• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Clay County in...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soils series and their morphol...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Clay County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026088/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Clay County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 297 p., 3, 35 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1990]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Clay County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Clay County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 123).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations ; and Soil Science Department ; and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 90-307-P.
General Note: "Issued September 1989"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026088
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 003481948
oclc - 21767960
notis - AHE9706

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Clay County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    How this survey was made
        Page 5
        Map unit composition
            Page 5
            Page 6
    General soil map units
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
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        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 67
        Crops and pasture
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
        Grazeable woodland
            Page 74
        Recreation
            Page 75
            Page 76
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 77
        Engineering
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
    Soil properties
        Page 85
        Engineering index properties
            Page 85
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 86
        Soil and water features
            Page 87
            Page 88
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 89
            Page 90
        Engineering index test data
            Page 91
            Page 92
    Classification of the soils
        Page 93
    Soils series and their morphology
        Page 93
        Albany series
            Page 94
        Allanton series
            Page 94
        Blanton series
            Page 95
        Centenary series
            Page 96
        Goldhead series
            Page 96
        Hurricane series
            Page 97
        Kershaw series
            Page 98
        Leon series
            Page 98
        Lynn Haven series
            Page 99
        Mandarin series
            Page 99
        Maurepas series
            Page 100
        Meadowbrook series
            Page 101
        Meggett series
            Page 102
        Neilhurst series
            Page 102
        Newnan series
            Page 103
        Ocilla series
            Page 104
        Ona series
            Page 105
        Ortega series
            Page 105
        Osier series
            Page 106
        Ousley series
            Page 107
        Pamlico series
            Page 107
        Pelham series
            Page 108
        Penney series
            Page 108
        Plummer series
            Page 109
        Pottsburg series
            Page 110
        Ridgeland series
            Page 110
        Ridgewood series
            Page 111
        Rutlege series
            Page 112
        Santee series
            Page 112
        Sapelo series
            Page 113
        Scranton series
            Page 114
        Solite series
            Page 114
        Surrency series
            Page 115
        Troup series
            Page 116
        Wesconnett series
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
    Formation of the soils
        Page 119
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 119
        Processes of horizon differentiation
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
    Reference
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Glossary
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Tables
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
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        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
    General soil map
        Page 208
    Index to map sheets
        Page 209
        Page 210
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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Full Text


United States In cooperation with
Department of University of Florida. Soil S urvey of
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences. C lay C o unty,
Soil Agricultural Experiment y
Conservation Stations and Soil Science Florida
Service Department. and Florida Fl oria
Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services
















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can -
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas. -

KoK mo
To find information about
your area of interest, 1 4
locate that area on the C 1 q ,- _
Index to Map Sheets, 1 4T MAP SHEET
which precedes the soil 7 13
maps. Note the number of 17. ..1 .. ..
the map sheet, and turn to -I TO MP
that sheet. INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
that sheet.



interest on the map ,s- BaC\1 Ba^wa AsB/
sheet. Note the map unit I Bac /c
symbols that are in that Ii a
area. Turn to the Index -AREA OF INTEREST
to Map Units (see Con- f11 AREA OF INTEREST
tents), which lists the map NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
tents), which lists the map survey may consist only of numbers or
units by symbol and letters, or they may be a combination
name and shows the of numbers and letters.
page where each map MAP SHEET
unit is described.

The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.






















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal part
of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in July 1985. Soil names
and descriptions were approved in 1985. Unless otherwise indicated, statements
in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1985. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations and Soil Science Department, Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, and Florida Department of Transportation. It is part of the
technical assistance furnished to the Clay Soil and Water Conservation District.
The Clay County Board of County Commissioners contributed financially to the
acceleration of the survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: This area of soils in the Hurricane-Leon-Mandarin general soil map unit is used as
pasture, which is occasionally cut for hay. Most areas of these soils are planted to pine trees or
are left in native vegetation.


















ii


















Contents


Index to map units ......................... iv Mandarin series .......................... 99
Summary of tables .............................. v Maurepas series ............. ............ 100
Foreword ........... ... ................. vii Meadowbrook series ........... ............ 101
General nature of the county .................... 1 Meggett series .......................... 102
How this survey was made .................... 5 Neilhurst series ............................ 102
Map unit composition ....................... 6 Newnan series .......................... 103
General soil map units....................... 7 Ocilla series ............................ 104
Detailed soil map units .......................... 17 Ona series ........... .................. 105
Use and management of the soils ................ 67 Ortega series ............... ............ 105
Crops and pasture ............................. 67 Osier series ........... ................. 106
Woodland management and productivity ......... 71 Ousley series ........................... 107
Grazeable woodland ............ .......... 74 Pamlico series............................. 107
Recreation .................................. 75 Pelham series ............................. 108
Wildlife habitat ................ ........... 77 Penney series ........... ............... 108
Engineering ................................ 78 Plummer series ............ .. ........... 109
Soil properties ............. .... ........... 85 Pottsburg series .............. ........... 110
Engineering index properties .................... 85 Ridgeland series........................... 110
Physical and chemical properties ................ 86 Ridgewood series............. ........... 111
Soil and water features ......................... 87 Rutlege series ............................. 112
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of Santee series ........................... 112
selected soils ......................... 89 Sapelo series ........................... 113
Engineering index test data ..................... 91 Scranton series ........... ... ........... 114
Classification of the soils ................... 93 Solite series ............................ 114
Soil series and their morphology.................. 93 Surrency series ......................... 115
Albany series ................................ 94 Troup series ........... .... ............. 116
Allanton series ................ ........... 94 Wesconnett series ......................... 116
Blanton series ........................... 95 Formation of the soils ........... .......... 119
Centenary series ......................... 96 Factors of soil formation ....................... 119
Goldhead series ............................. 96 Processes of horizon differentiation ............. 120
Hurricane series .............. ........... 97 References .................................. 123
Kershaw series ............................. 98 Glossary ................................. 125
Leon series............ ................. 98 Tables ................................... 135
Lynn Haven series ........................... 99

Issued September 1989








iii


















Index to Map Units


1-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........ 17 29-Rutlege-Osier complex, frequently flooded ..... 42
2-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ....... 18 30-Arents, sandy ......................... 42
3-Hurricane fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ..... 19 31-Pottsburg fine sand .......................... 43
4-Ocilla loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent 32-Blanton fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ....... 44
slopes . .............. ........ . 21 34-Penney fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ....... 45
5-Penney fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ....... 22 36-Ortega fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ........ 46
6-Mandarin fine sand ......................... 22 37-Ridgewood fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .... 47
7-Centenary fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ..... 24 38-Surrency fine sand, frequently flooded ......... 48
8-Sapelo fine sand ........... ............. 25 39-Meadowbrook sand, frequently flooded ........ 48
9- Leon fine sand .................... . .... 26 40- Ousley fine sand, occasionally flooded ......... 49
10-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........ 28 41-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
11-Allanton and Rutlege mucky fine sands, occasionally flooded ........................ 51
depressional . . ................... 28 42- Osier fine sand, occasionally flooded ...... ... 52
12-Surrency fine sand, depressional ............. 29 43-Pamlico muck, frequently flooded............. 53
13-Meggett fine sandy loam .................... 31 46-Plummer fine sand, depressional ............. 53
14-Ortega-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent 47-Newnan fine sand .......................... 54
slopes ................... .................. 32 49-Sapelo-Meadowbrook, frequently flooded,
15- Quartzipsamments, excavated ................ 32 complex........................ ........... 55
16-Hurricane-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent 50-Leon fine sand, frequently flooded............. 55
slopes . ........... .................... 32 51- Pottsburg fine sand, occasionally flooded ...... 56
17-Plummer fine sand ........................ 33 52-Meggett fine sandy loam, frequently flooded .... 57
18-Ridgewood fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .... 34 54-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............. 57
19-Osier fine sand ........................... 34 56-Kershaw sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes .......... 58
20- Scranton fine sand........................... 35 58-Allanton fine sand, frequently flooded .......... 59
21-Goldhead fine sand ........... ........... 36 59-Lynn Haven fine sand ........................ 60
22-Pelham fine sand ............ ........... 37 60-Ridgeland fine sand .......................... 60
23-Sapelo-Urban land complex.................. 38 61-Wesconnett fine sand, frequently flooded ...... 61
24- Urban land .................................. 39 62- Neilhurst fine sand, undulating ................ 62
25-Maurepas muck, frequently flooded............ 39 63-Solite fine sand.......................... .... 63
27- Pamlico muck ................. ............. 39 64- Ona fine sand ............ ... ........... 63
28-Santee fine sandy loam, frequently flooded..... 41 65-Meadowbrook sand ......................... 64












iv


















Summary of Tables .


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) ............................... 136

Freeze data (table 2) ............................................ 136

Soil ratings and limitations by general soil map units for selected uses
(ta b le 3 )......................... ........ .. ...................... 13 7
Percentage of survey area. Percentage of map unit. Soil
suitability for-Cropland, Pasture. Potential productivity
for-Pine trees. Degree and kind of limitations for-
Sanitary facilities, Building sites, Recreation areas.

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) .................... 141
Acres. Percent.

Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 5)... 142
Land capability. Improved bermudagrass. Bahiagrass.

Woodland management and productivity (table 6) ....................... 145
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.

Grazeable woodland potentials (table 7) ............................ 154
Map symbol and soil name. Site. Important native plants
for grazing. Annual forage production in excellent
condition.

Recreational development (table 8) ................ ..................... 155
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.

W wildlife habitat (table 9) ................................................ 160
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.

Building site development (table 10) ........................ ........... 164
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.

Sanitary facilities (table 11) ........................... ................. 169
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
V






















Construction m materials (table 12) . ......... ....................... 174
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.

Water management (table 13)........................................... 178
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.

Engineering index properties (table 14) ................ ................. 184
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15) .................... 190
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Shrink-swell potential.
Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.

Soil and water features (table 16) ..................... ................. 194
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.

Physical properties of selected soils (table 17) .......................... 198
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.

Chemical properties of selected soils (table 18) ........................... 201
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Phyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate-dithionite extractable.

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 19) .................... . 204
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay minerals.

Engineering index test data (table 20) ............... ................... 206
Classification. Mechanical analyses. Liquid limit. Plasticity
index. Moisture density.

Classification of the soils (table 21) . .......... .. .................. 207
Family or higher taxonomic class.

vi


















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Clay County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected
land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters, and
agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan
land use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to
insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists
in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use
the survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are too unstable to be used
as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to
use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly
suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service














vii

















































Location of Clay County in Florida.HASSEE



















Location of Clay County in Florida.














Soil Survey of

Clay County, Florida

By Robert L. Weatherspoon, Eddie Cummings, and William H. Wittstruck

Others participating in the fieldwork were Buster Thomas, Frank Doonan, Ken Liudahl, and
David E. Wilkinson, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services



CLAY COUNTY is in the northeastern part of the The summers are long, hot, and humid. Winters are
Florida peninsula on the western side of the St. Johns cool to occasionally cold.
River. The total land area of the county is 379,008 Mean annual precipitation in Clay County for the
acres, or 644 square miles, and approximately 24,380 period 1951-80 was about 53 inches (14). Rainfall is
acres of large bodies of water. heaviest from June through September; November and
Green Cove Springs, the county seat, is in the east- December are the driest months. About 40 percent of
central part of the county on the St. Johns River. The the annual rainfall is in the summer and results from
population of Clay County is mainly centered in and afternoon and evening thundershowers. Precipitation is
around Green Cove Springs and in the northeastern evenly distributed during the rest of the year.
and northwestern parts of the county. The total Hail falls occasionally during thundershowers, but the
population of the county is about 74,524 (3). Orange hailstones generally are small and seldom cause much
Park, with a population of about 42,000, is the largest damage. Snow is very rare and generally melts as it
city. Agriculture, forestry, and mining are the main hits the ground.
businesses. The county also supports some light Heavy summer thundershowers can produce 2 or 3
industry. inches of rainfall in 1 or 2 hours. Daylong rains in the
summer are rare. When they occur, they are generally
associated with tropical storms. The average relative
General Nature of the County humidity is about 75 percent.
Tropical storms can affect the area from early June
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that Tropicl storms cn aet te aea fom early
through mid-November. Hurricane-force winds rarely
affect the use and management of soils in Clay County thouh midovebe. Huicanefoce winds raely
develop because of the county's inland location. The
are discussed. The factors are climate; settlement; and
heavy rains associated with these storms can cause
geology, physiography, and drainage. rivers to overflow.

Climate Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation
for the survey area as recorded in the period 1951 to
Prepared by the National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North 1980. Table 2 shows probable dates of the first freeze
carolina. in fall and the last freeze in spring. In winter the
Clay County has a moderate climate. It is favorable average temperature is 56 degrees, and the average
for the production of crops, livestock, and pine trees. daily minimum temperature is 45 degrees. The lowest








2 Soil Survey


temperature on record, which occurred in December PLEISTO-
1983, is 11 degrees. In summer the average CENE & UNNAMED
temperature is 81 degrees, and the average daily RECENT SAND, CLAY, AND SHELLS
maximum temperature is 91 degrees. The highest
recorded temperature, which occurred in July 1942, is PLIO- NASHUA /CITRONELLE-
105 degrees (15). SCENE CYPRESSHEAD FORMATION

Settlement ABSENT
a. ABSENT
0_
Florida was obtained from Spain by treaty in 1821.
Clay County was established by the Florida Legislature
on December 31, 1858. It was named in honor of Henry COOSAWHATCHIE
Clay, a prominent 19th century statesman. As 2 z FORMATION
established, Clay County included four municipalities, I F A
the oldest of which are Green Cove Springs, Orange o
Park, Keystone Heights, and Penney Farms. Green <
.U MARKS HEAD FORMATION
Cove Springs was chartered in 1874, Orange Park in MARKS HEA FORMATION
1879, Keystone Heights in 1925, and Penney Farms in PENNEY FARMS FORMATION
1927.
Before the Spaniards arrived, the area was occupied CRYSTAL RIVER FORMATION
by the Timucuan Indians. By 1728, the Timucuan Indians had been almost eliminated by a succession of WILLISTON FORMATION
raids by the English and their Lower Creek and o
Seminole Indian allies. The Spanish ownership of INGLIS FORMATION
Florida continued until 1763, when the English acquired_______ _
it. The English maintained ownership until 1783. During "
this period, a Seminole village was on the Old Spanish g
Road in what is now Clay County. AVON PARK
Permanent settlement of Clay County began during LAKE CITY LIMESTONE
the second Spanish rule. In 1860, the population of the
county was 1,914. Many early settlers were from
Georgia. Shortly after the Civil War, the mineral waters
at Green Cove Springs and Magnolia Springs attracted OLDSMAR
many winter tourists. Hotels opened and the town 0 LIMESTONE
prospered from the many visitors to the mineral springs.
The extremely freezing weather in 1895 and the
development of south Florida caused a decline in PALEO- CEDAR KEYS
tourism after the turn of the century. CENE FORMATION
Much of Clay County's prosperity and growth during
this period was associated with the expansion of
woodland production and other agricultural cash crops. Figure 1.-Cenozoic stratigraphic column of Clay County, Florida.
In the 1930's, the county turned more and more from
lumber to naval stores; plants produced about 252,000
gallons of turpentine and 16,000 barrels of resin
annually. The emphasis on forestry has continued; but Geology, Physiography, and Drainage
now, the major product is pulp, and most woodland
Thomas M. Scott, Ph.D., senior geologist, Department of Natural
acreage is owned by national paper companies. The Resources, Florida Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology, prepared
citrus industry almost vanished after the great freeze this section.
and vegetable crops, beef cattle, poultry production,
and dairy farming became the major agricultural Geology
operations in the county. Clay County is in northeastern peninsular Florida,








Clay County. Florida 3


inland from the Atlantic coastline. Geomorphically, Clay ol
County is in the northern or proximal zone (16). WBS .s 22E 2- j D'
Clay County is underlain by an average of nearly ws 7S 19E -1" \!
4.000 feet of sedimentary rocks that range in age from 175 WB-7SE4b13769 60_-1
the early Paleozoic era to the Recent. The sediments of ,. /Cy6S 25E-7d 15
the Cenozoic era consist of carbonate sediments that 125. LT ST. JOHNSRIVER 40 2
have stratified layers nearly 1,800 feet, or 555 meters, W, W 1SE 306 .100
thick (fig. 1). 17 13744
75 28E 38a 75
The oldest Cenozoic era sediments in this area 20
belong to the Cedar Keys Formation of Paleocene age .. .so
(fig. 1), and the youngest sediments belong to the '25 .
unnamed formation of the Recent or Pleistocene age MSL .- MSL
(figs. 1 and 2). \ UNDIFFERENTIATED 25
The materials of Recent and Pleistocene age are '
composed of quartz sand, clay, and shell material (fig. so-a o -20 50
1). The Trail Ridge and Northern Highlands, which 71- \ -.75
range from 100 to 175 feet above sea level, make up 10.- 30 30--. 10
the western part of the county. The Duval Upland, COOS ATCHI 125
which ranges from 75 to 100 feet above sea level, OCALAGROUP
makes up the central part. The isolated Peoria Hill and o -5
the Eastern Valley physiographic regions, which range\ "HRS
from 0 to 75 feet above sea level, occupy the eastern .00. LEGEND 60 200
HA HORN GROUP BOUNDARIES 22
edge (fig. 3). 225 70 A 70 2
The Pleistocene and Recent deposits in Clay County 25.. .250
have not been accurately delineated or named. They 5 275 0, 8. .o..
-275- nn ---- 275
consist of quartz sand, clay, and shell material. The .1. I .KI.MET RS
thickness of these sediments is not accurately known. oo- o
Unconsolidated sediments of shelly sand and clay oo .oo.-"
are between the surface material and the upper part of 0. .-350
the porous limestone in the Floridan Aquifer. In the
upper part. these materials are upper Miocene age or
Pliocene age deposits. The thickness of this formation
Pliocene age deposits. The thickness of this formation Figure 2.-Geologic cross section of Clay County, Florida. The
is not currently known. It is in the southeastern part of numbers preceded by "w" are well numbers.
Clay County. In the western part of Clay County, the
sands are underlain by the Hawthorn Formation. These
sands are slightly clayey, silty, poorly sorted, and poorly
indurated quartz sands. These sediments are thought to and dolomite formations of Eocene Age. This aquifer is
be the nonmarine to the near shore marine of the one of the most productive in the world. The limestone
Nashua Formation. The thickness of this formation is and dolomite formations are made up of carbon
more than 150 feet. materials that range from very hard and continuous to
The lower part of the consolidated sediments of the very soft and discontinuous. The very soft materials
shelly sand and clay material of the Hawthorn contain many solution cavities, which hold and transmit
Formation contains some phosphatic materials (7). The large quantities of water. Most of the freshwater
thickness ranges from 100 feet to 300 feet in the supplies for agricultural use and for large domestic
western part of the county and from 300 feet to 350 feet users are from the Floridan Aquifer (4).
in the eastern part. The sediments and formations
above the Floridan Aquifer are the source of ground Physiography
water supplies for most areas in the county where Clay County can be divided into five general regions
central water systems and deep wells are often used for based on physiography (fig. 3). These regions are Trail
municipal and industrial purposes that require large Ridge, Northern Highlands, Duval Upland, Peoria Hill,
quantities of water, and Eastern Valley.
The Floridan Aquifer is composed of many limestone Trail Ridge is the oldest and highest region in Clay








4 Soil Survey


County. It is in the western extremity of the county. The N
Trail Ridge elevation of 252 feet (5) is the highest in
northeastern Florida and forms hills, high plateaus, and Peoria
relatively steep scarps. The geologic material consists Hill
of quartz sand, clay, and shell material. The soils are Trail Eastern
poorly drained to excessively drained. The vegetation is Tral
made up mainly of slash pine, longleaf pine, water oak, Ridge Valley
laurel oak, post oak, turkey oak, bluejack oak, and live
oak. The understory is palmettos, carpetgrass, and
various panicums. Much of this area has been used for Duval
mining heavy minerals.
Northern Highlands is in the southwestern part of the Upland
county. It consists of many lakes and ponds and has
excessively drained soils. The vegetation is made up of
slash pine, longleaf pine, sand pine, turkey oak,
bluejack oak, post oak, and live oak. Most of the soils
are mineral soils that are predominantly sand or fine
sand.
Duval Upland is in the central part of the county,
extending from the north to the south. The soils mostly Northern
are nearly level, somewhat poorly drained or poorly Highlands
drained, and sandy. Some soils on the higher elevations
are gently sloping, moderately well drained or
somewhat poorly drained, and sandy. The natural
vegetation on lower elevations includes slash pine,
loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. The natural vegetation Figure 3.-Physiographic map of Clay County, Florida.
on higher elevations is slash pine, longleaf pine, sand
pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak, and live oak.
Most of this area has been used for woodland
production. Drainage
Peoria Hill is in the northeast corner of the county. Drainage in Clay County is affected by many rivers,
The soils mostly are nearly level to gently sloping, streams, and creeks. The St. Johns River flows
moderately well drained or somewhat poorly drained, northward along the eastern boundary of the county. Its
and sandy and loamy. The natural vegetation on higher entire reach-along the county is affected by tides, and
elevations is slash pine, longleaf pine, sand pine, turkey the stage of the river rises and falls with each change of
oak, bluejack oak, post oak, and live oak. The natural tide. Black Creek drains about 431 square miles of Clay
vegetation on lower elevations is mainly longleaf pine, County. South Fork Black Creek heads in Stevens
slash pine. a few loblolly pine, and cypress. Some of Lake, which is about 4 miles south of Kingsley Lake. Its
this area has been used for urban development, major tributaries are Ates Creek and Green Creek from
Eastern Valley is in the eastern part of Clay County. the south and Bull Creek, which drains the central part
It is mostly east of the Duval Upland region and extends of the county. North Fork Black Creek heads in Kingsley
eastward to the St. Johns River. This region consists Lake. Its principal tributary is Yellow Water Creek,
mostly of flatwoods and swamps. The soils are sandy which drains about 10 square miles of north-central
and loamy and are poorly drained or very poorly Clay County. The north and south forks of Black Creek
drained. Most of the soils have a loamy subsoil or a join at Middleburg and form Black Creek, which flows
sandy subsoil that contains organic accumulations. The eastward to the St. Johns River.
natural vegetation is made up of slash pine, longleaf The headwaters of Etonia Creek and its tributaries
pine, and saw palmetto on the flatwoods and of from the north drain about 90 square miles of southern
hardwoods and cypress in the swamps. This region is Clay County. The upper 150 miles of the basin in
used mostly-for--pt- tree production. southwestern Clay County and in northwestern Putnam
County contains about 100 lakes. Many of these lakes








Clay County. Florida 5


have no surface outlet. Runoff from the upper part of taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
the basin is extremely low mainly because of seepage concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
to ground water and evaporation from the lakes. characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
Flooding has occurred several times in the upper part of are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
the basin, systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
How This Survey Was Made horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
This survey was made to provide information about compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
the soils in the survey area. The information includes a same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
description of the soils and their location and a confirm data and assemble additional data based on
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and experience and research.
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of of the soils in the area are generally collected for
slopes: the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
crops and native plants growing on the soils; and the scientists interpreted the data from these analyses and
kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or the soil properties in terms of expected behavior of the
horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of the
down into the unconsolidated material from which the soils were field tested through observation of the soils
soil formed. The unconsolidated material is devoid of in different uses under different levels of management.
roots and other living organisms and has not been Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
changed by other biological activity, and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
pattern that is related to the geology, the landforms, sources, such as research information, production
relief, climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. records, and field experience of specialists. For
Each kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of example, data on crop yields under defined levels of
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By management were assembled from farm records and
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils soil properties but also on such variables as climate
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape, from year to year. For example, soil scientists can state
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge with a fairly high degree of probability that a given soil
into one another as their characteristics gradually will have a high water table within certain depths in
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of specific date.
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, After soil scientists located and identified the
supplemented by an understanding of the soil- significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
determine the boundaries. Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture, accurately.
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and Map Unit Composition
other features that enable them to identify soils. After
describing the soils in the survey area and determining A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area








Clay County. Florida 5


have no surface outlet. Runoff from the upper part of taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
the basin is extremely low mainly because of seepage concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
to ground water and evaporation from the lakes. characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
Flooding has occurred several times in the upper part of are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
the basin, systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
How This Survey Was Made horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
This survey was made to provide information about compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
the soils in the survey area. The information includes a same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
description of the soils and their location and a confirm data and assemble additional data based on
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and experience and research.
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of of the soils in the area are generally collected for
slopes: the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
crops and native plants growing on the soils; and the scientists interpreted the data from these analyses and
kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or the soil properties in terms of expected behavior of the
horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of the
down into the unconsolidated material from which the soils were field tested through observation of the soils
soil formed. The unconsolidated material is devoid of in different uses under different levels of management.
roots and other living organisms and has not been Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
changed by other biological activity, and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
pattern that is related to the geology, the landforms, sources, such as research information, production
relief, climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. records, and field experience of specialists. For
Each kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of example, data on crop yields under defined levels of
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By management were assembled from farm records and
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils soil properties but also on such variables as climate
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape, from year to year. For example, soil scientists can state
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge with a fairly high degree of probability that a given soil
into one another as their characteristics gradually will have a high water table within certain depths in
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of specific date.
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, After soil scientists located and identified the
supplemented by an understanding of the soil- significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
determine the boundaries. Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture, accurately.
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and Map Unit Composition
other features that enable them to identify soils. After
describing the soils in the survey area and determining A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area








6


dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
identified and named according to the taxonomic properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a or require different management. These are contrasting
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for (dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
the soils are natural objects. In common with other because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including complex that it was impractical to make enough
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes, observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or landscape.
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units, diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
these latter soils are called inclusions or included soils. The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
In the general soil map units, they are called soils of taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
minor extent, landscape into segments that have similar use and
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral management requirements. The delineation of such
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and information for the development of resource plans, but
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar) onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the in small areas.








7









General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication Soils on the Sand Ridges
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of The two general soil map units in this group consist
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general of nearly level to moderately sloping, excessively
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map drained and moderately well drained soils on the
unit consists of one or more major soils and some uplands. These soils are sandy throughout. Some have
minor soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils lamellae of loamy sand at a depth of more than 57
making up one unit can occur in other units but in a inches. The soils in this map unit are in the
different pattern, southwestern part of the county.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of 1. Penney-Kershaw-Ortega
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. Nearly level to moderately sloping, excessively drained
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for and moderately well drained soils that are sandy
planning the management of a farm or field or for throughout; some have thin lamellae of loamy fine sand
selecting a site for a road or a building or other at a depth of more than 57 inches
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from The soils in this map unit are on broad, rolling, sandy
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other uplands that are interspersed with some small lakes
characteristics that affect management, and ponds. One relatively large area surrounds the
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their town of Keystone Heights in the southwestern part of
potential for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent Clay County. The mapped areas are mostly irregular in
of the map units shown on the general soil map. It lists shape to somewhat circular.
the potential of each, in relation to that of the other map This map unit makes up 44,697 acres, or about 12
units, for major land uses and shows soil properties that percent of the county. It is about 46 percent Penney
limit use. Soil potential ratings are based on the soils, about 29 percent Kershaw soils, about 14 percent
practices commonly used in the survey area to Ortega soils, and about 11 percent soils of minor
overcome soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease extent.
of overcoming the limitations. They also reflect the The landscape is mainly nearly level to moderately
problems that will persist even if such practices are sloping. Sharp breaking, relatively long and circular but
used. narrow areas of steeper slopes are interspersed. Some
Each map unit is rated for cultivated crops, improved landlocked lakes and ponds are mostly in small, saucer-
pastures, woodland, urban uses, and recreation areas. shape depressions. Drainage is subterranean. The
Cultivated crops and improved pastures are those water level of the lakes and ponds fluctuates
grown extensively in the survey area. Woodland refers considerably with the season. The level depends on
to areas of native or introduced trees. Urban uses rainfall and the seepage from the surrounding deep,
include residential, commercial, and industrial sandy soils.
developments. Intensive recreation areas are The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine,
campsites, picnic areas, ballfields, and other areas that sand pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak, and live
are subject to heavy foot traffic. Extensive recreation oak. The understory vegetation includes pineland
areas are those used for nature study and as threeawn, low panicum, lopsided indiangrass, rosemary,
wilderness. and lichens. The vegetation in the lakes and ponds is








8 Soil Survey


mostly water-tolerant grasses and sedges and a few throughout; some have thin lamellae of loamy fine sand
cypress, bay. and gum trees. at a depth of more than 57 inches; and some have a
Penney soils are excessively drained. Typically, the subsoil that is coated with organic matter at a depth of
surface layer is gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The more than 50 inches
underlying material is fine sand. The upper part, to a This map unit is mainly in the central part of Clay
depth of 17 inches, is brownish yellow. The next layer, o ut so s thee l ar to o
County, but some areas of these soils are throughout
to a depth of 45 inches, is yellow. Below that layer, to a the county. These soils are on broad, rolling, sandy
depth of 57 inches, the underlying material is very pale uplands that are interspersed with some small streams,
brown. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more c ad drThe ma d reas
is very pale brown fine sand that contains thin lamellae from sall to large d are mst a r
of yellowish brown loamy finefrom small to large and are mostly elongated or
of yellowish brown loamy fine sand.
Kershaw soils are excessively drained. Typically, the irreguar in shape.
This map unit makes up 53,120 acres, or about 14
surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 4 inches h un t s about 3
percent of the county. It is about 31 percent Ortega
thick. The upper part of the underlying material, to a
depth of 68 inches, is brownish yellow fine sand. The soils, about 28 percent nn soils
lower part to a depth of 80 inches is yellow fine sand. ee pe minor
extent.
Ortega soils are moderately well drained. Typically, e n e n ne ee t
the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about an ape ainl ly ll to m t
3 inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand. The sloping. Sharp breaking, relatively long but narrow
areas of steeper slopes are interspersed. Small wet
upper part. to a depth of 18 inches, is very pale brown.
The middle part, to a depth of 62 inches, is yellow with areas are interspersed in this map unit. These areas
The middle part, to a depth of 62 inches, is yellow more generally are along the sides and base of the slopes
generally are along the sides and base of the slopes
mottles. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more and in drainageways and depressional areas. Drainage
is white. and in drainageways and depressional areas. Drainage
is both subterranean and surface.
The minor soils in this map unit are Ona, Osier,
The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine,
Pamlico, Ridgeland, Ridgewood, and Troup soils. Ona, san pine, e a, lea a, ps
sand pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak, and live
Osier and Ridgeland soils are in the slightly lower,
oak. The understory vegetation includes pineland
wetter, nearly flat areas and poorly defined
e drainageways. Pamlio sols are in wet defres threeawn, low panicum, lopsided indiangrass, rosemary,
drainageways. Pamlico soils are in wet depressional and chens The vegetation on the wetter soils is
areas. Ridgewood and Troup soils are on the gently cypress, bay, gum, and maple trees.
rollin uplands cypress, bay, gum, and maple trees.
rolling uplands. Ortega soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
Most areas of this map unit are in woodland. Most of the sura e later is ar grayih bwn dine sand
the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand 3
the remaining acreage is in pasture. A small part is
e rem acreae i in pas A sa at is inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand. The
used for recreational and urban development.
upper part, to a depth of 18 inches, is very pale brown.
The use of the soils in this map unit as cropland is Te e part, to a depth of inches, is ry eow w
The middle part, to a depth of 62 inches, is yellow with
severely limited because of low fertility and mle r a o 8
mottles. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more
droughtiness. These soils are only moderately suited to is w
is white.
pasture.
e tet r ee e te e texture Penney soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
The potential for seepage, the loose sandy texture,
an in erosion are te aor litatons aetn surface layer is gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
and nd eroon are te major. imitations affecting underlying material is fine sand. The upper part, to a
most urban development. Limitations affecting
most ur n dt Ln a n depth of 17 inches, is brownish yellow. The next layer,
homesites or sites for small commercial buildings are depth of inches, s is yellow. eet layer,
to a depth of 45 inches, is yellow. Below that layer, to a
slight. Lawns require a liberal amount of water and .
t. s r e a l l a t of w r a depth of 57 inches, the underlying material is very pale
frequent applications of fertilizer. Unpaved streets and brown. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more
brown. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more
roads can become difficult to travel because of the i v p b f
is very pale brown fine sand that contains thin lamellae
loose, dry, sandy texture of the soils. Wind erosion is a o y b l
of yellowish brown loamy fine sand.
severe hazard on sites where the surface is
SCentenary soils are moderately well drained.
unprotected. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
2. Ortega-Penney-Centenary fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 10 inches, is
Nearly level to moderately sloping, moderately well brown. The middle part, to a depth of 43 inches, is very
drained and excessively drained soils that are sandy pale brown with mottles. The lower part, to a depth of








Clay County. Florida 9


54 inches, is light gray. The subsoil is fine sand. The areas are small to relatively large and are irregular in
upper part, to a depth of 60 inches or more, is dark shape or elongated.
reddish gray. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is This map unit makes up 108,160 acres, or about 29
dark reddish brown. percent of the county. It is about 31 percent Hurricane
The minor soils in this map unit are Albany, Blanton, soils and similar Centenary soils, about 17 percent
Hurricane. Ocilla, Ousley, Osier, Ridgewood, and Leon soils, about 12 percent Mandarin soils, and about
Rutlege soils. Albany, Blanton, Hurricane, Ocilla, and 40 percent soils of minor extent.
Ridgewood soils are intermixed and in similar positions The landscape is either nearly level pine and saw
on the landscape as the major soils. The drainage is palmetto flatwoods that are intermixed with slight knolls
variable in all of the soils in this map unit. Ousley soils and gently rolling uplands or relatively broad,
are on terraces and the flood plains. Osier and Rutlege transitional areas that grade from the rolling uplands to
soils are in the drainageways and depressional areas. the nearly level flatwoods. Small, wet depressions and
Most areas of this map unit are in woodland. Most of long, narrow drainageways are throughout most areas.
the remaining acreage is in pasture. A small part has Drainage is both subterranean and surface.
been developed for urban use. The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pines
Low fertility and droughtiness are severe limitations and water, laurel, post, turkey, bluejack, and live oaks.
that affect cropland production. These soils are well The understory vegetation is mostly waxmyrtle, sumac,
suited to pasture. blackberry, gallberry, saw palmetto, carpetgrass,
The potential for seepage, which is caused by the pineland threeawn, huckleberry, bluestem, and various
deep. sandy texture of the soils, is the major restrictive panicums. The vegetation in depressions and
feature for most urban uses. Limitations affecting drainageways is mostly bay, cypress, gum, pond pine,
homesites, small commercial buildings, and roads and and maple trees.
streets are slight. Wind erosion can become a problem Hurricane soils are somewhat poorly drained.
on sites that have been cleared of all protective Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5
vegetation. Limitations affecting septic tank absorption inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand. The
fields are mostly moderate; however, they vary from upper part, to a depth of 10 inches, is brown. The
moderate to severe if the water table is close to the middle part, to a depth of 29 inches, is very pale brown.
surface during wet periods and prevents good drainage. The lower part, to a depth of 56 inches, is white. The
subsoil is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 66
Soils on the Flatwoods and on Slight Knolls and in inches, is dark brown. The lower part to a depth of 80
Transitional Areas Between the Uplands and the inches is black.
Flatwoods Leon soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
The six general soil map units in this group consist of layer is very dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick.
nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained to The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 16 inches, is
poorly drained soils. Some of these soils are sandy light gray fine sand. The subsoil is fine sand. The upper
throughout. Most soils have a sandy surface layer and part, to a depth of 20 inches, is black. The sand grains
subsurface layer. Some of these soils have a sandy are well coated with organic material. The next layer, to
subsoil that is coated with organic matter; and in some a depth of 26 inches, is very dark grayish brown. The
map units, the subsoil is sandy in the upper part and sand grains are coated with organic material. Below
loamy in the lower part, or it is loamy or clayey within that layer, to a depth of 67 inches, the subsoil is dark
20 inches of the soil surface. brown. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is black,
and organic coatings are on most of the sand grains.
3. Hurricane-Leon-Mandarin Mandarin soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 28
soils that are sandy throughout and have a subsoil inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the
coated with organic matter subsoil, to a depth of 33 inches, is black fine sand. The
This map unit is mostly in the northern and western sand grains are well coated with organic material. The
parts of Clay County. One broad area is in the next layers, to a depth of 60 inches, are dark brown,
southwest part of the county. These soils are on slight dark yellowish brown, and grayish brown fine sand. The
knolls on the flatwoods and in the transitional areas lower part to a depth of 80 inches is black loamy fine
between the uplands and the flatwoods. The mapped sand. The sand grains are coated with organic matter.








10 Soil Survey


The minor soils in this map unit are Albany, Blanton, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, brackenfern,
Ocilla. Ortega, Osier, Penney, and Rutlege soils. Albany blueberry, gallberry, greenbrier, various bluestems and
and Ocilla soils are in the same positions on the panicums, pineland threeawn, and other native grasses.
landscape as the major soils. Blanton, Ortega, and The vegetation in the wet depressions and
Penney soils are in slightly higher positions on the drainageways is mostly bay, gum, and cypress trees.
landscape. Osier and Rutlege soils are in lower Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
positions, including depressions and drainageways, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6
than the major soils. inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 47
Most areas of this map unit are in natural vegetation inches, is brown, very pale brown, and light gray
and have been planted to woodland. Some areas are in mottled fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
pasture. A small part has been developed for urban depth of 60 inches, is brownish yellow mottled fine
use. sandy loam, and the lower part to a depth of 80 inches
Periodic wetness and droughtiness are severe is light gray sandy clay loam with mottles.
limitations affecting the use of the soils in this map unit Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
for cultivated crops. the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about
The potential for seepage, which is caused by the 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand. The
deep, sandy texture of the soils, and wetness are the upper part, to a depth of 20 inches, is very pale brown.
major restrictive features for most urban uses. The The middle part, to a depth of 46 inches, is very pale
limitations are slight to severe for homesites, small brown with light gray mottles. The lower part, to a depth
commercial buildings, and roads and streets. Wind of 58 inches, is very pale brown with brown mottles.
erosion can become a problem on sites that have been The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
cleared of all protective vegetation. The soils in this The upper 3 inches of the subsoil is pale brown and
map unit have severe limitations as sites for septic grades to light gray sandy clay loam below that layer.
absorption fields. Newnan soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
4. Albany-Blanton-Newnan inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 19
inches, is gray and light gray fine sand. The upper part
Nearly level to moderately sloping, somewhat poorly of the subsoil, to a depth of 23 inches, is dark reddish
drained and moderately well drained soils that are sandy brown fine sand. The sand grains are well coated with
to a depth of 40 to 79 inches and have a loamy subsoil, orani a The net l a depth of 29
and some have a sandy subsoil that is coated with
an a nd oainches, is dark brown fine sand. Below that layer, to a
organic matter and is underlain by a loamy subsoil depth of 51 inches, is leached brown to light gray fine
depth of 51 inches, is leached brown to light gray fine
This map unit is in the northwest and central parts of sand. The lower part of the subsoil to a depth of 80
the county. These soils are on slight knolls on the inches is light gray sandy clay loam that is mottled.
flatwoods and in the transitional areas between the The minor soils in this map unit are Centenary,
uplands and the flatwoods. The mapped areas are Hurricane, Mandarin, Ocilla, Ortega, Osier, Plummer,
small to medium and are irregular in shape or Surrency, Ridgewood, and Rutlege soils. Centenary and
elongated. The total acreage is not extensive. Ortega soils are in a little higher position on the
This map unit makes up 26,240 acres, or about 7 landscape than the major soils of this map unit.
percent of the county. It is about 31 percent Albany Hurricane, Mandarin, Ocilla, and Ridgewood soils are in
soils, about 20 percent Blanton soils, about 14 percent the same position on the landscape as the major soils.
Newnan soils, and about 35 percent soils of minor Osier soils are in slightly lower positions on the
extent, flatwoods and in drainageways. Plummer, Surrency,
The landscape is nearly level areas that have a few and Rutlege soils are in depressional areas and
gentle slopes. Elevation is only slightly different from drainageways.
adjacent areas. Some small depressions and ponded Most areas of this map unit are in woodland. Most
areas are included. Drainage is both subterranean and cleared areas are in pasture. A small part has been
surface. Drainageways are intermittent, and some are developed for urban use.
poorly defined. The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for
The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, longleaf cultivated crops because of periodic wetness and
pine, water oak, live oak, laurel oak, and sweetgum droughtiness. To grow crops, some form of water
trees. The understory vegetation includes running oak, control is needed. The soils are well suited to pasture.







Clay County, Florida 11


The soils in this map unit have severe limitations as map unit are poorly suited to crops. If water is properly
sites for septic tank absorption fields, sewage lagoons, controlled, these soils are well suited to improved
and trench-type landfill areas. The limitations affecting pasture.
dwellings without basements, small commercial Limitations affecting urban development are severe.
buildings, and local road and streets are moderate. Wetness is the major limiting factor. If these soils are
used for urban development, a drainage system is
5. Osier-Plummer needed to remove excess water during wet periods and
to adequately control the high water table.
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to adequately control the high water table.
throughout, and some are sandy to a depth of 40 to 79 6. Pelham-Meggett
inches and have a loamy subsoil
This map unit is in the southeastern part of Clay Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
County. These soils are on the broad, nearly smooth, depth of 20 to 40 inches and have a loamy subsoil, and
wet flatwoods. some are loamy to a depth of less than 20 inches and
This map unit makes up 7,103 acres, or about 2 have a clayey subsoil
percent of the county. It is about 52 percent Osier soils, This map unit is mostly in the northeastern part of
31 percent Plummer soils, and 17 percent soils of minor Clay County. These soils are in slightly lower positions
extent, on the flatwoods, and some are adjacent to the
The landscape is broad, nearly smooth flatwoods drainageways and flood plains.
intermixed with poorly defined drainageways and This map unit makes up 19,990 acres, or about 5
scattered small cypress ponds and depressions. percent of the county. It is about 47 percent Pelham
The natural vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine, soils, about 36 percent Meggett soils, and about 17
and longleaf pine or mixed pine and hardwood trees, percent soils of minor extent.
The understory vegetation is mostly gallberry, The landscape is broad, nearly smooth flatwoods
waxmyrtle, threeawn, dwarf huckleberry, brackenfern, intermixed with ponds and scattered grassy
and various bluestems and panicums. depressions. Drainage is both subterranean and
Typically, the surface layer of Osier soils is very dark surface. Some areas of this map unit are subject to
gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying occasional flooding.
material is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 16 The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine,
inches, is dark grayish brown. The next layer, to a and loblolly pine, or mixed pine and hardwood trees.
depth of 33 inches, is grayish brown with yellowish The hardwoods are mostly sweetgum, water oak, and
brown mottles. Below that layer, to a depth of 48 maple trees. The understory vegetation is mostly
inches, the underlying material is light brownish gray gallberry, waxmyrtle, briers, holly, and native grasses.
with brownish yellow mottles. The next layer, to a depth The vegetation in the ponds and depressional areas are
of 62 inches, is gray with strong brown mottles. The ferns and water grasses and bay and cypress trees.
lower part to a depth of 80 inches is dark grayish brown Typically, the surface layer of Pelham soils is very
with gray mottles. dark grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
Typically, the surface layer of Plummer soils is very subsurface layer is fine sand. The upper part, to a
dark grayish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The depth of 20 inches, is dark grayish brown. The lower
subsurface layer is fine sand. The upper part, to a part, to a depth of 26 inches, is light gray. The upper
depth of 24 inches, is grayish brown. The lower part, to part of the subsoil, to a depth of 64 inches, is light gray
a depth of 52 inches, is light brownish gray. The subsoil and yellowish brown sandy clay loam with mottles. The
to a depth of 80 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay lower part to a depth of 80 inches is light gray very fine
loam. sandy loam with mottles.
The minor soils in this map unit are Ridgewood, Typically, the surface layer of Meggett soils is very
Leon, Mandarin, and Rutlege soils. Ridgewood and dark brown fine sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The
Mandarin soils are on slight knolls on the flatwoods. subsurface layer, to a depth of about 11 inches, is
Leon soils are on the broad flatwoods. Rutlege soils are grayish brown fine sandy loam. The upper part of the
in the depressional areas. subsoil, to a depth of about 23 inches, is gray clay
Most areas of this map unit are in woodland. Cleared loam. The next layer, to a depth of about 46 inches, is
areas are used mostly for pasture. gray sandy clay. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches
Without some form of water control, the soils in this or more is light olive gray clay.








12 Soil Survey


The minor soils in this map unit are Albany, Allanton, poorly drained drainageways. Typically, the surface
Goldhead, Meadowbrook, Ocilla, Osier, Pamlico, layer is very dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick.
Rutlege, and Sapelo soils. Albany and Ocilla soils are The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 16 inches, is
on slightly higher knolls on the flatwoods than the major light gray fine sand. The subsoil is fine sand. The upper
soils. Allanton, Pamlico, and Rutlege soils are in the part, to a depth of 20 inches, is black. The sand grains
depressional areas. These soils also are intermixed with are well coated with organic material. The next layer, to
Meadowbrook and Osier soils in the drainageways. a depth of 26 inches, is very dark grayish brown. The
Goldhead, Meadowbrook, Osier, and Sapelo soils are in sand grains are coated with organic material. Below
the same positions on the landscape as the major soils. that layer, to a depth of 67 inches, the subsoil is dark
Most areas of this map unit are in natural vegetation, brown. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is black,
Some areas are in pasture. Some parts are used for and organic coatings are on most of the sand grains.
urban development. Mandarin soils are somewhat poorly drained.
The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
cultivated crops because of wetness. If water is properly inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 28
controlled, the soils are moderately well suited to some inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the
crops and vegetables. These soils are well suited to subsoil, to a depth of 33 inches, is black fine sand. The
improved pasture if a water control system is sand grains are well coated with organic material. The
established and maintained. next layers, to a depth of 60 inches, are dark brown,
The limitations affecting urban uses are severe. The dark yellowish brown, and grayish brown fine sand. The
wetness, slow internal drainage, and high shrink-swell lower part to a depth of 80 inches is black loamy fine
potential of the clayey subsoil in some of the soils in sand. The sand grains are coated with organic matter.
this map unit are the major limitations. Pottsburg soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches
7. Leon-Mandarin-Pottsburg thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 43
Nearly level, poorly drained and somewhat poorly inches, is gray and grayish brown fine sand. The upper
drained soils that are sandy throughout and have a part of the subsoil, to a depth of 53 inches, is very dark
subsoil that is coated with organic matter gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is
black fine sand. The sand grains in the subsoil are well
This map unit is mostly in the south-central part of coated with organic material.
Clay County, but some small areas are in the central, The minor soils in this map unit are Allanton,
northwest, and north-central parts of the county. These Centenary, Hurricane, Lynn Haven, Osier, Solite,
soils are on the flatwoods and are the second largest Neilhurst, Rutlege, and Sapelo soils. Allanton, Osier,
acreage of soils on the flatwoods in the county. The and Rutlege soils are in small depressions, swamps,
mapped areas vary in shape and size. and drainageways. Centenary and Hurricane soils are
This map unit makes up 70,030 acres, or 18 percent on the slight knolls. Lynn Haven and Sapelo soils are
of the county. It is about 35 percent Leon soils, 17 on the broad flatwoods. Solite and Neilhurst soils are
percent Mandarin soils and similar Ridgeland and Ona reclaimed mined soils.
soils, 14 percent Pottsburg soils, and 34 percent soils of Most areas of this map unit are in woodland. Small
minor extent. areas have been cleared for pasture. A few areas are
The landscape is nearly level pine and saw palmetto used for urban development.
flatwoods interspersed with a few slight knolls, cypress The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for
ponds, swamps, and small, grassy, wet depressions, cropland. Wetness and droughtiness are the limiting
Some of the depressional areas are connected by factors. Most of these soils are well suited to pasture
narrow drainageways. where drained.
The natural vegetation is slash, loblolly, and longleaf Limitations affecting most urban uses are severe.
pines. The understory vegetation is mostly saw The major limiting factor is wetness or the seasonal
palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, dwarf huckleberry, high water table. This problem should be overcome
blackberry, greenbrier, pineland threeawn, bluestem, before urban development is undertaken.
and sedges. The vegetation in the ponds, swamps, and
drainageways is mainly cypress, bay, and gum trees 8. Sapelo-Meadowbrook-Leon
and water-tolerant grasses.
Leon soils are poorly drained. Some are in very Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a








Clay County, Florida 13


depth of 40 to 79 inches; some have a loamy subsoil, The minor soils in this map unit are Albany, Allanton,
some have a sandy subsoil that is underlain by a loamy Goldhead, Hurricane, Mandarin, Newnan, Osier,
subsoil, and some are sandy throughout and have a Pelham, Pottsburg, Rutlege, Surrency, and Wesconnett
subsoil that is coated with organic matter soils. Albany, Hurricane, Mandarin, Newnan soils are on
in the northern part of Clay slight knolls on the flatwoods. Allanton, Rutlege,
This map unit is mostly in the northern part of Cay Surrency, and Wesconnett soils are in the ponds,
County. One area of these soils is in the southeastern depressions, and drainageways. Goldhead, Osier,
part. These soils are on the flatwoods. The mapped Pelham, and Pottsburg soils are on the broad flats and
areas vary in shape and size. are intermixed with the major soils.
This map unit makes up 27,762 acres, or about 7 Most areas of this map unit are in natural vegetation.
percent of the county. It is about 51 percent Sapelo Most cleared areas are in pasture. Some areas are
soils, about 21 percent Meadowbrook soils, about 10 used for urban development.
percent Leon soils, and about 28 percent soils of minor The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for
extent. cropland. Wetness and droughtiness are the major
The landscape is nearly level pine and saw palmetto limiting factors. If the soil and water are well managed,
flatwoods interspersed with cypress ponds, many crops that are commonly grown in the county are
drainageways, and small, grassy, wet depressions. suited to these soils. Most of these soils are well suited
The natural vegetation on the flatwoods is mixed to pasture where drained.
longleaf pine, slash pine and a few loblolly pine. The Limitations affecting urban uses are severe. Wetness
understory vegetation is mainly saw palmetto, gallberry, is the major limiting factor. If these soils are used for
running oak, dwarf huckleberry, waxmyrtle, pineland urban development, a drainage system is needed to
threeawn, bluestem, and lichens. The vegetation in the remove excess water during wet periods and to
ponds, depressions, and drainageways is mainly bay, adequately control the high water table.
cypress, and gum trees and water-tolerant grasses.
Typically, the surface layer of Sapelo soils is very Soils in Swamps and Marshes and on the Flood
dark gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The Plains
subsurface layer, to a depth of 16 inches, is light gray The two general soil map units in this group consist
fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of of nearly level, poorly drained or very poorly drained
21 inches, is black fine sand with organic coatings on mineral and organic soils that are subject to flooding or
the sand grains. The next layer, to a depth of 29 inches, ponding. The soils in these map units are in the south-
is dark reddish brown fine sand. Below that layer, to a central part of the county. These soils are adjacent to
depth of 49 inches, is a leached layer of light gray fine the St. Johns River and along Black Creek, Little Black
sand. The next layer, to a depth of 53 inches, is light Creek, and Yellow Water Creek.
brownish gray sandy clay loam that has brownish yellow
mottles. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is light 9. Maurepas-Pamlico
brownish gray sandy loam that has light gray mottles.
Typically, the surface layer of Meadowbrook soils is Nearly level, very poorly drained, organic soils; some
very dark gray sand about 7 inches thick. The have organic material to a depth of more than 51 inches,
subsurface layer, to a depth of 42 inches, is gray sand. and some have organic material to a depth of 16 to 51
The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches is gray and light inches that is underlain by a sandy material
gray sandy loam. The soils in this map unit are in swamps along the
Typically, the surface layer of Leon soils is very dark St. Johns River, in swamps adjoining the Black Creek,
gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface Yellow Water Creek, and Little Black Creek, and in a
layer, to a depth of about 16 inches, is light gray fine large swamp in the south-central part of Clay County.
sand. The subsoil is fine sand. The upper part, to a This map unit makes up 10,953 acres, or about 3
depth of 20 inches, is black. The sand grains are well percent of the county. It is about 39 percent Maurepas
coated with organic material. The next layer, to a depth soils, about 37 percent Pamlico soils, and about 24
of 26 inches, is very dark grayish brown. The sand percent soils of minor extent.
grains are coated with organic material. Below that The landscape is large, low-lying swamps. These
layer, to a depth of 67 inches, the subsoil is dark brown, areas contain organic material that is highly variable in
The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is black, and depth. Most of these areas are under water for long
organic coatings are on most of the sand grains, periods.








14 Soil Survey


The natural vegetation is swamp hardwoods that are Osier soils, and 10 percent soils of minor extent.
mostly bay, black tupelo, tupelo gum, red maple, and The landscape is nearly smooth to slightly undulating
ash and some cypress trees. The understory vegetation flood plains. The areas are interspersed with swamps,
is dominantly maidencane, cattail, cordgrass, bullrush, depressions, oxbows, slight knolls, or small bluffs
buttonbush, elderberry, water hyacinth, arrowhead, and adjoining the drainageways and creeks. Extreme
dollarwort. variations in the water level of the creeks and river
Typically. the surface layer of Maurepas soils is muck affect the water table.
about 66 inches thick. The upper part is black, the The natural vegetation is mainly black tupelo,
middle part is dark reddish brown, and the lower part is cypress, elm, red maple, holly, sweetgum, sweetbay,
very dark grayish brown. The underlying material to a magnolia, water oak, and scattered pine. The
depth of 75 inches or more is gray fine sand. understory vegetation includes poison ivy, greenbrier,
Typically, the surface layer of Pamlico soils is muck dollarwort, smilax, panicum, a few palmetto, and some
about 38 inches thick. The upper part is dark brown, water-tolerant plants.
and the lower part is very dark gray. The underlying Allanton soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
material to a depth of 75 inches or more is grayish surface layer is fine sand about 18 inches thick. The
brown fine sand. upper part is very dark gray. The lower part is very dark
The minor soils in this map unit are Leon, Osier, grayish brown. The subsurface layer is fine sand. The
Pottsburg, Rutlege, Santee, and Surrency soils. Leon upper part, to a depth of 26 inches, is dark gray. The
and Pottsburg soils are on the higher flats that surround lower part, to a depth of 56 inches, is grayish brown.
the map unit. Osier soils are on the outer edges of the The subsoil is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of
swamps. Rutlege, Santee, and Surrency soils are 63 inches, is very dark grayish brown. The lower part to
intermingled in the swamps. a depth of 80 inches is very dark gray. The sand grains
This map unit is in natural vegetation. Most areas are in the subsoil are well coated with organic material.
used for wildlife refuge. Rutlege soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
The soils in this map unit are not suited to crops or to surface layer is mucky fine sand about 23 inches thick.
improved pasture unless adequately drained. A water The ipper part is black, and the lower part is very dark
control system should be established and maintained, grayish brown. The underlying material is fine sand.
This requires an extensive system of dikes and canals. The upper part, to a depth of 41 inches, is grayish
Some areas do not have adequate drainage outlets. brown. The next layer, to a depth of 48 inches, is gray.
The limitations affecting urban uses are severe. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is light brownish
Water stands on the surface much of the time unless gray.
the soils are drained. A drainage system is very Osier soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
expensive to establish and maintain. Some areas layer is very dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick.
cannot be adequately drained because drainage outlets The underlying material is fine sand. The upper part, to
are not available. Even if drained, the organic material a depth of 16 inches, is dark grayish brown. The next
is subject to oxidation, and the soils will gradually layer, to a depth of 33 inches, is grayish brown with
subside, yellowish brown mottles. Below that layer, to a depth of
48 inches, the underlying material is light brownish gray
10. Allanton-Rutlege-Osier with brownish yellow mottles. The next layer, to a depth
of 62 inches, is gray with strong brown mottles. The
Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained soils lower part to a depth of 80 inches is dark grayish brown
that are sandy throughout; some have a subsoil that is with gray mottles.
coated with organic matter at a depth of more than 50 The minor soils in this map unit are Leon, Maurepas,
inches Meadowbrook, Meggett, Ridgewood, Pamlico,
This map unit is throughout Clay County. These soils Pottsburg, Sapelo, Santee, Surrency, and Wesconnett
are in swamps and depressions and along soils. Leon, Meadowbrook, Meggett, Pottsburg, and
drainageways and creeks. The mapped areas are Sapelo soils are slightly higher on the landscape than
mostly narrow and elongated in shape. the major soils, and they are poorly drained. These
This map unit makes up 10,953 acres, or about 3 soils generally are not on the flood plains except for
percent of the county. It is about 40 percent Allanton Meggett soils. Maurepas, Pamlico, Santee, Surrency,
soils, about 32 percent Rutlege soils, about 8 percent and Wesconnett soils are very poorly drained and are







Clay County, Florida 15


intermixed with the major soils. Ridgewood soils are on drainage system installed, these soils are suitable for
slight knolls on the flood plains. They are subject to improved pasture.
occasional flooding. Limitations affecting urban uses are severe. The
This map unit has been left in natural vegetation, hazard of flooding, the high water table, and slow
The soils in this map unit are not suitable for internal drainage are some of the restrictive features of
cultivation because of the hazard of flooding and the these soils.
high water table. Where flooding is controlled and a
































































































































I







17









Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area. as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses. made up of all of them. Allanton and Rutlege mucky
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given fine sands, depressional, is an undifferentiated group in
under "Use and Management of the Soils." this survey area.
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more other than those for which the map unit is named.
soils for which the unit is named. Some of these included soils have properties that differ
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes differences could significantly affect use and
general facts about the soil and gives the principal management of the soils in the map unit. The included
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
specific uses. small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up a special symbol on the soil maps.
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils areas have little or no soil material and support little or
of a series have major horizons that are similar in no vegetation. Quartzipsamments, excavated, is an
composition, thickness, and arrangement. example. Miscellaneous areas are shown on the soil
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface maps. Some that are too small to be shown are
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ identified by a special symbol on the soil maps.
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Blanton fine sand, 5 to 8 Soil Descriptions
percent slopes, is one of several phases in the Blanton
series. 1-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
Some map units are made up of two or more major soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is somewhat
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or poorly drained. It is along the lower slopes of broad, low
undifferentiated groups. ridges and on slight knolls between the many small
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such streams in the county. The mapped areas are irregular
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they in shape or elongated and mostly range from 25 to 150
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The acres. The slopes generally are convex.
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark
in all areas. Sapelo-Urban land complex is an example. gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more layer, to a depth of 47 inches, is brown, very pale








18 Soil Survey


brown, and light gray mottled fine sand. The upper part woodland wildlife is fair. The potential as habitat for
of the subsoil, to a depth of 60 inches, is brownish wetland wildlife is poor because of the absence of water
yellow mottled fine sandy loam. The lower part to a areas that can produce vegetation that is desirable to
depth of 80 inches is light gray sandy clay loam with wetland wildlife.
mottles. This soil has severe limitations as sites for dwellings
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of without basements and small commercial buildings and
Blanton. Hurricane, Meadowbrook, Ocilla, and as sites for septic tank absorption fields because of the
Ridgewood soils. The included soils make up about 15 depth of the water table during wet periods. Adding
percent or less of the map unit. suitable fill material to help keep the high water table at
This soil has a high water table at a depth of 12 to an effective depth will help overcome the wetness
30 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The limitation. If outlets are available, a surface drainage
available water capacity is low. The permeability is system can be installed.
moderate. Limitations affecting recreational development are
The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, loblolly severe. This soil has a sandy surface layer that causes
pine, longleaf pine, water oak, live oak, laurel oak, and trafficability problems. Soil blowing is a hazard during
sweetgum. The understory is mainly waxmyrtle, dry periods. Establishing and maintaining good
greenbrier, devils walkingstick, bluestem, various vegetation cover or windbreaks or adding suitable
panicums, pineland threeawn, toothachegrass, inkberry, topsoil or some other surface stabilizer help to
and switchgrass. overcome these problems.
This Albany soil has severe limitations for cultivated This Albany soil is in capability subclass Ille. The
crops because of periodic wetness and droughtiness. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11W.
During wet periods, the high water table will retard root
development. A well designed, simple drainage system 2-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
will help to eliminate this problem. With proper soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is moderately
management and a water control system, the soil is well drained. It is on slight knolls and ridges on the
suited to most locally grown crops. Management uplands. Most mapped areas range from 10 to 65
practices to obtain high yields should include close- acres. The slopes are nearly smooth or convex.
growing, soil-improving crops in the rotation system, Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark grayish
returning crop residue to the soil, and applying fertilizer brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard if the surface is not layer is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 20
protected, especially during dry periods. Conservation inches, is very pale brown. The next layer, to a depth of
tillage helps to control erosion and conserve moisture. 46 inches, is very pale brown. Light gray mottles are in
This soil has slight limitations for pasture. It is well the lower part of this layer. The lower part of the
suited to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and subsurface layer, to a depth of 58 inches, is very pale
legumes. Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume brown with brown mottles. The upper part of the
mixtures can be grown with proper management. For subsoil, to a depth of 61 inches, is pale brown sandy
maximum yields, the soil requires regular applications of clay loam. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches
fertilizer and lime, and also grazing must be controlled. grades to light gray.
This soil is moderately well suited to the production Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
of loblolly, slash, and longleaf pines. Equipment use, Albany, Ocilla, Ortega, and Penney soils. The included
seedling mortality, and plant competition are concerns soils make up about 20 percent or less of the map unit.
in management. The use of equipment with large tires This soil has a water table at a depth of 60 to 72
or tracks can help overcome the equipment limitations, inches for 1 to 3 months during most years. The
reduce soil compaction, and reduce root damage during available water capacity is low. The permeability is
thinning operations. Site preparation, such as harrowing moderate.
and bedding, will help establish seedlings, reduce The natural vegetation is mainly live oak, bluejack
debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate oak, turkey oak, southern red oak, water oak,
planting operations. Controlling the growth of hardwood sweetgum, laurelcherry, slash pine, loblolly pine, and
understory by chemical or mechanical methods will longleaf pine. The understory is mainly lopsided
reduce plant competition. Fertilizer can provide indiangrass, hairy panicum, low panicum, greenbrier,
excellent growth response. hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf paspalum, hairy
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and tickclover, dwarf huckleberry, chalky and creeping






Clay County. Florida 19


bluestems, and pineland threeawn. Limitations affecting recreational development are
This Blanton soil has severe limitations for most severe. The sandy surface layer causes trafficability
cultivated crops because of droughtiness and rapid problems. and soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing
leaching of plant nutrients. Most locally grown crops are and maintaining good vegetation cover or windbreaks or
adapted to this soil. Management practices to ensure adding topsoil or some other surface stabilizer help to
high yields should include close-growing, soil-improving overcome these problems.
cover crops in the rotation system, returning crop This Blanton soil is in capability subclass Ills. The
residue to the soil. and applying fertilizer and lime. If woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11S.
water is readily available and the installation of an
irrigation system is economically feasable. high-value 3-Hurricane fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
crops should be irrigated. Soil blowing is a hazard if the soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is somewhat
surface is not protected, especially during dry periods, poorly drained. It is on slight rises on the flatwoods and
Conservation tillage helps to control erosion and in the rather broad, transitional areas that are between
conserve moisture. the rolling uplands and the flatwoods in the county. The
This soil has slight limitations for pasture. It is well mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 20
suited to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and to 75 acres. The slopes generally are convex.
legumes. Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume Typically, this soil has a surface layer of gray fine
mixtures can be grown with proper management. For sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine
maximum yields, the soil requires regular applications of sand. The upper part, to a depth of 10 inches, is brown.
fertilizer and lime, and grazing must be controlled. The next layer, to a depth of 29 inches, is very pale
Irrigation is generally necessary during dry periods for brown. The lower part, to a depth of 56 inches, is white.
the production of shallow root pasture plants. The subsoil is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of
This soil is moderately well suited to the production 66 inches, is dark brown. The lower part to a depth of
of slash pine. loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. 80 inches is black.
Equipment use. seedling mortality, and plant Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
competition are concerns in management. The use of Albany, Blanton. Centenary. Leon, Mandarin, and
equipment with large tires or tracks can help overcome Ortega soils. The included soils make up about 15
the equipment limitations that are caused by the loose, percent or less of the map unit.
sandy surface of this soil. This soil is drought, and This soil has a high water table at a depth of 24 to
seasonal dry periods and no available water in the root 40 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. It may
zone can cause excessive seedling mortality and be at a depth of 10 to 24 inches for about 2 weeks or
reduce plant growth. Plant competition from hardwoods, less during very wet periods and at a depth of more
mainly oaks, can be reduced by good site preparation, than 40 inches during dry periods. The available water
which includes chopping and the use of herbicides. Use capacity is low. The permeability is moderately rapid or
of special planting stock that is larger than normal, or rapid.
that is containerized, will reduce the rate of seedling The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, loblolly
mortality. Planting operations should be scheduled pine, longleaf pine, water oak, bluejack oak, post oak,
during periods when rainfall is heavier and more and live oak. The understory is waxmyrtle, sumac,
frequent to increase the rate of seedling survival and to gallberry, saw palmetto, pineland threeawn,
increase plant growth. All plant debris should be left on carpetgrass, and various bluestems and panicums.
the site to help maintain the organic matter in the soil. This Hurricane soil has severe limitations for
Fertilizer can provide excellent growth response. cultivated crops because of periodic wetness and
The potential of this soil is fair as habitat for droughtiness. During wet periods, the high water table
openland and woodland wildlife. The potential as habitat can retard root development. With proper water control,
for wetland wildlife is very poor. the soil is suited to most locally grown crops.
Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and Management practices to ensure maximum yields
small commercial buildings are only slight. Limitations should include close-growing, soil-improving cover
affecting septic tank absorption fields are moderate crops in the crop rotation system, returning crop residue
because of the depth of the high water table during wet to the soil, and applying fertilizer and lime. Soil blowing
periods. Adding suitable fill material to help keep the is a hazard if the surface is not protected, especially
high water table at an effective depth will help during dry periods. Conservation tillage helps to control
overcome the wetness limitation, erosion and conserve moisture.








20 Soil Survey















































Figure 4.-This Hurricane fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, in a pecan grove is well suited to pasture grasses and legumes if grazing is
controlled.



This soil has slight limitations for pasture (fig. 4). It is mortality, and plant competition are concerns in
well suited to bahiagrass. improved bermudagrass, and management. Use of equipment with large tires or
legumes. Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume tracks can help overcome the equipment limitations,
mixtures can be grown with proper management. For reduce soil compaction, and reduce root damage during
maximum yields, this soil requires regular applications thinning operations. Site preparation, such as harrowing
of fertilizer and lime, and grazing must be controlled, and bedding, will help establish seedlings, reduce
This soil is moderately well suited to the production debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate
of slash and longleaf pines. Equipment use, seedling planting operations. All plant debris should be left on







Clay County, Florida 21


the site to help maintain the organic matter in the soil. 12 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months during most years.
Fertilizer can provide excellent growth response. The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland moderate.
wildlife is poor. The potential as habitat for woodland The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, longleaf
wildlife is fair: and for wetland wildlife, it is very poor. pine, loblolly pine, water oak, laurel oak, dogwood, and
Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and sweetgum. The understory is mainly waxmyrtle, wild
small commercial buildings are moderate because of grape, gallberry, dwarf huckleberry, toothachegrass,
the depth of the water table during wet periods, several varieties of bluestems, low panicum, blackberry,
Limitations affecting septic tank absorption fields are pineland threeawn, and creeping beggarweed.
severe. Adding suitable fill material to help keep the This Ocilla soil has moderate limitations for cultivated
high water table at an effective depth will help crops. The major limitation is wetness. In the soil's
overcome the wetness limitation. If outlets are available, natural condition, the crops that are best adapted are
a surface drainage system can be installed, those that are tolerant of slightly wet conditions. Most of
Limitations affecting recreational development are the locally grown crops are adapted to this soil but may
severe. The sandy surface layer causes trafficability need some drainage during extended wet periods for
problems and soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maximum yields. If water is readily available and the
maintaining good vegetation cover or windbreaks or installation of an irrigation system is economically
adding suitable topsoil or some other surface stabilizer feasible, high-value crops should be irrigated during
help to overcome these problems. prolonged drought periods. Management practices to
This Hurricane soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The ensure high yields should include close-growing, soil-
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11W. improving cover crops in the rotation system, returning
crop residue to the soil, and applying fertilizer and lime.
4-Ocilla loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Conservation tillage helps to control erosion and
This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is conserve moisture.
somewhat poorly drained. It is in relatively small, slightly This soil has slight limitations for pasture. It is well
convex areas on the flatwoods and along the lower suited to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and
slopes of the gently rolling uplands. The mapped areas legumes. Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume
are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to 50 mixtures can be grown with proper management. For
acres. maximum yields, this soil requires regular applications
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark of fertilizer and lime, and grazing must be controlled.
grayish brown loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. This soil is moderately well suited to the production
The subsurface layer is loamy fine sand. The upper of loblolly and slash pines. Equipment use, seedling
part, to a depth of 11 inches, is yellowish brown. The mortality, and plant competition are concerns in
lower part. to a depth of 27 inches, is very pale brown management. The use of equipment with large tires or
with brownish yellow mottles. The upper part of the tracks can help overcome the equipment limitations,
subsoil, to a depth of 45 inches, is brownish yellow fine reduce soil compaction, and reduce root damage during
sandy loam that has red, brown, and gray mottles. The thinning operations. Site preparation, such as harrowing
next layer, to a depth of 73 inches, is gray clay loam and bedding, will help establish seedlings, reduce
that has red and brown mottles. The lower part to a debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate
depth of 80 inches is mottled light gray, red, and planting operations. Controlling the growth of hardwood
brownish yellow fine sandy loam. understory by chemical or mechanical methods will
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of reduce plant competition. All plant debris should be left
Albany. Blanton, Pelham, and Plummer soils. Also on the site to help maintain the organic matter in the
included in some delineations are small areas of soils soil. Fertilizer can provide excellent growth response.
that have similar characteristics of Ocilla soil except the The potential of this soil as habitat for openland
clay content in the subsoil decreases by more than 20 wildlife is fair. The potential as habitat for woodland
percent of its maximum within 60 inches of the surface. wildlife is good; and for wetland wildlife, it is fair.
In places are a few small areas of soils that are similar Limitations affecting dwellings without basements are
to Ocilla soil but have 5 to 8 percent slopes. The moderate. Limitations affecting septic tank absorption
included soils make up about 15 percent of the map fields and small commercial buildings are severe
unit. because of the high water table and seepage. Adding
This soil has a high water table at a depth of about suitable fill material to help keep the high water table at







22 Soil Survey


an effective depth will help overcome the wetness This soil has moderate limitations for pasture. It is
limitation. If outlets are available, a surface drainage moderately suited to deep root bahiagrass and
system can be installed. improved bermudagrass, but yields are generally
Limitations affecting recreational development are reduced by periodic droughts. To maintain good
moderate. The sandy surface layer may cause grazing, careful pasture management is required. This
trafficability problems during dry periods because of soil includes establishing the proper plant population and
blowing. Establishing and maintaining good vegetation applying fertilizer and lime, and grazing must be
cover or windbreaks or adding suitable topsoil or some controlled. Irrigation will improve the quality of grazing
other surface stabilizer help to overcome these and hay crops and, during long, dry periods, may be
problems. economically justifiable if water is readily available. This
This Ocilla soil is in capability subclass Illw. The soil is not suited to shallow root pasture plants because
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11W. it can not retain sufficient moisture in the root zone for
good plant growth.
5-Penney fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This This soil is moderately suited to the production of
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is excessively slash pine, longleaf pine, and sand pine. Equipment
drained. It is on the deep, sandy uplands. The mapped use, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
areas are irregular in shape and range from 15 to 300 concerns in management. This soil is drought and
acres. The slopes are nearly smooth to convex, during long, dry periods does not retain enough
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of gray fine moisture for plant growth. The use of special planting
sand about 3 inches thick. The underlying material is stock that is larger than usual, or that is containerized,
fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 17 inches, is will reduce the rate of seedling mortality. The use of
brownish yellow. The next layer, to a depth of 45 equipment with large tires or tracks can help overcome
inches. is yellow. Below that layer, to a depth of 57 the equipment limitations that are caused by the loose,
inches, the underlying material is very pale brown. The sandy surface of this soil. Controlling the growth of
lower part to a depth of 80 inches is very pale brown hardwood understory by chemical or mechanical
and has thin lamellae of yellowish brown loamy fine methods will reduce plant competition. All plant debris
sand. should be left on the site to help maintain the organic
Included with this soil in mapping are some small matter in the soil.
areas of Albany, Blanton, Centenary, and Ortega soils. The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
In a few places are small areas of Penney soils that woodland wildlife is poor. The potential as habitat for
have slope of 5 to 8 percent. The included soils make wetland wildlife is very poor because of the absence of
up about 15 percent or less of the map unit. water areas. This soil does not produce a suitable
This soil has a water table at a depth of more than source of food for wetland wildlife.
72 inches. The available water capacity is very low. The Limitations affecting dwellings and small commercial
permeability is rapid. buildings and septic tank absorption fields are slight;
The natural vegetation is mainly turkey oak, bluejack however, because of poor filtration, ground water
oak. post oak, scrub live oak, and longleaf pine (fig. 5). contamination may be hazard in areas that have a
The understory is mainly a sparse growth of pineland concentration of houses with septic tank absorption
threeawn, indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and various fields.
panicums. Limitations affecting recreational development are
This Penney soil has very severe limitations for severe. Because of the loose, sandy surface,
cultivated crops. It is unable to retain sufficient moisture maintaining good trafficability is a severe problem. Soil
during dry periods because of its coarse texture. Plant blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining good
nutrients applied to the soil are rapidly leached. Corn, vegetation cover or windbreaks or adding suitable
peanuts, and watermelons can be grown but require topsoil or some other surface stabilizer help to
intensive management. Management practices to overcome these problems.
ensure high yields should include close-growing, soil- This Penney soil is in capability subclass IVs. The
improving cover crops in the rotation system, returning woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S.
crop residue to the soil, and applying fertilizer and lime.
Irrigation is needed during drought periods. Soil 6-Mandarin fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
blowing is a severe hazard if the surface is not somewhat poorly drained. It is in small to relatively
protected, especially during dry periods, large areas on slight rises on the flatwoods. The








Clay County. Florida 23




















































Figure 5.-Natural regeneration of longleaf pine and turkey oak occurs on Penney fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is moderately
suited to commercial production of pine trees.



mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 5 sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
to 400 acres. The slopes are convex and range from 0 depth of 28 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper
to 2 percent. part of the subsoil, to a depth of 33 inches, is black fine
Typically. this soil has a surface layer of black fine sand, and the sand grains are well coated with organic







24 Soil Survey


material. The next layer, to a depth of 38 inches, is dark The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
brown fine sand. Below that layer, to a depth of 50 woodland wildlife is poor. The potential as habitat for
inches, is dark yellowish brown fine sand. The next wetland wildlife is very poor.
layer, to a depth of 60 inches, is grayish brown fine Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is black small commercial buildings are moderate. Limitations
loamy fine sand with organic coatings on the sand affecting septic tank absorption fields are severe
grains. because of the depth of the water table during wet
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of periods. Adding suitable fill material to help keep the
Centenary. Hurricane. Leon, and Ortega soils. The high water table at an effective depth will help
included soils make up about 20 percent or less of the overcome the wetness limitation. If outlets are available,
map unit. a surface drainage system can be installed.
This soil has a high water table at a depth of 18 to Limitations affecting recreational development are
40 inches for 2 to 6 months during most years. It is at a severe. The sandy surface layer causes trafficability
depth of more than 40 inches during most of the problems, and soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing
remainder of the year. The available water capacity is and maintaining good vegetation cover or windbreaks or
moderate. The permeability is moderate, adding suitable topsoil or some other surface stabilizer
The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, longleaf helps to overcome these problems.
pine. post oak, live oak, and water oak. The understory This Mandarin soil is in capability subclass VIs. The
is mainly greenbrier. saw palmetto, running oak, woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S.
waxmyrtle. pineland threeawn, dwarf huckleberry,
carpetgrass, and various bluestems and panicums. 7-Centenary fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
This Mandarin soil has severe limitations for soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is moderately
cultivated crops because of periodic wetness and well drained. It is on slight rises on the broad flatwoods
droughtiness. During wet periods, the high water table and along transitional areas on the uplands that are
will retard root development. A properly designed, between the many small streams and creeks in the
simple drainage system will help eliminate this problem, county. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
With proper management and a water control system, range from 20 to 85 acres. The slopes generally are
most locally grown crops are adapted to this soil. convex.
Management practices to obtain high yields should Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark
include close-growing, soil-improving cover crops in the grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
rotation system, returning crop residue to the soil, and subsurface layer is fine sand. The upper part. to a
applying fertilizer and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard if depth of 10 inches, is brown. The next layer, to a depth
the surface is not protected, especially during dry of 43 inches, is very pale brown with mottles. The lower
periods. part, to a depth of 54 inches, is light gray. The upper
This soil has slight limitations for pasture. It is well part of the subsoil, to a depth of 60 inches, is dark
suited to bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass. reddish gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80
Quality grazing can be maintained on this soil with inches is dark reddish brown fine sand.
extensive management. Pasture management includes Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
establishing the proper plant population and applying Albany, Blanton, Ridgewood, and Ortega soils. The
fertilizer and lime, and also grazing must be controlled, included soils make up about 15 percent or less of the
This soil is moderately suited to the production of map unit.
slash and longleaf pines. Equipment use, seedling This soil has a high water table at a depth of 42 to
mortality, and plant competition are concerns in 60 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. During
management. The use of equipment with large tires or drought periods, the water table is at a depth of more
tracks can help overcome the equipment limitations, than 60 inches. The available water capacity is very
reduce soil compaction, and reduce root damage during low. The permeability is moderately rapid.
thinning operations. Site preparation, such as harrowing The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, longleaf
and bedding, will help establish seedlings, reduce pine, loblolly pine, turkey oak, post oak, bluejack oak,
debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate live oak, and water oak. The understory is mainly native
planting operations. All plant debris should be left on grasses.
the site to help maintain the organic matter in the soil. This Centenary soil has severe limitations for most
Fertilizer can provide excellent growth response, cultivated crops because of droughtiness and rapid








Clay County, Florida 25


leaching of plant nutrients. Most locally grown crops are adding suitable topsoil or some other surface stabilizer
adapted to this soil. Management practices to ensure help to overcome these problems.
high yields should include close-growing, soil-improving This Centenary soil is in capability subclass Ills. The
cover crops in the rotation system, returning crop woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11S.
residue to the soil, and applying fertilizer and lime. If
water is readily available and the installation of an 8-Sapelo fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
irrigation system is economically feasable, high-value poorly drained. It is in small and large areas on the
crops should be irrigated. Soil blowing is a hazard if the flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
surface is not protected, especially during dry periods, range from 10 to 350 acres. The slopes are smooth and
Conservation tillage helps to control erosion and range from 0 to 2 percent.
conserve moisture. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark
This soil has slight limitations for pasture. It is well gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface
suited to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and layer, to a depth of 16 inches, is light gray fine sand.
legumes. Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 21 inches,
mixtures can be grown with proper management. For is black fine sand with organic coatings on the sand
maximum yields, this soil requires regular applications grains. The next layer, to a depth of 29 inches, is dark
of fertilizer and lime, and grazing must be controlled. reddish brown fine sand. Below that layer, to a depth of
Shallow-root pasture plants generally need irrigation 49 inches, is a leached layer of light gray fine sand. The
during the dry periods, next layer, to a depth of 53 inches, is light brownish
This soil is moderately well suited to the production gray sandy clay loam that has brownish yellow mottles.
of slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is light brownish
Equipment use, seedling mortality, and plant gray sandy loam that has light gray mottles.
competition are concerns in management. The use of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
equipment with large tires or tracks can help overcome Albany, Leon, Meadowbrook, Newnan, Plummer, and
the equipment limitations that are caused by the loose, Rutlege soils. The included soils make up about 20
sandy surface of this soil. This soil is drought, and percent or less of the map unit.
seasonal dry periods and no available water in the root This soil has a high water table within 12 inches of
zone can cause excessive seedling mortality and the surface for 1 to 4 months during most years. During
reduce plant growth. Plant competition from hardwoods, very dry periods, the water table recedes to a depth of
mainly oaks, can be reduced by good site preparation, more than 40 inches. The available water capacity is
which includes chopping and the use of herbicides. Use low. The permeability is moderate.
of special planting stock that is larger than normal, or The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, longleaf
that is containerized, will reduce the rate of seedling pine, loblolly pine, live oak, and water oak. The
mortality. Planting operations should be scheduled understory is saw palmetto, gallberry, pineland
during periods when rainfall is heavier and more threeawn, huckleberry, waxmyrtle, fetterbush, and
frequent to increase the rate of seedling survival and to various bluestems and panicums.
increase plant growth. All plant debris should be left on This Sapelo soil has very severe limitations for
the site to help maintain the organic matter in the soil. cultivated crops because of wetness and droughtiness.
Fertilizer can provide excellent growth response. The number of adapted crops that can be grown is
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland limited unless water control measures are used. With
wildlife and woodland wildlife is fair. The potential as proper water control, this soil is suitable for most locally
habitat for wetland wildlife is very poor because of the grown crops. Special crops are better adapted to this
absence of water areas, soil than most of the general farm crops. A water
Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and control system is needed to remove excess water
small commercial buildings are slight. Limitations during wet periods and provide for subsurface irrigation
affecting septic tank absorption fields are moderate. during dry periods. Row crops should be planted in
Suitable fill material may need to be added or land alternating strips with close-growing, soil-improving
shaping may be necessary. cover crops. Crop residue, including the residue of the
Limitations affecting recreational development are soil-improving crops, should be returned to the soil.
severe. The sandy surface layer causes trafficability Rows should be bedded. Fertilizer and lime should be
problems, and soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing added according to the needs of the crop.
and maintaining good vegetation cover or windbreaks or In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for








26 Soil Survey


pasture.With proper water control, the soil is well suited poorly drained. It is in broad areas on the flatwoods.
to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes. The mapped areas are irregular in shape or elongated
Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume mixtures and range from 10 to 100 acres. Slopes are smooth
can be grown with proper management. A water control and range from 0 to 2 percent.
system is needed to remove excess surface water Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark
during long rainy periods. For maximum yields, irrigation gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
is needed during dry periods for white clover or other layer, to a depth of about 16 inches, is light gray fine
adapted shallow-root pasture plants. Pasture sand. The subsoil is fine sand. The upper part, to a
management for a good vegetation cover and maximum depth of 20 inches, is black. The sand grains are well
productivity includes establishing the proper plant coated with organic material. The next layer, to a depth
population and applying fertilizer and lime, and grazing of 26 inches, is very dark grayish brown with organic
must be controlled. coatings on the sand grains. Below that layer, to a
This soil is moderately suited to the production of depth of 67 inches, the subsoil is dark brown. The lower
slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. Equipment part to a depth of 80 inches is black with organic
use, seedling mortality, and plant competition are coatings on most of the sand grains.
concerns in management. Seasonal wetness is the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
main limitation. The use of equipment with large tires or Lynn Haven, Mandarin, Ona, Pottsburg, and Sapelo
tracks can help overcome the equipment limitations, soils. Also included are soils that are similar to Leon
reduce soil compaction, and reduce root damage during soil, but they are very poorly drained and have a thicker
thinning operations. Site preparation and planting and surface layer. The included soils make up about 20
harvesting operations should be scheduled during dry percent or less of the map unit.
periods to also help overcome equipment limitations. This soil has a high water table at a depth of less
Site preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, will than 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. It
help establish seedlings, reduce debris, control recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during very
competing vegetation, and facilitate planting operations. dry periods. The available water capacity is low. The
All plant debris should be left on the site to help permeability is moderate or moderately rapid.
maintain the organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer can The natural vegetation is mainly longleaf pine, slash
provide excellent growth response. pine, live oak, and water oak. The understory is saw
The potential of this soil for use as habitat for palmetto, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle,
openland, woodland, and wetland wildlife is fair. huckleberry, pineland threeawn, bluestem, briers,
Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and brackenfern, and other native forbs and grasses.
small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption This Leon soil has very severe limitations for
fields are severe because of the depth of the high water cultivated crops because of wetness and droughtiness.
table during wet periods. A drainage system is needed The number of adapted crops that can be grown is
to remove the excess surface water during wet periods limited unless water is controlled. A good water control
and to adequately control the water table. Adding system is needed to remove excess water in wet
suitable fill material to help keep the high water table at periods and provide for subsurface irrigation in dry
an effective depth will help overcome the wetness periods. Row crops should be planted in alternate strips
limitation, with close-growing, soil-improving crops. Crop residue,
Limitations affecting recreational development are including the residue of the soil-improving crops, should
severe. The high water table, which is at or near the be returned to the soil. Rows should be bedded.
surface during wet periods, is a major problem. A water Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
control system is needed to improve this condition. needs of the crop. Special crops (fig. 6) are better
Trafficability is a problem. Because of the loose, sandy adapted to this soil than most of the general farm crops.
surface during dry periods, soil blowing is a hazard. With proper water control, this soil is suitable for most
Maintaining good vegetation cover or windbreaks or locally grown crops.
adding suitable topsoil or some other surface stabilizer In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for
helps to overcome these problems. pasture.With proper water control, it is well suited to
This Sapelo soil is in capability subclass IVw. The improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes.
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume mixtures
can be grown with proper management. A water control
9-Leon fine sand. This soil is nearly level and system is needed to remove excess surface water








Clay County. Florida 27





































Figure 6.-Special crops, such as blueberries, can be grown on Leon fine sand if excessive wetness is controlled. Bedding in rows helps to
overcome this wetness limitation.



during long rainy periods. For maximum yields, irrigation also help overcome the equipment limitations. Site
is needed during dry periods for white clover or other preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, will help
adapted shallow-root pasture plants. Pasture establish seedlings, reduce debris, control competing
management for good vegetation cover and maximum vegetation, and facilitate planting operations. All plant
productivity includes establishing the proper plant debris should be left on the site to help maintain the
population and applying fertilizer and lime. and also organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer can provide
grazing must be controlled. excellent growth response.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of The potential of this soil as habitat for openland
slash pine and longleaf pine. Equipment use, seedling wildlife and woodland wildlife is fair. The potential as
mortality, and plant competition are concerns in habitat for wetland wildlife is poor.
management. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation. Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
The use of equipment with large tires or tracks can help small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption
overcome the equipment limitations, reduce soil fields are severe because of the depth of the high water
compaction, and reduce root damage during thinning table during wet periods. A drainage system is needed
operations. Site preparation and planting and harvesting to remove the excess surface water during wet periods
operations should be scheduled during dry periods to and to adequately control the high water table. Adding








28 Soil Survey


suitable fill material to help keep the high water table at during dry periods. If water is readily available and the
an effective depth will help overcome the wetness installation of an irrigation system is economically
limitation, feasible, high value crops should be irrigated.
Limitations affecting recreational development are This soil has slight limitations for pasture. It is well
severe. The high water table, which is at or near the suited to deep-root pasture plants, such as bahiagrass
surface during wet periods, is a major problem. A water and bermudagrass. Good quality pasture grass can be
control system is needed to improve this condition. grown with proper management. For maximum yields,
Trafficability is a problem. Because of the loose, sandy this soil requires proper applications of fertilizer and
surface during dry periods, soil blowing is a hazard. lime, and grazing must be controlled. Supplemental
Maintaining good vegetation cover or windbreaks or irrigation is beneficial during dry periods.
adding suitable topsoil or some other surface stabilizer This soil is moderately suited to the production of
helps to overcome these problems. slash and longleaf pines. Equipment use, seedling
This Leon soil is in capability subclass IVw. The mortality, and plant competition are concerns in
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W. management. The use of equipment with large tires or
tracks can help overcome the equipment use limitations
10-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This that are caused by the loose, sandy surface of the soil.
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is moderately This soil is drought and during long, dry periods does
well drained. It is on slightly convex slopes on the broad not retain enough moisture for plant growth. Use of
flatwoods and along gentle slopes in the deep, sandy special planting stock that is larger than usual, or that is
areas on the rolling uplands. The mapped areas containerized, will help reduce the rate of seedling
generally are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 75 mortality. Planting operations should be scheduled
acres, during periods when rainfall is more frequent and
Typically. this soil has a surface layer of dark grayish heavier to increase the rate of seedling survival and to
brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The underlying increase plant growth. Plant competition from
material is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 18 hardwoods, mostly oaks, can be reduced by use of
inches, is very pale brown. The next layer, to a depth of herbicides during site preparation. During site
62 inches, is yellow with mottles. The lower part to a preparation and thinning and harvesting operations,
depth of 80 inches is white with mottles. most of the plant debris should be left on the site to
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of help maintain the organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer
Albany. Blanton. Centenary, Hurricane, Penney. and can provide excellent growth response.
Ridgewood soils. The included soils make up about 15 The potential of this soil as habitat for openland
percent or less of the map unit. wildlife and woodland wildlife is fair. The potential as
This soil has a high water table at a depth of 40 to habitat for wetland wildlife is very poor because of the
60 inches for cumulative periods of 6 to 8 months absence of water areas.
during most years. It is at a depth of more than 60 Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
inches during drought periods. The available water small commercial buildings are only slight. Limitations
capacity is very low. The permeability is rapid, affecting septic tank absorption fields are moderate
The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, longleaf because of the depth of the high water table during wet
pine. loblolly pine, turkey oak, post oak, and bluejack periods. Adding suitable fill material to help keep the
oak. The understory is mainly pineland threeawn, high water table at an effective depth will help

toothachegrass, switchgrass, and various bluestems overcome the wetness limitation.
and panicums. Limitations affecting recreational development are
This Ortega soil has severe limitations for most severe. The sandy surface layer causes trafficability
cultivated crops because of droughtiness and rapid problems, and soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing
leaching of plant nutrients. Management practices to and maintaining good vegetation cover or windbreaks or
ensure high yields should include planting row crops in adding suitable topsoil or some other surface stabilizer
alternate strips with close-growing cover crops, help to overcome these problems.
including close-growing, soil-improving cover crops in This Ortega soil is in capability subclass Ills. The
the rotation system at least two-thirds of the time, woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10S.
returning crop residue to the soil, and applying fertilizer
and lime. Because of the low available water capacity of 11-Allanton and Rutlege mucky fine sands,
the soil, droughtiness in the root zone is a problem depressional. The soils in this map unit are nearly level








Clay County. Florida 29


and very poorly drained. These soils are in depressional attempts to effectively improve these conditions would
areas. The mapped areas are circular, elongated, or be unsatisfactory. The potential as habitat for wetland
irregular in shape and range from 10 to 70 acres. The wildlife is good.
slopes are concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. The limitations affecting urban development are
Allanton soil makes up about 40 to 55 percent of this severe. Water on or near the surface most of the time
map unit. Rutlege soil makes up about 35 to 40 and thick, sandy texture are the dominant features that
percent. The included soils make up less than 20 severely restrict the soil for urban use. Drainage
percent of the map unit. systems that adequately remove the water and
Typically. the upper part of the surface layer of this effectively regulate the water table are expensive and
Allanton soil, to a depth of about 12 inches, is very dark difficult to establish and maintain. In most areas,
gray mucky fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 18 suitable water outlets are not available. Even if
inches, is very dark grayish brown mucky fine sand. adequate drainage systems were installed, maintenance
The upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of would be a continuing problem. If these soils are used
about 26 inches, is dark gray fine sand. The lower part, as sites for homes, small commercial buildings, or
to a depth of 56 inches, is grayish brown fine sand. The septic tank absorption fields, a suitable fill material must
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 63 inches, is be added before development begins.
very dark grayish brown fine sand. The lower part to a Limitations affecting recreational development are
depth of 80 inches is very dark gray fine sand with severe. The ponding condition and sandy texture are
organic coatings on the sand grains, the major problems. Before the soils can be used for
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of this recreational development, a water control system must
Rutlege soil. to a depth of about 12 inches, is black be installed. The addition of a suitable fill material is
mucky fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 23 needed to improve trafficability and to raise the surface
inches, is very dark grayish brown mucky fine sand. to prevent a continuing wetness problem.
The underlying material is fine sand. The upper part, to The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass
a depth of 41 inches, is grayish brown. The next layer. Vllw. The woodland ordination symbol for these soils is
to a depth of 48 inches, is light gray. The lower part to 2W.
a depth of 80 inches is light brownish gray.
Included in mapping are some small areas of Leon. 12-Surrency fine sand, depressional. This soil is
Plummer. Sapelo. and Surrency soils, nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in shallow
The soils in this map unit have a high water table depressions and broad drainageways. The mapped
within 12 inches of the surface for 6 to 12 months of the areas generally are circular, and range from 10 to 40
year. The surface generally is covered with water for 6 acres. The slopes are concave and range from 0 to 1
months or more. The available water capacity is percent.
moderate. The permeability is moderately rapid; Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of this
however, because of a shallow water table, the internal soil is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The lower
drainage is slow. part, to a depth of 12 inches, is very dark gray fine
The natural vegetation is mainly pondcypress, sand. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 34
blackgum. sweetbay. red maple, and swamp tupelo. A inches, is grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil is sandy
few areas have a vegetation growth of water-tolerant clay loam. The upper part, to a depth of about 50
grasses. inches, is light brownish gray. The lower part to a depth
Under natural conditions, the soils in this map unit of about 80 inches is light gray.
are not suited to cultivated crops, improved pasture, or Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
pine tree production. Excessive wetness is the main Leon, Meggett. Pelham, Plummer, Rutlege, Santee, and
limitation. Adequate water control systems are difficult Sapelo soils. The included soils make up about 20
to establish. Many areas are in isolated ponds or wet percent or less of the map unit.
depressions that do not have suitable drainage outlets. This soil has a high water table within 12 inches of
If a drainage system can be established and the surface for about 6 months or more during most
maintained, good quality grass or grass-clover mixtures years. Water is on the surface for 4 months or more.
can be produced with proper pasture management. The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
The potential of these soils as habitat for openland moderate.
and woodland wildlife is very poor. The ponded areas The natural vegetation is mainly pondcypress,
are not desirable to openland or woodland wildlife and swamp tupelo, loblolly pine, slash pine, pond pine, and








30 Soil Survey





































Figure 7.-Maidencane, a water-tolerant grass, can provide good grazing during dry periods in the marshy areas on Surrency fine sand,
depressional.



sweetbay. Other water-tolerant hardwoods are in some should be scheduled during extended dry periods. The
areas, and water-tolerant grasses are in a few areas major concern in management is wetness, which limits
(fig. 7). the use of heavy equipment on the soil. The high water
Under natural conditions, this Surrency soil is not table causes severe seedling mortality. Drainage outlets
suited to cultivated crops or improved pasture because are generally not available in most areas.
of ponding. Adequate water control systems are difficult The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
to establish in most areas because suitable drainage woodland wildlife is poor. The ponded areas are not
outlets are not available. If a water control system can desirable to openland or woodland wildlife, and
be established and maintained, most locally adapted attempts to effectively improve these conditions are
vegetable crops and grass or grass-clover mixtures can generally unsatisfactory. The potential as habitat for
be successfully grown. The marshy areas naturally wetland wildlife is fair.
provide good. but seasonal, grazing. This soil has severe limitations for urban use. The
With surface drainage and bedding in rows, this soil ponding condition and slow internal drainage are the
is moderately well suited to the production of loblolly dominant features that severely restrict the soil for
and slash pines. This soil is naturally suited to cypress urban use. Drainage systems that would adequately
and hardwoods: however, harvesting and planting remove the water and effectively regulate the water







Clay County, Florida 31


table are expensive and difficult to establish and In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for
maintain. In most areas, suitable outlets are not pasture. With surface drainage, this soil is moderately
available. Sufficient amounts of suitable fill material suited to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and
should be added to alleviate the surface wetness legumes. Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume
problem before urban development begins, mixtures can be grown with proper management.
Limitations affecting recreational development are Because of slow internal drainage and because suitable
severe. The ponding condition and sandy texture are drainage outlets are not available, the difficulty of
the major problems. Before the soil can be used, a establishing a good water control system is greatly
water control system must be installed. The addition of increased. Good pasture management to obtain high
sufficient amounts of a suitable fill material are needed yields includes establishing the proper plant population
to improve trafficability and to raise the surface enough and applying fertilizer and lime, and also grazing must
to prevent a continuing wetness problem. be controlled.
This Surrency soil is in capability subclass VIw. The This soil is well suited to the production of loblolly
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11W. and slash pines. Equipment use, seedling mortality and
plant competition are concerns in management. During
13-Meggett fine sandy loam. This soil is nearly rainy periods, a high water table causes severe
level and poorly drained. It is on broad, low-lying flats seedling mortality. Special site preparation, such as
that generally are adjacent to drainageways. The bedding in rows, furrowing, or surface drainage, will
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 15 help establish seedlings, increase early growth, and
to 100 acres. The slopes are nearly smooth and range decrease the rate of seedling mortality. The seasonal
from 0 to 2 percent. high water table is a limitation affecting the use of
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark equipment. Site preparation and planting, thinning, and
brown fine sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The harvesting operations should be scheduled during dry
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 11 inches, is periods. Field machinery equipped with large tires or
grayish brown fine sandy loam. The upper part of the tracks permits forest management operations to be
subsoil, to a depth of about 23 inches, is gray clay performed during wet periods. Site preparation, such as
loam. The next layer, to a depth of about 46 inches, is harrowing, chopping, or bedding, will help to control
gray sandy clay. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches plant competition. All plant debris should be left on the
or more is light olive gray clay. site to help maintain the organic matter in the soil.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Fertilizer can provide excellent growth response.
Goldhead and Pelham soils. The included soils make The potential of this soil as habitat for wetland wildlife
up about 15 percent of the map unit. is good. Shallow water areas can be developed in these
This soil has a high water table at a depth of less areas for wetland wildlife. The potential as habitat for
than 12 inches for 2 to 5 months during most years. openland wildlife is fair, and it is good for woodland
The available water capacity is moderate. The wildlife.
permeability is slow. Limitations affecting dwellings and small commercial
The natural vegetation is water oak, laurel oak, buildings and septic tank absorption fields are severe.
sweetgum, blackgum, red maple, waxmyrtle, scattered The high water table, high shrink-swell potential, and
saw palmetto, and gallberry. The native grasses include slow internal drainage are the major limitations. Adding
lopsided indiangrass, various panicums and bluestems, suitable fill material to help keep the high water table at
and maidencane. an effective depth will help overcome the wetness
This Meggett soil has very severe limitations for limitation. If drainage outlets are available, a surface
cultivated crops. Wetness, clayey subsoil, and slow drainage system can be installed.
internal drainage are the major limitations, and they are Limitations affecting recreational development are
very hard to overcome. Water control systems are severe. The high water table and the slow internal
difficult to establish and maintain. Many areas do not drainage are the major limiting factors. This soil is
have enough drainage outlets. The soil becomes difficult to adequately drain because of the slow internal
waterlogged during wet periods because of the slow drainage, and sometimes suitable drainage outlets are
internal movement of water through the shallow, clayey not available.
subsoil. If an adequate water control system can be This Meggett soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
established and maintained, some vegetable crops can woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 13W.
be grown.








32 Soil Survey


14-Ortega-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent 15-Quartzipsamments, excavated. This map unit
slopes. This map unit consists of nearly level to gently consists of excavated areas in which the soil material
sloping, moderately well drained soil and areas of has been removed for road construction and for fill
Urban land. This map unit is in most urban areas in the material in preparation of building sites. These
county. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and excavations are locally known as borrow pits. Most
range from 15 to 65 acres. mapped areas are about 5 to 40 acres and about 5 to
About 50 to 85 percent of each delineation is open 12 feet deep. Small excavations that are too small to
areas of Ortega soil that consist of vacant lots, lawns, delineate are shown by the standard pick and shovel
parks, playgrounds, unpaved parking lots, or small symbol on the maps in the back of this publication.
garden areas. Because these areas are too small or too Included with these soils in mapping are small, wet
intermingled with areas of Urban land, it is not practical spots, eroded areas, and areas where recent silting and
to map them separately at the selected scale. About 10 soil deposition has occurred.
to 30 percent of the soils in these open areas has been In most of these areas, the soils have a water table
modified by cutting, grading, and spreading of soil at a depth of more than 60 inches. In some areas, the
material during urban related construction and water table is at a depth of about 10 to 60 inches during
development, wet periods.
About 15 to 50 percent of each delineation is Urban Under present conditions, this map unit is not
land, which consists of areas that are covered with suitable for crops, improved pasture, urban
buildings, streets, parking lots, sidewalks, and other development, or most recreational uses. If they were
structures. The Urban land part of this map unit reshaped and vegetated to conform with existing
generally is developed on Ortega fine sand. landscapes, the potential for these uses would vary in
Typically, the surface layer of Ortega soil is gray fine accordance to the site location.
sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying material is The potential of this map unit as wildlife habitat is
fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 15 inches, is mostly poor to fair. The potential as commercial
yellowish brown. The next layer, to a depth of 46 woodland is variable.
inches, is brownish yellow. Below that layer, to a depth This map unit has not been assigned to a capability
of 65 inches, is very pale brown with mottles. The lower subclass and has not been assigned a woodland
part to a depth of 80 inches is white with mottles. ordination symbol.
Included in mapping are small areas of Blanton,
Centenary, Hurricane, and Penney soils. Also included 16-Hurricane-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
are small areas of soils that are similar to Ortega soil slopes. This map unit consists of somewhat poorly
but have slope of 5 to 8 percent. drained soil and of areas of Urban land. This map unit
This soil has a high water table at a depth of 40 to is in most urban areas in the county. The mapped areas
60 inches for 4 to 6 months during most years. It is at a generally are elongated or irregular in shape and range
depth of more than 60 inches during drought periods, from about 25 to 150 acres.
The available water capacity is very low. The About 50 to 85 percent of each delineation is open
permeability is rapid. areas of Hurricane soil that consist of gardens, vacant
The natural vegetation is mainly turkey oak, bluejack lots, lawns, parks, unpaved parking lots, or
oak, post oak, slash pine, and longleaf pine. The playgrounds. Because these areas are too small or too
understory is mainly lopsided indiangrass, hairy intermingled with areas of Urban land, it is not practical
panicum, low panicum, greenbrier, persimmon, to map them separately at the selected scale. About 15
fringeleaf paspalum, hoary tickclover, dwarf huckleberry, to 30 percent of the soil in these open areas has been
chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, and pineland modified by cutting, grading, and spreading of soil
threeawn. material during urban related construction and
The soils in this complex are suited to most lawn development.
grasses and ornamental plants that are adapted to the About 15 to 50 percent of each delineation is Urban
area. If the surface is stabilized, these soils are also land, which consists of areas that are covered with
suited to most recreational uses. buildings, streets, parking lots, sidewalks, and other
This map unit has not been assigned to a capability structures. The Urban land part of this map unit
subclass and has not been assigned a woodland generally is developed on Hurricane fine sand.
ordination symbol. Typically, the surface layer of Hurricane soil is very








Clay County, Florida 33


dark grayish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The The number of adapted crops that can be grown is
subsurface layer is fine sand. The upper part, to a limited unless water is controlled. With proper water
depth of 11 inches, is grayish brown. The next layer, to control, this soil is suitable for most locally grown crops.
a depth of 25 inches, is pale brown. Below that layer, to Special crops are better adapted to this soil than most
a depth of 52 incteu, the subsurface layer is light gray of the general farm crops. A water control system is
with mottles. The next layer to a depth of 80 inches is needed to remove excess water during wet periods and
dark brown and dark reddish brown fine sand with provide for subsurface irrigation during dry periods. Row
organic coatings on the sand grains, crops should be planted in alternate strips with close-
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of growing, soil-improving cover crops. Crop residue,
Albany, Centenary, Mandarin, Leon, and Ortega soils. including the residue of the soil-improving crops, should
This soil has a water table at a depth of 24 to 40 be returned to the soil. Rows should be bedded.
inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. The Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
available water capacity is low. The permeability is needs of the crop.
rapid. In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for
The soils of this complex are suited to most lawn pasture. With proper water control, the soil is well suited
grasses and most ornamental plants that are tolerant to to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes.
slightly wet conditions. If the surface is stabilized, these Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume mixtures
soils are moderately well suited to recreational uses. can be grown with proper management. A water control
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to system is needed to remove excess surface water
a capability subclass and have not been assigned a during long rainy periods. For maximum yields, irrigation
woodland ordination symbol. is needed during dry periods for white clover or other
adapted shallow-root pasture plants. Pasture
17-Plummer fine sand. This soil is nearly level and management for good vegetation cover and maximum
poorly drained. It is in small and large areas on the productivity includes establishing the proper plant
flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and population and applying proper fertilizer and lime, and
range from about 10 to 100 acres. The slopes are also grazing must be controlled.
nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. This soil is moderately well suited to the production
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark of slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine.
grayish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The upper Equipment use, seedling mortality, and plant
part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of 24 inches, is competition are concerns in management. Seasonal
grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of wetness is the main limitation. The use of equipment
52 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil with large tires or tracks can help overcome the
to a depth of 80 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay equipment limitations, reduce soil compaction, and
loam. reduce root damage during thinning operations. Site
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of preparation and planting and harvesting operations
Albany, Osier, Pelham, and Sapelo soils. Also included should be scheduled during dry periods to also help
are a few areas of soils that have a sand surface layer. overcome the equipment limitations. Site preparation,
The included soils make up about 15 percent of the such as harrowing and bedding, will help establish
map unit. seedlings, reduce debris, control competing vegetation,
This soil has a high water table within 12 inches of and facilitate planting operations. All plant debris should
the surface for 1 to 4 months and at a depth of 12 to 40 be left on the site to help maintain the organic matter in
inches for about 3 to 4 months during most years, the soil. Fertilizer can provide excellent growth
During drought periods, the water table is at a depth of response.
more than 40 inches. The available water capacity is The potential of this soil as habitat for openland,
low. The permeability is moderate. woodland, and wetland wildlife is fair.
The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, loblolly Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
pine, longleaf pine, live oak, water oak, red maple, and small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption
sweetgum. The understory is dominantly gallberry, fields are severe because of the depth of the high water
waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, dwarf brackenfern, table during wet periods. A drainage system is needed
bluestem, and panicum. to remove the excess surface water during wet periods
This Plummer soil has very severe limitations for and to adequately control the water table. Adding
cultivated crops because of wetness and droughtiness. suitable fill material to help keep the high water table at








34 Soil Survey


an effective depth will help overcome the wetness With proper management and a water control system,
limitation, most locally grown crops are adapted to this soil.
Limitations affecting recreational development are Management practices to ensure high yields should
severe. The high water table and the loose, sandy include close-growing, soil-improving cover crops in the
surface texture are the main limitations. A drainage rotation system, returning crop residue to the soil, and
system is needed to rapidly remove excess water applying fertilizer and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard if
during rainy periods. Because of the loose, sandy the surface is not protected, especially during dry
surface during dry periods, soil blowing is a hazard. periods.
Establishing and maintaining good vegetation cover or This soil has slight limitations for pasture. It is well
windbreaks or adding suitable topsoil or some other suited to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and
form of surface stabilizer help to overcome these legumes. Good quality pasture grass or grass-legumes
problems. mixtures can be grown with proper management. For
This Plummer soil is in capability subclass IVw. The maximum yields, this soil requires regular applications
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11W. of fertilizer and lime, and grazing must be controlled.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of
18-Ridgewood fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, slash pine and longleaf pine. Equipment use, seedling
This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is mortality, and plant competition are concerns in
somewhat poorly drained. It is in relatively small areas management. The use of equipment with large tires or
on the broad flatwoods and along transitional areas on tracks can help overcome the equipment limitations,
the uplands that are between the many small creeks reduce soil compaction, and reduce root damage during
and streams in the county. The mapped areas are thinning operations. Site preparation, such as harrowing
irregular in shape and range from 15 to 80 acres. The and bedding, will help establish seedlings, reduce
slopes generally are convex, debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray planting operations. All plant debris should be left on
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying material the site to help maintain the organic matter in the soil.
is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 13 inches, is The potential of this soil as habitat for openland
pale brown. The next layer, to a depth of 24 inches, is wildlife and woodland wildlife is fair. The potential as
very pale brown with brownish yellow mottles. Below habitat for wetland wildlife is very poor.
that layer, to a depth of 56 inches, the underlying Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
material is light gray with mottles. The lower part to a small commercial buildings are moderate, and
depth of 80 inches is light gray. limitations affecting septic tank absorption fields are
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of severe because of the depth of the water table during
Albany, Hurricane, Ortega, Osier, and Plummer soils, wet periods. Adding suitable fill material to help keep
The included soils make up about 15 percent of the the high water table at an effective depth will help
map unit. overcome the wetness limitation. If outlets are available,
This soil has a high water table at a depth of 24 to a surface drainage system can be installed.
40 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years. During Limitations affecting recreational development are
extreme wet periods, the high water table is at a depth severe. The sandy surface layer causes trafficability
of 15 to 24 inches for brief periods of less than 3 problems, and soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing
weeks. During dry periods, it is at a depth of more than and maintaining good vegetation cover or windbreaks or
40 inches. The available water capacity is low. The adding suitable topsoil or some other surface stabilizer
permeability is rapid. helps to overcome these problems.
The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, longleaf This Ridgewood soil is in capability subclass IVs. The
pine. water oak, laurel oak, southern red oak, and live woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W.
oak. The understory is waxmyrtle, sumac, blackberry,
gallberry, scattered saw palmetto, carpetgrass, pineland 19-Osier fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
threeawn. and other native weeds and grasses. poorly drained. It is on poorly defined flats on the broad
This Ridgewood soil has severe limitations for flatwoods and in shallow depressions on the sandy,
cultivated crops because of periodic wetness and rolling uplands. The shape of the areas is variable. The
droughtiness. During wet periods, the high water table mapped areas range from 10 to 45 acres. On the broad
will retard root development. A properly designed, flats, the slopes are nearly smooth; but in the shallow
simple drainage system will help eliminate this problem, depressions, they generally are slightly concave. The








Clay County, Florida 35


slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. white clover or other adapted shallow-root pasture
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark plants. Pasture management for a good vegetation
gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying cover and maximum productivity includes establishing
material is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 16 the proper plant population and applying fertilizer and
inches, is dark grayish brown. The next layer, to a lime, and also grazing must be controlled.
depth of 33 inches, is grayish brown with yellowish This soil is moderately well suited to the production
brown mottles. Below that layer, to a depth of 48 of slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine.
inches, the underlying material is light brownish gray Equipment use, seedling mortality, and plant
with brownish yellow mottles. The next layer, to a depth competition are concerns in management. Seasonal
of 62 inches, is gray with strong brown mottles. The wetness is the main limitation. The use of equipment
lower part to a depth of 80 inches is dark grayish brown with large tires or tracks can help overcome the
with gray mottles. equipment limitations, reduce soil compaction, and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of reduce root damage during thinning operations. Site
Albany, Hurricane, Leon, Plummer, Ridgewood, and preparation and planting and harvesting operations
Rutlege soils. Also included are a few small areas of an should be scheduled during dry periods to also help
Osier soil that is similar to this Osier fine sand, but it overcome the equipment limitations. Site preparation,
has 2 to 5 percent slopes. The included soils make up such as harrowing and bedding, will help establish
15 percent or less of the map unit. seedlings, reduce debris, control competing vegetation,
This soil has a high water table at a depth of less and facilitate planting operations. All plant debris should
than 12 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. be left on the site to help maintain the organic matter in
The available water capacity is very low. The the soil. Fertilizer can provide excellent growth
permeability is rapid. response.
The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, loblolly The potential of this soil as habitat for openland
pine, longleaf pine, sweetgum, water oak, laurel oak, wildlife and woodland wildlife is poor. The potential as
black gum, sweetbay, and red maple. The understory is habitat for wetland wildlife is fair.
dominantly gallberry, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
dwarf huckleberry, brackenfern, and various bluestems small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption
and panicums. The vegetation in the slight depressional fields are severe because of the depth of the high water
areas on the sandy uplands is mostly wetland grasses, table during wet periods. A drainage system is needed
This Osier soil has very severe limitations for to remove the excess surface water during wet periods
cultivated crops because of wetness and droughtiness. and to adequately control the high water table. Adding
The number of adapted crops that can be grown is suitable fill material to keep the high water table at an
limited unless water is controlled. With proper water effective depth will help overcome the wetness
control, this soil is suitable for most locally grown crops. limitation.
Special crops are better adapted to this soil than most Limitations affecting recreational development are
of the general farm crops. A water control system is severe. The high water table, which is at or near the
needed to remove excess water during wet periods and surface during wet periods, and the loose, sandy
provide for subsurface irrigation during dry periods. Row surface texture are the main limitations. A water control
crops should be planted in alternate strips with close- system is needed to rapidly remove the excess water
growing, soil-improving cover crops. Crop residue, during rainy periods; however, when the soil is drained,
including the residue of the soil-improving crops, should the surface layer becomes dry and loose and causes
be returned to the soil. Rows should be bedded. severe trafficability problems and soil blowing.
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the Windbreaks or a good vegetation cover or the addition
needs of the crop. of a suitable topsoil material or some other form of
In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for surface stabilization can be used to help overcome
pasture. With proper water control, the soil is these problems.
moderately well suited to improved bermudagrass, This Osier soil is in capability subclass Vw. The
bahiagrass, and legumes. Good quality pasture grass or woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11W.
grass-legume mixtures can be grown with good
management. A water control system is needed to 20-Scranton fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
remove excess water during long rainy periods. For somewhat poorly drained. It is in relatively small areas
best yields, irrigation is needed during dry periods for on the broad flatwoods and along transitional areas








36 Soil Survey


between the uplands and the many small creeks and harrowing and bedding, will help establish seedlings,
streams in the county. The mapped areas are irregular increase early growth, reduce debris, control competing
in shape and range from 15 to 200 acres. The slopes vegetation, and facilitate planting operations. All plant
are nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. debris should be left on the site to help maintain the
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer can provide
grayish brown fine sand about 9 inches thick. The excellent growth response.
underlying material is fine sand. The upper part, to a The potential of this soil as habitat for openland
depth of 22 inches, is dark gray. The next layer, to a wildlife and woodland wildlife is fair. The potential as
depth of 41 inches, is grayish brown. Below that layer, habitat for wetland wildlife is poor.
to a depth of 61 inches, the underlying material is light Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
brownish gray. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption
light gray. fields are severe because of the depth of the water
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of table during wet periods. Adding suitable fill material to
Leon, Ona, Osier, Plummer, Ridgewood, Sapelo, and help keep the high water table at an effective depth will
Rutlege soils. The included soils make up about 15 help overcome the wetness limitation. If outlets are
percent of the map unit. available, a surface drainage system can be installed.
This soil has a high water table at a depth of 6 to 18 Limitations affecting recreational development are
inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. During dry severe. The sandy texture and wetness are the major
periods, it is at a depth of more than 40 inches. The limitations. The sandy surface layer causes trafficability
available water capacity is low. The permeability is problems; and during dry periods, soil blowing is a
rapid. hazard. Drainage and a water control system may be
The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, longleaf necessary to correct the wetness limitation. Establishing
pine, sweetgum, and waxmyrtle. and maintaining good vegetation cover or windbreaks or
This Scranton soil has severe limitations for adding suitable topsoil or some other surface stabilizer
cultivated crops because of periodic wetness and helps to overcome these problems.
droughtiness. During wet periods, the high water table This Scranton soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
will retard root development. A properly designed, woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11W.
simple drainage system will help eliminate this problem.
With proper management and a water control system, 21-Goldhead fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
most locally grown crops are adapted to this soil. poorly drained. It is on broad low-lying flats. The areas
Management practices to ensure high yields should are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 80 acres.
include close-growing, soil-improving cover crops in the The slopes are nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2
rotation system, returning crop residue to the soil, and percent.
applying fertilizer and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard if Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
the surface is not protected, especially during dry sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
periods. Conservation tillage helps to control erosion subsurface layer, to a depth of 12 inches, is dark gray
and conserve moisture, fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 38 inches, is
This soil has slight limitations for pasture. It is well grayish brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil,
suited to bahiagrass, improved bermudagrass, and to a depth of 45 inches, is light brownish gray sandy
legumes. Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume clay loam that has mottles. The lower part, to a depth of
mixtures can be grown with proper management. For 51 inches, is gray fine sandy loam that has mottles. The
maximum yields, this soil requires regular applications substratum to a depth of 80 inches is gray fine sand
of fertilizer and lime, and grazing must be controlled. and small pockets of fine sandy loam.
This soil is moderately well suited to the production Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
of longleaf pine, slash pine, and loblolly pine. Albany, Meggett, Ocilla, Osier, and Plummer soils. Also
Equipment use and plant competition are concerns in included are small areas of soils that have
management. The use of equipment with large tires or characteristics similar to Goldhead soil but have a very
tracks can help overcome the equipment limitations, dark gray or black surface layer about 6 to 12 inches
reduce soil compaction, and reduce root damage during thick. The included soils make up about 15 percent or
thinning operations. Controlling the growth of hardwood less of the map unit.
understory by chemical or mechanical methods will This soil has a high water table at a depth of less
reduce plant competition. Site preparation, such as than 12 inches for 2 to 5 months during most years.








Clay County, Florida 37


During drought periods, it is at a depth of more than matter in the soil. Fertilizer can provide excellent growth
40 inches. The available water capacity is low. The response.
permeability is moderate. The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
The natural vegetation is mainly loblolly pine, slash woodland wildlife is fair. The potential as habitat for
pine. longleaf pine, sweetgum, laurel oak, water oak, wetland wildlife is poor.
baldcypress, cabbage palm, and blackgum. The Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
understory is mainly gallberry, cabbage palmetto, small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption
waxmyrtle, briers, holly, and native grasses, fields are severe because of the depth of the high water
This Goldhead soil has very severe limitations for table during wet periods. A drainage system is needed
cultivated crops because of wetness and droughtiness. to remove the excess surface water during wet periods
The number of adapted crops that can be grown is and to adequately control the high water table. Adding
limited unless water is controlled. With proper water suitable fill material to keep the high water table at an
control, this soil is suitable for most locally grown crops. effective depth will help overcome the wetness
Special crops are better adapted to this soil than most limitation.
of the general farm crops. A water control system is Limitations affecting recreational development are
needed to remove excess water during wet periods and severe. The high water table, which is at or near the
provide for subsurface irrigation during dry periods. Row surface during wet periods, is the major limitation. A
crops should be planted in alternate strips with close- water control system should be installed. The sandy
growing, soil-improving cover crops. Crop residue, surface layer causes trafficability problems, and soil
including the residue of the soil-improving crops, should blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining good
be returned to the soil. Rows should be bedded. vegetation cover or windbreaks and adding suitable
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the topsoil or some other form of surface stabilizer help to
needs of the crop. overcome these problems.
In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for This Goldhead soil is in capability subclass IlIw. The
pasture. With proper water control, the soil is well suited woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W.
to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes.
Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume mixtures 22-Pelham fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
can be grown with proper management. A water control poorly drained. It is in small and large areas on the
system is needed to remove excess surface water flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
during long rainy periods. For maximum yields, irrigation range from 10 to 200 acres. The slopes are nearly
is needed during dry periods for white clover or other smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
adapted shallow-root pasture plants. Pasture Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark
management for good vegetation cover and maximum grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper
productivity includes establishing the proper plant part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 20
population and applying fertilizer and lime, and also inches, is dark grayish brown fine sand. The lower part,
grazing must be controlled. to a depth of 26 inches, is light gray fine sand. The
This soil is moderately well suited to the production upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 64 inches, is
of slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. light gray and yellowish brown sandy clay loam that has
Equipment use, seedling mortality, and plant mottles. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is light
competition are concerns in management. Seasonal gray very fine sandy loam that has mottles.
wetness is the main limitation. The use of equipment Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
with large tires or tracks can help overcome the Albany, Meadowbrook, Meggett, Ocilla, and Surrency
equipment limitations, reduce soil compaction, and soils. The included soils make up about 15 percent or
reduce root damage during thinning operations. Site less of the map unit.
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, will help This soil has a high water table at a depth of less
establish seedlings, reduce debris, control competing than 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
vegetation, and facilitate planting operations. Site During drought periods, it is at a depth of more than
preparation and planting and harvesting operations 40 inches. The available water capacity is low. The
should be scheduled during dry periods to also help permeability is moderate.
overcome the equipment limitations. All plant debris The natural vegetation is mainly maple, slash pine,
should be left on the site to help maintain the organic loblolly pine, longleaf pine, sweetgum, blackgum, and








38 Soil Survey


water oak. The understory is mainly gallberry, to remove the excess surface water during wet periods
waxmyrtle, briers, holly, and native grasses, and to adequately control the high water table. Adding
This Pelham soil has very severe limitations for suitable fill material to keep the high water table at an
cultivated crops because of wetness and droughtiness. effective depth will help overcome the wetness
The number of adapted crops that can be grown is limitation.
limited unless water is controlled. With proper water Limitations affecting recreational development are
control, this soil is suitable for most locally grown crops, severe. The high water table, which is at or near the
Special crops are better adapted to this soil than most surface during wet periods, is the major limitation. A
of the general farm crops. A water control system is water control system should be installed. The sandy
needed to remove excess water during wet periods and surface layer causes trafficability problems, and soil
provide for subsurface irrigation during dry periods. Row blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining good
crops should be planted in alternate strips with close- vegetation cover or windbreaks and adding suitable
growing, soil-improving cover crops. Crop residue, topsoil or some other form of surface stabilizer help to
including the residue of soil-improving crops, should be overcome these problems.
returned to the soil. Rows should be bedded. Fertilizer This Pelham soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
and lime should be added according to the needs of the woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11W.
crop.
In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for 23-Sapelo-Urban land complex. This map unit
pasture. With proper water control, the soil is well suited consists of nearly level, poorly drained soil and of areas
to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes. of Urban land. This map unit is in the urban areas of
Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume mixtures Orange Park, Middleburg, and Green Cove Springs.
can be grown with proper management. A water control The mapped areas are elongated or irregular in shape
system is needed to remove excess surface water and range from 15 to 120 acres. The slopes range from
during long rainy periods. For maximum yields irrigation 0 to 2 percent.
is needed during dry periods for white clover or other About 50 to 85 percent of each delineation is open
adapted shallow-root pasture plants. Pasture areas of Sapelo soil that consist of vacant lots, lawns,
management for good vegetation cover and maximum undeveloped parking areas, and playgrounds. Because
productivity includes establishing optimum plant these areas are too small or too intermingled with areas
population and applying fertilizer and lime, and also of Urban land, it is not practical to map them separately
grazing must be controlled. at the selected scale. About 5 to 20 percent of the soils
This soil is moderately well suited to the production in these open areas has been modified by cutting,
of slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. grading, and spreading of soil material during urban
Equipment use, seedling mortality, and plant related construction and development.
competition are concerns in management. Seasonal About 15 to 50 percent of each delineation is Urban
wetness is the main limitation. The use of equipment land, which consists of areas that are covered with
with large tires or tracks can help overcome the houses, streets, parking lots, sidewalks, industrial
equipment limitations, reduce soil compaction, and buildings, airports, and other structures. The Urban land
reduce root damage during thinning operations. Site part of this map unit generally is developed on Sapelo
preparation and planting and harvesting operations fine sand.
should be scheduled during dry periods to also help Typically, the surface layer of Sapelo soil is black
overcome the equipment limitations. Site preparation, fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
such as harrowing and bedding, will help establish fine sand to a depth of 19 inches. The upper part is
seedlings, control competing vegetation, and facilitate gray. The lower part is light gray. The upper part of the
planting operations. All plant debris should be left on subsoil, to a depth of 24 inches, is black fine sand. The
the site to help maintain the organic matter in the soil. next layer, to a depth of 32 inches, is dark reddish
Fertilizer can provide excellent growth response. brown fine sand. Below that layer, to a depth of 49
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland, inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The next layer,
woodland, and wetland wildlife is fair. to a depth of 52 inches, is light gray sandy clay loam.
Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is gray sandy
small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption clay loam.
fields are severe because of the depth of the high water Included in mapping are small areas of Albany,
table during wet periods. A drainage system is needed Hurricane, Leon, and Meadowbrook soils. The included







Clay County. Florida 39


soils make up about 15 percent or less of the open This soil generally has about 4 to 20 inches of water
areas in some delineations, on the surface for about 6 months or more during most
If not effected by drainage or fill material, the high years. The high water table is within 12 inches of the
water table is within 12 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 surface for 6 to 12 months. The available water capacity
months during most years. During very dry periods, the is very high. The permeability is rapid.
water table recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches. The natural vegetation is swamp hardwoods (fig. 8)
The available water capacity is low. The permeability is that consist mostly of sweetbay, blackgum. tupelo gum,
moderate. red maple, pondcypress, and Carolina ash. The
Open areas are suited to most lawn grasses, and undergrowth is dominantly cordgrass. bullrush,
many ornamental plants are adapted to this area. If a buttonbush, elderberry, water hyacinth, arrowhead, and
water control system is established and maintained, the dollarwort.
area can also be used for recreation. Under natural conditions, this Maurepas soil is not
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to suited to cultivated crops, improved pasture, or pine
a capability subclass and have not been assigned a tree production. Not only is wetness that is caused by
woodland ordination symbol. the ponding condition a very severe limitation, but
drainage and water control are also severe limitations.
24-Urban land. In areas mapped as Urban land, 85 Adequate water control systems are difficult to
percent or more of the surface is covered by urban establish. The thick, organic material is poor support for
facilities, such as shopping centers, parking lots, the use of equipment. If a water control system can be
buildings, streets, sidewalks, and related facilities. The established and maintained, most locally adapted
natural soil cannot be observed. The few small, open vegetable crops and grass or grass-legume mixtures
areas in this map unit, such as parks and vacant lots. can be successfully grown.
consist of Centenary. Hurricane, Ortega, Penney, The potential of this soil as habitat for wetland wildlife
Ridgewood, and Sapelo soils. Many of these open is good. This map unit has shallow water areas that are
areas have been altered by cutting and shaping or by desirable to wetland wildlife. The potential as habitat for
spreading fill material on the surface. The slopes range openland and woodland wildlife is very poor because
from 0 to 5 percent in most areas, the soil is too wet.
Included in mapping are small areas that are only Limitations affecting urban use are severe. The high
about 55 to 85 percent covered by urban facilities. The water table, ponding condition, excess humus, low soil
included areas make up about 15 percent of the map strength, and potential for seepage are major problems
unit. that are hard to overcome. Proper drainage and water
This map unit has not been assigned to a capability control systems require a major network of canals and
subclass and has not been assigned a woodland ditches. Keeping the areas adequately drained would be
ordination symbol. a continuing problem. Even if drained, considerable
subsidence of the organic layers will occur. This
25-Maurepas muck, frequently flooded. This soil problem, along with unstable soil conditions, makes
is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in wet removal of this material and replacement with suitable
marshes and swamps and in the wet flood plain areas fill material highly desirable before any urban
of the larger streams in the county. The mapped areas development begins.
mostly range from 10 to 100 acres and are somewhat Limitations affecting recreational development are
circular or elongated. The slopes are nearly smooth to severe. The excessive humus and excessive wetness
slightly concave and range from 0 to 1 percent. are the major limitations. Before the soil could be used
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of this for recreation areas, adequate drainage and a water
soil is black muck about 6 inches thick. The next layer, control system would be necessary, but such systems
to a depth of about 34 inches, is dark reddish brown would be very expensive to establish and maintain.
muck. The lower part. to a depth of 66 inches, is very When the soil is drained, the surface becomes dry and
dark grayish brown muck. The underlying material to a dusty. This dry, dusty condition and the unstable
depth of 75 inches or more is gray fine sand. condition of the soil cause severe trafficability problems.
Included with this soil in mapping are some small This Maurepas soil is in capability subclass VIIIw.
areas of Pamlico, Rutlege, and Surrency soils. The The woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2W.
included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map
unit. 27-Pamlico muck. This soil is nearly level and very








40 Soil Survey





S4.



































Figure 8.-This natural vegetation on Maurepas muck, frequently flooded, is swamp hardwoods. These shallow water areas provide good
habitat for wetland wildlife.



poorly drained. This organic soil is in large and small map unit. The included soils make up about 20 percent
swamps. The mapped areas are irregular in shape or or less of the map unit.
elongated, and most mapped areas range from 20 to This soil has 4 to 24 inches of water above the
300 acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to surface for 3 to 6 months during most years. The high
1 percent. water table is within 12 inches of the surface for most of
Typically. the upper part of the surface layer of this the year except during long, extended dry periods. The
soil is dark brown muck. The lower part, to a depth of available water capacity is very high. The permeability
38 inches, is very dark gray muck. The underlying is moderate or moderately rapid.
material to a depth of 75 inches or more is grayish The natural vegetation is mainly pondcypress and
brown fine sand. baldcypress. Blackgum, water tupelo, and red maple
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of are in some areas, and water-tolerant grasses are in a
Leon, Osier, Rutlege. and Surrency soils. These are few areas.
mineral soils and generally are around the edges of the Under natural conditions, this Pamlico soil is not







Clay County, Florida 41


suited to cultivated crops, improved pasture, or pine inches, is gray clay loam that has greenish gray
tree production. The excessive wetness and the mottles. The lower part, to a depth of 61 inches, is gray
problem of water control are the main limitations. Water sandy clay loam that has greenish gray mottles. The
is on the surface for much of the year. Adequate water substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is greenish
control systems are difficult to establish. If a water gray fine sandy loam.
control system can be developed and maintained, the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
soil is suited to crops and pasture plants that are Goldhead, Meggett, Pelham, Plummer, Rutlege, and
somewhat tolerant to wet conditions. Most of the locally Surrency soils. Also included are soils that are similar to
grown crops, including corn and soybeans, are adapted Santee soil but have a surface layer of mucky sand
to this soil. Water-tolerant cover crops should be on the about 2 to 3 inches thick. The included soils make up
soil when regular crops are not being grown. Crop about 15 percent of the map unit.
residue should be returned to the soil. Fertilizer and This soil has a high water table above or near the
lime should be added according to the need of the surface for as much as 6 months each year. Flooding
crops. occurs in most years. The available water capacity is
The potential of this soil as habitat for wetland wildlife moderate. The permeability is slow.
is good. These shallow water areas are desirable to The natural vegetation is mainly sweetgum, willow
wetland wildlife. The potential as habitat for openland oak, baldcypress, tupelo gum, and red maple. Water-
and woodland wildlife is poor because the soil is too tolerant grasses and shrubs or a mixture of hardwoods
wet and does not produce a suitable source of food and and grasses are in a few areas.
cover. This Santee soil has very severe limitations for
Limitations affecting urban use are severe. The high cultivated crops. Flooding, the restricted root zone, and
water table, ponding condition, excess humus, low soil slow internal drainage and surface drainage are major
strength, and potential for seepage are major problems problems that are very hard to overcome. Adequate
that are hard to overcome. Proper drainage and water water control systems are hard to establish and
control systems require a major network of canals and maintain. In many areas, suitable drainage outlets are
ditches. Keeping the areas adequately drained would be not available. The soil becomes waterlogged during wet
a continuing problem. In many areas, suitable drainage periods because of the slow internal movement of water
outlets are not available. The organic material is through the clayey subsoil. If water control systems can
unstable; and, even when drained, subsidence will be established and maintained, some vegetable crops
occur. This organic material should be removed and can be grown.
replaced with a suitable fill material before any urban This soil has severe limitations for pasture. If flooding
development begins. is controlled and drainage systems are installed and
Limitations affecting recreational development are maintained, this soil is suitable for pasture. Because of
severe. The excessive wetness and excess humus are the slow internal movement of water throughout the
the major limitations. When the soil is drained, the clayey subsoil and because suitable drainage outlets
exposed dry surface layer becomes dusty. This dry, are not available, the possibility of establishing a water
dusty condition and the unstable condition of the soil control system is decreased. Proper pasture
cause severe trafficability problems. management for maximum yields includes establishing
This Pamlico soil is in capability subclass Vllw. The the proper plant population and applying fertilizer and
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2W. lime, and also grazing must be controlled.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not
28-Santee fine sandy loam, frequently flooded, recommended for slash pine, loblolly pine, or longleaf
This soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in pine because of excessive wetness. The potential of
drainageways and on the river flood plains. The this soil for production of loblolly pine is very high if
mapped areas range from about 10 to 40 acres and are surface drainage is adequate and flooding is controlled.
elongated or irregular in shape. The slopes are nearly Equipment use, plant competition, and seedling
smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. mortality are concerns in management. The high water
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine table and flooding are the major concerns in
sandy loam about 11 inches thick. The upper part of the management and must be overcome to obtain
subsoil, to a depth of 19 inches, is very dark gray clay maximum yields.
loam. The next layer, to a depth of 30 inches, is dark The potential of this soil as habitat for woodland and
gray clay loam. Below that layer, to a depth of 49 wetland wildlife is good. Shallow water areas can be







42 Soil Survey


developed as habitat for wetland wildlife. The potential Included in mapping are small areas of Maurepas
as habitat for openland wildlife is fair. and Pamlico mucks. Also included are other soils that
This soil is severely limited for urban uses, such as are similar to Rutlege soil but have a thin layer of muck
sanitary facilities and building site development, at a depth of about 30 to 40 inches.
because of prolonged wetness and flooding. The natural vegetation is mainly baldcypress,
Limitations affecting recreational development are sweetgum, sweetbay, laurel oak, red maple, and water
severe mainly because of excessive wetness and oak.
flooding. Because of prolonged wetness and flooding, the soils
This Santee soil is in capability subclass VIw. The in this map unit are not suited to cultivated crops,
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W. improved pasture grasses, or pine tree production
unless major drainage systems are developed. Because
29-Rutlege-Osier complex, frequently flooded, of flooding, a drainage system is difficult to establish
This map unit consists of nearly level, very poorly and is expensive to maintain.
drained and poorly drained soils. These soils are The potential of these soils as habitat for openland
interspersed across drainageways and river flood wildlife is poor. The potential of Rutlege soil as habitat
plains. The mapped areas are elongated and irregular for woodland wildlife is poor, and the potential of Osier
in shape and range from about 50 to 500 acres. The soil is fair. The potential of these soils as habitat for
slopes are nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2 wetland wildlife is fair.
percent. Prolonged wetness is a severe limitation affecting the
Rutlege mucky fine sand makes up about 40 to 55 use of Rutlege and Osier soils as sites for houses,
percent of this map unit, and Osier fine sand makes up small commercial buildings, sanitary facilities, and
about 35 to 40 percent. The included soils make up recreational development. In addition, flooding is a
about 5 to 25 percent. The individual areas of the soils severe hazard.
in this map unit are too mixed or too small to map The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass
separately at the selected scale. Vw. The woodland ordination symbol for these soils is
Rutlege soil is very poorly drained. Typically, this soil 7W.
has a surface layer of black and very dark gray mucky
fine sand about 14 inches thick. The underlying material 30-Arents, sandy. These nearly level soils consist
is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 18 inches, is of material that has been reworked. They are the result
dark gray. The next layer, to a depth of 30 inches, is of earthmoving operations. The mapped areas range
grayish brown mottled with light grayish brown. The from 10 to 40 acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2
lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is light gray percent.
and light brownish gray. Typically, the upper 2 to 3 feet of these soils is a
Rutlege soil has a high water table within 12 inches mixture of sandy material interbedded with fragments or
of the surface for long periods during most years. pieces of weakly cemented, sandy subsoil material.
Runoff is slow to ponded. Flooding occurs in most This material is underlain by large cells of garbage and
years. The available water capacity is low. The refuse, which range from 2 to 20 feet in thickness. In
permeability is rapid. some areas, this mixture of sandy material is used as a
Osier soil is poorly drained. Typically, this soil has a daily cover, and the garbage is in stratified layers in the
surface layer of very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches sandy material.
thick. The underlying material is fine sand. The upper Some areas of this map unit are in former pits, and
part, to a depth of 32 inches, is dark grayish brown with others are constructed on the surface of undisturbed
yellowish brown mottles. The next layer, to a depth of soils.
62 inches, is gray with brownish yellow mottles. The Included with these soils in mapping are areas that
lower part to a depth of 80 inches is dark grayish have been smoothed or have an uneven accumulation
brown. of general refuse on the surface.
Osier soil has a high water table within 12 inches of These soils have a variable water table that is
the surface for 3 to 6 months during most years and at dependent upon the water table of the surrounding
a depth of less than 30 inches for cumulative periods of soils. It is estimated to be at a depth of 2 to 4 feet
about 3 to 6 months or more. Flooding occurs in most during wet periods in most areas. The available water
years. The available water capacity is very low. The capacity is variable but generally is very low or low. The
permeability is rapid. permeability is variable but generally is rapid. The








43
Clay County, Florida


content of organic matter is variable but generally very alternate strips with close-growing, soil-improving cover
low or low. crops. Crop residue, including the residue of the soil-
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops. improving crops, should be returned to the soil. Rows
For esthetic purposes, grasses or pine trees can be should be bedded. Fertilizer and lime should be added
established with extensive woodland management; according to the needs of the crop.
however, commercial production of pine trees generally In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for
is not practical. Slash pine and loblolly pine are the best pasture.With proper water control, the soil is well suited
trees to plant. to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes
These soils have not been assigned to a capability (fig. 9). Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume
subclass and have not been assigned a woodland mixtures can be grown with proper pasture
ordination symbol. management. A water control system is needed to
remove excess surface water during long rainy periods.
31-Pottsburg fine sand. This soil is nearly level For maximum yields, irrigation is needed during dry
and poorly drained. It is in broad areas on the periods for white clover or other adapted shallow-root
flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in shape or pasture plants. Pasture management for good
elongated and range from 10 to 100 acres. The slopes vegetation cover and maximum productivity includes
are nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent, establishing a proper plant population and applying
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark fertilizer and lime, and also grazing must be controlled.
gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface This soil is moderately suited to the production of
layer is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 28 slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. Equipment
inches, is gray. The next layer, to a depth of 53 inches, use, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
is grayish brown. The upper part of the subsoil, to a concerns in management. Seasonal wetness is the
depth of 63 inches, is very dark gray fine sand. The main limitation. The use of equipment with large tires or
lower part to a depth of 80 inches is black fine sand. tracks can help overcome the equipment limitations,
The sand grains in the subsoil are well coated with reduce soil compaction, and reduce root damage during
organic material, thinning operations. Site preparation and planting and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of harvesting operations should be scheduled during dry
Hurricane, Leon, Osier, Plummer, Ridgewood, and periods to also help overcome the equipment
Rutlege soils. Also included are soils that are similar to limitations. Site preparation, such as harrowing and
Pottsburg soil but have a stained layer at a depth of bedding, will help establish seedlings, reduce debris,
more than 50 inches. The included soils make up 20 control competing vegetation, and facilitate planting
percent or less of the map unit. operations. All plant debris should be left on the site to
This soil has a high water table at a depth of less help maintain the organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer
than 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. It can provide excellent growth response.
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during very The potential of this soil as habitat for openland,
dry periods. The available water capacity is low. The woodland, and wetland wildlife is poor.
permeability is moderate. Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
The natural vegetation is mainly longleaf pine, slash small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption
pine, live oak, and water oak. The understory is mainly fields are severe because of the depth of the high water
saw palmetto, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, table during wet periods. A drainage system is needed
huckleberry, pineland threeawn, bluestem, briers, to remove the excess surface water during wet periods
brackenfern, and other native forbs and grasses. and to effectively control the high water table. Adding
This Pottsburg soil has very severe limitations for suitable fill material to help keep the high water table at
cultivated crops because of wetness and droughtiness. an effective depth will help overcome the wetness
The number of adapted crops that can be grown is limitation.
limited unless excess water can be controlled. With Limitations affecting recreational development are
proper water control, this soil is suitable for most locally severe. The high water table, which is at or near the
grown crops. Special crops are better adapted to this surface during wet periods, is a major problem. A water
soil than most of the general farm crops. A water control system is needed to improve this condition.
control system is needed to remove excess water Trafficability is a problem. Because of the loose, sandy
during wet periods and provide for subsurface irrigation surface during dry periods, soil blowing is a hazard.
during dry periods. Row crops should be planted in Maintaining good vegetation cover or windbreaks or










44 Soil Survey

































Figure 9.-This Pottsburg fine sand is well suited to improved pasture if excess water is controlled, proper management practices are
applied, and grazing is controlled.



adding suitable topsoil or some other surface stabilizer light gray mottled sandy clay loam. The lower part to a
helps to overcome these problems. depth of 80 inches is gray sandy clay loam.
This Pottsburg soil is in capability subclass IVw. The Included with this soil in mapping are large areas of
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W. Albany soils and small areas of Meadowbrook, Ocilla,
and Ridgewood soils. The included soils make up about
32-Blanton fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This 35 percent or less of the map unit.
soil is moderately sloping and moderately well drained. This soil has a high water table at a depth of 30 to
It is along the lower slopes on broad, low ridges that 48 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The
are adjacent to large and small streams in the county. available water capacity is low. The permeability is
The mapped areas are irregular in shape or elongated moderate.
and range from 25 to 125 acres. The slopes generally The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, loblolly
are convex, pine, longleaf pine, water oak, live oak, laurel oak, and
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of grayish sweetgum. The understory is mainly waxmyrtle,
brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface greenbrier, devils walkingstick, bluestem, various
layer, to a depth of 48 inches, is very pale brown panicums, pineland threeawn, toothachegrass, inkberry,
mottled fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a and switchgrass.
depth of 58 inches, is light yellowish brown mottled This Blanton soil has severe limitations for most
sandy loam. The next layer, to a depth of 71 inches, is cultivated crops because of droughtiness and rapid





Clay County, Florida 45


leaching of the nutrients. Most locally grown crops are problems, and soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing
adapted to this soil. Management practices to ensure and maintaining good vegetation cover or windbreaks or
high yields should include close-growing, soil-improving adding suitable topsoil or some other surface stabilizer
cover crops in the rotation system, returning crop help to overcome these problems.
residue to the soil, and applying fertilizer and lime. If This Blanton soil is in capability subclass IVs. The
water is readily available and installation of an irrigation woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11S.
system is economically feasible, high value crops
should be irrigated. Soil blowing is a hazard if the 34-Penney fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
surface is not protected, especially during dry periods, soil is moderately sloping and excessively drained. It is
Conservation tillage helps to control erosion and in small areas on sharp breaking slopes paralleling
conserve moisture, drainageways and in relatively large areas on long,
This soil has slight limitations for pasture. It is well narrow slopes on the broad uplands. The mapped areas
suited to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and range from about 5 to 100 acres. The slopes are slightly
legumes. Good quality pasture grass or grass-clover convex in most areas.
mixtures can be grown with proper management. For Typically, this soil has a surface layer of gray fine
maximum yields, this soil requires regular applications sand about 3 inches thick. The underlying material is
of fertilizer and lime, and grazing must be controlled, fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 57 inches, is
Irrigation generally is necessary during the dry periods very pale brown. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches
for the production of shallow root pasture plants. is very pale brown with thin lamellae of yellowish brown
This soil is moderately well suited to the production loamy fine sand.
of slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. Included with this soil in mapping are some small
Equipment use, seedling mortality, and plant areas of Albany, Blanton, Centenary, and Ortega soils.
competition are concerns in management. The use of The included soils make up about 15 percent or less of
equipment with large tires or tracks can help overcome the map unit.
equipment limitations that are caused by the loose, This soil has a water table at a depth of more than
sandy surface of this soil. This soil is drought, and 72 inches. The available water capacity is very low. The
seasonal dry periods and no available water in the root permeability is rapid.
zone can cause excessive seedling mortality and The natural vegetation is mostly turkey oak, bluejack
reduce plant growth. Plant competition from hardwoods, oak, post oak, scrub live oak, and longleaf pine. The
mainly oaks, can be reduced by site preparation, which understory is mainly a sparse growth of pineland
includes chopping and the use of herbicide. Use of threeawn, indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and various
special planting stock that is larger than normal, or that panicums.
is containerized, will reduce the rate of seedling This Penny soil has very severe limitations for
mortality. Planting operations should be scheduled cultivated crops because of the very low available water
during periods when rainfall is heavier and more capacity, steepness of slope, and possible hazard of
frequent to increase the rate of seedling survival and to erosion. This soil is unable to retain sufficient moisture
increase plant growth. All plant debris should be left on during dry periods because of its coarse texture. Plant
the site to help maintain the organic matter in the soil. nutrients applied to the soil are rapidly leached. Corn,
Fertilizer can provide excellent growth response. peanuts, and watermelons can be grown on this soil but
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and require intensive management. Management practices
woodland wildlife is fair. The potential as habitat for to obtain maximum yields should include close-growing,
wetland wildlife is poor because of the absence of water soil-improving cover crops, returning crop residue to the
areas and vegetation that is desirable to wetland soil, and applying proper fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is
wildlife. needed during drought periods. The slope may cause
Limitations affecting dwellings and small commercial some problems in the application of irrigation water. Soil
buildings and septic tank absorption fields are severe blowing is a severe hazard if the surface is not
because of the depth of the water table during wet protected, especially during dry periods.
periods. Adding suitable fill material to keep the high This soil has moderate limitations for pasture. It is
water table at an effective depth will help overcome the moderately suited to deep-rooted bahiagrass and
wetness limitation. improved bermudagrass, but yields are reduced by
Limitations affecting recreational development are periodic droughts. To maintain proper grazing, careful
severe. The sandy surface layer causes trafficability pasture management is required. This includes






46 Soil Survey


establishing the proper plant population and applying inches, is light brownish gray. The lower part to a depth
fertilizer and lime, and also grazing must be controlled. of 80 inches is light gray.
Irrigation is beneficial during dry periods. Shallow-root Included with this soil in mapping are some small
pasture plants are not suited to this soil because the areas of Albany, Blanton, Centenary, Hurricane,
soil cannot retain sufficient moisture in the root zone for Penney, and Ridgewood soils. The included soils make
good plant growth, up about 15 percent or less of the map unit.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of This soil has a high water table at a depth of 40 to
slash pine, longleaf pine, and sand pine. Equipment 60 inches for cumulative periods of 6 to 8 months
use, seedling mortality, and plant competition are during most years. It is at a depth of more than 60
concerns in management. This soil is drought and inches during drought periods. The available water
during long, dry periods does not retain enough capacity is very low. The permeability is rapid.
moisture for plant growth. Use of special planting stock The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, longleaf
that is larger than usual, or that is containerized, will pine, turkey oak, post oak, and bluejack oak. The
reduce the rate of seedling mortality. The use of understory is mainly pineland threeawn,
equipment with large tires or tracks will help overcome toothachegrass, switchgrass, and various bluestems
the equipment limitations that are caused by the loose, and panicums.
sandy surface of this soil. Controlling the growth of This Ortega soil has severe limitations for cultivated
hardwood understory by chemical of mechanical crops because of droughtiness, rapid leaching of
methods will reduce plant competition. All plant debris nutrients, steepness of slope, and possible hazard of
should be left on the site to help maintain the organic erosion. Management practices to ensure high yields
matter in the soil. should include planting on the contour, close-growing,
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and soil-improving cover crops in the rotation system,
woodland wildlife is poor. The potential as habitat for returning crop residue to the soil, and applying fertilizer
wetland wildlife is very poor because of the absence of and lime. If the installation of an irrigation system is
water areas. This soil can not produce a suitable source economically feasible, high-value crops should be
of food for wetland wildlife. irrigated. Soil blowing is a hazard if the surface is not
Limitations affecting dwellings and local roads and protected, especially during dry periods. Conservation
streets are slight. Limitations affecting septic tank tillage helps to control erosion and conserve moisture.
absorption fields are also slight; however, in areas that This soil has moderate limitations for pasture. It is
have a concentration of houses or other facilities using well suited to deep-rooted pasture plants, such as
septic tank absorption fields, ground water bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass. Good quality
contamination can be a hazard. pasture grass can be grown with proper management.
Limitations affecting recreational development are For maximum yields, management should include
severe. Soil blowing and maintaining good trafficability regular applications of fertilizer and lime, and grazing
are severe problems. Establishing and maintaining good must be controlled. Supplemental irrigation is beneficial
vegetation cover or windbreaks or adding a suitable during dry periods.
topsoil or some other surface stabilizer help to This soil is moderately suited to the production of
overcome these problems. slash and longleaf pines. Equipment use, seedling
This Penney soil is in capability subclass Vis. The mortality, and plant competition are concerns in
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S. management. The use of equipment with large tires or
tracks can help overcome equipment use limitations
36-Ortega fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This that are caused by the loose, sandy surface of the soil.
soil is moderately sloping and moderately well drained. This soil is drought and during long, dry periods does
It is in small areas on sharp breaking slopes paralleling not retain enough moisture for plant growth. Use of
drainageways and on long, narrow, irregular slopes on special planting stock that is larger than usual, or that is
the broad uplands. The mapped areas range from about containerized, will reduce the rate of seedling mortality.
5 to 90 acres. The slopes are slightly convex in most Planting operations should be scheduled during periods
areas. when rainfall is more frequent and heavier to increase
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray the rate of seedling survival and to increase plant
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying material growth. Plant competition from hardwoods, mostly oaks,
is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 62 inches, is can be reduced by use of herbicides during site
very pale brown. The next layer, to a depth of 75 preparation. During site preparation and thinning and







Clay County, Florida 47


harvesting operations, most of the plant debris should The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, longleaf
be left on the site to help maintain the organic matter in pine, water oak, laurel oak, southern red oak, and live
the soil. Fertilizer can provide excellent growth oak. The understory is waxmyrtle, sumac, blackberry,
response, gallberry, scattered saw palmetto, carpetgrass, pineland
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and threeawn, and other native weeds and grasses.
woodland wildlife is poor. The potential as habitat for This Ridgewood soil has severe limitations for
wetland wildlife is very poor because of the absence of cultivated crops because of periodic wetness and
any water areas. droughtiness. During wet periods, the high water table
Limitations affecting dwellings and for local roads and will retard root development. A properly designed,
streets are slight. Limitations affecting septic tank simple drainage system will help eliminate this problem.
absorption fields are moderate because of wetness; With proper management and a water control system,
however, in areas that have a concentration of houses most locally grown crops are adapted to this soil.
or other facilities using septic tank absorption fields, Management practices to ensure high yields should
ground water contamination can be a hazard. include close-growing, soil-improving cover crops in the
Limitations affecting recreational development are rotation system, returning crop residue to the soil, and
severe. Soil blowing and maintaining good trafficability applying fertilizer and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard if
are severe problems. Establishing and maintaining good the surface is not protected, especially during dry
vegetation cover or windbreaks or adding a suitable periods.
topsoil or other surface stabilizer help to overcome This soil has slight limitations for pasture. It is well
these problems. suited to bahiagrass, improved bermudagrass, and
This Ortega soil is in capability subclass IVs. The legumes. Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10S. mixtures can be grown with proper management. For
maximum yields, this soil requires regular applications
37-Ridgewood fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, of fertilizer and lime, and grazing must be controlled.
This soil is moderately sloping and somewhat poorly This soil is moderately suited to the production of
drained. It is in small, narrow areas adjacent to creeks slash and longleaf pines. Equipment use, seedling
and other drainageways in the county. The mapped mortality, and plant competition are concerns in
areas are elongated and generally range from 5 to 50 management. Harrowing and bedding will help establish
acres. The slopes are concave, seedlings, reduce debris, control competing vegetation,
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark and facilitate planting operations. The use of equipment
grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The with large tires or tracks can help overcome equipment
underlying material is fine sand. The upper part, to a limitations, reduce soil compaction, and reduce root
depth of 8 inches, is pale brown with yellow and white damage during thinning operations. All plant debris
mottles. The next layer, to a depth of 36 inches, is very should be left on the site to help maintain the organic
pale brown with light yellowish brown and white mottles. matter in the soil. Fertilizer can provide excellent growth
Below that layer, to a depth of 56 inches, it is very pale response.
brown with brownish yellow mottles. The lower part to a The potential of this soil as habitat for openland
depth of more than 80 inches is light gray with brownish wildlife and woodland wildlife is fair. The potential as
yellow mottles, habitat for wetland wildlife is very poor.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
Albany. Hurricane, Ortega, Osier, and Plummer soils. small commercial buildings are moderate. Limitations
Also included are a few small areas of soils that have 0 affecting septic tank absorption fields are severe
to 5 percent slopes. The included soils make up about because of the depth of the water table during wet
15 percent of the map unit. periods. Suitable fill material may be needed or land
This soil has a high water table at a depth of 24 to shaping may be necessary to keep the high water table
40 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years. During at an effective depth and help overcome the wetness
extreme wet periods, the high water table rises to a limitation.
depth of 15 to 24 inches for brief periods of less than 3 Limitations affecting recreational development are
weeks. During dry periods, it is at a depth of more than severe. The sandy surface layer causes trafficability
40 inches. The available water capacity is low. The problems, and soil blowing is a hazard during dry
permeability is rapid. periods. Establishing and maintaining good vegetation







48 Soil Survey


cover or windbreaks or adding suitable topsoil or some Under natural conditions, this soil is not
other surface stabilizer help to overcome these recommended for slash pine, loblolly pine, or longleaf
problems. pine because of excessive wetness. The potential of
This Ridgewood soil is in capability subclass IVs. The this soil for production of slash pine is high if surface
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. drainage is adequate and flooding is controlled.
Equipment use, plant competition, and seedling
38-Surrency fine sand, frequently flooded. This mortality are concerns in management. The high water
soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in table and flooding are the major problems, which must
narrow to broad drainageways and on river flood plains, be overcome to obtain maximum yields.
The mapped areas range from about 10 to 80 acres The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
and are elongated or irregular in shape. The slopes are woodland wildlife is poor. These flooded and ponded
nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. areas are not desirable to openland or woodland
Typically, the surface layer of this soil is fine sand. wildlife, and attempts to effectively improve these
The upper part, to a depth of about 6 inches, is black, conditions are generally unsatisfactory. The potential as
and the lower part, to a depth of 13 inches, is very dark habitat for wetland wildlife is fair.
gray. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 24 inches, is Limitations affecting urban use are severe. Flooding
grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 and ponding conditions and slow internal drainage are
inches is sandy clay loam. The upper part is light dominant features that need to be overcome before any
brownish gray. The lower part is gray. urban development begins.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Limitations affecting recreational development are
Osier, Pelham, Plummer, Rutlege, and Santee soils. severe. The flooding and ponding conditions and sandy
Also included are soils that are similar to Surrency soil texture are major problems to overcome. A drainage
but have a surface layer of mucky sand about 2 to 3 system and flood control structures are needed to
inches thick. The included soils make up about 15 overcome flooding and ponding. In some cases, the
percent of the map unit. addition of sufficient amounts of suitable fill material is
This soil is flooded for very long periods during rainy also needed.
seasons. When this soil is not flooded, it has a high This Surrency soil is in capability subclass VIw. The
water table within 12 inches of the surface for about 6 woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11W.
months or more during most years. Ponding occurs in
the concave parts of the map unit. The available water 39-Meadowbrook sand, frequently flooded. This
capacity is low. The permeability is moderate. soil is nearly level and poorly drained. It is in
The natural vegetation is mainly baldcypress. Water drainageways. The mapped areas are elongated or
tupelo, loblolly pine, slash pine, pond pine, sweetbay, irregular in shape and range from 50 to 500 acres. The
and other water-tolerant hardwoods are in some areas, slopes are nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2
and water-tolerant grasses are in a few areas, percent.
This Surrency soil has very severe limitations for Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark
cultivated crops. Flooding, the restricted root zone, and gray to black sand about 8 inches thick. The upper part
drainage are major problems that are very hard to of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 16 inches,
overcome. Adequate water control systems are hard to is gray fine sand. The next layer, to a depth of 28
establish and maintain. In many areas, suitable inches, is grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a
drainage outlets are not available. If a water control depth of 43 inches, is gray fine sand. The subsoil to a
system can be established, some vegetable crops can depth of 80 inches or more is light gray or gray mottled
be grown on this soil. sandy clay loam.
This soil has severe limitations for pasture. If flooding Included with this soil in mapping are Pamlico,
is controlled and drainage systems are installed and Rutlege, and Surrency soils. These soils also are
maintained, this soil is suitable for pasture. Because frequently flooded. Also included are a few areas of
suitable drainage outlets are not available, the soils that have a subsurface layer that is stained by
possibility of establishing a good water control system is organic matter. The included soils make up about 15
decreased. Good pasture management for maximum percent of the map unit.
yields includes establishing the proper plant population This soil is frequently flooded for periods of long
and applying fertilizer and lime, and grazing must be duration. The floodwater may be as much as 2 feet
controlled. deep. The high water table is within 12 inches of the






Clay County. Florida 49


surface for most of the year except during long, soil is nearly level and somewhat poorly drained. It is
extended dry periods. The available water capacity is on high and low terraces along streams on the flood
low. The permeability is moderately slow. plains. The mapped areas are elongated and irregular
The natural vegetation is mainly loblolly pine, slash in shape and range from 15 to 50 acres. The slopes are
pine, laurel oak, and sweetgum, and water oak. Water- convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
tolerant grasses are in a few areas. Typically, the surface layer of this soil is dark gray
This Meadowbrook soil has severe limitations for fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of about 5 inches,
cultivated crops. Flooding, the restricted root zone, and is dark gray. The lower part, to a depth of 12 inches, is
drainage are major problems that are very hard to grayish brown. The underlying material is fine sand.
overcome. Adequate water control systems are hard to The upper part, to a depth of 22 inches, is very pale
establish and maintain. In many areas, suitable brown. The next layer, to a depth of 39 inches, is light
drainage outlets are not available. The soil becomes yellowish brown with reddish yellow mottles. Below that
waterlogged during wet periods because of the slow layer, to a depth of 61 inches, the underlying material is
internal movement of water through the clayey subsoil. light brownish gray with reddish yellow mottles. The
If a water control system can be established, some lower part to a depth of more than 80 inches is brown
vegetable crops can be grown on this soil. with faint very pale brown mottles.
This soil has severe limitations for pasture. If flooding Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
is controlled and drainage systems are installed and Albany, Hurricane, Leon, Ortega, and Osier soils. Also
maintained, this soil is suitable for pasture. Because included are soils that have slopes that are steeper
suitable drainage outlets are not available, the than 2 percent. The included soils make up about 15
possibility of establishing an effective water control percent of the map unit.
system decreases. Proper pasture management for This soil has a high water table at a depth of 18 to
maximum yields includes establishing the proper plant 36 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years.
population and applying fertilizer and lime, and also Occasionally, rainfall over the watershed causes
grazing must be controlled. flooding, and if this occurs, the soil is covered with fast
Under natural conditions, this soil is not moving water for brief periods of 2 to 7 days. At all
recommended for slash pine, loblolly pine, or longleaf other times, the streams provide drainage for the soil
pine because of excessive wetness. The potential of (fig. 10). The available water capacity is very low. The
this soil for production of loblolly pine is high if surface permeability is rapid.
drainage is adequate and flooding is controlled. The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, longleaf
Equipment use, plant competition, and seedling pine, water oak, laurel oak, and live oak. The
mortality are concerns in management. The high water understory is waxmyrtle, sumac, blackberry, gallberry,
table and flooding are the major problems, which must scattered saw palmetto, carpetgrass, pineland
be overcome to obtain maximum yields, threeawn, and other native weeds and grasses.
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and This Ousley soil has severe limitations for cultivated
woodland wildlife is poor. The areas are too wet and do crops because of flooding, periodic wetness, and
not produce a good source of food and cover that is droughtiness. During wet periods, the high water table
desirable to openland and woodland wildlife. The will retard root development. A properly designed,
potential as habitat for wetland wildlife is good. simple drainage system will help eliminate this problem.
Limitations affecting urban use are severe. Flooding With proper management, including water control, most
and wetness are dominant features that need to be locally grown crops are adapted to this soil.
overcome before any urban development begins. Management practices to ensure high yields should
Limitations affecting recreational development are include close-growing, soil-improving cover crops in the
severe. The flooding condition and sandy texture are rotation system, returning crop residue to the soil, and
the major problems to overcome. A drainage system applying fertilizer and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard if
and flood control structures are needed to overcome the surface is not protected, especially during dry
flooding. In some cases, the addition of sufficient periods. Conservation tillage helps to control erosion
amounts of a suitable fill material is also needed. and conserve moisture.
This Meadowbrook soil is in capability subclass Vlw. This soil has severe limitations for pasture. With
The woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. extensive management, bahiagrass and improved
bermudagrass can be grown and quality grazing can be
40-Ousley fine sand, occasionally flooded. This maintained. Pasture management includes establishing








50 Soil Survey



r
-. ,. .


", ', ; -,,. .. .





























Figure 10.-An area of Ousley fine sand, occasionally flooded, adjacent to and drained by one of the many streams in Clay County. This
area of Ousley soil has been left in natural vegetation.



proper plant population and applying fertilizer and lime, also help overcome the equipment limitations. All plant
and also grazing must be controlled. debris should be left on the site to help maintain the
This soil is moderately suited to the production of organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer can provide
slash and longleaf pines. Equipment use, seedling excellent growth response.
mortality, and plant competition are concerns in The potential of this soil as habitat for openland
management. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation, wildlife and woodland wildlife is fair. The potential as
The use of equipment with large tires or tracks can help habitat for wetland wildlife is very poor.
overcome the equipment limitations, reduce soil Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
compaction, and reduce root damage during thinning small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption
operations. Site preparation, such as harrowing and fields are severe because of flooding and the depth of
bedding, will help establish seedlings, reduce debris, the high water table during wet periods. The high,
control competing vegetation, and facilitate planting fluctuating water table and thick, sandy texture can also
operations. Site preparation and planting and harvesting prevent adequate filtration of the effluent. Adding
operations should be scheduled during dry periods to suitable fill material to keep the high water table at an







Clay County, Florida 51


effective depth will help overcome the wetness flooding. During wet periods, the high water table will
limitation. The flood hazard should be carefully retard root development. A properly designed, simple
evaluated before using this soil for urban development, drainage system will help eliminate this problem. With
Limitations affecting recreational development are proper management, including water control and flood
severe because of occasional flooding and sandy protection, most locally grown crops are adapted to this
texture. The sandy surface layer causes trafficability soil. Management practices to ensure high yields should
problems, and soil blowing is a hazard during dry include close-growing, soil-improving cover crops in the
periods. Establishing and maintaining good vegetation rotation system, returning crop residue to the soil, and
cover or windbreaks or adding suitable topsoil or some applying fertilizer and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard if
other surface stabilizer help to overcome these the surface is not protected, especially during dry
problems. periods. Conservation tillage helps to control erosion
This Ousley soil is in capability subclass Ills. The and conserve moisture.
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10S. This soil has slight limitations to use for pasture. It is
well suited to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and
41-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, legumes. Good quality pasture grass or grass-legumes
occasionally flooded. This soil is nearly level to gently mixtures can be grown with proper management. For
sloping and somewhat poorly drained. It is in the higher maximum yields, this soil requires regular applications
areas on the flood plains. The mapped areas are small of fertilizer and lime, and also grazing should be
and irregular in shape or elongated and range from 5 to controlled. Occasional flooding can damage the grass.
55 acres. The slopes are convex. This soil is moderately well suited to the production
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark of loblolly pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine.
gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface Equipment use, seedling mortality, and plant
layer is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 13 competition are concerns in management. The use of
inches, is brown. The next layer, to a depth of 29 equipment with large tires or tracks can help overcome
inches, is pale brown. The lower part, to a depth of 47 equipment limitations, reduce soil compaction, and
inches, is gray with mottling. The upper part of the reduce root damage during thinning operations. Site
subsoil, to a depth of 60 inches, is brownish yellow preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, will help
mottled fine sandy loam. The lower part to a depth of establish seedlings, reduce debris, control competing
80 inches is light gray sandy clay loam that has reddish vegetation, and facilitate planting operations. Controlling
brown mottles, the growth of hardwood understory by chemical or
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of mechanical methods will reduce plant competition. All
Blanton, Hurricane, Meadowbrook, Ocilla, and plant debris should be left on the site to help maintain
Ridgewood soils. These soils are occasionally flooded, the organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer can provide
The included soils make up about 15 percent or less of excellent growth response.
the map unit. The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
This soil has a high water table at a depth of 12 to woodland wildlife is fair. The potential as habitat for
30 inches for 1 to 3 months during most years. The wetland wildlife is poor because of the absence of water
high water table is at a depth of 30 to 50 inches most of areas. This soil does not produce a suitable source of
the time, and it is at a depth of more than 50 inches in vegetation that is desirable to wetland wildlife.
dry periods. The available water capacity is low. The Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
permeability is moderate, small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption
The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, loblolly fields mainly are severe because of the possibility of
pine. longleaf pine, water oak, live oak, laurel oak, and flooding and depth of the high water table during wet
sweetgum. The understory is mainly waxmyrtle, periods. Adding suitable fill material to keep the high
greenbrier, devils walkingstick, bluestem, various water table at an effective depth will help overcome the
panicums, pineland, threeawn, toothachegrass, wetness limitation. The flood hazard should be carefully
gallberry, and switchgrass. Most areas are still in native evaluated before using this soil for urban development.
vegetation. A few areas have been cleared and are in Limitations affecting recreational development are
improved pasture. severe. The sandy surface layer causes trafficability
This Albany soil has severe limitations for cultivated problems, and soil blowing is a hazard during dry
crops because of periodic wetness and droughtiness. In periods. Flooding is a hazard for camp areas. Flooding
some years, crops may be damaged because of must be controlled, and establishing and maintaining





52 Soil Survey


good vegetation cover or windbreaks or adding suitable in dry periods. Row crops should be planted in alternate
topsoil or some other surface stabilizer will help strips with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops in
overcome these problems, the rotation system. Crop residue, including that of the
This Albany soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The soil-improving crops, should be used to maintain
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11W. organic matter content. Rows should be bedded.
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
42-Osier fine sand, occasionally flooded. This soil needs of the crop.
is nearly level and poorly drained. It is on the flood In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for
plains. The mapped areas range from 10 to 100 acres pasture. With proper water control, the soil is
and generally are elongated or irregular in shape. The moderately well suited to improved bermudagrass,
slopes are slightly concave to convex and range from 0 bahiagrass, and legumes. Good quality pasture grass or
to 2 percent. grass-legume mixtures can be grown with proper
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark management. A water control system is needed to
gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying remove excess water during long rainy periods. Pasture
material is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 18 management for good vegetation cover and maximum
inches, is dark grayish brown. The next layer, to a productivity includes establishing the proper plant
depth of 38 inches, is grayish brown. Below that layer, population and applying fertilizer and lime, and also
to a depth of 60 inches, the underlying material is light grazing should be controlled.
brownish gray. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is This soil is moderately well suited to the production
light gray. of slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Equipment use and seedling mortality are concerns in
Maurepas, Pamlico, Pelham, Plummer, Rutlege, and management. The potential of this soil for production of
Surrency soils. Also included are soils that are similar to pines is attainable only in areas that have adequate
Osier soil but have a surface layer of mucky sand about surface drainage. Seasonal wetness and periods of
2 to 3 inches thick and have slopes up to 4 percent. drought require timely scheduling for site preparation
The included soils make up about 15 percent of the and seedling planting. Site preparation includes bedding
map unit. in rows. The use of equipment with large tires or tracks
This soil has a high water table near the surface for can help overcome the equipment limitations. All plant
as much as 6 months each year. Flooding occurs about debris should be left on the site to help maintain the
every 2 years. The available water capacity is very low. organic matter in the soil.
The permeability is rapid. The potential of this soil as habitat for openland
The natural vegetation is pond pine, slash pine, wildlife and woodland wildlife is poor. The potential as
loblolly pine, sweetgum, water oak, laurel oak, habitat for wetland wildlife is fair.
baldcypress, tupelo, blackgum, sweetbay, and red Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
maple. The understory is dominantly gallberry, small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption
waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, dwarf huckleberry, fields are severe because of the depth of the high water
brackenfern, and various bluestems and panicums. table during wet periods. A drainage system is needed
This Osier soil has very severe limitations for to remove the excess surface water during wet periods
cultivated crops because of flooding, wetness, and and to adequately control the high water table. Adding
droughtiness. Adapted crops that can be grown on this suitable fill material to keep the high water table at an
soil are limited. Special crops, which generally have effective depth also will help overcome the wetness
more tolerance to wet conditions, need less space for limitation. The flood hazard should be carefully
root development, and require a shorter period to reach evaluated before using this soil for urban development.
maturity, are generally better adapted to this soil than Limitations affecting recreational development are
most of the general field crops. The high water table is severe. Flooding, wetness, and the loose, sandy
difficult to control. In many areas, suitable drainage surface are the main problems. Flooding must be
outlets are not available. With a water control system controlled, and a water control system is needed to
and intensive management, this soil will produce fair to rapidly remove intense, heavy rainwater; however,
good yields of most locally grown crops. The water when the soil is drained, the surface layer becomes dry
control system should protect the area from flooding, and loose and causes trafficability problems. During dry
remove excess water, and provide subsurface irrigation periods, soil blowing is a hazard. Windbreaks, good







Clay County, Florida 53


vegetation cover, or a suitable topsoil fill material or severe. The excessive wetness and excess humus are
some other surface stabilizer can be used to help the major limitations. Drainage systems that would
overcome these problems. adequately remove the excess water is expensive to
This Osier soil is in capability subclass Vw. The establish and maintain. When the soil is drained, the
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11W. exposed dry surface layer becomes dusty. This
condition and the unstable conditions of the soil cause
43-Pamlico muck, frequently flooded. This soil is severe trafficability problems.
nearly level and very poorly drained. This organic soil is This Pamlico soil is in capability subclass VIIw. The
on the flood plains. The mapped areas are irregular in woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 7W.
shape or elongated and range from 50 to 500 acres.
The slopes range from 0 to 1 percent. 46-Plummer fine sand, depressional. This soil is
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of this nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in wet, grassy
soil is dark brown muck about 16 inches thick. The depressional areas. The mapped areas are circular or
lower part, to a depth of 38 inches, is very dark gray irregular in shape and range from 5 to 60 acres. The
muck. The underlying material to a depth of 75 inches slopes are concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
or more is grayish brown fine sand. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of gray or black fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
Maurepas, Osier, Rutlege, and Surrency soils. The subsurface layer is fine sand. The upper part, to a
included soils make up about 20 percent or less of the depth of 25 inches, is light gray. The lower part, to a
map unit. depth of 46 inches, is gray. The subsoil to a depth of 80
This soil is frequently flooded for periods of long inches or more is light gray or gray mottled sandy clay
duration. Floodwater can be as much as 2 feet deep. loam.
The high water table is within 12 inches of the surface Included with this soil in mapping are Pamlico,
most of the year except during long, extended dry Pelham, Rutlege, and Surrency soils. Also included are
periods. The available water capacity is very high. The a few areas of soils that have a stained subsurface
permeability is moderate or moderately rapid. layer. The included soils make up about 15 percent of
The natural vegetation is mainly baldcypress. the map unit.
Sweetbay, blackgum, and red maple also are in some Most areas of this soil are covered with water for 4
areas, and water-tolerant grasses are in a few areas, months or more. The available water capacity is low.
This Pamlico soil is not suited to cultivated crops, The permeability is moderate.
improved pasture, or pine tree production unless The natural vegetation is mainly pondcypress,
extensive drainage systems are established and blackgum, sweetbay, swamp chestnut oak, pond pine,
maintained and flooding is controlled, and swamp tupelo. Water-tolerant grasses are in a few
The potential of this soil as a habitat for wetland areas.
wildlife is good. These shallow water areas are Under natural conditions, this Plummer soil is not
desirable to wetland wildlife. The potential as openland suited to cultivated crops, improved pasture, or pine
and woodland wildlife is poor. This soil is too wet and tree production. The excessive wetness and the
does not produce a good source of food and cover problem of water control are the main problems.
desirable for openland or woodland wildlife. Adequate water control systems are difficult to establish
Limitations affecting urban use are severe. The high because most areas of this map unit are in isolated
water table, flooding condition, excess humus, low soil ponds or wet depressions that do not have suitable
strength, and potential for seepage are major problems drainage outlets. If a drainage system can be
that are hard to overcome. Proper drainage and water established and maintained and with proper pasture
control systems require a major network of canals and management, good quality grass or grass-legume
ditches. Keeping the areas adequately drained would be mixtures can be produced.
a continuing problem. In many areas, suitable drainage The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
outlets are not available. The organic material is woodland wildlife is poor. Ponding is not desirable to
unstable, and, even if drained, subsidence will occur. openland or woodland wildlife. The potential as habitat
This organic material should be removed and replaced for wetland wildlife is good.
with a suitable fill material before any urban Limitations affecting urban use are severe. Water on
development begins. or near the surface during much of the year and thick,
Limitations affecting recreational development are sandy texture are the dominant features that severely







54 Soil Survey


restrict the soil for this use. Drainage systems that mainly running oak, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle,
would adequately remove the water and effectively huckleberry, brackenfern, blueberry, briers, gallberry,
regulate the high water table are expensive and hard to various bluestems, and pineland threeawn.
establish and maintain. Even if drainage systems are This Newnan soil has severe limitations for cultivated
installed, keeping the area adequately drained would be crops because of periodic wetness and droughtiness.
a continuing problem. Before using as sites for During wet periods, the high water table will retard root
dwellings and small commercial buildings and as septic development. A properly designed, simple drainage
tank absorption fields, suitable fill material must be system will help eliminate this problem. With proper
added to the areas before any urban development management, including a water control system, most
begins, locally grown crops are adapted to this soil.
Limitations affecting recreational development are Management practices to ensure optimum yields should
severe. The ponding condition and sandy texture are include close-growing, soil-improving cover crops in the
the major concerns in management. Before the soil can rotation system, returning crop residue to the soil, and
be used for recreational areas, adequate drainage and applying fertilizer and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard if
a water control system must be established and the surface is not protected, especially during dry
maintained. The addition of a suitable fill material is periods. Conservation tillage helps to control erosion
needed to improve trafficability and to raise the surface and conserve moisture.
sufficiently to prevent a continuing wetness problem. This soil has slight limitations for pasture. It is
This Plummer soil is in capability subclass Vw. The moderately well suited to bahiagrass, improved
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2W. bermudagrass, and legumes. Good quality pasture
grass or grass-legume mixtures can be grown with
47-Newnan fine sand. This soil is nearly level and proper management. For maximum yields, this soil
somewhat poorly drained. It is in small to relatively requires regular applications of fertilizer and lime, and
large areas on low ridges on the flatwoods. The also grazing must be controlled.
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from This soil is moderately suited to the production of
about 5 to 400 acres. The slopes are nearly smooth to slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines. Equipment use,
slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 percent. seedling mortality, and plant competition are concerns
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine in management. The use of equipment with large tires
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a or tracks can help overcome the equipment limitations,
depth of 19 inches, is gray and light gray fine sand. The reduce soil compaction, and reduce root damage during
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 23 inches, thinning operations. Site preparation, such as harrowing
is dark reddish brown fine sand, and the sand grains and bedding, will help establish seedlings, reduce
are well coated with organic material. The next layer, to debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate
a depth of 29 inches, is dark brown fine sand. Below planting operations. Controlling the growth of hardwood
that layer, to a depth of 51 inches, is a leached layer of understory by chemical or mechanical methods will
brown to light gray fine sand. The lower part of the reduce plant competition. All plant debris should be left
subsoil to a depth of 80 inches is light gray sandy clay on the site to help maintain the organic matter in the
loam that is mottled, soil. Fertilizer can provide excellent growth response.
Included with this soil in mapping are some areas of The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
Albany, Leon, Hurricane, Mandarin, and Sapelo soils. woodland wildlife is poor. The potential as wetland
Also included are some areas of soils that have similar wildlife is very poor.
characteristics as Newnan soil except they have a Bh Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
horizon at a depth of more than 30 inches. The included small commercial buildings are moderate. Limitations
soils make up about 20 percent or less of the map unit. affecting septic tank absorption fields are severe
This soil has a high water table at a depth of 18 to because of the depth of the water table during wet
30 inches for 1 to 2 months during most years, and it is periods. Adding suitable fill material to keep the high
at a depth of 30 to 60 inches for 2 to 5 months. During water table at an effective depth will help overcome the
dry periods, it is at a depth of more than 60 inches. The wetness limitation. If outlets are available, a surface
available water capacity is low. The permeability is slow drainage system can be installed.
to moderately slow. Limitations affecting recreational development are
The natural vegetation consists mainly of longleaf severe. Trafficability is a problem. Because of the loose,
pine, slash pine, and water oak. The understory is sandy surface during dry periods, soil blowing is a







Clay County, Florida 55


hazard. Establishing and maintaining good vegetation developed. Sapelo soil is better suited to cultivated
cover or windbreaks or adding suitable topsoil or some crops and improved pasture grasses than Meadowbrook
other surface stabilizer help to overcome these soil, but surface drainage is needed.
problems. The soils in this map unit are moderately suited to
This Newnan soil is in capability subclass Ills. The the production of slash and loblolly pines. Equipment
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. use, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
concerns in management. Seasonal wetness is the
49-Sapelo-Meadowbrook, frequently flooded, main limitation. The use of equipment with large tires or
complex. This map unit consists of nearly level, poorly tracks can help overcome the equipment limitations,
drained soils. These soils are interspersed along creeks reduce soil compaction, and reduce root damage during
and streams. Sapelo soil is on the higher flats. thinning operations. Site preparation, such as harrowing
Meadowbrook soil is in well defined drainageways. The and bedding, will help establish seedlings, reduce
mapped areas are elongated and irregular in shape and debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate
range from 10 to 100 acres. The slopes are nearly planting operations. Site preparation and planting and
smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. harvesting operations should be scheduled during dry
Sapelo soil makes up about 40 to 55 percent of this periods to also help overcome equipment limitations. All
map unit. Meadowbrook soil makes up about 25 to 40 plant debris should be left on the site to help maintain
percent. The included soils make up about 5 to 25 the organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer can provide
percent of the map unit. excellent growth response.
Typically, the surface layer of Sapelo soil is black Meadowbrook soil is not suited to the production of
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to pine trees unless surface drainage is adequate and
a depth of 18 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper seedbed preparation includes bedding in rows.
part of the subsoil, to a depth of 30 inches, is black to The potential of these soils as habitat for openland,
dark reddish brown fine sand. The next layer, to a depth woodland, and wetland wildlife is fair.
of 34 inches, is yellowish brown fine sand that has few Flooding, the high water table, and the sandy texture
medium pale brown mottles. Below that layer, to a severely limit the use of these soils for building sites
depth of 60 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The and sanitary facilities.
lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is light gray Flooding is a hazard, and the high water table is a
sandy clay loam that has red and yellow mottles. severe limitation affecting recreational development.
This Sapelo soil has a high water table within 12 The high water table must be maintained at an effective
inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months during most depth, and flooding must be controlled. A water control
years. The available water capacity is low. The system must be established to improve these
permeability is moderate. conditions. Trafficability is a problem. Because of the
Typically, the surface layer of Meadowbrook soil is loose, sandy surface during dry periods, soil blowing is
very dark gray sand about 7 inches thick. The a hazard. Maintaining good vegetation cover or
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 42 inches, is gray windbreaks or adding suitable topsoil or some other
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about surface stabilizer helps to overcome these problems.
70 inches, is gray sandy loam. The lower part to a The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass
depth of 80 inches is light gray sandy loam. VIw. The woodland ordination symbol for these soils is
This Meadowbrook soil has a high water table within 10W.
12 inches of the surface most of the year except during
long, extended dry periods. This soil is frequently 50-Leon fine sand, frequently flooded. This soil is
flooded for periods of long duration. The floodwater can nearly level and poorly drained. It is on the flood plains.
be as much as 2 feet deep. The available water The mapped areas are irregular in shape or elongated
capacity is low. The permeability is moderately slow. and range from 10 to 90 acres. The slopes are nearly
Included in mapping are Pamlico, Rutlege, and smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Surrency soils. These soils are frequently flooded. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, laurel sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
oak, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. depth of about 16 inches, is gray fine sand. The subsoil
Because of prolonged wetness and flooding, is fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
Meadowbrook soil is not suited to cultivated crops or 26 inches, is black. The next layer, to a depth of 54
improved pasture grasses unless drainage systems are inches, is dark brown. The lower part to a depth of 80






56 Soil Survey


inches is black. The sand grains in the subsoil are well surface during dry periods, soil blowing is a hazard, and
coated with organic material. trafficability is a problem. Establishing and maintaining
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of good vegetation cover or windbreaks or adding suitable
Lynn Haven, Mandarin, Ona, Pottsburg, and Sapelo topsoil or some other surface stabilizer will help
soils. Also included are soils that are similar to Leon overcome these problems. Flooding must be controlled.
soil but are very poorly drained and have a thicker This Leon soil is in capability subclass VIw. The
surface layer. The included soils make up about 20 woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W.
percent or less of the map unit.
This soil has a high water table at a depth of less 51-Pottsburg fine sand, occasionally flooded.
than 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. It This soil is nearly level and poorly drained. It is on the
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during very flood plains. The mapped areas are irregular in shape
dry periods. The available water capacity is low. The or elongated and range from 50 to 500 acres. The
permeability is moderate or moderately rapid. slopes are nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2
The natural vegetation is mainly longleaf pine and percent.
slash pine. The understory is saw palmetto, running Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark
oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
threeawn, bluestem, briers, brackenfern, and other layer is fine sand. The upper part, to a depth of 25
native forbs and grasses. inches, is grayish brown. The next layer, to a depth of
This Leon soil has very severe limitations for 46 inches, is gray. The lower part, to a depth of 65
cultivated crops because of flooding, wetness, and inches, is light gray. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches
droughtiness. This soil is not cultivated in Clay County. or more is dark reddish brown fine sand. The sand
In its natural state, this soil is moderately well suited grains in the subsoil are well coated with organic
to improved pasture grass and grass-legume mixtures. material.
For a good vegetation cover and maximum yields, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
proper management is needed. Pasture management Hurricane, Leon, Lynn Haven, Osier, Plummer, and
should include flood control measures, proper Rutlege soils. Also included are soils that are similar to
applications of fertilizer and lime, and controlled Pottsburg soil but have a stained layer at a depth of
grazing. more than 50 inches. The included soils make up 20
This soil is not recommended for pines because of percent or less of the map unit.
excessive wetness and flooding, but if pines are This soil has a high water table at a depth of less
planted, adequate drainage and bedding in rows are than 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. It
required for best results. The potential of this soil for recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during very
production of slash pine is moderate. Equipment use, dry periods. Flooding occurs about every 2 or 3 years.
plant competition, and seedling mortality are concerns The available water capacity is low. The permeability is
in management, moderate.
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf and slash
wildlife and woodland wildlife is fair. The potential as pine. The understory is saw palmetto, running oak,
habitat for wetland wildlife is poor. gallberry, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland threeawn,
Limitations affecting urban development, which bluestem, briers, brackenfern, and other native forbs
includes septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and and grasses.
small commercial buildings, are severe. Flooding and This Pottsburg soil has very severe limitations for
wetness are the major problems. A drainage system is cultivated crops because of flooding, wetness, and
needed and a suitable fill material must be added to droughtiness. Adapted crops that can be grown on this
help control flooding and to keep the high water table at soil are limited. Special crops are generally better
an effective depth, adapted to this soil than the general farm crops. A
Limitations affecting recreational development are water control system and intensive use of management
severe. The high water table, which is at or near the practices are needed if this soil is cultivated. The water
surface during wet periods, and the loose sandy surface control system should remove excess water in wet
texture are the main limitations. Flooding is a hazard if periods and provide for subsurface irrigation in dry
the soil is used for camp areas or playgrounds. A water periods. Row crops should be planted in alternate strips
control system is needed to rapidly remove the excess with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops. Crop
water during rainy periods. Because of the loose, sandy residue, including the residue of the soil-improving







Clay County, Florida 57


crops, should be used to protect the soil from erosion 52-Meggett fine sandy loam, frequently flooded.
and maintain the organic matter content. Row crops This soil is nearly level and poorly drained. It is on the
should be bedded. Fertilizer and lime should be added flood plains. The mapped areas are irregular in shape
according to the needs of the crop. to elongated and range from 15 to 150 acres. The
This soil has severe limitations for pasture. It is well slopes are nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2
suited to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and percent.
legumes. Good quality pasture grass and grass-legume Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark
mixtures can be grown with proper management. gray fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The
Pasture management should include proper application subsurface layer, to a depth of about 12 inches, is
of fertilizer and lime and controlled grazing. A water grayish brown fine sandy loam. The subsoil, to a depth
control system is needed to remove excess water after of 59 inches, is gray mottled sandy clay and to a depth
heavy rains. Irrigation is needed during drought of 80 inches is gray sandy clay.
periods for shallow-root plants, such as white clover. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This soil is moderately suited to the production of Goldhead, Meadowbrook, Pelham, and Plummer soils.
slash and longleaf pines. Equipment use, seedling The included soils make up about 20 percent of the
mortality, and plant competition are concerns in map unit.
management. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation. This soil has a high water table at a depth of less
Timely scheduling of site preparation and planting, than 12 inches for long periods during most years.
thinning, and harvesting operations can help overcome Flooding occurs in most years. The available water
this wetness limitation. The use of equipment with large capacity is moderate. The permeability is slow.
tires or tracks can help overcome the equipment The natural vegetation is mainly water oak,
limitations, reduce soil compaction, and reduce root sweetgum, blackgum, red maple, slash pine, loblolly
damage during thinning operations. Site preparation, pine, waxmyrtle, scattered saw palmetto, and gallberry.
such as harrowing and bedding, help to establish Water-tolerant grasses are in a few areas.
seedlings, control competing vegetation, reduce debris, Because of prolonged wetness and flooding, this soil
and facilitate planting operations. All plant debris should is not suited to cultivated crops, improved pasture
be left on the site to help maintain the organic matter in grasses, or pine tree production unless major drainage
the soil. Fertilizer can provide excellent growth systems are developed. Because of flooding, a drainage
response. system is difficult to establish and is costly to maintain.
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland, The potential of this soil as habitat for wetland wildlife
woodland, and wetland wildlife is poor. is good. Shallow water areas can be developed in these
Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and areas as habitat for wetland wildlife. The potential for
small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption use as habitat for openland wildlife is fair, and it is good
fields are severe. Flooding and wetness are the major for use as habitat for woodland wildlife.
problems. A drainage system is needed and suitable fill Prolonged wetness is severe a limitation affecting
material must be added to help control flooding and to urban uses, such as sanitary facilities, building sites,
keep the high water table at an effective depth before and recreational development. In addition, the hazard of
any urban development begins, flooding is severe.
Limitations affecting recreational development are This Meggett soil is in capability subclass Vlw. This
severe. Flooding, the high water table, which is at or woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 13W.
near the surface during wet periods, and the loose,
sandy surface texture are the main problems. A water 54-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is
control system is needed to rapidly remove the excess nearly level to gently sloping and is well drained. It is on
water during rainy periods. Because of the loose, sandy slight knolls and broad ridges on the uplands. The
surface during dry periods, soil blowing is a hazard and mapped areas range from 20 to 200 acres. The slopes
trafficability is a problem. Establishing and maintaining are nearly smooth or convex.
windbreaks or good vegetation cover or adding suitable Typically, this soil has a surface layer of grayish
topsoil or some other surface stabilizer will help brown sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer,
overcome these problems. Flooding must be controlled. to a depth of 64 inches, is light yellowish brown sand.
This Pottsburg soil is in capability subclass IVw. The The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is yellowish
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W. red sandy loam.






58 Soil Survey


Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of buildings and septic tank absorption fields are only
Albany, Blanton, Kershaw, and Penney soils. The slight.
included soils make up about 20 percent or less of the Limitations affecting recreational development are
map unit. severe. During dry periods, soil blowing and maintaining
This soil has a high water table at a depth of more good trafficability are severe problems. Establishing and
than 72 inches. The available water capacity is low. The maintaining good vegetation cover and windbreaks and
permeability is moderate. adding suitable topsoil or some other hard surface
The natural vegetation is mainly turkey oak, post oak, stabilizer will improve or help overcome these problems.
scattered longleaf pine, rosemary, and pineland This Troup soil is in capability subclass Ills. The
threeawn. Some areas are planted to sand pine. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S.
This Troup soil has severe limitations for most
cultivated crops because of droughtiness and rapid 56-Kershaw sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This soil
leaching of plant nutrients. It is moderately well suited is nearly level to moderately sloping and is excessively
to the production of corn, peanuts, and watermelons, drained. It is on the deep, sandy uplands. The mapped
Management practices to obtain optimum yields should areas are irregular in shape and range from 15 to 1,500
include irrigating during drought periods, using soil- acres. The slopes are nearly smooth to convex.
improving cover crops in the rotation system, returning Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark grayish
crop residue to the soil, and applying fertilizer and lime. brown sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of the
Soil blowing is a hazard if the surface is not protected, underlying material, to a depth of 68 inches, is brownish
especially during dry periods. Conservation tillage helps yellow sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is
to control erosion and conserve moisture. yellow sand.
This soil has slight limitations for pasture. It is Included with this soil in mapping are some small
moderately well suited to improved bermudagrass, areas of Ortega, Penney, and Troup soils. Also included
bahiagrass, and legumes. Good quality pasture grass or are small areas of soils that are similar to Kershaw soil
grass-legume mixtures can be grown with proper but have a coarser texture. The included soils make up
management. For maximum yields, this soil requires about 10 percent or less of the map unit.
regular applications of fertilizer and lime, and grazing This soil has a high water table at a depth of more
must be controlled. Irrigation is generally necessary than 80 inches. The available water capacity is very
during dry periods for the production of shallow root low. The permeability is very rapid.
pasture plants. The natural vegetation consists mostly of turkey oak,
This soil is moderately suited to the production of bluejack oak, post oak, scrub live oak, and longleaf
slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Equipment pine. The understory is mainly a sparse growth of
use, seedling mortality, and plant competition are pineland threeawn, indiangrass, chalky bluestem,
concerns in management. This soil is drought and various panicums, and rosemary.
during long, dry periods does not retain enough This Kershaw soil has very severe limitations for
moisture for plant growth. Use of special planting stock cultivated crops. This soil is unable to retain sufficient
that is larger than usual, or that is containerized, will moisture during dry periods because of its coarse
reduce the rate of seedling mortality. The use of texture. Plant nutrients applied to the soil are rapidly
equipment with large tires or tracks will help overcome leached. Irrigation is needed for cultivated crops.
the equipment limitations that are caused by the loose, This soil has moderate limitations for pasture. It is
sandy surface of this soil. Controlling the growth of moderately suited to deep-root grasses, such as
hardwood understory by chemical or mechanical bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass, but yields are
methods will reduce plant competition. All plant debris generally reduced by periodic droughts. To maintain
should be left on the site to help maintain the organic good grazing, careful management is required. This
matter in the soil. includes establishing the proper plant population and
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland applying fertilizer and lime, and also grazing must be
wildlife is fair; and as habitat for woodland wildlife, it is controlled. Irrigation will help improve the quality of
poor. The potential as habitat for wetland wildlife is very grazing and the hay crops and during long, dry periods
poor because of the absence of water areas. This soil irrigation may be economically justifiable if water is
does not produce a suitable supply of food for most readily available. This soil is not suited to shallow-root
wildlife. pasture plants because the soil can not retain sufficient
Limitations affecting dwellings and small commercial moisture in the root zone for good plant growth.







Clay County, Florida 59


This soil is poorly suited to the production of slash, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
longleaf, and sand pines. Equipment use and seedling Lynn Haven, Osier, Pottsburg, Rutlege, and Surrency
mortality are concerns in management. The use of soils. The included soils make up less than 20 percent
equipment with large tires or tracks can help overcome of the map unit.
the equipment limitations that are caused by the loose, This soil has a high water table within 12 inches of
sandy surface of this soil. This soil has very low the surface for 3 to 5 months of the year. Flooding
available water capacity and does not provide enough occurs in most years, and the surface generally is
moisture for a good rate of seedling survival. Use of covered with water for 3 months or more. The available
special planting stock that is larger than usual, or that is water capacity is low. The permeability is moderately
containerized, will reduce the rate of seedling mortality, rapid.
Timely scheduling of planting operations during periods The natural vegetation is blackgum, sweetgum,
when rains are more frequent can also help reduce the sweetbay, red maple, and some slash pine trees. The
rate of seedling mortality. All plant debris should be left understory is waxmyrtle, gallberry, and pineland
on the site to help maintain the organic matter, threeawn.
The potential as habitat for openland wildlife is poor; This Allanton soil has very severe limitations for
and as habitat for woodland wildlife, it is very poor. The cultivated crops. Flooding, restricted root zone, and
potential as habitat for wetland wildlife is very poor proper drainage are major problems that are very
because of the absence of water areas. This soil does difficult to overcome. Adequate water control systems
not produce a suitable source of food for wetland are difficult to establish and maintain. In many areas,
wildlife. suitable drainage outlets are not available. If a water
Limitations affecting dwellings and small commercial control system can be established and maintained,
buildings are slight. Limitations affecting septic tank some vegetable crops can be grown on this soil.
absorption fields are slight; however, because of poor This soil has severe limitations for pasture. If flooding
filtration, ground water contamination can be a hazard is controlled and drainage systems installed and
in areas that have a concentration of septic tank maintained, this soil is suitable for pasture. Because
absorption fields. suitable drainage outlets are not available, the
Limitations affecting recreational development are possibility of establishing an effective water control
severe. Soil blowing and maintaining good trafficability system is decreased. Proper pasture management for
are severe problems. Establishing and maintaining good maximum yields includes establishing the proper plant
vegetation cover or windbreaks or adding suitable population and applying fertilizer and lime, and also
topsoil or some other surface stabilizer help to grazing must be controlled.
overcome these problems. Under natural conditions, this soil is not
This Kershaw soil is in capability subclass Vlls. The recommended for slash pine, loblolly pine, or longleaf
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S. pine because of excessive wetness. The potential of
this soil for production of loblolly pine is high if surface
58-Allanton fine sand, frequently flooded. This drainage is adequate and flooding is controlled.
soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in Wetness is a severe limitation. Equipment use, plant
poorly defined drainageways on the broad flatwoods. competition, and seedling mortality are concerns in
The shape of the mapped areas is variable, and the management. The high water table and flooding are the
areas range from 50 to 500 acres. The slopes are major concerns in management and must be overcome
nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. to obtain maximum yields.
Typically, the surface layer of this soil is fine sand. The potential of this soil as habitat for wetland wildlife
The upper part, to a depth of about 12 inches, is very is good. Shallow water areas can be developed in these
dark gray. The lower part, to a depth of 18 inches, is areas as habitat for wetland wildlife. The potential as
very dark grayish brown. The subsurface layer is fine habitat for openland wildlife is poor, and it is fair for
sand. The upper part, to a depth of 26 inches, is dark woodland wildlife.
gray. The next layer, to a depth of 56 inches, is grayish Limitations affecting urban use are severe. Flooding
brown. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 63 and wetness are dominant features that need to be
inches, is very dark grayish brown fine sand. The lower overcome before any urban development begins.
part to a depth of 80 inches is very dark gray fine sand. Limitations affecting recreational development are
The sand grains in the subsoil are well coated with severe. The flooding condition and sandy texture are
organic material, the major problems. Before the soil can be used for







60 Soil Survey


recreational areas, adequate drainage and a water In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for
control system are necessary. The addition of suitable pasture. With proper water control, the soil is well suited
fill material is needed to improve trafficability and to to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes. A
raise the surface sufficiently to prevent a continuing water control system is needed to remove excess
wetness problem. surface water during long rainy periods. For maximum
This Allanton soil is in capability subclass Vw. The yields, irrigation is needed during dry periods for white
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. clover or other adapted shallow-root pasture plants.
Pasture management for good vegetation cover and
59-Lynn Haven fine sand. This soil is nearly level maximum productivity includes establishing the proper
and poorly drained. It is in broad areas on the plant population and applying fertilizer and lime, and
flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in shape or also grazing must be controlled.
elongated and range from 10 to 200 acres. The slopes This soil is moderately well suited to the production
are nearly smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. of slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines. Equipment use,
Typically, the surface layer of this soil is fine sand. seedling mortality, and plant competition are concerns
The upper part, to a depth of about 12 inches, is black. in management. Seasonal wetness is the main
The lower part, to a depth of 19 inches, is very dark limitation. The use of equipment with large tires or
gray. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 26 inches, is tracks can help overcome the equipment limitations,
grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil is fine sand. The reduce soil compaction, and reduce root damage during
upper part, to a depth of 22 inches, is black. The next thinning operations. Site preparation and planting and
layer, to a depth of 55 inches, is dark brown. The lower harvesting operations should be scheduled during dry
part to a depth of 80 inches is black. periods to also help overcome the equipment
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of limitations. All plant debris should be left on the site to
Allanton, Leon, Osier, Pottsburg, and Rutlege soils. help maintain the organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer
Also included are soils that have slopes that range from can provide excellent growth response.
0 to 5 percent. The included soils make up less than 20 The potential of this soil as habitat for openland
percent of the map unit. wildlife is fair. The potential as habitat for woodland and
This soil has a high water table at a depth of less wetland wildlife is poor.
than 12 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years. It Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during very small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption
dry periods. The available water capacity is moderate. fields are severe because of the depth of the high water
The permeability is moderate or moderately rapid. table during wet periods. A drainage system is needed
The natural vegetation is mainly longleaf pine, slash to remove the excess surface water during wet periods
pine, and pond pine. The understory is saw palmetto, and to adequately control the high water table. Adding
running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland suitable fill material to help keep the high water table at
threeawn, bluestem, briers, brackenfern, and other an effective depth will help overcome the wetness
native forbs and grasses. Most areas are in natural limitation.
vegetation. The cleared areas are in improved pasture. Limitations affecting recreational development are
This Lynn Haven soil has very severe limitations for severe. The high water table, which is at or near the
cultivated crops mostly because of wetness. The surface during wet periods, is a major problem. A water
number of adapted crops that can be grown is limited control system is needed to improve this condition.
unless water control measures are used. With proper Trafficability is a problem. Because of the loose, sandy
water control, this soil is suitable for most locally grown surface during dry periods, soil blowing is a hazard.
crops. Special crops are better adapted to this soil than Maintaining good vegetation cover or windbreaks or
most of the general farm crops. A water control system adding suitable topsoil or some other surface stabilizer
is needed to remove excess water during wet periods helps to overcome these problems.
and to provide for subsurface irrigation during dry This Lynn Haven soil is in capability subclass IVw.
periods. Row crops should be planted in alternate strips The woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11W.
with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops. Crop
residue, including the residue of the soil-improving 60-Ridgeland fine sand. This soil is nearly level
crops, should be returned to the soil. Rows should be and somewhat poorly drained. It is in small to relatively
bedded. Fertilizer and lime should be added according large areas on slight rises on the flatwoods. The areas
to the needs of the crop. are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 100 acres.






Clay County, Florida 61


The slopes are slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 seedling mortality, and increase early growth. Chopping
percent. and bedding will also reduce debris, control competing
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark vegetation, and facilitate planting operations. Controlling
grayish brown and dark grayish brown fine sand about the growth of hardwood understory by chemical or
8 inches thick. The subsoil is also fine sand. The upper mechanical methods will reduce plant competition. All
part, to a depth of 18 inches, is very dark brown and plant debris should be left on the site to help maintain
very dark grayish brown, and the sand grains are well the organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer can provide
coated with organic material. The next layer, to a depth excellent growth response.
of 65 inches, has very little organic matter and is pale The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
brown, light gray, and white. The lower part to a depth woodland wildlife is poor. The potential as habitat for
of 80 inches is dark reddish brown and dark brown, and wetland wildlife is very poor.
the sand grains are coated with organic matter. Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of small commercial buildings are moderate. Limitations
Centenary, Hurricane, Leon, Mandarin, Ona, and affecting septic tank absorption fields are severe
Ridgewood soils. The included soils make up about 20 because of the depth of the water table during wet
percent or less of the map unit. periods. Adding suitable fill material will help overcome
This soil has a high water table at a depth of 18 the wetness limitation. If outlets are available, a surface
inches for about 30 days during most years. It is at a drainage system can be installed.
depth of 18 to 50 inches during most of the remainder Limitations affecting recreational development are
of the year. The available water capacity is low. The severe. The sandy surface layer causes trafficability
permeability is moderate or moderately rapid. problems, and soil blowing is a hazard during dry
The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, periods. Establishing and maintaining good vegetation
post oak, live oak, and water oak. The understory is cover or windbreaks or adding suitable topsoil or some
greenbrier, saw palmetto, running oak, waxmyrtle, other surface stabilizer help to overcome these
pineland threeawn, dwarf huckleberry, carpetgrass, and problems.
various bluestems and panicums. This Ridgeland soil is in capability subclass Illw. The
This Ridgeland soil has severe limitations for woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W.
cultivated crops because of periodic wetness and
droughtiness. During wet periods, the high water table 61-Wesconnett fine sand, frequently flooded. This
will retard root development. With proper management soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in broad
and a water control system, the most locally grown drainageways on the flatwoods. The mapped areas
crops are adapted to this soil. Management practices to range from 50 to 500 acres and are elongated or
obtain high yields should include close-growing, soil- irregular in shape. The slopes are nearly smooth and
improving cover crops in the rotation system, returning range from 0 to 2 percent.
crop residue to the soil, and applying fertilizer and lime. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark
Soil blowing is a hazard if the surface is not protected, brown fine sand about 12 inches thick. The subsoil is
especially during dry periods. also fine sand, and to a depth of about 51 inches, the
This soil has slight limitations for pasture. It is sand grains are are well coated with organic matter.
moderately well suited to improved bermudagrass, The upper part, to a depth of 30 inches, is black. The
bahiagrass, and legumes. Good quality pasture grass or next layer, to a depth of 41 inches, is very dark gray,
grass-legume mixtures can be grown with proper and below that layer, to a depth of 51 inches, the
management. For maximum yields, this soil requires subsoil is dark reddish brown. The next layer, to a
regular applications of fertilizer and lime, and also depth of 65 inches, is dark brown, and the sand grains
grazing must be controlled. have very little organic coating. The lower part to a
This soil is moderately suited to the production of depth of 80 inches is black, and the sand grains are
slash and longleaf pine. Equipment use, seedling coated with organic matter.
mortality, and plant competition are concerns in Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
management. The use of equipment with large tires or Allanton, Osier, Rutlege, Lynn Haven, and Leon soils.
tracks can help overcome equipment limitations, reduce The included soils make up about 20 percent or less of
soil compaction, and reduce root damage during the map unit.
thinning operations. Site preparation, such as harrowing This soil is frequently flooded for periods of very long
and bedding, will help establish seedlings, reduce duration. Floodwater may be as much as 2 feet deep.







62 Soil Survey


The water table is within 12 inches of the surface for 62-Neilhurst fine sand, undulating. This soil is
most of the year except during long, extended dry gently undulating and excessively drained. It is a
periods. The available water capacity is moderate. The mixture of fine sand or sand. This soil is dominantly
permeability is moderate or moderately rapid. spoil material from mining operations. This material is
The natural vegetation is mainly baldcypress. dredged, and the heavy minerals are recovered. The
Sweetbay, blackgum, slash pine, and red maple are in soil in this map unit is mostly in the western and
some areas, and water-tolerant grasses are in a few southern parts of the county near the Bradford and
areas. Putnam County lines. The mapped areas generally
This Wesconnett soil has very severe limitations for range from triangular to rectangular and range from
cultivated crops. Flooding, the restricted root zone, and about 100 to 1,000 acres. The slopes are mostly 2 to 5
proper drainage are major problems that are very hard percent but range from 1 to 12 percent in the more
to overcome. Adequate water control systems are steep areas on the short side slopes.
difficult to establish and maintain. In many areas, No one pedon represents this soil, but the surface
suitable drainage outlets are not available. If a water layer of one of the more common pedons is gray fine
control system can be established, some vegetable sand about 3 inches thick. The underlying material to a
crops can be grown. depth of 80 inches is reddish brown fine sand with dark
This soil has severe limitations for pasture. If flooding reddish brown, reddish brown, and dark reddish gray
is controlled and a drainage system installed and splotches and streaks.
maintained, this soil is suitable for pasture; however, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
because suitable drainage outlets are not available, the Solite soils. Also included are soils that are similar to
possibility of establishing an effective water control Neilhurst soils but are somewhat poorly drained and
system is decreased. Proper pasture management for small bodies of water. The included soils make up
maximum yields includes establishing the proper plant about 20 percent or less of the map unit.
population and applying fertilizer and lime, and also This soil has a water table at a depth of more than 6
grazing must be controlled. feet. The available water capacity is very low. The
Under natural conditions, this soil is not permeability is very rapid. This soil is highly erodible,
recommended for slash pine, loblolly pine, or longleaf especially on the steeper slopes. Most areas have been
pines because of excessive wetness. The potential of shaped to reduce erosion, but few areas are vegetated.
this soil for production of slash pine is high if surface The natural vegetation is a variety of scattered
drainage is adequate and flooding is controlled. weeds and grasses. Some areas are planted to slash
Wetness is a severe limitation for equipment use on this and longleaf pine. Extensive management is needed for
soil. Plant competition and seedling mortality also are good plant growth and woodland production.
concerns in management. The high water table and This Neilhurst soil is not used for cultivated crops
flooding are the major concerns in management and and pasture; however, with proper management and
must be overcome to obtain maximum yields. after grasses have been established, good yields from
The potential of this soil as habitat for wetland wildlife pasture grasses can be expected. Droughtiness, rapid
is good. These shallow water areas are desirable to leaching of nutrients, and the loose, sandy surface are
wetland wildlife. The potential as habitat for openland the major limitations.
and woodland wildlife is poor. This soil is too wet and This soil is moderately suited to the production of
does not produce a good source of food and cover slash, longleaf, and sand pines. Equipment use and
desirable to openland or woodland wildlife, moderate seedling mortality are concerns in
Limitations affecting urban use are severe. Flooding management. The use of equipment with large tires or
and wetness are dominant features that need to be tracks can help overcome the equipment limitations that
overcome before any urban development begins, are caused by the loose, sandy surface of this soil. This
Limitations affecting recreational development are soil has very low available water capacity and does not
severe. The flooding condition and sandy texture are provide enough moisture for a good rate of seedling
the major problems to overcome. A drainage system, survival. Use of special planting stock that is larger than
flood control structures, and the addition of sufficient usual, or that is containerized, can reduce the rate of
amounts of suitable fill material are needed. seedling mortality. Timely scheduling of planting
Wesconnett soil is in capability subclass VIw. The operations during periods when rains are more frequent
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11W. can also reduce the rate of seedling mortality. All plant







Clay County, Florida 63


debris should be left on the site to help maintain the of about 3 to 6 months or more. The available water
organic matter in the soil. capacity is very low. The permeability is rapid.
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland The natural vegetation is a variety of scattered
wildlife and woodland wildlife is poor. The potential as weeds and grasses. Some areas are planted to slash
habitat for wetland wildlife is very poor. and longleaf pines. Drainage is needed for better plant
Limitations affecting dwellings and small commercial adaption and growth.
buildings and septic tank absorption fields are slight; This Solite soil has severe limitations for cultivated
however, because of poor filtration, ground water crops because of wetness and poor soil qualities. This
contamination can be a hazard in areas that have a soil is not cultivated and is not used as pasture in Clay
concentration of septic tank absorption fields. County.
Limitations affecting recreational development are No woodland data are available for this soil. Wetness
severe. The loose, sandy surface texture causes may cause severe problems for use of equipment on
trafficability problems, and soil blowing is a hazard this soil and increase the rate of seedling mortality. Site
during dry periods. Establishing and maintaining good preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, will help
vegetation cover or windbreaks or adding suitable establish seedlings, reduce seedling mortality, and
topsoil or some other surface stabilizer help to increase early growth. The use of equipment with large
overcome these problems. tires or tracks can help overcome equipment limitations,
This Neilhurst soil is in capability subclass Vis. The reduce soil compaction, and reduce root damage during
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S. thinning operations. All plant debris should be left on
the site to help maintain the organic matter in the soil.
63-Solite fine sand. This soil is nearly level and Fertilizer can provide excellent growth response.
poorly drained. It is a mixture of fine sand or sand from The potential of this soil as habitat for openland
Centenary, Hurricane, Leon, Mandarin, Osier, and wildlife and woodland wildlife is poor. The potential as
Pottsburg soils. This soil is homogeneous, sandy soil habitat for wetland wildlife is fair.
material from mining operations. It has been reworked Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
and shaped as a result of earthmoving operations. This small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption
material is dredged, and the heavy minerals are fields are severe. Wetness is the major limitation. A
recovered. The soil in this map unit is mostly in the drainage system is needed, and adding suitable fill
western and southern part of the county. The mapped material will also help to overcome the wetness
areas generally range from triangular to rectangular and limitation.
range from 100 to 1,000 acres. The slopes range from Limitations affecting recreational development are
0 to 2 percent. severe. The high water table, which is at or near the
This mixed soil has no defined horizonation but is a surface during wet periods, and the loose, sandy
variable mixture of layers and colors. Typically, this soil surface texture are the main limitations. A water control
has a surface layer of black fine sand about 5 inches system should be established and maintained, and a
thick. The underlying material is fine sand. The upper good cover to stabilize the loose, sandy surface is
part, to a depth of 48 inches, is grayish brown. The next needed to overcome this problem.
layer, to a depth of 60 inches, is very dark grayish This Solite soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
brown. Below that layer, to a depth of 72 inches, the woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W.
underlying material is dark grayish brown. The lower
part to a depth of 80 inches is dark brown. 64-Ona fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
Included with this soil in mapping are Neilhurst soils. poorly drained. It is in small areas on the flatwoods.
Also included are small areas of mixed sandy clay and The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range
sandy clay loam soils and small bodies of water. In from 10 to 100 acres. The slopes are nearly smooth
places are soils that are similar to Solite soil but are and range from 0 to 2 percent.
very poorly drained. In places near the Bradford-Clay Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark
County line are areas of material that are high in gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is fine
reworked humus. The included soils make up about 20 sand. The upper part, to a depth of 15 inches, is dark
percent or less of the map unit. brown, and the sand grains are coated with organic
This soil has a high water table at a depth of less material. The next layer, to a depth of 30 inches, is dark
than 12 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. It is gray. Below that layer, to a depth of 41 inches, the
at a depth of less than 30 inches for cumulative periods subsoil is dark grayish brown. The next layer, to a depth






64 Soil Survey


of 60 inches, is very dark brown with grayish brown overcome the equipment limitations, reduce soil
mottles. Many sand grains are coated with organic compaction, and reduce root damage during thinning
material. The lower part of the subsoil to a depth of 80 operations. Site preparation, such as harrowing and
inches is dark brown, and many sand grains are coated bedding, will help establish seedlings, reduce debris,
with organic matter. control competing vegetation, and facilitate planting
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of operations. Site preparation and planting and harvesting
Allanton, Leon, Lynn Haven, Pottsburg, Osier, and operations should be scheduled during dry periods to
Rutlege soils. The included soils make up about 20 also help overcome the equipment limitations. All plant
percent or less of the map unit. debris should be left on the site to help maintain the
This soil has a high water table within 12 inches of organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer can provide
the surface for 2 to 4 months during most years. During excellent growth response.
very dry periods the high water table recedes to a depth The potential of this soil as habitat for openland,
of more than 40 inches. The available water capacity is woodland, and wetland wildlife is fair.
low. The permeability is moderate. Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
The natural vegetation is mainly longleaf pine, loblolly small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption
pine, slash pine, blackgum, and water oak. The fields are severe because of the depth of the high water
understory is saw palmetto, gallberry, pineland table during wet periods. A drainage system is needed
threeawn, huckleberry, waxmyrtle, fetterbush, and to remove the excess surface water during wet periods
various bluestems and panicums. and to adequately control the high water table. Adding
This Ona soil has very severe limitations for suitable fill material to keep the high water table at an
cultivated crops because of wetness and droughtiness. effective depth will help overcome the wetness
The number of adapted crops that can be grown is limitation.
limited unless water control measures are used. With Limitations affecting recreational development are
proper water control, this soil is suitable for most locally severe. The high water table, which is at or near the
grown crops. Special crops are better adapted to this surface during wet periods, is a major problem. A water
soil than most general farm crops. A water control control system should be established and maintained to
system is needed to remove excess water during wet improve this condition. Trafficability is a problem.
periods and provide for subsurface irrigation during dry Because of the loose, sandy surface during dry periods,
periods. Row crops should be planted in alternate strips soil blowing is a hazard. Maintaining good vegetation
with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops. Crop cover or windbreaks or adding suitable topsoil or some
residue, including the residue of the soil-improving other surface stabilizer helps to overcome these
crops, should be returned to the soil. Rows should be problems.
bedded. Fertilizer and lime should be added according This Ona soil is in capability subclass Illw. The
to the needs of the crop. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W
In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for
pasture. With proper water control, the soil is well suited 65-Meadowbrook sand. This soil is nearly level and
to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes. poorly drained. It is in small and large areas on the
Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume mixtures flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
can be grown with good management. A water control range from 10 to 100 acres. The slopes are nearly
system is needed to remove excess surface water smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
during long rainy periods. For maximum yields, irrigation Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark
is needed during dry periods for white clover or other gray sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
adapted shallow-root pasture plants. Proper pasture a depth of 42 inches, is gray sand. The subsoil to a
management for good vegetation cover and maximum depth of 80 inches is gray and light gray sandy loam.
productivity includes establishing the proper plant Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
population and applying fertilizer and lime, and also Albany, Osier, Pelham, and Sapelo soils. Also included
grazing must be controlled. are a few areas of soils that have a sand surface layer.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of The included soils make up about 15 percent of the
slash and longleaf pines. Equipment use, seedling map unit.
mortality, and plant competition are concerns in This soil has a high water table within 12 inches of
management. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation, the surface for 1 to 3 months. It is at a depth of 12 to
The use of equipment with large tires or tracks can help 40 inches for about 3 to 4 months during most years.







Clay County, Florida 65


During drought periods, it is at a depth of more than seedling mortality, and plant competition are concerns
40 inches. The available water capacity is low. The in management. Seasonal wetness is the main
permeability is moderately slow. limitation. The use of equipment with large tires or
The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, loblolly tracks can help overcome the equipment limitations,
pine, longleaf pine, swamp tupelo, live oak, and reduce soil compaction, and reduce root damage during
baldcypress. The understory is dominantly gallberry, thinning operations. Site preparation, such as harrowing
waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, dwarf huckleberry, and bedding, will help establish seedlings, reduce
brackenfern, bluestem, and various panicums. debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate
This Meadowbrook soil has very severe limitations planting operations. Site preparation and planting and
for cultivated crops because of wetness and harvesting operations should be scheduled during dry
droughtiness. The number of adapted crops that can be periods to also help overcome equipment limitations. All
grown is limited unless water control measures are plant debris should be left on the site to help maintain
used. With proper water control, this soil is suitable for the organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer can provide
most locally grown crops. Special crops are better excellent growth response.
adapted to this soil than most of the general farm crops. The potential of this soil as habitat for openland,
A water control system is needed to remove excess woodland, and wetland wildlife is fair.
water during wet periods and provide for subsurface Limitations affecting dwellings without basements and
irrigation during dry periods. Row crops should be small commercial buildings and septic tank absorption
planted in alternate strips with close-growing, soil- fields are severe because of the depth of the high water
improving cover crops. Crop residue, including the table during wet periods. A drainage system is needed
residue of the soil-improving crops, should be returned to remove the excess surface water during wet periods
to the soil. Rows should be bedded. Fertilizer and lime and to adequately control the high water table. Adding
should be added according to the needs of the crop. suitable fill material to help keep the high water table at
In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for an effective depth will help overcome the wetness
pasture. With proper water control, the soil is well suited limitation.
to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes. Limitations affecting recreational development are
Good quality pasture grass or grass-legume mixtures severe. The high water table, which is at or near the
can be grown with proper management. A water control surface during wet periods, and the loose, sandy
system is needed to remove excess surface water surface texture are the main limitations. A water control
during long rainy periods. For maximum yields, irrigation system should be established and maintained to
is needed during dry periods for white clover or other improve this condition. Trafficability is a problem.
adapted shallow-root pasture plants. Proper pasture Because of the loose, sandy surface during dry periods,
management for good vegetative cover and maximum soil blowing is a hazard. Maintaining good vegetation
productivity includes establishing the proper plant cover or windbreaks or adding suitable topsoil or some
population and applying fertilizer and lime. Grazing also other surface stabilizer helps to overcome these
must be controlled. problems.
This soil is moderately well suited to the production This Meadowbrook soil is in capability subclass IVw.
of slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines. Equipment use, The woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W.









67









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the and Norman Porter, resource conservationist, Soil Conservation
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land Service, helped to prepare this section.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural General management needed for crops and pasture
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
soil-related failures in land uses. best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, grown in the county, are identified; the system of land
conservationists, engineers, and others collect capability classification used by the Soil Conservation
extensive field data about the nature and behavior Service is explained; and the estimated yields of the
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, main crops and hay and pasture plants are listed for
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect each soil.
various soil uses and management. Field experience Planners of management systems for individual fields
and collected data on soil properties and performance or farms should consider the detailed information given
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior, in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Information in this section can be used to plan the Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary Cooperative Extension Service.
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, According to the 1982 Census of Agriculture by the
and parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife United States Department of Commerce, about 27,236
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and acres in Clay County was used for crops and pasture.
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help Of this total, about 14,878 acres was used as
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil permanent pasture, and 12,358 acres was used for
properties. special crops.
Planners and others using soil survey information The acreage in crops and pasture has been gradually
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on decreasing as more land is used for urban
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the development. In 1984, about 12,720 acres was used as
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain urban land in the county, and since then, this acreage
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with has been steadily increasing.
nature. Soil erosion is a problem on about one-fourth of the
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of cropland and pasture in Clay County. If the slope is
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to more than 2 percent, erosion is a hazard, especially in
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil areas of moderately well drained Blanton, Centenary,
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, and Ortega soils and somewhat poorly drained Ocilla,
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and Ridgewood, Hurricane, and Albany soils.
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can Loss of the surface layer through erosion is
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate damaging because productivity is reduced as the
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is mixed into
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. the plow layer. Soil erosion on farmland results in
sediment entering streams. Erosion control minimizes
Crops and Pasture sediment pollution of streams and lakes and improves
Hal Summers, district conservationist, Soil Conservation Service; the quality of water for municipal use, for recreational
Jessie Goldbold, extension director, Cooperative Extension Service; uses, and for habitat for fish and wildlife. Erosion






67









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the and Norman Porter, resource conservationist, Soil Conservation
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land Service, helped to prepare this section.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural General management needed for crops and pasture
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
soil-related failures in land uses. best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, grown in the county, are identified; the system of land
conservationists, engineers, and others collect capability classification used by the Soil Conservation
extensive field data about the nature and behavior Service is explained; and the estimated yields of the
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, main crops and hay and pasture plants are listed for
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect each soil.
various soil uses and management. Field experience Planners of management systems for individual fields
and collected data on soil properties and performance or farms should consider the detailed information given
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior, in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Information in this section can be used to plan the Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary Cooperative Extension Service.
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, According to the 1982 Census of Agriculture by the
and parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife United States Department of Commerce, about 27,236
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and acres in Clay County was used for crops and pasture.
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help Of this total, about 14,878 acres was used as
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil permanent pasture, and 12,358 acres was used for
properties. special crops.
Planners and others using soil survey information The acreage in crops and pasture has been gradually
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on decreasing as more land is used for urban
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the development. In 1984, about 12,720 acres was used as
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain urban land in the county, and since then, this acreage
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with has been steadily increasing.
nature. Soil erosion is a problem on about one-fourth of the
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of cropland and pasture in Clay County. If the slope is
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to more than 2 percent, erosion is a hazard, especially in
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil areas of moderately well drained Blanton, Centenary,
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, and Ortega soils and somewhat poorly drained Ocilla,
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and Ridgewood, Hurricane, and Albany soils.
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can Loss of the surface layer through erosion is
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate damaging because productivity is reduced as the
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is mixed into
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. the plow layer. Soil erosion on farmland results in
sediment entering streams. Erosion control minimizes
Crops and Pasture sediment pollution of streams and lakes and improves
Hal Summers, district conservationist, Soil Conservation Service; the quality of water for municipal use, for recreational
Jessie Goldbold, extension director, Cooperative Extension Service; uses, and for habitat for fish and wildlife. Erosion







68 Soil Survey


control practices provide a protective surface cover, damage some crops during wet periods. Albany,
reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. Hurricane, and Ocilla soils, which make up about
Wind erosion is a major hazard on the sandy soils in 40,978 acres of the county, are examples of the
the county. Strong winds can damage soils and tender somewhat poorly drained soils. Also, unless artificially
crops in a few hours in open, unprotected areas if the drained, some of the poorly drained soils, such as Leon,
soil is dry and bare of vegetation and surface mulch. Pottsburg, and Sapelo soils, are wet enough to cause
Maintaining vegetation cover and surface mulch some damage to pasture plants. These soils need
minimizes the damage caused by blowing soil. Wind subsurface drainage to obtain adequate pasture yields.
erosion is damaging because it reduces soil fertility by These soils also have a low available water capacity
removing fine soil particles and organic matter; it and are drought during dry periods.
damages or destroys crops by sandblasting; it spreads The very poorly drained Rutlege and Surrency soils
diseases, insects, and weed seeds; and it creates are very wet during rainy periods and have water
health hazards and cleaning problems. Control of wind standing on the surface in most areas. Unless artificially
erosion minimizes duststorms and improves the quality drained, the production of good quality pasture plants
of air for more healthful living conditions. Field on these soils is not possible. A combination of surface
windbreaks, stripcropping, and conservation tillage are drainage and irrigation is needed on these soils for
conservation practices that will reduce wind erosion on intensive pasture production. Information on drainage
cropland. and irrigation for each kind of soil in Clay County is
Field windbreaks and stripcropping or narrow available at the local offices of the Soil Conservation
plantings are made at right angles to the prevailing Service.
winds and at specific intervals across the field. The Soil fertility is naturally low in most soils in the
intervals depend on the erodibility of the soil and the county. Most of the soils have a sandy surface layer
susceptibility of the crop to damage from sandblasting. and are light in color. Many of the soils, such as Albany,
Conservation tillage is a method that does not bury Blanton, Meggett, Pelham, and Plummer soils, have a
all crop residue. Protective amounts of residue mulch loamy subsoil. Most of the soils have a strongly acid or
are retained on the surface to protect the soil from very strongly acid surface layer and require application
erosion and the crops from sandblasting. of ground limestone to sufficiently raise the pH level for
Various plantings help to beautify and screen houses good crop growth. The levels of nitrogen, potassium,
and other buildings and to abate noise. The plants, and available phosphorus are naturally low in most of
mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, should be closely these soils. The addition of lime and fertilizer should be
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting based on the results of soil tests, the needs of the crop,
stock of suitable plants should be planted on a well and the expected yields. The Cooperative Extension
prepared site and maintained in good condition. Service can help in determining the kinds and amounts
Additional information on planting windbreaks and of fertilizer and lime to apply.
screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils
Conservation Service, the Cooperative Extension with good tilth are easily cultivated with common tillage
Service, or a nursery. Information about erosion control equipment and provide a good seedbed.
practices for each kind of soil is in the "Water and Wind Most of the soils in the county have a sandy or loamy
Erosion Control Handbook-Florida," which is available fine sand surface layer that is light in color and low to
in local offices of the Soil Conservation Service. moderate in organic matter content. Generally, the
Soil drainage is a major concern in management on structure of the surface layer of most soils in the county
about 25 percent of the acreage used for crops and is weak. When soils that are dry and low in organic
pasture in the county. Some soils are so naturally wet matter content receive intense rain, a thin crust forms
that the growing of crops that are common to the area on the soil surface. The crust is slightly hard when it is
is generally not practical. Leon, Osier, Plummer, dry, and it is slightly impervious to water. Once the
Pelham, and Sapelo soils are examples of poorly crust forms, it reduces infiltration and increases runoff.
drained soils, and Rutlege soils are examples of very Regular additions of crop residue, manure, and other
poorly drained soils. These soils make up about 77,349 organic material improve soil structure and reduce crust
acres in the county. formation.
Unless artificially drained, some of the somewhat Fall plowing is generally not advisable. Sloping soils
poorly drained soils are wet enough in the root zone to make up about one-fourth of the cropland in the county;







Clay County, Florida 69


and if these soils are plowed at this time, they are Yields Per Acre
subject to damaging erosion. Gullies caused by erosion The average yields per acre that can be expected of
are common on unprotected soils. Also, about three- the principal crops under a high level of management
fourths of the county's cropland is sandy and subject to are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be
soil blowing. Significant crop damage results from the higher or lower than those indicated in the table
sandblasting effect of blowing soil. The soil's water and because of variations in rainfall and other climatic
nutrient holding capacity are also reduced by soil factors.
blowing. The organic matter and fine soil particles, The yields are based mainly on the experience and
which hold moisture and nutrients, are the first to be records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
removed by wind erosion. agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
Special crops grown commercially in the county are results of field trials and demonstrations are also
vegetables, small fruits, and nursery plants. A small considered.
acreage is used for melons, blueberries, sweet corn, The management needed to obtain the indicated
tomatoes, greens, other vegetable crops, citrus crops, yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and small fruits. The latest information and suggestions and the crop. Management can include drainage,
for growing special crops can be obtained from local erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper
offices of the Soil Conservation Service and the planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yield crop
Cooperative Extension Service. varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
Pasture production in many parts of the county has weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable
been greatly depleted by continued, excessive use. soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
Pasture productivity can be increased by using phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
management practices that are effective for the specific crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
kinds of soil and pasture plants to be grown. and green manure crops; and harvesting that insures
Farm income is mostly derived from livestock, mainly the smallest possible loss.
dairy cattle, poultry, and beef. On most dairy farms, the For fields of irritated crops, it is assumed that the
pasture forage produced is supplemented by green is adapted to the soils and to the crops
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
chop and small grains (fig. 11).
chop and small grains (fig. 11). grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
In areas of similar climate and topography, applied as needed, ad that tillage is kept to a
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a
differences in the kinds and amount of forage that the minimum.
pasture can produce are related closely to the kind of Te e d y r t p
soil. Effective management is based on the The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
elationsis amng sils aste nt te of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
management, and soil amendments, likely to increase as new production technology is
The potential annual production of pasture for each developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
The potential annual production of pasture for each with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change.
kind of soil in animal-unit-months is shown in table 5.th that of other soils, however is not likely to cage
An animal-unit-month refers to the number of months Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in
during the normal growing season that an acre will the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
provide grazing for one animal without damage to the because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
sod. One animal unit is defined as one cow, one cow office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
with calf, one horse, one steer, or five hogs. Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
The major pasture plants are improved about the management and productivity of the soils for
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, white clover, and ryegrass. those crops.
Small grains are used during the winter to supplement
the permanent pastures. Millet, sorghum, and sudan Land Capability Classification
hybrids are grown during the summer for green chop Land capability classification shows, in a general
and grazing. way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops
The latest information and suggestions for growing that require special management are excluded. The
and managing pasture can be obtained from local soils are grouped according to their limitations for field
offices of the Soil Conservation Service and the crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops,
Cooperative Extension Service. and the way they respond to management. The criteria








70 Soil Survey



































Figure 11.-These dairy cows are grazing on Leon fine sand. If surface drainage and proper management practices are used, good quality
pasture grasses can be produced on this poorly drained soil.



used in grouping the soils do not include major, and Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
generally expensive, landforming that would change use. (Clay County has no class I soils.)
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation the choice of plants or that require moderate
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for conservation practices. (Clay County has no class II
interpretations designed to show suitability and soils.)
limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
woodland, and for engineering purposes. choice of plants or that require special conservation
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped practices, or both.
at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
class and subclass are used in this survey. These reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
levels are defined in the following paragraphs. management, or both.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and use.
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
defined as follows: generally unsuitable for cultivation.








Clay County, Florida 71


Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make commercial production are water oak, laurel oak, live
them unsuitable for cultivation, oak, sweetgum, and blackgum.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have Camp Blanding Military Reservation covers 72,000
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial acres. The predominant tree on this property is slash
crop production, pine. This tree grows well on the poorly drained
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one flatwoods. Some sand pine grows on the knolls and
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e, ridges on Penney, Centenary, and Kershaw soils. Red
w. or s, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter maple, blackgum (fig. 13), and cypress grow on wet
e shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless soils, such as Allanton, Osier, and Rutlege soils, in
a close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that depressions and drainageways. These trees have some
water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or commercial value. Other trees, such as water oak, live
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly oak, laurel oak, and sweetbay, grow along the banks
corrected by artificial drainage); and s shows that the joining the drainageways that are supported by Albany,
soil is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or Blanton, and Ridgewood soils. At this time, these trees
stony. have limited commercial value.
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils A few small, privately owned woodland areas are
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V scattered throughout the county. Much of this land is in
are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other plantation for the pulpwood and sawlog markets. Slash
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland, pine is the dominant tree.
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V Trees that are in natural stands are loblolly pine,
contains only the subclasses indicated by w or s. longleaf pine, baldcypress, sweetgum, blackgum, water
The capability classification of each map unit is given oak, laurel oak, sweetbay, red bay, and loblolly bay.
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units." Timber management consists mostly of adequate
water control, prescribed burning, clearcutting, site
Woodland Management and Productivity preparation, and replanting with seedlings. Some
selective cutting and thinning are done by smaller
William Rutherford. forester. Florida Division of Forestry, helped to companies and private owners. Fire, when controlled, is
prepare this section.
prepare this section useful tool because it reduces the underbrush and
Approximately 316,483 (11) acres, or 80 percent of exposes the mineral soil as a seedbed for natural
the total land area in Clay County, is in woodland. The reproduction. Controlled burning encourages the growth
three distinct ownership classes are State forest, large of grass and forbs that help to support wildlife, such as
corporate holdings, and small, privately owned tracts. deer, turkey, and quail. Prescribed burning reduces the
Large companies own or lease most of the woodland hazard of wildfire by reducing the underbrush.
acreage in the county. A small part of the acreage is Markets are plentiful for the wood produced in Clay
privately owned and managed. Woodland resources are County. Pulpwood mills, chip and sawmills, and wood
well distributed throughout the county. product mills in Clay County and surrounding areas
The soils and climate of Clay County are suitable for create a great demand for wood.
commercial woodland production. Most woodland areas This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
are on Hurricane, Leon, Pottsburg, and Sapelo soils on planning ways to increase the productivity of forest
the flatwoods (fig. 12); on Penney, Centenary, and land. Some soils respond better to fertilization than
Ortega soils on the sand ridges; and on Rutlege, Osier, others, and some are more susceptible to erosion after
and Meadowbrook soils on the flood plains. Most of the roads are built and timber is harvested. Some soils
woodland resources are in the northwestern, central, require special efforts to reforest. In the section
and southern parts of the county. "Detailed Soil Map Units," each map unit in the survey
Slash pine is the predominant tree grown for area suitable for producing timber presents information
commercial production in Clay County on corporate- about productivity, limitations for harvesting timber, and
owned and managed woodlands. It grows well even on management concerns for producing timber. The
the poorly drained soils on the flatwoods. Other needle- common forest understory plants are also listed. Table
leaf trees grown in managed woodlands are loblolly 6 summarizes this forestry information and rates the
pine. longleaf pine, sand pine, and baldcypress. Sand soils for a number of factors to be considered in
pine grows well on the small knolls and deep sand management. Slight, moderate, and severe are used to
ridges. The common broad-leaf trees grown for indicate the degree of the major soil limitations to be








72 Soil Survey







































Figure 12.-Hurricane fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is moderately suited to commercial production of slash pine.



considered in forest management. The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
The first tree listed for each soil under the column indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil. management. The letter W indicates a soil in which
An indicator species is a tree that is common in the excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes
area and that is generally the most productive on a a significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry,
given soil. sandy soil.
Table 6 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates that damage may occur if site preparation activities or
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is slight
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the if no particular preventive measures are needed under
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion control
productivity is based on the site index and the point measures are needed for particular silvicultural
where mean annual increment is the greatest. activities; and severe if special precautions are needed
to control erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings








Clay County. Florida 73


of moderate or severe indicate the need for construction equipment is not needed. The rating is moderate if
of higher standard roads, additional maintenance of slopes are steep enough that wheeled equipment
roads, additional care in planning of harvesting and cannot be operated safely across the slope, if soil
reforestation operations, or use of specialized wetness restricts equipment use from 2 to 6 months per
equipment. year, if stoniness restricts ground-based equipment, or
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the if special equipment is needed to avoid or reduce soil
use of forest management equipment, year-round or compaction. The rating is severe if slopes are steep
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope, enough that tracked equipment cannot be operated
wetness, stoniness, or susceptibility of the surface layer safely across the slope, if soil wetness restricts
to compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it equipment use for more than 6 months per year, if
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On stoniness restricts ground-based equipment, or if
the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be used. special equipment is needed to avoid or reduce soil
On the steepest slopes, even tracked equipment cannot compaction. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate a
operate; more sophisticated systems are needed. The need to choose the most suitable equipment and to
rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by soil carefully plan the timing of harvesting and other
wetness for less than 2 months and if special management operations.




































Figure 13.-Blackgum trees in an area of Allanton and Rutlege mucky fine sands, depressional. These trees are valuable for wetland
wildlife. They have some commercial value.








74 Soil Survey


Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to
death of naturally occurring or properly planted ensure the development of an adequately stocked
seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as stand. Managers must plan site preparation measures
influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features. to ensure reforestation without delays.
Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much water The potential productivity of common trees on a soil
or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil for is expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in
seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer, depth the order of their observed general occurrence.
and duration of the water table, rock fragments in the Generally, only two or three tree species dominate.
surface layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of the The soils that are commonly used to produce timber
slope. Mortality generally is greatest on soils that have have the yield predicted in meters. The yield is
a sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk is slight if, predicted at the point where mean annual increment
after site preparation, expected mortality is less than 25 culminates.
percent: moderate if expected mortality is between 25 The site index is determined by taking height
and 50 percent; and severe if expected mortality measurements and determining the age of selected
exceeds 50 percent. Ratings of moderate or severe trees within stands of a given species. This index is the
indicate that it may be necessary to use containerized average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a
or larger than usual planting stock or to make special specified number of years. This index applies to fully
site preparations, such as bedding, furrowing, installing stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. The procedure
surface drainage, or providing artificial shade for and technique for determining site index are given in
seedlings. Reinforcement planting is often needed if the the site index tables used for this survey (6, 8, 13).
risk is moderate or severe. The productivity class represents an expected volume
Ratings of windthrow hazard consider the likelihood produced by the most important trees, expressed in
of trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per
depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by
can be restricted by a high water table, fragipan, or multiplying by 14.3. It can be converted to board feet by
bedrock, or by a combination of such factors as soil multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, a
wetness, texture, structure, and depth. The risk is slight productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected
if strong winds cause trees to break but do not uproot to produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at the point
them; moderate if strong winds cause an occasional where mean annual increment culminates, or about 568
tree to be blown over and many trees to break; and board feet per acre per year.
severe if moderate or strong winds commonly blow Trees to plant are those that are used for
trees over. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate the reforestation or, if suitable conditions exist, natural
need for care in thinning or possibly not thinning, regeneration. They are suited to the soils and will
Specialized equipment may be needed to avoid damage produce a commercial wood crop. Desired product,
to shallow root systems in partial cutting operations. A topographic position (such as a low, wet area), and
plan for periodic salvage of windthrown trees and the personal preference are three factors of many that can
maintenance of a road and trail system may be needed. influence the choice of trees to use for reforestation.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant Grazeable Woodland
competition becomes more severe on the more
productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils R. Gregory Hendricks, range conservationist, Soil Conservation
having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The Service. helped to prepare this section
risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants Clay County has 316,483 acres of woodland (11),
reduces adequate natural or artificial reforestation but much of which has high potential for grazing. Many of
does not necessitate intensive site preparation and the smaller, privately owned woodland tracts are fenced
maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from and used by livestock; however, most of the larger
undesirable plants reduces natural or artificial woodland tracts owned by the timber companies are not
reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation fenced and, therefore, are not grazed. Large tracts in
and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if the Camp Blanding Military Reservation Wildlife
competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate Management Area have perimeter fencing and could be
natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is grazed at this time.
intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory








Clay County. Florida 75


of native grasses, legumes, forbs, and shrubs. The Recreation
understory is an integral part of the forest plant
community. The native plants can be grazed without Clay County offers a variety of recreational activities
significantly impairing other forest values. On such (3). The county has many lakes, including Doctor's,
woodland, grazing is compatible with timber Asbury, Brooklyn, Geneva, and Smith Lakes; and
management if it is controlled or managed so that creeks, including Black, Governor's, and Peter's Creeks
timber and forage resources are maintained or that provide for unlimited outdoor recreational activity.
enhanced. The native forages in woodland areas are Clay County is bordered on the east by the St. Johns
readily available to livestock producers and is an River (fig. 14) that offers many opportunities for water
economic grazeable resource. Integrating woodland and sport enthusiasts. The lakes and beaches in the
grazing management offers opportunities to obtain Keystone Heights and Kingsley Lake areas also provide
income from the land during the life of the pine stand. facilities for boating, swimming, and other water
Clay County has two major grazeable woodland activities.
sites, the North Florida Flatwoods and the Longleaf Clay County has numerous parks and playgrounds
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills. Important native forage for for public use. Fishing, boating, swimming, camping,
livestock is chalky bluestem and indiangrass on the picnicking, and hunting are some of the more popular
North Florida Flatwoods grazeable woodland site. activities. Goldhead Branch State Park has facilities for
Annual forbs. ground blueberry, gallberry, and a variety all of these activities except hunting and also has
of sedges and rushes provide excellent food for wildlife, nature trails, nature study participation programs, and
Important native forage for livestock on the Longleaf campfire activities. During the hunting season, Camp
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills site consists of indiangrass and a Blanding Military Reservation Wildlife Management Area
variety of panicums and bluestems. Annual forbs and has designated areas for hunting.
associated species, sedges, and a variety of browse Recreational activities for more organized sports are
plants provide most of the food for wildlife on the available throughout the county. Schools, churches, and
Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills site. civic groups sponsor many of these activities.
Forage production on grazeable woodland varies In table 8, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to specific sites. The amount of shade cast according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
by the canopy, the accumulation of fallen needles, the recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
influence of time and intensity of grazing on the forage, features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
and the number, size, spacing, and method of site surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
preparation for tree planting affect potential grazing Not considered in the ratings, but important in
capacity. Suggested annual stocking rates range from 8 evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
to 30 acres per cow on soils that have a high water the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
table, such as Leon, Plummer, and Ocilla soils. On quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
drought soils, such as Penney, Blanton, and Troup impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines.
soils, stocking rates range from 20 to 60 acres per cow The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
annually. Newly planted pine stands can be grazed the and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
second growing season following planting. Maximum important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
forage yields (table 7) can be expected through the recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
twelfth year of the pine stand; whereas, annual forage and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
production will begin to diminish as the forest canopy recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
begins to close under traditional planting methods. duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
Innovative pine spacing techniques, such as double essential.
rows of trees separated by 30- to 60-foot spaces In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
without trees, have allowed forest producers to maintain as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
an acceptable level of pulp production while extending properties are generally favorable and that limitations
their grazeable resources throughout the rotation of the are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
timber. Presently, the best combination of forest limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
management and woodland grazing has occurred when design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
pines are planted on double rows of 4 by 8 feet (trees 8 properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
feet apart within the row) separated by a 40-foot space offset only by soil reclamation, special design, intensive
that is managed for forage production.








76 Soil Survey


























Figure 14.-The St. Johns River is on the eastern border of Clay County. It provides many outdoor recreational activities for the year-round
resident and tourist population of the county.



maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of these sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
measures. Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
other information in this survey, for example, wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements rains, and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed,
and for local roads and streets in table 10. the depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping be considered.
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to once a year during the period of use. They have
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
or no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but the surface.
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
constructing campsites. required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, have moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
are not dusty when dry. are not subject to flooding surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
during the period of use, and do not have slopes, not considered in rating the soils.
stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping








Clay County, Florida 77


Wildlife Habitat very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
John Vance. Jr.. biologist. Soil Conservation Service, helped to a
prepare this section. maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
Wildlife is a valuable resource in Clay County. Urban indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
development, especially in the area from Orange Park established, improved, or maintained in most places.
to Green Cove Springs, has been detrimental to wildlife Moderately intensive management is required for
habitat, but the majority of the county still supports a satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
large variety and number of wildlife, limitations are severe for the designated element or
Game species include white-tailed deer, squirrels, kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
turkey, bobwhite quail, and waterfowl. Nongame maintained in most places, but management is difficult
species include raccoon, rabbit, armadillo, opossum, and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
skunk, bobcat, gray fox, red fox, otter, and a variety of that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
songbirds, wading birds, woodpeckers, reptiles, and very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
amphibians. expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
Areas of particular importance to wildlife are along impractical or impossible.
the St. Johns River in the 77,000 acre Camp Blanding The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
Wildlife Management Area and in the 1,500 acre following paragraphs.
Goldhead Branch State Park. Woodland acreages, Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
which are owned by large companies, also provide producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
valuable habitat for wildlife. features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
The St. Johns River and the large sandhill lakes in are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
the western part of the county provide good fishing, available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
Important species in the St. Johns River and sandhill stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
lakes include largemouth bass, bream, black crappie or moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain
speckled perch, and catfish. In addition, striped bass and seed crops are corn, soybeans, browntop millet,
and mullet are in the St. Johns River. dove praso millet, wheat, oats, and grain sorghum.
A number of endangered and threatened species are Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
in Clay County. These include the red-cockaded and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
woodpecker and the bald eagle. A detailed list of these that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
species with information on range and habitat needs is of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
available from the district conservationist at the local water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood
Soil Conservation Service office. hazard, and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is are also considerations. Examples of grasses and
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect legumes are bahiagrass, lovegrass, Florida
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and beggarweed, hairy indigo, aeschynomene, clover, and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and sesbania.
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
can be created or improved by planting appropriate established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or properties and features that affect the growth of these
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
plants. layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
In table 9, the soils in the survey area are rated stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
according to their potential for providing habitat for moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod,
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and beggarweed, partridge pea, and bristlegrass.
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
the intensity of management needed for each element hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
of the habitat. the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or these plants are oak, palmetto, cherry, sweetgum,








78 Soil Survey


wildgrape, hawthorn, dogwood, persimmon, hickory, Engineering
blackberry, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and blueberry.
Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for This section provides information for planning land
planting on soils rated good are firethorn, wild plum, uses related to urban development and to water
and blackberry. management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
properties and features that affect the growth of given in the following tables: Building site development,
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness. management. The ratings are based on observed
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, fir, performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
cedar, and juniper. test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial, wild Information in this section is intended for land use
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites. planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil planning site investigations prior to design and
properties and features affecting wetland plants are construction. The information, however, has limitations.
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity, For example, estimates and other data generally apply
slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet,
plants are smartweed, wild millet, wildrice, saltgrass, and because of the map scale, small areas of different
cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds. soils may be included within the mapped areas of a
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less specific soil.
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are The information is not site specific and does not
created by dams, levees, or other water-control eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface design and construction of engineering works.
stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
ponds. not considered in preparing the information in this
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described section. Local ordinances and regulations must be
in the following paragraphs. considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland, Soil properties, site features, and observed
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with performance were considered in determining the ratings
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
and wild herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
these areas include bobwhite quail, dove meadowlark, bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the
field sparrow, cottontail, and red fox. surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
turkey, opossum, woodcock, armadillo, thrushes, were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity,
woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox, raccoon, deer, and shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, and
bobcat. other behavioral characteristics affecting engineering
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy uses.
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife This information can be used to: evaluate the
attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
birds, otter, mink, and sandhill cranes. and recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
Habitat for rangeland wildlife consists of areas of construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
shrubs and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
rangeland include deer, bobwhite quail, and cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
meadowlark. septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan







Clay County, Florida 79


detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; made for small commercial buildings without
locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and basements, for dwellings with basements, and for
topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water soil properties, site features, and observed performance
conservation; and predict performance of proposed of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrink-swell
small structures and pavements by comparing the potential, and organic layers can cause the movement
performance of existing similar structures on the same of footings. Depth to a high water table, depth to
or similar soils, bedrock or to a cemented pan, large stones, and
The information in the tables, along with the soil flooding affect the ease of excavation and construction.
maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in Landscaping and grading that require cuts and fills of
this survey, can be used to make additional more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
interpretations. Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base
Glossary. of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
Building Site Development limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil properties, site features, and observed performance of
limitations that affect shallow excavations, dwellings the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, depth
with and without basements, small commercial to a high water table, flooding, large stones, and slope
buildings, local roads and streets, and lawns and affect the ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength
landscaping. The limitations are considered slight if soil (as inferred from the engineering classification of the
properties and site features are favorable for the soil), shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high water
indicated use and limitations are minor and easily table affect the traffic-supporting capacity.
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf
are moderately favorable for the indicated use and and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established
special planning, design, or maintenance may be and maintained. The ratings are based on soil
needed to overcome or minimize the limitations; and properties, site features, and observed performance of
severe if soil properties or site features are so the soils. Soil reaction, depth to a high water table,
unfavorable or difficult to overcome that special design, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, the available
significant increases in construction costs, and possibly water capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the content
increased maintenance are required. Special feasibility of salts, sodium, and sulfidic materials affect plant
studies may be required where the soil limitations are growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, stoniness, and the
severe. amount of sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a layer affect trafficability after vegetation is established.
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The Sanitary Facilities
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and Table 11 shows the degree and the kind of soil
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging, limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer, are considered slight if soil properties and site features
stone content, soil texture, and slope. The time of the are favorable for the indicated use and limitations are
year that excavations can be made is affected by the minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil properties
depth to a seasonal high water table and the or site features are moderately favorable for the
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of indicated use and special planning, design, or
the excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is maintenance may be needed to overcome or minimize
affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table. the limitations; and severe if soil properties or site
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are features are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed that special design, significant increases in construction
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family costs, and possibly increased maintenance are
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are required.








80 Soil Survey


Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
use as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the
indicates that soil properties and site features are level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to
favorable for the use and that good performance and function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is
low maintenance can be expected; fair indicates that excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high
soil properties and site features are moderately content of organic matter is detrimental to proper
favorable for the use and one or more soil properties or functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic
site features make the soil less desirable than the soils activity. Slope, bedrock, and cemented pans can cause
rated good; and poor indicates that one or more soil construction problems, and large stones can hinder
properties or site features are unfavorable for the use compaction of the lagoon floor.
and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
special design, extra maintenance, or costly alteration, disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste
features, and observed performance of the soils. is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin
Permeability, depth to a high water table, depth to layer of soil from a source away from the site.
bedrock or to a cemented pan, and flooding affect Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
absorption of the effluent. Large stones and bedrock or vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
a cemented pan interfere with installation, water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption needs to be considered.
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent, The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect site features, and observed performance of the soils.
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less depth to a water table, slope, and flooding affect both
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if types of landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the organic layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material sodium affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise
beneath the absorption field to filter the effluent stated, the ratings apply only to that part of the soil
effectively. Many local ordinances require that this within a depth of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a
material be of a certain thickness. limitation rated slight or moderate may not be valid.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to Onsite investigation is needed.
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
required to minimize seepage and contamination of during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
ground water, free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are blowing.
excavated to provide material for the embankments. After soil material has been removed, the soil
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, material remaining in the borrow area must be thick
and observed performance of the soils. Considered in enough over bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water
the ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high table to permit revegetation. The soil material used as
water table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, final cover for a landfill should be suitable for plants.
flooding, large stones, and content of organic matter. The surface layer generally has the best workability,








Clay County, Florida 81


more organic matter, and the best potential for plants. the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have
Material from the surface layer should be stockpiled for layers of suitable material, but the material is less than
use as the final cover. 3 feet thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
Construction Materials commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand
and gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
Table 12 gives information about the soils as a Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 12,
source of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils only the probability of finding material in suitable
are rated good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and quantity is evaluated. The suitability of the material for
topsoil. They are rated as a probable or improbable specific purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that
source of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on affect excavation of the material.
soil properties and site features that affect the removal The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source
of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as
compaction, minor processing, and other standard indicated by the engineering classification of the soil),
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is the thickness of suitable material, and the content of
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. rock fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place are given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of
and used in road embankments in another place. In this grain sizes is given in the table on engineering index
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low properties.
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of
exacting in design than higher embankments. clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface up to 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil least 3 feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight,
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading. large stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as
their profile. The table showing engineering index shale and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and
properties provides detailed information about each soil gravel.
layer. This information can help determine the suitability Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil can be established and maintained. The upper 40
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also
considered in the ratings. evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow
The ratings are based on soil properties, site area.
features, and observed performance of the soils. The Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
thickness of suitable material is a major consideration. properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
The ease of excavation is affected by large stones, a fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
high water table, and slope. How well the soil performs is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
in place after it has been compacted and drained is texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
determined by its strength (as inferred from the of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
engineering classification of the soil) and shrink-swell rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
potential. Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and less than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the salts, are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer,
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more and are not so wet that excavation is difficult.
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or to 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet. appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts,
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10, or soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of are not so wet that excavation is difficult.
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less








82 Soil Survey


than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features
of more than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high
table at or near the surface. content of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred or sodium. A high water table affects the amount of
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. usable material. It also affects trafficability.
Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
retention of moisture and releases a variety of plant- extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
available nutrients as it decomposes. permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
Water Management impound water 3 feet or more above the original
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a
Table 13 gives information on the soil properties and permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and
site features that affect water management. The degree the salinity of the soil. Depth to bedrock and the content
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir of large stones affect the ease of excavation.
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
properties and site features are generally favorable for effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
the indicated use and limitations are minor and are bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site affect the rate of water movement permeability depth
features are moderately favorable for the indicated use to a high water table or depth of standing water if the
and special planning, design, or maintenance may be soil is subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to
neededsoil is subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to
needed to overcome or minimize te limitations; and flooding; subsidence of organic layers; and potential
severe if soil properties or site features are so frost action. Excavating and grading and the stability of
unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that special ditchbanks are affected by depth to bedrock or to a
design, significant increase in construction costs, and cemented pan, large stones, slope, and the hazard of
possibly increased maintenance are required. cutbanks caving. The productivity of the soil after
This table also gives the restrictive features that drainage is adversely affected by extreme acidity or by
affect each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and toxic substances in the root zone, such as salts,
diversions, and grassed waterways. sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is not
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or considered in the ratings.
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil design and management of an irrigation system are
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable affected by depth to the water table, the need for
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
capacity of the reservoir area. permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures construction of a system is affected by large stones and
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan. The
constructed to impound water or to protect land against performance of a system is affected by the depth of the
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of root zone, the amount of salts or sodium, and soil
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the reaction.
soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly combination of channels and ridges constructed across
mixed and compacted during construction, a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the
depth greater than the height of the embankment can construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
affect performance and safety of the embankment. rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or water erosion,
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to an excessively coarse texture, and restricted
determine these properties. permeability adversely affect maintenance.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to Grassed waterways are natural or constructed








Clay County, Florida 83


channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct water capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic
surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large substances such as salts or sodium, and restricted
stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a permeability adversely affect the growth and
cemented pan affect the construction of grassed maintenance of the grass after construction.
waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available











85









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters
the course of the soil survey. The data and the in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
explained on the following pages. percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
Soil properties are determined by field examination of sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are defined in the Glossary.
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are Classification of the soils is determined according to
made and examined to identify and classify the soils the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are adopted by the American Association of State Highway
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the and Transportation Officials (1).
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, The Unified system classifies soils according to
and compaction characteristics. These results are properties that affect their use as construction material.
reported in table 20. Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
Estimates of soil properties are based on field of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
accurately by field observation, and help characterize highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
key soils, properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables for example, SP-SM.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical those properties that affect roadway construction and
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
Engineering Index Properties of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
classification and of the range of index properties for soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the inspection.
upper 5 or 6 feet. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are 20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay classification for soils tested, with group index numbers








85









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters
the course of the soil survey. The data and the in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
explained on the following pages. percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
Soil properties are determined by field examination of sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are defined in the Glossary.
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are Classification of the soils is determined according to
made and examined to identify and classify the soils the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are adopted by the American Association of State Highway
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the and Transportation Officials (1).
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, The Unified system classifies soils according to
and compaction characteristics. These results are properties that affect their use as construction material.
reported in table 20. Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
Estimates of soil properties are based on field of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
accurately by field observation, and help characterize highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
key soils, properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables for example, SP-SM.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical those properties that affect roadway construction and
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
Engineering Index Properties of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
classification and of the range of index properties for soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the inspection.
upper 5 or 6 feet. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are 20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay classification for soils tested, with group index numbers








86 Soil Survey


in parentheses, is given in table 20. root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry- structure.
weight basis. The percentages are estimates Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
determined mainly by converting volume percentage in water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of
the field to weight percentage, movement of water through the soil when the soil is
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated saturated. They are based on soil characteristics
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3 observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074 construction where the rate of water movement under
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on saturated conditions affects behavior.
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field. water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) plants. The capacity for water storage in each major soil
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The layer is stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area, capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect
or from nearby areas, and on field examination, the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
The most important properties are the content of
Physical and Chemical Properties organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates design and management of irrigation systems. Available
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
area. The estimates are based on field observations water actually available to plants at any given time.
and on test data for these and similar soils. Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
in diameter. fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility corrosion.
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink- change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and minerals with water and varies with the amount and
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earth-moving type of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on
operations. the soil and the magnitude of the change in soil
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per moisture content influence the amount of swelling of
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at soils in place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For
/3 bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after others, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the and amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon measurements of similar soils.
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
available water capacity, total pore space, and other often needed.
soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The








Clay County, Florida 87


change is based on the soil fraction less than 2 carbonate. These soils are slightly erodible. Crops can
millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change be grown if measures to control wind erosion are used.
of less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and 6. Loamy soils that are 20 to 35 percent clay and
high, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate,
percent, is sometimes used. except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil erodible. Crops can easily be grown.
to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six 7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) clay and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet carbonate. These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops
and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre can easily be grown.
per year. These estimates are based primarily on 8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject
percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4 to wind erosion.
percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
of K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the soil at various stages of decomposition.
more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by In table 15, the estimated content of organic matter is
water, expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water The content of organic matter of a soil can be
that can occur over a sustained period without affecting maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
crop productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
per year. infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have other nutrients for crops.
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the Soil and Water Features
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water
distinctions: features. The estimates are used in land use planning
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine that involves engineering considerations.
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
to establish, groups. They are grouped according to the intake of
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops precipitation from long-duration storms.
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind The four hydrologic soil groups are:
erosion are used. Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained
highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of
measures to control wind erosion are used. water transmission.
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to
are used. moderately coarse texture. These soils have a
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay moderate rate of water transmission.
loams that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
are moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
measures to control wind erosion are used. layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
5. Loamy soils that are less than 20 percent clay soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
carbonate and sandy clay loams and sandy clays that Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate
are less than 5 percent finely divided calcium (high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These








88 Soil Survey


consist chiefly of clays that have high shrink-swell and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on
potential, soils that have a permanent high water table, the landscape to historic floods. Information on the
soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific
surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
of water transmission. levels.
In table 16, some soils are assigned to two High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
hydrologic soil groups. Soils that have a seasonal high saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a
water table but can be drained are assigned first to a seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils.
hydrologic group that denotes the drained condition of The estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
the soil and then to a hydrologic group that denotes the saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
undrained condition, for example, B/D. Because there soil. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to the seasonal
are different degrees of drainage and water table high water table; the kind of water table, that is,
control, onsite investigation is needed to determine the perched, or apparent; and the months of the year that
hydrologic group of the soil in a particular location, the water table commonly is highest. A water table that
Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated
by flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by in table 16.
runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
tides. Shallow water standing or flowing for short in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
periods after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
flooding. Standing water in swamps and marshes or in allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A
a closed depression is considered ponding, perched water table is water standing above an
Table 16 gives the frequency and duration of flooding unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water
and the time of year when flooding is most likely to table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
occur. The two numbers in the "High water table-Depth"
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of column indicate the normal range in depth to a
occurrence are estimated. Frequency generally is saturated zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot.
expressed as none, rare, occasional, or frequent. None The first numeral in the range indicates the highest
means that flooding is not probable. Rare means that water level. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
flooding is unlikely but possible under unusual weather indicates that the water table is above the surface of
conditions (there is a near 0 to 5 percent chance of the soil. "More than 6.0" indicates that the water table
flooding in any year). Occasional means that flooding is below a depth of 6 feet or that it is within a depth of 6
occurs infrequently under normal weather conditions feet for less than a month.
(there is a 5 to 50 percent chance of flooding in any Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
year). Frequent means that flooding occurs often under saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
normal weather conditions (there is more than a 50 results from either desiccation and shrinkage or
percent chance of flooding in any year). Duration is oxidation of organic material, or both, following
expressed as very brief (less than 2 days), brief (2 to 7 drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually
days), long (7 days to 1 month), and very long (more over a period of several years. Table 16 shows the
than 1 month). The time of year that floods are most expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of
likely to occur is expressed in months. November-May, drainage, and total subsidence, which results from a
for example, means that flooding can occur during the combination of factors.
period November through May. About two-thirds to Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
three-fourths of all flooding occurs during the stated imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
period, water throughout an extensive area as a result of
The information on flooding is based on evidence in lowering the water table.
the soil profile, namely, thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
or clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
organic matter content with increasing depth; and weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
absence of distinctive horizons, which are characteristic corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
of soils that are not subject to flooding, soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
Also considered is local information about the extent electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion




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