
can cave in. Droughtiness is a limitation to use of the
soil for lawns and landscaping.
This Lakeland soil is in capability subclass IVs.

30-Lakeland fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes.
This is an excessively drained, sloping to strongly sloping
soil on broad, slightly elevated ridges and around
depressions. The areas range from about 5 to 40 acres
and are irregularly shaped.
Typically, the surface layer is brown fine sand about 3
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand and
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 41
inches is brownish yellow; the next 29 inches is brownish
yellow with common uncoated sand grains; and the
lowermost 7 inches is light yellowish brown with many
uncoated sand grains.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
the Alpin, Blanton, and Chipley soils. Also included are
soils that are similar to the Lakeland soil except that they
have deep limestone within a depth of 80 inches. The
included soils make up less than 10 percent of the map
unit.
This Lakeland soil does not have a water table within
a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity is low
throughout the soil. Permeability is rapid. The natural
fertility and organic matter content are very low.
The natural vegetation consists of blackjack, turkey,
and post oak; poison-oak; pricklypear; persimmon;
cherry; sumac; chinkapin; and longleaf and slash pine.
Droughtiness, the very low fertility, the steepness of
the slope, and the hazard of erosion severely limit the
use of this soil for cultivated crops.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture. Deep-
rooting plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, are well adapted to this soil, but yields are
reduced by periodic droughts. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed, and grazing should be
controlled to maintain plant vigor for the highest yields.
The Lakeland soil has a moderately high potential for
production of pine trees. Equipment limitations, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are the main
management concerns. Slash and loblolly pines are the
best trees to plant.
Slope and the sandy texture are moderate to severe
limitations to use of the soir for sanitary facilities and
building site development.


37







Soil Survey


This Lakeland soil is in capability subclass Vis.

31-Leefield fine sand. This is a nearly level,
somewhat poorly drained soil on small flats and in gently
undulating areas. The areas range from 3 to 40 acres
and are mostly circular. The slope ranges from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the fine sand surface layer is 8 inches thick.
The upper 5 inches is dark gray, and the lower 3 inches
is dark grayish brown. The fine sand subsurface layer is
19 inches thick. The upper 12 inches is yellowish brown;
the next 7 inches is light yellowish brown with light gray
and yellowish brown mottles. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches or more. From 27 to 31 inches it is
light yellowish brown sandy loam; the next 14 inches is
pale brown sandy clay loam; the next 20 inches is light
gray sandy clay loam; and the lowermost 15 inches is
brownish yellow, gray, light gray, and red mottled sandy
clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
the Albany, Pelham, Mascotte, and Ocilla soils. Also
included are soils that are similar to the Leefield soil but
have organic-stained layers below the surface layer. The
included soils make up less than 15 percent of the map
unit.
This Leefield soil has a water table at a depth of 18 to
30 inches for about 4 months during most years. The
water table is at a depth of 30 to 60 inches for about 4
months and is below a depth of 60 inches during the
remainder of the year. The available water capacity is
low in the surface and subsurface layers and medium in
the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer,
moderate in the subsurface layer, and moderately slow
in the subsoil. The natural fertility and organic matter
content are low.
The natural vegetation consists of live, water, and
laurel oak; slash pine; inkberry; waxmyrtle; bluestem;
pineland threeawn, and smilax.
Wetness severely limits the use of this Leefield soil for
cultivated crops. This soil is suited to some cultivated
crops, but the choice of crops is limited by the high
water table. Tile drains or open ditches are needed to
remove excess water during the rainy seasons. Row
crops should be rotated with cover crops. Cover crops
should be grown at least two-thirds of the time. Soil-
improving cover crops and all other crop residue should
be left on the soil. Good seedbed preparation and
applications of fertilizer and lime are required for best
yields.
This soil has slight limitations for pasture. Such
grasses as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass grow
well with good management. Most legumes are
moderately adapted to this soil. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime and a carefully controlled grazing
system maintain plant vigor for best yields.
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees is
moderately high. Equipment limitations and seedling


mortality are the main management concerns. Slash pine
and loblolly pine are the best trees to plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture are
moderate to severe limitations for use of this soil for
sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Leefield soil is in capability subclass llw.

32-Leon fine sand. This is a poorly drained, nearly
level soil in broad flatwoods and in areas adjacent to wet
depressions and drainageways on the uplands. The
areas range from 2 to 900 acres and are irregularly
shaped. The slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 8
inches thick. The fine sand subsurface layer extends to a
depth of 19 inches and is gray. The fine sand subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper part
of the subsoil extends to a depth of 27 inches. The
upper 4 inches is black, and the next 4 inches is very
dark brown. This layer is coated with organic matter. The
lower part of the subsoil is dark yellowish brown to a
depth of 54 inches and, below that, dark brown fine sand
over black fine sand that is coated with organic matter.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Electra Variant, Mascotte, Sapelo, Plummer, and
Hurricane soils. Also included are small areas of soils
that are similar to the Leon soil, but some are in higher
positions on the landscape and are better drained and
some soils are ponded during wet periods. The included
soils make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
This Leon soil has a water table at a depth of 10 to 40
inches for more than 9 months in most years. The water
table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 4
months during periods of heavy rains but recedes to a
depth of more than 40 inches during very dry seasons.
The available water capacity is high in the surface layer,
very low in the subsurface layer, medium in the layer
between the upper and lower parts of the subsoil, and
low in the upper and lower parts of the subsoil.
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and moderate to
moderately rapid in the rest of the soil. Natural fertility is
low. The organic matter content is high in the surface
layer, moderately low in the subsurface layer, and
moderate in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
pine, dwarf huckleberry, gallberry, sawpalmetto,
fetterbush, waxmyrtle, deertongue, blackberry, and
brackenfern. Grasses include chalky and broomsedge
bluestem, indiangrass, panicum, pineland tihreeawn, and
sedges.
Wetness, restricted root zone, and low natural fertility
very severely limit the use of this Leon soil for cultivated
crops. The choice of crops is limited unless very
intensive management is followed. With good water
control and soil improvement these soils are suited to a
few crops, such as vegetables. Row crops should be
rotated with soil-improving cover crops, which should be
grown at least three-fourths of the time. Minimum tillage


38







Columbia County, Florida


reduces moisture loss during drought periods. All crop
residue and soil-improving cover crops should be left on
the soil. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of
rows. Fertilizer and lime are needed for best yields.
Irrigation may be needed in dry seasons.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Coastal bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and
several legumes are adapted to this soil. Water control is
needed for plant establishment and to remove excess
water during heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer
and lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled
to maintain plant vigor for best yields.
This soil has a moderate potential for production of
pine trees. Excessive wetness is the main limitation.
Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, windthrow
hazard, and plant competition are the main management
concerns. Trees should be planted in bedded rows.
Slash pine is the best tree to plant.
The sandy texture and the high water table severely
limit the use of this soil for sanitary facilities and building
sites.
This Leon soil is in capability subclass IVw.

33-Leon fine sand, occasionally flooded. This is a
poorly drained, nearly level soil in broad areas in the
flatwoods along river flood plains. The areas range from
10 to 100 acres and are irregularly elongated. The slope
ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 3 inches thick. The fine sand subsurface layer
extends to a depth of 12 inches and is light brownish
gray. The fine sand subsoil extends to a depth of 23
inches. The upper 4 inches is very dark gray; the next 4
inches is dark brown; and the lower 3 inches is very dark
grayish brown. The fine sand substratum extends to a
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 3 inches is dark
brown, the next 28 inches is yellowish brown, and the
lower 26 inches is very pale brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bigbee, Pelham, Plummer, Electra Variant, and Mascotte
soils. These soils make up less than 25 percent of the
map unit.
This Leon soil has a water table within 10 inches of
the surface for 1 to 4 months in most years. The water
table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches during the rest of
the year, except during very dry seasons when it recedes
to a depth of more than 40 inches. The available water
capacity is high in the surface layer, very low in the
subsurface layer, medium in the layer between the upper
and lower parts of the subsoil, and low in the upper and
lower parts of the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
surface layer and moderate to moderately rapid in the
rest of the soil. The natural fertility is low. The organic
matter content is high in the surface layer, moderately
low in the subsurface layer, and moderate in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
pine, dwarf huckleberry, gallberry, sawpalmetto,


waxmyrtle, deertongue, blackberry, fetterbush,
huckleberry, and brackenfern. Grasses include chalky
and broomsedge bluestem, indiangrass, panicum,
pineland threeawn, and sedges.
Flooding, wetness, restricted root zone, and low
natural fertility very severely limit the use of this Leon
soil for cultivated crops. The choice of crops is limited
unless very intensive management is followed. With
good water control and soil improvement these soils are
suited to a few crops, such as vegetables. Row crops
should be rotated with soil-improving cover crops that
are kept on the land at least three-fourths of the time. All
other crop residue should be left on the soil. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer
and lime are needed. Irrigation may be needed in dry
seasons. Minimum tillage reduces moisture loss during
drought periods.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Coastal bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and
several legumes are moderately adapted to this soil.
Water control is needed for plant establishment and to

remove excess water during heavy rains. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, and grazing
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor for best
yields.
This soil has a moderate potential for production of
pine trees. Excessive wetness is the main limitation.
Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, windthrow
hazard, and plant competition are the main management
concerns. Trees should be planted in bedded rows.
Slash pine is the best tree to plant.
Flooding, the high water table, and the sandy texture
severely limit the use of this soil for sanitary facilities and
building sites.
This Leon soil is in capability subclass IVw.

34-Lucy loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
This is a well drained, gently sloping soil on broad
upland ridges. The areas range from 5 to 40 acres and
are irregular in shape. -
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown loamy fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, in
sequence downward, is yellowish brown loamy sand,
strong brown loamy fine sand, and strong brown loamy
sand. The fine sandy loam subsoil is yellowish red and
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton, Bonneau, Orangeburg, and Troup soils. Also
included are small areas of soils that are similar to the
Lucy soil but have rock within a depth of 60 inches. The
included soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
The water table is below a depth of 72 inches at all
times. The available water capacity is medium in the
surface layer, low in the subsurface layer, and medium in
the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
fertility and the organic matter content are low.


39






Soil Survey


The natural vegetation consists of maple, hickory,
southern red oak and live oak, white ash, and smilax.
Most areas are cultivated or are planted to pasture.
This Lucy soil has moderate limitations for cultivated
crops. It can be cultivated safely with ordinary good
farming methods, but droughtiness and rapid leaching of
plant nutrients limit the choice of crops and the potential
yields of crops that are adapted to this soil. With good
management, crops, such as corn, soybeans, peanuts,
and tobacco, can be grown. Crop rotations should
include cover crops at least half the time. The cover
crops and all residue of other crops should be left on the
ground. Good seedbed preparation and regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for best
yields. Irrigation of some high-value crops is usually
feasible where irrigation water is readily available.
This soil has slight limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Grasses produce well when the soil is fertilized
and limed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
vigor for maximum yields and for a good ground cover.
This soil has moderately high potential for production
of trees. Seedling mortality, equipment limitation, and
plant competition are the main management concerns.
Slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines are the best trees to
plant.
Seepage severely limits the use of this soil for sewage
lagoons and area-type sanitary landfills. The limitations
are moderate for shallow excavations. Cutbanks are
subject to cave in. Droughtiness is a limitation to use of
the soil for lawns and landscaping.
This Lucy soil is in capability subclass Ils.

35-Lucy loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
This is a well drained, sloping soil on broad to narrow
sides of upland ridges. The areas range from 5 to 40
acres and are irregular in shape.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown loamy fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
yellowish brown loamy fine sand 10 inches thick. Below
this is strong brown loamy fine sand to a depth of 20
inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. The upper 7 inches is strong brown fine sandy
loam. It is underlain by yellowish red sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton, Bonneau, Orangeburg, and Troup soils. Also
included are small areas of soils that are similar to the
Lucy soil, but some have rock within a depth of 60
inches and some are sandy clay loam to a depth of 20
inches. The included soils make up about 20 percent of
the map unit.
The water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches
at all times. The available water capacity is medium in
the surface layer, low in the subsurface layer, and
medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. The natural fertility and the organic matter
content are low.


The natural vegetation consists of maple, hickory,
southern red oak, live oak, white ash, and smilax. Most
areas are cultivated or are planted to pasture.
Poor soil qualities and the erosion hazard severely
limit the use of this Lucy soil for cultivated crops.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
severely limit the use of this soil for most row crops.
Because of the hazard of erosion, row crops should be
planted in strips that alternate with wider strips of close-
growing, soil-improving crops. Close-growing crops
should be kept on the land at least two-thirds of the
time. Applications of fertilizer and lime and irrigation are
needed, particularly for high-value crops. Using minimum
tillage reduces erosion and conserves moisture.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay.
Good stands of grass can be produced by fertilizing and
liming the soil. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain
plant vigor and to provide a good protective ground
cover. In the more sloping areas, erosion control
practices are needed.
This soil has moderately high potential for the
production of trees. Seedling mortality, equipment
limitations, and plant competition are the main
management concerns. Slash, longleaf, and loblolly
pines are the best trees to plant.
Seepage severely limits the use of this soil for sewage
lagoons and area-type sanitary landfills. The limitations
are moderate for shallow excavations. Cutbanks are
subject to cave in. The slope moderately limits the use
of this soil for small commercial buildings. Droughtiness
moderately limits the use of the soil for lawns and
landscaping.
This Lucy soil is in capability subclass Ills.

36-Mandarin fine sand. This is a somewhat poorly
drained, nearly level soil in slightly elevated flatwood
areas. The individual areas are mostly irregular in shape
and range from 20 to 200 acres. The slope ranges from
0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
about 11 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is
very dark brown, dark reddish brown, and dark brown
fine sand that extends to a depth of 26 inches. The sand
grains in this layer are well coated with organic matter.
The next 7 inches is dark yellowish brown fine sand, and
below that, there is light yellowish brown, light gray, and
grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 64 inches. The
lower part of the subsoil extends to a depth of 80
inches. It is very dark brown fine sand, and the sand
grains are coated with organic matter.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Chipley, Leon, Mascotte, Pelham, Plummer,
Hurricane, and Sapelo soils. These soils make up about
15 percent of the map unit.
The water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 4
to 6 months and at a depth of more than 40 inches for 6






Columbia County, Florida


to 8 months. The water table may rise above 20 inches
during rainy periods. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and in the layer between the
upper and lower parts of the subsoil. It is moderate in
the subsoil. The available water capacity and the organic
matter content are very low in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is very low.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, running
oak, and sawpalmetto. Low panicums and pineland
threeawn are the dominant grasses. All areas of this soil
are used as woodland.
Very low fertility and droughtiness in the rooting zone
very severely limit the use of this Mandarin soil for
cultivated crops. Crop residue and cover crops should be
left on the ground. Regular applications of lime and
fertilizer are needed, along with irrigation in dry seasons.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture.
Grasses, such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass,
produce fair growth if fertilized. Clovers are not adapted
to this soil.
The potential of this soil for production of trees is
moderate. Droughtiness is the main limitation.
Management problems include severe seedling mortality
and moderate equipment limitations. Slash pine and
sand pine are the best trees to plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture are
moderate to severe limitations to use of this soil for
sanitary facilities and building site development.
The Mandarin soil is in capability subclass VIs.

37-Mascotte fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
nearly level soil around wet depressions on the uplands
and throughout the flatwoods. The areas range from 3 to
1,000 acres and are irregularly elongated in shape. The
slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
inches thick. It has many uncoated sand grains. The
subsurface layer is gray fine sand that extends to a
depth of 15 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is fine
sand that is coated with organic matter, and it extends to
a depth of 25 inches. The upper 4 inches is black, and
the next 6 inches is dark reddish brown. A 12-inch-thick
layer of fine sand separates the upper and lower parts of
the subsoil. It is yellowish brown in the upper 10 inches
and black in the lower 2 inches. The lower part of the
subsoil extends to a depth of 67 inches. The upper 18
inches is light brownish gray fine sandy loam with
brownish yellow and yellowish brown mottles; the next
12 inches is gray fine sandy loam with reddish yellow
mottles. Below that, the substratum is light olive gray
loamy sand and extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Leon, Ocilla, Olustee, Pelham, and Sapelo soils. These
soils make up less than 20 percent of the map unit.


This Mascotte soil has a water table within a depth of
10 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The
water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for up to 6
months. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during the driest seasons for 1 to 3 months. (See fig. 6,
p. 21.) The available water capacity is low in the surface
and subsurface layers, in the layer between the upper
and lower parts of the subsoil, and in the substratum. It
is high in the upper part of the subsoil and medium in
the lower part. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer,
moderate in the subsurface layer, and rapid in the upper
part of the subsoil and in the layer between the upper
and lower parts of the subsoil. It is moderate in the
substratum and in the lower part of the subsoil. The
organic matter content is moderately low, and natural
fertility is low.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine and
slash pine, dwarf huckleberry, inkberry, fetterbush,
waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, blackberry, brackenfern, and
deertongue. Grasses include chalky and broomsedge
bluestems, indiangrass, panicums, pineland threeawn,
and sedges. Most areas of this soil are used for
woodland.
Wetness severely limits the use of this Mascotte soil
for cultivated crops. Few crops are adapted to this soil
unless intensive water control is used. If a water-control
system to remove excess water in wet seasons and
provide subsurface irrigation in dry seasons is used, this
soil is well suited to many kinds of flower and vegetable
crops. This soil responds well to fertilizer and responds
rapidly to artificial drainage. Good management includes
crop rotations and water control. Crop rotations should
include close-growing, soil-improving crops that are kept
on the land at least two-thirds of the time. Crop residue
should be left on the soil. Fertilizer and lime should be
added according to the need of the crop.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay.
Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are moderately
well adapted to this soil. Drainage is needed to remove
excess surface water in times of heavy rains, and the
soil needs regular applications of lime and fertilizer.
Grazing should be carefully controlled to maintain
healthy plants for the highest yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for production
of slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines. Excessive water in
the soil is the main limitation. Seedbed rows should be
bedded. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are the main management concerns.
Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture severely
limit the use of this soil for sanitary facilities and building
sites.
This Mascotte soil is in capability subclass IVw.

38-Mascotte fine sand, depressional. This is a
nearly level, poorly drained soil in concave depressions
and drainageways. The areas range from 25 to 250


41







Soil Survey


acres and are irregularly elongated in shape. The slope
ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand 6 inches
thick. It has few uncoated sand grains. The subsurface
layer is gray fine sand that extends to a depth of 20
inches. The upper part of the subsoil to a depth of 36
inches is fine sand. The upper 4 inches is very dark
brown with sand grains coated with organic matter; the
next 6 inches is dark brown with most sand grains
coated with organic matter; and the lower 6 inches is
dark brown with weakly cemented, dark grayish brown
mottles. The lower part of the subsoil extends to a depth.
of more than 80 inches. The upper 8 inches is light
brownish gray fine sandy loam with light gray, very pale
brown, and reddish brown mottles; the next 18 inches is
light gray sandy clay loam with reddish brown, gray, light
yellowish brown, and very pale brown mottles; and the
lower 18 inches is mottled gray, very pale brown,
yellowish brown, and yellowish red fine sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Leon, Pelham, Plummer, Sapelo, and Surrency soils.
These soils make up less than 15 percent of the map
unit.
This Mascotte soil is ponded for up to 6 months in
most years during the rainy season. At other times, the
water table is within a depth of 15 inches for 6 to 8
months during most years. It recedes to a depth of more
than 40 inches for very short periods during dry seasons.
The available water capacity is very low to low in the
surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers, moderately rapid in the upper part of
the subsoil and slow in the lower part of the subsoil. The
organic matter content is moderate, and natural fertility is
low.
The natural vegetation consists of waxmyrtle, inkberry,
fetterbush, scattered sawpalmetto, slash pine, and a few
cypress trees. Understory plants include pineland
threeawn and brackenfern.
Prolonged ponding and the lack of suitable outlets for
water-control systems severely limit the use of this
Mascotte soil for cultivated crops and for improved
pasture grasses.
This soil has moderate potential for production of pine
trees. The main management concerns are equipment
limitations and seedling mortality. Where outlets are
available, a good water control system can be used to
remove excess water. Slash pine is the best tree to
plant.
Ponding and the sandy texture severely limit the use
of this soil for sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Mascotte soil is in capability subclass VIIw.

39-Mascotte fine sand, occasionally flooded. This
is a poorly drained, nearly level soil on the flood plains of
rivers and streams. This soil is flooded occasionally as a
result of heavy and prolonged rains (7). A sharp rise in


the water level causes the rivers and streams to
overflow. The lowlands remain flooded for approximately
30 days and the depressions, which drain by percolation
and seepage, for longer periods. This soil has been
flooded in March or April in about 1 year out of every 10.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 3 inches thick. It has many uncoated sand grains.
The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand and extends
to a depth of 19 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is
fine sand and extends to a depth of 34 inches. The
upper 3 inches is dark brown, and most sand grains are
coated with organic matter; the next 6 inches is brown,
and most sand grains are coated with organic matter;
and the lower 6 inches is brown with grayish brown sand
pockets and brownish organic matter coated sand
grains. A 4-inch-thick layer of fine sand separates the
upper and lower parts of the subsoil. It is light brownish
gray with brown mottles. The lower part of the subsoil
extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. The upper 7
inches is light brownish gray fine sandy loam with light
gray, very pale brown, and reddish brown mottles; the
next 14 inches is light gray sandy clay loam with reddish
brown, gray, light yellowish brown, and very pale brown
mottles; and the next 21 inches is mottled gray, very
pale brown, yellowish brown, and strong brown sandy
clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pelham, Plummer, and Leon soils, and occasionally
flooded Electra Variant soils. Also included are small
areas of soils that are similar to the Mascotte soil but
have a clayey subsoil with mica flakes and chunks of
coral or that are in small depressions and are ponded for
several months during rainy seasons. The included soils
make up less than 25 percent of the map unit.
This Mascotte soil has a water table within a depth of
10 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The
water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for up to 6
months and at a depth of more than 40 inches the
remainder of the year.
The available water capacity is very low in the surface
and subsurface layers, in the layer between the upper
and lower parts of the subsoil, and in the substratum. It
is medium in the upper and lower parts of the subsoil.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and in the layer between the upper and lower parts of
the subsoil. It is moderately rapid in the upper part of the
subsoil and slow in the lower part. The organic matter
content is moderately low, and natural fertility is low.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
pine, huckleberry and dwarf huckleberry, blueberry,
gallberry, fetterbush, waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, blackberry,
brackenfern, and deertongue. Grasses include chalky
and broomsedge bluestems, indiangrass, panicum,
pineland threeawn, and sedges.
Wetness and occasional flooding severely limit the use
of this Mascotte soil for cultivated crops.


42


a1







Columbia County, Florida


This soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are
moderately well adapted to this soil. Drainage is needed
to remove excess surface water during heavy rains.
Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are needed,
and grazing should be carefully controlled to maintain
plant vigor for high yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for production
of slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines. Excessive water in
the soil is the main limitation. Trees should be planted in
bedded rows. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
plant competition, and the hazard of flooding are the
main management concerns. Slash and loblolly pines are
the best trees to plant..
The high water table, flooding, and sandy texture
severely limit the use of this soil for sanitary facilities and
building sites.
This Mascotte soil is in capability subclass Vw.

40-Ocilla fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is
a somewhat poorly drained, gently sloping soil on
undulating landscapes in the uplands. The areas range
from 10 to 200 acres and are circular to irregularly
elongated.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 9 inches thick. The fine sand subsurface layer
extends to a depth of 32 inches. In sequence, the upper
10 inches is grayish brown, the next 7 inches is light
brownish gray, and the next 6 inches is pale brown. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 68 inches. The upper 20
inches is mottled light brownish gray, strong brown, and
pale brown fine sandy loam. The lower 16 inches is gray
fine sandy loam with strong brown and pale brown
mottles. The substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is light gray clay with strong brown and yellowish
red mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Blanton, Bonneau, Pelham, and Plummer soils.
Also included are areas of soils that are similar to the
Ocilla soil but that have ironstone fragments on the
surface or have as much as 20 percent coarse
fragments in the profile. The included soils make up
about 25 percent of this map unit.
This Ocilla soil has a water table at a depth of 15 to
30 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. It is below a
depth of 60 inches for 3 months in most years, and it is
at a depth of 30 to 60 inches the remainder of the year.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
susurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Permeability
is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, moderate
in the subsoil, and very slow in the substratum. Natural
fertility and the organic matter content are low.
The natural vegetation consists of laurel oak, longleaf
pine, and slash pine. The understory vegetation includes
waxmyrtle, inkberry, fetterbush, smilax, and pineland
threeawn.


This Ocilla soil has severe limitations for cultivated
crops. The high water table adversely affects plant
growth and trafficability in wet seasons. Small, shallow
depressions are particularly subject to this problem.
Proper management of surface water is needed to
overcome these limitations. The rapid permeability of the
surface and subsurface layers also limits the use of this
soil for cultivated crops. These sandy layers have a low
available water capacity. The sandy surface is also
subject to wind and water erosion. Close-growing crops
and cover crops help to control erosion. This soil
responds moderately well to proper applications of lime
and fertilizer. Windbreaks and minimum tillage reduce
erosion.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay.
Such pasture plants as Coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass are well adapted to this soil. Applications of
fertilizer and lime and controlled grazing are needed to
maintain plant vigor for maximum yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for production
of trees. Trafficability for site preparation may be poor in
wet years. Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to
plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture are
moderate to severe limitations to the use of this soil for
most sanitary facilities and for building sites. Wetness
may cause some problems, but this soil is fairly suited to
use as daily cover for landfills.
This Ocilla soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

41-Oleno clay. This is a poorly drained, nearly level
soil on the flood plains of rivers and creeks. The areas
range from 20 to 600 acres and are elongated in shape.
The concave slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer and subsoil are alternating
layers of dark gray and gray clay to a depth of 32
inches. Below that depth, in sequence, there is 10
inches of grayish brown fine sandy loam, 13 inches of
gray fine sandy loam, 16 inches of dark gray fine sandy
loam, and 6 inches of gray sandy clay loam. Below that,
greenish gray clay extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Surrency and Plummer soils. Also included are small
areas of soils that are similar to the Oleno soil but have
limestone within a depth of 20 inches. The included soils
make up about 20 percent of the map unit.
This Oleno soil has a water table at a depth of 6 to 18
inches for 6 to 8 months and at a depth below 18 inches
during the remainder of the year. This soil is flooded by
the river or creek for periods of up to a month in about 1
year in 10. The available water capacity is very high.
Permeability is slow in the upper layers and moderate in
the lower layers. Natural fertility and the organic matter
content are moderate.
The natural vegetation consists of black tupelo,
cypress, sweetgum, cabbage palmetto, red maple,


43






Soil Survey


sweetbay magnolia, and hickory. The understory plants
include poison-ivy and longleaf uniola.
The clayey surface, high water table, and flooding
severely limit the use of this Oleno soil for cultivated
crops.
This soil has very severe limitations for use as pasture.
It needs good management, including extensive seedbed
preparation and drainage.
This soil, under high-level management, has high
potential for production of slash pine. However, it may
not be economically feasible to grow trees on this soil.
Furthermore, the flooding hazard has to be considered.
Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
Flooding and the high water table severely limit the
use of this soil for sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Oleno soil is in capability subclass Vw.

42-Olustee fine sand, thick surface. This is a
poorly drained, nearly level soil in flatwood areas. The
areas range from 15 to 1,200 acres. The slope ranges
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the fine sand surface layer is about 18
inches thick. The upper 5 inches is black, and the lower
part is very dark gray. The upper part of the subsoil is
dark reddish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. This
layer is coated with organic matter. The middle part,
from a depth of 23 to 37 inches, is light gray fine sand.
The lower part of the subsoil to a depth of 63 inches is
light brownish gray fine sandy loam. The substratum is
light brownish gray loamy fine sand to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Mascotte and Pelham soils. These soils make up about
25 percent of the map unit.
This Olustee soil has a water table at the surface for
periods of up to 1 month during rainy seasons in most
years. The water table is at a depth of 10 to 20 inches
for 1 to 4 months and at a depth below 40 inches during
dry seasons. The available water capacity is low in the
surface layer and in the upper and lower parts of the
subsoil and very low in the other layers. Permeability is
moderate in the upper and lower parts of the subsoil and
rapid in the other layers. The organic matter content is
moderately low, and natural fertility is low.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine and
longleaf pine, sawpalmetto, inkberry, waxmyrtle, pineland
threeawn, pitcherplant, beaked panicum, fetterbush, and
chalky and broomsedge bluestem.
Wetness severely limits the use of this Olustee soil for
cultivated crops. The choice of crops is limited unless
intensive water control is used. If the wetness is
eliminated, this soil is suited to truck crops, corn, and
soybeans. It responds well to fertilizer and to artificial
drainage. Good management includes crop rotation and
water control. Crop rotations should include close-
growing, soil-improving crops, and such crops should be
grown at least two-thirds of the time. All crop residue


should be left on the soil. Fertilizer and lime should be
added according to the needs of the crop.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Bermudagrass and bahiagrass are moderately
well adapted to this soil and grow well if properly
managed. Drainage is needed to remove excess surface
water, and the soil needs regular applications of lime
and fertilizer. Grazing should be carefully controlled to
maintain plant vigor for highest yields.
This soil has a moderately high potential for production
of slash and loblolly pines. Excessive wetness is the
main limitation. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are the main management
concerns. Sites have to be prepared with care, and
bedding generally is required. Slash pine and loblolly
pine are the best trees to plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture severely
limit the use of this soil for sanitary facilities and building
sites.
This Olustee soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

43-Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. This is a well drained, gently sloping soil on
knolls and side slopes of uplands. The areas range from
about 5 to 50 acres and are irregular in shape.
Typically, the surface layer is brown loamy fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of
80 inches. In the upper 5'inches, it is yellowish red
sandy loam; in the next 38 inches, it is yellowish red
sandy clay loam underlain by sandy clay; and in the
lower 29 inches, it is mottled strong brown, yellowish
red, and gray sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Troup, Ocilla, Goldsboro, and Bonneau soils. Also
included are small areas of soils that are similar to the
Orangeburg soil, but some have hard, acid, silica-
cemented rock within a depth of 30 inches, some have a
sandy loam subsoil, and some have clay surface and
subsurface layers. The included soils make up about 25
percent of the map unit.
This Orangeburg soil does not have a water table
within a depth of 72 inches. The available water capacity
is low in the surface layer and high in the subsoil.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and
upper part of the subsoil and moderate in the lower part
of the subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate, and the
organic matter content is low.
The natural vegetation consists of water oak and
laurel oak, hickory, southern redcedar, red maple,
sweetgum, slash pine, longleaf pine, and spruce pine.
This Orangeburg soil has slight limitations for
cultivated crops. The hazard of erosion is the main
management concern. Under good management, corn,
tobacco, soybeans, watermelons, and peanuts produce
high yields. Strips of row crops should be alternated with
strips of cover crops. Crop rotations should include cover
crops at least half the time. Soil-improving cover crops


44





Columbia County, Florida


and all crop residue should be left on the soil. Maximum
yields require good seedbed preparation and regular
applications of fertilizer and lime. Minimum tillage and
windbreaks are needed to reduce erosion and conserve
moisture.
This soil has slight limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Pasture grasses, such as Coastal bermudagrass
and improved bahiagrasses, are well adapted to this soil.
They need fertilizer and lime. Controlled grazing helps to
maintain plant vigor for highest yields and to maintain a
good ground cover.
This soil has high potential for production of pine trees
with proper management and site preparation. There are
no serious management problems. Slash and loblolly
pines are the best trees to plant.
This soil has few limitations for sanitary facilities and
building sites. Slope and seepage moderately limit the
use of this soil for sewage lagoons.
This Orangeburg soil is in capability subclass lie.

44-Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes. This is a well drained, sloping soil on upland
hillsides. The areas range from about 5 to 25 acres and
are irregular in shape.
Typically, the surface layer is brown loamy fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish
brown loamy fine sand 5 inches thick over yellowish
brown fine sandy loam 3 inches thick. The subsoil is
sandy clay loam to a depth of 38 inches. It is yellowish
brown with yellow mottles. From a depth of 38 to 51
inches, it is strong brown sandy clay over mottled gray,
very pale brown, yellow, and yellowish brown sandy clay.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Troup, Ocilla, Goldsboro, and Bonneau soils. Also
included are small areas of soils that are similar to the
Orangeburg soil, except that some have hard, acid silica
cemented rock within a depth of 30 inches, and some
have clay surface and subsurface layers. The included
soils make up about 20 percent of the map unit.
This Orangeburg soil generally does not have a water
table within a depth of 72 inches. However, the soil may
have a perched water table at a depth of 3 to 5 feet for
a day or two during rainy seasons. The available water
capacity is low in the surface layer and high in the
subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface
layer and upper part of the subsoil and moderate in the
lower part of the subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate,
and the organic matter content is low.
The natural vegetation consists of water oak and
laurel oak, hickory, southern redcedar, maple, sweetgum,
slash pine, longleaf pine, and spruce pine.
This Orangeburg soil has moderate limitations for
cultivated crops. The hazard of erosion is the main
management concern. A wide variety of cultivated crops
is well adapted to this soil. Intensive erosion control is
needed. Crops should be planted in strips alternating
with strips of cover crops. Crop rotations should include


cover crops on the soil at least two-thirds of the time.
Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue should
be left on the soil. Good seedbed preparation and
fertilization and liming are required for maximum yields.
Minimum tillage and windbreaks are needed to reduce
erosion and to conserve moisture.
This soil has slight limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Grasses, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
improved bahiagrasses, are well adapted to this soil.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed,
and grazing should be controlled to maintain plant vigor
for high yields and to maintain a good ground cover.
This soil has high potential for production of pine
trees. The hazard of erosion during seedbed preparation
is the main management concern. Slash and loblolly
pines are the best trees to plant.
This soil has few limitations for sanitary facilities and
building sites. Slope and seepage moderately limit the
use of this soil for sewage lagoons and small
commercial buildings.
This Orangeburg soil is in capability subclass Ille.

45-Pamlico muck, loamy substratum. This is a very
poorly drained, nearly level soil along tributaries of major
streams and in drainageways, depressions, and swamps.
The areas range from 10 to 300 acres and are circular to
irregular in shape. The slope is 1 percent or less.
Typically, the surface layer is black muck to a depth of
24 inches. The substratum is dark grayish brown fine
sand to a depth of 48 inches and, below that, dark gray
sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Surrency and Plummer soils. Also included are soils that
are similar to the Pamlico soil but have an organic layer
more than 40 inches thick. The included soils make up
about 25 percent of the map unit.
This Pamlico soil has a water table at a depth of less
than 10 inches, or it is covered with water for more than
6 months during most years. The available water
capacity is high. Permeability is moderately rapid in the
upper 24 inches, rapid in the next 24 inches, and slow
below a depth of 48 inches. Natural fertility is moderate.
The organic matter content is very high in the organic
layer and low in the mineral layers.
The natural vegetation consists of sweetgum,
loblollybay, slash pine, waxmyrtle, fetterbush, greenbrier,
and wild blackberry.
The high water table and lack of adequate drainage
outlets are severe limitations to use of this soil for
cultivated crops or improved pasture.
This soil has moderate potential for the production of
trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
severe. After seedlings have been established, the
fluctuating water reduces survival and growth. Water
tupelo is the best tree to plant.


45





Soil Survey


The high water table, flooding, and high organic matter
content severely limit the use of this soil for sanitary
facilities and building sites.
This Pamlico soil is in capability subclass VIIw.

46-Pamlico, loamy substratum-Dorovan complex.
This complex consists of nearly level, organic soils on
large submerged wetlands in the northern part of the
county. It consists mainly of Pamlico muck, loamy
substratum, and Dorovan soils. The soils making up the
complex are intermingled in such an intricate pattern that
it was not practical to map them separately. The mapped
areas range from 200 to 1,800 acres.
A typical mapped area is about 40 percent Pamlico
muck, loamy substratum; 35 percent Dorovan soils;
about 15 percent Plummer muck, depressional; and
about 10 percent Mascotte fine sand, occasionally
flooded. The proportion of each soil, however, varies in
each mapped area. The poorly drained Plummer soil
generally is on the outer edges of the swamps, and the
poorly drained Mascotte soil is on knolls in the swamps
in an irregular pattern.
Typically, Pamlico muck, loamy substratum, has a
black muck surface layer 24 inches thick. The
substratum is 24 inches of dark grayish brown fine sand
over dark gray sandy loam, which extends to a depth of
80 inches or more.
This Pamlico soil has a water table at a depth of less
than 10 inches, or it is covered with water for more than
6 months during most years. The available water
capacity is high. Permeability is moderately rapid in the
upper 24 inches, rapid in the next layer, and moderately
slow below a depth of 48 inches. Natural fertility is
moderate.
Typically, Dorovan soils have a very dark brown muck
surface layer about 14 inches thick. Below that, dark
reddish brown muck extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
The Dorovan soils have a water table at or above the
surface for 6 to 12 months during most years. The
available water capacity is very high. Permeability is
moderate.
The natural vegetation on the soils of this complex
consists dominantly of pond cypress, sweetgum, black
tupelo, fetterbush, greenbrier, sweet pepperbush, and
blueberry.
Excess wetness and insufficient drainage outlets
severely limit the use of these soils for pasture or
cultivated crops. These soils are used mainly as habitat
for wetland wildlife.
Commercial trees are sparse in most areas, and in
some areas there are no trees. The potential productivity
for trees is moderate. Slash pine, loblolly pine, water
tupelo, and bald cypress are the best trees to plant.
The high water table, flooding, ponding, and high
organic matter content severely limit the use of the soils
for sanitary facilities and building sites.


These soils are in capability subclass VIIw.

47-Pantego fine sandy loam. This is a very poorly
drained, nearly level soil in depressional areas and
drainageways. The areas range from 3 to 40 acres and
are mostly circular. The slope is less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is 17 inches thick. The
upper 12 inches is black fine sandy loam, and the lower
5 inches is black loamy fine sand. The subsurface layer
is 1 inch thick. It is grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is light gray
and dark gray sandy clay loam with coarse yellowish
brown and yellowish red mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Surrency and Plummer soils. Also included are soils that
have a sandy surface layer, soils that have clay within a
depth of 60 inches, and soils that have rock within a
depth of 80 inches. These soils make up less than 15
percent of the map unit.
This Pantego soil has a water table at the surface for
6 months or more during most years. The water table
may recede to a depth of 40 to 60 inches during dry
periods. This soil is ponded for short periods during rainy
seasons. The available water capacity is high.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and
moderate in the subsoil. The natural fertility and the
organic matter content are moderate.
The natural vegetation consists of maidencane, water
oak, sweetgum, tupelo-gum, and waxmyrtle.
The high water table and lack of drainage outlets
severely limit the use of this Pantego soil for cultivated
crops or for improved pasture.
This soil has very high potential for production of pine
trees, but a water-control system is necessary.
Sweetgum, American sycamore, and water tupelo are
the best trees to plant. Equipment limitations and
seedling mortality are the main management concerns.
The high water table severely limits the use of this soil
for sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Pantego soil is in capability subclass VIw.

48-Pelham fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil in shallow depressions, on broad low-lying
flats in the flatwoods, and in nearly level areas on the
uplands. The areas range from 5 to 100 acres and are
irregularly shaped. The slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand.
In the upper 10 inches it is grayish brown, and in the
next 15 inches it is dark gray. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 66 inches or more. In the upper 20 inches it is
gray sandy clay loam with yellowish brown, brownish
yellow, light yellowish brown, gray, and light gray mottles;
and in the next 15 inches it is mottled gray, light gray,
and yellowish red sandy clay loam. The substratum is
gray fine sandy loam with yellowish red mottles.


46





Columbia County, Florida


Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Plummer, Surrency, Ocilla, Albany, and Mascotte soils.
Also included are soils that have a loamy subsoil within a
depth of 20 inches and soils that have clay in the upper
20 inches of the subsoil. The included soils make up
about 25 percent of the map unit.
This Pelham soil has a water table at a depth of 6 to
18 inches for about 3 months in most years. The water
table is at or above the surface for brief periods after
heavy rains. The available water capacity is high.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. The
organic matter content is moderate in the surface layer
and low in all other layers.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine and
loblolly pine, cypress, blackgum, pineland threeawn,
chalky bluestem, waxmyrtle, inkberry, sawpalmetto, and
live oak.
Wetness and low fertility severely limit the use of this
Pelham soil for cultivated crops. A good water-control
system is needed before this soil can be used for
cultivated crops. Crop rotations are needed and should
include close-growing, soil-improving crops. Seedbed
preparation should include bedded rows. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. All crop
residue should be left on the soil.
Wetness and low fertility moderately limit the use of
this soil for improved pasture grasses. Good drainage
and regular applications of lime and fertilizer are needed.
This soil produces high yields of pasture and hay crops if
properly managed.
This soil has high potential for production of slash and
loblolly pines. The severe equipment limitation and
seedling mortality restrict the use of this soil for
commercial trees. A good water control system is
needed, and rows should be bedded before trees are
planted. Loblolly and slash pines are the best trees to
plant.
The high water table severely limits the use of this soil
for sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Pelham soil is in capability subclass Vw.

49-Pelham fine sand, occasionally flooded. This is
a nearly level, poorly drained soil in shallow depressions
and along tributaries of creeks and rivers. This soil is
flooded occasionally for long periods after unusually high
rainfall (7). This soil has been flooded in March or April
in about 1 year in 10. The areas range from 5 to 25
acres and are irregularly shaped. The slope ranges from
0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 8
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand. In the
upper 4 inches it is grayish brown, in the next 8 inches it
is dark grayish brown, and in the next 9 inches it is light
gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. In the upper 3 inches it is light brownish gray
sandy loam with light gray sand pockets, in the next 24


inches it is gray sandy clay loam with yellowish brown
and yellow and reddish brown mottles, and in the lower
24 inches it is light gray sandy clay loam with reddish
brown and brownish yellow mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Mascotte, Plummer, and Surrency soils. Also
included are soils that have a loamy subsoil within a
depth of 20 inches and some soils that have clay in the
upper 20 inches of the subsoil. The included soils make
up about 25 percent of the map unit.
This Pelham soil has a water table at a depth between
6 and 18 inches for about 3 months each year. The
water table is at or above the surface of the soil for long
periods after flooding. The available water capacity is
medium in the surface and subsurface layers and in the
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
fertility and the organic matter content are low.
The natural vegetation consists of slash and loblolly
pine, cypress, blackgum, pineland threeawn, chalky
bluestem, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, inkberry, sawpalmetto,
and live oak.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of wetness, flooding, and low fertility.
Wetness and low fertility moderately limit the use of
this Pelham soil for improved pasture grasses. Good
drainage and regular applications of lime and fertilizer
are needed. This soil produces high yields of pasture
and hay if properly managed.
This soil has high potential for production of slash and
loblolly pines. The severe equipment limitation and
severe seedling mortality restrict the use of this soil for
commercial trees. Water control and bedded rows are
needed. Loblolly and slash pines are the best trees to
plant.
The high water table and flooding severely limit the
use of this soil for sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Pelham soil is in capability subclass Vw.

50-Pits. This map unit consists of areas from which
soil and underlying material have been removed, chiefly
for use in road construction or for foundations. The
areas vary from less than 1 acre to 40 acres. The
excavations locally are called borrow pits. Excavations in
wet soils are used mainly for livestock watering and as
fishponds.
Included with Pits in mapping are areas of waste
materials, mostly mixtures of sand, sandy loam, sandy
clay loam, and clay, that have been piled or scattered
around the edges of the pits.
Some pits have been excavated to a depth below the
normal water table and are ponded much of the time.
Most pit areas have been abandoned. They have little
value for agriculture or for pine trees.
Pits have not been assigned to a capability subclass.


47





Soil Survey


51-Plummer fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
nearly level soil in broad flat areas or in areas adjoining
drainageways and ponds. The areas range from 5 to 100
acres and are irregularly shaped. The slope is 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand. The upper 4
inches is very dark gray mixed with uncoated sand
grains, and the next 5 inches is dark grayish brown with
very dark gray mottles. The subsurface layer is gray fine
sand in the upper 18 inches and white fine sand from a
depth of 27 to 56 inches. The subsoil is light gray fine
sandy loam underlain by sandy clay loam that extends to
a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Hurricane, Pelham, and Albany soils. Also included are
areas of soils that are similar to the Plummer soil but
that have a clayey subsoil, have phosphatic pebbles and
iron concretions, or have weakly cemented organic
layers in the subsurface layer. The included soils make
up less than 20 percent of the map unit.
This Plummer soil has a water table within 15 inches
of the surface for 6 to 8 months during most years. The
water table recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during very dry periods. The available water capacity is
medium in the surface layer, low in the subsurface layer,
and very low in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderately slow in
the subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter
content are low.
The natural vegetation consists of waxmyrtle, inkberry,
fetterbush, scattered sawpalmetto, and slash and
longleaf pine. Native grasses include pineland threeawn
and brackenfern.
Wetness and low available water capacity very
severely limit the use of this Plummer soil for cultivated
crops. A good water-control system is needed before
these soils can be used for cultivated crops. The water-
control system should be designed to remove excess
surface and subsurface water during heavy rains.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of rows.
Row crops should be rotated with close-growing crops,
which should be grown at least three-fourths of the time.
All crop residue and cover crops should be left on the
soil. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed.
This soil has moderate limitations for improved pasture
grasses. Good management, including water control,
controlled grazing, and applications of fertilizer and lime,
is needed.
This soil has high potential for production of pine
trees, but water control is needed to reach the potential.
Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns. A good water control system is
needed to remove excess water, and rows should be
bedded before trees are planted. Loblolly and slash
pines are the best trees to plant.


The high water table and the sandy texture severely
limit the use of this soil for sanitary facilities and building
sites.
This Plummer soil is in capability subclass IVw.

52-Plummer fine sand, depressional. This is a
nearly level, poorly drained soil in depressions. The
areas range from 5 to 80 acres and are circular or
irregularly shaped. The slope is less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
and extends to a depth of 57 inches. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 75 inches. It is gray sandy clay
loam with yellow, strong brown, and very pale brown
mottles. The substratum is white fine sand and extends
to a depth of more than 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Surrency and Pelham soils. Also included are soils that
are similar to the Plummer soil, but some have a clayey
subsoil, some have phosphatic pebbles and iron
concretions, and others have weakly cemented organic-
stained layers in the subsurface layer. The included soils
make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
This Plummer soil has a water table at or above the
surface layer for 4 to 6 months. It is within a depth of 15
inches for 6 to 8 months during most years. It recedes to
a depth of more than 40 inches during dry periods. The
available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderately slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility is
low.
The natural vegetation consists of waxmyrtle, inkberry,
fetterbush, scattered sawpalmetto, slash and longleaf
pine, and a few cypress trees. Native grasses include
pineland threeawn and brackenfern.
Prolonged wetness and ponding severely limit use of
this soil for cultivated crops or improved pasture grasses.
This soil has moderate potential for production of pine
trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
management concerns. A good water-controll system is
needed to remove excess water, where outlets are
available, before trees can be planted.
Ponding and the sandy texture severely limit the use
of this soil for sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Plummer soil is in capability subclass Vw.

53-Plummer fine sand, occasionally flooded. This
is a poorly drained, nearly level soil on the flood plains of
rivers and streams. This soil is flooded occasionally after
heavy and prolonged rains (7). A sharp rise in the water
level causes the rivers and streams to overflow. The
lowlands remain flooded for approximately 30 days and
the depressions, which drain by percolation and
seepage, for longer periods. This soil has been flooded
in March or April in about 1 year out of 10. The slope is
less than 2 percent.


48






Columbia County, Florida


Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
fine sand to a depth of 55 inches. The subsoil is gray
sandy clay loam and has pockets of sandy clay. This
layer extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Mascotte, Pelham, and Electra Variant soils. Also
included are small areas of soils that are similar to the
Plummer soil, but some do not have a loamy subsoil,
some have a clay subsoil, some have slopes ranging up
to 12 percent, and some have ironstone fragments in the
profile. The included soils make up about 25 percent of
the map unit.
This Plummer soil has a water table within a depth of
15 inches for 6 to 8 months during most years. The
water table recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during very dry periods. The available water capacity is
low in the surface and subsurface layers and medium in
the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderately slow in the subsoil.
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are low.
The natural vegetation consists of waxmyrtle, inkberry,
fetterbush, sawpalmetto, huckleberry, sweetgum,
sparkleberry, and slash pine. Native grasses include
pineland threeawn and brackenfern.
Wetness, flooding, and low available water capacity
severely limit the use of this soil for cultivated crops.
This soil has moderate limitations for improved pasture
grasses. Good management includes water control,
controlled grazing, and applications of fertilizer and lime.
This soil has high potential for production of pine
trees, but water control is needed to reach the potential.
Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns. A good water control system is
needed to remove excess water, and rows should be
bedded before trees are planted. Loblolly and slash
pines are the best trees to plant.
Flooding, the high water table, and the sandy texture
severely limit the use of this soil for sanitary facilities and
building sites.
This Plummer soil is in capability subclass IVw.

54-Plummer muck, depressional. This is a nearly
level, poorly drained soil in concave depressions and
poorly defined drainageways. The areas range from 5 to
300 acres and are irregular in shape. The slope is less
than 2 percent. This soil is similar to the Plummer fine
sand soils in all characteristics, except that the dark
colored surface layer is thicker than typical. This
difference does not affect use and behavior of this soil.
Typically, the surface layer is covered with about 8
inches of partially decayed sphagnum moss and muck.
This layer is many roots, leaves, and twigs. The muck is
about 60 percent fiber. The mineral surface layer is black
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
fine sand and extends to a depth of 55 inches. The
upper 7 inches is light brownish gray. The next 43 inches


is dark grayish brown. The subsoil is light brownish gray
fine sandy loam and extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Surrency, Pamlico, and Pelham soils. Also included are
soils that are similar to the Plummer soil, but some have
a sandy texture to a depth of 80 inches or more or have
an organic-stained subsurface layer. The included soils
make up about 25 percent of the map unit.
This soil has a water table within a depth of 15 inches
for periods of up to 6 months during most years. The
water table is ponded during spring and summer. The
available water capacity is high in the surface layer, low
in the subsurface layer, and medium in the subsoil.
Permeability is moderately rapid to rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderately slow in the
subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate.
The natural vegetation consists of waxmyrtle, inkberry,
fetterbush, scattered sawpalmetto, brackenfern,
sweetgum, and cypress.
Prolonged ponding and a lack of drainage outlets are
severe limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops
or improved pasture grasses.
This soil has moderate potential for production of pine
trees. Seedling mortality and equipment limitations are
the main management concerns.
Ponding severely limits the use of this soil for sanitary
facilities and building sites.
This Plummer soil is in capability subclass Vw.

55-Plummer, depressional-Pamlico, loamy
substratum complex. This complex consists of nearly
level, mineral and organic soils in large submerged
wetlands in the northern part of the survey area. It
consists mainly of Plummer muck, depressional; Pamlico
muck, loamy substratum; and Dorovan muck. These soils
are intermingled in such an intricate pattern that it was
not practical to map them separately. The mapped areas
range from 200 to 1,800 acres.
A typical area of this complex is about 40 percent
Plummer muck, depressional; 25 percent Pamlico muck,
loamy substratum; 15 percent Dorovan muck; 10 percent
Mascotte fine sand, occasionally flooded; and 10 percent
other soils. The proportion of each soil, however, varies
in each mapped area.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Surrency, Mascotte, Pantego, and Pelham soils. The
Mascotte soils are in depressions. Also included are
areas of soils that are similar to Plummer soils, but that
are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more or have an
organic-stained subsurface layer. The included soils
make up about 20 percent of the map unit.
The soils in this complex have water at or above the
surface for 6 or more months.
Typically, the Plummer soil has about 8 inches of
partially decayed sphagnum moss and muck on the
surface. This layer has many roots, leaves, and twigs.






Soil Survey


The muck is about 60 percent fiber. The mineral surface
layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. This dark
colored surface layer is thicker than is typical for
Plummer soils, but this difference does not affect the use
or behavior of this soil. The subsurface layer is fine sand
and extends to a depth of 55 inches. The upper 7 inches
is light brownish gray. The next 43 inches is dark grayish
brown. The subsoil is light brownish gray fine sandy loam
and extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The available water capacity is high in the surface
layer, low in the subsurface layer, and medium in the
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderately slow in the subsoil.
Typically, the Pamlico soil has a surface layer of black
muck 24 inches thick. The substratum is 24 inches of
dark grayish brown fine sand over dark gray sandy clay
loam, which extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The available water capacity is high. Permeability is
moderately rapid in the upper 24 inches, rapid in the
next layer, and slow below a depth of 48 inches. Natural
fertility is moderate.
Typically, the Dorovan soil has a very dark brown
muck surface layer about 14 inches thick. Below that,
dark reddish brown muck extends to a depth of 80
inches or more.
The available water capacity is very high. Permeability
is moderate.
The natural vegetation consists dominantly of pond
cypress, slash pine, sweetgum, black tupleo, fetterbush,
greenbrier, sweet pepperbush, and blueberry.
Excess wetness and insufficient drainage outlets
severely limit the use of these soils for pasture or
cultivated crops. The soils are used as habitat for
wetland wildlife.
Commercial trees are sparse in most areas, and in
some areas there are no trees at all. The soils in this
map unit have moderate potential for the production of
trees. Water tupelo is the best tree to plant.
Ponding, flooding, the high water table, and the high
organic matter content severely limit the use of these
soils for sanitary facilities and building sites.
These soils are in capability subclass VIIw.

56-Sapelo fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil in the flatwoods. The areas are mostly
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 500 acres. The
slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil to a
depth of 17 inches is very dark brown fine sand. The
sand grains in this layer are coated with organic matter.
The next layer is 33 inches of fine sand that separates
the upper and lower parts of the subsoil. It is pale yellow
in the upper part and light gray in the lower part. The
lower part of the subsoil, from 50 to 80 inches or more,
is sandy clay loam. The upper 12 inches is light gray,


and the lower part is gray with olive yellow and yellowish
red mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Mascotte, Leon, and Pelham soils. Also included are
small areas of poorly drained soils that are underlain by
limestone, soils that have a loamy sand or coarse sand
subsoil and substratum, and soils that have a clay
subsoil. The included soils make up about 15 percent of
the map unit.
The water table is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches for 2
to 4 months during most years. Permeability is rapid in
the surface and subsurface layers, moderate in the
upper and lower parts of the subsoil, and rapid in the
layer between the upper and lower parts of the subsoil.
The available water capacity and the organic matter
content are low in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate to low in the subsoil. Natural fertility is very
low.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, chalky
bluestem, dwarf huckleberry, inkberry, and fetterbush.
Wetness and very low natural fertility severely limit the
use of this Sapelo soil for cultivated crops. The choice of
crops is limited unless intensive water control is used.
With a water-control system that is designed to remove
excess water in wet seasons and provide subsurface
irrigation in dry seasons, these soils are well suited to
many kinds of flower and vegetable crops. Also needed
are crop rotations that include close-growing, soil-
improving crops at least two-thirds of the time. These
crops and the residue of all other crops should be left on
the soil. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according
to the needs of the crop. Minimum tillage helps conserve
moisture in dry seasons and reduces erosion.
The soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are
moderately well adapted to this soil and grow moderately
well if they are well managed. Drainage to remove
excess surface water in times of high rainfall and regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
should be carefully controlled to maintain healthy plants
for high yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for production
of pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling
mortality are the main management concerns. Slash and
loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture severely
limit the use of this soil for sanitary facilities and building
sites.
This Sapelo soil is in capability subclass IVw.

57-Surrency fine sand. This is a very poorly
drained, nearly level soil in depressions, near shallow
ponds, and along drainageways. The areas range from 3
to 200 acres and are circular to elongated. Concave
slopes are less than 1 percent.





Columbia County, Florida


Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 16
inches thick. The upper 8 inches is black, and the lower
8 inches is very dark gray. The subsurface layer is gray
fine sand about 22 inches thick. The subsoil is grayish
brown sandy clay loam with yellowish brown mottles. It
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Plummer, Pantego, and Pelham soils. Also included are
small areas of soils that are similar to the Surrency soil
but have an organic surface layer less than 16 inches
thick. The included soils make up about 10 percent of
the map unit.
This soil has a water table at or above the surface for
most of the year, and ponding is common. The available
water capacity is high in the surface layer, medium in the
subsurface layer, and low in the subsoil. Permeability is
moderately rapid to rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility and
the organic matter content are moderate.
The natural vegetation consists of cypress, blackgum,
sweetbay, magnolia, maidencane, and other water-
tolerant plants.
The high water table severely limits the use of this
Surrency soil for cultivated crops and improved pasture
grasses. Adequate outlets for artificial drainage systems
are not available.
This soil has high potential for production of slash and
loblolly pine if a water-control system is installed.
Seedling mortality, plant competition, and equipment
limitations severely restrict the use of this soil for
commercial tree production. Sweetgum, American
sycamore, and water tupelo are the best trees to plant.
Ponding and the sandy texture severely limit the use
of this soil for sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Surrency soil is in capability subclass VIw.

58-Surrency fine sand, occasionally flooded. This
is a very poorly drained, nearly level soil on the flood
plains of rivers and streams. This soil is flooded
occasionally as a result of heavy and prolonged rains
that cause the rivers and streams to overflow (7). The
soil remains flooded for 30 days or more. This soil has
been flooded in March or April in about 1 year out of 10.
The slope is less than 1 percent.
Typically, the fine sand surface layer is about 16
inches thick. The upper 8 inches is black, and the lower
8 inches is very dark gray. The subsurface layer is about
22 inches of gray fine sand. The subsoil is grayish brown
sandy clay loam with yellowish brown mottles. It extends
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pelham and Plummer soils. Also included are small
areas of soils that are similar to the Surrency soil but
have clay, sand, or chunks of coral in the substratum.
The included soils make up about 25 percent of the map
unit.


This soil has a water table at or above the surface for
most of the year. In addition to the apparent water table,
this soil is covered by floodwater occasionally. The
available water capacity is high in the surface layer, low
in the subsurface layer, and medium in the subsoil.
Permeability is moderately rapid to rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are
moderate.
The natural vegetation consists of cypress, blackgum,
sweetbay, magnolia, maidencane, and other water-
tolerant plants.
The high water table and flooding severely limit the
use of this Surrency soil for cultivated crops and
improved pasture grasses. The high water table is at the
surface even in the driest periods.
This soil is not well suited to tree production because
of wetness, flooding, and lack of drainage outlets;
however, it has high potential for production of trees if
these limitations are overcome. Sweetgum, American
sycamore, and water tupelo are the best trees to plant.
Ponding and flooding severely limit the use of this soil
for sanitary facilities and building sites.
This Surrency soil is in capability subclass Vlw.

59-Troup fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This is
a well drained, gently sloping soil on broad ridges and
undulating terrain. The areas range from 20 to 400 acres
and are irregular in shape.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The upper 30 inches of the
subsurface layer is reddish yellow loamy sand, and the
lower 14 inches is strong brown loamy sand. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches. The upper 6 inches is
strong brown fine sandy loam; the next 9 inches is
yellowish red sandy clay loam; and the lower 13 inches
is yellowish red sandy clay loam with brown mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton, Chiefland, Fort Meade Variant, Ocilla, Lucy, and
Orangeburg soils. These soils make up less than 15
percent of the map unit.
This Troup soil does not have a water table within a
depth of 72 inches. The available water capacity is low
in the surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
fertility and the organic matter content are low.
The natural vegetation consists mainly of slash pine,
live and blackjack oak, hickory, fern, huckleberry,
sassafras, and pineland threeawn.
This Troup soil has severe limitations for most
cultivated crops. Droughtiness and moderate leaching of
plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce
potential yields of crops adapted to this soil. Crop
rotations should include close-growing cover crops at
least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops
and all crop residue should be left on the ground.


51





Soil Survey


Irrigation of high-value crops is usually feasible if water is
readily available. The soil responds well to applications
of fertilizer and lime and produces high yields if properly
managed. Minimum tillage reduces erosion and moisture
loss.
The soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Deep-rooting Coastal bermudagrass and the
improved bahiagrasses are well adapted to this soil, but
yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor and a good
ground cover.
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees is
moderately high. Equipment limitations and seedling
mortality are the main management concerns. Slash,
loblolly, and longleaf pines are the best trees to plant.
The sandy texture severely limits the use of this soil
for most kinds of sanitary facilities. The limitations are
only slight for septic tank absorption fields and building
sites. In shallow excavations, the cutbanks can cave in.
Droughtiness limits the use of the soil for lawns and
landscaping.
This Troup soil is in capability subclass Ills.

60-Troup fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This is
a well drained, sloping soil on broad ridges and
undulating terrain. The areas of this soil range from 20 to
100 acres and are irregular in shape.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The upper 30 inches of the loamy
sand subsurface layer is reddish yellow, and the lower
15 inches is strong brown. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches. The upper 10 inches is strong brown
fine sandy loam. The lower part is yellowish red sandy
clay loam. There are brown and yellowish brown mottles
in the lower 15 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton, Fort Meade Variant, Ocilla, Bonneau, and Lucy
soils. These soils make up less than 15 percent of the
map unit.
This Troup soil does not have a water table within a
depth of 6 feet. The available water capacity is low in
the surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderately rapid in the subsoil.
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are low.
The natural vegetation consists mainly of slash and
longleaf pine, hickory, live and blackjack oak, fern,
huckleberry, sassafras, and pineland threeawn.
This Troup soil has severe limitations for most
cultivated crops. Droughtiness, moderate leaching of
plant nutrients, and slope severely limit the choice of
plants and reduce potential yields of crops adapted to
this soil. Strips of row crops should be alternated with
strips of close-growing cover crops. Crop rotation should
include close-growing cover crops at least three-fourths
of the time. Soil-improving cover crops and all crop


residue should be left on the ground. This soil is too
steep to be effectively irrigated; however, the crops
respond favorably to fertilizer and lime.
The soil has moderate limitations for pasture and hay
crops. Deep-rooting Coastal bermudagrass and the
improved bahiagrasses are well adapted to this soil, but
yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor and a good
ground cover.
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees is
moderately high. Equipment limitations and seedling
mortality are the main management concerns. Slash,
loblolly, and longleaf pines are the best trees to plant.
The sandy texture severely limits the use of this soil
for most kinds of sanitary facilities. The limitations are
slight for septic tank absorption fields and building sites.
In shallow excavations, the cutbanks can cave in.
Droughtiness limits the use of the soil for lawns and
landscaping. Slope moderately limits the use of the soil
for small commercial buildings.
This Troup soil is in capability subclass IVs.

61-Udorthents, 0 to 2 percent slopes. These soils
are near abandoned phosphate mining areas. They
formed in refuse that was washed from the phosphate
and limestone during mining operations. The refuse was
deposited over the nearby soils to a thickness of 20 to
50 inches or more. Individual areas are mainly irregular
in shape and range from 5 to 35 acres in size. The slope
is less than 2 percent.
The texture and thickness of the soil layers vary, but
one of the more common profiles has a very dark gray
silt loam surface layer about 1 inch thick. The next layer
is pale brown silty clay loam about 9 inches thick. It is
underlain by 22 inches of very pale brown silty clay. The
next 16 inches is light gray clay. Below this to a depth of
80 inches or more is an undisturbed buried soil that is
mostly very dark gray and light yellowish brown fine
sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Allpin, Blanton,
and Bonneau soils. These soils make up less than 5
percent of the map unit.
The water table is at a depth of 60 to 72 inches for 1
to 2 months during most years. A perched water table is
at the surface for short periods after heavy rains. The
available water capacity is high in the silty and clayey
overburden and low in the buried sandy soil. Permeability
is slow in the overburden and rapid in the sandy buried
soil. Natural fertility of the surface and subsurface layers
is medium. The organic matter content is moderate.
The natural vegetation consists of slash and loblolly
pine, sweetgum, laurel oak, waxmyrtle, wild plum,
wiregrass, and sawgrass.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated
crops. However, the variability of the composition and
thickness of the overburden make it difficult to rate the


52







Columbia County, Florida


soils. The areas where the overburden is very thin can
be used for cultivated crops if properly managed. The
major problem is difficulty with land preparation because
of the sticky and plastic clayey surface layer.
These soils have slight limitations for improved pasture
grasses. Seedbed preparation may be a problem
because of the thick clayey surface layer; however, after
grasses have been established, good yields can be
expected with proper management.
These soils have moderately high potential for
production of pine trees. Equipment limitations and plant


competition are the main management concerns. Slash
pine is the best tree to plant.
The high water table and fine texture are severe
limitations to use for most sanitary facilities but are only
slight limitations to use for area-type sanitary landfills.
The fine texture and high shrink-swell potential are
moderate to severe limitations for building site
development. ,
Udorthents are in capability subclass IVw.


53









55


Prime Farmland


In this section, prime farmland is defined and
discussed, and the prime farmland soils in Columbia
County are listed.
Prime farmland is one of several kinds of important
farmland defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
It is of major importance in meeting the nation's short-
and long-range needs for food and fiber. The acreage of
high-quality farmland is limited, and the U.S. Department
of Agriculture recognizes that government at local, state,
and federal levels, as well as individuals, must
encourage and facilitate the wise use of our nation's
prime farmland.
Prime farmland soils, as defined by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture, are soils that are best suited
to producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops.
Such soils have properties that are favorable for the
economic production of sustained high yields of crops.
The soils need only to be treated and managed using
acceptable farming methods. The moisture supply, of
course, must be adequate, and the growing season has
to be sufficiently long. Prime farmland soils produce the
highest yields with minimal inputs of energy and
economic resources, and farming these soils results in
the least damage to the environment.
Prime farmland soils may presently be in use as
cropland, pasture, or woodland, or they may be in other
uses. They either are used for producing food or fiber or
are available for these uses. Urban or built-up land and
water areas cannot be considered prime farmland.
Prime farmland soils usually get an adequate and
dependable supply of moisture from precipitation or
irrigation. The temperature and growing season are
favorable. The acidity or alkalinity level of the soils is
acceptable. The soils have few or no rocks and are
permeable to water and air. They are not excessively


erodible or saturated with water for long periods and are
not subject to frequent flooding during the growing
season. The slope ranges mainly from 0 to 6 percent.
Soils that have a high water table, are subject to
flooding, or are drought may qualify as prime farmland
soils if the limitations or hazards are overcome by
drainage, flood control, or irrigation. Onsite evaluation is
necessary to determine the effectiveness of corrective
measures. More information on the criteria for prime
farmland soils can be obtained at the local office of the
Soil Conservation Service.
The supply of high-quality farmland in Columbia
County is limited. About 2,760 acres, or much less than
1 percent of the county, is prime farmland. The areas are
mainly in map unit 6 of the general soil map. This land is
used predominantly for corn, soybeans, and tobacco.
A recent trend in land use in some parts of the county
has been the loss of some prime farmlands to
community development. This loss of prime farmland
puts pressure on marginal lands, which are farmed
although they generally are more erodible, drought, and
difficult to cultivate and usually are less productive.
The following map units, or soils, make up prime
farmland in Columbia County. This list does not
constitute a recommendation for a particular land use.
The extent of each listed map unit is shown in table 4.
The location of each map unit is shown on the detailed
soil maps in the back of the publication. The soil
qualities that affect use and management are described
in the section, "Detailed Soil Map Units."
25 Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
43 Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes
44 Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes






57


Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help prevent
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses
and management. Field experience and collected data
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis
in predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It
can be used to identify the potentials and limitations of
each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil
properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information can
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to identify
areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil layers
can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
John D. Lawrence, state conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture is
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated


yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
In 1980, approximately 115,000 acres in Columbia
County were used for crops and pasture, according to
the 1980 Rural Development Committee Report of the
Soil Conservation Service, estimates by the Columbia
County Extension Service, and statistics from the Florida
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. The acreage
includes that in improved pasture; field crops, mainly
corn, peanuts, tobacco, and soybeans; and special
crops, such as watermelons, sweet corn, field peas, and
small acreages of blueberries, grapes, and pecans.
The potential of the soils in Columbia County for
increased food production is good. About 70,000 acres
of potentially good cropland is now used as woodland
and about 25,000 acres as pasture. The woodland and
pasture areas could be used as cropland but would need
intensive conservation measures to control soil blowing
on sandy soils and control the fluctuating water table. In
addition to the reserve capacity represented by these
areas, food production could be increased considerably
by extending the latest technology to all cropland in the
county.
Acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has gradually
decreased as more and more land is used for urban
development. In 1967, there was about 9,000 acres of
urban and built-up land in the county (3), and this
acreage has steadily increased since then.
Soil erosion is a problem on about three-fourths of the
cropland and pasture in Columbia County. If the slope is
more than 2 percent, erosion is a hazard, especially in
areas of the well drained and moderately well drained
Bonneau, Chiefland, Blanton, and Goldsboro soils, the
somewhat poorly drained Ocilla and Albany soils, and
the poorly drained Pelham and Plummer soils.
Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging
for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the
surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is
incorporated into the plow layer. Second, soil erosion on
farmland results in sediment entering streams. Control of
erosion minimizes the pollution of streams by sediment






Soil Survey


and improves the quality of water for municipal use, for
recreation use, and for fish and wildlife.
On the Chiefland and Pedro Variant soils and in some
areas of the Ichetucknee soils, it is difficult to prepare a
good seedbed and to till the soil because of clay spots
and limestone boulders
Erosion control practices provide a protective surface
cover, reduce runoff, and increase the rate of infiltration.
A cropping system that keeps vegetative cover on the
soil for extended periods can hold erosion losses to
amounts that will not reduce the productive capacity of
the soils. On livestock farms, which require pasture and
hay, the legume and grass forage crops in the cropping
system reduce erosion on sloping land and also provide
nitrogen and improve tilth for the following crop.
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residues on the
surface increase infiltration and reduce the hazards of
runoff and erosion. No-tillage for corn and soybeans is
effective in reducing erosion on sloping land. These
practices can be adapted to most soils in the survey
area.
Most of the soils in the survey area are so sandy or
their slopes are so short and irregular that contour tillage
or terracing is not practical. Stripcropping and diversions,
which reduce the length of slope and also reduce runoff
and erosion, are most practical on deep, well drained
soils that have regular slopes. Diversions and sod
waterways also reduce runoff and erosion and can be
adapted to most soils in the survey area.
Wind erosion is a major hazard on the sandy soils in
the survey area. Strong winds can damage soils and
tender crops in a few hours in open, unprotected areas
where the soil is dry and bare. Maintaining a vegetative
cover and surface mulch minimizes wind erosion.
Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It
reduces soil fertility by removing finer soil particles and
organic matter; damages or destroys crops by
sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and weed
seeds; and creates health hazards and cleaning
problems. Control of wind erosion minimizes duststorms
and improves the quality of air for more healthful living
conditions.
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such as
Carolina laurelcherry, sand pine, slash pine, southern
redcedar, and Japanese privet, and strip crops of small
grains are effective in reducing wind erosion and crop
damage. Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow
plantings made at right angles to the prevailing wind and
at specific intervals across the field. The intervals
depend on the erodibility of the soil and the susceptibility
of the crop to damage from sandblasting.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock
of suitable species should be planted properly on a well-
prepared site and maintained in good condition.


Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a nursery. Information about erosion
control practices for each kind of soil is contained in the
"Water and Wind Erosion Control Handbook-Florida,"
which is available at local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service.
Soil drainage is a major management need on about
25 percent of the acreage used for crops and pasture in
the county. Some soils are naturally so wet that the
production of crops common to the area is generally not
practical. These are the poorly drained Leon, Mascotte,
Pelham, Pantego, and Sapelo soils and the very poorly
drained Pamlico, Dorovan, and Surrency soils. These
soils make up about 200,000 acres.
Unless artificially drained, some of the somewhat
poorly drained soils are wet enough in the root zone to
cause damage to most crops during most years.
Included in this category are the Albany, Hurricane, and
Ocilla soils, which make up about 44,000 acres of the
survey area.
Also, unless artificially drained, some of the poorly
drained Mascotte, Leon, Plummer, and Sapelo soils are
wet enough to cause some damage to pasture plants.
These soils also have a low available water capacity and
are drought during dry periods. They need subsurface
irrigation for adequate pasture production.
The very poorly drained Pamlico, Dorovan, Plummer,
and Surrency soils are very wet during the rainy periods
and have water standing on the surface in most areas.
The production of good quality pasture on these soils is
not possible without artificial drainage. A combination of
surface drainage and irrigation is needed on these soils
for intensive pasture production.
Information on drainage and irrigation for each kind of
soil in the county is available at the local offices of the
Soil Conservation Service.
Soil fertility is naturally low on most soils in the survey
area. Most of the soils have a sandy surface layer and
are light colored. Many of the soils have a loamy subsoil.
Included in this category are the Albany, Blanton,
Bonneau, Goldsboro, Leesfield, Lucy, Ocilla,
Orangeburg, Pelham, and Plummer soils. the Chiefland
and Pedro Variant soils have an acid surface layer and
are underlain by calcareous limestone that is mildly to
moderately alkaline. Most of the soils have a surface
layer that is strongly acid to very strongly acid and
require applications of ground limestone to raise the pH
level sufficiently for good crop growth. Nitrogen,
potassium, and available phosphorus levels are naturally
low in most of these soils. On all soils, additions of lime
and fertilizer should be based on the results of soil tests,
the needs of the crop, and the expected level of yields.
The Cooperative Extension Service can help in


58







Columbia County, Florida


determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime
to apply.
Soil ilth is an important factor in the germination of
seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils with
good tilth are easily cultivated with common tillage
equipment and provide a good seedbed.
Most of the soils in the survey area have a sandy or
loamy fine sand surface layer that is light in color and
low to moderate in organic matter content. Exceptions
are the Dorovan, Oleno, Pamlico, and Plummer soils and
Udorthents.
The Dorovan, Pamlico, and Plummer soils are organic
soils or have an organic surface layer. Generally, the
structure of the surface layer of most soils in the survey
area is weak. When soils that are dry and low in organic
matter content receive intense rainfall, the colloidal


matter cements and forms a slight crust, particularly if a
plowpan is present. The crust is slightly hard when it is
dry, and it is slightly impervious to water. Once the crust
forms, it reduces infiltration and increases runoff.
Regular additions of crop residue, manure, and other
organic material improve soil structure and reduce crust
formation.
Fall plowing is generally not advisable. If sloping soils,
which make up about one-fourth of the cropland in the
survey area, are plowed at this time, they are subject to
damaging erosion. Gullies caused by erosion are
common on unprotected soils. Also, about three-fourths
of the county's cropland is sandy and subject to soil
blowing. Tons of soil are lost each year in the survey
area as a result of wind erosion during the spring
plowing season (fig. 7).


\I .,
I 1 ."r'.):;rc~9~4~c~~+;r~c~i$~ ~O~c~pr(c.,-r~-~: ,r
I
~e
.-; r.
Jr~ ;C;~irs
~- ,, idU"


Figure 7.-Windblown sediment from a cultivated area of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.


59







Soil Survey


Field crops grown in the survey area include corn,
soybeans, peanuts, and tobacco. Grain sorghum,
sunflower, potato, and sugarcane acreage could be
increased if economic conditions were favorable.
Rye and wheat are the common close-growing crops.
Oats and triticale can also be grown.
The major special crop grown commercially in the
survey area is watermelons. A small acreage is in
squash, blueberries, grapes, pecans, and field peas. If
economic conditions are favorable, the acreage of
blueberries, apples, pears, strawberries, grapes,
blackberries, nursery sod, cabbage, cauliflower, turnips,
collards, and mustard greens can be increased.
Deep soils that have good natural drainage are
especially well suited to many vegetables and small
fruits. If irrigated, about 45,000 acres of the Goldsboro,
Fort Meade Variant, Troup, Orangeburg, and Bonneau
soils that have slopes of less than 8 percent are very
well suited to vegetables and small fruits. In addition, if
adequately drained, about 40,000 acres of the'Ocilla,
Ichetucknee, Pelham, Olustee, Hurricane, and Albany
soils are very well suited to vegetables and small fruits.
Information and suggestions for growing special crops
can be obtained from the local offices of the Cooperative
Extension Service and the Soil Conservation Service.
Pasture in the survey area is used to produce forage
for beef and dairy cattle. Bahiagrass and improved
bermudagrass are the major pasture plants grown in the
survey area (fig. 8). Seeds can be harvested from
bahiagrass for improved pasture plantings as well as for
commercial purposes. Many cattlemen seed small grains
on cropland and overseed rye in pastures in the fall for
winter and spring grazing. In bermudagrass pastures,
excess grass is harvested as hay during the summer for
feeding during the winter. Also, hay is made from
harvested peanuts during the fall for feeding during the
winter.
The well drained and moderately well drained Alpin,
Lakeland, Bonneau, Fort Meade Variant, Blanton,
Chipley, Bigbee, and Chiefland soils are well suited to
bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass. With good
management, hairy indigo and Alyce clover can be
grown during the summer and fall.
The somewhat poorly drained Albany, Ocilla, and
Hurricane soils are well suited to bahiagrass and to
improved bermudagrass if grown with legumes, such as
sweetclover, and if adequate amounts of lime and
fertilizer are applied.
If drained where needed, the Pelham, Plummer, Leon,
Mascotte, Olustee, Electra Variant, Ichetucknee,
Mandarin, and Sapelo soils are well suited to bahiagrass
and hemarthriagrass pasture. Subsurface irrigation
increases the length of the growing season and total
forage production. With adequate amounts of lime and
fertilizer, the soils are well suited to legumes, such as
white clover.


Pasture in many parts of the county is greatly depleted
by continuous excessive grazing. Pasture yields are
increased by irrigation, by applications of fertilizer and
lime, and by growing legumes.
Differences in the amount and kind of pasture yields
are related closely to the kind of soil. Management of
pasture is based on the interrelationship of soils, pasture
plants, lime, fertilizer, and moisture.
Information and suggestions for pasture can be
obtained at local offices of the Cooperative Extension
Service and the Soil Conservation Service.

Yields Per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management
are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain the indicated
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop
residue, barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; and
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss.
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely
to increase as new production technology is developed.
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of
other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
about the management and productivity of the soils for
those crops.

Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops
that require special management are excluded. The soils
are grouped according to their limitations for field crops,






Columbia County, Florida


Figure 8.-Harvesting Coastal bermudagrass hay in an area of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. High yields of good quality hay can
be obtained with proper management


the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the
way they respond to management. The grouping does
not take into account major and generally expensive
landforming that would change slope, depth, or other
characteristics of the soils, nor does it consider possible
major reclamation projects. Capability classification is not
a substitute for interpretations designed to show
suitability and limitations of groups of soils for woodland
and for engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
are defined in the following paragraphs.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and


narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.






Soil Survey


Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e
shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold
or very dry.
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in
class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have
other limitations that restrict their use to pasture,
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The
soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to
the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar
management, and to have similar productivity. Capability
units are generally designated by adding an Arabic
numeral to the subclass symbol, for example, lie-4 or
Ille-6.
The acreage of soils in each capability class and
subclass is shown in table 6. The capability classification
of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed Soil
Map Units."

Woodland Management and Productivity
Hal Brockman, forester, Soil Conservation Service, and Cherry
Wadsworth, Columbia County forester, Florida Division of Forestry,
prepared this section.
Approximately 350,000 acres, or 70 percent of the
total land area, in Columbia County is woodland. There
are three distinct ownership classes-national forest,
large corporate holdings, and small privately owned
tracts. The acreage of commercial woodland in Columbia
County is decreasing because of conversion to urban
and agricultural uses.
The soils and climate of Columbia County are suitable
for trees. Most of the forested areas are on the
Mascotte, Olustee, Sapelo, Blanton, and Bonneau soils.
The Blanton and Bonneau soils produce most of the
timber in the southern part of the county. The Mascotte
soils produce most of the timber in the flatwoods (fig. 9).
Most woodland is managed for needle-leaved trees.
These include slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines and
southern baldcypress. Common broad-leaved trees


include water, laurel, and live oaks, sweetgum, and
blackgum.
The Osceola National Forest covers 157,232 acres, of
which approximately half is in Columbia County, north
and east of Lake City. The Mascotte, Olustee, Pamlico,
and Sapelo soils are the main soils in the forest. The
main trees are longleaf and slash pines, baldcypress,
and bay. Others include live and laurel oak, blackgum,
sweetbay, redbay, and loblollybay. The Osceola Forest is
managed mainly for sawlog production. Stands are
thinned as needed to produce sawlog-sized trees.
Wildlife management for deer, quail, and the red-
cockaded woodpecker is a main objective of all
woodland activities. Most of the forest is also leased for
cattle grazing. Grazing plans are coordinated with timber
operations. New forest stands are regenerated naturally
or are planted with genetically improved seedlings.
Corporate-owned and -managed forest lands dominate
the northern area of the county. Some are also located
in the southeast and southwest sections of the county.
These are primarily intensive pulpwood production areas.
Slash pine is the principal species grown. Management
consists of pulpwood rotations followed by clearcutting,
intensive site preparation, and tree planting.
Small privately owned woodland areas are scattered
throughout the county. Much of this land is in plantations
for the pulpwood and sawlog market. Slash pine has
been the dominant tree planted. Trees occurring in
natural stands include loblolly and longleaf pines,
baldcypress, sweetgum, blackgum, water and laurel oak,
sweetbay, redbay, and loblollybay.
An excellent market exists for forest products in
Columbia County. The major market is for pulpwood. The
demand for trees large enough for the chipping-saw and
sawlog mills is increasing. The wide variety of wood-
processing mills within 70 miles of Lake City creates a
greater demand for wood.
This soil survey can help all woodland owners make
the management decisions necessary to increase
production and yields on their lands. Because of the
favorable soil and climatic conditions, the opportunity for
expanding the woodland area in Columbia County is very
good. More detailed information on woodland
management can be obtained at the local office of the
Soil Conservation Service, the Florida Division of
Forestry, or the Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
Table 7 can be used by woodland owners or forest
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops.
Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The
table lists the ordination symbol (woodland suitability) for
each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol
require the same general management and have about
the same potential productivity.
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number,
indicates the potential productivity of the soils for
important trees. The number 1 indicates very high
productivity; 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate;


62







Columbia County, Florida


Figure 9.-Slash pine harvested for pulpwood In an area of Mascotte fine sand. This soil produces most of the timber in the flatwoods.


and 5, low. The second part of the symbol, a letter,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter w
indicates excessive water in or on the soil; c, clay in the
upper part of the soil; and s, sandy texture. The letter o
indicates that limitations or restrictions are insignificant. If
a soil has more than one limitation, the priority is as
follows: w, c, and s.
In table 7, slight, moderate, and severe indicate the
degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in
management.
Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the
characteristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use
of the equipment generally needed in woodland


management or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates
that use of equipment is not limited to a particular kind of
equipment or time of year; moderate indicates a short
seasonal limitation or a need for some modification in
management or in equipment; and severe indicates a
seasonal limitation, a need for special equipment or
management, or a hazard in the use of equipment.
Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which
the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant
competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings
apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly
planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of


63







Soil Survey


slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than
25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe,
more than 50 percent.
Ratings of windthrow hazard are based on soil
characteristics that affect the development of tree roots
and the ability of the soil to hold trees firmly. A rating of
slight indicates that few trees may be blown down by
strong winds; moderate, that some trees will be blown
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and
strong winds; and severe, that many trees are blown
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and
moderate or strong winds.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to
which undesirable plants are expected to invade where
there are openings in the tree canopy. The invading
plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings. A
rating of slight indicates little or no competition from
other plants; moderate indicates that plant competition is
expected to hinder the development of a fully stocked
stand of desirable trees; severe indicates that plant
competition is expected to prevent the establishment of
a desirable stand unless the site is intensively prepared,
weeded, or otherwise managed to control undesirable
plants.
The potential productivity of merchantable or common
trees on a soil is expressed as a site index This index is
the average height, in feet, that dominant and
codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified
number of years. Site index was calculated at age 50 for
loblolly, longleaf, slash, and pond pines and, if sufficient
data are available, for sweetgum and blackgum. The site
index applies to fully stocked, even-aged, unmanaged
stands. Commonly grown trees are those that woodland
managers generally favor in intermediate or improvement
cuttings. They are selected on the basis of growth rate,
quality, value, and marketability.
Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils
and to commercial wood production.

Woodland Grazing
Clifford Carter, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service,
prepared this section.
Columbia County, with a large acreage in woodland
production, also has a high potential for woodland
grazing. Many of the smaller privately owned woodland
tracts are fenced and provide some livestock grazing.
However, most of the larger woodland tracts owned by
the timber companies are not fenced, and the forage
produced is not harvested. Large tracts in the Osceola
National Forest are fenced for woodland grazing.
Because forage production and availability are directly
related to tree canopy, the different age classes of trees
cause a wide variation in forage production within a
given tract. In some places, large areas must be fenced
to provide adequate forage for a small number of cattle.


Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory
of native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory is
an integral part of the forest plant community. The native
plants can be grazed without significantly impairing other
forest values. On such forest land, grazing is compatible
with timber management if it is controlled or managed in
such a manner that timber and forage resources are
maintained or enhanced.
Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs,
shrubs, and other plants used by livestock or by grazing
or browsing wildlife. A well managed wooded area can
produce enough understory vegetation to support
optimum numbers of livestock or wildlife, or both.
Forage production on grazeable woodland varies
according to the different kinds of grazeable woodland,
the amount of shade cast by the canopy, the
accumulation of fallen needles, the influence of time and
intensity of grazing on the grasses and forage, and the
number, size, spacing, and method of site preparation for
tree plantings.

Recreation
Columbia County offers a wide variety of opportunities
for recreation. Many of these are dependent on the
county's wide open spaces and its favorable weather.
Organized forms of recreation are centered in the Lake
City area.
Columbia County has two state parks and part of a
national forest within its boundaries. Ichetucknee Springs
State Park is the most popular recreational site in the
county. The crystal clear spring that rises within the park
and flows southward attracts thousands of swimmers,
canoers, and other visitors each year.
O'Leno State Park offers water activities on the Santa
Fe River. Camping, hiking, picnicking, and observing
wildlife are popular activities at this park.
The approximately 78,000 acres of the Osceola
National Forest within Columbia County provide
opportunities for hiking, picnicking, camping, and
observing wildlife.
The county's rivers provide opportunity for canoeing,
kayaking, swimming, diving, and sightseeing. The Great
Suwannee River Canoeing and Kayaking Competition
has been held on a part of the Suwannee River that
borders Columbia County. Another activity in the
Suwannee River area is hiking. The Florida Trail
Association has established a hiking trail along the river.
Recreational activities of a more organized nature are
found in or near Lake City. Facilities are available for
indoor games, field sports, basketball, golf, tennis,
racquetball, swimming, and bowling in Lake City and at
the nearby country clubs. Civic clubs and church groups
sponsor many of these activities.
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 8
according to limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil


64







Columbia County, Florida


features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
of these measures.
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
and for local roads and streets in table 10.
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or
stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and


are not subject to flooding more than once a year during
the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few
or no stones or boulders on the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John Vance, biologist, Soil Conservation Service, prepared this
section.
Good wildlife habitat is available in most areas of
Columbia County. The part of the Osceola National
Forest that is in the county, the areas along the
Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers, and the large expanse
of wetlands (bogs and swamps) in the northern part of
the county (fig. 10) are especially important as wildlife
habitat.
The main game species include deer, turkey, quail,
dove, and squirrel. The deer population generally is large
everywhere but on the southern and western edges of
the county. The turkey population is considered fair. The
higher populations are along the eastern side and
southwestern corner of the county. Quail and dove
inhabit areas throughout the county, but the higher
populations are in the more intensively farmed areas in
the southern part of the county. The bear population is
probably one of the highest in the southeast; in fact, the
black bear is considered a threatened species in Florida,
except in Columbia and Baker Counties and in the
Apalachicola National Forest. Bear habitat is best in the
northern part of the county where the relatively
impenetrable large swamps and bogs offer excellent
escape cover.
Nongame species include raccoon, opossum, bobcat,
armadillo, fox, otter, mink, skunk, and a variety of
songbirds, woodpeckers, predatory birds, wading birds,
amphibians, and reptiles, including alligators. The
alligator population is probably greatest in Sandlin Bay,
Impassable Bay, and Pinhook Swamp.
The greatest threat to wildlife habitat in the county is
the urban development taking place mainly around Lake
City and along the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers.
Freshwater fish are an important part of the wildlife
resource in Columbia County. Approximately 1,400 acres
of lakes, ponds, and pits in the county, along with about
74 miles of rivers, offer fair to good fishing year round.
Game and nongame species include largemouth bass,
channel catfish, brown bullhead, bluegill, redear, spotted
sunfish, warmouth, black crappie, striped mullet, chain
pickerel, gar, and sucker.


65






Soil Survey


Figure 10.-ay and mitax vegetation, in an area of Pamlico, loamy substratum-Dorovan complex, provides habitat for wetland widife.


There are a number of endangered and threatened
species in Columbia County. These range from the
seldom seen red-cockaded woodpecker to the more
visible southeastern kestrel (sparrow hawk).
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
In table 9, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining


the intensity of management needed for each element of
the habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind
of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
impractical or impossible.






Columbia County, Florida


The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and
seed crops are corn, soybeans, wheat, browntop millet,
and grain sorghum.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard,
and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
lovegrass, Florida beggarweed, clover, and jointvetch.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
herbaceous plants are low panicum, ragweed,
mushroom, partridgepea, and bristlegrasses.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
these plants are oak, palmetto, cherry, sweetgum, wild
grape, hawthorn, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and
blueberry. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are
suitable for planting on soils rated good are firethorn,
wild plum, and crabapple.
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, fir,
cedar, and juniper.
Wetlandplants are annual and perennial wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
plants are smartweed, wild millet, wildrice, arrowhead,
cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water-control
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface


stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
ponds.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
the following paragraphs.
Habitat for open/and wildlife consists of cropland,
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
-grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas
include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow,
cottontail, and red fox.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray
fox, raccoon, deer, and bear.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, geese, herons, shore
birds, otter, and mink.

Engineering
Elwyn O. Cooper, area engineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 6 feet.
Because of the map scale,.small areas of different soils
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this
section. Local ordinances and regulations must be
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,


67






Soil Survey


determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the
surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-
swell potential, available water capacity, and other
behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses.
This information can be used to evaluate the potential
of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and
recreation uses; to make preliminary estimates of
construction conditions; to evaluate alternative routes for
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; to evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; to
plan detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
to locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
topsoil; to plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and to predict performance of proposed
small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same or
similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
survey can be used to make additional interpretations.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Glossary.
Building Site Development
Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and,
without basements, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
features are generally favorable for the indicated use
and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate
if soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
special design, significant increases in construction
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
Special feasibility studies may be required where the soil
limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 6 feet for basements, graves, utility
lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The ratings are
based on soil properties, site features, and observed
performance of the soils. The ease of digging, filling, and
compacting is affected by the depth to bedrock, a
cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer; stone content;


soil texture; and slope. The time of the year that
excavations can be made is affected by the depth to a
seasonal high water table and the susceptibility of the
soil to flooding. The resistance of the excavation walls or
banks to sloughing or caving is affected by soil texture
and the depth to the water table.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made
for small commercial buildings without basements, for
dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without
basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high
water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water
table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large
stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts
and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high
water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the
ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil),
shrink-swell potential, frost action potential, and depth to
a high water table affect the traffic supporting capacity.
'Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil
reaction, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan, the available water capacity in the upper
40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic
materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope,
stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic
matter in the surface layer affect trafficability after
vegetation is established.

Sanitary Facilities
Table 11 shows the degree and the kind of soil
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
are considered slight if soil properties and site features
are generally favorable for the indicated use and
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features


68






Columbia County, Florida


are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
special design, significant increases in construction
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
and good performance and low maintenance can be
expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
more soil properties or site features make the soil less
desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
that one or more soil properties or site features are
unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
costly alteration.
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan, and flooding affect absorption of the
effluent. Large stones and bedrock or a cemented pan
interfere with installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath
the absorption field to filter the effluent effectively. Many
local ordinances require that this material be of a certain
thickness.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level
floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
required to minimize seepage and contamination of
ground water.
Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth
to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones,
and content of organic matter.
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level
of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function


unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive
or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of
organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the
lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope,
bedrock, and cemented pans can cause construction
problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of
the lagoon floor.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted,
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
away from the site.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
needs to be considered.
The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties,
site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a
high water table, slope, and flooding affect both types of
landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly organic
layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and sodium
affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the
ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth
of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated
slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation
is needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing.
After soil material has been removed, the soil material
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over
bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit
revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a
landfillshould be suitable for plants. The surface layer
generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
and the best potential for plant growth. Material from the
surface layer, therefore, should be stockpiled for use as
the final cover.

Construction Materials
Table 12 gives information about the soils as a source
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
They are rated as a probable or improbable source of


69






Soil Survey


sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
properties and site features that affect the removal of
the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
compaction, minor processing, and other standard
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
evaluated to a depth of 6 feet.
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
and used in road embankments in another place. In this
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
exacting in design than higher embankments.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
layer to a depth of 6 feet. It is assumed that soil layers
will be mixed during excavating and spreading. Many
soils have layers of contrasting suitability within their
profile. The table showing engineering index properties
provides detailed information about each soil layer. This
information can help determine the suitability of each
layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil after it
is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered in the
ratings.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of
excavation is affected by large stones, a high water
table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place
after it has been compacted and drained is determined
by its strength (as inferred from the engineering
classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to
the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers
of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 12, only
the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect
excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated
by the engineering classification of the soil), the
thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock
fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are


given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain
sizes is given in the table on engineering index
properties.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale
and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is
the reclamation potential of the borrow area.
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a depth
of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less
than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or
soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are
not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more
than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
near the surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of
moisture and nutrients for plant growth.

Water Management
Table 13 gives information on the soil properties and
site features that affect water management. The degree
and kind of soil limitations are given for embankments,
dikes, and levees and aquifer-fed ponds. The limitations
are considered slight if soil properties and site features
are generally favorable for the indicated use and
limitations are minor and are easily overcome; moderate
if soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that


70






Columbia County, Florida


special design, significant increase in construction costs,
and possibly increased maintenance are required.
This table also gives for each soil the restrictive
features that affect drainage, irrigation, terraces and
diversions, and grassed waterways.
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
constructed to impound water or to protect land against
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
and compacted during construction.
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth even greater than the height of the embankment
can affect performance and safety of the embankment.
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
determine these properties.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include
less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content
of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium.
A high water table affects the amount of usable material.
It also affects trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavatedponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer. Excavated ponds are
affected by depth to a permanent water table,
permeability of the aquifer, and quality of the water.
Depth to bedrock and the content of large stones affect
the ease of excavation.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth to
a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is


subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding;
subsidence of organic layers; and potential frost action.
Excavating and grading and the stability of ditchbanks
are affected by depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
large stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving.
The productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely
affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in the
root zone, such as salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of
drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
and management of an irrigation system are affected by
depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system
is affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or
sodium, and soil reaction.
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
combination of channels and ridges constructed across
a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the
construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or water erosion,
an excessively coarse texture, and restricted permeability
adversely affect maintenance.
Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
construction.


71






73


Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on
the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in
table 20.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for the
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5
or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other
properties of each layer are given for each soil series
under "Soil series and their morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Sandy clay loam," for example, is soil that is
20 to 35 percent clay, 45 to 80 percent sand, and less
than 28 percent silt. If the content of particles coarser
than sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate
modifier is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms
are defined in the Glossary.


Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
for soils tested, with group index numbers in
parentheses, is given in table 20.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
weight percentage.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.






73


Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on
the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in
table 20.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for the
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5
or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other
properties of each layer are given for each soil series
under "Soil series and their morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Sandy clay loam," for example, is soil that is
20 to 35 percent clay, 45 to 80 percent sand, and less
than 28 percent silt. If the content of particles coarser
than sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate
modifier is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms
are defined in the Glossary.


Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
for soils tested, with group index numbers in
parentheses, is given in table 20.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
weight percentage.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.






74


Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
from nearby areas and on field examination.
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and
plasticity index are rounded to the nearest 5 percent.
Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg limits
extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points)
across classification boundaries, the classification in the
marginal zone is omitted in the table.

Physical and Chemical Properties
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics and
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area.
The estimates are based on field observations and on
test data for these and similar soils.
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter.
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain
moisture. They influence shrink-swell potential,
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion,
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in
a soil also affect tillage and earth-moving operations.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential,
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture,
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are
based on soil characteristics observed in the field,
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability
is considered in the design of soil drainage systems,
septic tank absorption fields, and construction where the
rate of water movement under saturated conditions
affects behavior.
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The
capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per


inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies,
depending on soil properties that affect the retention of
water and the depth of the root zone. The most
important properties are the content of organic matter,
soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available
water capacity is an important factor in the choice of
plants or crops to be grown and in the design and
management of irrigation systems. Available water
capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
corrosion.
Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
25 degrees C.
Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
measurements of similar soils.
If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
buildings,.roads, and other structures. Special design is
often needed.
Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
is sometimes used.
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates
are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and
organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69.
The higher the value the more susceptible the soil is to
sheet and rill erosion by water.






Columbia County, Florida


Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
can occur without affecting crop productivity over a
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following
distinctions:
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to
establish.
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind
erosion are used.
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to
control wind erosion are used.
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion
are used.
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to
control wind erosion are used.
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to
control wind erosion are used.
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate,
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly
erodible. Crops can easily be grown.
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate.
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily
be grown.
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject
to wind erosion.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
soil at various stages of decomposition.
In table 15, the estimated content of organic matter is
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The content of organic matter of a soil can be
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
other nutrients for crops.


Soil and Water Features
Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water
features. The estimates are used in land use planning
that involves engineering considerations.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
according to the intake of water when the soils are
thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
duration storms.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
transmission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
transmission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that
have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after
rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding, nor is
water in swamps and marshes.
Table 16 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, rare,
common, occasional, and frequent. None means that
flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but
possible under unusual weather conditions (flooding
occurs at least once during a period of 10 to 100 years);
occasional that flooding occurs, on the average at least,
once during a period of 2 to 10 years; and frequent that
it occurs, on the average, more than once in 2 years.
Duration is expressed as very brief if less than 2 days,
brief if 2 to 7 days, and long if more than 7 days.
Probable dates are expressed in months; November-
May, for example, means that flooding can occur during
the period November through May.


75






Soil Survey


The information is based on evidence in the soil
profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of
distinctive horizons that form in soils that are not subject
to flooding.
Also considered are local information about the extent
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
levels.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
soil. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to the seasonal
high water table; the kind of water table-that is,
perched, artesian, or apparent; and the months of the
year that the water table commonly is high. A water table
that is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not
indicated in table 16.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. An
artesian water table is under hydrostatic head, generally
beneath an impermeable layer. When this layer is
penetrated, the water level rises in an uncased borehole.
A perched water table is water standing above an
unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water
table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet
are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
indicates that the water table is above the surface of the
soil. The first numeral in the range indicates how high
the water rises above the surface. The second numeral
indicates the depth below the surface.
Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth
of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and
on observations during soil mapping. The rock is
specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or
fractured, excavations can be made with trenching
machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard
or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is
needed for excavation.
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
results from either desiccation and shrinkage or oxidation
of organic material, or both, following drainage.
Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period
of several years. Table 16 shows the expected initial
subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage, and
annual subsidence, which usually is a result of oxidation.


Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
water throughout an extensive area as a result of
lowering the water table.
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil.
Special site examination and design may be needed if
the combination of factors creates a severe corrosion
environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion
than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
of soil or within one soil layer.
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
Analyses of Selected Soils
Dr. V. W. Carlisle and Dr. R. E. Caldwell, professors of soil science,
University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science
Department, prepared this section.
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical
properties of representative pedons sampled in Columbia
County are presented in tables 17, 18, and 19. The
analyses were conducted and coordinated by the Soil
Characterization Laboratory at the University of Florida.
Detailed pedon descriptions of soils analyzed are given
in alphabetical order in the section "Classification of the
Soils." Laboratory data and pedon information for
additional soils in Columbia County, as well as in other
counties in Florida, are on file at the University of
Florida, Soil Science Department.
Typifying pedons were sampled in pits at carefully
selected locations. Samples were air-dried, crushed, and
sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most analytical
methods used are outlined in Soil Survey Investigations
Report No. 1 (9).
Particle-size distribution was determined by using a
modified pipette method with sodium
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil
cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in Tempe
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at
100-centimeter water (1/10 bar) and 345-centimeter
water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water





Columbia County, Florida


percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were
ovendried and ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and
the 15-bar water retention was determined. Organic
carbon was determined by a modification of the Walkley-
Black wet combustion method.
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils with
1N ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium and
potassium in the extract were determined by flame
emission and calcium and magnesium by atomic
absorption spectrophotometry. Extractable acidity was
determined by the barium chloride-triethanolamine
method at pH 8.2. Cation-exchange capacity was
calculated by summation of extractable bases and
extractable acidity. Base saturation is the ratio of
extractable bases to cation-exchange capacity
expressed in percent. The pH measurements were made
with a glass electrode using a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a
0.01M calcium chloride solution in a 1:2 soil-solution
ratio; and 1N potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-
solution ratio.
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were
extracted from probable spodic horizons with 0.1M
sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and
iron was by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and
that of extracted carbon by the Walkley-Black wet
combustion method.
Mineralogy of the less than 2 micrometers clay fraction
was ascertained by X-ray diffraction. Peak heights at 18
angstrom, 14 angstrom, 7.2 angstrom, 4.83 angstrom,
and 4.31 angstrom positions represent montmorillonite,
interstratified expandable vermiculite or 14-angstrom
intergrades, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz, respectively.
Peaks were measured, summed, and normalized to give
percentage of soil minerals identified in the X-ray
diffractograms. These percentage values do not indicate
absolute determined quantities of soil minerals but do
imply a relative distribution of minerals in a particular
mineral suite. Absolute percentages would require
additional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, unit
structure substitution, and matrix problems.
Surface horizons of most Columbia County soils are
inherently sandy (table 17). All soils sampled, except the
Lucy, Oleno, Pantego, and Troup series, had at least
one horizon that was more than 90 percent sand. The
Leon and Alpin soils contained more than 90 percent
sand to a depth of 2 meters or more. The Albany,
Bonneau, Ichetucknee, Ocilla, Oleno, Pantego, and
Surrency soils contained the most fine textured materials
with horizons exceeding 30 percent clay. Silt content
generally was in the range of 3 to 8 percent; however, it
exceeded 18 percent in one or more horizons of the
Ocillo, Oleno, Pantego, and Surrency soils. Argillic
horizons with clay content ranging from 11.8 to 81.6


percent occurred in all but the Hurricane, Leon, and
Alpin soils. Fine sand dominated the sand fraction of all
soils. Horizons with 50 percent or more fine sand
occurred in all but the Lucy and Troup soils.
Droughtiness is a common characteristic of sandy soils,
particularly those that are moderately well drained, well
drained, and excessively drained.
Hydraulic conductivity values frequently exceeded 15
centimeters per hour in the sandy horizons of the
Albany, Alpin, Blanton, Bonneau, Electra Variant,
Hurricane, Leon, Lucy, Mascotte, Ocilla, Plummer, and
Troup soils. Horizons with enhanced amounts of clay
occurred at varying depths in the Albany, Blanton,
Bonneau, Electra Variant, Ichetucknee, Lucy, Mascotte,
Ocilla, Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, Surrency, and Troup
soils and resulted in very low hydraulic conductivity
values that frequently approached zero. The Electra
Variant, Leon, and Mascotte soils had well-developed
spodic horizons with very low hydraulic conductivity
values. The very low hydraulic conductivity values for the
soils that contain enhanced amounts of clays and well-
developed spodic horizons may or may not coincide with
the estimated permeability values in table 15. The
undisturbed soil cores occupy only a small part of the
pedon and are only a single sample. In these soils the
very low values may not represent true field conditions.
The available water in a soil for plants can be
estimated from bulk density and water content data.
Generally, excessively sandy soils that contain low
amounts of organic matter retain low amounts of
available water. The Alpin soil retains very low amounts
of available water within a depth of more than 2 meters.
The surface horizon of the Surrency soil retains the
largest amount of available water.
Chemical soil properties (table 18) show that most
Columbia County soils contain a low amount of
extractable bases. Only the surface horizon of Lucy,
Oleno, Pantego, and Troup soils exceeds 2
milliequivalents per 100 grams extractable bases;
however, Bonneau, Chiefland, Ichetucknee, Lucy, Ocilla,
Oleno, Pantego, and Troup soils have at least one
horizon below the surface that exceeds this amount.
Calcium is the dominant base, but the Lucy, Ocilla, and
Troup soils have horizons with considerably greater
amounts of magnesium than calcium. Sodium is not
detectable in the Albany, Alpin, Blanton, and Plummer
soils and occurs in amounts less than 0.2
milliequivalents per 100 grams in all but the Ocilla,
Oleno, and Pantego soils. All soils sampled contain less
than 1.0 milliequivalent per 100 grams potassium.
Cation-exchange capacity values exceed 10
milliequivalents per 100 grams in the surface horizon of
the Hurricane, Leon, Lucy, Mascotte, Oleno, Pantego,
and Surrency soils. Within pedon depth, the cation-
exchange capacity exceeds 10 milliequivalents per 100
grams in one or more horizons of the Bonneau,
Chiefland, Electra Variant, Hurricane, Ichetucknee, Leon,


77





Soil Survey


Lucy, Mascotte, Ocilla, Oleno, Pantego, Plummer,
Surrency, and Troup soils.
Soils with a low cation-exchange capacity in the
surface horizon, such as the Alpin and Chiefland soils,
require only small amounts of lime to significantly alter
both the base status and soil reaction in the upper
horizons. Generally, soils of low inherent soil fertility are
associated with low values for extractable bases and for
cation-exchange capacity. Fertile soils are associated
with high values for extractable bases, high cation-
exchange capacity, and high base saturation values.
Organic carbon content is less than 2 percent
throughout the profiles of the Albany, Alpine, Blanton,
Bonneau, Chiefland, Electra Variant, Hurricane,
Ichetucknee, Lucy, Ocilla, Oleno, Pelham, Plummer, and
Troup soils. The surface horizon of the Leon, Mascotte,
Pantego, and Surrency soils contains more than 2
percent organic carbon. Soil practices that conserve and
maintain organic carbon in soils are highly desirable
because organic carbon content is directly related to soil
nutrient and water retention.
Electrical conductivity values generally are very low,
exceeding 0.1 millimhos per centimeter only in the Oleno
soil. Soluble salt content of Columbia County soils is
insufficient to detrimentally affect the growth of salt-
sensitive plants.
Soil reaction in water generally ranges from pH 4.5 to
6.0. Slightly higher reaction values were recorded for one
or two horizons in the Chiefland, Ichetucknee, Ocilla,
Oleno, and Troup soils, but none was above pH 7.0. Soil
reaction generally is 0.5 to 1.5 units lower in calcium
chloride and potassium chloride solutions than in water.
Maximum plant nutrient availability generally is attained
when soil reaction is between pH 6.5 and 7.5.
Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron is 0.03 percent
or less in the Bh horizon of the Electra Variant,
Hurricane, Leon, and Mascotte soils. The ratio of
pyrophosphate extractable carbon and aluminum to clay
in these soils is sufficient to meet the chemical criteria
for a spodic horizon. Citrate-dithionite extractable iron
ranges from 0.01 percent in the spodic horizon of
Hurricane soils to 2.49 percent in the argillic horizon of
Albany soils. Aluminum extracted by citrate-dithionite in
spodic horizons of Spodosols and argillic horizons of
Alfisols and Ultisols ranges from 0.05 to 0.31 percent.
Amounts of aluminum and iron in Columbia County soils
are not sufficient to detrimentally affect phosphorus
availability.
The sand fraction (2 to 0.05 millimeters) is siliceous
with quartz overwhelmingly dominant in all pedons. Small
amounts of heavy minerals occur in most horizons; the
greatest concentration is in the very fine sand fraction.
Crystalline mineral components of the clay fraction (less
than 0.002 millimeters) are reported in table 19 for major
horizons of the pedons sampled. The clay mineralogical
suite is composed of montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom
intergrade, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz. Montmorillonite


occurs in slightly more than one-half of the pedons
sampled but is noticeably absent in the Grossarenic
Paleudults, Grossarenic Paleaquults, and Typic
Quartzipsamments. Montmorillonite is not detectable in
one pedon of Bonneau soils and in one pedon of Ocilla
soils located a short distance south of Lake City;
conversely, large amounts of montmorillonite occur in a
second pedon of Bonneau soils and in a second pedori
of Ocilla soils located northwest of Lake City. Kaolinite,
14-angstrom intergrade minerals, and quartz occur in all
pedons. Gibbsite is detected only in the argillic horizon
of Blanton soils.
Montmorillonite is probably the least stable of the
mineral components in the present acidic environment of
the Bonneau, Chiefland, Electra Variant, Ichetucknee,
Leon, Lucy, Mascotte, Ocilla, Oleno, Pantego, and
Pelham soils. Montmorillonite appears to have been
inherited by these soils. A considerable change in
volume could result from the shrinking (when dry) and
swelling (when wet) of the montmorillonitic subsoil of the
Bonneau, Ocilla, Oleno, and Pantego soils. The general
tendency of 14-angstrom intergrades to decrease with
depth suggests that the 14-angstrom intergrade minerals
are very stable in this weathering environment. Soils
dominated by montmorillonite and 14-angstrom
intergrades have a much higher cation-exchange
capacity and retain more plant nutrients than soils
dominated by kaolinite and quartz.

Engineering Index Test Data
Table 20 shows laboratory test data for several
pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey
area. The pedons are typical of the series and are
described in the section "Soil Series and Their
Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the Soils
Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
Bureau of Materials and Research.
The testing methods generally are those of the
American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials (AASHTO) (1) or the American
Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (2).
The tests and methods are: AASHTO classification-M
145 (AASHTO), D 3282 (ASTM); Unified classification-
D 2487 (ASTM); Mechanical analysis-T 88 (AASHTO),
D 2217 (ASTM); Liquid limit-T 89 (AASHTO), D 423
(ASTM); Plasticity index-T 90 (AASHTO), D 424
(ASTM); Moisture density, Method A-T 99 (AASHTO), D
698 (ASTM).
Table 20 contains engineering test data about some of
the major soils in the county. The tests were made by
the Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of
Transportation, Bureau of Materials and Research. The
tests help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes.
The classifications given are based on data obtained by
mechanical analysis and by tests to determine liquid
limits and plastic limits.


78






Columbia County, Florida


The mechanical analyses were made by the combined
sieve and hydrometer method. In this method, the
various grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis
of all the material in the soil sample, including that
coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. The mechanical
analyses used in this method should not be used in
naming textural classes of soils.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
water on the strength and consistence of the soil
material. As the moisture content of a dry clayey soil is
increased, the material goes from dry to semisolid to
plastic. If the moisture content is further increased, the
material changes from plastic to liquid. The plastic limit is
the moisture content at which the soil material changes
from semisolid to plastic, and the liquid limit is the
moisture content at which the soil material changes from


plastic to liquid. The plasticity index is the numerical
difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit. It
indicates the range of moisture content within which a
soil material is plastic. The data on liquid limit and
plasticity index in table 20 are based on laboratory tests
of soil samples.
Compaction, or moisture-density, data are important in
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive
effort remains constant, the density of the compacted
material increases until the optimum moisture content is
reached. After that, density decreases with an increase
in moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in
the compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As
a rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density.


79






81


Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (10).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or from laboratory measurements. Table 21 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the'order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning
water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of
the soil. An example is Haplaquents (Hapl, meaning
minimal horizonation, plus aquent, the suborder of the
Entisols that have an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Haplaquents.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where
there is much biological activity. Among the properties


and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
properties. An example is fine-loamy, mixed, nonacid,
mesic Typic Haplaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
differ within a series.


Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (8). Many of
the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
in Soil Taxonomy (10). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
description is the range of important characteristics of
the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Albany Series
The Albany series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
thermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It consists of
somewhat poorly drained, moderately permeable soils
that formed in deposits of sandy and loamy sediments.
The soils are nearly level to gently sloping. They are on
broad flats and in undulating areas bordering poorly
defined drainageways and swales on the uplands. The
slope ranges from 0 to 5 percent. The water table is at a
depth of 12 to 30 inches for 1 to 4 months in most
years. Some areas are flooded occasionally for long
periods in about 1 year in 10.






81


Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (10).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or from laboratory measurements. Table 21 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the'order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning
water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of
the soil. An example is Haplaquents (Hapl, meaning
minimal horizonation, plus aquent, the suborder of the
Entisols that have an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Haplaquents.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where
there is much biological activity. Among the properties


and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
properties. An example is fine-loamy, mixed, nonacid,
mesic Typic Haplaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
differ within a series.


Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (8). Many of
the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
in Soil Taxonomy (10). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
description is the range of important characteristics of
the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Albany Series
The Albany series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
thermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It consists of
somewhat poorly drained, moderately permeable soils
that formed in deposits of sandy and loamy sediments.
The soils are nearly level to gently sloping. They are on
broad flats and in undulating areas bordering poorly
defined drainageways and swales on the uplands. The
slope ranges from 0 to 5 percent. The water table is at a
depth of 12 to 30 inches for 1 to 4 months in most
years. Some areas are flooded occasionally for long
periods in about 1 year in 10.






Soil Survey


The Albany soils are closely associated with the
Blanton, Bonneau, Chipley, Ocilla, Pelham, Plummer, and
Troup soils. The Blanton, Bonneau, and Troup soils are
better drained than the Albany soils, and the Pelham and
Plummer soils are more poorly drained. The Chipley soils
are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more; and the
Ocilla, Bonneau, and Pelham soils have a sandy A
horizon 20 to 40 inches thick.
Typical pedon of Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, in a pine plantation 0.5 mile east of Birley Road
and 0.5 mile south of Florida Highway 252,
NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 8, T. 4 S., R. 16 E.
A1-0 to 7 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine roots;
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A21-7 to 15 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
few fine faint very pale brown splotches; single
grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A22-15 to 30 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
few fine prominent yellow (10YR 7/6) and common
fine white mottles; common uncoated sand grains;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A23-30 to 55 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand;
common medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR
6/8) mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B1-55 to 65 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) loamy fine
sand; common medium prominent yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6) and common medium faint white (10YR
8/2) mottles; weak medium granular structure;
friable; about 2 percent plinthite; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B2tg-65 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay
loam; many medium prominent yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; about 4 percent plinthite;
very strongly acid.
The soil is very strongly acid or strongly acid.
The Al horizon is 6 to 8 inches thick. It has hue of
10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The
A2 horizon is 34 to 60 inches thick. It has hue of 10YR,
value of 5, and chroma of 2 or 4, or value of 6 and
chroma of 2 to 8, or value of 7 or 8 and chroma of 2.
Few to common brown, yellow, and gray mottles occur
throughout the horizon.
The B1 horizon is 0 to 10 inches thick. It has hue of
10YR, value of 6, and chroma of 4 or 6; or where it has
hue of 2.5Y, it has value of 6 and chroma of 4, or value
of 5 or 7 and chroma of 4 or 6, or value of 8 and chroma
of 4. Few to common brown, yellow, and gray mottles
occur throughout the horizon. The texture is loamy fine
sand or fine sandy loam.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR and either value of
5 or 6 and chroma of 1 to 8 or value of 7 and chroma of


1 or 2; or it has hue of 2.5Y and either value of 6 and
chroma of 4 or value of 7 and chroma of 2. Its texture is
sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
Common to many red, brown, yellow, and gray mottles
occur throughout the horizon.

Alpin Series
The Alpin series is a member of the thermic, coated
family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It consists of
excessively drained, moderately rapidly permeable soils
that formed in thick marine sandy sediments. These
nearly level to strongly sloping soils occur on broad,
slightly elevated ridges. The slope ranges from 0 to 12
percent. The water table is below a depth of 80 inches
throughout the year.
The Alpin soils are closely associated with the Albany,
Blanton, Chipley, Electra Variant, Lakeland, Leon,
Plummer, Surrency, Troup, and Bonneau soils and with
the Chiefland-Pedro Variant complex and Udorthents.
The Alpin soils differ from the associated soils in having
lamellae. They differ from the Albany, Blanton, Bonneau,
Plummer, and Surrency soils in being better drained and
in not having a Bt horizon. The Troup soils have a deep
Bt horizon. The Electra Variant and Leon soils are more
poorly drained than the Alpin soils and have a Bh
horizon. The Chipley soils are more poorly drained than
the Alpin soils. The Chiefland and Pedro Variant soils are
shallow to deep over bedrock. Udorthents are mine spoil
covering buried soils.
Typical pedon of Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, in an area 400 feet north of the Suwannee
County line and 1,400 feet west of the intersection of
Old Ichetucknee Road and Florida Highway 238, 10 feet
west of unimproved dirt road, SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 1, T. 6
S., R. 15 E.
A1-0 to 6 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common fine and medium
roots; medium acid; clear smooth boundary.
A21-6 to 15 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
common uncoated sand grains; single grained;
loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A22-15 to 27 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
common uncoated sand grains; single grained;
loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A23-27 to 38 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; common fine faint very pale brown (10YR 7/4)
splotches; few uncoated sand grains; single grained;
loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A24-38 to 52 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) fine
sand; few fine distinct light yellowish brown (10YR
6/4) mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.





Columbia County, Florida


A2&B1-52 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3)
fine sand; single grained; loose; common uncoated
sand grains; common yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
loamy fine sand lamellae 2.5 to 15 millimeters thick;
individual lamellae are discontinuous in length within
the pedon; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
medium acid.
The soil is medium acid to very strongly acid. Lamellae
begin at a depth of 40 to 70 inches and have a
cumulative thickness of 1 to 6 inches to a depth of 80
inches.
The Al horizon is 3 to 8 inches thick. It has hue of
10YR and either value of 4 or 5 and chroma of 1 through
3 or value of 3 and chroma of 3. The A2 horizon is 36 to
58 inches thick. It has hue of 10YR with value of 6 or 7
and chroma of 3 through 8, or value of 5 and chroma of
4 through 8, or value of 8 and chroma of 3; or it has hue
of 2.5Y, value of 7, and chroma of 6. Streaks and small
to large pockets of uncoated sand grains with hue of
10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2 are in this
horizon in many pedons. Few light yellowish brown
mottles occur in the lower part of this horizon, usually
below a depth of 40 inches.
The A2&B1 horizon is 14 to 40 inches thick. The A2
part has hue of 10YR; and it has value of 7 and chroma
of 1 through 6, or value of 8 and chroma of 1 through 3,
or value of 8 and chroma of 6. The B1 part of this
horizon has hue of 10YR and either value of 5 and
chroma of 4 through 8 or value of 7 and chroma of 6; or
it has hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6 or 8.
The lamellae range from 1 to 15 millimeters in thickness
and from 1 centimeter to more than 1 meter in horizontal
length in the pedon. The texture of the lamellae is loamy
sand, loamy fine sand, or sandy loam; however, the
texture after mixing is fine sand.

Bigbee Series
The Bigbee series is a member of the thermic, coated
family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It consists of
excessively drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed
in marine or fluvial sandy deposits. These nearly level to
gently sloping soils occur on low terraces along rivers
and flood for long periods during high rainfall. The slope
ranges from 0 to 2 percent. The water table is at a depth
of 40 to 70 inches for 1 to 2 months and rises to a depth
of 20 to 40 inches for short periods; it is usually deeper
than 80 inches for the rest of the year.
The Bigbee soils are closely associated with the
Electra Variant, Alpin, Albany, Blanton, Leon, and
Mascotte soils. The Electra Variant and the Leon and
Mascotte soils have a spodic horizon and are more
poorly drained than the Bigbee soils. The Alpin soils
have lamellae, and the Albany and Blanton soils have a
Bt horizon.
Typical pedon of Bigbee fine sand i i borrow pit 100
yards south of Florida Highway 136 and 200 yards west


of White Springs Road, NW1/4SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 12, R.
15 E., T. 2 S.
A1-0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few
fine roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary.
C1-7 to 14 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
C2-14 to 30 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; common medium uncoated sand grains;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
C3-30 to 48 inches; yellow (10YR 7/8) fine sand; few
fine faint brownish yellow mottles; common
uncoated sand grains; single grained; loose; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C4-48 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; few
fine distinct light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) and
brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; single grained;
loose; very strongly acid.
The thickness of the solum exceeds 80 inches.
Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid in all
horizons.
The Al horizon is 5 to 8 inches thick. It has hue of
10YR; it has value of 4 and chroma of 2 or 3, or value of
5 and chroma of 3, or value of 3 and chroma of 2.
The upper part of the C horizon has hue of 10YR,
value of 5, and chroma of 4 through 8, or value of 6 and
chroma of 4 or 6, or value of 7 and chroma of 6 or 8; or
it has hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6 or 8.
The lower part of the C horizon has hue of 10YR and
either value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 3 or 4 or value of 8
and chroma of 1 or 2. Chroma of 2 or less occurs at a
depth of more than 40 inches. The C horizon extends to
a depth of 80 inches or more.

Blanton Series
The Blanton series is a member of the loamy,
siliceous, thermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It
consists of moderately well drained, moderately
permeable soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine
materials. These nearly level to sloping soils occur on
extensive broad ridges and slopes adjacent to
drainageways. The slope ranges from 0 to 8 percent.
The water table is at a depth of 5 to 6 feet for most of
the year. A perched water table is above the Bt horizon
for less than a month during wet seasons.
The Blanton soils are closely associated with the
Albany, Alpin, Bigbee, Chipley, Lakeland, Ocilla,
Plummer, Ichetucknee, Bonneau, and Lucy soils. The
Albany, Chipley, Ocilla, and Plummer soils are more
poorly drained than the Blanton soils, and the Bigbee
and Lakeland soils are better drained. The Bigbee,


83






Soil Survey


Chipley, and Lakeland soils are sandy to a depth of 80
inches or more. The Ocilla, Bonneau, and Lucy soils
have a sandy A horizon less than 40 inches thick. The
Alpin soils have lamellae in accumulations of 6 inches or
less in the upper 80 inches, and they do not have an
argillic horizon. The Ichetucknee soils are in a fine,
mixed family.
Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, in a pine plantation 1 mile south of Florida
Highway 252, 800 feet west of Birley Road, 25 feet east
of Woods Road, SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 8, T. 4 S., R. 16 E.
Ap-0 to 7 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; many fine and
common medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
A21-7 to 37 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; common medium faint white (10YR 8/2)
splotches; single grained, loose; common fine roots;
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
A22-37 to 52 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
few fine faint very pale brown (10YR 7/4) mottles;
many medium pockets of white (10YR 8/2) in lower
10 inches; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B21t-52 to 62 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sandy loam; few fine faint brownish yellow
(10YR 6/8) mottles; moderate medium granular
structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B22t-62 to 67 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
sandy loam; many medium distinct strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6) and common medium distinct pale
brown (10YR 6/3) mottles; weak fine subangular
blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
B23tg-67 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (1 YR 6/2)
fine sandy loam, many medium distinct strong brown
(7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky
structure; friable; very strongly acid.
The thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to more
than 80 inches. Reaction is strongly or very strongly acid
in all horizons. Ironstone pebbles generally range from 0
to 5 percent. In some pedons they make up as much as
15 percent of the material below a depth of 60 inches.
The Al or Ap horizon is 5 to 10 inches thick. It has
hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 6, and chroma of 1
through 3. The A2 horizon is 38 to 64 inches thick. It has
hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 through 4.
The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR and either value of
6 or 7 and chroma of 2 through 4 or value of 5 or 6 and
chroma of 6 or 8; or it has hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and
chroma of 6. Where chroma is 6 or 8, this horizon has
few to common gray, yellow, brown, or red mottles.
Chroma of 2 or less occurs in the lower part of this
horizon. The texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or
sandy clay loam.


Bonneau Series
The Bonneau series is a member of the loamy,
siliceous, thermic family of Arenic Paleudults. It consists
of moderately well drained, moderately permeable soils
that formed in loamy coastal plain sediments. These
gently sloping to sloping soils occur on slightly elevated
knolls and in narrow to broad upland areas. The slope
ranges from 2 to 8 percent. The water table is at a depth
of 48 to 72 inches for 1 to 2 months during rainy periods
of most years. It is below a depth of 72 inches during the
remainder of the year.
The Bonneau soils are closely associated with the
Albany, Alpin, Blanton, Leefield, Pelham, Ichetucknee,
and Troup soils. The Bonneau soils have a Bt horizon at
a depth of 20 to 40 inches, whereas the Albany, Alpin,
Blanton, Ichetucknee, and Troup soils do not.
Additionally, the Albany, Leefield, Pelham, and
Ichetucknee soils are wetter than the Bonneau soils, and
the Alpin soils are excessively drained.
Typical pedon of Bonneau fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Highway 41, 0.5 mile
south of New Mount Zion Church, and 200 feet east of
Suwannee Valley Road, SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 2 S.,
R. 16 E.

A1-0 to 7 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; friable; strongly acid;
clear smooth boundary.
A21-7 to 15 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
A22-15 to 27 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
sand; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) splotches; single
grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B21t-27 to 36 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
(This horizon was subdivided for tests to determine
physical and chemical properties.)
B22t-36 to 58 inches; mottled very pale brown (10YR
7/4), yellowish red (5YR 4/6), and grayish brown
(2.5Y 5/2) sandy clay loam; strong medium
subangular blocky structure; very firm; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B23t-58 to 74 inches; mottled very pale brown (10YR
7/4), yellowish red (5YR 4/6), and grayish brown
(2.5Y 5/2) sandy clay loam; strong medium
subangular blocky structure; very firm; few gray
(10YR 5/1) and yellowish red (5YR 5/8) pockets of
fine sandy loam; clay films on ped faces; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B24t-74 to 80 inches; mottled gray (10YR 5/1) and
pink (7.5YR 7/4) sandy clay loam; weak medium
subangular blocky structure; firm; very strongly acid.


84







Columbia County, Florida


Reaction ranges from medium acid to very strongly
acid, except where the soil has been limed.
The Al or Ap horizon is 5 to 9 inches thick. It has hue
of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 through 3.
The A2 horizon is 10 to 33 inches thick. It has hue of
2.5Y, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 4; or it has hue of
10YR and either value of 5 and chroma of 3 or 4 or
value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 3 through 6.
The B21t horizon is 6 to 20 inches thick and has hue
of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 4
through 8. Common yellow, reddish brown, yellowish red,
and brownish yellow mottles are in some pedons. The
texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
The lower part of the B2t horizon has the same color
range as the B21t horizon with few to common brown,
yellow, red, and gray mottles, or this horizon is
reticulately mottled throughout with these colors. Chroma
of 2 or less is at a depth of 36 to 60 inches. The B2t
horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
texture is sandy clay loam or sandy clay.

Chiefland Series
The Chiefland series is a member of the loamy,
siliceous, thermic family of Arenic Hapludalfs. It consists
of well drained, moderately permeable soils that formed
in sandy and loamy sediments underlain by limestone.
These nearly level to sloping soils occur on upland karst
landscapes and along river and creek banks. The slope
ranges from 0 to 8 percent. The water table is below a
depth of 72 inches.
The Chiefland soils are closely associated with the
Lakeland, Alpin, Bigbee, Blanton, Chipley, Troup,
Bonneau, and Pedro Variant soils. The Chiefland soils
differ from the associated soils, except the Pedro
Variant, in having limestone within a depth of 80 inches.
The Pedro Variant soils have limestone within a depth of
20 inches. Additionally, the Blanton and Chipley soils are
moderately well drained, and the Alpin and Lakeland
soils do not have a Bt horizon.
Typical pedon of Chiefland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, 0.55 mile east of U.S. Highway 441, 0.3 mile
north of Bellamy Road, SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 3, T. 7 S., R.
17 E.
Ap-0 to 8 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
grained; loose; common uncoated sand grains
(many in the upper 2 inches); many fine roots;
medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
A2-8 to 33 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
common medium faint brown (10YR 5/3) and few
fine prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles;
single grained; loose; common uncoated sand
grains; many fine carbonate masses and mycelia;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
B2t-33 to 39 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) fine
sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky


structure; friable; few small carbonate nodules;
neutral; abrupt wavy boundary.
11CR-39 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/2) soft limestone.

The depth to soft limestone ranges from 26 to 50
inches in about 60 percent of the pedon and from 50 to
60 inches in about 30 to 40 percent of the pedon. In
solution holes, the solum extends to a depth of more
than 60 inches. Boulders cover about 1 to 3 percent of
the area.
The Al or Ap horizon is 3 to 8 inches thick. It has hue
of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 through 3.
The A2 horizon is 18 to 30 inches thick. It has hue of
10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 2 through 4.
Brownish yellow or very pale brown streaks and
splotches range from none to common. Reaction is
strongly acid to neutral. Fine limestone particles are
scattered throughout this horizon in some pedons.
The B2t horizon is 3 to 18 inches thick. It has hue of
7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4 through 6, and chroma of 4
through 8. Its texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay
loam. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately
alkaline. Soft limestone nodules or fragments range from
few to common in the lower part of this horizon.
The IICr horizon is weathered limestone with hue of
10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is mixed
with few to many hard limestone boulders. Solution holes
filled with sandy clay loam or fine sand occupy about 30
percent of the pedon. Depth to limestone is highly
variable within short distances.

Chipley Series
The Chipley series is a member of the thermic, coated
family of Aquic Quartzipsamments. It consists of
moderately well drained, rapidly permeable soils that
formed in thick, sandy marine sediments. The soils are
nearly level to gently sloping. They are on low ridges and
knolls. The slope ranges from 0 to 5 percent. The water
table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 4 months
during most years and at a depth of 40 to 60 inches
during the rest of the year. During dry periods, the water
table may fall to a depth of more than 60 inches.
The Chipley soils are closely associated with the
Albany, Alpin, Blanton, Plummer, Mascotte, Hurricane,
and Bonneau soils. The Albany, Blanton, Plummer,
Mascotte, and Bonneau soils have an argillic horizon.
The Mascotte soils have a spodic horizon, and the
Hurricane soils have a deep spodic horizon. The
Plummer and Mascotte soils are more poorly drained
than the Chipley soils. The Alpin soils have lamellae and
are excessively drained,
Typical pedon of Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, in a wooded area 1,500 feet south of U.S.
Highway 90 and 3/4 mile west of intersection U.S.
Highway 90 and Florida Highway 252, about 200 feet
southeast of the northwest corner of Pinemount


85







Soil Survey


subdivision, NW1/4SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 34, T. 3 S., R. 16
E.

Ap-0 to 7 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; extremely acid; clear smooth
boundary.
C1-7 to 30 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; common medium distinct yellow (10YR 7/6)
mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
C2-30 to 40 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
common medium faint very pale brown (10YR 7/3)
mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
C3-40 to 60 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3 to 7/4)
fine sand; common medium faint brownish yellow
(10YR 6/8) and white (10YR 8/2) and few fine
prominent yellowish red (5YR 4/8) mottles; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth
boundary.
C4-60 to 66 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C5-66 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few
fine faint brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) and common
medium faint yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid.
The Ap horizon ranges from extremely acid to strongly
acid. The C horizon is very strongly acid or strongly acid.
The Ap horizon is 4 to 10 inches thick. It has hue of
10YR, value of 2 through 5, and chroma of 1 or 2.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR and either value of 7
or 8 and chroma of 1 to 4 or value of 4 to 6 and chroma
of 3; or it has hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6.
Few to common fine and medium reddish and yellowish
segregated iron mottles and white, gray, and pale brown
mottles are at a depth of 30 to 40 inches in some
pedons.

Dorovan Series
The Dorovan~series is a member of the dysic, thermic
family of Typic Medisaprists. It consists of very poorly
drained, moderately permeable, highly decomposed
organic materials more than 51 inches thick. These
materials are decomposed leaves, twigs, roots, and
other partially decomposed plants. The soils are in large
swamps and drainageways in the northern part of the
county. The water table is at or above the surface for 6
to 12 months during most years. Most areas are covered
by as much as 2 feet of water at some time during the
year. The concave slopes are less than 1 percent.
The Dorovan soils are closely associated with the
Leon, Mascotte, Pamlico, Pelham, Plummer, Sapelo, and
Surrency soils. All of these, except the Pamlico soils, are
mineral soils. The Pelham and Surrency soils have a Bt
horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. The Leon,


Mascotte, and Sapelo soils have a Bh horizon. The
Pamlico soils have organic materials less than 51 inches
thick underlain by sandy over loamy materials.
Typical pedon of Dorovan muck, 0.04 mile east of
Little Suwannee Road, 0.4 mile south of the Georgia
state line, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 18, T. 2 N., R. 18 E.

Oal-0 to 14 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) muck;
about 45 percent fiber, 15 percent rubbed; massive;
very friable; many medium to large partly
decomposed leaves, twigs, and wood fragments;
very strongly acid; diffuse wavy boundary.
Oa2-14 to 50 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
muck; about 30 percent fiber, 5 percent rubbed;
massive; very friable; few to common partially
decomposed roots, limbs, logs, and fragments of
wood; very strongly acid; diffuse wavy boundary.
Oa3-50 to 80 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
muck; about 25 percent fiber, less than 5 percent
rubbed; common partially decomposed plant parts;
very strongly acid.

The thickness of the organic material ranges from 51
to 80 inches or more. Reaction is strongly acid to very
strongly acid. Fiber content of the Oa horizon ranges
from 20 to 50 percent unrubbed and from less than 5 to
20 percent rubbed.
The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral with
value of 2 or 3. This horizon contains few to many partly
decomposed leaves, roots, twigs, and remains of
hydrophytic plants. A few logs and large woody
fragments are in the lower part of this horizon.
In some pedons there is a IIC horizon that has hue of
10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. Its texture
is fine sand or sandy loam. Depth to the IIC horizon
ranges from 52 to 80 inches or more.

Electra Variant
The Electra Variant is a member of the sandy,
siliceous, thermic family of Arenic Ultic Haplohumods. It
consists of somewhat poorly drained, slowly permeable
soils that formed in thick, marine sandy and loamy
deposits. These nearly level to gently sloping soils occur
on low ridges; along creeks, rivers, and drainageways;
and around swamps and depressions. The slope ranges
from 0 to 5 percent. The water table is at a depth of 25
to 40 inches for about 4 months during most years and
under normal conditions recedes to a depth of more
than 40 inches the rest of the year. Some areas of this
soil near major rivers are occasionally flooded after
abnormally heavy and prolonged rainfall. These soils
historically have flooded in March or April about once
every 10 years. This flooding is especially predominate in
the Suwannee River flood plains.


86




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