• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 How to use this soil survey
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 Summary of tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Charlotte County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026087/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Charlotte County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 185 p., 58 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Henderson, Warren G
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1984]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Charlotte County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Charlotte County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 101.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Issued December 1984"--P. iii.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026087
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001619893
notis - AHP4451
oclc - 13332053
lccn - 85601172

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title
    How to use this soil survey
        Page ia
        Page ib
    Front Matter
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    Summary of tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
    How this survey was made
        Page 3
        Page 4
    General soil map units
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 49
        Crops and pasture
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Rangeland
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 54
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 55
        Recreation
            Page 56
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Engineering
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
    Soil properties
        Page 63
        Engineering index properties
            Page 63
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 64
        Soil and water features
            Page 65
            Page 66
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 67
            Page 68
        Engineering index test data
            Page 69
            Page 70
    Classification of the soils
        Page 71
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Formation of the soils
        Page 99
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 99
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 100
    References
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Glossary
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Tables
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    General soil map
        Page 187
    Index to map
        Page 188
        Page 189
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
Full Text
United States
Department of
Agriculture
Soil
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with
University of Florida
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations and
Soil Science Department,
and Florida Department of
Agriculture and
Consumer Services


Soil Survey of

Charlotte County,

Florida










Locate your area of interest on
1 the "Index to Map Sheets" (the
last page of this publication).


Locate your area of interest
3. on the map sheet.


HOW TO U!








Kokomo


S Note the number of the map
* sheet and turn to that sheet.


FBa

B.C


WaF

BC


/F,.


AsB /
/C*


- I--


List the map unit symbols
4. that are in your area.


Symbols


, AsB
-BaC

-Ce

-Fa

-Ha

'WaF


-- --


I ~-- --

\h;.- 17 ^ -. ,,,i .. <6- -
-- L._.,;


.n


--~






HIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
S which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described.



















See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6. Contents) for location of additional data -- ----
on a specific soil use.


it -- r. J U- l














Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7 agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or
students; to specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was performed in 1976-1981. Soil names
and descriptions were approved in 1981. Unless otherwise indicated,
statements in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1981.
This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations and the Soil Science Department, and the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical
assistance furnished to the Charlotte Soil and Water Conservation District. The
Charlotte County Board of Commissioners contributed financially to accelerate
the completion of the fieldwork for this survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.

Cover: Urban areas along Shell Creek, Peace River, and the Charlotte Harbor area.
(Photograph courtesy of Russ Taylor Photography, Punta Gorda.)


ii


I


















Contents


Index to map units...................................... ............
Summary of tables............................. ...............
Foreword............................................... ..................
General nature of the county.......................................
How this survey was made ..........................................
General soil map units.............................................
Detailed soil map units..............................................
Use and management of the soils..........................
Crops and pasture............................. ............
Rangeland..............................................................
Woodland management and productivity .................
Windbreaks and environmental plantings.................
Recreation ............................................. .............
Wildlife habitat .................................... ...............
Engineering ........................................... .............


iv
v
vii
1
3
5
15
49
49
52
54
55
56
56
58


Soil properties ......................................... .............
Engineering index properties....................................
Physical and chemical properties............................
Soil and water features....................... ............
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
selected soils.................................. .............
Engineering index test data.....................................
Classification of the soils.........................................
Soil series and their morphology.................................
Formation of the soils.......................... ............
Factors of soil formation................. ........... ..........
Processes of soil formation...................................
References .............................................................
G lo ssary .......................................................................
Tables ......................................................................


Soil Series


Anclote series......................... .................
Boca series ......................................................................
Bradenton series ................................... .. ....
Caloosa series..........................................
Canaveral series................. .......................... ..................
Captiva series ............................................
Chobee series............................................................
Cocoa series ..................................... .................
Copeland series...............................................................
D aytona series......................................... ........................
EauG allie series......................................... ................
Electra series ............................................
E stero series .............................................. ................
Felda series............. ............................. ............................
Floridana series...............................................................
Gator series ............................ ... ...............
Hallandale series..................... ................
H eights series ............................................ ................
Immokalee series ....................................... .....................


72
72
73
74
74
75
75
76
77
77
78
79
79
80
81
81
82
83
84


Isles series......................................................
Kesson series ........................................... ......
Malabar series ................................. ..... .......
Matlacha series ............................................. ............
Myakka series............................................. .... ......
Oldsmar series..................................... ...............
O rsino series............................................. .................
Peckish series ......................................... ...........
Pineda series ........ .................. ...............
Pom pano series.................................... ....................
Punta series ............... .. ................................. ..
S satellite series ........................................... ................
Smyrna series....................................... .
St. Augustine series ..................................... ...
Terra Ceia series.......................................
Valkaria series ................................................................
Wabasso series ........................... ............. ....
Winder series ............................................. ........
Wulfert series........................................


Issued December 1984


iii


63
63
64
65
67
69
71
71
99
99
100
101
103
109


84
85
85
86
87
88
88
89
90
91
91
92
92
93
93
94
95
96
96


















Index to Map Units


2-Canaveral fine sand ................................................
4-Canaveral-Urban land complex ........................
5-Captiva fine sand................................... ............
6-Hallandale fine sand ............................................
7-Matlacha-Urban land complex...............................
8-Hallandale fine sand, tidal......................................
9-EauGallie sand.................................... ..............
10-Pompano fine sand .............................................
11-Myakka fine sand ................................... ..........
12-Felda fine sand.....................................................
13-Boca fine sand ................................... .............
14-Valkaria fine sand............................. ...........
15-Estero muck................................. .............
16-Peckish mucky fine sand....................................
17-Daytona sand.................................... ..............
18-Matlacha gravelly fine sand, limestone
substratum........................................ ...............
19-Gator muck .................................... ................
20-Terra Ceia muck............................... ..............
22-Beaches ........................................... ..............
23-Wulfert muck....................................... .............
24-Kesson fine sand .................................. ...........
25-St. Augustine sand, organic substratum-Urban
land complex.................................... ..............
26-Pineda fine sand............................... ..............
27-Pompano fine sand, depressional.......................
28-- mmokalee sand...................................................
29-Punta fine sand ..................................................
33-Oldsmar sand ................................... ..............
34-Malabar fine sand ................................................
35-Wabasso sand.....................................................
36-- mmokalee-Urban land complex............................
37-Satellite fine sand..............................................


15
16
16
16
17
18
18
19
19
20
20
21
22
22
22

23
23
24
24
24
25
26
26
28
28
29
30
30
32
32
33


38-Isles fine sand, slough.......................................
39-Isles fine sand, depressional ...............................
40-Anclote sand, depressional............. .... ........
41-Valkaria fine sand, depressional .........................
42-Wabasso sand, limestone substratum..................
43-Smyrna fine sand ...............................................
44-Malabar fine sand, depressional ...........................
45-Copeland sandy loam, depressional....................
48-St. Augustine sand .............................................
49-Felda fine sand, depressional..............................
50-Oldsmar fine sand, limestone substratum............
51-Floridana sand, depressional...............................
53-Myakka fine sand, depressional............................
55-Cocoa fine sand ................................................
56-Isles muck...................................... ..............
57-Boca fine sand, tidal .............................................
59-Urban land....................... .........................
61-Orsino fine sand.................................. .............
62-Winder sand, depressional...............................
63-Malabar fine sand, high .........................................
64-Hallandale-Urban land complex ......................
66-Caloosa fine sand ...................................................
67-Smyrna-Urban land complex .................................
69-Matlacha gravelly fine sand ...................................
70- Heights fine sand ...............................................
72- Bradenton fine sand ...............................................
73-Pineda fine sand, depressional .............................
74-Boca fine sand, slough.........................................
75-Hallandale fine sand, slough..................................
76-Electra fine sand ...............................................
77- Pineda fine sand, limestone substratum ............
78-Chobee muck.................................... ...............


33
34
34
35
35
36
36
37
37
37
38
38
39
39
40
40
40
41
41
42
42
43
43
43
44
45
45
46
46
47
47
48

















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)......................................................... 110
Suitability and limitations of map units on the general soil map (table 2)... 111
Extent of area. Community development. Citrus crops.
Improved pasture. Vegetables. Woodland.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3) .............................. 112
Acres. Percent.
Land capability and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 4)............. 113
Land capability. Tomatoes. Cabbage. Peppers.
Cucumbers. Watermelons. Oranges. Bahiagrass.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 5).................................................. 116
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Rangeland productivity (table 6) ..................................................................... 117
Range site. Potential production.
Woodland management and productivity (table 7)........................................ 120
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 8)............................................... ................. 123
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 9) ..................................................................................... 128
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife,
Rangeland wildlife.
Building site development (table 10) ......................................................... 132
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 11)..................................... 136
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 12).................................. ............... 141
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
Water management (table 13)................................................. 145
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Grassed waterways.


v





















Engineering index properties (table 14) .................................. ................
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15) .............................
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.
Soil and water features (table 16)......................................... .................
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bedrock.
Subsidence. Risk of corrosion.
Depth to water in selected soils (table 17)................................................
Soil series. Year. Month.
Physical analyses of selected soils (table 18)...........................................
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.
Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 19).........................................
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate dithionite extractable.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 20).............................................
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay minerals.
Engineering index test data (table 21) ........................................... .................
Classification. Particle-size distribution. Liquid limit.
Plasticity index. Moisture density
Classification of the soils (table 22)...........................................................
Family or higher taxonomic class.


150



157




162


166

167


173




179

182


185

















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Charlotte County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






SJames W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service


vii
























FLORIDA


Location of Charlotte County in Florida.














Soil Survey of

Charlotte County, Florida


By Warren G. Henderson, Jr., Soil Conservation Service

Participating in the fieldwork were Lewis J. Carter, Allen L. Moore,
Rebecca A. Stein, Carol A. Wettstein, and Howard Yamataki,
Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department,
and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services


Charlotte County is in the southwestern part of
peninsular Florida. It is bordered on the north by
Sarasota and DeSoto Counties, on the east by Glades
County, on the south by Lee County, and on the west by
the Gulf of Mexico. The survey area covers 451,200
acres, or about 705 square miles. Punta Gorda, the
county seat, is in the north-central part of the county.
Tourism and construction are the largest
nonagricultural industries in the county. The mild winter
temperatures and beaches attract many people to the
county annually.

General Nature of the County
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that
affect the use and management of soils in Charlotte
County are described. These factors are climate, history
and development, water resources, farming, and
transportation.

Climate
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation
for the survey area as recorded at Punta Gorda (7).
In winter the average temperature is 68 degrees F,
and the average daily minimum temperature is 58
degrees. The lowest temperature on record, which
occurred at Punta Gorda in December 1962, is 25
degrees. In summer the average temperature is 81


degrees, and the average daily maximum temperature is
90 degrees. The highest recorded temperature, which
occurred at Punta Gorda in July 1942, is 103 degrees.
The total annual precipitation is 51 inches. Of this, 31
inches, or 60 percent, usually falls in April through
September. The growing season for most crops falls
within this period. In 2 years out of 10, the rainfall in April
through September is less than 12 inches. The heaviest
1-day rainfall during the period of record was 9 inches at
Punta Gorda in September 1962. Thunderstorms occur
on about 80 days each year. Most occur in late
afternoon.

History and Development
Ernest W. Hall, Southwest Florida Historical Society, prepared this
section.
When Florida was discovered by Ponce de Leon in
1513, the Caloosa Indians inhabited what is now
southwest Florida. The Caloosa Indians once controlled
an area that extended from north of Charlotte Harbor
south to Cape Sable and from the Gulf of Mexico to
Lake Okeechobee.
Several early explorers visited the islands of Charlotte
Harbor and other parts of what is now Charlotte County,
including Ponce de Leon in 1513 and again in 1521,
Panfilo de Naraez in 1528, Hernando de Soto in 1539,
and Pedro Menendez de Aviles, founder of St.






Soil Survey


Augustine, in 1566. Pirates often frequented the islands
and the coastline north and south of Charlotte Harbor
and in Charlotte Harbor during the eighteenth century
and the early part of the nineteenth century. Jose
Gaspar, Black Caesar, Black Augustus, and Juan Gomez
are mentioned in the folklore of Charlotte County.
Florida became an American Territory in 1821. By that
time, the native tribes that inhabited Florida when the
Spanish first arrived had become extinct. In their stead,
migrating Creek Indians (known as Seminoles) from
Georgia and Alabama had settled in Spanish Florida.
The policy of the United States Government under
Andrew Jackson was to remove all Indians east of the
Mississippi River to western reservations. The Seminoles
were scheduled for removal from Florida, but they
resisted under the leadership of Osceola. This brought
on the Second Seminole War (1835-42) and later the
Third Seminole War (1855-58).
Florida became a state on March 3, 1845. The area
now known as Charlotte County was originally a part of
St. Johns County, then a part of Hillsborough County,
then a part of Manatee County. DeSoto County was
carved out of Manatee County in 1887, and Charlotte
County was divided from DeSoto County in 1921.
In 1883, Col. Issac Trabue, a Union veteran of the Civil
War, arrived in the area and founded the town of Trabue.
He filed the plat of the town in the county courthouse on
July 20, 1886. On December 7, 1887, residents of the
town filed documents changing the name to Punta
Gorda.
The Florida Southern Railroad extended its tracks to
Trabue on July 24, 1886, making the town the
southernmost railroad terminus in the United States. The
town became an important crossroad of south Florida.
The railroad brought wealthy tourists to the Charlotte
Harbor region and delivered iced fish to northern
markets. The railroad was extended to Fort Myers in
1904.
The community of Charlotte Harbor was in existence
before Punta Gorda. In 1921, a bridge joined the two
communities and extended the Tamiami Trail toward Fort
Myers.
The General Development Company purchased
approximately 80,000 acres and in 1955 erected the first
building in Port Charlotte. Port Charlotte now has
thousands of homes and hundreds of business
establishments.
Punta Gorda Isles, a development with an extensive
saltwater canal system, was begun in 1958. As sections
of this development were constructed, the city of Punta
Gorda annexed each. In doing so Punta Gorda
expanded to more than five times its original size.
Other communities in Charlotte County are Cleveland,
El Jobean, Englewood, Placida, Cape Haze, Tee and
Green Estates, Harbour Heights, South Punta Gorda
Heights, Tropical Gulf Acres, Gasparilla, Grove City,
Rotunda, and Peace River Shores. In 1930, the


population of Charlotte County was 4,011. In 1980, the
population was 59,115.

Water Resources
Charlotte County's water is used for municipal,
industrial, recreational, and agricultural purposes. In most
of the survey area, an adequate supply of fresh water is
available for domestic use, irrigation of crops, and the
watering of livestock. However, during the dry winter and
spring months, in some years water supply is inadequate
and restrictions on use are imposed.
The development of land for urban use in much of the
survey area has caused a decrease in the ground water
supply. Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone
of saturation; that is, the zone in which all soil pore
spaces are filled with water under pressure no greater
than atmospheric pressure. Ground water is derived
almost entirely from local rainfall.
The Peace River, Myakka River, and Shell Creek are
the major waterways in the county. There are a number
of small creeks that feed into these bodies of water.
The unconfined aquifer in Charlotte County contains
some potable water over most of the area (10). It
represents a potential source of water supply to help
satisfy increasing demands. The unconfined aquifer
extends throughout the county and averages about 35
feet thick; it is composed of sand, marl, shells, and
limestone. A sequence of clay strata, with an average
thickness of about 40 feet, separates the unconfined
aquifer from the underlying confined (artesian) aquifers.
The chemical quality of the water in the unconfined
aquifer is variable (8). The chloride concentration of
water from the unconfined aquifer generally is less than
50 milligrams per liter except in tidal areas and where
brackish water enters the aquifer from wells that tap the
confined aquifers. In water from some wells,
concentrations of dissolved iron and color exceed the
limits established by the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency. Both iron and color are easily removed from
water as part of the water treatment process.

Farming
The soils and climate of Charlotte County are
favorable for farming and agricultural industries. The
most common vegetable crops grown in the county are
tomatoes, cucumbers, and peppers. Tomatoes are
susceptible to disease, and native range or woodland is
cleared each year for new crops. Other vegetables
grown are squash and cabbage.
The major fruits grown in the county are oranges,
grapefruit, and watermelon. Other fruits grown in smaller
quantity are strawberries and cantaloup.
Livestock production consists mainly of beef cattle. A
combination of native rangeland and improved pasture is


2






Charlotte County, Florida


3


used as a feed source with some supplemental feeding,
especially during the dry winter months.
Many areas throughout the county that were once in
native rangeland and some farm areas have been
converted to urban land.

Transportation
Areas of the county are fairly easy to reach by county
and state roads. The interstate highway system allows
traffic to bypass the congested business districts. U.S.
Highway 41 passes through Punta Gorda, and a new
bridge across the Peace River is under construction.
Major airline services are not available in the county,
but are available at Page Field in Fort Myers. Airline
services will soon be available at a regional jetport south
of Fort Myers. The Charlotte County airport provides
service for smaller private and limited commercial flights.
One other airport is available near Rotunda for private
planes.

How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about the
soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management
of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed
the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and
native plants growing on the soils; and the kinds of
bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil profile,
which is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a
soil. The profile extends from the surface down into the
unconsolidated material in which the soil formed. The
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other
living organisms and has not been changed by other
biologic activity.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern
that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief,
climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each
kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil
scientists must determine the boundaries between the
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented
by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in
an area and to determine the boundaries.


Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and
other features that enable them to identify soils. After
describing the soils in the survey area and determining
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
confirm data and assemble additional data based on
experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of
the soils in the area generally are collected for laboratory
analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists
interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as
well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil
properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils
under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils
were field tested through observation of the soils in
different uses under different levels of management.
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
sources, such as research information, production
records, and field experience of specialists. For example,
data on crop yields under defined levels of management
were assembled from farm records and from field or plot
experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have
a high water table within certain depths in most years,
but they cannot assure that a high water table will
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific
date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.
Charlotte County was mapped concurrently with
adjacent Lee County. All of the map units described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" occur in both










counties. Some of the soil series described in the
section "Soil Series and Their Morphology" have typical
pedons that are located in Lee County. These pedons
are considered to be typical of the soils in Charlotte
County, however.

Map Unit Composition
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of
other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit
is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and
some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes.
These latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in


the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas
and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of
contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.






5


General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up
one unit can occur in other units but in a different
pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure.
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that
affect management.
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their
suitability or potential for major land uses. Table 2 shows
the extent of the map units shown on the general soil
map. It lists the suitability or potential of each, in relation
to that of the other map units, for major land uses and
shows soil properties that limit use. Soil suitability ratings
are based on the practices commonly used in the survey
area to overcome soil limitations. These ratings reflect
the ease of overcoming the limitations. They also reflect
the problems that will persist even if such practices are
used.
Each map unit is rated for community development,
citrus, improved pasture, vegetables, and woodland.
Community development includes residential and
industrial uses. Citrus includes fruits that generally
require intensive management. Improved pasture
includes grasses grown for livestock grazing. The
vegetable crops are those grown extensively in the
survey area. Woodland refers to areas of native or
introduced trees.

Soils of the Flatwoods and Sloughs
The seven general soil map units in this group consist
of nearly level, poorly drained soils. Some of the soils
are sandy throughout, some are loamy at a depth of 20
to 40 inches, and some are loamy at a depth of more
than 40 inches. These soils are in the Port Charlotte,
Punta Gorda, and south Punta Gorda areas.


1. Hallandale-Wabasso-Boca

Nearly level, poorly drained, shallow to deep, sandy
soils; some are sandy throughout, some have a sandy,
organic-stained subsoil underlain by a loamy subsoil, and
some have just a loamy subsoil
This map unit occurs as two mapped areas. The larger
is about 4 miles long and about 2 1/2 miles wide at the
widest place. This area is in the Port Charlotte area. The
other mapped area is in the area of Punta Gorda and
south Punta Gorda. It is about 8 miles long and 2 miles
wide at the widest place. It is interspersed with
depressions and drainageways.
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils on
flatwoods. The native vegetation is South Florida slash
pine, sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn (fig. 1).
This map unit makes up about 6,790 acres, or 1.5
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 30
percent Wabasso soils, 30 percent Hallandale soils, 15
percent Boca soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
Hallandale soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is gray fine sand about 2 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about 5 inches
thick. The substratum is very pale brown fine sand about
5 inches thick. Hard. fractured limestone is at a depth of
12 inches.
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark gray sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is sand about 18 inches thick. It is light
brownish gray with dark grayish brown stains along root
channels in the upper part and white with dark grayish
brown stains in the lower part. The subsoil is about 38
inches thick. The upper 4 inches is dark brown sand with
few iron concretions; the next 8 inches is brownish
yellow sandy clay loam with light brownish gray, light
gray, and reddish brown mottles; and the lower 26
inches is light gray sandy clay loam with pale olive
mottles and stains along root channels. Light gray fine
sandy loam with olive mottles extends from a depth of
62 inches to 80 inches or more.
Boca soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand about 22 inches thick. It is
light gray in the upper part and very pale brown in the
lower part. The subsoil, about 5 inches thick, is gray fine
sandy loam with brownish yellow mottles and calcareous






Soil Survey


Figure 1.-Sawpalmetto and pineland threeawn in n area of Wabasso sand. South Florida slash pine Is in the background.


nodules. At a depth of 30 inches is a layer of fractured
limestone.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Oldsmar, Malabar,
Felda, and Pineda soils.
The soils of this map unit are used mostly for urban
development. Natural areas are used as wildlife habitat.


2. Wabasso-Pineda-Boca

Nearly level, poorly drained, deep and moderately deep
sandy soils; some have a sandy, organic-stained subsoil
underlain by a loamy subsoil and some have just a
loamy subsoil


This map unit occurs as one large area that extends
the length of the county. It is about 18 miles long and
about 18 miles wide at the widest place. This mapped
area is in the east-central part of the county on both
sides of State Road 31.
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils in
sloughs and on flatwoods. The native vegetation is
maidencane in the sloughs. South Florida slash pine,
sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn are common on the
flatwoods.
This map unit makes up about 125,360 acres, or 28.0
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 40
percent Wabasso soils, 35 percent Pineda soils, 5
percent Boca soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent.


6






Charlotte County, Florida


Wabasso soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark gray sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is sand about 18 inches thick. It is light
brownish gray with dark grayish brown stains along root
channels in the upper part and white with dark grayish
brown stains in the lower part. The subsoil is about 38
inches thick. The upper 4 inches is dark brown sand with
few iron concretions; the next 8 inches is brownish
yellow sandy clay loam with light brownish gray, light
gray, and reddish brown mottles; and the lower 26
inches is light gray sandy clay loam with pale olive
mottles and stains along root channels. Light gray fine
sandy loam with olive mottles extends from a depth of
62 inches to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Pineda soils are poorly drained and in the slough
position. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand
about 1 inch thick. The subsurface layer is very pale
brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of
the subsoil is fine sand that is brownish yellow to a
depth of 13 inches and strong brown to a depth of 23
inches. Between the upper and lower part of the subsoil
is 7 inches of light gray fine sand with brownish yellow
mottles. The lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of 54
inches, is light brownish gray fine sandy loam with light
gray sandy intrusions. The substratum is light gray fine
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Boca soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is light gray and very pale brown
fine sand about 30 inches thick. The subsoil is gray
sandy clay loam with yellowish brown and brownish
yellow mottles. At a depth of about 38 inches is hard,
fractured limestone bedrock.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Malabar, Oldsmar,
Hallandale, Felda, Copeland, and Chobee soils.
The soils of this map unit are used mainly as
rangeland and wildlife habitat.
3. Immokalee-Myakka
Nearly level, poorly drained, deep, sandy soils that have
a sandy, organic-stained subsoil
This map unit occurs as six mapped areas. The
largest, in the southwestern part of the county, is about
10 miles long and 8 miles wide at the widest place. Two
relatively large areas and a small area are in the eastern
and northeastern part of the county. The other areas of
this unit are along Highway 17 south of the Peace River
and south of Punta Gorda along Burnt Store Road. The
mapped areas are interspersed with a few depressions,
drainageways, and slightly higher ridges.
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils on
flatwoods. The native vegetation is South Florida slash
pine, sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn.
This map unit makes up about 83,920 acres, or 18.8
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 25
percent Immokalee soils, 25 percent Myakka soils, and
50 percent soils of minor extent.


Immokalee soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light gray sand about 34 inches thick.
The subsoil is fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
It is dark brown and firm in the upper part and dark
yellowish brown and friable in the lower part.
Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is fine sand about 22 inches thick.
It is gray in the upper 7 inches and light gray in the lower
15 inches. The subsoil is fine sand that is very dark gray
and firm in the upper 8 inches, dark brown and friable in
the next 10 inches, and pale brown and friable in the
lower 15 inches. The substratum is 15 inches of light
gray, loose fine sand.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Smyrna, Orsino,
Satellite, Punta, Oldsmar, Valkaria, Malabar, and
Wabasso soils.
The soils of this map unit are used mostly as
rangeland, wildlife habitat, and cropland. Some areas are
used for urban development.

4. Malabar-Oldsmar-lmmokalee

Nearly level, poorly drained, deep, sandy soils; some
have a loamy subsoil, some have a sandy, organic-
stained subsoil underlain by a loamy subsoil, and some
have just a sandy, organic-stained subsoil
This map unit occurs as six mapped areas. The
largest, in the southeastern part of the county, is about
11 miles long and 7 miles wide at the widest place. The
other areas are in the eastern and northeastern part of
the county and southeast of Punta Gorda. The mapped
areas are interspersed with depressions and
drainageways.
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils on
flatwoods and in sloughs on the flatwoods. The native
vegetation is South Florida slash pine. The wetter areas
have cypress. Sawpalmetto and pineland threeawn are
common on the flatwoods. Maidencane is common in
the sloughs.
This map unit makes up about 85,910 acres, or 19.2
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 40
percent Malabar soils, 35 percent Oldsmar soils, 10
percent Immokalee soils, and 15 percent soils of minor
extent.
Malabar soils are poorly drained and in the slough
positions. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine
sand about 5 inches thick. The next 12 inches is light
gray and very pale brown fine sand. Below this is 16
inches of light yellowish brown fine sand with yellowish
mottles and 9 inches of brownish yellow fine sand. The
subsoil, about 9 inches thick, is gray loamy fine sand
with large yellowish brown mottles. The next 8 inches is
gray fine sandy loam with large brownish yellow mottles.
A layer of light gray loamy fine sand with yellowish brown
mottles extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.


7






Soil Survey


Oldsmar soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is black fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray and light gray fine sand about
39 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is very
dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The lower part
of the subsoil is yellowish brown, light brownish gray,
and brown sandy loam and fine sandy loam about 11
inches thick. Pale brown fine sand extends to a depth of
80 inches or more.
Immokalee soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is dark gray sand in the upper 5 inches
and light gray sand in the lower 27 inches. The subsoil is
sand to a depth of 69 inches. The upper 14 inches is
black and firm, the next 5 inches is dark reddish brown,
and the lower 14 inches is dark yellowish brown. The
substratum is very pale brown sand about 11 inches
thick.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Wabasso, Pineda,
EauGallie, Pompano, and Hallandale soils.
The soils of this map unit are used mostly as
rangeland and wildlife habitat. Some areas have been
cleared and are used for urban development.
5. Heights-Felda-Oldsmar
Nearly level, poorly drained, deep, sandy soils; some
have a loamy subsoil and some have a sandy, organic-
stained subsoil underlain by a loamy subsoil
This map unit occurs as three mapped areas. The
largest is about 6 miles long and about 2 miles wide at
the widest place. This area is in the east-central part of
the county. The other two areas are relatively small and
occur in the same general vicinity. The areas are
interspersed with depressions.
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils on
flatwoods and in sloughs on the flatwoods. The natural
vegetation is South Florida slash pine. Sawpalmetto and
pineland threeawn are common on the flatwoods.
Maidencane is common in the sloughs.
This map unit makes up about 10,060 acres, or 2.2
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 40
percent Heights soils, 25 percent Felda soils, 15 percent
Oldsmar soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
Heights soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer and subsoil are light gray fine sand,
loamy sand, cobbly loamy sand, and fine sandy loam
about 32 inches thick. The upper 3 inches is grayish
brown fine sand. The next 8 inches is yellowish brown
fine sand with white calcium carbonate streaks along
root channels. The next 7 inches is light yellowish brown
loamy sand with yellowish brown and brownish yellow
mottles and white calcium carbonate streaks along root
channels. The next 6 inches is yellowish brown cobbly
loamy sand with light yellowish brown mottles and about
25 percent iron-cemented sandstone. The lower 8 inches
is light gray fine sandy loam with yellowish brown and


olive mottles. Below the subsurface layer is gray loamy
sand with light olive brown and light yellowish brown
mottles to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Felda soils are poorly drained and in the sloughs.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 8
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray and light
brownish gray fine sand about 14 inches thick. The
subsoil is light gray sandy clay loam about 16 inches
thick. This is underlain by gray and light gray loamy fine
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Oldsmar soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is black fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray and light gray fine sand about
39 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is very
dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The lower part
of the subsoil is yellowish brown and mixed light
brownish gray and brown sandy loam and fine sandy
loam about 11 inches thick. Pale brown fine sand is
below the subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Immokalee,
Wabasso, Pineda, Malabar, EauGallie, Floridana, and
Boca soils.
The soils of this map unit are used as rangeland and
wildlife habitat.

6. Oldsmar-Myakka

Nearly level, poorly drained, deep, sandy soils; some
have a sandy, organic-stained subsoil underlain by a
loamy subsoil and some have just a sandy, organic-
stained subsoil
This map unit occurs as three mapped areas. The
largest is about 7 miles long and about 7 miles wide at
the widest place. This area is in the northern part of the
county east of the Peace River. Another large area is in
the northern part of the county west of the Peace River.
It is about 4 miles long and about 6 miles wide at the
widest place. The other mapped area is in the
northwestern part of the county. It is about 5 miles long
and about 2 miles wide at the widest place.
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils on
flatwoods. The native vegetation is South Florida slash
pine, sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn.
This map unit makes up about 46,800 acres, or 10.5
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 45
percent Oldsmar soils, 9 percent Myakka soils, and 46
percent soils of minor extent.
Oldsmar soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is black fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray and light gray fine sand about
39 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is very
dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The lower part
of the subsoil is yellowish brown and mixed light
brownish gray and brown sandy loam and fine sandy
loam about 11 inches thick. Pale brown fine sand is
below the subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more.






Charlotte County, Florida


9


Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is fine sand, about 23 inches thick,
that is gray in the upper 3 inches and light gray in the
lower 20 inches. The subsoil is fine sand to a depth of
80 inches or more. The upper 4 inches is black and firm;
the next 5 inches is dark reddish brown and friable; the
next 17 inches is black and firm; the next 11 inches is
dark reddish brown and friable; and the lower 17 inches
is mixed black and dark reddish brown friable fine sand.
Of minor extent in the map unit are Smyrna,
Immokalee, Wabasso, EauGallie, Malabar, Pineda, and
Orsino soils.
The soils of this map unit are used for urban
development, wildlife habitat, and cropland.

7. Wabasso-lsles-Boca

Nearly level, poorly drained, deep and moderately deep,
sandy soils; some have a sandy, organic-stained subsoil
underlain by a loamy subsoil and some have just a
loamy subsoil
This map unit occurs as one mapped area. It is about
3 miles long and 8 miles wide at the widest place. This
area is in the northwestern part of the county on both
sides of U.S. Highway 41. The area is interspersed with
small depressions on the flatwoods.
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils in
sloughs and on flatwoods. The native vegetation is
maidencane in the sloughs and South Florida slash pine,
sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn on the flatwoods.
This map unit makes up about 17,680 acres, or 3.9
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 30
percent Wabasso soils, 25 percent Isles soils, 20
percent Boca soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark gray sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is sand about 18 inches thick. It is light
brownish gray with dark grayish brown stains along root
channels in the upper part and white with dark grayish
brown stains in the lower part. The subsoil is about 38
inches thick. The upper 4 inches is dark brown sand with
few iron concretions; the next 8 inches is brownish
yellow sandy clay loam with light brownish gray, light
gray, and reddish brown mottles; and the lower 26
inches is light gray sandy clay loam with pale olive
mottles and stains along root channels. Light gray fine
sandy loam with olive mottles extends to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Isles soils are poorly drained and in the sloughs.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
that is light brownish gray in the upper 8 inches, pale
brown in the next 8 inches, and very pale brown in the
lower 11 inches. The subsoil is 4 inches of brown sandy
clay loam with yellowish brown mottles and 14 inches of
fine sandy loam with yellowish brown mottles and


pockets of sandy clay loam. At a depth of 51 inches is a
layer of fractured limestone bedrock.
Boca soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand that is light gray in the
upper 11 inches and very pale brown in the lower 11
inches. The subsoil is 5 inches of gray fine sandy loam
with brownish yellow mottles and calcareous nodules. At
a depth of 30 inches is a layer of fractured limestone.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Pineda, Malabar,
Copeland, Hallandale, Felda, and Oldsmar soils.
The soils of this map unit are used mostly for urban
development.

Soils of the Swamps, Marshes, and
Sloughs
The two general soil map units in this group consist of
nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils.
Some soils are sandy over a moderately deep, loamy
subsoil; some are loamy throughout; and some are
organic over a loamy subsoil. These soils are in sloughs
and depressions throughout the county.

8. Pineda-Floridana-Gator

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained,
sandy soils, some have a loamy subsoil
This map unit occurs as two mapped areas. The larger
is about 4 miles long and about 5 miles wide at the
widest place. It is in the northeastern part of the county.
The other area is due south of the larger area and is
about 3 miles long and 4 miles wide at the widest place.
These areas are interspersed with slightly higher
flatwoods.
This map unit consists of nearly level, poorly drained
and very poorly drained soils in sloughs and
depressions. Natural vegetation on the sloughs is
pineland threeawn, panicums, sedges, maidencane,
waxmyrtle, South Florida slash pine, and scattered
clumps of sawpalmetto. Natural vegetation on the
depressions is St.-Johnswort, pickerelweed, cypress (fig.
2), sedges, sawgrass, and other water-tolerant plants.
This map unit makes up about 13,400 acres, or 3
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 30
percent Pineda soils, 25 percent Floridana soils, 15
percent Gator soils, and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
Pineda soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is black fine sand about 1 inch thick. The
subsurface layer is very pale brown fine sand about 4
inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is 8 inches of
brownish yellow fine sand and 10 inches of strong brown
fine sand. Between the upper and lower parts of the
subsoil is 7 inches of light gray fine sand with brownish
yellow mottles. The lower part of the subsoil, which is
about 24 inches thick, is light brownish gray fine sandy
loam that has light gray sandy intrusions. The substratum






10


Soil Survey


Figure 2.-An area of cypress swamp on Floridana sand in the dry season.


is light gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Floridana soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black sand about 22 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light brownish gray sand about 17
inches thick. The subsoil is olive gray fine sandy loam
about 15 inches thick. Below that is light brownish gray
sand with pockets of olive gray loamy sand.
Gator soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black muck about 8 inches thick. The
underlying organic material is very dark grayish brown,


well decomposed organic material in the upper 13 inches
and is dark brown, well decomposed organic material in
the lower 8 inches. Mineral material extends to a depth
of 80 inches.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Anclote, Felda,
Malabar, Terra Ceia, Valkaria, and Winder soils.
Most areas of this map unit remain in natural
vegetation and are used as wildlife habitat and
rangeland. Some areas have been cleared and are used
for pasture and vegetable production.






Charlotte County, Florida


9. Chobee-Felda-Pineda

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained,
sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil
This map unit occurs as two mapped areas. The larger
area is about 13 miles long and about 2 miles wide at
the widest place. It is in the southeastern part of the
county in the Telegraph Swamp area. The other mapped
area is about 1 mile east of State Roads 31 and 74. This
area is about 2 1/2 miles long and about 1 1/4 miles
wide at the widest place.
This map unit consists of nearly level, poorly drained
and very poorly drained soils in sloughs and
depressions. Natural vegetation on the sloughs is
pineland threeawn, panicums, sedges, maidencane,
waxmyrtle, South Florida slash pine, and scattered
clumps of sawpalmetto. Natural vegetation on the
depressions is cypress, pickerelweed, sawgrass, and
wetland ferns.
This map unit makes up about 13,400 acres, or 3
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 30
percent Chobee soils, 30 percent Felda soils, 20 percent
Pineda soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
Chobee soils are very poorly drained and are in
depressions. Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish
brown muck about 4 inches thick. The next layer is black
loamy fine sand about 12 inches thick. The upper part of
the subsoil is 12 inches of black fine sandy loam. The
lower part of the subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam
and grayish brown sandy loam about 25 inches thick.
The substratum extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. The upper 8 inches is light brownish gray loamy
sand and the next 19 inches is light brownish gray fine
sand.
Felda soils are poorly drained and are in sloughs and
depressions. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine
sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
gray and light brownish gray fine sand about 14 inches
thick. The subsoil is light gray sandy clay loam about 16
inches thick. This is underlain by gray and light gray
loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Pineda soils are poorly drained and are in sloughs and
depressions. Typically, the surface layer is black fine
sand about 1 inch thick. The subsurface layer is very
pale brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper
part of the subsoil is 8 inches of brownish yellow fine
sand and 10 inches of strong brown fine sand. Between
the upper and lower part of the subsoil is 7 inches of
light gray fine sand with brownish yellow mottles. The
lower part of the subsoil, about 24 inches thick, is light
brownish gray fine sandy loam with light gray sandy
intrusions. The substratum is light gray fine sand to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Copeland,
Floridana, Gator, Malabar, Terra Ceia, and Winder soils.
Most areas of this map unit remain in natural
vegetation and are used as wildlife habitat and


rangeland. Some areas have been cleared and are used
for pasture and vegetable production.

Soils of the Tidal Areas and Barrier
Islands
The two general soil map units in this group consist of
nearly level, somewhat poorly drained and moderately
well drained soils on the upland part of the Barrier
Islands and nearly level, very poorly drained soils on the
tidal areas. Some of the soils are sandy throughout with
a mixture of shell fragments; some have a thin, mucky
surface layer that is less than 16 inches thick; and some
are organic to a depth of more than 16 inches.

10. Kesson-Wulfert-Canaveral

Nearly level, very poorly drained, somewhat poorly
drained, and moderately well drained, sandy and mucky
soils
This map unit is dominantly on islands along the gulf
coastal zones of the county. The largest mapped area is
about 4 miles long and about 1/2 mile wide at the widest
place. This area is on Don Pedro Island.
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level, very
poorly drained tidal areas and low, narrow, somewhat
poorly drained ridges along the Gulf of Mexico. Natural
vegetation in the tidal areas is mangrove. Natural
vegetation on the ridges is cabbage palms, seagrapes,
and various grasses and scrubs.
This map unit makes up about 3,330 acres, or 0.7
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 40
percent Kesson soils, 30 percent Wulfert soils, 20
percent Canaveral soils, and 10 percent soils of minor
extent.
Kesson soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is about 6 inches of sand that contains
shell fragments. The underlying layers are fine sand that
contains shell fragments. The upper 4 inches is pale
brown; the next 3 inches is light brownish gray; the next
25 inches is light gray with dark gray streaks; and the
lower part is white to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Wulfert soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark reddish brown muck to a depth of
12 inches and dark brown muck to a depth of 36 inches.
Beneath the muck is gray fine sand with light gray
streaks and about 10 percent shell fragments.
Canaveral soils are somewhat poorly drained and
moderately well drained. Typically, the surface layer is
black and dark gray fine sand mixed with shell
fragments. It is about 15 inches thick. The underlying
layers are fine sand mixed with shell fragments. They are
light brownish gray and light gray and extend to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Captiva, Peckish,
and Estero soils and Isles muck.


11






Soil Survey


Figure 3.-An area of Isles muck supporting red mangrove vegetation.


Most areas of this map unit remain in natural
vegetation. However, many areas are being altered for
homesites or other urban purposes.

11. Peckish-Estero-lsles

Nearly level, very poorly drained, mucky and sandy soils;
some have a sandy, organic-stained subsoil and some
have a loamy subsoil
This map unit is along the mainland portion of the
county that is adjacent to Charlotte Harbor, Peace River,
Myakka River, Gasparilla Sound, and Turtle Bay.
Individual areas of this map unit range from several
acres to several thousand acres. The three largest areas
are along both sides of Charlotte Harbor and the Myakka
River. The largest area is on the western side of the
river; it ranges from 1 to 6 miles in width and is about 11
miles long. The second largest area is on the eastern
side of the river; it ranges from 1/2 to 1 mile wide and is
about 10 miles long. The other area is due north of
Charlotte Harbor; it is about 3 miles wide and about 3
miles long. The areas are interspersed with occasional
slightly higher ridges.
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils in
tidal swamps and marshes along the gulf coast. Natural
vegetation in the tidal swamps is mangrove (fig. 3).
Natural vegetation in the marshes is seashore saltgrass,
batis, and sea-oxeye.


This map unit makes up about 23,070 acres, or 5.2
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 35
percent Peckish soils, 20 percent Estero soils, 15
percent Isles soils, and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
Estero soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is about 13 inches thick. The upper 5
inches is black muck, the next 3 inches is black fine
sand, and the lower 5 inches is very dark gray fine sand.
The subsurface layer is fine sand about 20 inches thick.
The upper 6 inches is light brownish gray with few fine
distinct yellowish red mottles; the lower 14 inches is
grayish brown with few medium distinct yellowish red
mottles. The subsoil is massive fine sand to a depth of
about 55 inches. The upper 6 inches is black and dark
grayish brown, the next 4 inches is black and dark
reddish brown, and the lower 12 inches is dark brown
and black fine sand. Grayish brown fine sand with few
fine distinct black mottles extends to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Peckish soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is mucky fine sand about 9 inches thick.
The upper 4 inches is dark reddish brown, the next 2
inches is dark grayish brown, and the lower 3 inches is
dark reddish brown. The subsurface layer is gray and
light gray fine sand with light gray streaks in the upper
part and light brownish gray andr grayish browaunettles in
the lower part. It is about 27 inches thick. The subsoil is
fine sand about 10 inches thick. The upper 7 inches is


12






Charlotte County, Florida


Figure 4.-An area of Matlacha gravelly fine sand used as a mobile home park.


dark grayish brown and very dark grayish brown, and the
lower 3 inches is brown and dark brown with very dark
grayish brown mottles. The substratum is brown fine
sand with very dark grayish brown streaks.
Isles muck soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
upper part of the surface layer is dark reddish brown
muck about 5 inches thick. The lower part is 6 inches of
very dark grayish brown mucky fine sand. The
subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand with
brownish gray mottles and is about 28 inches thick. The
subsoil is 8 inches of grayish brown fine sandy loam with
light olive brown mottles. Fractured limestone bedrock is
at a depth of 47 inches.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Boca, Hallandale,
Kesson, and Wulfert soils.
Most areas of this map unit remain in natural
vegetation. Some areas, particularly along the coastal
areas, have been altered for homesites or other urban
purposes.


Soils of the Manmade Areas
The one general soil map unit in this group consists of
nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soils that were
formed by earthmoving operations in areas designated
for urban development. Soils in this map unit consist of
mixed gravelly fine sand and sandy mineral material that
contains lenses of loamy sand and coated sandy
fragments of former subsoil horizons with about 25
percent limestone and shell fragments.
12. Matlacha
Nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soils that are
mostly mixed sands, shell fragments, and limestone
fragments throughout
This map unit occurs as eight mapped areas. The
largest, about 3 miles long and about 2 1/2 miles wide
at the widest place, is in the western part of the county.
Another large area is west of Punta Gorda along the


13







14


Peace River; it is about 3 miles long and about 2 miles
wide at the widest place. Another large area is in the
north Port Charlotte area; it is about 2 miles wide at the
widest place. The other areas are dispersed over the
northern and western parts of the county. The areas are
interspersed with homesites and commercial buildings.
This map unit consists of nearly level, somewhat
poorly drained soils that were formed by earthmoving
operations.
Natural vegetation is rare. However, areas that have
been allowed to remain vacant for an extended period
consist of South Florida slash pine and invading grasses
and weeds.
This map unit makes up about 12,000 acres, or 2.7
percent of the land area of the county. Scils of minor
extent make up about 15 percent of this map unit.
Matlacha soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
the surface layer is about 35 inches of black, olive
brown, grayish brown, dark brown, light brownish gray,
very dark gray, and very pale brown mixed gravelly fine
sand and sandy mineral material. These contain lenses
of loamy sand and coated sandy fragments of former
subsoil horizons with about 25 percent limestone and
shell fragments. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is undisturbed fine sand. The upper 5 inches is
dark gray, and the lower 40 inches is light gray with
common medium distinct dark grayish brown stains
along root channels.
Of minor extent in this map unit are soils that contain
finer textured material throughout the fill. Also included
are small areas that contain boulders or more than 35
percent rock fragments larger than 3 inches throughout
the fill. In addition, there are areas of similar soils with
loamy material and limestone bedrock below the mixed
fill material. Other inclusions are areas of fill that are less
than 20 inches thick over undisturbed soils.
Most areas of this unit have been prepared for future
urbanization (fig. 4). Many areas are presently urbanized.

Soils of the Low Ridges
The one general soil map unit in this group consists of
nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
soils on low, narrow ridges. Soils in this unit are sandy
throughout and occur along rivers and creeks and on the
higher elevations in the flatwoods.


13. Orsino-Daytona
Nearly level, moderately well drained soils that are sandy
throughout; some have an organic-stained subsoil
This map unit occurs as two areas in the county. The
larger is about 8 miles long and about 1/2 mile wide at
the widest place. This area is along the eastern part of
the Peace River and along Prairie Creek. The other area
of this map unit is along the eastern portions of Alligator
Creek east of U.S. Highway 41. It is approximately 4
miles long and 2/5 mile wide at the widest place. The
mapped areas are interspersed with some flatwood
areas.
This map unit consists of nearly level to gently sloping,
moderately well drained soils that are on low, narrow
ridges. Natural vegetation is oaks, pine, sawpalmetto,
pineland threeawn, and gallberry.
This map unit makes up about 5,700 acres, or 1.3
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 60
percent Orsino soils, 20 percent Daytona soils, and 20
percent soils of minor extent.
Orsino soils are moderately well drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 2 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is gray and white fine sand about
14 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand about 21 inches
thick. The upper 10 inches is yellow fine sand with
discontinuous lenses of dark reddish brown fine sand
and common intrusions of white fine sand. The lower 11
inches is yellow fine sand with discontinuous lenses of
loose dark reddish brown fine sand and few intrusions of
white fine sand. The substratum is fine sand to a depth
of 80 inches or more. The upper 9 inches is pale brown
with splotches of white fine sand. The next 19 inches is
very pale brown. Below is white fine sand with yellowish
red and reddish yellow stains along root channels.
Daytona soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is light gray and white sand about
39 inches thick. The subsoil is sand to a depth of 80
inches or more. The upper 7 inches is mixed black and
dark reddish brown and the lower 30 inches is dark
brown.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Electra,
Immokalee, Myakka, Pompano, and Satellite soils.
Most areas of this map unit remain in natural
vegetation and are used as wildlife habitat. However,
some areas have been cleared for citrus production and
urbanization.






15


Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils
for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. The map units are
presented in numerical order. The numbers are not
always in sequence, however; some of the numbers are
not utilized as map unit symbols. Each description
includes general facts about the soil and gives the
principal hazards and limitations to be considered in
planning for specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of
a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Boca fine sand, slough, is
one of several phases in the Boca series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes. A soil
complex consists of two or more soils in such an
intricate pattern or in such small areas that they cannot
be shown separately on the soil maps. The pattern and
proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in all areas.
Smyrna-Urban land complex is an example.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included


soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
have little or no soil material and support little or no
vegetation. Miscellaneous areas are shown on the soil
maps. Some that are too small to be shown are
identified by a special symbol on the soil maps.
Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.

2-Canaveral fine sand. This is a nearly level,
moderately well drained and somewhat poorly drained
soil on low ridges. Slopes are smooth to slightly convex
and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black and dark gray fine
sand mixed with shell fragments and is about 15 inches
thick. The underlying layers are light brownish gray and
light gray fine sand mixed with shell fragments to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Captiva and Kesson soils. Included soils generally make
up less than 10 percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, this soil has a
water table at a depth of 18 to 40 inches for 2 to 6
months. The water table recedes to a depth of more
than 40 inches during February through July.
The available water capacity is very low. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is very rapid.
Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palm, Brazilian
pepper, seagrape, wild coffee, and an understory of
vines and weeds.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, and it has
only fair suitability for pasture grasses. This soil is not
generally used for rangeland.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
Seedling mortality is the main management concern.
This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
absorption fields, dwellings without basements, small
commercial buildings, sanitary landfills, sewage lagoon
areas, shallow excavations, and recreational uses. If this
soil is used for septic tank absorption fields, its
excessive permeability can cause pollution of ground
water.






Soil Survey


This Canaveral soil is in capability subclass Vis.

4-Canaveral-Urban land complex. This complex
consists of Canaveral fine sand and areas of Urban land.
The Canaveral soil and Urban land are so intermingled
that they cannot be separated at the scale used for
mapping.
About 50 to 70 percent of each area of the complex
consists of nearly level Canaveral soils or areas of
Canaveral soils that have been reworked or reshaped,
but which still are recognizable as Canaveral soils.
Typically, Canaveral soils have a surface layer of black
and dark gray fine sand that is mixed with shell
fragments. Beneath the surface layer, to a depth of 80
inches or more, are layers of light brownish gray and
light gray fine sand mixed with shell fragments.
About 20 to 30 percent of each area is Urban land.
This land is used for houses, streets, driveways,
buildings, parking lots, and other, related uses.
Unoccupied areas are mostly in lawns, vacant lots, or
playgrounds consisting of Canaveral soils.
Included in this complex, and making up about 10 to
20 percent of the map unit, are areas of Captiva soils.
Areas of the soils that have been modified by grading
and shaping are not as extensive in the older
communities as in the newer ones. Sandy material from
drainage ditches is commonly used to fill low areas. In
places, material is hauled in to fill low areas. In
undrained areas, the water table is at a depth of 18 to
40 inches below the surface for a period of 2 to 6
months for most years. Drainage systems have been
established in most areas, however, and the depth to the
water table is dependent on the drainage system.
Present land use precludes the use of this complex for
cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture.
This complex has not been assigned to a capability
subclass.

5-Captiva fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil in sloughs. Slopes are smooth to concave
and range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand mixed
with shell fragments to a depth of 80 inches or more. In
sequence, the upper 9 inches is pale brown with light
gray streaks, the next 11 inches is light gray with many
pale brown mottles, the next 4 inches is light gray with
about 30 percent multicolored shell fragments, and the
lower 50 inches is light gray.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Canaveral and Kesson soils. Also included are scattered
areas of Captiva fine sand that is ponded and soils that
are similar to Captiva soils but have more than 35
percent shell fragments larger than 2 millimeters
between depths of 10 and 40 inches. Included soils
make up about 5 to 10 percent of any mapped area.


In most years, under natural conditions, this soil has a
water table within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 2
months. The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches
for 10 months during most years. In some years, the soil
is covered by standing water for several days.
The available water capacity is low. Permeability is
very rapid.
Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palm, Brazilian
pepper, sand cordgrass, leatherleaf fern, and waxmyrtle.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness and sandy texture. The number of adapted
crops is limited unless very intensive management
practices are followed. With good water control
measures and soil improving measures, this soil can be
made suitable for some vegetable, crops. A water control
system is needed to remove excess water in wet
seasons and provide water through subsurface irrigation
in dry seasons. Row crops should be rotated with close-
growing, soil-improving crops. The rotation should
include the soil-improving crops on the land three-fourths
of the time. Seedbed preparation should include bedding
of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added
according to the need of the crops.
The soil is poorly suited to citrus. It is suitable for
citrus only after a carefully designed water control
system has been installed that will maintain the water
table below a depth of four feet. The trees should be
planted on beds and a vegetative cover maintained
between the trees. Regular applications of fertilizers and
lime are needed.
The soil is well suited to pastures. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrasses, and white clovers grow well
when they are well managed. Water control measures
are needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
rains. Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are
needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent
overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine
trees, but only after a water control system is installed
that will lower the water table. Equipment limitations,
seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main
management concerns. South Florida slash pine is the
best tree to plant.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the high water table.
This Captiva soil is in capability subclass IVw.

6-Hallandale fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil on low, broad flatwoods areas. Slopes are
smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 2
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The substratum is very pale brown
fine sand about 5 inches thick. At a depth of 12 inches is
fractured limestone bedrock that has solution holes
extending to a depth of 25 inches. These solution holes
contain mildly alkaline, loamy material.






Charlotte County, Florida


Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca soils and soils that have yellowish horizons or a
brownish stain between the subsurface layer and
limestone. Also included are scattered areas of rock
outcrop, which are less than 1 acre, and soils that have
hard calcareous material at a depth of less than 20
inches. Included soils generally make up about 5 to 10
percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 3
months. It recedes below the limestone for about 7
months.
The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is
low. Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid.
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, pineland
threeawn, bluestem, panicums, and South Florida slash
pine.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness, shallow depth, and sandy texture. The number
of adapted crops is limited unless good water control
measures and soil improving measures are used. This
soil can be made suitable for some vegetable crops by
using a water control system that will remove excess
water in wet seasons and provide water through
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. The presence of
rock near the surface, however, makes construction of
such a system difficult. Row crops should be rotated with
close growing, soil-improving crops. The rotation should
include the soil-improving crops on the land three-fourths
of the time. Seedbed preparation should include bedding
of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added
according to the need of the crops.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus. Those areas that are
relatively free from freezing temperatures are suitable for
citrus, but only after a carefully designed water control
system has been installed. The water control system
should maintain the water table below a depth of 4 feet.
The trees should be planted on beds and a vegetative
cover maintained between the trees. Regular
applications of fertilizers and lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pastures. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrasses, and white clovers grow well if
they are well managed. Water control measures are
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent
overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
This soil has a moderate potential productivity for
slash pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
windthrow hazard, and plant competition are the main
management concerns.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
chalky bluestem. Good management practices include
deferred grazing and brush control. This Hallandale soil
is in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.


This soil has severe limitations for urban uses because
of shallow depth to bedrock and wetness.
This Hallandale soil is in capability subclass IVw.

7-Matlacha-Urban land complex. This complex
consists of nearly level Matlacha gravelly fine sand and
areas of Urban land. The areas of Matlacha soils and
Urban land are so intermingled that they cannot be
separated at the scale used for mapping. Individual
areas range from about 20 to 640 acres.
About 35 to 50 percent of each mapped area is
Matlacha soils. About 20 to 30 percent is Urban land
presently covered by houses and other buildings and
streets or other forms of pavement. Some of the area
consists of canals.
Typically, the surface layer of the Matlacha soils is
about 40 inches of light gray, gray, very pale brown,
grayish brown, very dark grayish brown, and dark gray
mixed gravelly fine sand and sandy material. The surface
layer contains lenses of loamy sand and coated sandy
fragments of former subsoil horizons with about 25
percent coarse fragments of limestone and shell. Below
this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is undisturbed fine
sand. The upper 6 inches is dark gray and the lower 34
inches is light gray with dark grayish brown stains and
streaks along old root channels.
Included in mapping, and scattered throughout the
survey area, are similar soils that contain heavy loamy
material or areas that contain boulders or more than 35
percent shell or rock fragments larger than 3 inches. In
addition, there are areas of similar soil with a limestone
ledge below the mixed fill material. Also included are
areas of fill which are less than 20 inches thick over
undisturbed soils. Included soils make up about 10 to 15
percent of any mapped area.
The depth to the water table varies with the amount of
fill material and the extent of artificial drainage. However,
in most years, the water table is 24 to 36 inches below
the surface of the fill material for 2 to 4 months. It is
below a depth of 60 inches during extended dry periods.
The available water capacity is variable, but it is
estimated to be low. Permeability is variable within short
distances, but it is estimated to be moderately rapid or
rapid in the fill material and rapid in the underlying
material. Natural fertility is estimated to be low.
Most of the natural vegetation has been removed. The
existing vegetation consists of scattered South Florida
slash pine and various weeds.
Present land use precludes using this soil for
agriculture. The soil is poorly suited to most plants
unless topsoil is spread over the surface to form a
suitable root zone.
The areas not presently covered by urban structures
have moderate limitations for most building site
development and severe limitations for sanitary facilities
and recreational uses. The high water table and sandy
surface texture are the major limitations. Unstable


17






Soil Survey


surface materials can severely limit shallow excavations,
and the high water table severely limits dwellings with
basements. In scattered areas in any mapped area, the
fill material contains boulders or compacted sandy
material that can interfere with the installation of
underground utilities or the proper functioning of septic
tank absorption fields.
This complex has not been assigned to a capability
subclass.

8-Hallandale fine sand, tidal. This is a nearly level,
poorly drained soil on the outer edges of tidal flats.
Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 2 inches thick. The underlying layers are gray fine
sand to a depth of 19 inches. Below is hard, fractured
limestone bedrock with solution holes up to 26 inches
deep that contain moderately alkaline loamy material.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Rock outcrop. This inclusion makes up about 10 to 15
percent of any mapped area.
The water table fluctuates with the tide. This soil is
subject to tidal flooding.
The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is
low. Permeability is moderately rapid.
Natural vegetation consists of seashore saltgrass,
black mangrove, batis, and sea daisy.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, pasture
grasses, or woodland because of high salt content and
tidal flooding.
This soil has moderate potential for range plant
production. Saltwater marshes are on level sites where
tidal flow of saltwater and brackish water have a
significant effect on plant composition. When in good
and excellent condition, the saltwater marsh is
dominated by smooth cordgrass, marshhay cordgrass,
seashore saltgrass, and other grasses and forbs. These
grasses and forbs provide a high level of palatable
forage for livestock grazing. Good grazing and burning
management is required to maintain these sites in their
most desirable condition. This Hallandale soil is in the
Salt Water Marsh range site.
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities,
community development, and recreation even if areas
are protected from tidal flooding. Mounding is needed for
septic tank absorption fields.
This Hallandale soil is in capability subclass Vlllw.

9-EauGallie sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil on flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to convex
and less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand that is gray in
the upper 5 inches and light gray in the lower 13 inches.
The subsoil and underlying material are sand, loamy
sand, and sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.


The upper 5 inches is dark brown sand that is well
coated with organic matter. The next 14 inches is dark
brown loamy sand. The next 4 inches is pale brown
loamy sand. The next 13 inches is light gray sand. The
lower 22 inches is light gray sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping, and making up 10 to
15 percent of the map unit, are small areas of Malabar,
Myakka, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than
6 months.
The available water capacity is very low in the surface
and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.
Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderately slow or
moderate in the subsoil.
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation:
sawpalmetto, South Florida slash pine, chalky bluestem,
pineland threeawn and runner oak.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness and poor soil quality. The number of adapted
crops is limited unless very intensive management
practices are followed. With good water control
measures and soil improving measures, this soil is well
suited for some vegetable crops. A water control system
is needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and
provide water through subsurface irrigation in dry
seasons. Row crops should be rotated with close-
growing, soil-improving crops. The rotation should
include the soil-improving crops on the land three-fourths
of the time. Seedbed preparation should include bedding
of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added
according to the need of the crops.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
management is used. It is suitable for citrus only after a
carefully designed water control system has been
installed that will maintain the water table below a depth
of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds and a
vegetative cover maintained between the trees. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pastures. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well when
they are well managed. Water control measures are
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
rains. Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are
needed. Controlling grazing will help to prevent
overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
The soil has moderately high potential productivity for
South Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in
establishing seedlings and in removing excess surface
water.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include


18






Charlotte County, Florida


19


deferred grazing and brush control. This EauGallie soil is
in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
The soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
because of the high water table.
This EauGallie soil is in capability subclass IVw.

10-Pompano fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil on sloughs. Slopes are smooth to concave
and range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The underlying fine sand layers
extend to a depth of 80 inches or more and are light
gray, very pale brown, or white.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Malabar, Anclote, and Valkaria soils. Also included are
small areas of soil with limestone at a depth of 40 to 80
inches. Inclusions make up about 10 to 15 percent of
any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4
months and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for about 6
months. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches for
about 3 months. During periods of high rainfall, the soil is
covered by slowly moving water for periods of about 7
days to 1 month or more.
The available water capacity is very low. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid.
Natural vegetation consists of pineland threeawn,
scattered South Florida slash pine, bluestem,
maidencane, and scattered sawpalmetto.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness and sandy texture. The number of adapted
crops is limited unless very intensive management
practices are followed. With good water control
measures and soil-improving measures, this soil can be
made suitable for some vegetable crops. A water control
system is needed to remove excess water in wet
seasons and provide water through subsurface irrigation
in dry seasons. Row crops should be rotated with close-
growing, soil-improving crops. The rotation should
include the soil-improving crops on the land three-fourths
of the time. Seedbed preparation should include bedding
of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added
according to the need of the crops.
The soil is poorly suited to citrus. It is suitable for
citrus only after a carefully designed water control
system has been installed that will maintain the water
table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be
planted on beds and a vegetative cover maintained
between the trees. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed.
The soil is well suited to pastures. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well when
they are well managed. Water control measures are
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are


needed. Controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing
and weakening of the plants.
The soil has moderately high potential productivity for
South Florida slash pine.
This soil has high potential for desirable range plant
production. The dominant forage consists of blue
maidencane, chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum.
Management practices should include deferred grazing.
This Pompano soil is in the Slough range site.
The soil has severe limitations for urban and
recreational uses because of the high water table.
This Pompano soil is in capability subclass IVw.

11-Myakka fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil on broad flatwoods areas. Slopes are
smooth to slightly concave and range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
about 23 inches thick. In the upper 3 inches it is gray,
and in the lower 20 inches it is light gray. The subsoil is
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 4
inches is black and firm, the next 5 inches is dark
reddish brown and friable, the next 17 inches is black
and firm, the next 11 inches is dark reddish brown and
friable, and the lower 17 inches is mixed black and dark
reddish brown and friable.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
EauGallie, Immokalee, Oldsmar, Smyrna, and Wabasso
soils. Also included are small areas of similar soils with
subsoils low in organic matter content and less than 12
inches thick. Included soils make up 10 to 15 percent of
any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months
and 10 to 40 inches below the surface for 2 to 6 months.
It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
extended dry periods.
The available water capacity is medium in the subsoil
and very low in the surface and subsurface layers.
Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderate to moderately rapid
in the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, fetterbush,
pineland threeawn, and South Florida slash pine.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness and poor soil quality. The number of adapted
crops is limited unless very intensive management
practices are followed. With good water control and soil-
improving measures, the soil can be made suitable for
some vegetable crops. A water control system is needed
to remove excess water in wet seasons and provide
water through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row
crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil-
improving crops. The rotation should include the soil-
improving crops on the land three-fourths of the time.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.






Soil Survey


Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
need of the crops.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus. Areas subject to
frequent freezing in winter are not suitable. This soil is
suitable for citrus only after a carefully designed water
control system has been installed that will maintain the
water table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be
planted on beds and a vegetative cover maintained
between the trees. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well when
they are well managed. Water control measures are
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed. Controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing
and weakening of the plants.
The soil has moderate potential productivity for South
Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
seedlings and in removing excess surface water.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
deferred grazing and brush control. This Myakka soil is in
the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
The soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the high water table.
This Myakka soil is in capability subclass IVw.

12-Felda fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil on broad, nearly level sloughs. Slopes are
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
and light brownish gray fine sand about 14 inches thick.
The subsoil is light gray loamy fine sand about 16 inches
thick and is underlain by gray and light gray fine sand
that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Malabar, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Wabasso soils.
These inclusions rarely exceed 15 percent of any
mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, this soil has a
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
months. The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches
for about 6 months. It recedes to a depth of more than
40 inches below the surface for about 2 months. During
periods of high rainfall, the soil is covered by slowly
moving, shallow water for periods of about 7 days to 1
month or more.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers, moderate or moderately rapid in the
subsoil, and rapid in the substratum.


Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palm, pineland
threeawn, South Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, and
maidencane.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness. If a complete water control system is used, the
soil is well suited to many fruit and vegetable crops. A
complete water control system is one that removes
excess water rapidly and provides a means of applying
subsurface irrigation. Soil-improving crops are
recommended. Seedbed preparation should include
bedding. Fertilizers should be applied according to the
needs of the crop.
With proper water control, the soil is well suited to
citrus trees. A water control system that maintains good
drainage to a depth of about 4 feet is needed. Bedding
and planting the trees on the beds helps to provide good
surface drainage. A good cover of close-growing
vegetation is needed between the trees to protect the
soil from blowing when the trees are young. The trees
require regular applications of fertilizers and occasional
liming.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. It is
well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and clovers.
Excellent pastures of grass alone or grass-clover
mixtures can be grown with good management. Regular
applications of fertilizers and controlled grazing are
needed for highest yields.
The potential productivity for pine trees on this soil is
moderately high. However, adequate water control is
needed before the potential can be attained. Equipment
limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
the main management concerns. South Florida slash
pine is the best tree to plant.
This soil has high potential for desirable range plant
production. The dominant forage consists of blue
maidencane, chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum.
Management practices should include deferred grazing.
This Felda soil is in the Slough range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban uses because
of the high water table.
This Felda soil is in capability subclass Illw.

13-Boca fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil on flatwoods. Slopes are smooth and range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 22
inches thick. The upper 11 inches is light gray and the
lower 11 inches is very pale brown. The subsoil, about 5
inches thick, is gray fine sandy loam with brownish
yellow mottles and calcareous nodules. At a depth of 30
inches is a layer of fractured limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Hallandale, Wabasso, and Felda soils that have a
yellowish horizon between the subsurface layer and
subsoil. Also included are soils with limestone at a depth
of 40 to 72 inches below the surface. Also included are






Charlotte County, Florida


21


small areas that are better drained. Included soils make
up about 15 percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
months. It recedes to a depth below the limestone for
about 6 months.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, pineland
threeawn, South Florida slash pine, and waxmyrtle.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness. If a complete water control system is installed
and maintained, the soils are suitable for many fruit and
vegetable crops. A complete water control system
removes excess surface and internal water rapidly. It
should also provide a means of applying subsurface
irrigation. Soil-improving crops are recommended. Other
important management practices are good seedbed
preparation, including bedding, and fertilizers applied
according to the needs of the crop.
If this soil receives proper water control, it is well
suited to citrus trees. Water control systems that
maintain good drainage to a depth of about 4 feet are
needed. Bedding and planting the trees on the beds help
to provide good surface drainage. A good cover of close-
growing vegetation maintained between the trees helps
to protect the soil from blowing in dry weather and
washing during rains. The trees require regular
applications of fertilizer, but they contain adequate lime
without further applications.
The soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses.
Bahiagrass and pangolagrass grow well when well
managed. Water control measures are needed to
remove excess surface water after heavy rains. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlling
grazing helps to prevent overgrazing and weakening of
the plants.
The potential productivity for pine trees on this soil is
high. However, water control is needed before the
potential can be attained. Seedling mortality, equipment
limitations, and plant competition are the main
management concerns. South Florida slash pine is the
best tree to plant.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
deferred grazing and brush control. This Boca soil is in
the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities,
building site development, and recreational uses primarily
because of the high water table.
This Boca soil is in capability subclass Illw.


14-Valkaria fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil on sloughs. Slopes are smooth to concave
and range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is about 2 inches of dark
grayish brown fine sand. The subsurface layer is 5
inches of very pale brown fine sand. The subsoil is loose
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 9
inches is yellow, the next 4 inches is brownish yellow,
the next 6 inches is yellowish brown, and the lower 54
inches is pale yellow, yellow, brown, and very pale
brown.
Included with this soil in mapping, and making up
about 10 to 15 percent of the map unit, are small areas
of Malabar, Pineda, and Pompano soils.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 3
months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for about 6
months and recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
for about 3 months. During periods of high rainfall, the
soil is covered by slowly moving water for periods of
about 7 days to 1 month or more.
The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is
low. Permeability is rapid.
Natural vegetation consists of sparse sawpalmetto,
South Florida slash pine, melaleuca, and maidencane.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness and sandy texture. The number of adapted
crops is limited unless very extensive management
practices are followed. With good water-control
measures and soil-improving measures, the soil can be
made suitable for some vegetable crops. A water control
system is needed to remove excess water in wet
seasons and provide water through subsurface irrigation
in dry seasons. Row crops should be rotated with close-
growing, soil-improving crops. The rotation should
include the soil-improving crops on the land three-fourths
of the time. Seedbed preparation should include bedding
of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added
according to the need of the crops.
The soil is poorly suited to citrus. It is suitable for
citrus only after a carefully designed water control
system has been installed that will maintain the water
table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be
planted on beds and a vegetative cover maintained
between the trees. Regular applications of fertilizers and
lime are needed.
The soil is well suited to pastures. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrasses, and white clovers grow well
when they are well managed. Water control measures
are needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
rains. Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are
needed. Controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing
and weakening of the plants.
The soil has moderate potential productivity for South
Florida slash pine. Equipment limitations, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are major management
concerns.






Soil Survey


This soil has high potential for desirable range plant
production. The dominant forage consists of blue
maidencane, chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum.
Management practices should include deferred grazing.
This Valkaria soil is in the Slough range site.
The soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the high water table.
This Valkaria soil is in capability subclass IVw.

15-Estero muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly
drained soil on broad tidal marsh areas. Slopes are
smooth and range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is about 13 inches thick.
The upper 5 inches is black muck, the next 3 inches is
black fine sand, and the lower 5 inches is very dark gray
fine sand. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 20
inches thick. The upper 6 inches is light brownish gray
with few fine distinct yellowish red mottles. The lower 14
inches is grayish brown with few medium distinct
yellowish red mottles. The subsoil is massive fine sand
about 22 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is black and
dark grayish brown, the next 4 inches is black and dark
reddish brown, and the lower 12 inches is dark brown
and black. Grayish brown fine sand with few fine distinct
black mottles extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Hallandale fine sand, tidal. Also included are soils that
do not have a mucky surface layer.
The water table fluctuates with the tide. The soil is
subject to tidal flooding.
The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is
low. Permeability is moderately rapid.
Natural vegetation consists of seashore saltgrass,
batis, oxeye daisy, black mangrove, and scattered red
mangrove.
This soil has moderate potential for range plant
production. Saltwater marshes are on level sites where
the tidal flow of saltwater and brackish water have a
significant effect on plant composition. When in good or
excellent condition, the saltwater marsh is dominated by
smooth cordgrass, marshhay cordgrass, seashore
saltgrass, and numerous other grasses and forbs. These
grasses and forbs provide high levels of palatable forage
for livestock grazing. Good grazing and burning
management are required to maintain these sites in their
most desirable condition. This Estero soil is in the Salt
Water Marsh range site.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, pasture
grasses, citrus, or woodland because of the flood hazard
and high salt content.
This soil has severe limitations for urban and
recreational uses because of the flood hazard, high
water table, and high salt content.
This Estero soil is in capability subclass VIIIw.


16-Peckish mucky fine sand. This is a nearly level,
very poorly drained soil on broad tidal swamp areas.
Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is mucky fine sand about 9
inches thick. The upper 4 inches is dark reddish brown,
the next 2 inches is dark grayish brown, and the lower 3
inches is dark reddish brown. The subsurface layer is
gray and light gray fine sand with light gray streaks in the
upper part and light brownish gray and grayish brown
mottles in the lower part. It is about 27 inches thick. The
subsoil is fine sand about 12 inches thick. The upper 7
inches is dark grayish brown and very dark grayish
brown, and the lower 5 inches is brown and dark brown
with very dark grayish brown mottles. The substratum is
pale brown fine sand with very dark grayish brown
streaks to a depth of 61 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Hallandale, Boca, and Estero soils. Also included are
soils with loamy material and limestone below a depth of
40 inches. Included soils make up about 10 to 15
percent of any mapped area.
The water table fluctuates with the tide. The soil is
subject to tidal flooding.
The available water capacity is high in the surface
layer and medium or low in the other layers. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid.
Natural vegetation consists of black mangrove,
American mangrove, and batis.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, pasture
grasses, citrus, or woodland. It has severe limitations for
urban and recreational uses because of the flooding,
high water table, and sandy texture.
This Peckish soil is in capability subclass VIllw.

17-Daytona sand. This is a nearly level to gently
sloping, moderately well drained soil on low ridges on
the flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to convex and are 0 to
5 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layers are light gray and
white sand about 39 inches thick. The subsoil is sand to
a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 7 inches is
mixed black and dark reddish brown, and the lower 30
inches is dark brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Immokalee, Myakka, Orsino, and Pompano soils. Also
included are similar soils with a combined surface and
subsurface layer that is more than 51 inches thick. All
included soils except the Orsino soils are in lower
positions on the landscape. Included soils make up less
than 15 percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for about 1 to 4
months. It is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 8 months.
The available water capacity is very low, except in the
subsoil where it is medium. Natural fertility is low.


22






Charlotte County, Florida


23


Permeability is very rapid in the surface layer and
moderately rapid in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists of oaks, sawpalmetto,
South Florida slash pine, and gallberry.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated field crops.
This soil has fair suitability for pastures. Grasses, such
as pangolagrass and bahiagrass, make fair yields under
good management.
The soil has moderate potential productivity for South
Florida slash pine. Sand pine is better suited than other
trees. Seedling mortality, mobility of equipment, and
plant competition are the major management problems.
This soil has low potential for desirable range plant
production. The vegetative community consists of a
dense, woody understory that includes sawpalmetto,
Florida rosemary, and scrub oak. Although this site is
seldom grazed by livestock, it does furnish winter
protection. This Daytona soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub
range site.
The soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities
because of the high water table and rapid permeability.
The high water table and sandy texture cause some
limitations for building sites.
This Daytona soil is in capability subclass Vis.

18-Matlacha gravelly fine sand, limestone
substratum. This is a nearly level, somewhat poorly
drained soil formed by fill and earthmoving operations on
areas that are underlain by limestone bedrock. Slopes
are smooth to slightly convex and range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is about 23 inches of pale
brown, brownish yellow, light yellowish brown, and light
gray mixed gravelly fine sand and sand material. The
surface layer contains lenses of loamy sand and coated
sandy fragments of a former subsoil with about 25
percent coarse fragments of limestone and shell.
Extending to a depth of 48 inches is undisturbed soil
material. The upper 5 inches is dark gray fine sand, the
next 16 inches is light gray fine sand, and the lower 4
inches is light brownish gray fine sandy loam. Fractured
limestone bedrock is at a depth of 48 inches. Thickness
of the fill material over the natural soil ranges from about
20 to 43 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
Hallandale and Boca soils and soils that do not have a
limestone substratum. Also included are areas that have
more than 35 percent rock fragments in the fill material
and areas that have finer textured fill material. In
addition, there are areas with less than 20 inches of fill
material and areas of Wabasso, limestone substratum,
soils. Included soils make up about 15 to 20 percent of
any mapped area.
This soil has a water table that varies with the amount
of fill material and artificial drainage. However, in most
years, the water table is at a depth of 18 to 30 inches for


2 to 4 months. It is below the limestone during extended
dry periods.
The available water capacity is low. Permeability is
variable, but it is estimated to be moderately rapid to
rapid in the fill material and rapid in the upper part of the
underlying material. It is moderately slow in lower
horizons. Natural fertility is estimated to be low.
Most of the natural vegetation has been removed. The
existing vegetation consists of South Florida slash pine
and various scattered weeds.
This soil is poorly suited to most plants unless topsoil
is spread over the surface to form a suitable root zone.
This soil has moderate limitations for most building site
development and severe limitations for sanitary facilities
and recreational uses. The high water table and sandy
surface textures are the major limitations. The depth to
the limestone is the major problem for some uses, such
as underground utilities or septic tank installation.
Unstable surface materials can severely limit shallow
excavations, and the high water table severely limits
dwellings with basements.
This Matlacha, limestone substratum, soil is in
capability subclass Vis.

19-Gator muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly
drained organic soil on freshwater marsh areas. Slopes
range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 8
inches thick. The underlying organic material extends to
a depth of 29 inches. The upper 13 inches is very dark
grayish brown, well decomposed organic material. The
next 8 inches is dark brown, well decomposed organic
material. Mineral material extends to a depth of 80
inches. The upper 3 inches is very dark gray fine sand.
The next 2 inches is light brownish gray fine sand. The
next 5 inches is dark gray fine sandy loam with light gray
sand intrusions. The next 24 inches is gray fine sandy
loam with calcium carbonate streaks. The next 5 inches
is light gray loam with shell fragments. The lower 12
inches is gray fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are Terra Ceia soils
and similar soils in which the muck is less than 16
inches thick. Also included are small areas where the
organic matter is less decomposed. Included soils make
up about 15 percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
covered with water for 3 to 6 months. The water table is
10 to 24 inches below the surface during extended dry
periods.
The available water capacity is high. Natural fertility is
moderate. Permeability is rapid in the organic material
and sandy layers and moderate to rapid in the mineral
layers.
Natural vegetation consists of sawgrass, sand
cordgrass, and waxmyrtle.
This soil is not suitable for cultivation unless drained.
With adequate water control, it is well suited to most






Soil Survey


vegetable crops and sugar cane. A well designed and
maintained water control system should remove excess
water during times when crops are on the land and keep
the soils saturated with water at all other times.
Fertilizers that contain phosphates, potash, and minor
elements are needed. This acid soil needs regular
applications of lime. Water-tolerant cover crops should
be on the soil when it is not in use for row crops.
Most improved grasses and clovers adapted to the
area grow well on this soil if water is properly controlled.
Pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and white clovers grow
well. Water control that maintains the water table near
the surface prevents excessive oxidation of the organic
horizons. Fertilizers high in potash, phosphorus, and
minor elements are needed. Grazing should be
controlled to permit maximum yields.
This soil is not suitable for citrus.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
and cutgrass. Since the depth to the water table
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
forage production, the periods of high water may reduce
the grazing value of the site. This Gator soil is in the
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
This soil is not suitable for growing pine trees. It has
severe limitations for urban and recreational
development because of ponding.
This Gator soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

20-Terra Ceia muck. This is a nearly level, very
poorly drained organic soil on freshwater marsh areas.
Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black, well decomposed
organic material about 8 inches thick. The underlying
organic material extends to a depth of 53 inches. The
upper 27 inches is black, well decomposed organic
material. The next 18 inches is very dark grayish brown,
well decomposed organic material. Mineral material
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 3
inches is black mucky fine sand. The next 3 inches is
light brownish gray fine sand. The lower 21 inches is
dark gray and gray fine sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are Gator soils and
areas of similar soils in which the organic material is less
than 16 inches thick. Also included are small areas
where the organic material is more than 80 inches thick.
Included soils make up about 15 percent of any mapped
area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
covered with water for 3 to 6 months. The water table is
10 to 24 inches below the surface during extended dry
periods.
The available water capacity is medium. Natural fertility
is moderate. Permeability is rapid.
Natural vegetation consists of sawgrass, sand
cordgrass, and waxmyrtle.


This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness. In its natural condition it is not suitable for
cultivation, but with adequate water control it is well
suited to most vegetable crops and sugar cane. A well
designed and maintained water control system is
needed. The water control system should remove
excess water when crops are on the land and keep the
soil saturated with water at all other times. Fertilizers that
contain phosphates, potash, and minor elements are
needed. This soil needs high applications of lime. Water-
tolerant cover crops should be kept on the soil when it is
not in use for row crops.
Most improved grasses and clovers adapted to the
area grow well on this soil if water is properly controlled.
High yields of pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white
clover can be grown. Water control that maintains the
water table near the surface prevents excessive
oxidation of the organic horizons. Fertilizers high in
potash, phosphorus, and minor elements are needed.
Grazing should be controlled to permit maximum yields.
This soil is not suitable for citrus.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
forage production, the periods of high water may reduce
the grazing value of the site. This Terra Ceia soil is in the
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
This soil is not suitable for pine trees. It has severe
limitations for urban development and recreational uses
because of the ponding and high organic matter content.
This Terra Ceia soil is in capability subclass Illw.

22-Beaches. Beaches consist of narrow strips of
nearly level, mixed sand and shell fragments along the
Gulf of Mexico. These areas are covered with saltwater
at daily high tides. The areas are subject to movement
by the wind and tide and is bare of vegetation in most
places. The only vegetation is salt-tolerant plants.
Beaches are geographically associated with Canaveral
soils.
Beaches are used intensively for recreation during the
entire year. Homes, condominiums, beach cottages, and
motels have been built on the fringes of beaches in
many places.

23-Wulfert muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly
drained soil on broad tidal swamps. Slopes are smooth
and range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is muck that is dark reddish
brown to a depth of 12 inches and dark brown to a
depth of 36 inches. Beneath the muck is gray fine sand
with light gray streaks and about 10 percent shell
fragments.
Included with this soil in mapping, and making up
about 15 percent of the map unit, are small areas of


24





Charlotte County, Florida


Figure 5.-Needlegrass growing on a tidal marsh on Wulfert muck.


Kesson soils and soils similar to Wulfert soils but with
limestone at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
The water table fluctuates with the tide. Areas are
subject to daily tidal flooding.
The available water capacity is high in the organic
horizons and low in the horizons below. Natural fertility is
medium. Permeability is rapid.
Natural vegetation consists of American mangrove,
black mangrove, and needlegrass (fig. 5).
This soil has moderate potential for range plant
production. Saltwater marshes are on level sites where
tidal flow of saltwater and brackish water have a
significant effect on plant composition. When in good or
excellent condition, the saltwater marsh is dominated by
smooth cordgrass, marshhay cordgrass, seashore
saltgrass, and numerous other grasses and forbs. These
grasses and forbs provide high levels of palatable forage
for livestock grazing. Good grazing and burning
management is required to maintain these sites in their
most desirable condition. This Wulfert soil is in the Salt
Water Marsh range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development
and recreational uses. It is not suitable for cultivated
crops, pasture grasses, citrus, or woodland. The flood


hazard and high salt and sulfur content are limitations to
these uses.
This soil is in capability subclass VIIw.

24-Kesson fine sand. This is a nearly level, very
poorly drained soil on broad tidal swamps. Areas are
subject to tidal flooding. Slopes are smooth and range
from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is about 6 inches of sand
that contains shell fragments. The underlying layers are
fine sand that contains shell fragments, and they extend
to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 4 inches is
pale brown, the next 3 inches is light brownish gray, the
next 25 inches is light gray with dark gray streaks, and
the lower 42 inches is white.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Captiva
and Wulfert soils and soils that have organic surface
layers. Also included are soils that have loamy material
throughout. Included soils make up about 10 to 15
percent of any mapped area.
The water table fluctuates with the tide.
The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is
low. Permeability is moderately rapid or rapid.


25







Soil Survey


Natural vegetation consists of black mangrove, batis,
oxeye daisy, and American mangrove.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development,
and it is poorly suited to cultivated crops, pasture
grasses, citrus, and woodland because of the flood
hazard and high salt and sulfur content.
This Kesson soil is in capability subclass VIIIw.

25-St Augustine sand, organic substratum-Urban
land complex. This map unit consists of nearly level St.
Augustine, organic substratum, soils and areas of Urban
land. The St. Augustine, organic substratum, soils and
Urban land are so intermingled that they cannot be
separated at the scale used for mapping. Individual
areas range from about 10 to 100 acres.
About 50 to 65 percent of each mapped area is St.
Augustine, organic substratum, soils and about 20 to 35
percent is Urban land that is covered by houses and
other buildings and streets or other forms of pavement.
The remainder of the area consists of canals.
The St. Augustine, organic substratum, soils consist of
gray to pale brown sand with about 25 percent
multicolored shell fragments spread over organic layers
in marshes and mangrove swamps. Slopes are smooth
to slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
St. Augustine, organic substratum, soils do not have
an orderly sequence of soil layers in the material above
the organic horizons. They are a variable mixture of
sands and multicolored shell fragments. Thickness of the
fill material ranges from about 26 to 68 inches. Typically,
the surface layer is about 51 inches of mixed dark gray,
dark grayish brown, grayish brown, and gray sand with
about 25 percent multicolored shell fragments. Below
this to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark reddish
brown compressed muck.
Included in this complex are small areas of Kesson
soils and areas that have less than 20 inches of fill
material over organic soils. Also included are areas that
have fill material high in salt content and other areas that
contain fragments of former subsoil horizons. Several
areas have been included that do not have buildings or
pavement. Inclusions make up less than 15 percent of
most mapped areas.
The depth to the water table varies with the amount of
fill material and the extent of artificial drainage within any
mapped area. However, in most years, the water table is
24 to 48 inches below the surface of the fill material for
2 to 4 months. It is below a depth of 48 inches during
extended dry periods.
The available water capacity is low in the fill material
and high in the underlying organic material. Permeability
is estimated to be rapid. Natural fertility is low.
Most of the natural vegetation has been removed.
Scattered weeds occupy vacant lots. The soils are
poorly suited to most plants unless topsoil is spread over
the surface to make a suitable root zone.


These soils have severe limitations for most
community development and related uses. The
underlying organic material can cause subsidence
problems. The excessive permeability and high water
table could cause pollution of canals or ground water in
areas with septic tank absorption fields.
This complex has not been assigned to a capability
subclass.

26-Pineda fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil on sloughs. Slopes are smooth to slightly
concave and range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 1
inch thick. The subsurface layer is very pale brown fine
sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil
is brownish yellow fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
next 10 inches is strong brown fine sand. The next 6
inches is yellowish brown fine sand. The next 7 inches is
light gray fine sand with brownish yellow mottles. The
lower part of the subsoil is light brownish gray fine sandy
loam with light gray sandy intrusions that is about 18
inches thick. The substratum is light gray fine sand to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Wabasso, Valkaria, Felda, Hallandale, Boca, and
Malabar soils. Also included are small areas of Pineda
soils that are in higher positions on the landscape. Small
areas of Pineda, depressional, soils are also included.
Some areas of this soil are underlain by limestone or
shell fragments at a depth of 60 inches or more. In a few
places, a thin layer of very friable calcareous material is
at a depth of 10 to 30 inches, and in other places a thin
dark brown or black layer occurs at the base of the
subsurface layer. Included soils make up about 10 to 15
percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
months. It is at a depth of 10 and 40 inches for more
than 6 months, and it recedes to a depth of more than
40 inches during extended dry periods. During periods of
high rainfall, the soil is covered by slowly moving,
shallow water for periods of about 7 days to 1 month or
more (fig. 6).
The available water capacity is very low in the surface
and subsurface layers and the upper, sandy part of the
subsoil and medium in the lower, loamy part of the
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and the upper, sandy part
of the subsoil and slow or very slow in the lower, loamy
part of the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of pineland threeawn,
panicums, sedges, maidencane, waxmyrtle, South
Florida slash pine, and scattered clumps of sawpalmetto.
This soil has poor suitability for cultivated crops
because of wetness. With a complete water control
system, it is fairly suited to many fruit and vegetable
crops. A complete water control system removes excess







Charlotte County, Florida


Figure 6.-An area of Pineda fine sand during the summer rainy season. During this period, slowly moving water covers the surface in
undisturbed areas for about 7 to 30 days.


water rapidly and provides a means of applying
subsurface irrigation. Good soil management includes
crop rotations that keep the soil in close-growing cover
crops at least two-thirds of the time. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding. Fertilizers should be
applied according to the needs of the crop.
With proper water control, the soil has fair suitability
for citrus trees. Water control systems that maintain
good drainage to a depth of about 4 feet are needed.


Bedding and planting the trees on the beds help to
provide good surface drainage. A good cover of close-
growing vegetation between the trees protects the soil
from blowing when the trees are young. The trees
require regular applications of fertilizers and occasional
liming.
This soil is well suited to pastures and hay crops with
proper water control. It is well suited to pangolagrass,
bahiagrasses, and clovers. Excellent pastures of grass or


27







Soil Survey


grass-clover mixtures can be grown with good
management. Regular applications of fertilizer and
controlled grazing help to produce highest yields.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. Seedling mortality, equipment limitations, and plant
competition are the main management concerns. A
water control system is needed to obtain the potential.
South Florida slash pine is the best tree to plant.
This soil has a high potential for desirable range plant
production. The dominant forage consists of blue
maidencane, chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum.
Management practices should include deferred grazing.
This Pineda soil is in the Slough range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development
primarily because of the high water table.
This Pineda soil is in capability subclass Illw.

27-Pompano fine sand, depressional. This is a
nearly level, poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes
are concave and less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
inches thick. The substratum is fine sand to a depth of
80 inches or more. The upper 32 inches is light brownish
gray with few fine faint yellowish brown mottles. The
lower 45 inches is light gray.
Included with this soil in mapping, and making up 5 to
10 percent of the map unit, are small areas of Myakka,
Anclote, Malabar, and Valkaria soils.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
months, and it stands above the surface for about 3
months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than
5 months. The available water capacity is low. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid.
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation:
St.-Johnswort and waxmyrtle.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, improved
pasture, woodland, or citrus because of prolonged
ponding.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
forage production, the periods of high water can reduce
the grazing value of the site. This Pompano soil is in the
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for
septic tank absorption fields, dwellings without
basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
and streets.
This Pompano soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

28-Immokalee sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil in flatwoods areas. Slopes are smooth to
convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.


Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray sand in
the upper 5 inches and light gray sand in the lower 27
inches. The subsoil is sand to a depth of 69 inches. The
upper 14 inches is black and firm, the next 5 inches is
dark reddish brown, and the lower 14 inches is dark
yellowish brown. The substratum is very pale brown sand
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are EauGallie,
Myakka, Oldsmar, Smyrna, and Wabasso soils. Also
included are small areas of soils with a subsoil that is
low in organic matter content and less than 12 inches
thick. Included soils make up less than 15 percent of any
mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months
and 10 to 40 inches below the surface for 2 to 6 months.
It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
extended dry periods.
The available water capacity is medium in the subsoil
and very low in the surface and subsurface layers.
Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderate or moderately rapid
in the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, fetterbush,
pineland threeawn, and South Florida slash pine.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness and poor soil quality. The number of adapted
crops is limited unless very intensive management
practices are followed. With good water control and soil-
improving measures, this soil can be made suitable for
some vegetable crops (fig. 7). A water control system is
needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and
provide water through subsurface irrigation in dry
seasons. Row crops should be rotated with close-
growing, soil-improving crops. The rotation should
include the soil-improving crops on the land three-fourths
of the time. Seedbed preparation should include bedding
of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added
according to the need of the crops.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
management is used. In areas that are subject to
frequent freezing in winter, the soil is not suitable. This
soil is suitable for citrus only after a carefully designed
water control system has been installed that will maintain
the water table below a depth of 4 feet.
This soil is well suited to pastures. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well when
they are well managed. Water control measures are
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
rains. Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are
needed. Controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing
and weakening of the plants.
The potential productivity is moderate for South
Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
seedlings and in removing excess surface water. The
trees should be planted on beds and a vegetative cover


28







Charlotte County, Florida


Figure 7.-Cabbage planted on Immokalee sand.


maintained between the trees. Regular applications of
fertilizers and lime are needed.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
deferred grazing and brush control. This Immokalee soil
is in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the shallow water table.
This Immokalee soil is in capability subclass IVw.

29-Punta fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil that occurs on slightly elevated landscapes
on flatwoods. Slopes are smooth and range from 1 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 53 inches


thick. The upper part is light brownish gray fine sand
about 7 inches thick, and the lower part is white fine
sand about 46 inches thick. The subsoU to a depth of 80
inches or more is black fine sand with streaks of light
gray and white fine sand extending into the upper part.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3
months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 6
months. During extended dry periods the water table
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches.
Natural fertility is low. The available water capacity is
low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and moderate in the subsoil.
Included with this soil in mapping are Immokalee,
Myakka, and Smyrna soils. Also included are small areas
of soils with a subsoil layer that is firm to hard. These
soils make up less than 10 percent of any mapped area.


29






Soil Survey


Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation of
sawpalmetto, South Florida slash pine, pineland
threeawn, waxmyrtle, and some scrub oak. Some areas
of this soil have been cleared for pasture.
The suitability for cultivated crops is poor because of
wetness and high acidity. Very intense management
practices must be followed to obtain good results for a
limited number of adapted crops. With adequate water-
control measures and soil-improving measures, this soil
can be made suitable for some vegetable crops.
The suitability for pasture is good if proper
management practices are applied. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well under
well managed conditions. Water control is needed to
remove excess surface water.
With proper water control, the soil is good for citrus
trees. Water control systems that maintain good
drainage to a depth of about 4 feet are needed. Bedding
and planting the trees on the beds help to provide good
surface drainage. A good cover of close-growing
vegetation between the trees protects the soil from
blowing when the trees are young. The trees require
regular applications of fertilizers and occasional liming.
The production potential for South Florida slash pine
on this soil is moderate. However, adequate water
control is needed before the potential can be attained.
Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
competition are the main management concerns.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
deferred grazing and brush control. This Punta soil is in
the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the high water table and sandy texture.
This Punta soil is in capability subclass IVw.

33-Oldsmar sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil on low, broad flatwoods areas. Slopes are
smooth to slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 3
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray and light gray
sand about 39 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil
is very dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The lower
part of the subsoil is yellowish brown and mixed light
brownish gray and brown fine sandy loam about 11
inches thick. Pale brown sand extends to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Wabasso, Immokalee, and EauGallie soils. Some areas
also have limestone at a depth of 70 to 80 inches below
the surface. Included soils make up about 10 to 15
percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 3
months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than


6 months, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40
inches during extended dry periods.
The available water capacity is low in the surface layer
and medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers, moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and
slow or very slow in the lower part of the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, South
Florida slash pine, pineland threeawn, and
meadowbeauty.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops primarily
because of wetness. The number of adapted crops is
limited unless very intensive management practices are
followed. With good water-control measures and soil-
improving measures, the soil can be made well suited for
some vegetable crops. A water control system is needed
to remove excess water in wet seasons and provide
water through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row
crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil-
improving crops. The rotation should include the soil-
improving crops on the land three-fourths of the time.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
need of the crops.
The soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
management is used. It is suitable for citrus only after a
carefully designed water control system has been
installed that will maintain the water table below a depth
of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds and a
vegetative cover maintained between the trees. Regular
applications of fertilizers and lime are needed.
The soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they
are well managed (fig. 8). Water control measures are
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
rains. Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are
needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent
overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
This soil has a moderately high potential productivity
for South Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in
establishing seedlings and in removing excess surface
water.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
deferred grazing and brush control. This Oldsmar soil is
in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
The soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the high water table.
This Oldsmar soil is in capability subclass IVw.

34-Malabar fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil on sloughs. Slopes are smooth to concave
and range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The next 12 inches is light gray and


30






Charlotte County, Florida


Figure 8.-Improved pasture on Oldsmar sand. Bahiagrass grows well on this soil under good management.


very pale brown fine sand. Below this are a 16-inch layer
of light yellowish brown fine sand with yellow mottles
and a 9-inch layer of brownish yellow fine sand. The
subsoil layer is gray loamy fine sand about 9 inches thick
with large yellowish brown mottles. The next 8 inches is
gray fine sandy loam with large brownish yellow mottles.
Below is light gray loamy fine sand with yellowish brown
mottles to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Oldsmar, Pineda, Pompano, and Valkaria soils and
scattered areas of Malabar soils with limestone at a
depth of 60 to 80 inches. In addition, there are scattered
areas on slightly higher positions that contain a thin marl
layer at a depth of less than 40 inches. Included soils
make up about 10 to 15 percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4
months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches below the
surface for more than 6 months, and it recedes to a
depth of more than 40 inches during extended dry
periods. During periods of high rainfall, the soil is
covered by a shallow layer of slowly moving water for
periods of about 7 days to 1 month or more.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and the upper part of the subsoil and
medium in the lower part of the subsoil. Natural fertility is


low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and the upper part of the subsoil and slow or very
slow in the lower part of the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of pineland threeawn,
waxmyrtle, scattered sawpalmetto, maidencane,
panicums, and South Florida slash pine.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness and poor soil quality. The number of adapted
crops is limited unless very intensive management
practices are followed. With good water-control
measures and soil-improving measures, the soil can be
made well suited for some vegetable crops.
A water control system is needed to remove excess
water in wet seasons and provide water through
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row crops should
be rotated with close-growing, soil-improving crops. The
rotation should include the soil-improving crops on the
land three-fourths of the time. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime
should be added according to the need of the crops.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
management is used. It is suitable for citrus only after a
carefully designed water control system has been
installed that will maintain the water table below a depth
of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds and a


31






Soil Survey


vegetative cover maintained between the trees. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pastures. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they
are well managed. Water-control measures are needed
to remove excess surface water after heavy rains.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing and
weakening of the plants.
Under a high level management, this soil has
moderately high potential productivity for South Florida
slash pine. Bedding of the rows is needed to elevate the
seedlings above the surface water. Drainage is also
needed to remove excess surface water.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
deferred grazing and brush control. This Malabar soil is
in the Slough range site.
The soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the high water table.
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass IVw.

35-Wabasso sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil on flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to slightly
convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of
24 inches. The upper 11 inches is light brownish gray
with dark grayish brown stains along root channels, and
the lower 7 inches is light gray with dark grayish brown
stains. The subsoil is about 38 inches thick. The upper 4
inches is dark brown sand with few iron concretions. The
next 8 inches is brownish yellow sandy clay loam with
light brownish gray, light gray, and reddish brown
mottles. The lower 26 inches is light gray sandy clay
loam with pale olive and olive mottles and stains along
root channels. Below is light gray fine sandy loam with
olive mottles extending to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, EauGallie, Hallandale, Felda, Myakka, and
Oldsmar soils. Also included are soils, similar to this
Wabasso soil, with a surface horizon that is more than 8
inches thick. Included soils make up about 10 to 15
percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is less than 10 inches below the surface for 2 to 4
months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches below the
surface for more than 6 months. It recedes to a depth of
more than 40 inches during extended dry periods.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the
subsoil, and slow or very slow in the lower part of the
subsoil.


Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, South
Florida slash pine, pineland threeawn, cabbage palm,
and bluestem.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness. The number of adapted crops is very limited
unless intensive water control measures are used. With
a water control system that is designed to remove
excess water in wet seasons and provide subsurface
irrigation in dry seasons, the soil is well suited to many
kinds of flower and vegetable crops. Good management,
in addition to water control, includes a crop rotation with
close-growing, soil-improving crops on the land at least
two-thirds of the time. Fertilizer and lime should be
added according to the need of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees because of
wetness. With good drainage it is moderately suited to
oranges and grapefruit. Drainage should be adequate to
remove excess water from the soil rapidly to a depth of
about 4 feet after heavy rains. The trees should be
planted on beds. A cover of close-growing vegetation
between the trees protects the soil from blowing when it
is dry and from washing during heavy rains. The trees
require regular applications of fertilizer and occasional
applications of lime. Highest yields require irrigation
through the water control system or by sprinklers in
seasons of low rainfall.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are well adapted
and grow well if they are well managed. They require
simple drainage to remove excess surface water in times
of high rainfall. They also require regular use of fertilizer
and lime. Carefully controlling grazing helps to maintain
healthy plants for highest yields.
The potential productivity for South Florida slash pine
is moderately high. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
seedlings and in removing excess surface water.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
deferred grazing and brush control. This Wabasso soil is
in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the high water table.
This Wabasso soil is in capability subclass Illw.

36--mmokalee-Urban land complex. This map unit
consists of nearly level Immokalee fine sand and areas
of Urban land. The areas of Immokalee soil and Urban
land are so intermingled that they could not be
separated at the scale used for mapping.
About 55 to 75 percent of each mapped area consists
of nearly level Immokalee soil or Immokalee soil that has
been reworked or reshaped. Typically, the surface layer
is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about 31 inches
thick. The subsoil is fine sand about 33 inches thick. The


32







Charlotte County, Florida


upper 4 inches is black and friable, the next 6 inches is
dark reddish brown, and the lower 23 inches is dark
brown. The substratum is brown fine sand that extends
to a depth of more than 80 inches.
About 15 to 50 percent of each mapped area is Urban
land in the form of houses, streets, driveways, buildings,
parking lots, and other related uses.
Areas of this soil that have been modified by grading
and shaping are not as extensive in the older
communities as in the newer ones. Most areas have
drainage ditches that alter the depth to the seasonal
high water table. In undrained areas, the water table is
within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months in most
years. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during the dry seasons.
Myakka, Pompano, and Smyrna soils make up as
much as 15 percent of the land not covered by urban
facilities. A few mapped areas with as high as 70 percent
or as low as 10 percent Urban land have been included.
Present land use precludes the use of this soil for
cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture.
This complex has not been assigned to a capability
subclass.

37-Satellite fine sand. This is a nearly level,
somewhat poorly drained soil on low knolls and ridges.
Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
inches thick. The substratum extends to a depth of 80
inches or more and is white and light gray fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Immokalee, Myakka, Daytona, and Pompano soils.
Included soils generally make up less than 15 percent of
any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, this soil has a
water table at a depth of 18 to 40 inches for 2 to 6
months and at a depth of 40 to 72 inches for 6 months
or more.
The available water capacity is very low. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is very rapid.
Natural vegetation consists of Florida rosemary, sand
liveoak, sawpalmetto, South Florida slash pine, and
pineland threeawn.
This soil is not suitable for most cultivated crops, but
with intensive management a few specialty crops can be
grown. The adapted crops are limited unless intensive
management practices are followed.
The suitability for citrus is poor. Planting the trees on
beds helps to lower the effective depth of the water
table. Irrigation during periods of low rainfall helps to
insure good yields.
The suitability for growing improved pasture grasses is
fair. Bahiagrass and pangolagrass will grow if well
managed. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent
overgrazing and weakening of the plants.


This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine
trees. South Florida slash pine is the best tree to plant.
Seedling mortality is the main management concern.
This soil has low potential for desirable range plant
production. The vegetative community consists of a
dense woody understory including sawpalmetto, Florida
rosemary, and scrub oak. Although this site is seldom
grazed by livestock, it does furnish winter protection.
This Satellite soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range site.
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities,
dwellings with and without basements, small commercial
buildings, and recreational uses. Proper water control
measures and surface stabilization are needed for
recreational areas. Mounding is needed for septic tank
absorption fields. Excess permeability can cause
pollution of ground water in areas of septic tank
absorption fields.
This Satellite soil is in capability subclass Vis.

38-Isles fine sand, slough. This is a nearly level,
poorly drained soil on sloughs. Slopes are smooth to
slightly concave and range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
to a depth of 33 inches. The upper 8 inches is light
brownish gray, the next 8 inches is pale brown, and the
lower 11 inches is very pale brown. The subsoil extends
to a depth of 51 inches. The upper 4 inches is brown
sandy clay loam with yellowish brown mottles. The lower
14 inches is fine sandy loam with yellowish brown
mottles and pockets of sandy clay loam. Beneath the
subsoil at a depth of 51 inches is a layer of fractured
limestone bedrock.
Included with this soil in mapping, and making up
about 15 to 20 percent of the map unit, are areas of
Boca, Malabar, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Wabasso soils.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months
and 10 to 40 inches below the surface for about 9
months. During periods of high rainfall, the soil is
covered by a shallow layer of slowly moving water for
about 1 to 7 or more days. Many mapped areas of this
soil in the Port Charlotte area have artificial drainage,
which has altered the normal seasonal high water table
and water movement over the surface.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palms, water
oak, and maidencane.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness. With a complete water control system, it is well
suited to many fruit and vegetable crops. A complete
water control system should remove excess water
rapidly and provide a means of applying subsurface
irrigation. Soil improving crops are recommended.


33







Soil Survey


Seedbed preparation should include bedding. Fertilizers
should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
With proper water control, the soil is well suited to
citrus. Water control systems that maintain good
drainage to a depth of about 4 feet are needed. Bedding
and planting the trees on the beds helps to provide good
surface drainage. A good cover of close-growing
vegetation between the trees helps to protect the soil
from blowing when the trees are young. The trees
require regular applications of fertilizers and occasional
liming.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. It is
well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clovers.
Excellent pastures of grass or grass-clover mixtures can
be grown with good management. Regular applications
of fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for highest
yields.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
However, adequate water control is needed before the
potential can be attained. Equipment limitations, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are the main
management concerns. South Florida slash pine is the
best tree to plant.
This soil has high potential for desirable range plant
production. The dominant forage consists of blue
maidencane, chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum.
Management practices should include deferred grazing.
This Isles soil is in the Slough range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the high water table.
This Isles soil is in capability subclass IVw.

39-Isles fine sand, depressional. This is a nearly
level, very poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes are
smooth to concave and less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is about 5
inches of light gray fine sand. Next is 11 inches of very
pale brown fine sand with yellowish brown mottles. The
subsoil is 26 inches of gray fine sandy loari with
brownish yellow mottles and pockets of light brownish
gray loamy sand. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of 47
inches.
Included with this soil in mapping, and making up
about 20 percent of the map unit, are small areas of
Felda, Pineda, Pompano, and Malabar soils; soils similar
to Isles soils but with loamy sand subsoil layers underlain
by limestone at a depth of 40 to 72 inches; and soils
similar to Isles soils but with limestone at a depth of less
than 40 inches.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is above the surface for 3 to 6 months. It is within
a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 4 months. The water
table recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
extended dry periods.


The available water capacity is low. Permeability is
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate
in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palm, cypress,
fern, water oak, melaleuca, and pop ash.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
forage production, the periods of high water can reduce
the grazing value of the site. This Isles soil is in the
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
Because of ponding, this soil has severe limitations for
urban and recreational uses, and it is not suitable for
crops, trees, or improved pastures. The suitability for
crops or pasture is poor because of the lack of suitable
drainage outlets. Areas of this soil provide excellent
habitat for wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
This Isles soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

40-Anclote sand, depressional. This is a nearly
level, very poorly drained soil in isolated depressions.
Slopes are smooth to concave and less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is about 22 inches thick.
The upper 8 inches is black sand, and the lower 14
inches is black sand with common light gray pockets and
streaks throughout. The substratum is sand to a depth of
80 inches or more. The upper 18 inches is light brownish
gray, and the lower 40 inches is light gray.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pompano and Floridana soils. Included soils make up
about 10 to 15 percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
ponded for more than 6 months.
The available water capacity is medium in the surface
layer and low in the substratum. Natural fertility is
medium. Permeability is rapid.
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation
consisting of cypress, leatherleaf fern, waxmyrtle,
pickerelweed, and greenbrier.
In its natural state, this soil is not suitable for crops,
trees, or improved pasture. It has very low suitability for
crops and pasture and severe limitations for urban and
recreational development mainly because of the lack of
suitable drainage outlets in most places, which makes an
adequate drainage system difficult to establish. Areas of
this soil provide excellent habitat for wading birds and
other wetland wildlife.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
forage production, the periods of high water may reduce
the grazing value of the site. This Anclote soil is in the
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.


34







Charlotte County, Florida


This Anclote soil is in capability subclass VIIw.

41-Valkaria fine sand, depressional. This is a
nearly level, poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes
are concave and less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 1 inch thick. The subsurface layer is about 4
inches of light gray fine sand. The subsoil is fine sand
about 33 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is brownish
yellow, the next 16 inches is yellow, and the lower 13
inches is light yellowish brown. The substratum is pale
brown fine sand with few fine faint brown mottles to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Anclote, Malabar, and Pompano soils. Inclusions make
up about 5 to 8 percent of each mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for about 6
months, and the soil is ponded for about 3 months. The
water table is between 10 and 40 inches below the
surface most of the rest of the year, except in extended
dry periods.
The available water capacity is very low. Permeability
is rapid. Natural fertility is very low.
Native vegetation consists of scrub willow, scattered
cypress, and water-tolerant grasses.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
forage production, the periods of high water may reduce
the grazing value of the site. This Valkaria soil is in the
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
Because of ponding, this soil has severe limitations for
urban development and recreational uses, and it is not
suitable for crops, trees, or improved pastures. It is
unsuitable for crops or pasture because of the lack of
suitable drainage outlets in most places. This makes an
adequate drainage system difficult to establish. Areas of
this soil provide excellent habitat for wading birds and
other wetland wildlife.
This Valkaria soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

42-Wabasso sand, limestone substratum. This is a
nearly level, poorly drained soil on broad flatwoods
areas. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 3
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand about 16
inches thick. The upper 10 inches is gray and the lower
6 inches is light gray. The subsoil is about 32 inches
thick. The upper 2 inches is dark brown sand that is well
coated with organic matter. The next 2 inches is dark
reddish brown friable sand. The next 14 inches is brown
loose sand with dark brown streaks along root channels.
The lower 14 inches is light brownish gray, firm fine
sandy loam with light olive brown mottles. A hard


fractured limestone ledge and boulders are at a depth of
51 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Myakka, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils on similar
landscape positions. Also included are similar soils with
limestone at a depth of less than 40 inches or at a depth
of more than 60 inches. In addition there are similar soils
that have iron-cemented sandstone in the subsoil.
Included soils make up about 15 percent of any mapped
area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3
months. It is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for 2 to 4
months and is below the limestone during extended dry
periods.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and the upper part of the subsoil and
medium in the lower part of the subsoil. Natural fertility is
low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and the upper part of the subsoil. It is slow in the
lower part of the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, South
Florida slash pine, dwarf huckleberry, cabbage palm,
gallberry, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness. The number of adapted crops is very limited
unless intensive water control measures are used. With
a water control system that is designed to remove
excess water in wet seasons and provide subsurface
irrigation in dry seasons, these soils are well suited to
many kinds of flower and vegetable crops. Good
management, in addition to water control, includes crop
rotations with close-growing, soil-improving crops on the
land at least two-thirds of the time. Fertilizer and lime
should be added according to the need of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees because of
wetness. With good drainage it is moderately suited to
oranges and grapefruit. Drainage should be adequate to
remove excess water from the soil rapidly to a depth of
about 4 feet after heavy rains. The trees should be
planted on beds. A cover of close-growing vegetation
between the trees is needed to protect the soil from
blowing when it is dry and from washing during heavy
rains. The trees require regular applications of fertilizer
and occasional applications of lime. Highest yields
require irrigation through the water control system or by
sprinklers in seasons of low rainfall.
This soil is well suited to pastures and hay crops.
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are well adapted
and grow well if they are well managed. They require
simple drainage to remove excess surface water in times
of high rainfall. They also require regular use of fertilizers
and lime. Grazing should be carefully controlled to
maintain healthy plants for highest yields.
The potential productivity is moderately high for South
Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
seedlings and in removing excess surface water.


35






Soil Survey


This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
deferred grazing and brush control. This Wabasso soil is
in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the high water table.
This Wabasso soil is in capability subclass Illw.

43-Smyrna fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil on flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to slightly
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand about 9
inches thick. The upper 2 inches is very dark grayish
brown, the next 3 inches is dark brown, and the lower 4
inches is mixed dark brown and brown. Extending to a
depth of 80 inches or more is mottled light gray, pale
brown, and white fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping, and making up
about 15 percent of any mapped area, are EauGallie,
Immokalee, Myakka, and Oldsmar soils. Also included
are soils that differ from the Smyrna soil by having a thin
loamy sand horizon in the substratum.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3
months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 6
months. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during extended dry periods.
The available water capacity is very low in the surface
and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.
Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderate to moderately rapid
in the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, South
Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, inkberry, dwarf
huckleberry, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness and poor soil quality. The number of adapted
crops is limited unless very intensive management
practices are followed. With good water-control and soil-
improving measures, the soil can be made suitable for
some vegetable crops. A water control system is needed
to remove excess water in wet seasons and provide
water through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row
crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil-
improving crops. The rotation should include the soil-
improving crops on the land three-fourths of the time.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
need of the crops.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
management is used. Areas subject to frequent freezing
in winter are not suitable. The soil is suitable for citrus
only after a carefully designed water control system has


been installed that will maintain the water table below 4
feet. The trees should be planted on beds and a
vegetative cover maintained between the trees. Regular
applications of fertilizers and lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pastures. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrasses, and white clover grow well if
they are well managed. Water-control measures are
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent
overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
The soil has moderately high potential productivity for
South Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in
establishing seedlings and in removing excess surface
water.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
deferred grazing and brush control. This Smyrna soil is in
the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
The soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the high water table.
This Smyrna soil is in capability subclass IVw.

44-Malabar fine sand, depressional. This is a
nearly level, poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes
are concave and are less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is 4 inches thick. The upper
1 inch is black fine sand that is high in organic matter
content. The lower 3 inches is dark gray fine sand. The
subsurface layer is sand to a depth of 44 inches. The
upper 3 inches is very pale brown. The next 11 inches is
yellow, iron-coated sand grains. The next 10 inches is
very pale brown with common coatings of iron on the
sand grains. The lower 16 inches is light gray. The
subsoil is 23 inches of olive gray sandy loam with dark
bluish gray mottles. Below is sandy loam with marl and
shell fragments.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Felda, Pineda, Pompano, and Valkaria soils. Also
included are small areas of similar soils with limestone at
a depth of more than 60 inches. Included soils make up
about 10 to 15 percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
ponded for about 4 to 6 months or more. The water
table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 4 to 6 months.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and slow or very slow in the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of baldcypress, waxmyrtle,
St.-Johnswort, and water-tolerant grasses.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from


36






Charlotte County, Florida


cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
forage production, the periods of high water may reduce
the grazing value of the site. This Malabar soil is in the
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, improved
pasture, or citrus and it has severe limitations for urban
and recreational uses because of prolonged ponding.
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

45-Copeland sandy loam, depressional. This is a
low, nearly level, very poorly drained soil in depressions.
Slopes are concave and less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is about 8 inches of very
dark gray sandy loam. The subsoil is very dark gray
sandy loam about 12 inches thick. Below this is 8 inches
of light brownish gray sandy clay loam with soft calcium
carbonate throughout. Fractured limestone bedrock is at
a depth of 28 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chobee, Anclote, Boca, Felda, Floridana, and Pompano
soils. In addition, soils similar to Copeland soils but with
a mixture of fine sand and shell fragments to a depth of
60 inches or more are included. Areas with limestone at
a depth of more than 40 inches are also included.
Included soils generally make up less than 15 percent of
any mapped area.
Under natural conditions, the water table is above the
surface for 3 to 6 months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40
inches for about 3 to 6 months.
The available water capacity is medium. Natural fertility
is medium. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
moderate in the subsoil.
Natural vegetation is cypress, waxmyrtle, cabbage
palm, fern, redroot, and other water-tolerant plants.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
forage production, the periods of high water levels may
reduce the grazing value of the site. This Copeland soil
is in the Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
In its natural state, this soil is not suitable for crops,
trees, or improved pasture. The suitability for crops and
pasture is poor because of the lack of suitable drainage
outlets in most places, which makes an adequate
drainage system difficult to establish. Areas of this soil
provide excellent habitat for wading birds and other
wetland wildlife.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the high water table.
This Copeland soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

48-St. Augustine sand. This is a nearly level,
somewhat poorly drained soil formed by fill and
earthmoving operations. Most areas are former sloughs
and depressions or other low areas that have been filled


with sandy material. Slopes are smooth to slightly
convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
There is no definite horizonation because the soil has
been mixed during movement and reworking of the fill
material. Typically, the upper 30 inches consists of mixed
very dark grayish brown, very dark gray, dark gray, and
gray sand with a few lenses of silt loam and about 20
percent multicolored shell fragments less than 3 inches
in diameter. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more
is undisturbed fine sand. The upper 10 inches is dark
grayish brown with about 15 percent multicolored shell
fragments. The lower 40 inches is light gray with about
30 percent multicolored shell fragments.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas where the
fill material is underlain by organic soils and other areas
where the mixed fill material is less than 20 inches thick.
Also included are areas that contain lenses or pockets of
organic material throughout the fill. In addition, there are
small scattered areas with more than 35 percent shells
or shell fragments within the fill. Several areas with some
urban development or in related uses have been
included.
This soil has a water table that varies with the amount
of fill material and artificial drainage within any mapped
area. However, in most years, the water table is 24 to 36
inches below the surface of the fill material for 2 to 4
months. It is below a depth of 60 inches during extended
dry periods.
The available water capacity is low. Permeability is
estimated to be rapid. Natural fertility is low.
Most of the natural vegetation has been removed.
However, the existing vegetation consists of cabbage
palms and various scattered weeds.
This soil is poorly suited to most plants unless topsoil
is spread over the surface to make a suitable root zone.
This soil has severe limitations for most urban and
recreational uses. The sandy nature of the fill material,
the high water table, and excessive permeability can
cause pollution of ground water in areas with septic tank
absorption fields.
This St. Augustine soil is in capability subclass VIIs.

49-Felda fine sand, depressional. This is a nearly
level, poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes are
concave and less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layers extend to a depth of
35 inches. The upper 13 inches is grayish brown fine
sand and the lower 18 inches is light gray fine sand with
yellowish brown mottles. The subsoil is about 17 inches
thick. The upper 6 inches is gray sandy loam and the
lower 11 inches is sandy clay loam with many yellowish
brown and strong brown mottles. Below this is light gray
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Anclote, Boca, Malabar, Pineda, Pompano, Winder, and


37






Soil Survey


Floridana soils. Included soils make up about 10 to 15
percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
ponded for about 3 to 6 months or more. The water
table is within a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 4 to 6
months.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate or moderately rapid in
the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of baldcypress, waxmyrtle,
and water-tolerant grasses and weeds.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
forage production, the periods of high water may reduce
the grazing value of the site. This Felda soil is in the
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, improved
pasture, or citrus because of prolonged ponding.
This soil has severe limitations for urban and
recreational uses because of prolonged ponding.
This Felda soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

50-Oldsmar fine sand, limestone substratum. This
is a nearly level, poorly drained soil in the flatwoods.
Slopes are smooth to slightly convex and range from 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
to a depth of 34 inches. The upper 14 inches is light
brownish gray, and the lower 12 inches is white with
grayish brown stains along root channels. The subsoil is
about 26 inches thick. The upper 8 inches is dark
reddish brown fine sand. The next 7 inches is dark
brown fine sand with dark reddish brown fragments. The
lower 11 inches is olive sandy clay loam with olive
mottles and olive, black, and grayish stains along root
channels. Hard, fractured limestone is at a depth of 60
inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Wabasso and Immokalee soils and of Oldsmar soils that
do not have limestone within a depth of 80 inches. Also
included are soils similar to the Oldsmar soil but with
limestone at a depth of 40 to 60 inches. Included soils
make up about 10 to 15 percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months
and 10 to 40 inches below the surface for more than 6
months. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during extended dry periods.
The available capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and


subsurface layers, moderately slow in the upper part of
the subsoil, and slow or very slow in the lower part.
In uncleared areas, the natural vegetation consists of
sawpalmetto, South Florida slash pine, inkberry, and
pineland threeawn.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
South Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in
establishing seedlings and removing excess water.
This soil has high potential for desirable range plant
production. The dominant forage is creeping bluestem,
chalky bluestem, and blue maidencane. Management
practices should include deferred grazing and brush
control. This Oldsmar soil is in the Cabbage Palm
Flatwoods range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the high water table.
This Oldsmar soil is in capability subclass IVw.

51-Floridana sand, depressional. This is a nearly
level, very poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes are
concave and less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 22
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray
sand about 17 inches thick. The subsoil is olive gray fine
sandy loam to a depth of 54 inches. Below is light
brownish gray sand with pockets of olive gray loamy
sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Anclote, Felda, and Winder soils and soils similar to the
Floridana soil but with a black surface layer thicker than
24 inches or with the upper boundary of the subsoil
below a depth of 40 inches. Included soils make up
about 10 to 15 percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is above the surface for 3 to 6 months. It is 10 to
40 inches below the surface during extended dry
periods.
The available capacity is medium in the surface layer
and subsoil and low in the subsurface layer. Natural
fertility is medium. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and slow or very slow in the
subsoil.
Natural vegetation is St.-Johpswort, pickerelweed,
cypress, sedges, weeds, and other water tolerant plants.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
forage production, the periods of high water levels may
reduce the grazing value of the site. This Floridana soil is
in the Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, improved
pasture, or citrus because of prolonged ponding.
The soil has severe limitations for urban and
recreational uses because of prolonged ponding.
This Floridana soil is in capability subclass Vllw.


38






Charlotte County, Florida


53-Myakka fine sand, depressional. This is a nearly
level, poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes are
smooth to concave and less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 3
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 26
inches thick. The upper 4 inches is light gray, and the
lower 22 inches is light brownish gray. The subsoil is fine
sand about 17 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is dark
brown with grayish brown streaks, and the sand grains
are well coated with organic matter. The lower 11 inches
is very dark brown with many well coated sand grains.
Below this, extending to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
brown fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Anclote, Floridana, Immokalee, Oldsmar, Pompano,
Valkaria, and Wabasso soils. Also included are similar
soils with weakly expressed sandy subsoil horizons
within 51 inches of the surface. In addition, similar soils
that have a black surface layer more than 10 inches
thick are included. Included soils make up about 10
percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
ponded for about 3 to 6 months. The water is at a depth
of 10 to 40 inches for about 3 to 6 months.
The available water capacity is very low in the surface
and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.
Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderate to moderately rapid
in the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of scattered cypress and
of melaleuca, St.-Johnswort, sedges, maidencane, sand
cordgrass, and waxmyrtle.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
forage production, the periods of high water can reduce
the grazing value of the site. This Myakka soil is in the
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
Because of ponding, this soil is not suitable for crops,
trees, or improved pasture, and it has severe limitations
for urban and recreational uses. The soil lacks suitable
drainage outlets in most places, which makes an
adequate drainage system difficult to establish. Areas of
this soil provide excellent habitat for wading birds and
wetland wildlife.
This Myakka soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

55-Cocoa fine sand. This is a nearly level to gently
sloping, moderately well drained soil on ridges. Slopes
are smooth to slightly convex and range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is brown fine sand about 3
inches thick. The subsurface layer is reddish yellow fine
sand about 10 inches thick. The next layer is yellowish
red fine sand about 4 inches thick. The next 10 inches is


reddish yellow fine sand followed by 4 inches of strong
brown fine sand. Fractured limestone bedrock is at a
depth of 31 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca and Hallandale soils and soils similar to Cocoa
soils but with a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40
inches. Also included are small areas of similar soils with
a loamy subsoil and limestone within 40 inches of the
surface and sandy soils that do not have a clay increase
and have limestone at a depth of 10 to 40 inches.
Included soils make up about 15 percent of any mapped
area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 24 inches of the surface for 1 to 2 months
and at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1 to 2 months. It
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
extended dry periods.
The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is
low. Permeability is rapid.
Natural vegetation consists of bluejack oak, South
Florida slash pine, sawpalmetto, bluestem, and pineland
threeawn.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
poor soil quality and depth to limestone. The number of
adapted crops is limited unless very intensive
management practices are followed.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
management practices are followed. It is suitable for
citrus only after a carefully designed water control
system has been installed that will maintain the water
table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be
planted on beds and a vegetative cover maintained
between the trees. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed.
This soil is moderately suited to pastures.
Pangolagrass and bahiagrass grow well if they are well
managed. Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are
needed. Controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing
and weakening of the plants.
The potential productivity is moderately high for South
Florida slash pine. Seedling mortality and equipment
limitations are the main restricting features.
This soil has moderately low potential for desirable
range plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
bluestem, indiangrass, and hairy panicum. The quantity
and quality of native forage production are low because
of low natural fertility. As a result, cattle do not readily
utilize this site if other sites are available. Management
practices have little effect on native forage production.
This Cocoa soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
range site.
This soil has severe limitations for most sanitary
facilities and moderate limitations for most building site
development and recreational uses due to the high water
table and moderate depth to bedrock.
This Cocoa soil is in capability subclass IVs.


39






Soil Survey


56-Isles muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly
drained soil on tidal swamps. Slopes are smooth and
range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the upper surface layer is dark reddish
brown muck about 5 inches thick. Next is 6 inches of
very dark grayish brown mucky fine sand. The
subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand with
brownish gray mottles to a depth of 39 inches. The
subsoil is 8 inches of grayish brown fine sandy loam with
light olive brown mottles. Fractured limestone bedrock is
at a depth of 47 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Kesson, and Wulfert soils. Also included are areas
of sulfidic soils that are loamy throughout and have
limestone at a depth of less than 40 inches. In addition
are soils similar to Isles soils that are sandy throughout
or that have limestone at a depth of less than 40 inches.
Included soils make up about 15 percent of any mapped
area.
The water table fluctuates with the tide. This soil is
subject to tidal flooding.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of red and black
mangrove, batis, and sea purslane.
This soil has moderate potential for range plant
production. Saltwater marshes are located on level sites
where tidal flow of salt and brackish water have a
significant effect on plant composition. When in good or
excellent condition, the saltwater marsh is dominated by
smooth cordgrass, marshhay cordgrass, seashore
saltgrass, and numerous other grasses and forbs. These
grasses and forbs provide a high level of palatable
forage for livestock grazing. Good grazing and burning
management is required to maintain these sites in their
most desirable condition. This Isles soil is in the Salt
Water Marsh range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban and
recreational uses, and it is not suitable for cultivated
crops, pasture grasses, citrus, or woodland because of
the tidal flooding and high sodium and sulfur content.
This Isles soil is in capability subclass VIIIw.

57-Boca fine sand, tidal. This is a nearly level,
poorly drained, saline soil that is subject to tidal flooding.
It is in coastal, tidal areas. Some areas are now
artificially drained and are subjected to tidal flooding only
on rare occasions. Slopes are concave and less than 1
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 12
inches of light gray fine sand with very dark gray and
dark gray mottles. The subsoil is about 15 inches thick.
The upper 9 inches is very dark grayish brown fine sand
with dark gray and brown mottles, and the lower 6


inches is gray fine sandy loam with dark yellowish brown
and yellowish brown mottles and iron concretions in the
lower 4 inches. A hard, fractured limestone ledge and
boulders are at a depth of 32 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Hallandale, and Wabasso soils on similar positions
and Isles soils on slightly lower positions. Included soils
make up about 15 percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for more than 6
months.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and the upper part of the subsoil and
medium or high in the lower part of the subsoil. Natural
fertility is very low because of the excess sodium
throughout the profile. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and the upper part of the subsoil
and moderate in the lower part of the subsoil.
Most of the acreage of this map unit remains in natural
vegetation consisting of buttonbush, sea daisy, seashore
saltgrass, saltwort, scattered black and white mangrove,
Brazilian pepper, and scattered cabbage palm. Some
areas have been cleared and are being converted to
residential and recreational uses.
This soil is not suitable for cultivation because of
excess salts.
This soil has moderate potential for range plant
production. Saltwater marshes are on level sites where
tidal flow of saltwater and brackish water have a
significant effect on plant composition. When in good
and excellent condition, the saltwater marsh is
dominated by smooth cordgrass, marshhay cordgrass,
seashore saltgrass, and numerous other grasses and
forbs. These grasses and forbs provide high levels of
palatable forage for livestock grazing. Good grazing and
burning management is required to maintain these sites
in their most desirable condition. This Boca soil is in the
Salt Water Marsh range site.
This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
absorption fields, dwellings of all types, and local roads
and streets. However, with adequate water control, such
as ditching and diking, and additions of fill material,
these limitations are somewhat reduced.
This Boca soil is in capability subclass Vlllw.

59-Urban land. Urban land consists of areas that are
more than 85 percent covered with parking lots, airports,
shopping centers, large buildings, streets, and sidewalks
where the natural soil cannot be observed. Unoccupied
areas are mostly lawns, vacant lots, and playgrounds.
Individual areas are usually polyhedral in shape and
range from about 10 to 320 acres.
Included in mapping are small areas where less than
12 inches of fill material has been spread over the
surface. Also included are small areas of Smyrna,
Myakka, Immokalee, Hallandale, and Boca soils.


40







Charlotte County, Florida


Included soils make up about 15 percent of any mapped
area.
This map unit has not been assigned to a capability
subclass.

61-Orsino fine sand. This is a nearly level to gently
sloping, moderately well drained soil on low narrow
ridges. Slopes are smooth to convex and less than 5
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray and
white fine sand about 14 inches thick. The subsoil is fine
sand to a depth of 37 inches. The upper 10 inches is
yellow with discontinuous lenses of dark reddish brown
and common intrusions of white. The lower 11 inches is
yellow with discontinuous lenses of dark reddish brown
and few intrusions of white. The substratum is fine sand
to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 9 inches is
pale brown with splotches of white. The next 19 inches
is very pale brown. Below that, it is white with yellowish
red and reddish yellow stains along root channels.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Daytona and Electra soils on similar positions and
Satellite soils on slightly lower positions. Also included
are soils similar to Orsino soils but with loamy material
below a depth of 60 inches. Included soils make up
about 10 to 15 percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for about 3
months. It is at a depth of 60 to 80 inches for about 9
months.
This soil has low available water capacity. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is very rapid.
Natural vegetation consists of sand liveoak, sand pine,
South Florida slash pine, pineland threeawn, and
sawpalmetto.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
poor soil quality. Intensive soil management practices
are required if the soil is cultivated. Droughtiness and
rapid leaching of plant nutrients reduce the variety and
potential yields of crops. Row crops should be planted
on the contour in strips alternating with strips of close-
growing crops. Crop rotations should keep the soil under
close-growing crops at least three-fourths of the time.
Soil-improving crops are recommended. Crops that
produce good yields without irrigation are restricted to a
few varieties. Irrigation of these crops is generally
feasible where irrigation water is readily available.
This soil is suitable for citrus trees in places that are
relatively free from freezing temperatures. A good ground
cover of close-growing plants between the trees helps to
protect the soil from blowing or washing. Good yields of
oranges and grapefruit can be obtained in some years
without irrigation. A well designed irrigation system to
maintain optimum moisture conditions is needed to
ensure best yields.


This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
crops. Deep-rooting plants, such as Coastal
bermudagrass and bahiagrasses, are well adapted, but
yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
fertilizing and liming are needed. Controlling grazing
permits plants to recover and maintain vigor.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for South
Florida slash pine. Sand pine is better suited than other
trees. Seedling mortality, mobility of equipment, and
plant competition are the major management problems.
This soil has low potential for desirable range plant
production. The vegetative community consists of a
dense woody understory including sawpalmetto, Florida
rosemary, and scrub oak. Although this site is seldom
grazed by livestock, it does furnish winter protection.
This Orsino soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range site.
This soil has moderate to severe limitations for
sanitary facilities primarily because of the rapid
permeability. It has slight to moderate limitations for
most building sites, but the sandy texture makes
excavations unstable. The soil has severe limitations for
recreational uses because of the sandy surface layer.
This Orsino soil is in capability subclass IVs.

62-Winder sand, depressional. This is a nearly
level, poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes are
concave and range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 3
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray
sand about 10 inches thick. The next layer, about 3
inches thick, is light gray sand with yellowish brown
mottles and light brownish gray intrusions of sandy loam.
The subsoil extends to a depth of 29 inches. The upper
7 inches is gray sandy loam with yellowish brown and
strong brown mottles. The lower 6 inches is gray sand
with yellowish brown mottles. The substratum extends to
a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 6 inches is gray
sand with brownish yellow mottles. The next 6 inches is
light brownish gray sand with olive mottles. The next 12
inches is greenish gray loamy sand with olive mottles.
The next 12 inches is light gray sand with olive yellow
mottles. The lower 15 inches is light greenish gray sand.
Included with this soil in mapping, and making up
about 15 percent of the map unit, are small areas of
Hallandale, Felda, Pineda, and Copeland soils. A few
areas of Rock outcrop also occur.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is above the surface for 3 to 6 months. It is at a
depth of 10 to 40 inches during extended dry periods.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of parrot-feather, cypress,
St.-Johnswort, pickleweed, and other water-tolerant
plants.


41






Soil Survey


This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
forage production, the periods of high water may reduce
the grazing value of the site. This Winder soil is in the
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development
and recreational uses, and it is not suited to cultivated
crops, improved pasture, woodland, or citrus because of
prolonged ponding.
This Winder soil is in capability subclass VIIw.

63-Malabar fine sand, high. This is a nearly level,
poorly drained soil in the flatwoods. Slopes are smooth
to slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
fine sand about 13 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand
and sandy clay loam about 51 inches thick. The upper 7
inches is very pale brown fine sand with brownish yellow
mottles. The next 6 inches is brownish yellow fine sand
with yellowish brown mottles. Next is yellow fine sand
with yellowish brown mottles, light gray fine sand with
yellowish brown mottles, and gray sandy clay loam with
yellowish brown stains along root channels. The lower 8
inches is greenish gray sandy clay loam. Below that and
extending to.a depth of 80 inches or more is gray fine
sand with about 60 percent shell fragments.
Included with this soil in mapping are Pineda, Oldsmar,
Wabasso, and Felda soils. Also included are scattered
areas of Malabar soils in slightly lower positions.
Included soils make up about 15 percent of any mapped
area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 4 to 6
months. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during extended dry periods.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and the sandy part of the subsoil and
moderately slow in the lower, loamy part of the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, cabbage
palms, South Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, and pineland
threeawn.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness and poor soil quality. The number of adapted
crops is limited unless very intensive management
practices are followed. With good water-control
measures and soil-improving measures, this soil can be
made well suited for some vegetable crops. A water
control system is needed to remove excess water in wet
seasons and provide water through subsurface irrigation
in dry seasons. Row crops should be rotated with close-
growing, soil-improving crops. The rotation should


include the soil-improving crops on the land three-fourths
of the time. Seedbed preparation should include bedding
of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added
according to the need of the crops.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
management is used. It is suitable for citrus only after a
carefully designed water control system has been
installed that will maintain the water table below a depth
of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds and a
vegetative cover maintained between the trees. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pastures. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they
are well managed. Water control measures are needed
to remove excess surface water after heavy rains.
Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are needed.
Controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing and
weakening of the plants.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
South Florida slash pine. Equipment limitations, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are major management
concerns.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
deferred grazing and brush control. This Malabar soil is
in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the high water table.
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass IVw.

64-Hallandale-Urban land complex. This map unit
consists of nearly level Hallandale fine sand and areas
of Urban land. The areas of Hallandale soil and Urban
land are so intermingled that they cannot be separated
at the scale used for mapping.
About 50 to 70 percent of each mapped area consists
of nearly level Hallandale soils or Hallandale soils that
have been reworked or reshaped, but which are still
recognizable as Hallandale soil. Areas of the soil that
have been modified by grading and shaping are not as
extensive in the older communities as in the newer ones.
Typically, Hallandale soils have a surface layer of dark
gray fine sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is light gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. Hard,
fractured limestone is at a depth of 11 inches.
About 15 to 50 percent of each mapped area is Urban
land that is used for houses, streets, driveways,
buildings, parking lots, and other related uses.
Most areas have drainage ditches that alter the depth
to the seasonal high water table. In undrained areas, the
water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
months in most years. It recedes below the limestone
during the dry season.
Unoccupied areas are mostly areas of Hallandale soils
in lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds. Boca, Felda,


42







Charlotte County, Florida


Malabar, and Pineda soils make up as much as 15
percent of the land not covered by urban facilities.
Present land use precludes using this soil for
cultivated crops, citrus, woodland, or improved pasture.
This complex has not been assigned to a capability
subclass.

66-Caloosa fine sand. This is a nearly level,
somewhat poorly drained soil formed by dredge and fill
and earthmoving operations. Slopes are smooth to
slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is about 10 inches of light
brownish gray, mixed mineral material that contains fine
sand and lenses of silt loam with about 10 percent shell
fragments. The next 17 inches is pale brown and gray,
mixed mineral material that contains fine sand and
lenses of silty clay loam. The next 11 inches is light gray
silty clay with brownish yellow mottles. Below this to a
depth of 80 inches or more is gray silty clay with dark
gray streaks and brownish yellow mottles. This material
is not from the upper 80 inches of the soil mantle.
Included with this soil in mapping are Matlacha and St.
Augustine soils and soils similar to Caloosa soils but
which contain 10 to 35 percent limestone and shell
fragments less than 3 inches in diameter and small
areas with 10 percent limestone and shell fragments
larger than 3 inches. In addition, there are scattered
areas that are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Also included are areas of fill that is less than 20 inches
thick over undisturbed soils. Included soils make up
about 10 to 20 percent of any mapped area.
This soil has a water table that varies with the amount
of fill material and artificial drainage within any mapped
area. However, in most years, the water table is 30 to 42
inches below the surface of the fill material for 2 to 4
months.
The available water capacity is variable, but it is
estimated to be low to medium in the upper part of the
fill material and medium to high in the lower part.
Permeability is variable within short distances, but it is
estimated to range from rapid to very slow depending on
the soil material. Natural fertility is estimated to be
medium.
Most of the natural vegetation has been removed.
However, the existing vegetation consists of scattered
South Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, cabbage palms,
improved pasture, and various scattered weeds.
This soil is poorly suited to most plants unless topsoil
is spread over the surface to make a suitable root zone.
The fill has made most of the area fairly suitable for
community development and related uses. However,
because of the nature of the fill material that exists,
mounding or removal and backfilling with suitable fill
material is necessary in order for septic tank absorption
fields to function properly.
This Caloosa soil is in capability subclass VIIs.


67-Smyrna-Urban land complex. This map unit
consists of nearly level Smyrna fine sand and Urban
land. The areas of Smyrna soil and Urban land are so
intermingled that they cannot be separated at the scale
used for mapping.
About 50 to 70 percent of each mapped area consists
of nearly level Smyrna soils or Smyrna soils that have
been reworked or reshaped. Typically, Smyrna soils have
a black fine sand surface layer about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand about 8
inches thick. The subsoil is about 14 inches thick. The
upper 9 inches is very friable, dark reddish brown fine
sand and the lower 5 inches is very friable, dark brown
fine sand. The substratum is fine sand to a depth of 80
inches or more. The upper 16 inches is very pale brown
with dark brown stains along root channels. The next 15
inches is brown. The lower 23 inches is light brownish
gray fine sand.
About 15 to 50 percent of each mapped area is Urban
land in the form of houses, streets, driveways, buildings,
parking lots, and other related uses.
Areas of this soil that have been modified by grading
and shaping are not as extensive in the older
communities as in the newer ones. Most areas have
drainage ditches that alter the depth to the seasonal
high water table. In undrained areas, the water table is
within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months in most
years. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during the dry season.
Unoccupied areas are mostly in lawns, vacant lots, or
playgrounds.
EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, and Pompano soils
make up as much as 15 percent of the land not covered
by urban facilities. A few mapped areas with as much as
60 percent or as little as 10 percent Urban land have
been included.
Present land use precludes the use of this soil for
cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture.
This complex has not been assigned to a capability
subclass.

69-Matlacha gravelly fine sand. This is a nearly
level, somewhat poorly drained soil formed by fill and
earthmoving operations. Slopes are smooth to slightly
convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is about 35 inches of black,
olive brown, grayish brown, dark brown, light brownish
gray, very dark gray, and very pale brown mixed gravelly
fine sand and sandy mineral material. The surface layer
contains lenses of loamy sand and coated sandy
fragments of former subsoil horizons with about 25 to 30
percent limestone and shell fragments. Below this, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is undisturbed fine sand.
The upper 5 inches is dark gray and the lower 40 inches
is light gray with common, medium, distinct dark grayish
brown stains along old root channels.


43






44


Included with this soil in mapping are areas of similar
soils that contain finer textured material throughout the
fill. Also included are small areas that contain boulders
or more than 35 percent rock fragments larger than 3
inches throughout the fill. In addition, there are areas of
similar soils that have loamy material and limestone
bedrock below the mixed fill material. Other inclusions
are areas of fill less than 20 inches thick over
undisturbed soils. These inclusions make up about 10 to
15 percent of any mapped area.
The depth to the water table varies with the amount of
fill material and the extent of artificial drainage. However,
in most years, the water table is 24 to 36 inches below
the surface of the fill material for 2 to 4 months. It is at a
depth of more than 60 inches during extended dry
periods.
The available water capacity is variable, but it is
estimated to be low. Permeability is variable within short
distances, but it is estimated to be moderately rapid to
rapid in the fill material and rapid in the underlying
material. Natural fertility is estimated to be low.
Most of the natural vegetation has been removed. The
existing vegetation consists of South Florida slash pine
and various scattered weeds.
This soil is poorly suited to most plants unless topsoil
is spread over the surface to form a suitable root zone.
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities
and recreational uses and moderate limitations for most
building site development. The high water table and
sandy surface textures are the major limitations.
Unstable surface materials can severely limit shallow
excavations, and the high water table severely limits
dwellings with basements. In scattered areas where the
fill material contains boulders or compacted materials,
the installation of underground utilities or proper
functioning of septic tank absorption fields may be a
problem.
This Matlacha soil is in capability subclass VIs.

70-Heights fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil in broad flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to
concave and range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
fine sand about 14 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand,
loamy sand, cobbly loamy sand, and fine sandy loam
about 32 inches thick. The upper 3 inches is grayish
brown fine sand. The next 8 inches is yellowish brown
fine sand with white calcium carbonate streaks along
root channels. The next 7 inches is light yellowish brown
loamy sand with yellowish brown and brownish yellow
mottles and white calcium carbonate streaks along root
channels. The next 6 inches is yellowish brown cobbly
loamy sand with light yellowish brown mottles and about
25 percent iron cemented sandstone. The lower 8 inches
is light gray fine sandy loam with yellowish brown and
olive mottles. Below is gray loamy sand with light olive


brown and light yellowish brown mottles to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Felda and Wabasso soils. Also included are soils that
/differ from Heights fine sand by having yellowish
.horizons instead of brownish horizons above the loamy
subsoil horizon. In addition are soils that differ from
Heights fine sand by having a thin black layer
immediately above the loamy sand part of the subsoil.
Included soils make up about 10 to 15 percent of any
mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 2
months and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 4 to 6
months. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during extended dry periods.
The available water capacity is medium in the subsoil
and low in the other layers. Natural fertility is low.
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and upper part
of the subsoil and slow in the lower part of the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, pineland
threeawn, South Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, sedges,
and panicums.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness. The number of adapted crops is limited unless
intensive water control measures and soil-improving
measures are used. This soil can be made suitable for
some vegetable crops with a water control system to
remove excess water in wet seasons and provide water
through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row crops
should be rotated with close-growing, soil-improving
crops. The rotation should include the soil-improving
crops on the land two-thirds of the time. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer
and lime should be added according to the need of the
crops.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
management is used. Those areas that are relatively free
from freezing temperatures are suitable for citrus, but
only after a carefully designed water control system has
been installed. The water control system should maintain
the water table below 4 feet. The trees should be
planted on beds and a vegetative cover maintained
between the trees. Regular applications of fertilizers and
lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pastures. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they
are well managed. Water control measures are needed
to remove excess surface water after heavy rains.
Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are needed,
and controlling grazing helps to maintain vigor of the
plants for best yields.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
pine trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are the main management concerns.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping


Soil Survey






Charlotte County, Florida


bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
deferred grazing and brush control. This Heights soil is in
the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of wetness.
This Heights soil is in capability subclass Illw.

72-Bradenton fine sand. This is a nearly level,
poorly drained soil in hammock areas along rivers,
creeks, and swamps. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
brownish gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
subsoil is about 18 inches thick. The upper 8 inches is
dark gray sandy clay loam. The lower 10 inches is gray
loamy fine sand. The substratum extends to a depth of
80 inches. The upper 5 inches is white, soft calcium
carbonate. The next 12 inches is gray loamy fine sand.
The next 12 inches is yellowish brown fine sand. The
next 4 inches is light gray fine sand, and the next 10
inches is yellow sand. Common to many mottles in
shades of yellow, brown, and red occur throughout these
horizons. The lower part of the substratum is 9 inches of
light gray sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Copeland, Felda, and Wabasso soils and small areas of
soils with limestone or calcium carbonate accumulations
within 20 inches of the surface. Included soils make up
about 15 percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, this soil has a
water table less than 10 inches below the surface for 2
to 4 months. The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40
inches for more than 6 months, and it recedes to a
depth of more than 40 inches during extended dry
periods. Many areas have been altered by artificial
drainage.
The soil is low in natural fertility. Permeability is
moderate, and the available water capacity is medium.
Natural vegetation consists of sparse sawpalmetto,
oaks, cabbage palms, waxmyrtle, bluestem, and low
panicums.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness. If a complete water control system is installed
and maintained, the soil is suitable for many fruit and
vegetable crops. A complete water control system
should be designed to remove excess surface and
internal water rapidly. It should also provide a means of
applying subsurface irrigation. Good soil management
also includes crop rotations that keep the soil in a close-
growing crop at least two-thirds of the time. Soil-
improving crops are recommended. Other important
management practices are good seedbed preparation,
including bedding, and fertilizers applied according to the
needs of the crop.
If this soil receives proper water control, it is well
suited to citrus trees. Water control systems that


maintain good drainage to a depth of about 4 feet are
needed. Bedding and planting the trees on the beds help
to provide good surface drainage. A good cover of close-
growing vegetation should be maintained between the
trees to protect the soil from blowing in dry weather and
washing during rains. The trees require regular
applications of fertilizer, but the soil contains adequate
lime without further applications.
This is an excellent soil for pastures. It is well suited to
pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Good pastures of
grass or grass-clover mixtures can be grown with good
management. Regular applications of fertilizers and
controlled grazing produce highest yields.
The potential productivity is moderately high for South
Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
seedlings and in removing excess surface water.
This soil has low potential for desirable range plant
production. The vegetative community consists of
cabbage palm, live oak, scattered sawpalmetto,
grapevine, and wild coffee. Because of the dense
canopy of palm trees, this site is a preferred shading and
resting area for cattle. As a result, this range is usually
severely grazed. Management practices should include
deferred grazing, brush control, and careful consideration
of stocking rates. This Bradenton soil is in the Cabbage
Palm Hammocks range site.
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities,
building site development, and recreational use because
of the high water table.
This Bradenton soil is in capability subclass Illw.

73-Pineda fine sand, depressional. This is a nearly
level, very poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes are
concave and less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layers are fine
sand to a depth of 31 inches. The upper 9 inches is light
gray, the next 7 inches is very pale brown with yellowish
brown mottles, and the lower 12 inches is brownish
yellow with many iron-coated sand grains. The subsoil is
fine sandy loam to a depth of 55 inches. The upper 8
inches is gray with very pale brown sandy intrusions and
yellowish brown mottles. The lower 16 inches is gray.
Below and extending to a depth of 80 inches is light gray
loamy sand.
Included with this soil in mapping, and making up 10 to
15 percent of any mapped area, are small areas of
Boca, Felda, Floridana, Malabar, Winder, and Valkaria
soils and of soils similar to Pineda soils but with
limestone below a depth of 40 inches or with a black,
sandy layer immediately above the loamy subsoil.
In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
ponded for about 3 to 6 months or more. The water
table is within a depth of 10 to 40 inches below the
surface for 4 to 6 months.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural


45






Soil Survey


fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and slow or very slow in the loamy
subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of St.-Johnswort, cypress,
maidencane, and other water-tolerant grasses.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
forage production, the periods of high water may reduce
the grazing value of the site. This Pineda soil is in the
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, improved
pasture, woodland, or citrus because of prolonged
ponding. It has severe limitations for urban and
recreational uses because of prolonged ponding and
sandy texture.
This Pineda soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

74-Boca fine sand, slough. This is a nearly level,
poorly drained soil in sloughs. Slopes are smooth to
slightly concave and range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
and very pale brown fine sand about 30 inches thick.
The subsoil, about 5 inches thick, is gray sandy clay
loam with yellowish brown and brownish yellow mottles.
At a depth of about 38 inches is hard fractured limestone
bedrock with solution holes extending to 46 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Hallandale, Felda, Pineda, Pompano, Wabasso, and
Valkaria soils. Also included are small areas of Boca
soils on higher positions. Included soils make up about
15 percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than
4 months and at a depth of more than 40 inches during
extended dry periods. During periods of high rainfall, the
soil is covered by a shallow layer of slowly moving water
for periods of about 7 days to 1 month or more.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of maidencane, scattered
clumps of sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn,
and South Florida slash pine.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops in its native
state because of wetness. It can be made suitable for
some vegetable crops by using a water control system
to remove excess water in wet seasons and provide
water through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row
crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil-
improving crops. The rotation should include the soil-
improving crops on the land two-thirds of the time.


Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
need of the crops.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very
intensively managed. Those areas that are relatively free
from freezing temperatures are suitable for citrus, but
only after a carefully designed water control system has
been installed that maintains the water table below a
depth of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds
and a vegetative cover maintained between the trees.
Regular applications of fertilizers are needed.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
competition are the main management concerns.
This soil has high potential for desirable range plant
production. The dominant forage consists of blue
maidencane, chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum.
Management practices should include deferred grazing.
This Boca soil is in the Slough range site.
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities
and building site development primarily because of the
high water table.
This Boca soil is in capability subclass Vw.

75-Hallandale fine sand, slough. This is a nearly
level, poorly drained soil in sloughs. Slopes are smooth
to slightly concave and range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand about 2 inches thick. The next layer is very pale
brown fine sand about 9 inches thick. Fractured
limestone is at a depth of 11 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Pineda, and Pompano soils in similar positions and
Hallandale soils in higher positions. Also included are
small areas of exposed limestone bedrock. These
inclusions make up about 10 to 15 percent of any
mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
months. It is 10 to 20 inches below the surface for 1 to 2
months and below the limestone for 6 months or more.
During periods of high rainfall, the soil is covered by
slowly moving, shallow water for a period of about 7
days to 1 month or more.
The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is
low. Permeability is rapid.
Natural vegetation consists of pineland threeawn,
maidencane, waxmyrtle, South Florida slash pine, and
scattered clumps of sawpalmetto.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops because of
wetness and shallow depth to limestone. It can be made
suitable for some vegetable crops by using a water
control system that removes excess water in wet
seasons and provides water through subsurface irrigation
in dry seasons. The presence of rock near the surface,
however, makes construction of such a system difficult.
Row crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil-


46







Charlotte County, Florida


improving crops. The rotation should include the soil-
improving crops on the land three-fourths of the time.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
need of the crops.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
management is used. Those areas that are relatively free
from freezing temperatures are suitable for citrus, but
only after installation of a carefully designed water
control system that maintains the water table below a
depth of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds
and a vegetative cover maintained between the trees.
Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pastures if a water control
system is used. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses,
and white clovers grow well when they are well
managed. Water control measures are needed to
remove excess surface water after heavy rains. Regular
applications of fertilizers and lime are needed.
Controlling grazing will help to prevent overgrazing and
weakening of the plants.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, windthrow
hazard, and plant competition are the major
management concerns.
This soil has high potential for desirable range plant
production. The dominant forage consists of blue
maidencane, chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum.
Management practices should include deferred grazing.
This Hallandale soil is in the Slough range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban uses because
of the shallow depth to bedrock and wetness.
This Hallandale soil is in capability subclass Vw.

76-Electra fine sand. This is a nearly level,
somewhat poorly drained soil on low knolls and ridges.
Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is light brownish gray fine
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand
and fine sand to a depth of 43 inches. It is light gray in
the upper 9 inches and white in the lower 30 inches. The
subsoil and underlying material are fine sand, sand, and
fine sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
upper 4 inches is dark reddish brown fine sand. The next
16 inches is very pale brown fine sand, and the next 3
inches is pale olive sand. The lower 14 inches is pale
olive fine sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Bradenton, Immokalee, and Daytona soils. Some
areas have limestone at a depth of 70 to 80 inches
below the surface. Included soils make up about 15 to
20 percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, this soil has a
water table at a depth of 24 to 40 inches below the
surface for 2 to 6 months and at a depth of 40 to 72
inches below the surface for 6 months or more.


The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the
subsoil, and slow in the lower part of the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of sand liveoak,
sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is not suitable for most cultivated crops, but
with intensive management a few specialty crops can be
grown. The adapted crops are limited unless intensive
management practices are followed.
The soil is poorly suited to citrus. Planting the trees on
beds helps to lower the effective depth of the water
table. Irrigation during periods of low rainfall helps to
insure good yields.
The suitability for growing improved pasture grasses is
fair. Bahiagrass and pangolagrass grow if well managed.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed,
and controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing and
weakening of the plants.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine
trees. South Florida slash pine is the best tree to plant.
Seedling mortality is the main management concern.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
deferred grazing and brush control. This Electra soil is in
the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
The soil has severe limitations for recreational uses,
sanitary facilities, shallow excavations, dwellings with
basements, and landscaping uses, and moderate
limitations for dwellings without basements, small
commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the high water table and sandy texture.
This Electra soil is in capability subclass Vis.

77-Pineda fine sand, limestone substratum. This is
a nearly level, poorly drained soil in sloughs. Slopes are
smooth to slightly concave and range from 0 to 1
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
that is light gray in the upper 5 inches and very pale
brown with brownish yellow mottles in the lower 6
inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 41 inches. The
upper 5 inches is yellow fine sand with brownish yellow
mottles. The next 4 inches is brownish yellow fine sand
with yellow mottles. The next 3 inches is light gray fine
sand with yellow mottles. The next 8 inches is gray
sandy clay loam with light gray sandy intrusions. The
lower 6 inches is gray fine sandy loam. The substratum
is 11 inches of gray fine sandy loam with limestone and
shell fragments. Beneath, at a depth of 52 inches, is a
layer of fractured limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Boca,
Hallandale, and Wabasso soils. Also included are soils


47






48


similar to Pineda soils but with limestone at a depth of
60 to 72 inches. Included soils make up 10 to 15 percent
of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than
6 months, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40
inches during extended dry periods. During periods of
high rainfall, the soil is covered by a shallow layer of
slowly moving water for periods of about 7 days to 1
month or more.
The available water capacity is very low in the surface
and subsurface layers and the upper part of the subsoil
and medium in the lower part of the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and the upper part of the subsoil and
slow in the lower part of the subsoil.
Natural vegetation consists of pineland threeawn,
panicums, sedges, maidencane, waxmyrtle, South
Florida slash pine, and scattered clumps of sawpalmetto.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
wetness. With a complete water control system,
however, it is well suited to many fruit and vegetable
crops. A complete water control system removes excess
water rapidly and provides a means of applying
subsurface irrigation. Good soil management includes
crop rotation that keeps the soil in close-growing cover
crops at least two-thirds of the time. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding. Fertilizer should be
applied according to the need of the crop.
With proper water control, the soil is good for citrus
trees. Water control systems that maintain good
drainage to a depth of about 4 feet are needed. Bedding
and planting the trees on the beds help provide good
surface drainage. A good cover of close-growing
vegetation between the trees protects the soil from
blowing when the trees are young. The trees require
regular applications of fertilizer and occasional liming.
This soil is well suited to pastures and hay crops with
proper water control. It is well suited to pangolagrass,
bahiagrasses, and clovers. Excellent pastures of grass or
grass-clover mixture can be grown with good
management. Regular applications of fertilizer and
controlled grazing help to produce highest yields.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
pine trees. Seedling mortality, equipment limitations, and
plant competition are the main management concerns.
Good management includes a water control system.
South Florida slash pine is the best tree to plant.
This soil has high potential for desirable range plant
production. The dominant forage consists of blue


maidencane, chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum.
Management practices should include deferred grazing.
This Pineda soil is in the Slough range site.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development
because of the high water table.
This Pineda soil is in capability subclass Vw.

78-Chobee muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly
drained soil in depressions. Slopes are concave and less
than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown muck
about 4 inches thick. The next layers are black loamy
fine sand to a depth of about 16 inches. The upper part
of the subsoil is 12 inches of black fine sandy loam. The
lower part of the subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam
and grayish brown sandy loam about 25 inches thick.
The substratum extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. The upper 8 inches is light brownish gray loamy
sand, and the lower 19 inches is light brownish gray fine
sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Floridana, Winder, Gator, and Copeland soils and soils
similar to Chobee but with a light colored surface
horizon. Included soils make up about 10 percent of any
mapped area.
Under natural conditions, the water table is above the
surface for 3 to 6 months. It is 10 to 40 inches below the
surface for 3 to 6 months.
The available water capacity is high in the surface
layer and subsoil. It is medium in all other horizons.
Natural fertility is medium. Permeability is slow or very
slow.
Natural vegetation is cypress, cabbage palm, willow,
and pickerelweed.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
forage production, the periods of high water levels may
reduce the grazing value of the site.
This Chobee soil is in the Fresh Water Marshes and
Ponds range site. This soil is not suitable for crops,
trees, or improved pasture because of the lack of
suitable drainage outlets. This makes an adequate
drainage system difficult to establish. Most areas of this
soil provide good habitat for wading birds and other
wetland wildlife.
This soil has severe limitations for urban uses because
of the high water table.
This Chobee soil is in capability subclass VIIw.






49


Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses
and management. Field experience and collected data
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis
in predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil
properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information can
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped to prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture is
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated


yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
Approximately 59,500 acres in Charlotte County is
used for crops and pasture, according to the 1981 Basic
Resource Data Report. Of this total, 44,000 acres is
used for pasture; 12,000 acres for citrus; and 3,500
acres for specialty crops. The main specialty crops
grown are tomatoes, squash, cabbage, peppers,
cucumbers, watermelon, strawberries, field peas, flowers,
and nursery plants.
About 133,000 acres of land is classified as rangeland
and 45,000 acres as woodland, according to the Basic
Resource Data Report. The potential of the soils in
Charlotte County for increased food production is good.
Current rangeland offers an opportunity to expand crop
production. This soil survey can facilitate the application
of crop and conservation technology to increase food
production. Limitations in soil quality are somewhat offset
by climate, locality, and water availability. However,
range management principles applied to natural forage
sites are increasing in use due to energy conservation
advantages.
The acreage in pasture and woodland has gradually
been decreasing as more land is used for urban
development. Urban development is spreading
throughout the western half of the county and continues
to be a major land use change in the survey area.
Soil erosion caused by runoff is a soil problem on
some of the cropland and pastureland. Loss of the soil
surface layer through erosion is damaging for two
reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the surface is
lost, and organic matter content is reduced as part of the
subsurface layer is incorporated into the plow layer.
Second, soil erosion on farmland results in sediment
entering streams. Control of erosion minimizes the
pollution of streams by sediment and improves the
quality of water for municipal use, for recreation, and for
fish and wildlife.
Erosion control practices provide a protective surface
cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. A cropping
system that keeps vegetative cover on the soil for






49


Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses
and management. Field experience and collected data
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis
in predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil
properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information can
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped to prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture is
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated


yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
Approximately 59,500 acres in Charlotte County is
used for crops and pasture, according to the 1981 Basic
Resource Data Report. Of this total, 44,000 acres is
used for pasture; 12,000 acres for citrus; and 3,500
acres for specialty crops. The main specialty crops
grown are tomatoes, squash, cabbage, peppers,
cucumbers, watermelon, strawberries, field peas, flowers,
and nursery plants.
About 133,000 acres of land is classified as rangeland
and 45,000 acres as woodland, according to the Basic
Resource Data Report. The potential of the soils in
Charlotte County for increased food production is good.
Current rangeland offers an opportunity to expand crop
production. This soil survey can facilitate the application
of crop and conservation technology to increase food
production. Limitations in soil quality are somewhat offset
by climate, locality, and water availability. However,
range management principles applied to natural forage
sites are increasing in use due to energy conservation
advantages.
The acreage in pasture and woodland has gradually
been decreasing as more land is used for urban
development. Urban development is spreading
throughout the western half of the county and continues
to be a major land use change in the survey area.
Soil erosion caused by runoff is a soil problem on
some of the cropland and pastureland. Loss of the soil
surface layer through erosion is damaging for two
reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the surface is
lost, and organic matter content is reduced as part of the
subsurface layer is incorporated into the plow layer.
Second, soil erosion on farmland results in sediment
entering streams. Control of erosion minimizes the
pollution of streams by sediment and improves the
quality of water for municipal use, for recreation, and for
fish and wildlife.
Erosion control practices provide a protective surface
cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. A cropping
system that keeps vegetative cover on the soil for






Soil Survey


extended periods can hold soil erosion losses to
amounts that will not reduce the productive capacity of
the soils. On livestock farms, which require pasture and
hay, the legume and grass forage crops in the cropping
system reduce erosion on erodible sloping land and also
provide nitrogen and improve tilth for the next crop.
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the
surface help to increase infiltration and reduce the
hazards of runoff and erosion. These practices can be
adapted to most soils in the survey area.
Wind erosion is a major hazard on unprotected soils in
the county. Wind erosion can damage soils and tender
crops in a few hours in open, unprotected areas if the
winds are strong and the soil is dry and bare of
vegetation and surface mulch. Maintaining vegetative
cover and surface mulch minimizes wind erosion.
Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It
reduces soil fertility by removing the finer soil particles
and organic matter; it damages or destroys crops by
sandblasting; it spreads diseases, insects, and weed
seeds; and it creates health hazards and cleaning
problems. Control of wind erosion minimizes duststorms
and improves the quality of air for more healthful living
conditions.
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such as
Carolina cherry-laurel, slash pine, southern redcedar, and
Japanese privet, and strip crops of small grain are
effective in reducing wind erosion and crop damage.
Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow plantings
made at right angles to the prevailing wind at specific
intervals across the field. The intervals depend on the
erodibility of the soil and the susceptibility of the crop to
damage from sandblasting.
Information on the design of erosion control practices
for each kind of soil is contained in the "Water and Wind
Erosion Control Handbook-Florida," which is available
in local offices of the Soil Conservation Service.
Soil drainage is a major management need on about
all of the acreage used for crops and pasture in the
county. Some soils are naturally so wet that the
production of crops common tq the area is generally not
practical without extensive water control. These are
some of the poorly drained soils, such as Immokalee,
EauGallie, Oldsmar, Myakka, Pompano, and Pineda soils.
Unless artificially drained, some of the poorly drained
soils are wet enough to cause some damage to pasture
plants during the wet seasons. These are mainly the
EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, Oldsmar, Wabasso, and
Pineda soils. These soils also have low available water
capacity and are drought during dry periods. It is
necessary to subsurface irrigate these soils for maximum
pasture production.
The design of both surface drainage and subsurface
irrigation systems varies with the kind of soil and the
pastures grown. A combination of surface drains and
subsurface irrigation systems is needed on these soils
for intensive pasture production. Information on the


drainage and irrigation for each kind of soil is contained
in the Technical Guide available in the local offices of
the Soil Conservation Service.
Soil fertility is naturally low in most soils in the county.
Most of the soils have a sandy surface layer and are
light in color. Many of the soils have a loamy subsoil. In
this category are the Bradenton, Chobee, EauGallie,
Felda, Floridana, and Wabasso soils. The Satellite,
Canaveral, Pompano, Valkaria, Captiva, and Orsino soils
have sandy material to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The EauGallie, Myakka, Daytona, Wabasso, Oldsmar,
Electra, Immokalee, and Smyrna soils have an organic-
stained layer within the sandy subsurface layer. Most of
the soils have a surface layer that is strongly acid or very
strongly acid, and if they have never been limed they
require applications of ground limestone to raise the pH
level sufficiently for good growth of crops. The levels of
nitrogen, potash, and available phosphorus are naturally
low in most of these soils. On all soils, additions of lime
and fertilizer should be based on the results of current
soil tests, the needs of the crops, and the expected level
of yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can help in
determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime
to apply.
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils with
good tilth are granular and porous. Most of the soils in
the county have a sandy or loamy sand surface layer
that is light in color and low to moderate in organic
matter content. Exceptions are the Chobee, Copeland,
Floridana, Gator, Terra Ceia, and Anclote soils. Gator
and Terra Ceia soils have an organic surface layer.
Generally, the structure of the surface layer of most
soils in the survey area is weak. In dry soils, low in
organic matter content, intense rainfall causes the
colloidal matter to cement, forming a slight crust. The
crust is slightly hard when it is dry, and it is slightly
impervious to water. Once the crust forms, it reduces
infiltration and increases runoff. Regular additions of
crop residue, manure, and other organic material can
help to improve soil structure and reduce crust
formation.
Field crops grown in the survey area include corn and
grain sorghum. Sunflowers and potatoes could be
increased if economic conditions are favorable.
Rye is the common close-growing crop grown.
Tomatoes are the primary specialty crop. Other
specialty crops grown commercially in the county are
watermelons, cucumbers, peppers, and a small acreage
of squash, nursery plants, and sod. If economic
conditions are favorable, there is a potential to increase
the production of nursery plants, sod, cabbage, turnips,
collards, and mustard. With water control, the Bradenton,
EauGallie, Felda, Floridana, Gator, Myakka, Terra Ceia,
Immokalee, Smyrna, Oldsmar, Wabasso, and Pineda
soils are suited to vegetables and small fruits.







Charlotte County, Florida


Latest information and suggestions for growing
specialty crops can be obtained from local offices of the
Cooperative Extension Service and the Soil Conservation
Service.
Pastures in the survey area are used to produce
forage for beef and dairy cattle. Beef cattle and cow-calf
operations are the major cattle systems. Bahiagrass,
pangolagrass, limpograss (Hermathria latissima), and
bermudagrass are the major pasture plants grown in the
county. Grass seeds could be harvested from these
grasses for improved pasture plantings as well as for
commercial purposes. Some cattlemen overseed
ryegrass on pasture in the fall for winter and spring
grazing. Excess grass is harvested from pangolagrass as
hay during the summer months for feeding during the
winter months.
The improved pasture in many parts of the county has
been greatly depleted by continued excessive use. Much
of the area that was planted to improved pasture is now
covered with weeds and brush. Where climate and
topography are about the same, differences in the kind
and amount of forage produced are related closely to
the kind of soil. Effective management needs to consider
the relationship of soils to each other, pasture plant
species, water control, liming, and fertilization.
Yields Per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management
are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain the indicated
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop
residue, barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; and
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss.
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely
to increase as new production technology is developed.
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of
other soils, however, is not likely to change.


Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
about the management and productivity of the soils for
those crops.

Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops
that require special management are excluded. The soils
are grouped according to their limitations for field crops,
the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the
way they respond to management. The criteria used in
grouping the soils do not include major and generally
expensive landforming that would change slope, depth,
or other characteristics of the soils, nor do they include
possible but unlikely major reclamation projects.
Capability classification is not a substitute for
interpretations designed to show suitability and
limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for woodland,
and for engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
are defined in the following paragraphs.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have slight limitations that restrict their
use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
c, to the class numeral, for example, Ile. The letter e
shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless







Soil Survey


close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold
or very dry.
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in
class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have
other limitations that restrict their use to pasture,
rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The
soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to
the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar
management, and to have similar productivity. Capability
units are generally designated by adding an Arabic
numeral to the subclass symbol, for example, lle-4 or
llle-6.
The acreage of soils in each capability class and
subclass is shown in table 5. The capability classification
of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed Soil
Map Units" and is shown in table 4.

Rangeland
Clifford W. Carter, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service,
assisted in preparing this section.
In areas that have similar climate and topography,
differences in the kind and amount of vegetation
produced on rangeland are closely related to the kind of
soil. Effective management is based on the relationship
between the soils and vegetation and water.
Table 6 shows, for each soil that supports rangeland
vegetation suitable for grazing, the range site and the
potential annual production of vegetation in favorable,
average, and unfavorable years. Only those soils that are
used as rangeland or are suited to use as rangeland are
listed. Explanation of the column headings in table 6
follows.
A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that
produces a characteristic natural plant community that
differs from natural plant communities on other range
sites in kind, amount, and proportion of range plants.
The relationship between soils and vegetation was
established during this survey; thus, range sites generally
can be determined directly from the soil map. Soil
properties that affect moisture supply and plant nutrients
have the greatest influence on the productivity of range
plants. Soil reaction, salt content, and a seasonal high
water table are also important.
Potentialproduction is the amount of vegetation that
can be expected to grow annually on well managed
rangeland that is supporting the potential natural plant
community. It includes all vegetation, whether or not it is


palatable to grazing animals. It includes the current
year's growth of leaves, twigs, and fruits of woody
plants. It does not include the increase in stem diameter
of trees and shrubs. It is expressed in pounds per acre
of air-dry vegetation for favorable, normal, and
unfavorable years. In a favorable year, the amount and
distribution of precipitation and the temperatures make
growing conditions substantially better than average. In
an average year, growing conditions are about average.
In an unfavorable year, growing conditions are well
below average, generally because of low available soil
moisture.
Dry weight is the total annual yield per acre of air-dry
vegetation. Yields are adjusted to a common percent of
air-dry moisture content. The relationship of green weight
to air-dry weight varies according to such factors as
exposure, amount of shade, recent rains, and
unseasonable dry periods.
Characteristic vegetation-the grasses, forbs, and
shrubs that make up most of the potential natural plant
community on each soil-is listed by common name.
Under composition, the expected percentage of the total
annual production is given for each species making up
the characteristic vegetation. The amount that can be
used as forage depends on the kinds of grazing animals
and on the grazing season.
Range management requires a knowledge of the kinds
of soil and of the potential natural plant community. It
also requires an evaluation of the present range
condition. Range condition is determined by comparing
the present plant community with the potential natural
plant community on a particular range site. The more
closely the existing community resembles the potential
community, the better the range condition. Range
condition is an ecological rating only. It does not have a
specific meaning that pertains to the present plant
community in a given use.
The objective in range management is to control
grazing so that the plants growing on a site are about
the same in kind and amount as the potential natural
plant community for that site. Such management
generally results in the optimum production of
vegetation, reduction of undesirable brush species,
conservation of water, and control of erosion.
Sometimes, however, a range condition somewhat below
the potential meets grazing needs, provides wildlife
habitat, and protects soil and water resources.
Native grasses, forbs, and browse plants from
rangeland are an important resource to livestock
producers in Charlotte County. This forage is readily
available. It is economical and provides important
roughage needed by cattle. There are approximately
133,000 acres of rangeland in Charlotte County. Most of
this range acreage is in the eastern portion of the
county.


52






53


Charlotte County, Florida


Range Sites
A range site has the potential to support a native plant
community typified by an association of species different
from that of other range sites. The differentation is
based upon significant differences in kind of species or
total productivity. Each range site has significant
differences in the kinds and amounts of climax
vegetation it produces, and each requires different
management.
The vegetation that grew originally on a range site is
called the climax vegetation. It generally is the most
productive and most suitable vegetation for livestock on
that particular site, and it maintains itself as long as the
environment does not change. The climax vegetation
consists mainly of three kinds of plants-decreasers,
increases, and invaders. Decreasers generally are the
most palatable climax plants, and they are eliminated if
the range is under continuous heavy grazing. Increasers
are plants less palatable to livestock; they increase for a
while under continuous heavy grazing, but are finally
eliminated. Invaders are plants native to the site in small
amounts, but they have little value for forage. These
invaders increase as the range site deteriorates from
excessive grazing over a period of years.
Range condition is a measure of the current
productivity of the range in relation to its potential. Four
condition classes are used to measure range condition.
These are-
Excellent condition-Producing 76 to 100 percent
of the potential
Good condition-Producing 51 to 75 percent of
the potential
Fair condition-Producing 26 to 50 percent of the
potential
Poor condition-Producing 0 to 25 percent of the
potential
Only about 15 percent of the natural vegetative
communities are in excellent condition for use as range.
The amount that is in fair and poor condition is estimated
at about 60 percent.
The productivity of the sites is closely related to the
natural drainage of the soil. The wettest soils, such as
those in marshes, produce the greatest amount of
vegetation. The deep, drought, sandy soils normally
produce the least amount of herbage annually.
All sites tend to be slightly wetter in this county than
they are in more northern counties. The wetness has
some adverse effects on livestock health and mobility.
However, these conditions are offset by the increased
grass production resulting from additional moisture.
Management of the range sites should be planned
with the potential productivity in mind. Sites with the
highest production potential should be given highest
priority if economic considerations are important. Major
management considerations revolve around livestock
grazing: the length of time that the sites are grazed, the
time of the year that they are grazed, and the length of


time and the season that the sites are rested. Other
management considerations are the grazing pattern of
livestock within a pasture that contains more than one
range site and the palatability of the dominant plants
within the site. Manipulation of a range site often
involves mechanical brush control, controlled burning,
and controlled livestock grazing. Predicting the effects of
these practices on range sites is important. Proper
management results in maximum sustained production,
conservation of the soil and water resources, and
improvement of the habitat for many wildlife species.
There are eight range sites in the county that are
important to the livestock industry. The most important in
terms of acreage are the South Florida Flatwoods and
the Slough range sites. A brief description of the
important range sites follows.
South Florida Flatwoods-This range site is on
nearly level areas. Scattered to numerous pine trees are
commonly on the area with sawpalmetto, gallberry, and
other woody plants scattered throughout. This range site
produces an abundant quantity of grasses. Creeping
bluestem is the dominant grass with significant amounts
of indiangrass, chalky bluestem, panicum, and wiregrass.
As this area deteriorates because of uncontrolled
livestock grazing and annual burning, sawpalmetto and
pineland threeawn increase significantly. Bluestem,
indiangrass, and panicum decrease. When in excellent
condition, annual production is approximately 6,000
pounds of air-dry herbage per acre.
Slough-This range site is in an open grassland. It
occurs as nearly level areas that act as broad natural
drainage courses in the flatwoods. The potential plant
community is dominated by blue maidencane, chalky
bluestem, and bluejoint panicum. These grasses are all
readily utilized by livestock. As overgrazing occurs for a
prolonged period, carpetgrass replaces these better
grasses. Average annual production of air-dry plant
materials from all sources varies from about 8,000
pounds per acre on areas in excellent condition in
favorable years to approximately 2,000 pounds per acre
in unfavorable years. In excellent condition, the relative
percentage of total annual vegetation production is
approximately 85 percent grasses and grasslike plants,
15 percent forbs, and a few woody plants and trees.
Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills-This range site is
on nearly level to rolling areas. Areas of this site are
identified by the stands of oak, sawpalmetto, and South
Florida slash pine. Because of the small quantity and
poor quality of native forage, cattle do not readily utilize
this site if other sites are available. On areas in excellent
condition, the average annual production of air-dry plant
material from all sources varies from approximately
4,000 pounds per acre in favorable years to 2,000
pounds per acre in unfavorable years. In excellent
condition, the relative percentage of total annual
vegetation production is approximately 60 percent






54


Soil Survey


grasses and grasslike plants, 20 percent forbs, and 20
percent woody plants and trees.
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds-This range site is
an open grassland marsh or pond. It has potential for
producing significant amounts of maidencane and
cutgrass. The water level fluctuates throughout the year,
and during periods of high water levels a natural
deferment from livestock grazing occurs. This site is a
preferred grazing area for cattle, but with prolonged
overgrazing deterioration of the site occurs.
Pickerelweed and, in some instances, sawgrass
increase. Buttonbush, willows, and baccharis also
increase with prolonged overuse. When in excellent
condition, the site is capable of producing in excess of
10,000 pounds of air-dry material per acre in favorable
years. Production in unfavorable years is approximately
5,000 pounds per acre. In excellent condition, the
relative percentage of total annual production is
approximately 80 percent grasses and grasslike plants,
15 percent forbs, and 5 percent woody plants and trees.
Cabbage Palm Hammock-This range site is on
nearly level, slightly higher "islands" in broad, nearly
level areas. Areas of this site are generally 1 or 2 acres
in size and are scattered throughout the landscape. The
site has low potential for producing forage plants
because of a dense canopy of palm trees. These are
preferred shading and resting areas for cattle and, as
such, are usually severely denuded. Creeping bluestem
is the dominant grass when the site is in excellent
condition. However, in a deteriorated state, carpetgrass
and several threeawn species dominate the understory.
Desirable forage plants growing in shaded areas lose
much of their palatability. For this reason, this site is
preferred as a resting area but rarely used as a grazing
area. In excellent condition, the relative percentage of
total annual production is approximately 55 percent
grasses and grasslike plants, 20 percent forbs, and 25
percent woody plants and trees.
Sand Pine Scrub-This range site is on nearly level to
gently sloping uplands. It has limited potential for
producing native forage plants. This site supports a
relatively dense stand of sand pine trees with a dense
woody understory. Livestock do not use this site if other
range sites are available. Principal forage plants are
bluestem, indiangrass, and panicum. Numerous legumes
and forbs are also on these areas. Average annual
production of air-dry plant material from all sources
varies from approximately 3,500 pounds per acre on
communities in excellent condition in favorable years to
approximately 1,500 pounds per acre in unfavorable
growing years. In excellent condition, the relative
percentages of total annual production are approximately
40 percent grasses and grasslike plants, 20 percent
forbs, and 40 percent woody plants and trees.
Salt Water Marsh-This range site occurs in tidal
marsh areas along the Gulf of Mexico. This area
produces significant amounts of smooth cordgrass,


seashore saltgrass, and seashore paspalum if it is in
excellent condition. Tidal movement causes water levels
in the marsh to vary from 0 to 18 inches above the
surface. Continuous grazing and annual burning will alter
the plant community to one dominated by black
needlegrass. In excellent condition, the average annual
production of air-dry plant material from all sources is
approximately 8,000 pounds per acre during favorable
years and approximately 4,000 pounds per acre in
unfavorable growing years. In excellent condition, the
relative percentages of total annual production is
approximately 90 percent grasses and grasslike plants, 5
percent forbs, and 5 percent woody plants and trees.
Cabbage Palm Flatwoods-This range site occurs on
nearly level areas characterized by cabbage palm trees
scattered throughout the landscape. This site is a
preferred livestock grazing area that produces a high
quality and quantity of forage plants when in excellent
condition. Creeping, chalky, and South Florida bluestems
are the dominant forage grasses along with several
desirable panicum species. Pineland threeawn and
sawpalmetto increase as the area deteriorates. In
excellent condition, the average annual production of air-
dry plant material from all sources is approximately 9,000
pounds per acre in favorable years and approximately
4,500 pounds per acre in unfavorable years. The relative
percentages of total annual production are approximately
70 percent grasses and grasslike plants, 15 percent
forbs, and 15 percent woody plants and trees.

Woodland Management and Productivity
Carl D. DeFazio, forester, Soil Conservation Service, and Eric Hoyer,
forester, Florida Division of Forestry, assisted in preparing this section.
Commercial forests in Charlotte County cover
approximately 45,000 acres, or 10 percent of the total
land area. They are primarily large and privately owned.
The 20,000-acre Webb Wildlife Management Area
extends from central Charlotte County into northern Lee
County.
South Florida slash pine is the major species in the
county, occurring on Oldsmar, Wabasso, Myakka, and
Immokalee soils in the eastern part of the county.
Southern baldcypress is also common in the county,
particularly along the Telegraph Swamp in the
southeastern part of the county.
Urban development is steadily reducing the acreage of
forests throughout the county. In general, the western
half of the county has been lost to such development.
Sound management of the timber resource is primarily
limited to the larger ranches where timber makes up a
substantial amount of the total acreage. Management
generally consists of natural revegetation following
harvest cutting. Site selection for planting is important in
order to maximize growth, which will help to offset the
cost of planting. Many soils with loamy texture within a
depth of 40 inches of the surface are very productive for






Charlotte County, Florida


growing timber if control of the water table can be
maintained.
Prescribed burning, particularly on the Webb Wildlife
Management Area, is important in reducing "rough,"
which is a dangerous fire hazard. Burning is also a
common practice associated with quail management.
Markets for wood are limited in the area; however,
trends indicate that increased utilization of wood and
wood fiber will continue. Several small sawmills now
exist, and markets for post poles, pilings, and pulpwood
are present.
More detailed information on soils and forest
management can be obtained from the local offices of
the Soil Conservation Service, Florida Division of
Forestry, and Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
Table 7 can be used by woodland owners or forest
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops.
Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The
table lists the ordination (woodland suitability) symbol for
each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol
require the same general management and have about
the same potential productivity.
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number,
indicates the potential productivity of the soils for
important trees. The number 1 indicates very high
productivity; 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate;
and 5, low. The second part of the symbol, a letter,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter w
indicates excessive water in or on the soil, and the letter
s indicates sandy texture. The letter o indicates that
limitations or restrictions are insignificant.
In table 7, slight, moderate, and severe indicate the
degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in
management.
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss
of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the
expected soil loss is small, moderate if measures are
needed to control erosion during logging and road
construction, and severe if intensive management or
special equipment and methods are needed to prevent
excessive loss of soil.
Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the
characteristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use
of the equipment generally needed in woodland
management or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates
that use of equipment is not limited to a particular kind of
equipment or time of year; moderate indicates a short
seasonal limitation or a need for some modification in
management or in equipment; and severe indicates a
seasonal limitation, a need for special equipment or
management, or a hazard in the use of equipment.
Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which
the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant
competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings
apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly
planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of
slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than


25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe,
more than 50 percent.
Ratings of windthrow hazard are based on soil
characteristics that affect the development of tree roots
and the ability of the soil to hold trees firmly. A rating of
slight indicates that few trees may be blown down by
strong winds; moderate, that some trees will be blown
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and
strong winds; and severe, that many trees are blown
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and
moderate or strong winds.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to
which undesirable plants are expected to invade where
there are openings in the tree canopy. The invading
plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings. A
rating of slight indicates little or no competition from
other plants; moderate indicates that plant competition is
expected to hinder the development of a fully stocked
stand of desirable trees; severe indicates that plant
competition is expected to prevent the establishment of
a desirable stand unless the site is intensively prepared,
weeded, or otherwise managed to control undesirable
plants.
The potential productivity of merchantable or common
trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is
the average height, in feet, that dominant and
codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified
number of years. Site index was determined at age 25
years for South Florida slash pine and at 50 years for all
other species. The site index applies to fully stocked,
even-aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly grown trees
are those that woodland managers generally favor in
intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected
on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and
marketability.
Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils
and to commercial wood production.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several
rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous
trees and shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind, help to keep snow on the fields, and provide
food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on a
well prepared site and maintained in good condition.


55






Soil Survey


Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a nursery.

Recreation
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 8
according to limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
of these measures.
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
and for local roads and streets in table 10.
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or


stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and
are not subject to flooding more than once a year during
the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few
or no stones or boulders on the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, assisted in
preparing this section.
This county has extensive areas of good wildlife
habitat, even though much of the highly desirable habitat
in the coastal areas has been lost to urban development.
The beaches, mangroves, and hardwood hammock
areas are under heavy pressure for development. The
state-owned Webb Wildlife Management Area (62,500
acres) in Charlotte County provides protected pockets of
habitat. The Webb area is inland and is home to such
wildlife as deer, quail, and various wading birds.
The primary game animals are bobwhite quail and
white-tailed deer; some hunting is also provided by wild
turkey, squirrels, feral hogs, snipe, and waterfowl
(primarily the Florida duck in the inland areas and teal,
gadwall, pintail, ringneck, and scaup in the coastal
areas). Nongame animals include raccoon, opossum,
skunk, armadillo, bobcat, gray fox, otter, songbirds,
wading birds, shore birds, woodpeckers, reptiles, and
amphibians. Numerous fish provide excellent fishing in
the brackish and saltwater areas. Largemouth bass and
various sunfish are the primary species caught in fresh
water.
Some of the inland areas are used for vegetable
production, but most are in large cattle ranches. These
areas, especially those in native range, provide wildlife
habitat, but they could be improved by the modification
of poor grazing and burning practices.
A number of endangered or threatened species are
found in the county. These range from the red-cockaded
woodpecker and sandhill crane to more familiar species,


56






Soil Survey


Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a nursery.

Recreation
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 8
according to limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
of these measures.
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
and for local roads and streets in table 10.
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or


stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and
are not subject to flooding more than once a year during
the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few
or no stones or boulders on the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, assisted in
preparing this section.
This county has extensive areas of good wildlife
habitat, even though much of the highly desirable habitat
in the coastal areas has been lost to urban development.
The beaches, mangroves, and hardwood hammock
areas are under heavy pressure for development. The
state-owned Webb Wildlife Management Area (62,500
acres) in Charlotte County provides protected pockets of
habitat. The Webb area is inland and is home to such
wildlife as deer, quail, and various wading birds.
The primary game animals are bobwhite quail and
white-tailed deer; some hunting is also provided by wild
turkey, squirrels, feral hogs, snipe, and waterfowl
(primarily the Florida duck in the inland areas and teal,
gadwall, pintail, ringneck, and scaup in the coastal
areas). Nongame animals include raccoon, opossum,
skunk, armadillo, bobcat, gray fox, otter, songbirds,
wading birds, shore birds, woodpeckers, reptiles, and
amphibians. Numerous fish provide excellent fishing in
the brackish and saltwater areas. Largemouth bass and
various sunfish are the primary species caught in fresh
water.
Some of the inland areas are used for vegetable
production, but most are in large cattle ranches. These
areas, especially those in native range, provide wildlife
habitat, but they could be improved by the modification
of poor grazing and burning practices.
A number of endangered or threatened species are
found in the county. These range from the red-cockaded
woodpecker and sandhill crane to more familiar species,


56






Charlotte County, Florida


such as the alligator and pelican. A complete list of
endangered or threatened species, with detailed
information on their range and habitat, can be obtained
from the local SCS district conservationist.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
In table 9, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
the intensity of management needed for each element of
the habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind
of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
and must be intensive. A rating of verypoor indicates
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and
seed crops are soybeans, browntop millet, and grain
sorghum.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard,
and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are


bahiagrass, pangolagrass, deervetch, clover, and
sesbania.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod,
beggarweed, partridge pea, bristlegrass, and
sloughgrass.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
these plants are oak, palmetto, dahoon holly, red maple,
wild grape, sugarberry, water hickory, blackberry, and
huckleberry. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are
suitable for planting on soils rated good are firethorn,
waxmyrtle, and blackberry.
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, and
cedar.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
plants are smartweed, wild millet, saltgrass, cordgrass,
rushes, sedges, and reeds.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water-control
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
ponds.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
the following paragraphs.
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas
include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow,
cottontail, and sandhill cranes.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild


57






Soil Survey


turkey, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
raccoon, deer, and bobcat.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore
birds, otter, mink, and ibis.
Habitat for rangeland wildlife consists of areas of
shrubs and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to
rangeland include white-tailed deer, meadowlark,
bobwhite quail, and opossum.

Engineering
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this
section. Local ordinances and regulations must be
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the
surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-
swell potential, available water capacity, and other
behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses.
This information can be used to evaluate the potential
of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and
recreation uses; make preliminary estimates of


construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate
potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil;
plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds,
terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and predict performance of proposed small
structures and pavements by comparing the performance
of existing similar structures on the same or similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
survey can be used to make additional interpretations.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Glossary.

Building Site Development
Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
without basements, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
features are generally favorable for the indicated use
and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate
if soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
special design, significant increases in construction
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
Special feasibility studies may be required where the soil
limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to
bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer;
stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the
year that excavations can be made is affected by the
depth to a seasonal high water table and the
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of the
excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is
affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made
for small commercial buildings without basements, for
dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without
basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high


58







Charlotte County, Florida


water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water
table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large
stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts
and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high
water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the
ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil),
shrink-swell potential, frost-action potential, and depth to
a high water table affect the traffic-supporting capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil
reaction, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan, the available water capacity in the upper
40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic
materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope,
stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic
matter in the surface layer affect trafficability after
vegetation is established.
Sanitary Facilities
Table 11 shows the degree and the kind of soil
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
are considered slight if soil properties and site features
are generally favorable for the indicated use and
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
special design, significant increases in construction
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
and good performance and low maintenance can be
expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
more soil properties or site features make the soil less
desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
that one or more soil properties or site features are
unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
costly alteration.


Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan, and flooding affect absorption of the
effluent. Large stones and bedrock or a cemented pan
interfere with installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath
the absorption field to filter the effluent effectively. Many
local ordinances require that this material be of a certain
thickness.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level
floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
recommended to minimize seepage and contamination
of ground water.
Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth
to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones,
and content of organic matter.
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level
of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function
unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive
or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of
organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the
lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope,
bedrock, and cemented pans can cause construction
problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of
the lagoon floor.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted,


59






Soil Survey


and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
away from the site.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
needs to be considered.
The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties,
site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a
high water table, slope, and flooding affect both types of
landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly organic
layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and sodium
affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the
ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth
of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated
slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation
is needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing.
After soil material has been removed, the soil material
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over
bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit
revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a
landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
and the best potential for plants. Material from the
surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final
cover.
Construction Materials
Table 12 gives information about the soils as a source
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
properties and site features that affect the removal of
the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
compaction, minor processing, and other standard
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
and used in road embankments in another place. In this
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
exacting in design than higher embankments.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within


their profile. The table showing engineering index
properties provides detailed information about each soil
layer. This information can help determine the suitability
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered
in the ratings.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of
excavation is affected by large stones, a high water
table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place
after it has been compacted and drained is determined
by its strength (as inferred from the engineering
classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to
the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers
of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 12, only
the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect
excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated
by the engineering classification of the soil), the
thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock
fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are
given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain
sizes is given in the table on engineering index
properties.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale
and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is
the reclamation potential of the borrow area.


60







Charlotte County, Florida


Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a depth
of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less
than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or
soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are
not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more
than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
near the surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of
moisture and nutrients for plant growth.
Water Management
Table 13 gives information on the soil properties and
site features that affect water management. The degree
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil
properties and site features are generally favorable for
the indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are
not favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to
overcome that special design, significant increase in
construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
are required.
This table also gives for each soil the restrictive
features that affect drainage, irrigation, terraces and
diversions, and grassed waterways.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity
of the reservoir area.
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,


constructed to impound water or to protect land against
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
and compacted during construction.
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth even greater than the height of the embankment
can affect performance and safety of the embankment.
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
determine these properties.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include
less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content
of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium.
A high water table affects the amount of usable material.
It also affects trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavatedponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
water table, permeability of the aquifer, and quality of the
water as inferred from the salinity of the soil. Depth to
bedrock and the content of large stones affect the ease
of excavation.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth to
a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is
subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding;
subsidence of organic layers; and potential frost action.
Excavating and grading and the stability of ditchbanks
are affected by depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
large stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving.
The productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely
affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in the
root zone, such as salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of
drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
and management of an irrigation system are affected by
depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system
is affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or
sodium, and soil reaction.
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
combination of channels and ridges constructed across
a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by


61










intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the
construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or water erosion,
an excessively coarse texture, and restricted permeability
adversely affect maintenance.
Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct


surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
construction.






63


Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on
the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and
to delineate them'on the soil maps. Samples are taken
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in
table 21.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for the
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5
or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other
properties of each layer are given for each soil series
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary.


Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
for soils tested, with group index numbers in
parentheses, is given in table 21.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
weight percentage.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.






63


Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on
the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and
to delineate them'on the soil maps. Samples are taken
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in
table 21.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for the
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5
or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other
properties of each layer are given for each soil series
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary.


Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
for soils tested, with group index numbers in
parentheses, is given in table 21.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
weight percentage.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.






Soil Survey


Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
from nearby areas and on field examination.
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and
plasticity index are rounded to the nearest 5 percent.
Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg limits
extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points)
across classification boundaries, the classification in the
marginal zone is omitted in the table.

Physical and Chemical Properties
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics and
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area.
The estimates are based on field observations and on
test data for these and similar soils.
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter.
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain
moisture. They influence shrink-swell potential,
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion,
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in
a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving operations.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential,
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture,
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are
based on soil characteristics observed in the field,
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability
is considered in the design of soil drainage systems,
septic tank absorption fields, and construction where the
rate of water movement under saturated conditions
affects behavior.
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The
capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per


inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies,
depending on soil properties that affect the retention of
water and the depth of the root zone. The most
important properties are the content of organic matter,
soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available
water capacity is an important factor in the choice of
plants or crops to be grown and in the design and
management of irrigation systems. Available water
capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
corrosion.
Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
laboratory measurements at representative sites of
nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
construction material, and the potential of the soil to
corrode metal and concrete.
Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
measurements of similar soils.
If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
often needed.
Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
is sometimes used.
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six


64






Charlotte County, Florida


factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates
are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and
organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69.
The higher the value, the more susceptible the soil is to
sheet and rill erosion by water.
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
can occur without affecting crop productivity over a
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following
distinctions:
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to
establish.
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind
erosion are used.
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to
control wind erosion are used.
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion
are used.
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to
control wind erosion are used.
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to
control wind erosion are used.
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate,
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly
erodible. Crops can easily be grown.
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate.
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily
be grown.
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject
to wind erosion.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
soil at various stages of decomposition.


In table 15, the estimated content of organic matter is
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The content of organic matter of a soil can be
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
other nutrients for crops.

Soil and Water Features
Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water
features. The estimates are used in land use planning
that involves engineering considerations.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
according to the intake of water when the soils are
thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
duration storms.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
transmission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
transmission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that
have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
Some of the soils in table 16 are shown as having
dual hydrologic groups, such as B/D. A B/D listing
means that under natural conditions the soil belongs to
hydrologic group D, but by artificial methods the water
table can be lowered sufficiently so that the soil fits in
hydrologic group B. Since there are different degrees of
drainage or water table control, onsite investigation is
needed to determine the hydrologic group of the soil at a
particular location.
Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after


65






Soil Survey


rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding, nor is
water in swamps and marshes.
Table 16 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, rare,
common, occasional, and frequent. None means that
flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but
possible under unusual weather conditions; common that
it is likely under normal conditions; occasional that it
occurs, on the average, no more than once in 2 years;
and frequent that it occurs, on the average, more than
once in 2 years. Duration is expressed as very brief if
less than 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, and long if more
than 7 days. Probable dates are expressed in months;
November-May, for example, means that flooding can
occur during the period November through May.
The information is based on evidence in the soil
profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of
distinctive horizons that form in soils that are not subject
to flooding.
Also considered are local information about the extent
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
levels.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
soil. The water table in 23 pedons, representing 11 soil
series, was measured twice a month for three
consecutive years during the course of the soil survey.
The pedons were selected as typical of the series as
mapped in the county, and they were as far removed as
possible from any source of artificial drainage. The
measurements of the water tables for nine of the major
series, for the period 1977 through 1979, are shown in
table 17. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to the
seasonal high water table; the kind of water table-that
is, perched, artesian, or apparent; and the months of the
year that the water table commonly is high. A water table
that is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not
indicated in table 16.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. An
artesian water table is under hydrostatic head, generally
beneath an impermeable layer. When this layer is
penetrated, the water level rises in an uncased borehole.
A perched water table is water standing above an


unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water
table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet
are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
indicates that the water table is above the surface of the
soil. The first numeral in the range indicates how high
the water rises above the surface. The second numeral
indicates the depth below the surface.
Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth
of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and
on observations during soil mapping. The rock is
specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or
fractured, excavations can be made with trenching
machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard
or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is
needed for excavation.
Cementedpans are cemented or indurated subsurface
layers within a depth of 5 feet. Such pans cause difficulty
in excavation. Pans are classified as thin or thick. A thin
pan is less than 3 inches thick if continuously indurated
or less than 18 inches thick if discontinuous or fractured.
Excavations can be made by trenching machines,
backhoes, or small rippers. A thick pan is more than 3
inches thick if continuously indurated or more than 18
inches thick if discontinuous or fractured. Such a pan is
so thick or massive that blasting or special equipment is
needed in excavation.
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
results from either desiccation and shrinkage or oxidation
of organic material, or both, following drainage.
Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period
of several years. Table 16 shows the expected initial
subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage, and
annual subsidence, which usually is a result of oxidation.
Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
water throughout an extensive area as a result of
lowering the water table.
Potential frost action is the likelihood of upward or
lateral expansion of the soil caused by the formation of
segregated ice lenses (frost heave) and the subsequent
collapse of the soil and loss of strength on thawing.
Frost action occurs when moisture moves into the
freezing zone of the soil. Temperature, texture, density,
permeability, content of organic matter, and depth to the
water table are the most important factors considered in
evaluating the potential for frost action. It is assumed
that the soil is not insulated by vegetation or snow and is
not artificially drained. Silty and highly structured clayey
soils that have a high water table in winter are most
susceptible to frost action. Well drained, very gravelly, or
very sandy soils are the least susceptible. Frost heave
and low soil strength during thawing cause damage
mainly to pavements and other rigid structures.
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or


66






Charlotte County, Florida


67


weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil.
Special site examination and design may be needed if
the combination of factors creates a severe corrosion
environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion
than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
of soil or within one soil layer.
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
Analyses of Selected Soils
By Dr. V. W. Carlisle, professor of soil science, Soil Science
Department, University of Florida.
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical
properties of representative pedons are presented in
tables 18, 19, and 20. The analyses were conducted and
coordinated by the Soil Characterization Laboratory at
the University of Florida. Detailed profile descriptions of
soils analyzed are given in the section "Soil Series and
Their Morphology." Laboratory data and profile
information for additional soils in the county as well as
for other counties in Florida are on file at the Soil
Science Department, University of Florida.
Typifying pedons were sampled from pits at carefully
selected locations. Samples were air-dried, crushed, and
sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most analytical
methods used are outlined in Soil Survey Investigations
Report No. 1 (5).
Particle-size distribution was determined using a
modified pipette method with sodium~
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil
cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at
100 centimeters water (1/10 bar) and 345 centimeters
water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water
percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were
ovendried, ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and the
15-bar water retention was determined. Organic carbon
was determined by a modification of the Walkley-Black
wet combustion method.
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils with
normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium
and potassium in the extract were determined by flame


emission, and calcium and magnesium by atomic
absorption spectrophotometry. Extractable acidity was
determined by the barium chloridetriethanolamine
method at pH 8.2. Cation exchange capacity was
calculated by summation of extractable bases and
extractable acidity. Base saturation is the ratio of
extractable bases to cation exchange capacity
expressed in percent. The pH measurements were made
with a glass electrode using a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a
0.01 molar calcium chloride solution in a 1:2 soil-solution
ratio; and normal potassium chloride solution in a 1:1
soil-solution ratio.
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were
extracted from probable spodic horizons with 0.1 molar
sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and
iron was by atomic absorption and extracted carbon by
the Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
Mineralogy of the clay fraction greater than 2
micrometers was ascertained by X-ray diffraction. Peak
heights at 18 angstrom, 14 angstrom, 7.2 angstrom, 4.83
angstrom, and 4.31 angstrom positions represent
montmorillonite, interstratified expandable vermiculite or
14-angstrom intergrades, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz,
respectively. Peaks were measured, summed, and
normalized to give percent soil minerals identified in the
X-ray diffractograms. These percentage values do not
indicate absolute determined quantities of soil miitsls
but do imply a relative distribution of minerals in a
particular mineral suite. Absolute percentages would
require additional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity,
unit structure substitution, and matrix problems.
Most soils in the county are inherently sandy (table
18). All pedons sampled, with the exception of Wulfert,
contained at least one horizon with more than 95
percent total sands. Canaveral, Captiva, Daytona, Estero,
Myakka, Orsino, Pompano, Punta, Satellite, Smyrna, and
Valkaria soils contained more than 90 percent sands to
a depth of 2 meters or more. Only one horizon in the
Anclote, Boca, Floridana, and Immokalee soils contained
less than 90 percent total sands. Deep horizons of Boca,
Bradenton, EauGallie, Felda, Floridana, Heights, Isles,
Malabar, Oldsmar, Terra Ceia, Wabasso, and Winder
soils contained the most fine-textured materials;
however, only one horizon in the Bradenton and two
horizons in the Wabasso soil contained more than 20
percent clay. Silt content in most horizons of the soils
sampled was less than 4 percent. EauGallie, Felda,
Heights, Malabar, and Terra Ceia soils contained 10
percent or more silt in one or two subsurface horizons.
Fine sands dominated the sand fractions of most soils
with amounts exceeding 90 percent in the Myakka soil.
Horizons with more than 60 percent fine sands occurred
in the Boca, Bradenton, Canaveral, Captiva, Cocoa,






Soil Survey


Estero, Felda, Hallandale, Isles, Kesson, Malabar,
Myakka, Orsino, Peckish, Pompano, Punta, Satellite,
Smyrna, Terra Ceia, Valkaria, Wabasso, and Wulfert
soils. Medium sands dominated the sand fractions of
Anclote, Daytona, EauGallie, Immokalee, Oldsmar, and
Winder soils. Horizons with more than 50 percent
medium sand occurred in all of these soils with
exception of the Daytona pedon. Coarse sand commonly
occurred in minor amounts, exceeding 10 percent only in
one horizon of the Canaveral soil and a number of
horizons in the EauGallie soils. Very coarse sand
occurred in extremely low amounts, nondetectable in
one or more horizons of the Anclote, Boca, Bradenton,
Cocoa, Daytona, EauGallie, Estero, Felda, Floridana,
Hallandale, Heights, Immokalee, Malabar, Myakka,
Oldsmar, Orsino, Peckish, Pompano, Punta, Satellite,
Terra Ceia, Valkaria, Wabasso, Winder, and Wulfert soils.
Droughtiness is a common characteristic of sandy soils,
particularly those that are moderately well drained, well
drained, or excessively drained.
Bradenton, Canaveral, Orsino, Satellite, and Terra Ceia
soils contained horizons with hydraulic conductivity
values in excess of 60 centimeters per hour. Hydraulic
conductivity values of less than 15 centimeters per hour
were recorded throughout the entire Felda and Heights
pedons. Malabar, Wabasso, and Winder soils contained
only one horizon with hydraulic conductivity values in
excess of 15 centimeters per hour. Many of the soils
sampled contained one or more horizons with less than
15 centimeters per hour hydraulic conductivity. Spodic
horizons or horizons with enhanced amounts of clay
occurring in the subsoil of the Bradenton, EauGallie,
Floridana, Heights, Immokalee, Malabar, Oldsmar, Terra
Ceia, and Winder soils resulted in hydraulic conductivity
values that were less than 1 centimeter per hour.
Bulk density values, generally between 1.40 and 1.70
grams per centimeter, may be used along with water
content data to indicate available water content.
Generally, soils in the county contain excessive amounts
of sand and small amounts of organic matter, resulting in
the retention of low amounts of available water. Orsino,
Pompano, Satellite, and Valkaria soils retain very low
amounts of available water throughout. Relatively large
amounts of available water are retained by the Floridana
and Terra Ceia surface soils.
Soil chemical properties (table 19) show that many
soils in the county contained one or more horizons with
a relatively high amount of extractable bases. The sum
of extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium, and
potassium exceeded 16 milliequivalents per 100 grams
throughout the pedon depths of Canaveral, Captiva,
Isles, Kesson, Peckish, and Wulfert soils. In addition, at
least one horizon in the Bradenton, Felda, Floridana,
Heights, and Terra Ceia soils contained more than 16
milliequivalents per 100 grams extractable bases. In
contrast, all horizons of the Daytona, Immokalee,
Myakka, Pompano, Punta, Satellite, and Valkaria pedons


contained 1 milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable
bases or less. Many of the other soils that were sampled
contained horizons with extremely low amounts of
extractable bases. Calcium was the dominant base in
most soils; however, sodium and magnesium were by far
the dominant bases in the Estero, Isles, Peckish, and
Wulfert soils. Sodium content was extremely low or
nondetectable in most horizons of the Anclote, Boca,
Bradenton, Cocoa, Daytona, EauGallie, Felda, Floridana,
Hallandale, Heights, Malabar, Myakka, Oldsmar, Orsino,
Pompano, Punta, Satellite, Smyrna, Valkaria, and Winder
soils. Likewise, potassium content was very low or
nondetectable in these soils and in the Canaveral,
Captiva, Kesson, Myakka, Terra Ceia, and Wabasso
soils. Cation exchange capacity values exceeded 7
milliequivalents per 100 grams in the surface horizons of
the Anclote, Bradenton, Canaveral, Captiva, Estero,
Floridana, Immokalee, Isles, Kesson, Oldsmar, Peckish,
Terra Ceia, and Wulfert soils. Within the pedon depth,
the cation exchange capacity exceeded 7
milliequivalents per 100 grams in all soils sampled with
the exception of the Cocoa, Hallandale, Malabar, Orsino,
Pompano, Satellite, and Valkaria soils.
Soil cation exchange capacity is almost entirely a
result of the amount and kind of clay and organic matter
present. Soils with very low cation exchange capacities,
such as Satellite, require only small amounts of lime to
significantly alter both the base status and soil reaction
in the upper horizons. Generally, soils of low inherent
soil fertility are associated with low values for extractable
bases and low cation exchange capacities and fertile
soils are associated with high values for extractab;e
bases, high cation exchange capacities, and high base
saturation values.
Content of organic carbon was less than 2 percent
throughout all horizons of all pedons of the Boca,
Bradenton, Canaveral, Cocoa, Felda, Hallandale,
Heights, Kesson, Malabar, Orsino, Pompano, Satellite,
Smyrna, Valkaria, Wabasso, and Winder soils. Significant
increases in organic carbon content occurred in the Bh
horizons of the Daytona, EauGallie, Estero, Immokalee,
Myakka, Oldsmar, Punta, Smyrna, and Wabasso soils.
Soil management practices that conserve and maintain
organic carbon in soils are highly desirable since organic
carbon content is directly related to soil nutrient and
water retention characteristics.
Electrical conductivity values were 0.1 millimho per
centimeter or less in all horizons of the Cocoa, Daytona,
EauGallie, Hallandale, Immokalee, Myakka, Orsino,
Pompano, Punta, Satellite, Smyrna, and Valkaria soils.
Values exceeding 3.0 millimho per centimeter in the
surface horizon of the Captiva, Estero, Isles, Kesson,
Peckish, and Wulfert soils indicated that the soluble salt
content of these soils approached amounts that are
detrimental to the growth of salt sensitive plants.
Soil reaction in water commonly ranged between pH
4.5 and 6.0; however, the entire pedon of Canaveral,


68






Charlotte County, Florida


Captiva, and Kesson soils and parts of the subsoils of
the Boca, Bradenton, Felda, Heights, Malabar, Pompano,
and Terra Ceia soils exceeded pH 7.0. Reactions lower
than pH 4.5 were recorded in one or more horizons of
the Daytona, Immokalee, Myakka, Peckish, Punta, Terra
Ceia, and Wulfert soils. Soil reaction was generally 0.5 to
1.5 units lower in calcium chloride and potassium
chloride solutions than in water, with the exception of
soils that had high electrical conductivity values.
Maximum plant nutrient availability is generally attained
when soil reaction is between pH 6.5 and 7.5; however,
for most crops in Florida it is usually not economically
feasible to maintain the reaction of strongly acid soils
above a value of pH 6.5.
Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron was 0.06
percent or less in the Bh horizons. The ratio of
pyrophosphate extractable aluminum to clay in Daytona,
EauGallie, Estero, Immokalee, Myakka, Oldsmar, Punta,
Smyrna, and Wabasso soils was sufficient to meet the
chemical criteria for spodic horizons. Citrate-dithionite
extractable iron in argillic horizons of Ultisols ranged
from 0.01 percent in the Boca soil to 0.61 percent in the
Wabasso soil. Similarly, these values in the Bh horizons
of Spodosols ranged from 0.02 percent in the EauGallie
soil to 0.10 percent in the Daytona and Myakka soils;
and, in the Bir horizons, from 0.04 percent in the
Malabar soil to 0.11 percent in the Valkaria soil.
Aluminum extracted by citrate-dithionite ranged from
nondetectable amounts in the Terra Ceia soil to 0.34
percent in the EauGallie soil. Soils in the county contain
insufficient amounts of aluminum and iron to
detrimentally affect phosphorus availability.
The sand fraction (2 to 0.05 millimeters) was siliceous
with quartz overwhelmingly dominant in all pedons. Small
amounts of heavy minerals occurred in most soils, with
the greatest concentration in the very fine sand fraction.
No weatherable minerals were observed. Crystalline
mineral components of the clay fraction (less than 0.002
millimeters) are reported in table 20 for selected
horizons of the pedons sampled. The clay mineralogical
suite was composed of montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom
intergrade, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz. Montmorillonite
occurred in approximately two-thirds of the soils sampled
but was not detected in the Boca, Cocoa, Daytona,
EauGallie, Hallandale, Immokalee, Orsino, Pompano,
Punta, Valkaria, and Wabasso soils. The 14-angstrom
intergrade minerals, occurring in a somewhat similar


proportion of the soils sampled, were not detected in the
Bradenton, Canaveral, Captiva, Felda, Kesson, Myakka,
Satellite, Terra Ceia, and Wulfert soils. Gibbsite, usually
occurring in small amounts, was detected in some
horizons of the Boca, EauGallie, Hallandale, Pompano,
Smyrna, and Valkaria soils. Quartz occurred in all
pedons sampled.
Large amounts of quartz, particularly in the surface
horizons, indicated a severe weathering environment in
the county. Clay-sized quartz has resulted from
decrements of the silt fraction. Montmorillonite appears
to have been inherited as it is probably the least stable
of the mineral components under present environmental
conditions. Inconsistent occurrence of the 14-angstrom
intergrade and gibbsite together with the lack of a
tendency for kaolinite to increase or decrease with
pedon depth is suggestive of youthful soils. Clay
mineralogy of soils occurring in the county influences
their use and management less commonly than the total
clay content.

Engineering Index Test Data
Table 21 shows laboratory test data for several
pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey
area. The pedons are typical of the series and are
described in the section "Soil Series and Their
Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the Soils
Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
Bureau of Materials and Research. These tests were
made to help evaluate the soils for engineering
purposes. The classifications given are based on data
obtained by mechanical analysis and by tests to
determine liquid limits and plasticity indices. The
mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve and
hydrometer methods (3). The various grain-size fractions
were calculated on the basis of all the material in the soil
sample, including that coarser than 2 millimeters.
Mechanical analyses used in this method should not be
used in naming the textural classes of soils.
The testing methods generally are those of the
American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials (AASHTO) or the American
Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
The tests and methods are: Liquid limit-T 89
(AASHTO), D 423 (ASTM); Plasticity index-T 90
(AASHTO), D 424 (ASTM); Moisture density, Method A-
T 99 (AASHTO), D 698 (ASTM).


69







71


Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (6). Beginning
with the broadest, these categories are the order,
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series.
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the
field or inferred from those observations or from
laboratory measurements. Table 22 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning
water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of
the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm,
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the
Entisols that have an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where
there is much biological activity. Among the properties


and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
Psammaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
differ within a series.


Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in Charlotte
County is described. Charlotte County and adjacent Lee
County were mapped concurrently using a single soil
legend for both counties. All of the soil map units
described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" occur
in both counties. Because these counties were mapped
together, some of the typical pedons for the soil series in
this survey are located in Lee County. These pedons are
considered to be representative of the soils as mapped
in Charlotte County, however. The description of the
location of the typical pedon of each series names the
county in which the pedon is located. The descriptions of
the soil series are arranged in alphabetic order.
The location of the typical pedon of many of the series
is referenced to nearby roads. Some roads that were
State Highways when the survey was being made have
since become county highways. The highway
designations have not been changed, however, since the
accompanying soil maps carry the older designation.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (4). Many of
the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
in Soil Taxonomy (6). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon







71


Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (6). Beginning
with the broadest, these categories are the order,
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series.
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the
field or inferred from those observations or from
laboratory measurements. Table 22 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning
water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of
the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm,
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the
Entisols that have an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where
there is much biological activity. Among the properties


and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
Psammaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
differ within a series.


Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in Charlotte
County is described. Charlotte County and adjacent Lee
County were mapped concurrently using a single soil
legend for both counties. All of the soil map units
described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" occur
in both counties. Because these counties were mapped
together, some of the typical pedons for the soil series in
this survey are located in Lee County. These pedons are
considered to be representative of the soils as mapped
in Charlotte County, however. The description of the
location of the typical pedon of each series names the
county in which the pedon is located. The descriptions of
the soil series are arranged in alphabetic order.
The location of the typical pedon of many of the series
is referenced to nearby roads. Some roads that were
State Highways when the survey was being made have
since become county highways. The highway
designations have not been changed, however, since the
accompanying soil maps carry the older designation.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (4). Many of
the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
in Soil Taxonomy (6). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon






72


description is the range of important characteristics of
the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Anclote Series
The soils of the Anclote series are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Haplaquolls. They are deep, very
poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in
thick beds of sandy marine sediment. These soils are in
depressions. Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent.
In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
ponded for more than 6 months. The water table is at a
depth of 10 to 40 inches below the surface for 3 to 6
months.
Anclote soils are geographically associated with Boca,
Immokalee, Malabar, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Valkaria
soils. Valkaria, Malabar, and Pineda soils have a Bir
horizon. Malabar and Pineda soils also have an argillic
horizon. Immokalee and Oldsmar soils have a spodic
horizon. Boca soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of
24 to 40 inches, and they are underlain by limestone.
Typical pedon of Anclote sand, depressional; in a
depression approximately 1.0 mile south of State
Highway 82, NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 25, T. 45 S., R. 26 E., in
Lee County:
A11-0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; many fine and
medium and common coarse roots; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
A12-8 to 22 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; common
light gray (10YR 7/1) sand pockets and streaks
throughout; single grained; loose; many fine and
medium and common coarse roots; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
C1-22 to 40 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; common medium distinct very dark gray
(10YR 3/1) streaks along old root channels; single
grained; loose; medium "acid; clear wavy boundary.
C2-40 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single
grained; loose; neutral.
Anclote soils are strongly acid to slightly acid in the A
horizon and medium to neutral in the C horizon.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1. Thickness is 12 to 24 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Very dark gray or very dark
grayish brown streaks are along old root channels.

Boca Series
The soils of the Boca series are loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. They are moderately
deep, poorly drained, moderately permeable soils that
formed in moderately thick beds of sandy and loamy


marine sediment over limestone. These nearly level soils
are on sloughs, on flatwoods, and in depressions. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent.
In most years, in the flatwoods under natural
conditions, the water table is within 10 inches of the
surface for 2 to 4 months. It is below the limestone for
about 6 months. In sloughs, during periods of high
rainfall, the soil is covered by slowly moving, shallow
water for periods of about 7 days to 1 month or more.
Depressions are ponded for 3 to 6 months or more in
most years.
Boca soils are geographically associated with
Hallandale, Pompano, Felda, Pineda, and Wabasso soils.
Hallandale soils do not have an argillic horizon, and they
have limestone within 20 inches of the surface.
Pompano soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or
more. Felda and Pineda soils do not have limestone
within 80 inches of the surface. In addition, Pineda soils
have a Bir horizon. Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Boca fine sand; on flatwoods about
0.3 mile south of Daniels Road and 300 feet east of U.S.
Highway 41, NW1/4SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 24, T. 45 S., R.
24 E., in Lee County:
A1-0 to 3 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; many fine and few medium roots;
neutral; clear smooth boundary.
A21-3 to 9 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine, medium, and coarse
roots; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
A22-9 to 14 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine, medium, and coarse
roots; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
B1-14 to 25 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium
roots; mildly alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary.
B2tg-25 to 30 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sandy loam;
common medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR
6/8) mottles and few very pale brown (10YR 7/4)
streaks along root channels; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; slightly sticky
and slightly plastic; few fine and medium roots;
common calcareous nodules; mildly alkaline; abrupt
irregular boundary.
IIR-30 inches; fractured limestone containing solution
holes; sandy clay loam material is in solution holes
and fractures.
The thickness of the solum and the depth to limestone
range from 25 to 40 inches except in solution holes
where the thickness and depth are more than 40 inches.
The solution holes are less than half the area of the
individual pedon. Reaction ranges from medium acid to
neutral in the A horizon and from neutral to moderately
alkaline in the B1 and B2t horizons.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2
through 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness is 3 to 8


Soil Survey






Charlotte County, Florida


inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,
and chroma of 1 through 4. Thickness is 10 to 22
inches.
The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and
chroma of 3 or 4; or it has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 2. Mottles of yellowish brown or strong brown
are in some pedons. Thickness is 0 to 15 inches.
The B2t horizon has hue of 5Y or 10YR, value of 5 or
6, and chroma of 1 or 2 with mottles of yellowish brown,
brownish yellow, or strong brown. The B2t horizon is
sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam.
Thickness is 4 to 8 inches.
Some pedons have a thin transitional layer of small
rock fragments and firm calcium carbonate less than 4
inches thick between the B2t horizon and the fractured
limestone.

Bradenton Series
The soils of the Bradenton series are coarse-loamy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Ochraqualfs. They are
poorly drained, moderately permeable soils that formed
in loamy marine sediment. These nearly level soils are in
hammocks along rivers, creeks, and swamps. Slopes are
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the
Bradenton series because they have a strongly acid A
horizon and a medium acid B horizon. They are similar in
use, management, and behavior to the soils of the
Bradenton series, however.
Under natural conditions, the water table is at a depth
of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a depth
of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6 months. It is at a
depth of more than 40 inches during extended dry
periods.
Bradenton soils are geographically associated with
Copeland, Felda, Immokalee, Oldsmar, and Wabasso
soils. Copeland soils have a mollic epipedon. Felda soils
have a sandy A horizon that is 20 to 40 inches thick.
Immokalee, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils have a spodic
horizon and are primarily on the flatwoods positions.
Oldsmar and Wabasso soils also have a loamy argillic
horizon below the spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Bradenton fine sand; in an orange
grove approximately 800 feet north of State Highway 80
and about 2.8 miles west of the Hendry County line,
SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 27, T. 43 S., R. 27 E., in Lee County:

Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak medium granular structure; very friable; few
medium and fine roots; many uncoated sand grains;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A2-5 to 10 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; few medium faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
and few medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
mottles; single grained; loose; few medium and fine
roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.


B21tg-10 to 18 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) sandy clay
loam; many fine distinct olive yellow (5Y 6/8) stains
along root channels; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; few medium and fine roots;
medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B22tg-18 to 28 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) loamy fine
sand; many fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR
5/6) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
very friable; few medium and fine roots; medium
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
IIClca-28 to 33 inches; white (10YR 8/1) soft calcium
carbonate with intrusions of gray loamy fine sand in
about 25 percent of the horizon; weak fine
subangular blocky structure; very friable; few
medium and fine roots; calcareous; gradual wavy
boundary.
IIC2ca-33 to 45 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) loamy fine sand;
common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
5/6) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; weak
fine subangular blocky structure; very friable;
common segregated calcium carbonate concretions
less than 3 inches in diameter; mildly alkaline; clear
wavy boundary.
IIIC3-45 to 57 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) fine
sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable;
common discontinuous strata or pockets of light
gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; common segregated iron
and calcium carbonate concretions 0.5 inch to 2
inches in diameter; moderately alkaline; clear wavy
boundary.
IVC4-57 to 61 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
many coarse distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
mottles; single grained; loose; strongly alkaline; clear
wavy boundary.
IVC5-61 to 71 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) sand;
common fine dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) streaks
throughout; clear wavy boundary.
IVC6-71 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand;
single grained; loose; moderately alkaline.

The thickness of the solum ranges from 20 to 30
inches. Reaction is strongly acid or medium acid in the A
horizon, medium acid or slightly acid in the B2t horizon,
and mildly alkaline to strongly alkaline in all other
horizons.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or
3, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness is 3 to 5 inches. The
Al or Ap horizon is fine sand or loamy fine sand. The A2
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of
2 or less with mottles of very dark gray, very dark
grayish brown, or grayish brown. Thickness is 5 to 7
inches.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through
7, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 3 or 4,
and chroma of 1 or less; hue of 5Y, value of 4 through 6,
and chroma of 1; or it is neutral. Mottles are in shades of
yellow, brown, and red, or there are no mottles. The


73






Soil Survey


B2tg horizon is sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or fine
sandy loam in the upper part. Thickness ranges from 18
to 20 inches. Some pedons do not have accumulations
of soft calcium carbonate. Few to common calcium
carbonate and iron concretions are within a depth of 20
to 40 inches of the surface. Where present, the
concretions are less than 3 inches across.
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 8, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or it has hue of 5Y, value of 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The IIC horizon is fine sand or loamy
fine sand. The IIIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5
or 6, and chroma of 8.

Caloosa Series
The soils of the Caloosa series are sandy over clayey,
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Udifluvents. They are deep,
somewhat poorly drained, slowly permeable soils that
formed in dredge and fill material. These level to nearly
level soils occur as areas that have been prepared for
urban development and as a levee along the
Caloosahatchee River. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
The depth to the water table varies with the amount of
fill material and the extent of artificial drainage within any
mapped area. However, in most years, the water table is
30 to 42 inches below the surface of the fill material for
2 to 4 months. It is at a depth of 60 inches or more
during extended dry periods.
Caloosa soils are geographically associated with
Captiva, Matlacha, Kesson, St. Augustine, and Wulfert
soils. The Captiva, Matlacha, and St. Augustine soils are
on similar landscape positions. The Matlacha and, St.
Augustine soils are also composed of dredge and fill
materials, but they are sandy throughout and contain
fragments of diagnostic horizons within their profiles.
Captiva soils are in poorly defined drainageways. They
are poorly drained and sandy and have a dark surface
layer. Kesson and Wulfert soils are in tidal swamps and
marshes. Kesson soils are sandy, and Wulfert soils are
organic.
Typical pedon of Caloosa fine sand; in an improved
pasture approximately 1,000 feet south of County
Highway 78 and 200 feet east of Otter Creek,
SW1/4NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 16, T. 43 S., R. 26 E., in Lee
County.
Ap-0 to 10 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; common fine and few
medium and coarse roots; moderately alkaline; few
fine roots; lenses of silt loam material; 10 percent by
volume sand-size shell fragments; abrupt smooth
boundary.
C1-10 to 27 inches; stratified pale brown (10YR 6/3)
and gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand: single grained;
loose; common fine and medium roots; moderately
alkaline; few fine lenses of silty clay loam material;
abrupt smooth boundary.


C2-27 to 38 inches; stratified light gray (10YR 7/2) silty
clay; few fine prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
mottles; massive; few fine roots; moderately
alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
C3-38 to 80 inches; stratified gray (10YR 5/1) and dark
gray (10YR 4/1) silty clay; common medium distinct
brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; massive;
moderately alkaline.

Caloosa soils range from slightly acid to moderately
alkaline in all horizons. The thickness of the fill material
ranges from 40 to more than 80 inches. Fragments of
shell are calcareous and range mostly from sand size to
6 centimeters. Shell content ranges from less than 5
percent to 30 percent. The weighted average shell
content (2 millimeters or larger) in the control section is
less than 10 percent. The underlying material is generally
sandy, but some pedons have silty clay loam, clay, or
sandy clay Ab and Cb horizons at a depth of more than
40 inches.
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand or fine sand.
The C1 horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 4
through 8, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is sand or fine sand.
The C2 and C3 horizons have hue of 10YR to 5GY,
value of 4 through 8, and chroma of 1 through 3. They
are sandy clay, clay, or silty clay. Mottles in shades of
yellow or brown are in the C horizon of some pedons.

Canaveral Series
The soils of the Canaveral series are hyperthermic,
uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments. They are moderately
well drained and somewhat poorly drained, very rapidly
permeable soils that formed in thick marine deposits of
sand and shell fragments. These nearly level soils are on
low ridges and in depressions along the Gulf Coast.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is at a depth of 18 to 40 inches below the surface
for a period of 2 to 6 months and at a depth of 40 to 60
inches for 6 months or more.
Canaveral soils are geographically associated with
Captiva and Kesson soils and Beaches. Captiva soils are
in sloughs and have a water table within 10 inches of the
surface. Beaches are flooded by daily tides and are
unstable. Kesson soils are on lower positions in the
landscape, are very poorly drained, and are also
influenced by tidal action.
Typical pedon of Canaveral fine sand; in a brush area
about 1 mile west of Causeway and 50 feet north of
Periwinkle Way, SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 19, T. 46 S., R. 23
E., in Lee County:

Al1-0 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; many very fine, fine, medium, and


74







Charlotte County, Florida


75


coarse roots; about 5 percent shell fragments; mildly
alkaline; calcareous; clear smooth boundary.
A12-7 to 15 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; many fine, medium, and
coarse roots; about 5 percent shell fragments; mildly
alkaline; calcareous; clear wavy boundary.
C1-15 to 22 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium
roots; about 5 percent shell fragments; moderately
alkaline; calcareous; clear wavy boundary.
C2-22 to 36 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; about 5 percent shell
fragments in stratified layers; moderately alkaline;
calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
C3-36 to 51 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand
mixed with about 25 percent multicolored shell
fragments; common medium distinct white (10YR
8/1) streaks; single grained; loose; moderately
alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
C4-51 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand
mixed with about 30 percent multicolored shell
fragments; single grained; loose; mildly alkaline;
calcareous.
Canaveral soils are mildly alkaline or moderately
alkaline in all horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 4,
and chroma of 1 or 2. There are 5 to 10 percent shell
fragments. Thickness ranges from 9 to 15 inches.
Thickness is less than 10 inches where value is less
than 3.5.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and
chroma of 1 through 3. The C horizon is a mixture of fine
sand and multicolored shell fragments. In some pedons,
the C horizon is stratified sand and shell fragments.
Content of shell fragments ranges from about 10 to 60
percent. The weighted average of shell fragments is less
than 35 percent in the control section.

Captiva Series
The soils of the Captiva series are siliceous,
hyperthermic Mollic Psammaquents. They are poorly
drained, very rapidly permeable soils that formed in thick
deposits of marine sand and shell fragments. Slopes
range from 0 to 1 percent.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 2
months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 10
months. In some years, the soil has standing water for
about 1 month.
Captiva soils are geographically associated with
Canaveral and Kesson soils. Captiva soils are poorly
drained and are in sloughs while Canaveral soils are
moderately well drained or somewhat poorly drained and
are on low, narrow ridges bordering the sloughs. Captiva
soils do not have the high sulfur content of Kesson soils.
In addition, Kesson soils are flooded by tides.


Typical pedon of Captiva fine sand; in a slough about
30 feet south of an unpaved road, NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 25,
T. 46 S., R. 22 E., in Lee County:

A1-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) rubbed fine sand;
single grained; loose; many fine and few medium
roots; about 15 percent shell fragments; mildly
alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
C1-6 to 15 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
common light gray (10YR 7/1) streaks; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; about 10 percent
multicolored shell fragments; moderately alkaline;
gradual wavy boundary.
C2-15 to 26 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
many medium distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; about
15 percent multicolored shell fragments; moderately
alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
C3-26 to 30 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; about 30 percent multicolored
shell fragments; moderately alkaline; clear wavy
boundary.
C4g-30 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; about 2 percent multicolored
shell fragments; moderately alkaline.

Captiva soils are mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline
and are calcareous. They are fine sand, sand, or coarse
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Content of shell fragments is about 10
to 15 percent. Thickness is 6 to 9 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 to 7,
and chroma of 1 to 3 with streaks and mottles of light
gray or pale brown. Content of shell fragments is less
than 35 percent in the control section.

Chobee Series
The soils of the Chobee series are fine-loamy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls. They are
nearly level, very poorly drained, very slowly permeable
soils in depressions. These soils formed in thick beds of
marine sediment. Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent.
In most years, under natural conditions, this soil is
covered with water for 3 to 6 months. The water table is
at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for about 3 to 6 months.
Chobee soils are geographically associated with Felda,
Pineda, Malabar, Oldsmar, Wabasso, Gator, and
Floridana soils. Felda, Pineda, Malabar, Oldsmar, and
Wabasso soils do not have a mollic epipedon. In
addition, these soils do not have an argillic horizon within
20 inches of the surface. Oldsmar and Wabasso soils
have a spodic horizon. Gator soils are organic.
Typical pedon of Chobee muck; about 530 feet south
of the DeSoto County line and 330 feet west of an







Soil Survey


unpaved road, NE1/4NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 2, T. 40 S., R.
26 E., in Charlotte County:
Oa-0 to 4 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) muck;
about 75 percent fiber unrubbed, about 3 percent
rubbed; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
many fine roots; strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary.
A11-4 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand;
common grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand streaks;
weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable;
common fine roots; slightly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
A12-10 to 16 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine
sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very
friable; common fine roots; slightly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
B21t-16 to 28 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy
loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; common fine roots; neutral; clear
wavy boundary.
B22t-28 to 42 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; common fine roots; neutral; clear
wavy boundary.
B23tg-42 to 53 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy
loam; weak medium granular structure; friable; mildly
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
C1g-53 to 61 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
loamy sand; single grained; loose; moderately
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
C2g-61 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; common pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1)
uncoated sand; single grained; loose; moderately
alkaline.
The Oa horizon ranges from strongly acid to slightly
acid. The A horizon ranges from medium acid to neutral.
All other horizons range from medium acid to moderately
alkaline.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 3,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness is 2 to 5 inches.
The A horizon is loamy fine sand or fine sandy loam.
Thickness ranges from 10 to 16 inches.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2
through 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sandy loam, fine
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
The C horizon has hue of 2.5Y, 5Y, or 10YR; value of
5 through 7; and chroma of 1 or 2. It is loamy sand,
loamy fine sand, fine sand, or sandy loam.

Cocoa Series
The soils of the Cocoa series are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Psammentic Hapludalfs. They are
moderately deep, moderately well drained, rapidly
permeable soils that formed in moderately thick beds of
marine sediment. These soils are on ridges adjacent to


natural drainageways. Slopes are smooth to convex and
range from 0 to 2 percent.
These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the
Cocoa series. Colors indicate that they are moderately
well drained instead of well drained, and they are
strongly acid rather than medium acid. They are similar
in use, management, and behavior to the soils of the
Cocoa series, however.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 24 inches of the surface for 1 to 2
months. It is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1 to 2
months. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during extended dry periods.
Cocoa soils are geographically associated with
Myakka, Boca, Hallandale, and Malabar soils. All
associated soils are poorly drained. In addition, Myakka
and Malabar soils do not have limestone within a depth
of 80 inches.
Typical pedon of Cocoa fine sand; on a ridge about
1.6 miles south of Alico road and 350 feet east of U.S.
Highway 41, NE1/4SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 17, T. 46 S., R.
25 E., in Lee County:
A1-0 to 3 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
grained; loose; many fine and few medium roots;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
A2-3 to 13 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few medium roots;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B11-13 to 17 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few medium roots;
medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B12-17 to 27 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
B2t-27 to 31 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) fine
sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very
friable; slightly acid; abrupt irregular boundary.
IIR-31 inches; fractured limestone (bedrock).
The A horizon is strongly acid or medium acid. The B
horizon ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
chroma of 1; or it has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
chroma of 1 through 3. Thickness ranges from 3 to 5
inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8,
and chroma of 1 or 3; or it has hue of 7.5YR, value of 6
or 7, and chroma of 4 through 6. Thickness ranges from
0 to 19 inches.
The B11 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 7,
and chroma of 3; hue of 10YR, value of 8, and chroma
of 6; hue of 7.5YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 6 or
8; or hue of 5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6. Thickness
ranges from 2 to 24 inches. The B12 horizon has hue of
10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 2, 4, or 6; or it has
hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 6 or
8. Thickness ranges from 0 to 21 inches.


76






Charlotte County, Florida


The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
chroma of 6; or it has hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and
chroma of 8. Thickness ranges from 3 to 8 inches.
The B22t horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR,
value of 6, and chroma of 6 or 8; or it has hue of 2.5Y,
value of 6, and chroma of 4. Mottles of yellow, red, and
brown are common. Thickness ranges from 0 to 10
inches.
Depth to limestone dominantly ranges from 24 to 40
inches. It can be more than 40 inches in solution holes.

Copeland Series
The soils of the Copeland series are fine-loamy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls. They are
moderately deep, very poorly drained, moderately
permeable soils that formed in moderately thick beds of
marine sediment over limestone. These soils are in
depressions. Slopes are smooth to concave and range
from 0 to 1 percent.
These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the
Copeland series because they do not have a sufficient
increase in clay content in the B horizon to qualify it as
an argillic horizon, and they have a sandy loam surface
layer. They are similar in use, management, and
behavior to the soils of the Copeland series, however.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is above the surface for 3 to 6 months. The water
table is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for about 3 to
6 months.
Copeland soils are geographically associated with
Anclote, Boca, Felda, Floridana, and Pompano soils.
Boca, Felda, and Pompano soils do not have a mollic
epipedon. Floridana soils have an argillic horizon at a
depth of 20 to 40 inches and do not have limestone.
Anclote and Pompano soils are sandy to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Typical pedon of Copeland sandy loam, depressional;
about 0.75 mile south of State Highway 80, NE1/4SE1/4
sec. 27, T. 43 S., R. 26 E., in Lee County:

A1-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy
loam; common light gray (10YR 7/2) sand streaks;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine
and medium roots; medium acid; clear smooth
boundary.
B2t-8 to 20 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy
loam; common light gray (10YR 7/2) sand streaks;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; few fine and medium roots; neutral; abrupt
irregular boundary.
IICca-20 to 28 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sandy clay loam; soft calcium carbonate throughout;
many coarse prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
and yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles; common iron
concretions; massive; friable; moderately alkaline;
abrupt irregular boundary.
IIIR-28 inches; fractured limestone bedrock.


Thickness of the solum is less than 40 inches. Depth
to hard, fractured limestone ranges from 20 to 40 inches.
The A horizon is medium acid or slightly acid, and all
other horizons range from neutral to moderately alkaline.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1. Thickness is 7 to 9 inches. Where present,
the A12 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It is loamy sand or sandy loam 6 to 9
inches thick.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1; or it has hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 1. There are grayish brown, yellowish brown,
brownish yellow, or red mottles. The Bt horizon is sandy
loam or sandy clay loam. Thickness ranges from 6 to 12
inches. Where present, the B23t horizon has hue of
10YR, value of 4, and chroma of 1; or hue of 10YR,
value of 3, and chroma of 2. There are brownish yellow
mottles or yellowish brown streaks. Thickness ranges
from 3 to 7 inches.
The C horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR, value
of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sandy loam,
fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. Thickness is 0 to
10 inches.

Daytona Series
The soils of the Daytona series are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Entic Haplohumods. They are deep,
moderately well drained, moderately rapidly permeable
soils that formed in thick deposits of marine sands.
These nearly level to gently sloping soils are on low
ridges on flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to convex and
range from 0 to 5 percent.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for a period of
about 1 to 4 months. It is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches
for 8 months.
Daytona soils are geographically associated with
Immokalee, Myakka, Orsino, and Pompano soils. The
Immokalee, Myakka, and Pompano soils are poorly
drained. Myakka, Orsino, and Pompano soils have an A
horizon that is less than 30 inches thick. Pompano and
Orsino soils do not have a spodic horizon or a Bh
horizon. Orsino soils have yellowish colors in the subsoil.
Typical pedon of Daytona sand; on a low ridge about
0.86 mile south of State Highway 80 and 1.05 miles west
of Hickey Creek ditch, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 26, T. 43 S., R.
26 E., in Lee County:

A1-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; many
uncoated sand grains; weak fine granular structure;
very friable; many fine and medium roots; strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
A21-4 to 16 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand;
common grayish brown (10YR 5/2) streaks along
root channels; single grained; loose; common fine


77






Soil Survey


and medium roots in the upper part of the horizon;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A22-16 to 43 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; few
grayish brown (10YR 5/2) streaks along root
channels; single grained; loose; few fine and
medium roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B2h-43 to 50 inches; mixed black (10YR 2/1) and dark
reddish brown (5YR 3/2) sand; weak fine
subangular blocky structure; friable; extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B3-50 to 80 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid
throughout.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through
6, and chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 2 to 6
inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8,
and chroma of 1. Combined thickness of the Al and A2
horizons ranges from 41 to 50 inches. The combined
thickness must be more than 30 inches but less than 50
inches.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma
of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2.
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
chroma of 3; or it has hue of 5YR, value of 3 or 4, and
chroma of 2 or 4. Some pedons have a B3&Bh horizon.
Where present, this horizon has matrix colors with hue of
10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3; there are
common to many spodic fragments. Thickness of the B3
horizon ranges from 5 to 18 inches.
The C horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR, value
of 7, and chroma of 1 or 4. Light gray sand streaks are
in the lower part of this horizon.

EauGallie Series
The soils of the EauGallie series are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Alfic Haplaquods. They are deep, poorly
drained, moderately permeable soils on nearly level
flatwoods. These soils formed in thick beds of loamy
marine sediments.
These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the
EauGallie series because they have a loamy sand B3
horizon. They are similar in use, management, and
behavior to the soils of the EauGallie series, however.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4
months. It is between 10 and 40 inches of the surface
for more than 6 months. It recedes to a depth of more
than 40 inches during extended dry periods.
EauGallie soils are geographically associated with
Immokalee, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Wabasso soils. Pineda
and Wabasso soils have an argillic horizon above a
depth of 40 inches. In addition, Pineda soils have a Bir
horizon and do not have a spodic horizon. Immokalee


soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches and
do not have a spodic horizon. Oldsmar soils have a
spodic horizon below a depth of 30 inches.
Typical pedon of EauGallie sand; approximately 0.5
mile north of State Highway 74 and about 0.3 mile east
of Orange Grove, NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 35, T. 40 S., R. 26
E., in Charlotte County:

A1-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; many uncoated sand
grains; common fine and medium roots; medium
acid; clear smooth boundary.
A21-4 to 9 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A22-9 to 22 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
many medium distinct brown (10YR 5/3) mottles;
single grained; loose; medium acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
B2h-22 to 27 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; sand grains are well coated with organic
matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B3-27 to 41 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) loamy
sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A'21-41 to 45 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loamy
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
A'22-45 to 58 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand;
single grained; loose strongly acid; gradual irregular
boundary.
B'2tg-58 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) sandy loam;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; strongly acid.

Thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to 80 inches.
EauGallie soils are strongly acid through medium acid in
the A horizon and very strongly acid through medium
acid in all other horizons.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through
4, and chroma of 1. Thickness is 3 to 4 inches. The A2
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 through 8, and
chroma of 1 with or without mottles of brown. Thickness
ranges from 18 to 22 inches.
The B2h horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 2 or 3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma
of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2
with or without black, firm spodic fragments. Thickness
ranges from 4 to 21 inches.
The B3 horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR,
value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3; or it has hue of 7.5YR,
value of 4, and chroma of 4. Thickness ranges from 0 to
24 inches.
The A'2 horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR,
value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 2 or 3. Thickness ranges
from 0 to 17 inches.


78






Charlotte County, Florida


The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5
or 6, and chroma of 2; or it has hue of 5Y, value of 7,
and chroma of 1. It is fine sandy loam or sandy loam.
The C horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR, value
of 6 or 7, and chroma of 2 or 3. It is loamy fine sand or
loamy sand.

Electra Series
The soils of the Electra series are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Arenic Ultic Haplohumods. They are deep,
somewhat poorly drained, slowly permeable to very
slowly permeable soils that formed in thick beds of
sandy and loamy marine sediment. These nearly level
soils are on low knolls and ridges. Slopes range from 0
to 2 percent.
These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the
Electra series because they have base saturation greater
than 35 percent in the argillic horizon. They are similar in
use, management, and behavior to the soils of the
Electra series, however.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months
and at a depth of 40 to 72 inches for 6 months or more.
Electra soils are geographically associated with
Oldsmar and Bradenton soils. Oldsmar soils are in lower
positions on the landscape and are poorly drained.
Bradenton soils have an argillic horizon within 20 inches
of the surface.
Typical pedon of Electra fine sand; on a low ridge
approximately 600 feet south of State Highway 80 and
0.75 mile west of the Hendry County line,
SW1/4NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 25, T. 43 S., R. 27 E., in Lee
County:

Ap-0 to 4 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
common fine and medium roots; many uncoated
sand grains; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
A21-4 to 13 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
A22-13 to 43 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; slightly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
B2h-43 to 47 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
fine sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
very friable; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A'21-47 to 63 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
A'22-63 to 66 inches; pale olive (5YR 6/3) sand;
common fine light gray streaks; weak fine
subangular blocky structure; friable; medium acid;
gradual irregular boundary.
B'21tg-66 to 80 inches; pale olive (5Y 6/3) fine sandy
loam; many fine distinct brownish yellow mottles;


weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
medium acid.

Reaction is strongly acid or medium acid in all
horizons, except where limed.
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through
6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 2 to 6
inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5
through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from
35 to 48 inches.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 4 to 8 inches.
The A'2 horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR or
5Y, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1 through 3. It is
sand or fine sand.
The Bt horizon has hue of 5Y, value of 6, and chroma
of 2 or 3 with yellow mottles. It is fine sandy loam or
sandy clay loam. Thickness ranges from 6 to 15 inches.

Estero Series
The soils of the Estero series are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Haplaquods. They are deep, very
poorly drained, moderately rapidly permeable soils on
nearly level, broad, tidal marsh areas. Areas of these
soils are subject to tidal flooding. Slopes range from 0 to
1 percent.
Estero soils are geographically associated with
Pompano and Myakka soils. Myakka soils do not have a
high sulfur content and are on flatwoods landscapes.
Pompano soils do not have a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Estero muck; in a tidal marsh, about
1.25 miles south of the intersection of a powerline and
Hendry Creek and about 1 mile west, SW1/4SE1/4 sec.
15, T. 46 S., R. 24 E., in Lee County:

Oa-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 90
percent fiber, less than 10 percent rubbed; massive;
friable; 322 millimhos per centimeter conductivity;
very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
Al1-5 to 8 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; 40
millimhos per centimeter conductivity; strongly acid;
clear smooth boundary.
A12-8 to 13 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
many fine roots; 20 millimhos per centimeter
conductivity; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
A21-13 to 19 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; few fine distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; 20
millimhos per centimeter conductivity; neutral; clear
wavy boundary.
A22-19 to 33 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; few medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/6)
mottles; single grained; loose; few very fine roots; 21


79






Soil Survey


millimhos per centimeter conductivity; mildly alkaline;
abrupt wavy boundary.
B21h-33 to 39 inches; black (5YR 2/1) and dark
grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand; massive; very
friable; sand grains thinly coated with organic matter;
36 millimhos per centimeter conductivity; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B22h-39 to 43 inches; black (10YR 2/1) and dark
reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fine sand; massive; very
friable; sand grains thinly coated with organic matter;
34 millimhos per centimeter conductivity; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B3-43 to 55 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) and black
(10YR 2/1) fine sand; massive; very friable; 18
millimhos per centimeter conductivity; very strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
C-55 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) mottles; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid.
Reaction ranges from strongly acid to mildly alkaline
throughout. Conductivity of the saturation extract
dominantly ranges from about 245 to 325 millimhos per
centimeter in the Oa horizon and from about 17 to 40
millimhos per centimeter in the mineral horizons.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 3 to 5 inches.
The All and A12 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of
2 to 6, and chroma of 1; or they are neutral and have
value of 2. Thickness ranges from 4 to 10 inches. The
A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2. There are mottles and streaks of
yellowish brown, dark brown, or yellowish red. Thickness
ranges from 14 to 26 inches.
The B21h horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2;
or hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 or 3.
The B21h horizon has many uncoated sand grains and
does not meet the requirements of a spodic horizon. The
B22h horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma of
2; or it has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1.
The sand grains are thickly coated with,organic matter.
The B22h horizon meets the requirements of a spodic
horizon. Combined thickness of the B21h and B22h
horizons ranges from 4 to 15 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 2 or 3. There are black or very dark grayish
brown mottles.

Felda Series
The soils of the Felda series are loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. They are deep, poorly
drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in
sandy and loamy marine sediments. These soils are in
sloughs or depressions.
These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the
Felda series because they have a loamy fine sand Bt


horizon. They are similar in use, management, and
behavior to the soils of the Felda series, however.
In sloughs, during periods of high rainfall, the soil is
covered by slowly moving, shallow water for periods of
about 7 days to 1 month or more. In depressions, the
soil is ponded for 3 to 6 months or more in most years.
Felda soils are geographically associated with Boca,
Malabar, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Wabasso soils. Boca
soils have limestone at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Oldsmar and Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon.
Malabar and Pineda soils have a Bir horizon within a
depth of 30 inches of the surface. Malabar and Oldsmar
soils have an argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Felda fine sand; about 1.1 miles east
of the Charlotte County Airport, and 1.7 miles north of
the North Prong of Alligator Creek that crosses State
Highway 768, SW1/4NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 12, T. 41 S., R.
23 E., in Charlotte County:

Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; many fine roots; mildly
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
A21-8 to 11 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; many fine roots; medium acid;
clear wavy boundary.
A22-11 to 22 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; many medium prominent yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6 and 5/8) mottles; single grained; loose;
few fine roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg-22 to 38 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) loamy fine
sand; many medium prominent yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6 and 5/8) mottles; few krotovinas of light
brownish gray fine sand, 1 to 2 inches across;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
mildly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
Clg-38 to 60 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sand; common
medium distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) mottles with
black (10YR 2/1) carbon nodules; massive; neutral;
abrupt wavy boundary.
C2g-60 to 66 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sand; common
medium distinct greenish gray (5GY 6/1) mottles;
massive; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
C3-66 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) fine sand; many
medium gray (5Y 6/1) mottles; massive; mildly
alkaline.

Thickness of the solum ranges from 41 to 70 inches.
The A horizon ranges from medium acid to slightly acid,
except in areas that have been limed. The Btg and Cg
horizons are neutral or mildly alkaline.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3
through 5, and chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 3 to
8 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5
through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2 with few to common
yellow and brown mottles. Total thickness of the A
horizon ranges from 20 to 40 inches.


80






Charlotte County, Florida


The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through
7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it has hue of 2.5Y, value of 4
through 6, and chroma of 2; or it is neutral and has value
of 4 to 6. There are common to many red, yellow, and
brown mottles. The B2tg horizon ranges from loamy fine
sand to sandy clay loam. Thickness ranges from 4 to 16
inches.
A B3g horizon is present in some pedons. Where
present, it has colors of 10YR 6/2, 5Y 7/1, or 2.5Y 7/2.
It is loamy fine sand or sandy loam. Thickness ranges
from 0 to 29 inches.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7, and
chroma of 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5, and chroma of 2;
or hue of 5Y, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1. It
ranges from fine sand to loamy fine sand. Shell
fragments and shells range from few to many in many
pedons.

Floridana Series
The soils of the Floridana series are loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Arenic Argiaquolls. They are nearly level,
very poorly drained, slowly permeable or very slowly
permeable soils in depressions. These soils formed in
thick beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments. Slopes
range from 0 to 1 percent.
In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
covered by water for 3 to 6 months. The water table is at
a depth of 10 to 40 inches during extended dry periods.
Floridana soils are geographically associated with
Boca, Felda, Gator, Hallandale, Malabar, Terra Ceia,
Wabasso, and Winder soils. Boca, Felda, Winder,
Hallandale, and Malabar soils do not have a mollic
epipedon. In addition, Malabar soils do not have an
argillic horizon within 40 inches of the surface. Terra
Ceia and Gator soils are organic. Boca soils have
limestone within a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Wabasso
soils have a spodic horizon within 30 inches of the
surface.
Typical pedon of Floridana sand, depressional; in a
depression about 2 miles south of State Highway 82,
SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 17, T. 45 S., R. 26 E., in Lee County:
A11-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; common fine and few
medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A12-6 to 22 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; common
light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand streaks
throughout; single grained; loose; common fine
roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A2-22 to 39 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; medium
acid; clear smooth boundary.
B2tg-39 to 54 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) fine sandy
loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; sand
grains are coated and bridged with clay; neutral;
clear smooth boundary.


C-54 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; few pockets of olive gray (5Y 5/2) loamy
sand; massive; friable; neutral.

Thickness of the solum ranges from 56 to 80 inches.
The soil is strongly acid or medium acid in the surface
layer and ranges from medium acid to mildly alkaline in
all other horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of 2 or 3.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2.
The B2tg or B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5
through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2 with yellow, gray, or
brown mottles; or it has hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or
sandy clay loam.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 6 or 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand, fine sand, or loamy
sand.

Gator Series
The soils of the Gator series are loamy, siliceous, euic,
hyperthermic Terric Medisaprists. They are moderately
deep to deep, very poorly drained, organic soils that
formed in deposits of nonwoody, fibrous, hydrophytic
plant remains and loamy marine sediment. These nearly
level soils are on broad, freshwater marsh areas. Slopes
range from 0 to 1 percent.
These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the
Gator series because they have a strongly acid, fine
sand layer underlying the organic material. They are
similar in use, management, and behavior to the soils of
the Gator series, however.
In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
covered with water for 3 to 6 months. The water table is
at a depth of 10 to 24 inches during extended dry
periods.
Gator soils are geographically associated with Terra
Ceia, Floridana, Felda, and Winder soils. Floridana,
Felda, and Winder soils are mineral soils and are in
slightly higher positions on the landscape. Terra Ceia
soils have more than 51 inches of muck over mineral
material.
Typical pedon of Gator muck; in a freshwater marsh,
NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 1, T. 40 S., R. 27 E., in Charlotte
County:
Oal-0 to 8 inches; sodium pyrophosphate black (10YR
2/1) muck; about 70 percent fiber unrubbed, about
10 percent rubbed; weak fine granular structure;
friable; many fine roots; extremely acid (pH is 4.2 in
0.01 molar calcium chloride); clear wavy boundary.
Oa2-8 to 21 inches; sodium pyrophosphate very dark
grayish brown (10YR 3/2) muck; about 80 percent
fiber unrubbed, about 12 percent rubbed; weak






Soil Survey


medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many
fine roots; extremely acid (pH is 4.3 in 0.01 molar
calcium chloride); gradual wavy boundary.
Oa3-21 to 29 inches; sodium pyrophosphate dark
brown (1 OYR 3/3) muck; about 60 percent fiber
unrubbed, about 5 percent rubbed; weak medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; very strongly
acid (pH is 4.7 in 0.01 molar calcium chloride);
gradual wavy boundary.
IIC1-29 to 32 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sand; strong fine granular structure; friable; strongly
acid; clear smooth boundary.
IIC2-32 to 34 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; abrupt
wavy boundary.
IIIC3-34 to 39 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy
loam; common light gray sand intrusions; massive;
friable; medium acid; clear smooth boundary.
I1IC4-39 to 53 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam;
massive; friable; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
IVC5-53 to 63 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam;
common dark gray sand intrusions; common streaks
of light gray calcium carbonate; massive; friable;
neutral; clear wavy boundary.
IVC6-63 to 68 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) loam; few
dark gray streaks; many very fine shell fragments;
massive; friable; mildly alkaline; clear wavy
boundary.
IVC7-68 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sand; few
medium distinct greenish gray mottles; single
grained; friable; mildly alkaline.

Soil reaction ranges from 4.3 to 5.0 in 0.01 molar
calcium chloride in the Oa horizon; however, in some
part it is 4.5 or higher. In the IIC horizon, reaction ranges
from 5.1 to 5.5, and in the IIIC and IVC horizons it
ranges from 5.1 to 8.4.
Thickness of the organic material ranges from 16 to
38 inches.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1; hue of 10YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2
or 3; or hue of 5YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1 or 2.
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through
6, and chroma of 1 or 2.
The IIIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and chroma of
2 with mottles or streaks of light brownish gray or olive
brown; or hue of 5Y, value of 5, and chroma of 1.
Textures include fine sand, loamy fine sand, loam, and
fine sandy loam.
The IVC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
chroma of 1; hue of 2.5Y, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of
2; or hue of 5Y, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1.
Some pedons lack shell fragments or calcium carbonate.
Textures include fine sand, loamy fine sand, loam, and
fine sandy loam.


Hallandale Series
The soils of the Hallandale series are siliceous,
hyperthermic Lithic Psammaquents. They are shallow,
poorly drained, moderately rapidly permeable soils that
formed in thin beds of sandy marine sediment over
limestone. These nearly level soils are on flatwoods and
in broad sloughs. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
In most years, on flatwoods under natural conditions,
the water table is less than 10 inches below the surface
for 1 to 3 months. It recedes to a depth below the
limestone for about 7 months. In sloughs during periods
of high rainfall, the soil is covered by a shallow layer of
slowly moving water for periods of about 7 days to 1
month or more.
Hallandale soils are geographically associated with
Boca, Pineda, Immokalee, and Wabasso soils. Boca soils
have an argillic horizon and limestone at a depth of 20
to 40 inches. Pineda soils have a Bir horizon and an
argillic horizon. Immokalee and Wabasso have a spodic
horizon. In addition, Wabasso soils have an argillic
horizon below the spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Hallandale fine sand; on flatwoods,
about 0.5 mile south of Daniels Road, 0.7 mile east of
U.S. Highway 41, NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 25, T. 45 S., R. 25
E., in Lee County:

A1-0 to 2 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium and few
coarse roots; medium acid; clear smooth boundary.
A2-2 to 7 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine, medium, and coarse
roots; medium acid; clear smooth boundary.
B1-7 to 12 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium
roots; neutral; abrupt irregular boundary.
IIR-12 inches; fractured limestone bedrock.

The A horizon is slightly acid or neutral. The B horizon
is neutral or mildly alkaline.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 6,
and chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 2 to 6 inches.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7,
and chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 4 to 12 inches.
The B horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR with
value of 5 or 6 and chroma of 3; value of 4 through 6
and chroma of 4; or value of 5 and chroma of 6.
In many pedons, a C horizon is between the A horizon
and the limestone. It has hue of 10YR, value of 4
through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is dominantly
fine sand or sand. However, some pedons have a thin
layer of loamy fine sand or loamy sand in less than half
of the pedon immediately above the fractured limestone
bedrock.
The underlying hard limestone ledge has fractures
from less than an inch to 4 or more inches in width.


82







Charlotte County, Florida


Solution holes about 4 inches to 3 feet in diameter occur
at about 1 to 6 foot intervals.
Beneath the limestone ledge are variable,
discontinuous layers of sand to sandy loam mixed with
shells or shell fragments.

Heights Series
The soils of the Heights series are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. They are deep, poorly
drained, slowly permeable soils on nearly level
flatwoods. These soils formed in a thick bed of loamy
marine sediment. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Heights soils are geographically associated with Felda,
Boca, Hallandale, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils. Felda
soils do not have iron-cemented sandstone. Oldsmar
and Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon. Boca soils
have limestone at depth of 24 to 40 inches. Hallandale
soils have limestone within 20 inches of the surface.
Typical pedon of Heights fine sand; on flatwoods,
NW1/4NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 5, T. 42 S., R. 24 E., in
Charlotte County:

A1-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common fine roots, few
medium and coarse roots; slightly acid; clear smooth
boundary.
A2-4 to 18 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common fine roots, few
medium and coarse roots; neutral; clear smooth
boundary.
B11-18 to 21 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium
roots; mildly alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
B12ca-21 to 29 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
fine sand; common fine distinct white (10YR 8/1)
calcium carbonate streaks along root channels;
single grained; loose; strongly alkaline; abrupt wavy
boundary.
B21tca-29 to 36 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y
6/4) loamy sand; common medium distinct light gray
(N 7/0) and many large prominent yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
mottles; common white (10YR 8/1) calcium
carbonate streaks along root channels; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky
and slightly plastic; moderately alkaline; gradual
wavy boundary.
B22tca-36 to 42 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
cobbly loamy sand; common medium distinct light
yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) mottles; common soft
masses of secondary carbonates; about 25 percent
iron-cemented sandstone, 3 to 8 inches across;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; moderately
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
B23tgca-42 to 50 inches; light gray (N 7/0) fine sandy
loam; common coarse prominent yellowish brown


(10YR 5/8) and olive (5Y 4/3 and 5/4) mottles;
common soft masses of secondary carbonates; few
iron-cemented sandstone cobbles; weak medium
subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky and
slightly plastic; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy
boundary.
Cg-50 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) loamy sand;
common medium distinct light olive brown (2.5Y
5/4) and light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) mottles;
few pockets of gray (5Y 6/1) fine sandy loam and
sandy clay loam; massive; friable; neutral.


Thickness of the solum ranges from 54 to 71 inches.
Reaction is slightly acid or neutral in the surface and
subsurface layers and ranges from neutral to strongly
alkaline in all other horizons.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through
5, and chroma of 1. Thickness is 3 to 6 inches. The A2
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and
chroma of 1 through 3. Thickness is 5 to 24 inches.
The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through
6, and chroma of 2 through 4 with yellowish and
brownish mottles.
The B21tca horizon has hue of 5Y, value of 6 or 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2 with mottles of yellowish brown,
brownish yellow, pale olive, light olive brown, or olive
yellow; hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma of 1 or 2
with mottles of brown, brownish yellow, or yellowish
brown; hue of 5GY, value of 5, and chroma of 1 with
mottles of light olive brown; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6,
and chroma of 4 with mottles of light gray, yellowish
brown, or brownish yellow. It is loamy sand or loamy fine
sand. Thickness is 4 to 10 inches.
The B22tca horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 5
and chroma of 8 or value of 7 and chroma of 2 with
mottles of strong brown, light yellowish brown, or light
olive brown; hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1
with mottles of pale olive, olive yellow, or brownish
yellow; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and chroma of 1. It is
cobbly loamy sand or cobbly sandy loam. Thickness is 6
to 12 inches.
The B23tgca horizon has hue of 5Y, value of 6 or 7,
and chroma of 1 with mottles of olive yellow, light
yellowish brown, or brownish yellow; or it is neutral and
has value of 7 with mottles of yellowish brown or olive. It
is fine sandy loam or loamy sand. Thickness is 8 to 12
inches.
The B3 horizon, where present, has hue of 5GY, value
of 6, and chroma of 1; or it has hue of 5Y, value of 7,
and chroma of 1. Thickness is 0 to 20 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
chroma of 2; hue of 5GY, value of 6, and chroma of 1;
or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and chroma of 4. It is fine
sand or loamy fine sand.


83







Soil Survey


Immokalee Series
The soils of the Immokalee series are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Arenic Haplaquods. They are deep, poorly
drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in thick
beds of marine sands. These nearly level soils are on
flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to slightly convex and
range from 0 to 2 percent.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months
and 10 to 40 inches below the surface for 2 to 6 months.
It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
extended dry periods.
Immokalee soils are geographically associated with
Boca, Malabar, Myakka, Oldsmar, Daytona, and
Wabasso soils. All of these associated soils have a
spodic horizon except for the Boca and Malabar soils.
Boca soils are underlain by limestone. Malabar soils
have an argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches.
Oldsmar and Wabasso soils have an argillic horizon
below the spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Immokalee sand; on a low ridge on
flatwoods, about 2 miles south of the intersection of
Buckingham road and State Highway 80 and about 2
miles east, SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 35, T. 43 S., R. 26 E., in
Lee County:

A11-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; many
uncoated sand grains; weak fine granular structure;
very friable; many fine and few medium roots;
extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
A12-4 to 9 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and
few medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A21-9 to 16 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; few grayish
brown (10YR 5/2) streaks along root channels;
single grained; loose; common medium and few fine
roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A22-16 to 36 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; few
very dark grayish brown and grayish brown streaks
along root channels; single grained; loose; few
medium roots; medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B21h-36 to 50 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; few
large dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) spodic
fragments; many sand grains coated with organic
matter; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; extremely acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B22h-50 to 55 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
sand; few dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) spodic
fragments; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; extremely acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
B3&Bh-55 to 69 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR
4/4) sand; common medium distinct very dark
grayish brown (10YR 3/2) spodic fragments; weak


fine subangular blocky structure; friable; extremely
acid; clear smooth boundary.
C-69 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid.
Thickness of the solum is 69 inches or more. Reaction
ranges from extremely acid to medium acid in all
horizons.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through
4, and chroma of 1. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR,
value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Many
pedons have very dark grayish brown and grayish brown
streaks along root channels in the A2 horizon. Total
thickness of the A horizon is 30 to 48 inches.
The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR with value of 2 and
chroma of 1 or 2 or value of 3 and chroma of 2; hue of
10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of
7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2.
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through
5, and chroma of 3 or 4.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7,
and chroma of 1 through 3. The C horizon is absent in
some pedons.

Isles Series
The soils of the Isles series are loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. They are deep, poorly
drained and very poorly drained, moderately permeable
soils that formed in marine sediment 40 to 60 inches
thick over limestone. These nearly level soils are on tidal
swamp areas, in depressions, and in sloughs. Slopes
range from 0 to 1 percent.
Isles soils are geographically associated with Boca,
Kesson, Wabasso, and Wulfert soils. Boca soils have
less than 0.75 percent sulfur within 20 inches of the
surface, do not have an organic surface layer, and have
rock within a depth of 40 inches. Wulfert soils have more
than 16 inches of organic material over mineral material.
Kesson soils are sandy throughout, and Wabasso soils
have a Bh horizon.
Typical pedon of Isles muck; in a mangrove swamp,
approximately 0.5 mile south of Alligator Creek and 1.5
miles west of State Highway 765, SE1/4SE1/4SW1/4
sec. 30, T. 41 S., R. 23 E., in Charlotte County:

01-0 to 5 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) muck;
about 80 percent fibers unrubbed, about 5 percent
rubbed; massive; friable; about 0.8 percent sulfur; 19
millimhos per centimeter conductivity; slightly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
A1-5 to 11 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
mucky fine sand; about 10 percent well
decomposed organic material in krotovinas and
along root channels; massive; friable; about 2.0
percent sulfur; many fine and medium and common


84







Charlotte County, Florida


coarse roots; 13.65 millimhos per centimeter
conductivity; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A2-11 to 39 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; common medium distinct light brownish gray
(10YR 6/2) mottles; about 5 percent organic
material in krotovinas and along root channels;
massive; friable; about 1.0 percent sulfur; 6.15
millimhos per centimeter conductivity; medium acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B2tg-39 to 47 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sandy loam; common fine distinct dark greenish gray
(5BG 4/1) and common medium prominent light
olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) mottles; weak medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; about 1.0
percent sulfur; 3.85 millimhos per centimeter
conductivity; neutral; abrupt irregular boundary.
IIR-47 inches; fractured limestone bedrock.

Thickness of the solum ranges from 40 to 60 inches.
Sulfur content ranges from about 0.8 percent to 3.0
percent in the 01 and A horizons. Reaction ranges from
strongly acid to neutral in the surface and subsurface
horizons and from medium acid to moderately alkaline in
all other horizons.
The 01 horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2. Thickness ranges from
3 to 5 inches.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through
4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand, fine sand, or mucky
fine sand. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5
through 7, and chroma of 1 through 4 with mottles of
light gray, brownish yellow, or reddish yellow. It is sand
or fine sand. Total thickness of the A horizon ranges
from 30 to 40 inches.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value
of 4 through 6; and chroma of 1 through 3 with mottles
of brownish yellow, yellowish brown, dark greenish gray,
or light olive brown. It ranges from fine sandy loam to
sandy clay loam. Thickness ranges from 5 to 18 inches.
Some pedons have a layer of shell fragments or firm
calcareous material ranging from about 4 to 8 inches in
thickness between the B2tg horizon and the fractured
limestone bedrock.

Kesson Series
The soils of the Kesson series are siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents. They are very poorly
drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in a thick
bed of marine sand and shells. These nearly level soils
are in tidal swamps. Areas are subject to tidal flooding.
Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent.
Kesson soils are geographically associated with
Captiva, Estero, and Wulfert soils. Wulfert soils are
organic. Captiva and Estero soils do not have
appreciable amounts of sulfur within 20 inches of the
surface and are on higher elevations.


Typical pedon of Kesson fine sand; in a tidal swamp,
about 1 mile west of the intersection of Bailey Road and
Bay Drive and 15 feet north, NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 19, T. 46
S., R. 23 E., in Lee County:

A1-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
about 15 percent shell fragments; 3.04 percent
sulfur; 5.06 percent calcium carbonate; moderately
alkaline; calcareous; clear smooth boundary.
C1-6 to 10 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common fine and medium
roots; about 10 percent shell fragments; 3.17
percent sulfur; 22.48 percent calcium carbonate;
moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear smooth
boundary.
C2-10 to 13 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; about 10 percent shell
fragments; 2.45 percent sulfur; 12.98 percent
calcium carbonate; moderately alkaline; calcareous;
clear smooth boundary.
C3-13 to 23 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) and gray (5Y
6/1) fine sand; common medium distinct dark gray
(10YR 4/1) streaks; single grained; loose; about 5
percent shell fragments; 2.55 percent sulfur; 11.85
percent calcium carbonate; moderately alkaline;
calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
C4-23 to 38 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; about 30 percent shell fragments;
moderately alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy
boundary.
C5-38 to 80 inches; white (5Y 8/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; about 5 percent shell fragments;
moderately alkaline; calcareous.
Sulfur content is more than 0.75 percent within a
depth of 20 inches. Reaction is mildly alkaline or
moderately alkaline throughout. The calcium carbonate
equivalent is more than 3 times the sulfur content for
some portion. The texture is sand or fine sand
throughout.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 6,
and chroma of 1 through 3. Content of shell fragments
ranges from about 5 percent to 15 percent. Thickness is
4 to 7 inches. Some pedons have an organic horizon
less than 8 inches thick above the A horizon.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5
through 8, and chroma of 1 or 3. Content of shell
fragments ranges from about 5 to 30 percent.

Malabar Series
The soils of the Malabar series are loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Grossarenic Ochraqualfs. They are deep,
poorly drained, moderately slowly permeable to very
slowly permeable soils that formed in thick beds of
sandy and loamy marine sediments. These nearly level


85






Soil Survey


soils are on flatwoods, in sloughs, and in depressions.
Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent.
These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the
Malabar series. They have a particle-size control section
that averages out in the sandy family instead of the
loamy family. They are similar in use, management, and
behavior to the soils of the Malabar series, however.
In most years, on flatwoods under natural conditions,
the water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to
4 months and 10 to 40 inches below the surface for
more than 6 months. It recedes to a depth of 40 inches
or more during extended dry periods. In sloughs during
periods of high rainfall, the soil is covered by a shallow
layer of slowly moving water for periods of about 7 days
to 1 month or more. In depressions, the soil is ponded
for about 3 to 6 months or more in most years.
Malabar soils are geographically associated with
Myakka, Boca, Felda, Hallandale, Oldsmar, Pineda, and
Pompano soils. Pineda and Felda soils have an argillic
horizon within a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Myakka and
Pompano soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80
inches. Oldsmar soils have a spodic horizon. Boca soils
have hard, fractured limestone within a depth of 20 to 40
inches, and Hallandale soils have fractured limestone
within a depth of 20 inches.
Typical pedon of Malabar fine sand; NE1/4NW1/4
sec. 7, T. 41 S., R. 24 E., in Charlotte County:

A1-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common fine roots; strongly
acid; clear smooth boundary.
A21-5 to 10 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common fine roots; medium
acid; diffuse wavy boundary.
A22-10 to 17 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; few light gray (10YR 7/1) splotches; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid; diffuse
wavy boundary.
B1ir-17 to 33 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; few medium distinct yellow (10YR 7/6)
mottles; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
few iron coatings on sand grains; few fine roots;
neutral; clear wavy boundary.
B2ir-33 to 42 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
common iron coatings on sand grains; neutral;
gradual wavy boundary.
B21tg-42 to 51 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) loamy fine sand;
many large distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6 and
5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; sand grains coated and bridged
with clay; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
B22tg-51 to 59 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sandy loam;
common large distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6
and 5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; sand grains coated and


bridged with clay; slightly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B3g-59 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) loamy fine
sand; few medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
5/6) mottles; massive; very friable; neutral.

Thickness of the solum ranges from 59 to 80 inches.
Malabar soils are strongly acid to slightly acid in the Al
and A21 horizons and slightly acid or neutral in all other
horizons.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through
4, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 2 to 6
inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6
through 8, and chroma of 1 through 3. Thickness ranges
from 4 to 13 inches.
The Bir horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7,
and chroma of 4, 6, or 8. Thickness ranges from 10 to
26 inches. Where present, the A'2 horizon has hue of
10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2.
Thickness ranges from 0 to 13 inches.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
and chroma of 1 or hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 1 or 2 with mottles in shades of brown or
yellow. The B21tg horizon is loamy fine sand or loamy
sand, and the B22tg horizon is fine sandy loam or sandy
clay loam. Thickness of the B21tg horizon ranges from 0
to 9 inches. Thickness of the B22tg horizon ranges from
8 to 20 inches.
The B3g horizon has hue of 5Y, value of 5 through 7,
and chroma of 1. It is loamy fine sand or loamy sand.
Thickness ranges from 10 to 21 inches.
The Cg horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR,
value of 6, and chroma of 1; or hue of 5Y, value of 6,
and chroma of 1. It is fine sand or loamy fine sand.

Matlacha Series
The soils of the Matlacha series are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic, Udalfic Arents. They are deep, somewhat
poorly drained, moderately rapidly permeable to
moderately slowly permeable soils that formed in fill
material. These nearly level soils are in areas that have
been prepared for urban development. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent.
The depth to the water table varies with the amount of
fill material and the extent of artificial drainage within any
mapped area. However, in most years the water table is
24 to 36 inches below the surface of the fill material for
2 to 4 months. It is at a depth of more than 60 inches
during extended dry periods.
Matlacha soils are geographically associated with
Oldsmar, Wabasso, Smyrna, Boca, Hallandale, Estero,
Immokalee, Myakka, and Pineda soils. All of the
associated soils are poorly drained and have a sandy A
horizon and a sandy or loamy subsoil. In addition, Boca
and Hallandale soils are underlain by fractured limestone
bedrock.


86




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs