• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use the soil survey...
 Table of Contents
 General nature of the area
 Agriculture
 How soils are mapped and descr...
 Soil series and their relation...
 Soils descriptions
 Soil associations
 Use, management, and estimated...
 Forest and forest soils of Escambia...
 Engineering applications
 Genesis, morphology, and classification...
 Literature cited
 Glossary
 Soil series of Escambia County,...
 Guide to mapping units
 Soil association map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey, Escambia County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026086/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey, Escambia County, Florida
Series Title: United States Soil Conservation Service. Soil survey
Physical Description: 87 p., 40 folded leaves of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Walker, James H
Carlisle, V. W ( Victor Walter ), 1922-
Publisher: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service :
in cooperation with the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations :
For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1960
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Escambia County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Florida -- Escambia County   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by James H. Walker, in charge and Victor W. Carlisle ; report by Victor W. Carlisle.
General Note: "Issued June 1960."
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026086
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000376117
oclc - 01738827
notis - ACB5728

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use the soil survey report
        Unnumbered ( 2 )
    Table of Contents
        Contents
    General nature of the area
        Page 1
        Location and extent
            Page 1
        History
            Page 1
        Physiography, relief, and drainage
            Page 1
        Climate
            Page 2
    Agriculture
        Page 3
        Crops
            Page 3
        Livestock
            Page 3
        Land use, tenure, and equipment
            Page 4
        Transportation
            Page 4
    How soils are mapped and described
        Page 4
    Soil series and their relations
        Page 5
        Soils of the uplands
            Page 6
        Soils of the stream terraces
            Page 6
        Soils of the first bottoms
            Page 7
    Soils descriptions
        Page 7
        Angie series
            Page 7
            Page 8
        Barth series
            Page 9
        Blakely series
            Page 9
        Carnegie series
            Page 10
        Coastal dune land and beach
            Page 11
        Eustis series
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Faceville series
            Page 13
        Fresh water swamp
            Page 14
        Grady series
            Page 14
        Gullied land
            Page 15
        Huckabee series
            Page 15
        Irvington series
            Page 16
        Izagora series
            Page 17
        Kalmia series
            Page 17
        Klej series
            Page 18
        Lakeland series
            Page 19
            Page 20
        Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Lakewood series
            Page 23
        Leon series
            Page 23
        Lynchburg series
            Page 24
        Mixed loca alluvial land, moderately well drained
            Page 25
        Mixed alluvial land, moderately well drained
            Page 25
        Norfolk series
            Page 26
        Pamlico series
            Page 27
        Pits, dumps, and made land
            Page 28
        Plummer series
            Page 28
        Portsmouth series
            Page 29
        Portsmouth, Grady, and Bayboro soils
            Page 29
        Red Bay series
            Page 30
            Page 31
        Rough broken land
            Page 32
        Ruston series
            Page 32
        Rutlege series
            Page 33
        Savannah series
            Page 34
        Stough series
            Page 35
        Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils
            Page 35
        Tidal marsh
            Page 36
        Tifton series
            Page 36
            Page 37
        Wahee series
            Page 38
    Soil associations
        Page 38
        Nearly level to gently sloping soils on uplands
            Page 38
        Dark reddish-brown loams and sandy loams; red subsoils; well drained: Red Bay-Blakely
            Page 38
        Nearly level to gently sloping soils on uplands - Dark-gray sandy loams: mottled subsoils; well drained to somewhat poorly drained: Tifton-Irvington-Lynchburg
            Page 38
        Grayish-brown sandy loams; yellowish subsoils; well drained or moderately well drained: Norfolk-Ruston-Savannah
            Page 39
        Dark-gray sandy loams; slightly compact subsoils; well drained: Tifton-Carnegie-Faceville
            Page 39
        Gray sands; very sandy subsoils; somewhat excessively drained: Lakeland-Eustis
            Page 39
        Light-gray sands; sandy subsoils; excessively drained or somewhat excessively drained: Lakewood-Lakeland
            Page 39
        Sloping to steep soils on uplands
            Page 39
        Undifferentiated soils: Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk - Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert
            Page 39
        Nearly level soils of river terraces, depressions, and low-lands
            Page 40
        Gray sandy soils on lowlands; somewhat poorly drained; moderately high water table: Klej-Leon
            Page 40
        Gray or very dark gray fine sands; poorly drained: Plummer-Rutlege
            Page 40
        Soils on river terraces; well drained or moderately well drained: Huckabee-Kalmia-Izagora
            Page 40
        Undifferentiated coastal soils bordering salt water; Coastal dune land and beach - Tidal marsh
            Page 40
        Undifferentiated poorly drained flood plains and swamps: Mixed alluvial land - Fresh water swamp
            Page 40
    Use, management, and estimated yields
        Page 41
        Capability groups of soils
            Page 41
        Management by capability units
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
        Estimated yields
            Page 51
    Forest and forest soils of Escambia County
        Page 51
        Forest types
            Page 51
            Page 52
        Forest management
            Page 53
    Engineering applications
        Page 54
        Soils engineering tests and classifications
            Page 54
    Genesis, morphology, and classification of soils
        Page 55
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 55
            Climate
                Page 55
            Parent material
                Page 55
                Page 56
                Page 57
                Page 58
                Page 59
                Page 60
                Page 61
                Page 62
                Page 63
                Page 64
                Page 65
                Page 66
                Page 67
                Page 68
                Page 69
                Page 70
                Page 71
                Page 72
                Page 73
            Vegetation
                Page 74
            Relief
                Page 75
            Time
                Page 76
        Classification of soils
            Page 76
            Zonal soils
                Page 76
                Red-yellow podzolic soils
                    Page 77
                Reddish-brown lateritic soils
                    Page 77
            Intrazonal soils
                Page 78
                Planosols
                    Page 78
                Low-humic gley soils
                    Page 78
                Ground-water podzols
                    Page 78
            Azonal soils
                Page 79
                Regosols
                    Page 79
    Literature cited
        Page 79
    Glossary
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Soil series of Escambia County, Florida: Summary of important characteristics
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Guide to mapping units
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Soil association map
        Page 88
    Index to map sheets
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
Full Text


Series 1955, No. 8 Issued June 1960

S OL SURVEY l



Escambia County

Florida




OUR SOIL OUR STRENGTH -








UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT CF AGRICULTURE
Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation witn the
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS











HOW TO USE THE SOIL SURVEY REPORT

THIS SOIL SURVEY of Escambia County tistics on agriculture, will be of interest mainly
will serve several groups of readers. It will to those not familiar with the county.
help farmers in planning the kind of manage- Farmers and those who work with farmers
ment that will protect their soils and provide will be interested mainly in the section, Soil
good yields; assist engineers in selecting sites Descriptions, and the section, Use Management,
for roads, buildings, ponds, and other struc- and Estimated Yields. Study of these sections
tures; aid foresters in managing woodlands; will aid them in identifying soils on a farm, in
and add to the soil scientist's fund of knowledge. learning ways the soils can be managed, and
In making this survey, soil scientists walked in judging what yields can be expected. The
over the fields and woodlands. They dug holes guide to mapping units at the back of the report
and examined surface soils and subsoils; meais- will simplify use of the map and the report.
ured slopes with a hand level; noticed differ- This guide gives the map symbol for each soil,
ences in growth of crops, weeds, and brush; and, the name of the soil, the page on which the soil
in fact, recorded all the things about the soils is described, the capability unit in which the
that they believed might affect their suitability soil has been placed, and the page where the
for farming, engineering, and related uses. capability unit is described.
They plotted the boundaries of the soils on Foresters and others interested in manage-
aerial photographs. Then, cartographers pre- ment of woodlands can refer to the section,
pared the detailed soil map in the back of this Forests and Forest Soils of Escambia County.
report. In this section the types of forest are mentioned
and factors affecting their management are
Locating soils explained.
Engineers will want to refer to the section,
Use the index to map sheets to locate areas Engineering Applications. Tables in that see-
on the large map. The index is a small map of tion show characteristics of the soils that affect
the county on which numbered rectangles have engineering.
been drawn to show where each sheet of the Soil scientists will find information about how
large map is located. When the correct sheet the soils were formed and how they were classi-
of the large map has been located, it will be fled in the section, Genesis, Morphology, and
seen that boundaries of the soils are outlined Classification of Soils.
and that there is a symbol for each kind of soil. Students, teachers, and other users will find
All areas marked with the same symbol are the information about soils and their management
information about soils and their management
same kind of soil, wherever they appear on the in various parts of the report, depending on
map. The symbol will be inside the area if their particular interest.
there is enough room; otherwise, it will be out-
side the area and a pointer will show where the *
symbol belongs.
Fieldwork for this survey was completed in
Finding information 1955. Unless otherwise indicated, all state-
ments in the report refer to conditions in the
Few readers will be interested in all of the county at that time. This publication on the
soil report, for it has special sections for differ- soil survey of Escambia County, Fla., was pre-
ent groups, as well as some sections of value to pared cooperatively by the University of Flor-
all. The introductory part, which mentions ida Agricultural Experiment Stations and the
climate and physiography and gives some sta- Soil Conservation Service.










U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, g19S

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.
















Contents

Page Page
General nature of the area ------------1----------------- Soil associations-Continued
Location and extent --_- ------------------- 1 Nearly level to gently sloping soils on uplands-Con.
History-------------------------------------------- 1 Dark-gray sandy loams; mottled subsoils; well drained
Physiography, relief, and drainage -------------------- to somewhat poorly drained: Tifton-Irvington-Lynch-
Climate ------- ------ --------------- 2 burg (2) -------------- -----------------_ 38
Agriculture---------------------------- -------- 3 Grayish-brown sandy loams; yellowish subsoils; well
Crops--------------------------------- ----3 drained or moderately well drained: Norfolk-Ruston-
Livestock ------------------------------------------- 3 Savannah (3) ---------------------------------- 39
Land use, tenure, and equipment----------------- 4 Dark-gray sandy loams; slightly compact subsoils; well
Transportation -------------------------- ------------ 4 drained: Tifton-Carnegie-Faceville (4)------------- 39
How soils are mapped and described --------------- 4 Gray sands; very sandy subsoils; somewhat excessively
drained: Lakeland-Eustis (5)------------ -------- 39
Soil series and their relations--------------------------- 5 Light-gray sands; sandy subsoils; excessively drained
Soils of the uplands---------------------------------- 6 or somewhat excessively drained: Lakewood-Lake-
Soils of the stream terraces --------------------------- 6 land (9) --------------------------------------- 39
Soils of the first bottoms----------------------------- 7 Sloping to steep soils on uplands ---------------------- 39
Soil descriptions--------------------------------------- 7 Undifferentiated soils: Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk-
Angie series----------------------------------------- 7 Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert (10)------------- 39
Barth series---------------------------------------- 9 Nearly level soils of river terraces, depressions, and low-
Blakely series -------- -------------------- 9 lands _-__----__------------------------------_ 40
Carnegie series ------------------------ -------10 Gray sandy soils on lowlands; somewhat poorly drained;
Coastal dune land and beach -------------------------- 11 moderately high water table: Klej-Leon (6)--------- 40
Eustis series-------------------------------------- 11 Gray or very dark gray fine sands; poorly drained:
Faceville series ----------------------------------- 13 Plummer-Rutlege (7) -------------------------- 40
Fresh water swamp ---------------------------------- 14 Soils on river terraces; well drained or moderately well
Grady series---------------------------------------- 14 drained: Huckabee-Kalmia-Izagora (8) ----------- 40
Gullied land ------------------------------------- 15 Undifferentiated coastal soils bordering salt water:
Huckabee series------------------------------------- 15 Coastal dune land and beach-Tidal marsh (11) ----- 40
Irvington series -------------------------------- 16 Undifferentiated poorly drained flood plains and swamps:
Izagora series--------------------------------------- 17 Mixed alluvial land-Fresh water swamp (12)-------- 40
Kalmia series --------------------------------------- 17 Use, management, and estimated yields ----------------- 41
Klej series--------------------------------------- 18 Capability groups of soils----------------------------- 41
Lakeland series-------------------------------------- 19 Management by capability units ---------------------- 42
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils------------------- 21 Estimated yields ------------------------------------ 51
Lakewood series_ ----------------------------------- 23 Forests and forest soils of Escambia County -------------- 51
Leon series --------------------------------------- 23 Forest types--------------------------------------- 51
Lynchburg series------------------------------------ 24 Forest management---------------------------------- 53
Mixed local alluvial land, moderately well drained ------- 25 Engineering applications _---------------------------- 54
Mixed alluvial land, poorly drained-------------------- 25 Soil engineering tests and classifications ---------------- 54
Myatt series--------------------------------------- 25 Genesis, morphology, and classification of soils ----------- 55
Norfolk series--------------------------------------- 26 Factors of soil formation _------------------- ----- 55
Pamlico series--------------------------------------- 27 Climate ____----------_ ---- -------------------- 55
Pits, dumps, and made land -------------------------- 28 Parent material ----------------------------------- 55
Plummer series ------------------------------------ 28 Vegetation --- ------------- --------- 74
Portsmouth series----------------------------------- 29 Relief --------------- -- -------------------- 75
Portsmouth, Grady, and Bayboro soils ----------------- 29 Time ------------------------------------------ 76
Red Bay series-------------30 Classification of soils ----------------------- 76
Rough broken land 32 Zonal soils---------------------------------------- 76
Rough broken land ------------------------------32 Red-Yellow Podzolic soils------------------- ----- 77
Ruston series --------------------------------------- 32 Reddish-Brown Lateritic soils --------------------- 77
Rutlege series------------------------------------- 33 Intrazonal soils ---------------------------------- 78
Savannah series --------------------------------- 34 Planosols_ ------------- -- ------------ 78
Stough series ----- -------------------------- 35 Low-Humic Gley soils ---------------------------- 78
Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils--------------- 35 Humic Gley soils -------------------------------- 78
Tidal marsh ------------------------------------- 36 Ground-Water Podzols -------------------------- 78
Tifton series ---------------------------------- 36 Azonal soils-- ------------------------------ 79
Wahee series-----------------------38 Regosols---------------------------------------- 79
Wahee series -- 38 Literature cited------------------------------------ 79
Soil associations----------------------------------- ---- 38 Glossary------ --------------------- 79
Nearly level to gently sloping soils on uplands--------- 38 Soil series of Escambia County, Florida: Summary of im-
Dark reddish-brown loams and sandy loams; red sub- portant characteristics------------------- 82
soils; well drained: Red Bay-Blakely (1)----------- 38 Guide to mapping units---- ----------- 86







Series 1955, No. 8 Issued June 1960














SOIL SURVEY OF ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA

SURVEY BY JAMES H. WALKER, IN CHARGE, AND VICTOR W. CARLISLE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT STATIONS
REPORT BY VICTOR W. CARLISLE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
CORRELATION BY ALLEN H. HASTY, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN COOPERATION WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICUL-
TURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS


THE MILD CLIMATE of Escambia County favors
diversified agriculture. The main crops are corn,
soybeans, cotton, and potatoes. Dairying and raising of TALLAHASSEE
beef cattle account for a large part of the total farm in- ., CK.sN
come. Forests, which occupy about three-fourths of the -
county, are a valuable resource. A large number of in- y s.
dustrial plants in and near Pensacola provide part-time 0
employment for many rural inhabitants. Railroads, high-
ways, and port facilities furnish transportation to outside
markets.

S MPA
General Nature of the Area
This introductory section is intended mainly for read-
ers not familiar with Escambia County. It mentions
the history, physiography, and climate and cites some
statistics on agriculture.

Location and Extent MI
Escambia County is in the extreme northwestern part
of Florida (fig. 1). It occupies approximately 657
square miles, or 420,480 acres. An additional 64,000
acres is water. The county extends from the Gulf of s *S. A9.,.1U..i.....lrdEi..ns.Iion
Mexico north to the Alabama-Florida line, a distance of
nearly 50 miles. It is irregular in outline; it varies Figure 1.-Location of Escambia County in Florida.
from 25 miles wide along the northern boundary to ap-
proximately 8 miles across at its narrowest part. Pensa- The early settlers were of Spanish, French, Negro,
cola, the county seat, is in the southern part, about 175 and English descent. The Revolutionary war caused
miles west of Tallahassee, the State capital. many loyal subjects of England to flee from Georgia,
Carolina, and the other colonies to Florida. Some of
them sought refuge in Pensacola (2).
History Prior to 1900 the majority of the people were employed
The first settlement in Escambia County was estab- in lumbering and industries closely associated with it.
lished by Spaniards in 1559 (2),1 although previous at- As the timber disappeared, the acreage used for crops
tempts at settlement were made as early as 1516. The increased steadily. The population of Escambia County
territory was under the jurisdiction of Spain, France, and increased from 28,313 in 1900 to 112,706 in 1950.
England until 1821, when Spain ceded Florida to the
United States. Escambia County then included the area Physiography, Relief, and Drainage
between the Perdido and the Suwannee Rivers. It was
later divided, and other counties established. The pres- Escambia County lies in the Coastal Plain Province, a
ent boundaries of the county were set in 1842. major physiographic division of the United States. The
Coastal Plain extends from New York southward and
'Italic numbers .in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 79. westward into Texas. It consists principally of uncon-
1














SOIL SURVEY OF ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA

SURVEY BY JAMES H. WALKER, IN CHARGE, AND VICTOR W. CARLISLE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT STATIONS
REPORT BY VICTOR W. CARLISLE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
CORRELATION BY ALLEN H. HASTY, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN COOPERATION WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICUL-
TURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS


THE MILD CLIMATE of Escambia County favors
diversified agriculture. The main crops are corn,
soybeans, cotton, and potatoes. Dairying and raising of TALLAHASSEE
beef cattle account for a large part of the total farm in- ., CK.sN
come. Forests, which occupy about three-fourths of the -
county, are a valuable resource. A large number of in- y s.
dustrial plants in and near Pensacola provide part-time 0
employment for many rural inhabitants. Railroads, high-
ways, and port facilities furnish transportation to outside
markets.

S MPA
General Nature of the Area
This introductory section is intended mainly for read-
ers not familiar with Escambia County. It mentions
the history, physiography, and climate and cites some
statistics on agriculture.

Location and Extent MI
Escambia County is in the extreme northwestern part
of Florida (fig. 1). It occupies approximately 657
square miles, or 420,480 acres. An additional 64,000
acres is water. The county extends from the Gulf of s *S. A9.,.1U..i.....lrdEi..ns.Iion
Mexico north to the Alabama-Florida line, a distance of
nearly 50 miles. It is irregular in outline; it varies Figure 1.-Location of Escambia County in Florida.
from 25 miles wide along the northern boundary to ap-
proximately 8 miles across at its narrowest part. Pensa- The early settlers were of Spanish, French, Negro,
cola, the county seat, is in the southern part, about 175 and English descent. The Revolutionary war caused
miles west of Tallahassee, the State capital. many loyal subjects of England to flee from Georgia,
Carolina, and the other colonies to Florida. Some of
them sought refuge in Pensacola (2).
History Prior to 1900 the majority of the people were employed
The first settlement in Escambia County was estab- in lumbering and industries closely associated with it.
lished by Spaniards in 1559 (2),1 although previous at- As the timber disappeared, the acreage used for crops
tempts at settlement were made as early as 1516. The increased steadily. The population of Escambia County
territory was under the jurisdiction of Spain, France, and increased from 28,313 in 1900 to 112,706 in 1950.
England until 1821, when Spain ceded Florida to the
United States. Escambia County then included the area Physiography, Relief, and Drainage
between the Perdido and the Suwannee Rivers. It was
later divided, and other counties established. The pres- Escambia County lies in the Coastal Plain Province, a
ent boundaries of the county were set in 1842. major physiographic division of the United States. The
Coastal Plain extends from New York southward and
'Italic numbers .in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 79. westward into Texas. It consists principally of uncon-
1














SOIL SURVEY OF ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA

SURVEY BY JAMES H. WALKER, IN CHARGE, AND VICTOR W. CARLISLE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT STATIONS
REPORT BY VICTOR W. CARLISLE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
CORRELATION BY ALLEN H. HASTY, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN COOPERATION WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICUL-
TURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS


THE MILD CLIMATE of Escambia County favors
diversified agriculture. The main crops are corn,
soybeans, cotton, and potatoes. Dairying and raising of TALLAHASSEE
beef cattle account for a large part of the total farm in- ., CK.sN
come. Forests, which occupy about three-fourths of the -
county, are a valuable resource. A large number of in- y s.
dustrial plants in and near Pensacola provide part-time 0
employment for many rural inhabitants. Railroads, high-
ways, and port facilities furnish transportation to outside
markets.

S MPA
General Nature of the Area
This introductory section is intended mainly for read-
ers not familiar with Escambia County. It mentions
the history, physiography, and climate and cites some
statistics on agriculture.

Location and Extent MI
Escambia County is in the extreme northwestern part
of Florida (fig. 1). It occupies approximately 657
square miles, or 420,480 acres. An additional 64,000
acres is water. The county extends from the Gulf of s *S. A9.,.1U..i.....lrdEi..ns.Iion
Mexico north to the Alabama-Florida line, a distance of
nearly 50 miles. It is irregular in outline; it varies Figure 1.-Location of Escambia County in Florida.
from 25 miles wide along the northern boundary to ap-
proximately 8 miles across at its narrowest part. Pensa- The early settlers were of Spanish, French, Negro,
cola, the county seat, is in the southern part, about 175 and English descent. The Revolutionary war caused
miles west of Tallahassee, the State capital. many loyal subjects of England to flee from Georgia,
Carolina, and the other colonies to Florida. Some of
them sought refuge in Pensacola (2).
History Prior to 1900 the majority of the people were employed
The first settlement in Escambia County was estab- in lumbering and industries closely associated with it.
lished by Spaniards in 1559 (2),1 although previous at- As the timber disappeared, the acreage used for crops
tempts at settlement were made as early as 1516. The increased steadily. The population of Escambia County
territory was under the jurisdiction of Spain, France, and increased from 28,313 in 1900 to 112,706 in 1950.
England until 1821, when Spain ceded Florida to the
United States. Escambia County then included the area Physiography, Relief, and Drainage
between the Perdido and the Suwannee Rivers. It was
later divided, and other counties established. The pres- Escambia County lies in the Coastal Plain Province, a
ent boundaries of the county were set in 1842. major physiographic division of the United States. The
Coastal Plain extends from New York southward and
'Italic numbers .in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 79. westward into Texas. It consists principally of uncon-
1














SOIL SURVEY OF ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA

SURVEY BY JAMES H. WALKER, IN CHARGE, AND VICTOR W. CARLISLE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT STATIONS
REPORT BY VICTOR W. CARLISLE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
CORRELATION BY ALLEN H. HASTY, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN COOPERATION WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICUL-
TURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS


THE MILD CLIMATE of Escambia County favors
diversified agriculture. The main crops are corn,
soybeans, cotton, and potatoes. Dairying and raising of TALLAHASSEE
beef cattle account for a large part of the total farm in- ., CK.sN
come. Forests, which occupy about three-fourths of the -
county, are a valuable resource. A large number of in- y s.
dustrial plants in and near Pensacola provide part-time 0
employment for many rural inhabitants. Railroads, high-
ways, and port facilities furnish transportation to outside
markets.

S MPA
General Nature of the Area
This introductory section is intended mainly for read-
ers not familiar with Escambia County. It mentions
the history, physiography, and climate and cites some
statistics on agriculture.

Location and Extent MI
Escambia County is in the extreme northwestern part
of Florida (fig. 1). It occupies approximately 657
square miles, or 420,480 acres. An additional 64,000
acres is water. The county extends from the Gulf of s *S. A9.,.1U..i.....lrdEi..ns.Iion
Mexico north to the Alabama-Florida line, a distance of
nearly 50 miles. It is irregular in outline; it varies Figure 1.-Location of Escambia County in Florida.
from 25 miles wide along the northern boundary to ap-
proximately 8 miles across at its narrowest part. Pensa- The early settlers were of Spanish, French, Negro,
cola, the county seat, is in the southern part, about 175 and English descent. The Revolutionary war caused
miles west of Tallahassee, the State capital. many loyal subjects of England to flee from Georgia,
Carolina, and the other colonies to Florida. Some of
them sought refuge in Pensacola (2).
History Prior to 1900 the majority of the people were employed
The first settlement in Escambia County was estab- in lumbering and industries closely associated with it.
lished by Spaniards in 1559 (2),1 although previous at- As the timber disappeared, the acreage used for crops
tempts at settlement were made as early as 1516. The increased steadily. The population of Escambia County
territory was under the jurisdiction of Spain, France, and increased from 28,313 in 1900 to 112,706 in 1950.
England until 1821, when Spain ceded Florida to the
United States. Escambia County then included the area Physiography, Relief, and Drainage
between the Perdido and the Suwannee Rivers. It was
later divided, and other counties established. The pres- Escambia County lies in the Coastal Plain Province, a
ent boundaries of the county were set in 1842. major physiographic division of the United States. The
Coastal Plain extends from New York southward and
'Italic numbers .in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 79. westward into Texas. It consists principally of uncon-
1








2 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

solidated sands, silts, and clays deposited before the shore- later in spring than in the southern part of the county,
line of the continental mainland reached its present and the first-killing frost in fall is about 2 weeks earlier
position, than in the southern part. The growing season is ap-
There are two topographic divisions in Escambia proximately 300 days at Pensacola.
County: The Coastal Lowland and the Western High- The annual rainfall is fairly high, nearly 62 inches
lands (3). The Coastal Lowland consists of a series of on the average. Rainfall is well distributed, with a peak
broad, nearly level, marine terraces that extend several in July and August. Occasionally there is a short
miles in from the coast in the southwestern part of the drought late in spring that considerably damages gar-
county and merge with the narrow terraces along the dens, farm crops, and pasture. Snow rarely falls, but
Perdido and Escambia Rivers. The highest terrace has snowfalls measuring 2 to 3 inches have been recorded.
an elevation of about 100 feet. Because of the smooth Hailstorms are infrequent and cover very restricted
topography and the fairly short time since it was under the areas.
sea, the Coastal Lowland has little dissection and its
drainage system is but weakly developed. TABLE 1.-Temperature and precipitation at Pensacola,
The Western Highlands have elevations that range from Escambia County, Fla.
100 to about 280 feet. They include the gently sloping to [Elevation, 13 feet]
strongly sloping part of the county that begins 10 to 12
miles north of Pensacola. This division is characterized T raPrepitation
by a fairly well developed branching, or dendritic, drain- Temperature
age pattern. The valleys are V-shaped and have slopes
that range from 8 to 15 percent. Along the bottom lands Month Abso- Abso- Driest Wettest Aver-
of the Escambia and Perdido Rivers and their larger Aver- lute lute Aver- year year age
tributaries the slopes are long and strong and the ridge- imum imum fall
tops are narrow and gently sloping. The slopes along the__
small streams are short and mild, and the ridgetops are o. 0 F. F. Inches Inches Inches Inches
broad and nearly level. December---- 55. 1 77 14 4. 17' 2.55 14.67 (3)
On the ridgetops throughout this Highland area loose January ----- 54. 0 79 14 4.55 1. 89 4. 22 0
sandy material of varying thickness overlies very slowly February- 56. 0 78 7 3. 93 2. 27 9. 10 0
permeable sandy clay or sandy clay loam. Water moves Winter --- 55. 0 79 7 12. 65 6. 71 27. 99 (3)
freely down through the sand, but the clayey layer -
forces it to move laterally. This results in seepy areas March------- 60. 2 87 24 6.00 3. 50 4. 86 0
or springs on the stronger slopes immediately above April--------67.0 92 34 4.90 .98 9. 82 0
places where the clayey layer outcrops and wet or poorly 4. 36 8
drained soils on the slopes below. Thus, the soil in any Spring----- 67. 0 94 24 15. 26 6. 70 18. 56 0
area may be less well drained or much better drained ---__ _--
than the topographic position would indicate. June-------- 79. 6 101 55 5. 17 83 8.87 0
July--__------- 81.0 103 62 7. 59 8. 42 5. 03 0
The Escambia and Perdido Rivers and their tributaries August ------ 81. 2 99 62 7. 43 .63 11. 28 0
drain about equal areas in the county. Most of the soils -
between these rivers lie high and have a moderately well Summer--- 80.6 103 55 20. 19 9. 88 25. 18 0
developed drainage pattern. In the southwestern part September ...- 78.3 102 49 5.78 2. 60 11. 11 0
of the county most of the soils are low and nearly level, October------ 70. 3 95 35 3. 88 1.24 .64 0
and the drainage pattern into the adjacent bays is poorly November.--- 60. 2 81 25 3. 84 1.53 6. 93 .1
developed. Fall------- 69.6 102 25 13.50 5.37 18.68 .1
Bottom lands along almost all the permanent streams -
are but a few feet above the stream and are subject to Year---- 68. 0 103 7 61. 60 28. 66 90. 41 .1
overflow.
SAverage temperature based on a 76-year record, through 1955;
Climate highest and lowest temperature on a 51-year record, through 1930.
2 Average precipitation based on a 76-year record, through 1955;
Escambia County has a humid, warm-temperate wettest and driest years based on a 76-year record, in the period
Escambia County has a humid, warm-temperate climate 1880-1955; snowfall based on a 51-year record, through 1930.
(table 1). Summers are long and warm, and winters 3 Trace.
are short and mild. The average summer temperature
at Pensacola is slightly more than 800 F., but tempera- The prevailing winds blow from the north and north-
tures reach 900 or more approximately 19 days in the west during fall and winter and from the south and
period June through August. The average winter ter- southwest in spring and summer. Summer days are
perature is 550, and on the average there are 9 freezes. often sultry, but most of the nights are cooled by breezes.
The cold spells are short, and temperatures rarely go as Wind velocities are moderate except during thunder-
low as 150 or 200. squalls. Tropical storms and hurricanes, however, origi-
According to a 51-year record, the average date of nate far out in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean
the last killing frost is February 23, but killing frost Sea, and sometimes they reach the coast and threaten
has come as late as April 6. The average date for the life and property.
first killing frost is December 7, though killing frosts The climate favors production of many kinds of crops.
have come as early as October 27. In the northern part Winters are mild. The soil is seldom frozen to a depth
of the county, the last killing frost comes about 2 weeks of more than an inch, and normally it stays frozen for







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

only a few hours. Winter cover crops are grown suc- and Norfolk soils probably have the most favorable
cessfully. Oats, wheat, clover, rye, and ryegrass are moisture content for this crop.
commonly sown in fall; Irish potatoes are planted late Vegetables are grown for home use on most of the
in winter; and corn, cotton, and soybeans are planted in farms. Among those more commonly grown are lima
spring, beans, snap beans, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumbers, okra,
peas, onions, squash, tomatoes, turnips, potatoes, water-
melons, and cantaloups.
Agriculture The small acreages of oats reported in the period
1929-49 can be accounted for by the prevalence of rust.
Residents of Escambia County did not turn to agri- As rust-resistant varieties became available, the acreage
culture until forest resources were nearly exhausted, or of oats increased.
about 1900. Farming got a slow start, partly because The acreage in soybeans has increased more than three
much of the soil was naturally unproductive and did not times since 1950. Soybeans have been a dependable cash
respond readily to the efforts of unskilled farmers. The crop without acreage allotments. Much of the acreage
main crops grown in the early days were corn, cotton, now used for this crop was formerly planted to cotton.
oats, hay, sugarcane, and sweetpotatoes. Minor acreages The acreage in hay has remained almost stable, in spite
were used for pecans and peaches. of the fact that the number of cattle on farms in 1954
The farming now practiced is diversified. Under good was almost double the number on farms in 1950. The
management, the soils having a heavy sandy loam or greater number of cattle have been fed mainly by im-
sandy clay loam subsoil can be brought to and main- proving the management of pasture and by planting
trained at a high level of productivity. The principal greater acreages of crops for winter grazing.
crops are corn, soybeans, Irish potatoes, cotton, and The cold weather that occurs about once every 5 to 7
small grains. Raising of hogs and beef cattle and dairy- years severely injures orange trees. The number of trees
ing are major enterprises. Forests, however, occupy has declined to an insignificant figure. Tung trees, how-
about three-fourths of the county and are still an impor- ever, survive most winters without damage from cold,
tant source of income, and the number of trees has increased.
Most of the land not in crops is used as range pasture
Crops for cattle and hogs. The native vegetation in the range
pastures varies widely with drainage and natural fer-
Acreage of the principal crops and number of fruit utility of the soils. The main native grasses are wire-
and nut trees are listed in table 2 for the years 1929, grass, wild oats, broomsedge, natalgrass, carpetgrass,
1939, 1949, and 1954. crabgrass, maidencane, and many of the Paspalum
Most of the acreage used for crops is on sandy loam grasses. In recent years many farmers have established
soils in the north. Irish potatoes and soybeans are gen- permanent pastures by seeding various combinations of
rally grown on soils that have a yellow subsoil, princi- bermudagrass, bahiagrass, dallisgrass, orchardgrass, and
pally the Tifton and Irvington soils. The moisture con- clovers.
tent of these soils is most favorable for these crops.
Cotton is commonly grown on the well-drained Red Livestock
Bay, Blakely, Carnegie, Norfolk, and Ruston soils. Corn
is grown on all the well-drained soils, though the Tifton Cattle.-According to the 1954 census, there were 14,273
cattle on farms of the county, an increase of 6,397 head
since 1950. The number of milk cows on farms in 1954
TABLE 2.-Acreage of principal crops and number of fruit was 4,273, an increase of 1,157 head since 1950. By com-
and nut trees of bearing age paring the increase in number of milk cows with the
Total increase in number of cattle, it can be seen that
Crop 1929 1939 1949 1954 beef cattle account for a large part of the total increase
___________ ___since 1950.
Acre res Acres Acr Dairying leads among the livestock enterprises in value
Acres Acres Acres Acres a sl mai
Corn harvested for grain 10, 188 11,645 6,948 6,563 of products sold. The dairy products are sold mainly
Oats threshed----------- 6 4 288 2, 835 in Pensacola. The dairy cattle are mostly of Jersey
All hay------------------- 1,147 1,232 980 1, 239 or Guernsey breeds though there are a few Holstein-
Cotton harvested------- 6, 704 3, 264 2, 425 1, 600 Friesian cattle. Increase in number of beef cattle has
Irish potatoes for home use
or fr sale_ ---------- 543 1, 013 1435 2 806 been accompanied by improvement of the herds through
Soybeans for all purposes__ 144 267 3 3,178 310, 948 introduction of Hereford, Aberdeen-Angus, and Brahma
Number 4 Number 4 Number Number bulls.
Orange trees ---- ----- 29, 681 4,697 172 19 Hogs.-Hogs are raised on almost all farms, but on
Pecan trees--------------- 15, 267 12, 877 9, 856 8, 175 many they are kept only for home use. Most of the hogs
Tung trees--------------- (5) 1, 866 38, 421 43, 469 run on the open range and, before they are butchered or
sold, are fattened on corn. The quality of the herds has
'Does not include acres for 3Harvested for beans, been improved by crossing native hogs with heavier
farms with less than 15 bush- 4One year later than year at meat-type breeds. There are two herds of purebred
els harvested, head of column. Drocs in the county.
2 Does not include acres for 'Not reported.
farms with less than 20 bush- Chickens.-Chickens are kept on nearly all farms for
els harvested, use of the family. Surplus eggs and chickens are sold.







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

only a few hours. Winter cover crops are grown suc- and Norfolk soils probably have the most favorable
cessfully. Oats, wheat, clover, rye, and ryegrass are moisture content for this crop.
commonly sown in fall; Irish potatoes are planted late Vegetables are grown for home use on most of the
in winter; and corn, cotton, and soybeans are planted in farms. Among those more commonly grown are lima
spring, beans, snap beans, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumbers, okra,
peas, onions, squash, tomatoes, turnips, potatoes, water-
melons, and cantaloups.
Agriculture The small acreages of oats reported in the period
1929-49 can be accounted for by the prevalence of rust.
Residents of Escambia County did not turn to agri- As rust-resistant varieties became available, the acreage
culture until forest resources were nearly exhausted, or of oats increased.
about 1900. Farming got a slow start, partly because The acreage in soybeans has increased more than three
much of the soil was naturally unproductive and did not times since 1950. Soybeans have been a dependable cash
respond readily to the efforts of unskilled farmers. The crop without acreage allotments. Much of the acreage
main crops grown in the early days were corn, cotton, now used for this crop was formerly planted to cotton.
oats, hay, sugarcane, and sweetpotatoes. Minor acreages The acreage in hay has remained almost stable, in spite
were used for pecans and peaches. of the fact that the number of cattle on farms in 1954
The farming now practiced is diversified. Under good was almost double the number on farms in 1950. The
management, the soils having a heavy sandy loam or greater number of cattle have been fed mainly by im-
sandy clay loam subsoil can be brought to and main- proving the management of pasture and by planting
trained at a high level of productivity. The principal greater acreages of crops for winter grazing.
crops are corn, soybeans, Irish potatoes, cotton, and The cold weather that occurs about once every 5 to 7
small grains. Raising of hogs and beef cattle and dairy- years severely injures orange trees. The number of trees
ing are major enterprises. Forests, however, occupy has declined to an insignificant figure. Tung trees, how-
about three-fourths of the county and are still an impor- ever, survive most winters without damage from cold,
tant source of income, and the number of trees has increased.
Most of the land not in crops is used as range pasture
Crops for cattle and hogs. The native vegetation in the range
pastures varies widely with drainage and natural fer-
Acreage of the principal crops and number of fruit utility of the soils. The main native grasses are wire-
and nut trees are listed in table 2 for the years 1929, grass, wild oats, broomsedge, natalgrass, carpetgrass,
1939, 1949, and 1954. crabgrass, maidencane, and many of the Paspalum
Most of the acreage used for crops is on sandy loam grasses. In recent years many farmers have established
soils in the north. Irish potatoes and soybeans are gen- permanent pastures by seeding various combinations of
rally grown on soils that have a yellow subsoil, princi- bermudagrass, bahiagrass, dallisgrass, orchardgrass, and
pally the Tifton and Irvington soils. The moisture con- clovers.
tent of these soils is most favorable for these crops.
Cotton is commonly grown on the well-drained Red Livestock
Bay, Blakely, Carnegie, Norfolk, and Ruston soils. Corn
is grown on all the well-drained soils, though the Tifton Cattle.-According to the 1954 census, there were 14,273
cattle on farms of the county, an increase of 6,397 head
since 1950. The number of milk cows on farms in 1954
TABLE 2.-Acreage of principal crops and number of fruit was 4,273, an increase of 1,157 head since 1950. By com-
and nut trees of bearing age paring the increase in number of milk cows with the
Total increase in number of cattle, it can be seen that
Crop 1929 1939 1949 1954 beef cattle account for a large part of the total increase
___________ ___since 1950.
Acre res Acres Acr Dairying leads among the livestock enterprises in value
Acres Acres Acres Acres a sl mai
Corn harvested for grain 10, 188 11,645 6,948 6,563 of products sold. The dairy products are sold mainly
Oats threshed----------- 6 4 288 2, 835 in Pensacola. The dairy cattle are mostly of Jersey
All hay------------------- 1,147 1,232 980 1, 239 or Guernsey breeds though there are a few Holstein-
Cotton harvested------- 6, 704 3, 264 2, 425 1, 600 Friesian cattle. Increase in number of beef cattle has
Irish potatoes for home use
or fr sale_ ---------- 543 1, 013 1435 2 806 been accompanied by improvement of the herds through
Soybeans for all purposes__ 144 267 3 3,178 310, 948 introduction of Hereford, Aberdeen-Angus, and Brahma
Number 4 Number 4 Number Number bulls.
Orange trees ---- ----- 29, 681 4,697 172 19 Hogs.-Hogs are raised on almost all farms, but on
Pecan trees--------------- 15, 267 12, 877 9, 856 8, 175 many they are kept only for home use. Most of the hogs
Tung trees--------------- (5) 1, 866 38, 421 43, 469 run on the open range and, before they are butchered or
sold, are fattened on corn. The quality of the herds has
'Does not include acres for 3Harvested for beans, been improved by crossing native hogs with heavier
farms with less than 15 bush- 4One year later than year at meat-type breeds. There are two herds of purebred
els harvested, head of column. Drocs in the county.
2 Does not include acres for 'Not reported.
farms with less than 20 bush- Chickens.-Chickens are kept on nearly all farms for
els harvested, use of the family. Surplus eggs and chickens are sold.







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

only a few hours. Winter cover crops are grown suc- and Norfolk soils probably have the most favorable
cessfully. Oats, wheat, clover, rye, and ryegrass are moisture content for this crop.
commonly sown in fall; Irish potatoes are planted late Vegetables are grown for home use on most of the
in winter; and corn, cotton, and soybeans are planted in farms. Among those more commonly grown are lima
spring, beans, snap beans, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumbers, okra,
peas, onions, squash, tomatoes, turnips, potatoes, water-
melons, and cantaloups.
Agriculture The small acreages of oats reported in the period
1929-49 can be accounted for by the prevalence of rust.
Residents of Escambia County did not turn to agri- As rust-resistant varieties became available, the acreage
culture until forest resources were nearly exhausted, or of oats increased.
about 1900. Farming got a slow start, partly because The acreage in soybeans has increased more than three
much of the soil was naturally unproductive and did not times since 1950. Soybeans have been a dependable cash
respond readily to the efforts of unskilled farmers. The crop without acreage allotments. Much of the acreage
main crops grown in the early days were corn, cotton, now used for this crop was formerly planted to cotton.
oats, hay, sugarcane, and sweetpotatoes. Minor acreages The acreage in hay has remained almost stable, in spite
were used for pecans and peaches. of the fact that the number of cattle on farms in 1954
The farming now practiced is diversified. Under good was almost double the number on farms in 1950. The
management, the soils having a heavy sandy loam or greater number of cattle have been fed mainly by im-
sandy clay loam subsoil can be brought to and main- proving the management of pasture and by planting
trained at a high level of productivity. The principal greater acreages of crops for winter grazing.
crops are corn, soybeans, Irish potatoes, cotton, and The cold weather that occurs about once every 5 to 7
small grains. Raising of hogs and beef cattle and dairy- years severely injures orange trees. The number of trees
ing are major enterprises. Forests, however, occupy has declined to an insignificant figure. Tung trees, how-
about three-fourths of the county and are still an impor- ever, survive most winters without damage from cold,
tant source of income, and the number of trees has increased.
Most of the land not in crops is used as range pasture
Crops for cattle and hogs. The native vegetation in the range
pastures varies widely with drainage and natural fer-
Acreage of the principal crops and number of fruit utility of the soils. The main native grasses are wire-
and nut trees are listed in table 2 for the years 1929, grass, wild oats, broomsedge, natalgrass, carpetgrass,
1939, 1949, and 1954. crabgrass, maidencane, and many of the Paspalum
Most of the acreage used for crops is on sandy loam grasses. In recent years many farmers have established
soils in the north. Irish potatoes and soybeans are gen- permanent pastures by seeding various combinations of
rally grown on soils that have a yellow subsoil, princi- bermudagrass, bahiagrass, dallisgrass, orchardgrass, and
pally the Tifton and Irvington soils. The moisture con- clovers.
tent of these soils is most favorable for these crops.
Cotton is commonly grown on the well-drained Red Livestock
Bay, Blakely, Carnegie, Norfolk, and Ruston soils. Corn
is grown on all the well-drained soils, though the Tifton Cattle.-According to the 1954 census, there were 14,273
cattle on farms of the county, an increase of 6,397 head
since 1950. The number of milk cows on farms in 1954
TABLE 2.-Acreage of principal crops and number of fruit was 4,273, an increase of 1,157 head since 1950. By com-
and nut trees of bearing age paring the increase in number of milk cows with the
Total increase in number of cattle, it can be seen that
Crop 1929 1939 1949 1954 beef cattle account for a large part of the total increase
___________ ___since 1950.
Acre res Acres Acr Dairying leads among the livestock enterprises in value
Acres Acres Acres Acres a sl mai
Corn harvested for grain 10, 188 11,645 6,948 6,563 of products sold. The dairy products are sold mainly
Oats threshed----------- 6 4 288 2, 835 in Pensacola. The dairy cattle are mostly of Jersey
All hay------------------- 1,147 1,232 980 1, 239 or Guernsey breeds though there are a few Holstein-
Cotton harvested------- 6, 704 3, 264 2, 425 1, 600 Friesian cattle. Increase in number of beef cattle has
Irish potatoes for home use
or fr sale_ ---------- 543 1, 013 1435 2 806 been accompanied by improvement of the herds through
Soybeans for all purposes__ 144 267 3 3,178 310, 948 introduction of Hereford, Aberdeen-Angus, and Brahma
Number 4 Number 4 Number Number bulls.
Orange trees ---- ----- 29, 681 4,697 172 19 Hogs.-Hogs are raised on almost all farms, but on
Pecan trees--------------- 15, 267 12, 877 9, 856 8, 175 many they are kept only for home use. Most of the hogs
Tung trees--------------- (5) 1, 866 38, 421 43, 469 run on the open range and, before they are butchered or
sold, are fattened on corn. The quality of the herds has
'Does not include acres for 3Harvested for beans, been improved by crossing native hogs with heavier
farms with less than 15 bush- 4One year later than year at meat-type breeds. There are two herds of purebred
els harvested, head of column. Drocs in the county.
2 Does not include acres for 'Not reported.
farms with less than 20 bush- Chickens.-Chickens are kept on nearly all farms for
els harvested, use of the family. Surplus eggs and chickens are sold.







4 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Land Use, Tenure, and Equipment How Soils are Mapped and Described
The 1954 census shows some definite changes in land The scientist who makes a soil survey examines soils
use since 1950. The number of farms in the county de- in the fields and woodlands. He classifies the soils in
creased from 1,525 in 1950 to 1,334 in 1954. During the accordance with the facts observed and maps their
same period, however, the total area of land in farms boundaries on an aerial photograph or other map. The
increased from 130,557 acres to 156,900 acres. The in- map shows the location of each kind of soil identified,
crease of land in farms, coupled with the decrease in as well as the roads, houses, streams, railroads, and other
number of farms, has made the average farm larger. natural and cultural features of the landscape.
In 1954, the average-size farm contained 117.6 acres, as
compared to 85.6 acres in 1950. FIELD STUDY.-The soil scientist records everything
The increase in acreage of land in farms led to an about the soils that he believes might affect their suit-
increase in acreage of cropland harvested but a decrease ability for farming. He examines surface soils and sub-
in total acreage of cropland. The acreage of cropland soils; measures slopes with a hand level; and notes
harvested in 1954 was 24,558, as compared to 20,708 acres differences in growth of crops, weeds, trees, and other
in 1949. The acreage of all land pastured, including vegetation. He bores or digs many holes to see what the
cropland and woodland pastured, increased from 44,096 soils are like. The holes are not spaced in a regular
acres in 1949 to 63,791 acres in 1954. The acreage of pattern but are located according to the lay of the land.
woodland also increased; the total was 72,910 in 1949, Most of the time they are not more than a quarter of a
as compared to 94,898 acres in 1954. mile apart, and sometimes they are much closer. Each
Of the 1,334 farms in the county in 1954, a total of excavation reveals several distinct layers, called soil hori-
1,061 were worked by full owners, 175 by part owners, zons, which collectively are known as the soil profile.
5 by managers, and 93 by tenants. By area, full owners Each horizon is studied to see how it differs from others
operated 69,773 acres; part owners, 30,982 acres; man- in the profile and to learn the things about the soil that
agers, 50,931 acres; and all tenants, 5,214 acres. The influence its capacity to support plant growth.
proportion of farms operated by managers is small, but Color is normally related to aeration, drainage, and
the acreage is large, or about half the acreage operated the amount of organic matter in the soil. The darker
by full owners and part owners combined. Managers, the surface soil, as a rule, the more organic matter it
however, reported only 614 acres of cropland harvested contains. Streaks and spots of gray, yellow, and brown
in 1954, which indicates that most of the acreage under in the lower layers generally indicate poor drainage and
their management is used for livestock, poor aeration.
Comparison of census reports for 1950 and 1954 shows proportions of sand, silt, and
increased mechanization on farms. In 1950, 331 farms Texture, or the relative proportions of sand, silt, and
increased mechanization on farms In 1950, 331 farms clay, is determined by the way the soil feels when rubbed
reported 393 tractors, as compared to 568 farms reporting between the fingers. It is later checked by mechanical
656 tractors in 1954. There were 464 motortrucks on 436 analysis in a laboratory. Texture determines how well
farms in 1950, but in 1954 there were 629 motortrucks the soil retains moisture, plant nutrients, and fertilizer
on 506 farms. and whether the soil is easy or difficult to cultivate.
In 1954, 641 farms reported telephones; 1,264, elec-
tricity; and 1,073, piped running water. Structure is the way the individual soil particles are
Arranged in larger aggregates, or peds, and the amount
of pore (open) space between the aggregates. Structure
Transportation indicates the ease or difficulty with which the soil is
In 1954, the kind of road was reported for 1,446 farms penetrated by plant roots, water, and air.
Sfoarm o a hrd rf r n Other characteristics observed in field study and con-
as folows: 638 farms on a hard-surfaced road; 657 on sidered in classifying the soil are the depth of the soil
a dirt or unimproved road; and the remaining 151 farms over bedrock or compact layers; the presence of gravel
on a gravel, shell, or shale road. In the same year dis- or stones that may interfere with cultivation; the steep-
tance to the trading center most frequently visited was ness and pattern of slopes; the degree of erosion; the
reported for 1,513 farms as follows: Less than 5 miles, nature of the underlying material from which the soil
34.2 percent of the farms; 5 to 9 miles, 34.4 percent; 10 developed; and the reaction (acidity or alkalinity) of
miles or more, 31.4 percent. the soil as measured by chemical tests.
Serving the county are two airlines, Eastern and.n te b s of t
National; two buslines, Greyhound and Trailways; and CLASSIFICATION.-On the basis of the characteristics
two railroads, the Louisville and Nashville and the observed by the survey team or determined by laboratory
Frisco Lines. There are four United States Highways tests, soils are classified in phases, types, and series. The
in the county. United States Highway No. 29 runs north soil type is the basic unit of classification. A soil type
from Pensacola; No. 90 passes through the city; Alter- may consist of several phases. Types that resemble each
nate No. 90 runs east and west 9 miles north of Pensa- other in most characteristics are grouped in soil series.
cola; and No. 98 runs from Pensacola south and east. Soil type.-Soils similar in kind, thickness, and ar-
Pensacola has one of the best natural harbors in rangement of horizons, and having essentially the same
Florida. Several steamship lines, operating both coast- texture in the surface soil, are classified as members of
wise and abroad, maintain warehouses and docks, one soil type.







4 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Land Use, Tenure, and Equipment How Soils are Mapped and Described
The 1954 census shows some definite changes in land The scientist who makes a soil survey examines soils
use since 1950. The number of farms in the county de- in the fields and woodlands. He classifies the soils in
creased from 1,525 in 1950 to 1,334 in 1954. During the accordance with the facts observed and maps their
same period, however, the total area of land in farms boundaries on an aerial photograph or other map. The
increased from 130,557 acres to 156,900 acres. The in- map shows the location of each kind of soil identified,
crease of land in farms, coupled with the decrease in as well as the roads, houses, streams, railroads, and other
number of farms, has made the average farm larger. natural and cultural features of the landscape.
In 1954, the average-size farm contained 117.6 acres, as
compared to 85.6 acres in 1950. FIELD STUDY.-The soil scientist records everything
The increase in acreage of land in farms led to an about the soils that he believes might affect their suit-
increase in acreage of cropland harvested but a decrease ability for farming. He examines surface soils and sub-
in total acreage of cropland. The acreage of cropland soils; measures slopes with a hand level; and notes
harvested in 1954 was 24,558, as compared to 20,708 acres differences in growth of crops, weeds, trees, and other
in 1949. The acreage of all land pastured, including vegetation. He bores or digs many holes to see what the
cropland and woodland pastured, increased from 44,096 soils are like. The holes are not spaced in a regular
acres in 1949 to 63,791 acres in 1954. The acreage of pattern but are located according to the lay of the land.
woodland also increased; the total was 72,910 in 1949, Most of the time they are not more than a quarter of a
as compared to 94,898 acres in 1954. mile apart, and sometimes they are much closer. Each
Of the 1,334 farms in the county in 1954, a total of excavation reveals several distinct layers, called soil hori-
1,061 were worked by full owners, 175 by part owners, zons, which collectively are known as the soil profile.
5 by managers, and 93 by tenants. By area, full owners Each horizon is studied to see how it differs from others
operated 69,773 acres; part owners, 30,982 acres; man- in the profile and to learn the things about the soil that
agers, 50,931 acres; and all tenants, 5,214 acres. The influence its capacity to support plant growth.
proportion of farms operated by managers is small, but Color is normally related to aeration, drainage, and
the acreage is large, or about half the acreage operated the amount of organic matter in the soil. The darker
by full owners and part owners combined. Managers, the surface soil, as a rule, the more organic matter it
however, reported only 614 acres of cropland harvested contains. Streaks and spots of gray, yellow, and brown
in 1954, which indicates that most of the acreage under in the lower layers generally indicate poor drainage and
their management is used for livestock, poor aeration.
Comparison of census reports for 1950 and 1954 shows proportions of sand, silt, and
increased mechanization on farms. In 1950, 331 farms Texture, or the relative proportions of sand, silt, and
increased mechanization on farms In 1950, 331 farms clay, is determined by the way the soil feels when rubbed
reported 393 tractors, as compared to 568 farms reporting between the fingers. It is later checked by mechanical
656 tractors in 1954. There were 464 motortrucks on 436 analysis in a laboratory. Texture determines how well
farms in 1950, but in 1954 there were 629 motortrucks the soil retains moisture, plant nutrients, and fertilizer
on 506 farms. and whether the soil is easy or difficult to cultivate.
In 1954, 641 farms reported telephones; 1,264, elec-
tricity; and 1,073, piped running water. Structure is the way the individual soil particles are
Arranged in larger aggregates, or peds, and the amount
of pore (open) space between the aggregates. Structure
Transportation indicates the ease or difficulty with which the soil is
In 1954, the kind of road was reported for 1,446 farms penetrated by plant roots, water, and air.
Sfoarm o a hrd rf r n Other characteristics observed in field study and con-
as folows: 638 farms on a hard-surfaced road; 657 on sidered in classifying the soil are the depth of the soil
a dirt or unimproved road; and the remaining 151 farms over bedrock or compact layers; the presence of gravel
on a gravel, shell, or shale road. In the same year dis- or stones that may interfere with cultivation; the steep-
tance to the trading center most frequently visited was ness and pattern of slopes; the degree of erosion; the
reported for 1,513 farms as follows: Less than 5 miles, nature of the underlying material from which the soil
34.2 percent of the farms; 5 to 9 miles, 34.4 percent; 10 developed; and the reaction (acidity or alkalinity) of
miles or more, 31.4 percent. the soil as measured by chemical tests.
Serving the county are two airlines, Eastern and.n te b s of t
National; two buslines, Greyhound and Trailways; and CLASSIFICATION.-On the basis of the characteristics
two railroads, the Louisville and Nashville and the observed by the survey team or determined by laboratory
Frisco Lines. There are four United States Highways tests, soils are classified in phases, types, and series. The
in the county. United States Highway No. 29 runs north soil type is the basic unit of classification. A soil type
from Pensacola; No. 90 passes through the city; Alter- may consist of several phases. Types that resemble each
nate No. 90 runs east and west 9 miles north of Pensa- other in most characteristics are grouped in soil series.
cola; and No. 98 runs from Pensacola south and east. Soil type.-Soils similar in kind, thickness, and ar-
Pensacola has one of the best natural harbors in rangement of horizons, and having essentially the same
Florida. Several steamship lines, operating both coast- texture in the surface soil, are classified as members of
wise and abroad, maintain warehouses and docks, one soil type.







4 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Land Use, Tenure, and Equipment How Soils are Mapped and Described
The 1954 census shows some definite changes in land The scientist who makes a soil survey examines soils
use since 1950. The number of farms in the county de- in the fields and woodlands. He classifies the soils in
creased from 1,525 in 1950 to 1,334 in 1954. During the accordance with the facts observed and maps their
same period, however, the total area of land in farms boundaries on an aerial photograph or other map. The
increased from 130,557 acres to 156,900 acres. The in- map shows the location of each kind of soil identified,
crease of land in farms, coupled with the decrease in as well as the roads, houses, streams, railroads, and other
number of farms, has made the average farm larger. natural and cultural features of the landscape.
In 1954, the average-size farm contained 117.6 acres, as
compared to 85.6 acres in 1950. FIELD STUDY.-The soil scientist records everything
The increase in acreage of land in farms led to an about the soils that he believes might affect their suit-
increase in acreage of cropland harvested but a decrease ability for farming. He examines surface soils and sub-
in total acreage of cropland. The acreage of cropland soils; measures slopes with a hand level; and notes
harvested in 1954 was 24,558, as compared to 20,708 acres differences in growth of crops, weeds, trees, and other
in 1949. The acreage of all land pastured, including vegetation. He bores or digs many holes to see what the
cropland and woodland pastured, increased from 44,096 soils are like. The holes are not spaced in a regular
acres in 1949 to 63,791 acres in 1954. The acreage of pattern but are located according to the lay of the land.
woodland also increased; the total was 72,910 in 1949, Most of the time they are not more than a quarter of a
as compared to 94,898 acres in 1954. mile apart, and sometimes they are much closer. Each
Of the 1,334 farms in the county in 1954, a total of excavation reveals several distinct layers, called soil hori-
1,061 were worked by full owners, 175 by part owners, zons, which collectively are known as the soil profile.
5 by managers, and 93 by tenants. By area, full owners Each horizon is studied to see how it differs from others
operated 69,773 acres; part owners, 30,982 acres; man- in the profile and to learn the things about the soil that
agers, 50,931 acres; and all tenants, 5,214 acres. The influence its capacity to support plant growth.
proportion of farms operated by managers is small, but Color is normally related to aeration, drainage, and
the acreage is large, or about half the acreage operated the amount of organic matter in the soil. The darker
by full owners and part owners combined. Managers, the surface soil, as a rule, the more organic matter it
however, reported only 614 acres of cropland harvested contains. Streaks and spots of gray, yellow, and brown
in 1954, which indicates that most of the acreage under in the lower layers generally indicate poor drainage and
their management is used for livestock, poor aeration.
Comparison of census reports for 1950 and 1954 shows proportions of sand, silt, and
increased mechanization on farms. In 1950, 331 farms Texture, or the relative proportions of sand, silt, and
increased mechanization on farms In 1950, 331 farms clay, is determined by the way the soil feels when rubbed
reported 393 tractors, as compared to 568 farms reporting between the fingers. It is later checked by mechanical
656 tractors in 1954. There were 464 motortrucks on 436 analysis in a laboratory. Texture determines how well
farms in 1950, but in 1954 there were 629 motortrucks the soil retains moisture, plant nutrients, and fertilizer
on 506 farms. and whether the soil is easy or difficult to cultivate.
In 1954, 641 farms reported telephones; 1,264, elec-
tricity; and 1,073, piped running water. Structure is the way the individual soil particles are
Arranged in larger aggregates, or peds, and the amount
of pore (open) space between the aggregates. Structure
Transportation indicates the ease or difficulty with which the soil is
In 1954, the kind of road was reported for 1,446 farms penetrated by plant roots, water, and air.
Sfoarm o a hrd rf r n Other characteristics observed in field study and con-
as folows: 638 farms on a hard-surfaced road; 657 on sidered in classifying the soil are the depth of the soil
a dirt or unimproved road; and the remaining 151 farms over bedrock or compact layers; the presence of gravel
on a gravel, shell, or shale road. In the same year dis- or stones that may interfere with cultivation; the steep-
tance to the trading center most frequently visited was ness and pattern of slopes; the degree of erosion; the
reported for 1,513 farms as follows: Less than 5 miles, nature of the underlying material from which the soil
34.2 percent of the farms; 5 to 9 miles, 34.4 percent; 10 developed; and the reaction (acidity or alkalinity) of
miles or more, 31.4 percent. the soil as measured by chemical tests.
Serving the county are two airlines, Eastern and.n te b s of t
National; two buslines, Greyhound and Trailways; and CLASSIFICATION.-On the basis of the characteristics
two railroads, the Louisville and Nashville and the observed by the survey team or determined by laboratory
Frisco Lines. There are four United States Highways tests, soils are classified in phases, types, and series. The
in the county. United States Highway No. 29 runs north soil type is the basic unit of classification. A soil type
from Pensacola; No. 90 passes through the city; Alter- may consist of several phases. Types that resemble each
nate No. 90 runs east and west 9 miles north of Pensa- other in most characteristics are grouped in soil series.
cola; and No. 98 runs from Pensacola south and east. Soil type.-Soils similar in kind, thickness, and ar-
Pensacola has one of the best natural harbors in rangement of horizons, and having essentially the same
Florida. Several steamship lines, operating both coast- texture in the surface soil, are classified as members of
wise and abroad, maintain warehouses and docks, one soil type.







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

Soil phase.-Soil types are frequently divided into Soil Series and Their Relations
phases because of differences other than those in kind,
thickness, and arrangement of horizons. Frequently, To make full use of this soil survey, it is necessary
these differences are significant in managing the soil. to know how the soils are related. These relationships
Among the characteristics that suggest dividing a soil are more easily understood if the soils are placed in
type into phases are variation in slope, frequency of groups according to their topographic position. The
rock outcrop, degree of erosion, depth of soil over sub- soils of this county have been placed in three such
soil, and depth to parent material. groups: (a) Soils of the uplands, (b) soils of the stream
In this survey, many phases are differentiated on the terraces, and (c) soils of the first bottoms.
basis of slope, as follows: The methods of classifying and mapping the soils are
Slope: Phase described in the section, How Soils are Mapped and
0 to 2 percent --- -------------- Level. Described.
2 to 5 percent----------- ----------- Very gently sloping. Each soil series occupies a characteristic position on
5 to 8 percent ------------------ Gently sloping.
Sto 12 percent ----------- enly sloping. the landscape and has its own kind of parent material
12 to 17 percent -------------------- Strongly sloping, and other factors important to its use. These are sum-
Other phases are differentiated on the basis of degree marized in a tabulation, Soil Series of Escambia County,
of erosion, as follows: Florida: Summary of Important Characteristics, at the
Send of this report.
Eroded: Soil has eroded to the extent that ordinary The soils of Escambia County differ in color, texture,
tillage implements would extend through the re- consistence, acidity, fertility, relief, drainage, permeabil-
maining surface soil and into the subsoil. The ity, and other characteristics. These affect the produc-
remaining surface soil is generally 2 to 5 inches tivity and the ease with which the soils can be worked
thick. Gullies that are easy to cross with farm and conserved. Accordingly, they affect the uses to which
machinery may be included, the soils are suited and the requirements for their proper
Severely eroded: Soil eroded to the extent that management. In the following paragraphs, the range
almost all, or all, of the surface soil has been re- is indicated for several important characteristics of the
moved, and in places much of the subsoil has been soils.
lost. Some areas have numerous shallow gullies. Parent ateral.-The soils of this county developed
Gullies too deep to cross with farm machinery are Parent material.-The soils of this county developed
Gullies too deep to cross with f areas in a humid, warm-temperate climate from parent mate-
also common in some areas. rials classified in two groups: (a) Moderate to thick
The soil phase (or the soil type if it has not been beds of acid sands and loamy sands, and (b) beds of acid
divided into phases) is the unit shown on the soil map. sandy loams, sandy clay loams, sandy clays, and clays.
It is the unit that has the smallest range of characteris-
tics. Use and management, therefore, can be related Relief and erosion.-The soils are mostly level to very
more specifically than for broader groups of soils that gently sloping, but some are strongly sloping. About a
necessarily contain more variation. third of the soils-those that are on slopes-are eroded or
Soil series.-Two or more soil types that are similar tend to erode without good management.
in kind, thickness, and arrangement of soil layers areture and struture.-The surface soils range from
normally designated as a soil series. In some places, Teure and tructure.- surface soils range from
however, a soil series may be represented by only one sand to loam in texture; the subsoils, from sand to clay.
soil type. Soil series normally are named for a place The structure of the surface soils varies from single
near which they were first mapped, grain to crumb; the structure of the subsoils, from single
. Miscellaneous land types.-Areas that have little true grain to subangular blocky.
soil are not classified in types, phases, or series; they are Drainage and organic matter.-The well-drained sands
identified by descriptive names. For example, in Escam- and loamy sands hold little moisture for plants; the soils
bia County, there are Mixed alluvial land, poorly drained; of finer texture hold more. Many of the soils in this
Fresh water swamp; Gullied land; Pits, dumps, and county are water saturated most of the time; some are
made land; and several other miscellaneous land types. continuously ponded.
Undifferentiated groups.-If two or more soils that The well-drained soils contain very little organic mat-
normally do not occur in regular geographic association ter, whereas the somewhat poorly and poorly drained
are so intricately mixed that separate mapping is im- soils generally contain more. Organic matter is impor-
practical, the soils are mapped together as an undifferen- tant in soil formation and in management of soils. Many
tiated group. The group is named for soils in it. Ex- properties of the soil-chemical, physical, and biologi-
amples in Escambia county are: Lakeland, Ruston, and cal-are influenced by organic matter to a degree quite
Norfolk soils; Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils; r ly og g t a degree quite
and Portsmouth, Grady, and Bayboro soils, disproportionate to the small amount present in the soil.
DEFINITIONs.-Some of the terms used in describing Fertility.-The natural fertility of these soils is low.
soils have been defined or partially defined in this sec- However, soils that have a finer texture and a well-
tion. More detailed definitions of these terms and of developed subsoil respond well to fertilization and other
other terms commonly used in soil science will be found good management practices. They retain plant nutrients
in the glossary, and moisture better than the deep, sandy soils.








6 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Soils of the Uplands IRVINGTON: Throughout the profile, these soils are
somewhat finer textured than the Lynchburg, and
The soils of the uplands lie above the stream valleys, they contain numerous iron concretions.
They have developed from unconsolidated beds of sand,
loamy sand, sandy loam, and sandy clay loam Coastal Poorly drained soils developed from sandy clay and clay
Plain materials that accumulated on the ocean bottom formations
when this area was covered by the sea during geological GRADY: The surface soil is a dark-gray loam, and
time. the subsoil is a gray, firm silty clay that is promi-
The topography ranges from that of a smooth surface nently mottled with brownish yellow and red.
dissected by shallow streams, in the southern part of the PORTSMOUTH: These soils have a black loam surface
county, to that of a more strongly sloping surface deeply soil and a grayish-brown, firm fine sandy clay
dissected by streams, in the northern part. Many dif- loam subsoil that is mottled with brownish yellow,
ferent soils have developed on the varied relief and over strong brown, and gray.
the diverse kinds of parent material. The soils of the BAYBORO: These soils have a black fine sandy loam
uplands differ primarily in color, texture, consistence, surface soil and a subsoil that resembles the sub-
structure, and drainage. soil of the Portsmouth soils.
Dark-colored, well-drained soils developed from the Light-colored sands and loamy sands that are underlain
sandy loam, sandy clay loam, and sandy clay materials by finer textured materials at depths greater than 42
RED BAY: The soils of this series have a dark gray- inches
ish-brown to dark reddish-brown surface soil and LAKELAND: Soils of this series have a thin, dark
a yellowish-red to red sandy clay loam subsoil, grayish-brown surface soil that is underlain by a
BaAds^ I erd ab gshTbroe n su oisoil that is underlain by a
BLAKELY: These soils differ from Red Bay in having brownish-yellow subsoil.
a darker reddish-brown color in all horizons. E : A darker surface soil and a reddish-yellow
CARNEGIE: These soils have pebbles or iron concre- subsoil darkeristinguish thesurface soil and a reddish-ye Lakellow
tions throughout the profile and are less red than subs d these soils from the Lakeland
the Red Bay soils, soils.
: These soils have more sand throughout the LAKEWOOD: These soils differ from Lakeland and
profile than the Faceville soils. Eustis soils because they have a light-gray surface
FACEVILLE: The soils in this series are less red soil, then 12 to 15 inches of loose white sand, and,
throughout than the Red Bay soils, finally, brownish-yellow layers beginning at a
depth of approximately 16 inches.
Light-colored, well-drained soils developed from beds of d mewhat p .
unconsolidated sandy loams, sandy clay loams, and sandy Somewhat poorly drained sands that are underlain by
clays finer textured materials at depths greater than 42 inches
NORFOLK: These soils have a surface soil that ranges KLEJ: The surface soil of this series varies from
from very dark gray to grayish brown; the sub- dark gray to very dark grayish brown and is
soil is a yellow to brownish-yellow friable fine underlain by layers of yellowish-brown to brown-
sandy clay loam. ish-yellow sand or loamy sand that are mottled
TIFTON: These soils differ from the Norfolk soils with yellowish red, strong brown, and yellow.
by having many iron concretions, in being slightly Lenses of white sand occur in the lower parts of
browner, and in containing more fine-textured the profile.
materials throughout the profile. LEON: These soils differ from Klej soils in having
SAVANNAH: These soils resemble the Norfolk soils; an organic-matter stained pan and in lacking yel-
they differ mainly in their tendency toward de- low coloring above this layer.
velopment of a pan in the lower horizons. Poorly drained and very poorly drained soils that are
Soils derived from sandy clay and clay parent materials underlain by finer textured materials at depths greater
than 48 inches
CUTHBERT: These soils have a dark grayish-brown t 4
to grayish-brown surface soil that is underlain PLUMMER: These soils have a very dark gray, to
by a reddish-yellow, mottled with red and gray, gray surface soil that is underlain by light-gray
firm fine sandy clay. to grayish-brown sandy materials.
ANGIE: Unlike the Cuthbert, the Angie soils have RUTLEGE: The soils of this series contain a greater
6 to 12 inches of unmottled, yellow subsoil. amount of organic matter than the Plummer and,
SUNSWEET: The depth to fine sandy clay loam is therefore, are darker colored throughout the pro-
less in these soils than in the Cuthbert and Angie file.
soils. PAMLICO: These soils differ from the Plummer and
Rutlege in having a black muck surface soil that
Dark-gray, somewhat poorly drained soils derived from varies in thickness and rests on a black mucky
sandy loam, sandy clay loam, and sandy clay materials sand.
LYNCHBURG: The surface soil of this series ranges
from very dark gray to dark grayish brown; the Soils of the Stream Terraces
subsoil consists of brownish-yellow, friable fine
sandy clay loam that is mottled in the lower part The soils of the stream terraces developed from Coastal
with yellow, pale yellow, and strong brown. Plain materials deposited by the adjacent streams during








6 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Soils of the Uplands IRVINGTON: Throughout the profile, these soils are
somewhat finer textured than the Lynchburg, and
The soils of the uplands lie above the stream valleys, they contain numerous iron concretions.
They have developed from unconsolidated beds of sand,
loamy sand, sandy loam, and sandy clay loam Coastal Poorly drained soils developed from sandy clay and clay
Plain materials that accumulated on the ocean bottom formations
when this area was covered by the sea during geological GRADY: The surface soil is a dark-gray loam, and
time. the subsoil is a gray, firm silty clay that is promi-
The topography ranges from that of a smooth surface nently mottled with brownish yellow and red.
dissected by shallow streams, in the southern part of the PORTSMOUTH: These soils have a black loam surface
county, to that of a more strongly sloping surface deeply soil and a grayish-brown, firm fine sandy clay
dissected by streams, in the northern part. Many dif- loam subsoil that is mottled with brownish yellow,
ferent soils have developed on the varied relief and over strong brown, and gray.
the diverse kinds of parent material. The soils of the BAYBORO: These soils have a black fine sandy loam
uplands differ primarily in color, texture, consistence, surface soil and a subsoil that resembles the sub-
structure, and drainage. soil of the Portsmouth soils.
Dark-colored, well-drained soils developed from the Light-colored sands and loamy sands that are underlain
sandy loam, sandy clay loam, and sandy clay materials by finer textured materials at depths greater than 42
RED BAY: The soils of this series have a dark gray- inches
ish-brown to dark reddish-brown surface soil and LAKELAND: Soils of this series have a thin, dark
a yellowish-red to red sandy clay loam subsoil, grayish-brown surface soil that is underlain by a
BaAds^ I erd ab gshTbroe n su oisoil that is underlain by a
BLAKELY: These soils differ from Red Bay in having brownish-yellow subsoil.
a darker reddish-brown color in all horizons. E : A darker surface soil and a reddish-yellow
CARNEGIE: These soils have pebbles or iron concre- subsoil darkeristinguish thesurface soil and a reddish-ye Lakellow
tions throughout the profile and are less red than subs d these soils from the Lakeland
the Red Bay soils, soils.
: These soils have more sand throughout the LAKEWOOD: These soils differ from Lakeland and
profile than the Faceville soils. Eustis soils because they have a light-gray surface
FACEVILLE: The soils in this series are less red soil, then 12 to 15 inches of loose white sand, and,
throughout than the Red Bay soils, finally, brownish-yellow layers beginning at a
depth of approximately 16 inches.
Light-colored, well-drained soils developed from beds of d mewhat p .
unconsolidated sandy loams, sandy clay loams, and sandy Somewhat poorly drained sands that are underlain by
clays finer textured materials at depths greater than 42 inches
NORFOLK: These soils have a surface soil that ranges KLEJ: The surface soil of this series varies from
from very dark gray to grayish brown; the sub- dark gray to very dark grayish brown and is
soil is a yellow to brownish-yellow friable fine underlain by layers of yellowish-brown to brown-
sandy clay loam. ish-yellow sand or loamy sand that are mottled
TIFTON: These soils differ from the Norfolk soils with yellowish red, strong brown, and yellow.
by having many iron concretions, in being slightly Lenses of white sand occur in the lower parts of
browner, and in containing more fine-textured the profile.
materials throughout the profile. LEON: These soils differ from Klej soils in having
SAVANNAH: These soils resemble the Norfolk soils; an organic-matter stained pan and in lacking yel-
they differ mainly in their tendency toward de- low coloring above this layer.
velopment of a pan in the lower horizons. Poorly drained and very poorly drained soils that are
Soils derived from sandy clay and clay parent materials underlain by finer textured materials at depths greater
than 48 inches
CUTHBERT: These soils have a dark grayish-brown t 4
to grayish-brown surface soil that is underlain PLUMMER: These soils have a very dark gray, to
by a reddish-yellow, mottled with red and gray, gray surface soil that is underlain by light-gray
firm fine sandy clay. to grayish-brown sandy materials.
ANGIE: Unlike the Cuthbert, the Angie soils have RUTLEGE: The soils of this series contain a greater
6 to 12 inches of unmottled, yellow subsoil. amount of organic matter than the Plummer and,
SUNSWEET: The depth to fine sandy clay loam is therefore, are darker colored throughout the pro-
less in these soils than in the Cuthbert and Angie file.
soils. PAMLICO: These soils differ from the Plummer and
Rutlege in having a black muck surface soil that
Dark-gray, somewhat poorly drained soils derived from varies in thickness and rests on a black mucky
sandy loam, sandy clay loam, and sandy clay materials sand.
LYNCHBURG: The surface soil of this series ranges
from very dark gray to dark grayish brown; the Soils of the Stream Terraces
subsoil consists of brownish-yellow, friable fine
sandy clay loam that is mottled in the lower part The soils of the stream terraces developed from Coastal
with yellow, pale yellow, and strong brown. Plain materials deposited by the adjacent streams during







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

periods of overflow when the streambed was at a higher .MitJt're of dissimilar materials
elevation. Now, these materials are above the overflow MIXED ALLUVIAL LAND, POORLY DRAINED: This mis-
stage of the present streams and are called terraces, old cellaneous land type is not used to produce crops,
general stream alluvium, second bottoms, or benches. The because of the risk of periodic flooding.
soils of the stream terraces differ chiefly in texture and MIXED LOCAL ALLUVIAL LAND, MODERATELY WELL
drainage. The soils of the terraces-Huckabee, Barth, DRAINED: This soil is not used for cultivated
Kalmia, Izagora, Stough, Wahee, and Myatt-occur crops, but it could be if runoff from adjacent soils
along the larger streams. were controlled.
Well-drained to somewhat poorly drained loamy fine
sands with a dark grayish-brown surface soil and a
brownish-yellow subsoil that is underlain by finer tex- Soil Descriptions
tured materials at depths greater than 42 inches
SThis section is provided for those who want detailed
BARTH: These soils differ from Huckabee primarily information about soils. It describes each soil, or map-
in being somewhat poorly drained and in having ping unit, in this county; that is, the areas on the de-
distinctly mottled horizons in the lower subsoil. tailed soil map that are bounded by lines and identified
HUCKABEE: These soils are well drained. They have by a letter symbol. For more general information about
a dark grayish-brown surface layer and a brown- the soils, the reader can refer to the section, Soil Asso-
ish-yellow subsoil that is not mottled. ciations, in which broad patterns of soils are described.
Moderately well drained to well drained soils derived In this section the soils are described approximately in
from sandy loam to sandy clay materials alphabetic order. All the soils of one series that have the
S- same texture in the surface layer are together. For ex-
KALMIA: The soils of this series have a dark grayish- ample, all Eustis soils that have a loamy fne sand surface
brown fine sandy loam surface soil and a brown- soil come together, then all Eustis soils that have a loamy
ish-yellow, friable fine sandy clay loam subsoil sand surface soil, and finallall ll Eustis soils that have a
IZAGORA: These soils differ from the Kalmia soils sand surface soil.
primarily because they have finer textured parent The acreage and proportionate extent of each soil
materials and exhibit light-gray, strong-brown, mapped are shown in table 3.
and red mottlings at a depth of approximately 28 are shown in table .
nches. Some of the terms used in describing soils have special
meaning in soil science. Many of these terms are defined
Somewhat poorly drained soils that have developed from in the glossary at the back of this report.
sandy clay to clay terrace materials
WAHEE: These soils have a dark grayish-brown fine Angle Series
sandy loam surface soil and a mottled light brown- The soils of the Ange series have a grayish-brown
ish-gray, brownish-yellow, and red, firm clay sub- The sols of the Angi series have a grayish-brown
s-a, brownish-yello, ad red, fim lay sub- surface soil and yellow subsoil. They were derived from
STOUGH: The surface soil of this series is a dark- beds of sandy clays and clays. They are associated with
gray fine sandy loam the subsoil isa brownish- the undifferentiated unit of Sunsweet, Carnegie, and
ygray fine sandy loam; the subsoil is brownish- Cuthbert soils but are less well drained and contain
yellow friable sandy clay loam with mottlins of yellow instead of strong-brown or yellowish-red subsoil.
yellow, strong brown, and gray. Surface runoff is mostly medium, and permeability of
Poorly drained soils that developed from sandy loam to the subsoil is slow. These soils are acid throughout the
sandy clay loam terrace materials profile.
MYATT: The surface soil for this series is a light Angie fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase (2
brownish-gray very fine sandy loam; the subsoil to 5 percent slopes) (Aa; IIe-3).-This soil, the only
is a mottled light grayish-brown, brownish-yellow, Angle soil mapped in the county, occurs mainly in the
reddish-yellow, and strong-brown, friable fine northern part. The areas are small and irregular. The
sandy clay loam. native vegetation consists primarily of longleaf pine and
several species of oak.
Soils of the First Bottoms Profile description:
0 to 4 inches, grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; weak
The nearly level areas sometimes overflowed and fine crumb structure.
flooded by streams are called first bottoms. They gen- 4 to 10 inches, light yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
ooded by streams are called rstweak fine crumb structure.
erally are only a few feet above the streams. From 10 to 20 inches, yellow fine sandy clay loam; firm; moderate
higher lying lands, streams have carried down materials medium subangular blocky structure.
that make up the first bottoms. The characteristics of 20 to 36 inches, yellow fine sandy clay loam with red and
the soils result largely from the source of the materials gray mottles; firm; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure.
and the speed at which the water was moving when the 36 to 42 inches, fine sandy clay mottled with gray, yellow,
materials were deposited. The first bottoms were recently and red; firm; moderate medium subangular blocky struc-
formed, and the materials have not lain in place long; ture.
consequently, the soils do not have well-defined surface The surface soil varies from very dark gray to gray-
soil and subsoil layers such as those to be seen in most ish brown in color and from 4 to 6 inches in thickness.
soils of the uplands. The subsoil is olive yellow to brownish yellow, with red
500032-60- 2







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

periods of overflow when the streambed was at a higher .MitJt're of dissimilar materials
elevation. Now, these materials are above the overflow MIXED ALLUVIAL LAND, POORLY DRAINED: This mis-
stage of the present streams and are called terraces, old cellaneous land type is not used to produce crops,
general stream alluvium, second bottoms, or benches. The because of the risk of periodic flooding.
soils of the stream terraces differ chiefly in texture and MIXED LOCAL ALLUVIAL LAND, MODERATELY WELL
drainage. The soils of the terraces-Huckabee, Barth, DRAINED: This soil is not used for cultivated
Kalmia, Izagora, Stough, Wahee, and Myatt-occur crops, but it could be if runoff from adjacent soils
along the larger streams. were controlled.
Well-drained to somewhat poorly drained loamy fine
sands with a dark grayish-brown surface soil and a
brownish-yellow subsoil that is underlain by finer tex- Soil Descriptions
tured materials at depths greater than 42 inches
SThis section is provided for those who want detailed
BARTH: These soils differ from Huckabee primarily information about soils. It describes each soil, or map-
in being somewhat poorly drained and in having ping unit, in this county; that is, the areas on the de-
distinctly mottled horizons in the lower subsoil. tailed soil map that are bounded by lines and identified
HUCKABEE: These soils are well drained. They have by a letter symbol. For more general information about
a dark grayish-brown surface layer and a brown- the soils, the reader can refer to the section, Soil Asso-
ish-yellow subsoil that is not mottled. ciations, in which broad patterns of soils are described.
Moderately well drained to well drained soils derived In this section the soils are described approximately in
from sandy loam to sandy clay materials alphabetic order. All the soils of one series that have the
S- same texture in the surface layer are together. For ex-
KALMIA: The soils of this series have a dark grayish- ample, all Eustis soils that have a loamy fne sand surface
brown fine sandy loam surface soil and a brown- soil come together, then all Eustis soils that have a loamy
ish-yellow, friable fine sandy clay loam subsoil sand surface soil, and finallall ll Eustis soils that have a
IZAGORA: These soils differ from the Kalmia soils sand surface soil.
primarily because they have finer textured parent The acreage and proportionate extent of each soil
materials and exhibit light-gray, strong-brown, mapped are shown in table 3.
and red mottlings at a depth of approximately 28 are shown in table .
nches. Some of the terms used in describing soils have special
meaning in soil science. Many of these terms are defined
Somewhat poorly drained soils that have developed from in the glossary at the back of this report.
sandy clay to clay terrace materials
WAHEE: These soils have a dark grayish-brown fine Angle Series
sandy loam surface soil and a mottled light brown- The soils of the Ange series have a grayish-brown
ish-gray, brownish-yellow, and red, firm clay sub- The sols of the Angi series have a grayish-brown
s-a, brownish-yello, ad red, fim lay sub- surface soil and yellow subsoil. They were derived from
STOUGH: The surface soil of this series is a dark- beds of sandy clays and clays. They are associated with
gray fine sandy loam the subsoil isa brownish- the undifferentiated unit of Sunsweet, Carnegie, and
ygray fine sandy loam; the subsoil is brownish- Cuthbert soils but are less well drained and contain
yellow friable sandy clay loam with mottlins of yellow instead of strong-brown or yellowish-red subsoil.
yellow, strong brown, and gray. Surface runoff is mostly medium, and permeability of
Poorly drained soils that developed from sandy loam to the subsoil is slow. These soils are acid throughout the
sandy clay loam terrace materials profile.
MYATT: The surface soil for this series is a light Angie fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase (2
brownish-gray very fine sandy loam; the subsoil to 5 percent slopes) (Aa; IIe-3).-This soil, the only
is a mottled light grayish-brown, brownish-yellow, Angle soil mapped in the county, occurs mainly in the
reddish-yellow, and strong-brown, friable fine northern part. The areas are small and irregular. The
sandy clay loam. native vegetation consists primarily of longleaf pine and
several species of oak.
Soils of the First Bottoms Profile description:
0 to 4 inches, grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; weak
The nearly level areas sometimes overflowed and fine crumb structure.
flooded by streams are called first bottoms. They gen- 4 to 10 inches, light yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
ooded by streams are called rstweak fine crumb structure.
erally are only a few feet above the streams. From 10 to 20 inches, yellow fine sandy clay loam; firm; moderate
higher lying lands, streams have carried down materials medium subangular blocky structure.
that make up the first bottoms. The characteristics of 20 to 36 inches, yellow fine sandy clay loam with red and
the soils result largely from the source of the materials gray mottles; firm; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure.
and the speed at which the water was moving when the 36 to 42 inches, fine sandy clay mottled with gray, yellow,
materials were deposited. The first bottoms were recently and red; firm; moderate medium subangular blocky struc-
formed, and the materials have not lain in place long; ture.
consequently, the soils do not have well-defined surface The surface soil varies from very dark gray to gray-
soil and subsoil layers such as those to be seen in most ish brown in color and from 4 to 6 inches in thickness.
soils of the uplands. The subsoil is olive yellow to brownish yellow, with red
500032-60- 2







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

periods of overflow when the streambed was at a higher .MitJt're of dissimilar materials
elevation. Now, these materials are above the overflow MIXED ALLUVIAL LAND, POORLY DRAINED: This mis-
stage of the present streams and are called terraces, old cellaneous land type is not used to produce crops,
general stream alluvium, second bottoms, or benches. The because of the risk of periodic flooding.
soils of the stream terraces differ chiefly in texture and MIXED LOCAL ALLUVIAL LAND, MODERATELY WELL
drainage. The soils of the terraces-Huckabee, Barth, DRAINED: This soil is not used for cultivated
Kalmia, Izagora, Stough, Wahee, and Myatt-occur crops, but it could be if runoff from adjacent soils
along the larger streams. were controlled.
Well-drained to somewhat poorly drained loamy fine
sands with a dark grayish-brown surface soil and a
brownish-yellow subsoil that is underlain by finer tex- Soil Descriptions
tured materials at depths greater than 42 inches
SThis section is provided for those who want detailed
BARTH: These soils differ from Huckabee primarily information about soils. It describes each soil, or map-
in being somewhat poorly drained and in having ping unit, in this county; that is, the areas on the de-
distinctly mottled horizons in the lower subsoil. tailed soil map that are bounded by lines and identified
HUCKABEE: These soils are well drained. They have by a letter symbol. For more general information about
a dark grayish-brown surface layer and a brown- the soils, the reader can refer to the section, Soil Asso-
ish-yellow subsoil that is not mottled. ciations, in which broad patterns of soils are described.
Moderately well drained to well drained soils derived In this section the soils are described approximately in
from sandy loam to sandy clay materials alphabetic order. All the soils of one series that have the
S- same texture in the surface layer are together. For ex-
KALMIA: The soils of this series have a dark grayish- ample, all Eustis soils that have a loamy fne sand surface
brown fine sandy loam surface soil and a brown- soil come together, then all Eustis soils that have a loamy
ish-yellow, friable fine sandy clay loam subsoil sand surface soil, and finallall ll Eustis soils that have a
IZAGORA: These soils differ from the Kalmia soils sand surface soil.
primarily because they have finer textured parent The acreage and proportionate extent of each soil
materials and exhibit light-gray, strong-brown, mapped are shown in table 3.
and red mottlings at a depth of approximately 28 are shown in table .
nches. Some of the terms used in describing soils have special
meaning in soil science. Many of these terms are defined
Somewhat poorly drained soils that have developed from in the glossary at the back of this report.
sandy clay to clay terrace materials
WAHEE: These soils have a dark grayish-brown fine Angle Series
sandy loam surface soil and a mottled light brown- The soils of the Ange series have a grayish-brown
ish-gray, brownish-yellow, and red, firm clay sub- The sols of the Angi series have a grayish-brown
s-a, brownish-yello, ad red, fim lay sub- surface soil and yellow subsoil. They were derived from
STOUGH: The surface soil of this series is a dark- beds of sandy clays and clays. They are associated with
gray fine sandy loam the subsoil isa brownish- the undifferentiated unit of Sunsweet, Carnegie, and
ygray fine sandy loam; the subsoil is brownish- Cuthbert soils but are less well drained and contain
yellow friable sandy clay loam with mottlins of yellow instead of strong-brown or yellowish-red subsoil.
yellow, strong brown, and gray. Surface runoff is mostly medium, and permeability of
Poorly drained soils that developed from sandy loam to the subsoil is slow. These soils are acid throughout the
sandy clay loam terrace materials profile.
MYATT: The surface soil for this series is a light Angie fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase (2
brownish-gray very fine sandy loam; the subsoil to 5 percent slopes) (Aa; IIe-3).-This soil, the only
is a mottled light grayish-brown, brownish-yellow, Angle soil mapped in the county, occurs mainly in the
reddish-yellow, and strong-brown, friable fine northern part. The areas are small and irregular. The
sandy clay loam. native vegetation consists primarily of longleaf pine and
several species of oak.
Soils of the First Bottoms Profile description:
0 to 4 inches, grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; weak
The nearly level areas sometimes overflowed and fine crumb structure.
flooded by streams are called first bottoms. They gen- 4 to 10 inches, light yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
ooded by streams are called rstweak fine crumb structure.
erally are only a few feet above the streams. From 10 to 20 inches, yellow fine sandy clay loam; firm; moderate
higher lying lands, streams have carried down materials medium subangular blocky structure.
that make up the first bottoms. The characteristics of 20 to 36 inches, yellow fine sandy clay loam with red and
the soils result largely from the source of the materials gray mottles; firm; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure.
and the speed at which the water was moving when the 36 to 42 inches, fine sandy clay mottled with gray, yellow,
materials were deposited. The first bottoms were recently and red; firm; moderate medium subangular blocky struc-
formed, and the materials have not lain in place long; ture.
consequently, the soils do not have well-defined surface The surface soil varies from very dark gray to gray-
soil and subsoil layers such as those to be seen in most ish brown in color and from 4 to 6 inches in thickness.
soils of the uplands. The subsoil is olive yellow to brownish yellow, with red
500032-60- 2








8 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

TABLE 3.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of the soils mapped in Escambia County, Florida
[Acreages estimated from count of approximately 55 percent of the county by the grid method]_

Soil Area Extent Soil Area Extent

Acres Percent Acres Percent
Angie fine sandy loam, very gently sloping Leon sand -------------------------_ 2, 800 0. 7
phase --------------------------------- 150 (1) Leon sand, light colored surface phase------ 230 1
Barth loamy fine sand --------------------- 520 0. 1 Lynchburg gravelly very fine sandy loam-___ 1, 700 .4
Blakely loam-------------------------- 180 () Lynchburg fine sandy loam, level phase ---- 580 1
Carnegie fine sandy loam, level phase-- .560 1 Lynchburg fine sandy loam, very gently slop-
Carnegie fine sandy loam, very gently sloping ing phase------------------------------ 1,030 .2
phase---------------------------- ---- 7, 700 1. 8 Mixed alluvial land, poorly drained------ 61, 200 14. 5
Carnegie fine sandy loam, eroded very gently Mixed local alluvial land, moderately well
sloping phase------------------------- 160 () drained ----- -----------------------. 640 .2
Carnegie fine sandy loam, gently sloping Myatt loamy fine sand, thick surface phase__ 650 2
phase--------------------------------- 1,050 .3 Myatt very fine sandy loam, level phase-___- 1,950 5
Carnegie fine sandy loam, eroded gently Myatt very fine sandy loam, very gently
sloping phase_ --------------------- 160 (1) sloping phase_ _--------- ------------- 550 1
Coastal dune land and beach-------------_ 9, 100 2. 2 Norfolk fine sandy loam, level phase.------- 9, 100 2. 2
Eustis loamy fine sand, level phase --------- 500 .1 Norfolk fine sandy loam, very gently sloping
Eustis loamy fine sand, very gently sloping phase __---- ------------------------ 9, 500 2. 3
phase ------------------------------- 7,900 1.9 Norfolk fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase 1, 600 .4
Eustis loamy fine sand, gently sloping phase_ 2, 400 .6 Pamlico muck---------------------------- 100 ()
Eustis loamy fine sand, sloping phase ------- 1, 600 .4 Pits, dumps, and made land--------------- 650 .2
Eustis loamy sand, level phase------------- 4, 900 1. 2 Plummer fine sand------------------------ 700 .2
Eustis loamy sand, very gently sloping phase_ 7, 000 1.7 Plummer loamy sand, level phase---- 6, 400 1.5
Eustis loamy sand, gently sloping phase----- 1, 600 .4 Plummer loamy sand, very gently sloping
Eustis loamy sand, sloping phase----------- 850 .2 phase_ ---------------------------- 17, 700 4. 2
Eustis sand, level phase------------------- 3, 200 .8 Plummer sand--------------------------- 670 2
Eustis sand, very gently sloping phase------ 750 .2 Portsmouth loam---------------------200 (')
Eustis sand, sloping phase----------------- 200 () Portsmouth, Grady, and Bayboro soils ---_ 7, 300 1.7
Faceville fine sandy loam, level phase ------- 1, 500 .4 Red Bay fine sandy loam, level phase ---- 11, 200 2. 7
Faceville fine sandy loam, very gently sloping Red Bay fine sandy loam, very gently sloping
phase --------------------------------- 465 .1 phase--------------------------------- 2,300 .6
Fresh water swamp----------------------- 650 .2 Red Bay fine sandy loam, gently sloping
Grady loam ---------------------------- 2,000 .5 phase-------------- ----------------270 1
Gullied land------------------- --------- 800 .2 Red Bay loamy fine sand, level thick surface
Huckabee loamy fine sand, level phase----- 750 .2 phase --------------------------------- 275 1
Huckabee loamy fine sand, very gently Red Bay loamy fine sand, very gently slop-
sloping phase-------------------------- 600 .1 ing thick surface phase------------------ 700 .2
Irvington fine sandy loam-__-------------- 5, 300 1.3 Red Bay loamy fine sand, gently sloping
Izagora fine sandy loam------------------- 450 1 thick surface phase--------------------- 300 .1
Kalmia fine sandy loam, level phase-------- 1,650 .4 Rough broken land---------------------- 600 .1
Kalmia fine sandy loam, very gently sloping Ruston fine sandy loam, level phase__-----_ 2, 000 5
phase -------------------------------- 1, 220 .3 Ruston fine sandy loam, very gently sloping
Klej loamy sand, level phase -------------- 650 .2 phase__ --------------------------- 9,700 2. 3
Klej loamy sand, very gently sloping phase 450 .1 Ruston fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase_ 1,000 .2
Klej sand, level phase--------------------- 3, 900 9 Ruston loamy fine sand, level thick surface
Klej sand, very gently sloping phase --- 170 () phase--------------------------------- 330 .1
Lakeland loamy fine sand, level phase------- 1, 380 3 Ruston loamy fine sand, very gently sloping
Lakeland loamy fine sand, very gently thick surface phase------------------- 1, 450 3
sloping phase ----------------------- 2, 300 5 Ruston loamy fine sand, gently sloping thick
Lakeland loamy fine sand, gently sloping surface phase_ ------------------------- 500 1
phase_ --------------------------------- 950 .2 Rutlege sand -------------------------_ 12, 900 3. 1
Lakeland loamy fine sand, sloping phase_---- 410 1 Savannah fine sandy loam, level thick solum
Lakeland loamy sand, level phase---------- 13, 600 3. 2 phase ----------------------------_ -_ 3, 400 .8
Lakeland loamy sand, very gently sloping Savannah fine sandy loam, very gently slop-
phase ----_-- ----------------------- 14, 900 3. 5 ing thick solum phase __--------------- 4, 700 1. 1
Lakeland loamy sand, gently sloping phase- 7,800 1.8 Stough fine sandy loam---_ --------------- 350 .1
Lakeland loamy sand, sloping phase ----_--- 3, 100 .7 Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, very
Lakeland sand, level phase _-------------- 11,500 2. 7 gently sloping phases-__---------_-- 1,200 .3
Lakeland sand, very gently sloping phase-..- 2, 000 5 Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils,
Lakeland sand, gently sloping phase -------- 750 .2 gently sloping phases- -- _---_---------- 130 (1)
Lakeland sand, sloping phase-------------- 650 .2 Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils,
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, very eroded sloping phases_--__-------------- 5, 800 1. 4
gently sloping phases ------------------ 3, 390 .8 Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils,
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, gently severely eroded sloping phases ----------- 350 1
sloping phases .---------------------- 6, 500 1. 5 Tidal marsh_ ------------------------- 1, 400 .3
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, eroded Tifton fine sandy loam, level phase -------- 20, 500 4. 9
gently sloping phases ------------ 38, 100 9. 0 Tifton fine sandy loam, very gently sloping
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, eroded phase--------------- --- ----- 6, 000 1.4
sloping phases-------------- ----- 25, 400 6. 0 Tifton fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase_ 950 .2
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, eroded Wahee very fine sandy loam___ 90 (
strongly sloping phases------------------ 1, 500 .4e s
Lakewood sand, level phase---------------- 1, 100 .3
Lakewood sand, very gently sloping phase 470 1 Total-------- ----------------------- 420, 480 100.0

1 Less than 0.1 percent.







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

and gray in the lower horizons. Depth to the layer of Use and management.-Barth loamy fine sand is im-
firm fine sandy clay loam varies considerably, and in portant to agriculture only locally. The soil is somewhat
places the soil is friable to a depth of approximately 22 poorly drained and remains nearly saturated during
inches. A few very small areas that have been affected rainy seasons. It is best suited to forest and pasture.
by erosion are included with this soil. If it is cleared and drained, fairly good improved pas-
Use and management.-This soil is of little agricul- ture can be obtained. After the grass has been estab-
tural importance because of its small acreage in the lished, moderate amounts of lime are needed, as well as
county. None of it is being used for cultivated crops. liberal, frequent applications of complete fertilizer, be-
Where surface runoff is properly controlled, it is suit- cause this soil loses plant nutrients through leaching.
able for corn, cotton, soybeans, small grains, and pasture. Most of the soil is in forest and woodland pasture.
If productivity is to be brought to a reasonably high Fire control and the selective cutting of timber encour-
level, it is necessary to add organic matter and apply age the growth of pines.
lime and complete fertilizers liberally.
Most of this soil is used for woodland pasture. Some Blakely Series
longleaf pine grows in the pasture. Where the soil is
to be used exclusively for forestry, and enough seed trees The soils of the Blakely series were derived from thick
remain to insure reseeding, good stands of longleaf pine beds of sandy loam to sandy clay. They have a thick,
will grow if they are protected from fires and grazing dark reddish-brown surface soil and a red subsoil that
and selective cutting is practiced. contains a high percentage of silt and clay. These soils
occur in nearly level depressions among the Red Bay soils.
Barth Series They differ from the Red Bay soils in having a thicker
dark reddish-brown surface soil and a darker shade of red
Soils of the Barth series were formed from moderately in the subsoil, and in containing slightly higher percent-
thick beds of sand and loamy sands washed principally ages of silt and clay.
from upland soils. They occupy level to nearly level The Blakely soils are acid throughout the profile.
positions on terraces along the larger streams. Barth They are well drained, moderately to rapidly permeable
soils are associated with the Kalmia, Stough, and Myatt in the surface soil, and moderately permeable in the sub-
soils. They differ from the Kalmia and Stough soils soil. One soil of this series was mapped.
primarily because they contain soil materials of less fine Blakely loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Bb; I-1).-This
texture throughout the profile. The Barth soils are soil occurs in the northern part of the county. The native
better drained than the Myatt soils and contain more forest is a mixture of hardwoods and a few scattered
yellow and less gray in the subsoil. Textures through- pines. The hardwoods, in most places, are large and in a
out the solum of Barth loamy fine sand are quite similar thick stand.
to those of the thick surface soil of Myatt loamy fine Profile description:
sand. Surface runoff on the Barth soils is slow; internal 0 to 10 inches, dark reddish-brown loam; friable; moderate
drainage, slow to medium. These soils contain only a fine crumb structure.
small amount of organic matter and are acid throughout. 10 to 15 inches, dark reddish-brown loam; friable; moderate
One soil of the Barth series is mapped in this county. fine and medium crumb structure.
15 to 24 inches, red fine sandy clay loam; friable to firm;
Barth loamy fine sand (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Ba; moderate medium subangular blocky structure.
IIIs-2).-This soil occurs as small, narrow strips. It is 24 to 42 inches, red fine sandy clay loam; firm; moderate
in somewhat poorly drained positions on nearly level medium subangular blocky structure.
terraces along the Perdido River in the southwest and The surface soil varies from dark reddish brown to
along the Escambia River in the northeast. The native brown in color and from 10 to 14 inches in thickness.
cover consists of longleaf and slash pines, sweetgum, sev- The subsoil is a dark-red to red, firm fine sandy clay
eral species of oak, and waxmyrtle. loam. Weathering has affected this soil to a great depth.
Profile description: In most areas the subsoil differs little in color, texture,
0 to 6 inches, very dark gray loamy fine sand; very friable; consistence, and structure within depths of 24 to 60
very weak fine crumb structure. inches.
6 to 12 inches, light olive-brown loamy fine sand; very fri- Use and management.-This soil contains very small
able; very weak fine crumb structure.
12 to 24 inches, yellow loamy fine sand with pale-yellow quantities of organic matter and plant nutrients. Never-
mottles; very friable; very weak fine crumb structure. theless, good tilth can be established and easily main-
24 to 42 inches, yellow loamy fine sand with many, distinct, tainted. Fairly high productivity can be built up and
medium, pale-yellow, strong-brown, and olive-yellow mottles; maintained if moderate amounts of lime are added and
very friable; very weak fine crumb structure.
Liberal quantities of nitrogen, phosphate, potash, and
The surface soil varies from very dark gray to dark organic matter are added. Growing of winter legumes
gray in color and from 4 to 6 inches in thickness. The will improve productivity.
subsoil ranges from light yellowish brown to pale yel- All of this soil has been cleared of native vegetation
low, but the texture is rather uniformly a very friable and is in constant use for field crops and pasture. Good
loamy fine sand. Included with this soil are a few areas yields of corn, cotton, soybeans, oats, and wheat are com-
on very gentle slopes and a few small areas that have mon. Ordinarily, potatoes are not grown. Pastures are
materials of finer texture beginning at a depth between generally kept for only brief periods because this is one
30 and 42 inches. of the most desirable soils in the county for field crops.







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

and gray in the lower horizons. Depth to the layer of Use and management.-Barth loamy fine sand is im-
firm fine sandy clay loam varies considerably, and in portant to agriculture only locally. The soil is somewhat
places the soil is friable to a depth of approximately 22 poorly drained and remains nearly saturated during
inches. A few very small areas that have been affected rainy seasons. It is best suited to forest and pasture.
by erosion are included with this soil. If it is cleared and drained, fairly good improved pas-
Use and management.-This soil is of little agricul- ture can be obtained. After the grass has been estab-
tural importance because of its small acreage in the lished, moderate amounts of lime are needed, as well as
county. None of it is being used for cultivated crops. liberal, frequent applications of complete fertilizer, be-
Where surface runoff is properly controlled, it is suit- cause this soil loses plant nutrients through leaching.
able for corn, cotton, soybeans, small grains, and pasture. Most of the soil is in forest and woodland pasture.
If productivity is to be brought to a reasonably high Fire control and the selective cutting of timber encour-
level, it is necessary to add organic matter and apply age the growth of pines.
lime and complete fertilizers liberally.
Most of this soil is used for woodland pasture. Some Blakely Series
longleaf pine grows in the pasture. Where the soil is
to be used exclusively for forestry, and enough seed trees The soils of the Blakely series were derived from thick
remain to insure reseeding, good stands of longleaf pine beds of sandy loam to sandy clay. They have a thick,
will grow if they are protected from fires and grazing dark reddish-brown surface soil and a red subsoil that
and selective cutting is practiced. contains a high percentage of silt and clay. These soils
occur in nearly level depressions among the Red Bay soils.
Barth Series They differ from the Red Bay soils in having a thicker
dark reddish-brown surface soil and a darker shade of red
Soils of the Barth series were formed from moderately in the subsoil, and in containing slightly higher percent-
thick beds of sand and loamy sands washed principally ages of silt and clay.
from upland soils. They occupy level to nearly level The Blakely soils are acid throughout the profile.
positions on terraces along the larger streams. Barth They are well drained, moderately to rapidly permeable
soils are associated with the Kalmia, Stough, and Myatt in the surface soil, and moderately permeable in the sub-
soils. They differ from the Kalmia and Stough soils soil. One soil of this series was mapped.
primarily because they contain soil materials of less fine Blakely loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Bb; I-1).-This
texture throughout the profile. The Barth soils are soil occurs in the northern part of the county. The native
better drained than the Myatt soils and contain more forest is a mixture of hardwoods and a few scattered
yellow and less gray in the subsoil. Textures through- pines. The hardwoods, in most places, are large and in a
out the solum of Barth loamy fine sand are quite similar thick stand.
to those of the thick surface soil of Myatt loamy fine Profile description:
sand. Surface runoff on the Barth soils is slow; internal 0 to 10 inches, dark reddish-brown loam; friable; moderate
drainage, slow to medium. These soils contain only a fine crumb structure.
small amount of organic matter and are acid throughout. 10 to 15 inches, dark reddish-brown loam; friable; moderate
One soil of the Barth series is mapped in this county. fine and medium crumb structure.
15 to 24 inches, red fine sandy clay loam; friable to firm;
Barth loamy fine sand (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Ba; moderate medium subangular blocky structure.
IIIs-2).-This soil occurs as small, narrow strips. It is 24 to 42 inches, red fine sandy clay loam; firm; moderate
in somewhat poorly drained positions on nearly level medium subangular blocky structure.
terraces along the Perdido River in the southwest and The surface soil varies from dark reddish brown to
along the Escambia River in the northeast. The native brown in color and from 10 to 14 inches in thickness.
cover consists of longleaf and slash pines, sweetgum, sev- The subsoil is a dark-red to red, firm fine sandy clay
eral species of oak, and waxmyrtle. loam. Weathering has affected this soil to a great depth.
Profile description: In most areas the subsoil differs little in color, texture,
0 to 6 inches, very dark gray loamy fine sand; very friable; consistence, and structure within depths of 24 to 60
very weak fine crumb structure. inches.
6 to 12 inches, light olive-brown loamy fine sand; very fri- Use and management.-This soil contains very small
able; very weak fine crumb structure.
12 to 24 inches, yellow loamy fine sand with pale-yellow quantities of organic matter and plant nutrients. Never-
mottles; very friable; very weak fine crumb structure. theless, good tilth can be established and easily main-
24 to 42 inches, yellow loamy fine sand with many, distinct, tainted. Fairly high productivity can be built up and
medium, pale-yellow, strong-brown, and olive-yellow mottles; maintained if moderate amounts of lime are added and
very friable; very weak fine crumb structure.
Liberal quantities of nitrogen, phosphate, potash, and
The surface soil varies from very dark gray to dark organic matter are added. Growing of winter legumes
gray in color and from 4 to 6 inches in thickness. The will improve productivity.
subsoil ranges from light yellowish brown to pale yel- All of this soil has been cleared of native vegetation
low, but the texture is rather uniformly a very friable and is in constant use for field crops and pasture. Good
loamy fine sand. Included with this soil are a few areas yields of corn, cotton, soybeans, oats, and wheat are com-
on very gentle slopes and a few small areas that have mon. Ordinarily, potatoes are not grown. Pastures are
materials of finer texture beginning at a depth between generally kept for only brief periods because this is one
30 and 42 inches. of the most desirable soils in the county for field crops.








10 'SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

SCarnegie Series and grasses desirable for pasture provide abundant
grazing of high quality. Lime is required in moderate
The soils of the Carnegie series were derived from amounts. Crops respond well if nitrogen, phosphate,
sandy clay loam and sandy clay. Small, smooth, rounded, potash, and organic matter are applied. Winter legumes
brown or reddish-brown, hard iron concretions are abun- turned under before the spring planting aid greatly in
dant on and throughout the surface soil but are less maintaining productivity. This soil is suited to many
numerous in the subsoil. The surface soil is dark brown crops. Most farmers consider it to be one of the best
to dark gray, and the subsoil is yellowish red to red. soils in the county for cotton. Good yields of corn and
These soils are associated with the soils of the Tifton, soybeans are common.
Faceville, and Savannah series. They differ from the Carnegie fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase
Tifton soils primarily in having a redder subsoil, from (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Cb; IIe-2).-This soil is similar
Faceville soils in having many iron concretions on the to the level phase of Carnegie fine sandy loam. It occurs
surface and within the profile, and from the Savannah in close association with other Carnegie soils. Some
soils in containing iron concretions and being more red small areas that have yellowish-red subsoil and many
in the subsoil. slightly eroded areas are included with this soil.
Carnegie soils are well drained; permeability is mod- Use and management.-Because it has slightly stronger
rate in the surface soil and moderate to slow in the slopes, this soil needs somewhat more exacting manage-
subsoil. The soils are acid throughout the profile. Al- ment than the level phase. Growing cover crops for
though their content of organic matter and natural fer- green manure is essential if productivity is to be main-
tility are both low, the Carnegie soils are well suited to ained at a reasonably high level. Intensively used areas
most of the crops commonly grown in the area. Pro- on stronger slopes need some simple management for
ductivity can be improved considerably by good manage- controlling runoff and erosion.
ment. Carnegie fine sandy loam, eroded very gently sloping
Carnegie fine sandy loam, level phase (0 to 2 percent phase (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Cc; IIe-2).-This soil has
slopes) (Ca; 1-2).-This soil, one of the least extensive eroded to the extent that ordinary tillage reaches into
in the Carnegie series, is confined to the central and the subsoil. In places all of the original surface soil
northern parts of the county. It occurs on nearly level and part of the subsoil have been removed. There are
parts of broad ridges. It is closely associated with other a few small gullies in most areas. This soil occurs in
soils of the Carnegie series. This soil originally had a close association with other soils of the Carnegie series.
heavy growth of longleaf pine and hardwoods, but the In some very small areas on the lower parts of slopes,
timber has been removed from all except a few small the surface soil consists of material washed from nearby
areas. areas.
eProfile description : areas.
Profile escription: Use and management.-This soil is of minor agricul-
0 to 6 inches, dark-brown fine sandy loam; friable; weak fine tural importance because of its small acreage. Most of
crumb structure.
6 to 10 inches, strong-brown fine sandy loam; friable; weak it has been used for tilled crops at some time, but much
fine crumb structure. of the cultivated acreage is now abandoned. Some of
10 to 18 inches, yellowish-red fine sandy loam; friable; mod- the abandoned land is still free of trees. This eroded
St dium crum strundyclay loam; friable to firm; soil will produce good yields if good crop rotations are
moderate medium and fine subangular blocky structure. used that include cover crops for green manure. It is
30 to 42 inches, yellowish-red fine sandy clay loam faintly well suited to improved pasture. Good results can be
mottled with reddish yellow and red; friable to firm. obtained by alternating pasture and tilled crops.
Small, rounded, brown or reddish-brown iron concre- This soil is more difficult to work and has poorer tilth
tions are numerous on and throughout the surface soil; and more rapid runoff than the very gently sloping
they are present in smaller numbers in the subsoil. The phase of Carnegie fine sandy loam.
concretions that make up 10 to 25 percent of the soil Carnegie fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase (5 to
mass in most places are most numerous at depths of 6 to 8 percent slopes) (Cd; IIIe-2).-This soil is similar to the
18 inches. The surface layer varies from brown to dark level phase of Carnegie fine sandy loam. Almost all of
brown in color and from 5 to 8 inches in thickness. In it occurs in narrow bands near areas of Carnegie fine
most areas the yellowish-red to red subsoil contains mot- sandy loam, level phase, or on slopes adjacent to the
tles at depths below 30 inches. The mottles vary in soils of the Tifton series. The larger and more typical
abundance, size, and contrast. Included with this soil areas are in the northern part of the county. A consid-
are some areas affected by erosion and some small areas erable part of the soil has been affected by sheet erosion
that have a reddish-yellow subsoil. and occasional gully erosion. Small spots that have lost
Use and management.-This soil, one of the most de- most of the surface soil are common along the upper
sirable in the county, is well drained and permeable to slopes. Some small areas that have a yellowish-red sub-
both roots and moisture. It is easy to cultivate, can be soil and almost no iron concretions have been included
worked soon after rains, and has characteristics that in mapping.
favor keeping it in good tilth. The fine texture of the Use and management.-Most of this soil is in cutover
subsoil helps retain moisture and plant nutrients. The forest. The native vegetation provides poor grazing for
soil is well suited to intensive use, although there is cattle. If the soil is cleared and placed in cultivation,
slight risk of erosion when it is cultivated, it is necessary to provide erosion controls immediately.
Most of this soil has been cleared of trees and is used Crop rotation, contour cultivation, and terraces are
for row crops, small grains, and pasture. Where ade- needed if this soil is cultivated. Although this is a little
quate lime and fertilizer have been applied, the legumes more difficult to work and conserve than the level phase,







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 11

it responds well if lime and fertilizer are applied and greater than 30 inches, and from the Lakeland soils, in
the content of organic matter is increased. Crops nor- containing reddish-yellow subsurface horizons.
mally yield somewhat less than on the level phase, but if The Eustis soils are somewhat excessively drained; the
fertility is kept high, pasture of good quality can be permeability of the subsoil is very rapid. These acid,
produced. The most common agricultural use is for sandy soils are very porous and lose essential plant nu-
permanent pasture. Rotation of improved pasture and trients through oxidation and leaching. The Eustis soils
tilled crops is used on many farms with good results. are not extensively used for cultivated crops.
Carnegie fine sandy loam, eroded gently sloping Eustis loamy fine sand, level phase (0 to 2 percent
phase (5 to 8 percent slopes) (Ce; IIIe-2).-This soil slopes) (Ea; IIs-1).-This soil has a dark-brown to dark
differs from Carnegie fine sandy loam, level phase, in grayish-brown surface soil that grades to reddish-yellow
having stronger slopes, more rapid runoff, a thinner pro- loamy fine sand in the subsoil. The most typical and
file, and greater susceptibility to erosion. It is so eroded most extensive areas of this soil are in the northern part
that ordinary tillage reaches into the subsoil. In places of the county. The native vegetation consists of turkey
all of the original surface soil and parts of the subsoil and blackjack oaks, scattered longleaf pine, dogwood,
have been removed. A few gullies occur at intervals of and a scant growth of various grasses.
about 150 feet, but in most places they can be crossed Profile description:
with ordinary farm machinery. Normally, this soil oc- o to 4 inches, dark grayish-brown loamy fine sand; very
curs in close association with other soils of the Carnegie friable; contains small amounts of organic matter.
series. 4 to 12 inches, yellowish-brown loamy fine sand; very friable.
Use and management.-This soil is of minor agricul- 12 to 42 inches +, reddish-yellow loamy fine sand; very
tural importance because of the small total acreage. The fria
greater part of the acreage that has been cleared and The surface soil varies from 3 to 6 inches in thickness.
used for crops is now abandoned and may still be free Below a depth of 42 inches, and generally within a
of trees. Some of the soil remains under cutover forest depth of 72 inches, the soil is underlain by materials of
and furnishes poor grazing for cattle. Satisfactory per- finer texture. In a few small areas the finer textured
manent pasture can be established if erosion is checked materials begin at 30 to 42 inches. These areas are nor-
and a high level of management is practiced, mally adjacent to the soils of the Ruston series and are
Erosion has impaired the workability, tilth, and abil- not large enough to be shown separately on the soil map.
ity of the soil to absorb and hold moisture. The soil is Use and management.-This sandy porous soil does
therefore less suitable for crops than Carnegie fine sandy not naturally hold sufficient moisture and plant nutrients
loam, gently sloping phase. Careful management is for large yields of cultivated crops. Water rapidly pene-
needed to maintain its productivity and to control trates beyond the reach of ordinary plant roots and
erosion. severely leaches the soil. The supply of moisture is often
critical during much of the growing season. Erosion is
Coastal D ne Land and Beach negligible because of the gentle slopes and the capacity
Coastal Dune Land and Beach of the soil to absorb water readily. Crop yields can be
This land type (Cf; VIII-1) is sand deposited by wave greatly improved by using rotations that include green-
action along the coast. Some of it was reworked by manure crops frequently. Crop residues and legumes
winds that drifted it back some distance from the shore should be turned under.
and formed a range of low sand dunes. It occurs as Many cultivated fields include areas of this soil. Corn,
long, narrow strips along bays, lagoons, and the Gulf of cotton, soybeans, field peas, and sweetpotatoes make good
Mexico. Santa Rosa Island and similar larger areas growth in favorable seasons and return fair to good
contain many small depressions and ponded areas where yields. Ordinarily, rain is poorly distributed in the grow-
water covers the surface many months of the year. In ing season, and frequently there is not enough moisture to
contrast to the white sands that occur throughout the produce good yields.
entire profile of the more typical areas, these depressions Several hundred acres of this soil have been planted to
accumulate a very thin layer of organic matter. Many grasses for improved pasture. Under good management
areas are barren. Those not washed by waves have a 2 or 3 acres can support a cow. When the reaction of
sparse growth of plants that are tolerant of salt. A the surface soil drops below pH 5.0, additional lime is
scattering of pine and scrub oak grows along inner dunes, needed. Complete fertilizer mixtures need to be applied
Use and management.-This land type has no agricul- frequently after the grass has been established because
tural value. An increasing acreage of the dune land is the soil is low in inherent productivity and is susceptible
being used for building sites. The beaches provide pub- to leaching.
lic recreational facilities. Most of this soil is cutover pineland, and the native
cover furnishes poor grazing for cattle. It is moder-
Eustis Series ately well suited to forest, and some good stands of long-
leaf pine grow in areas protected from fire. Slash pine
The soils of the Eustis series have dark-brown to dark has been planted in a number of abandoned fields. In
grayish-brown surface soil and yellowish-brown to red- the early stages, trees grow better on old fields, where
dish-yellow subsoil. These soils of the uplands were competition from other plants is lower than on the
formed from moderately thick beds of acid marine sands virgin soil. The plantings of pine are cut and marketed
and loamy sands overlying finer sediments. They occur locally as pulpwood.
with Ruston and Lakeland soils. From the Ruston soils Eustis loamy fine sand, very gently sloping phase
they differ in containing loose sandy materials to a depth (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Eb; IIIs-1).-This soil is similar







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 11

it responds well if lime and fertilizer are applied and greater than 30 inches, and from the Lakeland soils, in
the content of organic matter is increased. Crops nor- containing reddish-yellow subsurface horizons.
mally yield somewhat less than on the level phase, but if The Eustis soils are somewhat excessively drained; the
fertility is kept high, pasture of good quality can be permeability of the subsoil is very rapid. These acid,
produced. The most common agricultural use is for sandy soils are very porous and lose essential plant nu-
permanent pasture. Rotation of improved pasture and trients through oxidation and leaching. The Eustis soils
tilled crops is used on many farms with good results. are not extensively used for cultivated crops.
Carnegie fine sandy loam, eroded gently sloping Eustis loamy fine sand, level phase (0 to 2 percent
phase (5 to 8 percent slopes) (Ce; IIIe-2).-This soil slopes) (Ea; IIs-1).-This soil has a dark-brown to dark
differs from Carnegie fine sandy loam, level phase, in grayish-brown surface soil that grades to reddish-yellow
having stronger slopes, more rapid runoff, a thinner pro- loamy fine sand in the subsoil. The most typical and
file, and greater susceptibility to erosion. It is so eroded most extensive areas of this soil are in the northern part
that ordinary tillage reaches into the subsoil. In places of the county. The native vegetation consists of turkey
all of the original surface soil and parts of the subsoil and blackjack oaks, scattered longleaf pine, dogwood,
have been removed. A few gullies occur at intervals of and a scant growth of various grasses.
about 150 feet, but in most places they can be crossed Profile description:
with ordinary farm machinery. Normally, this soil oc- o to 4 inches, dark grayish-brown loamy fine sand; very
curs in close association with other soils of the Carnegie friable; contains small amounts of organic matter.
series. 4 to 12 inches, yellowish-brown loamy fine sand; very friable.
Use and management.-This soil is of minor agricul- 12 to 42 inches +, reddish-yellow loamy fine sand; very
tural importance because of the small total acreage. The fria
greater part of the acreage that has been cleared and The surface soil varies from 3 to 6 inches in thickness.
used for crops is now abandoned and may still be free Below a depth of 42 inches, and generally within a
of trees. Some of the soil remains under cutover forest depth of 72 inches, the soil is underlain by materials of
and furnishes poor grazing for cattle. Satisfactory per- finer texture. In a few small areas the finer textured
manent pasture can be established if erosion is checked materials begin at 30 to 42 inches. These areas are nor-
and a high level of management is practiced, mally adjacent to the soils of the Ruston series and are
Erosion has impaired the workability, tilth, and abil- not large enough to be shown separately on the soil map.
ity of the soil to absorb and hold moisture. The soil is Use and management.-This sandy porous soil does
therefore less suitable for crops than Carnegie fine sandy not naturally hold sufficient moisture and plant nutrients
loam, gently sloping phase. Careful management is for large yields of cultivated crops. Water rapidly pene-
needed to maintain its productivity and to control trates beyond the reach of ordinary plant roots and
erosion. severely leaches the soil. The supply of moisture is often
critical during much of the growing season. Erosion is
Coastal D ne Land and Beach negligible because of the gentle slopes and the capacity
Coastal Dune Land and Beach of the soil to absorb water readily. Crop yields can be
This land type (Cf; VIII-1) is sand deposited by wave greatly improved by using rotations that include green-
action along the coast. Some of it was reworked by manure crops frequently. Crop residues and legumes
winds that drifted it back some distance from the shore should be turned under.
and formed a range of low sand dunes. It occurs as Many cultivated fields include areas of this soil. Corn,
long, narrow strips along bays, lagoons, and the Gulf of cotton, soybeans, field peas, and sweetpotatoes make good
Mexico. Santa Rosa Island and similar larger areas growth in favorable seasons and return fair to good
contain many small depressions and ponded areas where yields. Ordinarily, rain is poorly distributed in the grow-
water covers the surface many months of the year. In ing season, and frequently there is not enough moisture to
contrast to the white sands that occur throughout the produce good yields.
entire profile of the more typical areas, these depressions Several hundred acres of this soil have been planted to
accumulate a very thin layer of organic matter. Many grasses for improved pasture. Under good management
areas are barren. Those not washed by waves have a 2 or 3 acres can support a cow. When the reaction of
sparse growth of plants that are tolerant of salt. A the surface soil drops below pH 5.0, additional lime is
scattering of pine and scrub oak grows along inner dunes, needed. Complete fertilizer mixtures need to be applied
Use and management.-This land type has no agricul- frequently after the grass has been established because
tural value. An increasing acreage of the dune land is the soil is low in inherent productivity and is susceptible
being used for building sites. The beaches provide pub- to leaching.
lic recreational facilities. Most of this soil is cutover pineland, and the native
cover furnishes poor grazing for cattle. It is moder-
Eustis Series ately well suited to forest, and some good stands of long-
leaf pine grow in areas protected from fire. Slash pine
The soils of the Eustis series have dark-brown to dark has been planted in a number of abandoned fields. In
grayish-brown surface soil and yellowish-brown to red- the early stages, trees grow better on old fields, where
dish-yellow subsoil. These soils of the uplands were competition from other plants is lower than on the
formed from moderately thick beds of acid marine sands virgin soil. The plantings of pine are cut and marketed
and loamy sands overlying finer sediments. They occur locally as pulpwood.
with Ruston and Lakeland soils. From the Ruston soils Eustis loamy fine sand, very gently sloping phase
they differ in containing loose sandy materials to a depth (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Eb; IIIs-1).-This soil is similar








12 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

to Eustis loamy fine sand, level phase, and is in close asso- 4 to 12 inches, yellowish-brown loamy sand; very friable.
ciation with the other phases of Eustis loamy fine sand. 12 to 42 inches, reddish-yellow loamy sand; very friable.
Because it has stronger slopes, runoff is more rapid than The surface soil ranges from dark brown to dark
on the level phase. This soil includes areas too small to grayish brown in color and from 3 to 5 inches in thick-
map separately that are affected by sheet and occasional ness. Materials of finer texture generally occur below
gully erosion. 42 inches and within a depth of 72 inches. Some small
Use and management.-Although this soil is not quite areas of Eustis sand in the southern part of the county,
so easily handled, it is much like the level phase in need as well as a few small areas that have materials of finer
for fertilizer, suitability for crops, yields, and present texture at depths of 30 to 42 inches, are included with
use. If this soil is to be cultivated, it needs protection this soil because their acreage is too small to map sepa-
from erosion. Normally, contour plowing is used to rately.
reduce erosion and conserve moisture. Only a very small Use and management.-A very small acreage is being
acreage of this soil has been cleared for cultivation, and used for cultivated crops. During normal rains there is
much of this has been abandoned. Several stands of little runoff, but the rapid permeability of the soil per-
slash pine that were planted on the abandoned land are mits extreme leaching. Erosion is negligible because the
growing well. soil is nearly level and absorbs moisture readily.
Eustis loamy fine sand, gently sloping phase (5 to Yields from cultivated crops are generally low, but
8 percent slopes) (Ec; IVs-1).-This soil is undulating. they can be improved considerably if fertilizer is applied
Its profile is similar to that of the level phase of Eustis liberally and crop residues and legumes are turned under.
loamy fine sand. Normally it is on short slopes adjacent Corn, cotton, soybeans, and field peas make fair growth
to streams and drainageways in the northern part of the and return low to poor yields. Where good manage-
county. It includes some small areas affected by sheet ment is practiced, the yields depend largely on weather,
erosion and, in places, by gully erosion. The rapid run- as the supply of moisture is critical during much of the
off during heavy rains causes some erosion in many areas, growing season. Winter cover crops make fair growth
Use and management.-Under careful management on this soil.
this soil produces fairly good pastures; without it, the Several hundred acres of this soil has been planted
quality of vegetation is poor, the quantity is small, and to improved pasture grasses. Lime and liberal amounts
the carrying capacity is very low. This soil is not well of fertilizer are necessary to get the pasture started.
suited to intensive agricultural use. Only a small acre- After the stand is established, additional lime is needed
age has been cleared; much of this is abandoned. Most whenever the reaction of the surface soil drops below
of the acreage remains in forest. Scattered stands of pH 5.0, and a complete fertilizer must be applied fre-
longleaf pine make good growth where adequate protec- quently. Under a high level of management, 2 or 3
tion from fire has been furnished for years. acres of the improved pasture can support a cow.
Eustis loamy fine sand, sloping phase (8 to 12 percent Timber grows fairly well on this soil, and there are
slopes) (Ed; VIe-2).-This soil is similar to the level some good stands of longleaf pine where fire protection
phase of Eustis loamy fine sand. It differs chiefly in has been adequate for years. Some slash pine has been
occupying stronger slopes. It occurs in long, narrow planted in abandoned fields. Young slash pine grows
areas adjacent to streams and drainageways in the north- better in the old fields, where competition from other
ern part of the county. This soil includes small areas vegetation is low, than on virgin soil. Most of this soil
of Ruston and Cuthbert soils and many areas affected is cutover pineland, and the native cover furnishes poor
by sheet erosion and, in some places, by gully erosion, grazing for cattle.
These are not large enough to map separately. Eustis loamy sand, very gently sloping phase (2 to
Use and management.-Practically none of this soil is 5 percent slopes) (Ef; IIIs-1).-This soil, except for slope,
farmed. Unless an exceptionally good sod has been is almost identical with Eustis loamy sand, level phase.
established, extreme care is needed to control erosion, It occurs in close association with the other Eustis soils.
even when the soil is used for pasture. A few longleaf Some small areas that have been affected by sheet and
pines normally occur on the lower slopes adjacent to the occasional gully erosion are included with this soil.
drainageways where the supply of moisture is more favor- Use and management.-In suitability for crops, need
able for plant growth. Longleaf pine grows more abun- of fertilizer, yields, and present use, this soil is about the
dantly where adequate protection from fire has been same as the level phase. Runoff is more rapid, however,
supplied for years. Most of the soil remains in forest, and more careful management is needed to reduce ero-
the use to which it is best suited. sion and conserve moisture. Contour cultivation, strip-
t usti loa to 2 percent slopes) cropping, or similar practices are needed. Only a small
Eustis loamy sand, level phase ( to 2 percent slopes) acreage of this soil has been cleared for cultivation, and
(Ee; IIs-1).-This soil differs from the level phase of a large part of that has been abandoned. Slash pine
Eustis loamy fine sand primarily because it has more planted in the abandoned fields is growing well.
medium and coarse sand grains throughout its profile. Eustis loamy sand, gently sloping phase (5 to 8 per-
This soil occurs on flat, or nearly level, sandy ridges cent slopes) (Eg; IVs-1).-This soil has a profile similar
scattered throughout most of the county. The native to that of the level phase of Eustis loamy sand. Gener-
vegetation consists of turkey and blackjack oaks, a few ally, it occurs on short slopes adjacent to streams and
scattered longleaf pines, and various grasses. drainageways. Some small areas affected by sheet and
Profile description: gully erosion are included with this soil.
0 to 4 inches, dark grayish-brown loamy sand; very friable; During heavy rains, runoff is rapid and many areas
contains small amounts of organic matter, are damaged by erosion unless a good cover of grass is







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 13

maintained. This soil, therefore, has limited suitability Eustis sand, very gently sloping phase (2 to 5 percent
for cultivated crops. Under proper management, how- slopes) (Em; IVs-2).-Except for stronger slopes and
ever, it can produce good improved pasture. Without more rapid runoff, this soil is much like the level phase of
good management, the quality of the vegetation is poor. Eustis sand. It occurs only in the southeastern part of
Scattered stands of longleaf pine make fair growth the county and is closely associated with other Eustis
where they have been protected from fire for years. Most sands. This soil includes small areas that have been
of this soil remains as cutover pineland and furnishes poor affected by sheet erosion and, in places, by gully erosion.
grazing for cattle. Also included are a few areas with slopes in excess of
Eustis loamy sand, sloping phase (8 to 12 percent 5 percent that were too small to be mapped separately.
slopes) (Eh; VIe-2).-Except for stronger slopes, this soil This soil loses an excessive amount of moisture be-
is much like the level phase of Eustis loamy sand. It is cause it is rapidly permeable and has little capacity for
closely associated with other Eustis loamy sands and holding water. Organic matter and other essential plant
occurs in long, narrow areas adjacent to streams and nutrients are lost readily through oxidation and leach-
drainageways throughout the county. Included with ing. Shallow gullies have formed in a few places.
this soil are some small areas of Ruston and Cuthbert Use and management.-This soil is not suitable for
soils that are too small to be mapped separately, cultivated crops and is poorly suited to pasture. Scat-
Use and management.-The rapid runoff during heavy tered stands of longleaf pine make fair to poor growth
rains has caused various degrees of erosion. Most areas where adequate protection from fire has existed for years.
sparsely covered with vegetation have been affected by Some of this soil is being used for building sites.
sheet erosion and, in places, by gully erosion. For these Eustis sand, sloping phase (8 to 12 percent slopes) (En;
reasons, this soil is more suitable for forest than for VIIs-1).-This soil differs from the level phase of Eustis
cultivated crops or pasture. sand mainly in having stronger slopes. It occurs in long,
The trees on this soil are mainly turkey oak and black- narrow areas adjacent to streams and drainageways in
jack oak. A few longleaf pines grow on some lower the southeastern part of the county. Sheet erosion has
slopes adjacent to the drainageways where more moisture affected most of this soil, and a few areas are gullied.
is available. Longleaf pine grows much more abundantly Use and management.-Low fertility, extreme porosity,
in areas that have been adequately protected from fire and strong slopes limit the use of this soil primarily to
for years. the grazing of native plants and to forestry. The tree
Eustis sand, level phase (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Ek; growth consists mainly of turkey and bluejack oaks and
IVs-2).-This soil differs from the level phases of Eustis a few scattered longleaf pines. On the lower slopes ad-
loamy fine sand and Eustis loamy sand mainly in having, jacent to drainageways, where moisture is more available,
throughout its profile, less material of fine texture and scattered stands of longleaf pine make poor to fair growth.
more medium and coarse sand. The thin, dark grayish- Longleaf pine grows more abundantly where adequate
brown surface soil grades to the reddish-yellow sand in protection from fire is supplied. This soil is more suitable
the subsoil. The soil is on flat, or nearly level, sandy for forest than for crops or pasture.
ridges, mostly in the southeastern part of the county.
The native vegetation consists of turkey oak and blue- Faceville Series
jack oak, a few scattered longleaf pines, and a scant
growth of various grasses. The soils of the Faceville series developed from beds
Profile description: of unconsolidated sandy clay loams and sandy clays.
0 to 3 inches, dark grayish-brown sand; loose and single They are generally associated with the Tifton, Carnegie,
grained; contains small amounts of organic matter, and Red Bay soils and, in the northern part of the county,
3 to 10 inches, yellowish-brown sahd; loose and single grained. with the level thick solum phase of Savannah fine sandy
10 to 42 inches, reddish-yellow sand; loose and single grained. loam.
The surface soil ranges from dark brown to dark Faceville soils differ from Tifton soils mainly in
grayish brown in color and from 2 to 4 inches in thick- having a redder subsoil; from the Carnegie soils, in
ness. A number of areas of Lakeland sand not large having much fewer reddish-brown iron concretions; from
enough to justify separate mapping are included with the Red Bay soils, in containing less red coloring
this soil. throughout the profile; and from the Savannah soils,
This soil is extremely porous and very low in inherent in showing more brown coloring in the subsoil.
fertility; it loses quantities of essential plant nutrients Faceville soils are well drained. They are moderately
through oxidation and leaching. This soil is poorly permeable in the surface soil and moderately to slowly
suited to crops because it has a low capacity for holding permeable in the subsoil. They are acid throughout.
water and is rapidly permeable. It is somewhat exces- Although these soils are low in both organic matter and
sively drained. Erosion is negligible because the surface natural fertility, they are suitable for most crops corn-
soil and subsoil are porous, only grown in the area.
Use and management.-This soil is poorly suited to Faceville fine sandy loam, level phase (0 to 2 percent
cultivated crops and is only moderately suited to pasture, slopes) (Fa; 1-2).-The most typical and extensive areas
It is of little agricultural value except for forestry. of this soil are on smooth interstream ridges in the cen-
Scattered longleaf pines make fair to poor growth where tral and northern parts of the county. In the north the
adequate protection from fire has been furnished for soil commonly occurs as long, narrow strips adjacent to
years. This soil is used to a limited extent for building the Red Bay soils and between the Red Bay soils and
sites. the level thick solum phase of Savannah fine sandy loam.








14 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

The original forest consisted largely of longleaf pine and Fresh Water Swamp
some scattered deciduous hardwoods.
Profile description: Fresh water swamp (Fc) consists of naturally wooded
areas, all or most of which are covered with water or are
0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; areas, all or most of which are covered with water or are
weak fine crumb structure, saturated throughout the year. The areas contain a mix-
6 to 12 inches, yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; ture of soils and soil materials that vary in color, tex-
weak medium crumb structure. ture, composition, and thickness of layers. The soil
12 to 36 inches, yellowish-red fine sandy clay loam; friable material consists of stratified deposits recently washed
to firm; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; from adjacent uplands and so intricately mixed that
contains a few reddish-yellow mottles in lower part.
36 to 42 inches, yellowish-red fine sandy clay loam commonly separation is not feasible. In some places the surface
mottled with reddish yellow; firm; moderate medium sub- materials resemble those of Rutlege and Plummer sand.
angular blocky structure. In many places organic matter of a varying thickness
The surface soil varies from dark brown to dark gray- accumulates in the surface soil. A few areas of organic
ish brown in color and from 4 to 8 inches in thickness, soils that resemble Pamlico muck have been included
The subsoil, a fine sandy clay loam, ranges from yellow- with this land type. The largest and most typical areas
ish red to strong brown. A few small, rounded, brown of Fresh water swamp are in the southwestern part of
or reddish-brown iron concretions are on the surface the county.
and within the profile. They are not nearly so numerous Use and management.-All the swampland is covered
as in the soils of the Carnegie and Tifton series. In- by a dense growth of bay, cypress, pine, gum, and vari-
cluded with this soil are some small areas that have ous plants that grow in water or water-saturated soil.
reddish-yellow subsoils, as well as a few areas that have None of this land type is being used for crops or pasture.
been slightly eroded. Improved management of forest would be beneficial in
Use and management.-This is one of the most de- most areas of Fresh water swamp.
sirable soils of the county. It is well suited to general
farming and, under good management, produces good Grady Series
yields. It is easy to work, absorbs and holds moisture
well, and retains plant nutrients. Roots penetrate freely. The Grady soils were derived from acid sandy
It is well suited to intensive use, although it is subject clays and clays in upland depressions. They have a
to slight erosion when cultivated, dark-gray surface soil and prominently mottled gray
Most of the soil has been cleared of native vegetation subsoil. They are associated with Tifton, Irvington, and
and is in constant use for field crops. Corn, cotton, soy- Red Bay soils, and with Lynchburg gravelly very fine
beans, and small grains give good yields. Crops respond sandy loam. The Grady soils are more poorly drained
to liberal fertilization with nitrogen, phosphate, potash, than these other soils and have dominantly gray instead
and organic matter. Lime is required in moderate of yellow, brownish-yellow, or red subsoil.
amounts. Winter legumes help build up and maintain Grady soils are poorly drained mainly because they
a high state of productivity, occur in depressions and contain much silt and clay that
This soil is not often used for pasture. Where fer- produces a firm massive clay in the subsoil. Infiltration
utility is kept at a reasonably high level, excellent stands is slow at the surface. These soils are acid throughout
of good-quality forage can be produced. Good manage- and are low in content of organic matter and in natural
ment practices-mowing, fertilizing, liming, and reseed- fertility. One soil of this series is mapped in the county.
ing poor stands-help to establish and maintain perma- Grady loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Ga; Vw-1).-The
nent pasture on this soil. most extensive areas of this soil occur in the central and
Faceville fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase northern parts of the county. They are generally in
(2 to 5 percent slopes) (Fb; IIe-2).-This soil normally saucerlike depressions and narrow sloughs or intermit-
occurs in close association with the level phase of Face- tent drainageways. The native vegetation consists mainly
ville fine sandy loam. Their color, texture, structure, of blackgum and a thick undergrowth of various herbs
and consistence are similar. Some small areas with red- and grasses that grow in water or water-saturated soil.
dish-yellow subsoils and a few slightly eroded areas are In places a few scattered cypress trees and slash pines
included with this soil. are also present.
Use and management.-Much of this soil has been Profile description:
cleared of native vegetation and is used for crops and 0 to 6 inches, dark-gray loam; friable; moderate medium
pasture. This soil and the level phase have similar man- crumb structure.
agement and fertilizer requirements, productivity, and 6 to 12 inches, gray silty clay loam with common, fine mottles
for crops. This soil requires more exacting of brownish yellow, strong brown, and red; firm; weak
suitability for crops. This soil requires more exacting medium subangular blocky structure.
management than the level phase, particularly the more 12 to 30 inches, gray silty clay with many, coarse, prominent
sloping areas that are lower in plant nutrients and or- brownish-yellow and red mottles; firm; massive (structure-
ganic matter, slightly lower in ability to hold water, and 3o )o 42 inches, light-gray silty clay with many, medium,
more susceptible to erosion. Where this soil is to be prominent brownish-yellow, yellowish-brown, yellowish-red,
farmed intensively, steps to control erosion need to be and red mottles; firm; massive (structureless).
taken immediately after the land is cleared. Although The surface soil varies from dark gray to dark grayish
yields normally are slightly lower than those obtained brown in color and from 4 to 8 inches in thickness. The
on the level phase, they are almost equal under good subsoil, a silty clay, ranges from gray to light brownish
management. gray and is prominently mottled with brownish yellow








14 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

The original forest consisted largely of longleaf pine and Fresh Water Swamp
some scattered deciduous hardwoods.
Profile description: Fresh water swamp (Fc) consists of naturally wooded
areas, all or most of which are covered with water or are
0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; areas, all or most of which are covered with water or are
weak fine crumb structure, saturated throughout the year. The areas contain a mix-
6 to 12 inches, yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; ture of soils and soil materials that vary in color, tex-
weak medium crumb structure. ture, composition, and thickness of layers. The soil
12 to 36 inches, yellowish-red fine sandy clay loam; friable material consists of stratified deposits recently washed
to firm; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; from adjacent uplands and so intricately mixed that
contains a few reddish-yellow mottles in lower part.
36 to 42 inches, yellowish-red fine sandy clay loam commonly separation is not feasible. In some places the surface
mottled with reddish yellow; firm; moderate medium sub- materials resemble those of Rutlege and Plummer sand.
angular blocky structure. In many places organic matter of a varying thickness
The surface soil varies from dark brown to dark gray- accumulates in the surface soil. A few areas of organic
ish brown in color and from 4 to 8 inches in thickness, soils that resemble Pamlico muck have been included
The subsoil, a fine sandy clay loam, ranges from yellow- with this land type. The largest and most typical areas
ish red to strong brown. A few small, rounded, brown of Fresh water swamp are in the southwestern part of
or reddish-brown iron concretions are on the surface the county.
and within the profile. They are not nearly so numerous Use and management.-All the swampland is covered
as in the soils of the Carnegie and Tifton series. In- by a dense growth of bay, cypress, pine, gum, and vari-
cluded with this soil are some small areas that have ous plants that grow in water or water-saturated soil.
reddish-yellow subsoils, as well as a few areas that have None of this land type is being used for crops or pasture.
been slightly eroded. Improved management of forest would be beneficial in
Use and management.-This is one of the most de- most areas of Fresh water swamp.
sirable soils of the county. It is well suited to general
farming and, under good management, produces good Grady Series
yields. It is easy to work, absorbs and holds moisture
well, and retains plant nutrients. Roots penetrate freely. The Grady soils were derived from acid sandy
It is well suited to intensive use, although it is subject clays and clays in upland depressions. They have a
to slight erosion when cultivated, dark-gray surface soil and prominently mottled gray
Most of the soil has been cleared of native vegetation subsoil. They are associated with Tifton, Irvington, and
and is in constant use for field crops. Corn, cotton, soy- Red Bay soils, and with Lynchburg gravelly very fine
beans, and small grains give good yields. Crops respond sandy loam. The Grady soils are more poorly drained
to liberal fertilization with nitrogen, phosphate, potash, than these other soils and have dominantly gray instead
and organic matter. Lime is required in moderate of yellow, brownish-yellow, or red subsoil.
amounts. Winter legumes help build up and maintain Grady soils are poorly drained mainly because they
a high state of productivity, occur in depressions and contain much silt and clay that
This soil is not often used for pasture. Where fer- produces a firm massive clay in the subsoil. Infiltration
utility is kept at a reasonably high level, excellent stands is slow at the surface. These soils are acid throughout
of good-quality forage can be produced. Good manage- and are low in content of organic matter and in natural
ment practices-mowing, fertilizing, liming, and reseed- fertility. One soil of this series is mapped in the county.
ing poor stands-help to establish and maintain perma- Grady loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Ga; Vw-1).-The
nent pasture on this soil. most extensive areas of this soil occur in the central and
Faceville fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase northern parts of the county. They are generally in
(2 to 5 percent slopes) (Fb; IIe-2).-This soil normally saucerlike depressions and narrow sloughs or intermit-
occurs in close association with the level phase of Face- tent drainageways. The native vegetation consists mainly
ville fine sandy loam. Their color, texture, structure, of blackgum and a thick undergrowth of various herbs
and consistence are similar. Some small areas with red- and grasses that grow in water or water-saturated soil.
dish-yellow subsoils and a few slightly eroded areas are In places a few scattered cypress trees and slash pines
included with this soil. are also present.
Use and management.-Much of this soil has been Profile description:
cleared of native vegetation and is used for crops and 0 to 6 inches, dark-gray loam; friable; moderate medium
pasture. This soil and the level phase have similar man- crumb structure.
agement and fertilizer requirements, productivity, and 6 to 12 inches, gray silty clay loam with common, fine mottles
for crops. This soil requires more exacting of brownish yellow, strong brown, and red; firm; weak
suitability for crops. This soil requires more exacting medium subangular blocky structure.
management than the level phase, particularly the more 12 to 30 inches, gray silty clay with many, coarse, prominent
sloping areas that are lower in plant nutrients and or- brownish-yellow and red mottles; firm; massive (structure-
ganic matter, slightly lower in ability to hold water, and 3o )o 42 inches, light-gray silty clay with many, medium,
more susceptible to erosion. Where this soil is to be prominent brownish-yellow, yellowish-brown, yellowish-red,
farmed intensively, steps to control erosion need to be and red mottles; firm; massive (structureless).
taken immediately after the land is cleared. Although The surface soil varies from dark gray to dark grayish
yields normally are slightly lower than those obtained brown in color and from 4 to 8 inches in thickness. The
on the level phase, they are almost equal under good subsoil, a silty clay, ranges from gray to light brownish
management. gray and is prominently mottled with brownish yellow







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 15

and red. The depth to mottled materials varies consider-
ably within short distances, as does the size and abun-
dance of the mottles. A few small areas of fine sandy
loam and silt loam are included with this soil.
Use and management.-This soil is best suited to forest
and pasture. Only a very small acreage has been cleared
(fig. 2). In most places water stands on the surface
throughout the rainy season. Where drainage is feasible,
excellent improved pasture can be established. Pastures
need lime and frequent liberal applications of a complete
fertilizer. If high fertility is maintained, legumes and
grasses produce pasture of good quality and high carry-
ing capacity.




Figure 3.-Longleaf pine on Gullied land that has been protected
from fire.

S Huckabee Series
The Huckabee soils, which closely resemble the Lake-
land soils of the uplands, are on terraces along streams.
They lie mostly above overflow. They are sandy and
have developed from materials washed from light-col-
ored, acid soils of the uplands. They are associated with
the Kalnia, Stough, Myatt, and Barth soils and are the
best drained of these soils. They differ from the Kalmia
soils primarily in having 30 to 72 inches of loamy fine
sand resting on materials of finer texture; from the
Figure 2.-Soybeans on Grady loam in foreground. Irvington fine Stou h soils, in having coarser texture throughout the
sandy loam in background. The Grady soil is poorly drained and profile and no mottles of yello, strong bro or light
is not dependable for crops commonly grown in Escambia County. an n yellow, strong brown, or light
gray in the lower subsoil; from the Myatt soils, in having
a coarser texture and a brownish-yellow subsoil; and
Gullied Land from the Barth soil, in not having distinctly mottled
Gullied land (Gb; VIIe-2) is so cut up by recent gullies horizons in the lower subsoil.
that it is nonarable. The soil profiles have been largely Huckabee soils have a moderate external and rapid
destroyed. This land normally is on strong slopes internal drainage. They are strongly acid and contain
along streams and drainageways. It is widely distrib- inadequate amounts of organic matter and plant nu-
uted in the northern part of the county in areas ranging trients.
from a few acres to about 30 acres in size. The surface Huckabee loamy fine sand, level phase (0 to 2 percent
soil has been removed from most of the areas, and gullies slopes) (Ha; IIs-1).--This soil has a dark grayish-brown
of variable depths form an intricate pattern. Neverthe- surface layer and brownish-yellow subsoil. It commonly
less, some areas between the large individual gullies still occurs on well-drained, sandy, nearly level areas along
have part of the original surface soil. The surface is the Perdido and Escambia Rivers. The native cover
too rough for the use of ordinary farm machinery. generally consists of turkey oak, longleaf pine, and scat-
The exposed soil material ranges from grayish brown tered hardwoods. Hardwoods are dominant in a few
to red in color and from loamy fine sand to fine sandy areas of lower elevation.
clay in texture. In places it is difficult to determine the Profile description:
nature of the original soil because of erosion. Some of o to 4 inches, dark grayish-brown loamy fine sand; very fri-
the less severely eroded spots contain Lakeland, Norfolk, able: weak fine crumb structure.
Ruston. and Carnegie soils. 4 to 12 inches, yellowish-brown loamy fine sand; very fri-
Sable: weak fine crumb structure.
Use and management.-An intermittent cover of pine, 12 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow loamy fine sand; very fri-
dogwood, turkey oak, and other hardwoods is common able; weak fine crumb structure.
to many areas, but it is not sufficient to arrest erosion. The surface soil varies from brown to dark grayish
External drainage is very rapid to excessive; conse- brown in color and from 3 to 5 inches in thickness. The
quently, little moisture enters the soil. Diversion ditches subsoil, a loamy fine sand, ranges from yellow to brown-
along the upper edges of the areas are useful in reducing ish yellow. A few small areas with dark-brown surface
the amount of runoff water that passes through gullied soil and strong-brown subsoil are included with this soil.
areas. It is hardly possible to rebuild this land by any Also included are a few areas with a subsoil of fine texture
method except the slow process of reforestation (fig. 3). within less than 30 inches of the surface.







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 15

and red. The depth to mottled materials varies consider-
ably within short distances, as does the size and abun-
dance of the mottles. A few small areas of fine sandy
loam and silt loam are included with this soil.
Use and management.-This soil is best suited to forest
and pasture. Only a very small acreage has been cleared
(fig. 2). In most places water stands on the surface
throughout the rainy season. Where drainage is feasible,
excellent improved pasture can be established. Pastures
need lime and frequent liberal applications of a complete
fertilizer. If high fertility is maintained, legumes and
grasses produce pasture of good quality and high carry-
ing capacity.




Figure 3.-Longleaf pine on Gullied land that has been protected
from fire.

S Huckabee Series
The Huckabee soils, which closely resemble the Lake-
land soils of the uplands, are on terraces along streams.
They lie mostly above overflow. They are sandy and
have developed from materials washed from light-col-
ored, acid soils of the uplands. They are associated with
the Kalnia, Stough, Myatt, and Barth soils and are the
best drained of these soils. They differ from the Kalmia
soils primarily in having 30 to 72 inches of loamy fine
sand resting on materials of finer texture; from the
Figure 2.-Soybeans on Grady loam in foreground. Irvington fine Stou h soils, in having coarser texture throughout the
sandy loam in background. The Grady soil is poorly drained and profile and no mottles of yello, strong bro or light
is not dependable for crops commonly grown in Escambia County. an n yellow, strong brown, or light
gray in the lower subsoil; from the Myatt soils, in having
a coarser texture and a brownish-yellow subsoil; and
Gullied Land from the Barth soil, in not having distinctly mottled
Gullied land (Gb; VIIe-2) is so cut up by recent gullies horizons in the lower subsoil.
that it is nonarable. The soil profiles have been largely Huckabee soils have a moderate external and rapid
destroyed. This land normally is on strong slopes internal drainage. They are strongly acid and contain
along streams and drainageways. It is widely distrib- inadequate amounts of organic matter and plant nu-
uted in the northern part of the county in areas ranging trients.
from a few acres to about 30 acres in size. The surface Huckabee loamy fine sand, level phase (0 to 2 percent
soil has been removed from most of the areas, and gullies slopes) (Ha; IIs-1).--This soil has a dark grayish-brown
of variable depths form an intricate pattern. Neverthe- surface layer and brownish-yellow subsoil. It commonly
less, some areas between the large individual gullies still occurs on well-drained, sandy, nearly level areas along
have part of the original surface soil. The surface is the Perdido and Escambia Rivers. The native cover
too rough for the use of ordinary farm machinery. generally consists of turkey oak, longleaf pine, and scat-
The exposed soil material ranges from grayish brown tered hardwoods. Hardwoods are dominant in a few
to red in color and from loamy fine sand to fine sandy areas of lower elevation.
clay in texture. In places it is difficult to determine the Profile description:
nature of the original soil because of erosion. Some of o to 4 inches, dark grayish-brown loamy fine sand; very fri-
the less severely eroded spots contain Lakeland, Norfolk, able: weak fine crumb structure.
Ruston. and Carnegie soils. 4 to 12 inches, yellowish-brown loamy fine sand; very fri-
Sable: weak fine crumb structure.
Use and management.-An intermittent cover of pine, 12 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow loamy fine sand; very fri-
dogwood, turkey oak, and other hardwoods is common able; weak fine crumb structure.
to many areas, but it is not sufficient to arrest erosion. The surface soil varies from brown to dark grayish
External drainage is very rapid to excessive; conse- brown in color and from 3 to 5 inches in thickness. The
quently, little moisture enters the soil. Diversion ditches subsoil, a loamy fine sand, ranges from yellow to brown-
along the upper edges of the areas are useful in reducing ish yellow. A few small areas with dark-brown surface
the amount of runoff water that passes through gullied soil and strong-brown subsoil are included with this soil.
areas. It is hardly possible to rebuild this land by any Also included are a few areas with a subsoil of fine texture
method except the slow process of reforestation (fig. 3). within less than 30 inches of the surface.







16 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Use and management.-Because of its limited acreage. 4 to 10 inches, yellowish-brown fine sanly loam; friable;
this soil is of minor agricultural importance. Most of 1eak fine crumb structure.
10 to 20 inches, yellow fine sandy clay loam: firm; weak fine
it is used for native range and forest. The slope and subangular blocky structure.
porosity of the sandy soil permit a large part of the 20 to 3( inches, yellow fine sandy clay loam mottled with
water to percolate through it and to leach out most of pale yellow and strong brown; firm: moderate medium sub-
the plant nutrients. It is, therefore, only moderately angular blocky structure.
.e tie s. I e for, nme 36 to 42 inches, fine sandy clay loam mottled with yellow, pale
suited to tilled crops. Improved forest management, yellow, and strong brown; firm; moderate medium subangu-
particularly protection from fire and selective cutting of lar blocky structure.
trees, proves beneficial. The surface soil varies from very dark grayish brown
Huckabee loamy fine sand, very gently sloping phase to black in color and from 4 to 7 inches in thickness.
(2 to 5 percent slopes) (Hb; IIIs-1).-This soil is in close The subsoil, a fine sandy clay loam, ranges from pale
association with and similar to the level phase of Hucka- yellow to brownish yellow and is mottled with strong
bee loamy fine sand. Some small areas with slopes in brown and various shades of yellow. Although the
excess of 5 percent, and a few slightly eroded ones, are depth to mottling varies within short distances, it gen-
included with this soil, as well as a few areas with a erally occurs within depths of 18 to 24 inches. Included
dark-brown surface soil and a strong-brown subsoil. In with this soil are a few areas with slopes in excess of
a few places a subsoil with a fine texture occurs at depths 2 percent that were too small to be mapped separately.
of less than 30 inches. Use and management.-This soil contains many iron
Use and management.-Because of its limited acreage, concretions and materials of fine texture: consequently,
this soil is of minor agricultural importance. Most of it tends to clod and cannot be cultivated over as wide
it is used for native range and forest. The slope and a range of moisture content as the Norfolk and Red Bay
porosity of the sandy soil permit a large part of the soils. Shallow open ditches satisfactorily dispose of the
water to percolate through it and leach out most of the excess surface water in most places. Erosion is negli-
plant nutrients. It is, therefore, only moderately suited gible.
to tilled crops. Improved forest management, particu- Approximately half of this soil has been cleared for
larly protection from fire and the selective cutting of agricultural use. Corn and small grains are commonly
trees, proves beneficial, grown, but cotton is not. This is one of the most de-
sirable soils for potatoes and soybeans (fig. 4). Soy-
Irvington Series
The soils of the Irvington series developed from thick
beds of unconsolidated, acid sandy clay loams and sandy
clays. They have a dark-gray surface soil and yellow
subsoil. They contain various quantities of locally
formed small, rounded, brown or reddish-brown iron
concretions. In places the surface soil is almost covered
with them. In other areas they are almost entirely ab-
sent. These soils occur on nearly level relief along
smooth interstream ridges.
The Irvington soils are associated with Lynchburg
gravelly very fine sandy loam, Grady loam, and the soils
of the Tifton series. They are somewhat better drained,
occupy a slightly higher topographic position, and do
not contain so much very fine sand, silt, and clay as
Lynchburg gravelly very fine sandy loam. Irvington
soils are considerably better drained than the Grady soils
and do not have their dominantly gray subsoil. The
Irvington soils differ from the Tifton soils primarily in
being less well drained.
Irvington soils contain somewhat more organic matter

than the better drained soils. Runoff and permeability Figure 4.-Potatoes on Irvington fine sandy loam, one of the more
are slow. One soil of this series was mapped in the desirable soils for this crop.
county.
Irvington fine sandy loam (y to 2 percent slopes) (.la beans are generally planted after potatoes in the crop
Irvington fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (; rotation. In many instances, little or no fertilizer is
IIthe more w-1).-Aimpthoug the acreage is small, this is one of applied to soybeans because they use the fertilizer that
the more important agricultural soils of the county. It remains from the preceding crop of potatoes. This soil
occurs only in the northwestern part. The vegetation responds well to heavy fertilization. Organic matter,
consists mainly of longleaf pine, gallberry, and a thick nitrogen, phosphate, potash, and lime are required.
grwthI of various native grasses. This soil is very well suited to grasses and legumes
Profile description: for pasture. Where fertilizer and lime are adequately
0 to 4 inches, very dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam; supplied, the more desirable plants produce abundant
friable; weak fine crumb structure. grazing of a high quality.







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 17

Izagora Series Kalmia Series
The soils of the Izagora series are on stream terraces Soils of the Kalmia series developed from materials
and have formed from thin beds of sandy alluvium over- that washed from the adjacent upland soils. They occur
lying alluvium of fine texture. These materials were along streams on terraces not reached by ordinary over-
washed from acid upland soils. The Izagora soils are flow. These soils closely resemble those of the Norfolk
associated with the Kalmia, Wahee, and Myatt soils. series of the uplands. They are associated with the soils
The Izagora soils differ from the Kalmia soils primarily of the Myatt, Izagora, and Huckabee series.
in having much finer texture in the lower horizons; from Kalmia soils are better drained and have more yellow
Wahee soils, in being better drained and more friable in subsoils than the Myatt soils. They differ from the Iza-
the upper part of the subsoil; and from the Myatt, in hav- gora soils primarily in having coarser texture and less
ing better drainage and more yellow throughout the mottlings in the lower layers. Kalmia soils contain more
profile. materials of fine texture throughout the solum than the
The Izagora soils are moderately well drained and Huckabee soils, which have 30 to 72 inches of loamy fine
have slow to moderate permeability. They are strongly sands above the materials of finer texture.
acid and rather low in organic matter and in natural The Kalmia soils are moderately well to well drained
fertility. One soil of this series was mapped in the and are moderately permeable. They are acid and con-
county. tain little organic matter or plant nutrients.
Izagora fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Ib; Kalmia fine sandy loam, level phase (0 to 2 percent
IIw-1).-Small irregular bodies of this soil occur in slopes) (Ka; I-1).-This soil commonly occurs in long
moderately well drained areas along the Escambia River narrow strips parallel to the nearly level stream terraces
in the northeastern part of the county. This soil more along the Perdido and Escambia Rivers. The native
commonly occurs near poorly drained Mixed alluvial vegetation consists primarily of pine and a few scattered
land, and it frequently lies between this miscellaneous oaks and sweetgums. The undergrowth is mostly gall-
land type and better drained soils. The native trees are berry and wiregrass.
primarily pine, sweetgum, and oak. The undergrowth Profile description:
is generally gallberry and wiregrass. 0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
Profile description: weak fine crumb structure; contains a small amount of
organic matter.
0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; 6 to 12 inches, yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
weak fine and medium crumb structure, weak fine crumb structure.
6 to 12 inches, light yellowish-brown fine sandy loam with 12 to 36 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam; weak
shadings of gray and brownish yellow; friable; weak me- medium subangular blocky structure.
dium crumb structure. 36 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam promi-
12 to 28 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam with nently mottled with a few medium-sized areas of yellowish
a few, faint, fine mottlings of yellowish red; firm; moder- brown and yellowish red; friable; weak medium subangu-
ate medium subangular blocky structure, lar blocky structure.
28 to 42 inches, sandy clay with brownish-yellow, light-gray,
strong-brown, and red mottles; very firm; moderate medium The surface soil varies from dark grayish brown to
subangular blocky structure, brown in color and from 4 to 7 inches in thickness. The
The surface soil varies from dark gray to very dark texture of the subsoil ranges from a light fine sandy clay
grayish brown in color and from 5 to 8 inches in thick- loam to a moderately heavy fine sandy clay loam. The
ness. The subsoil ranges from light yellowish brown to depth to mottles varies considerably within short dis-
brownish yellow and contains a few, faint, yellowish-red tances. A few areas too small to describe separately,
that have a yellowish-red subsoil, are included with this
mottles. A few slightly eroded areas on slopes in excess that have a ylo h-red subsoil, are included with this
of 2 percent are included with this soil. Also included soil
are a few areas with brownish-yellow fine sandy clay Use and management.-This soil is not extensive, but
Sa f a wih b ni- w fine n c it is important on the farms where it occurs. It is suited
loam subsoil that were too small to be mapped separately. to many crops. Because the soil is sandy, good tilth and
Use and management.-This soil is not extensive and productivity are easier to establish and maintain. It can
is much less important to agriculture than many similar be cultivated over a wide range of moisture conditions
soils of the uplands. This soil is not subject to serious and not clod. It retains moisture and plant nutrients,
erosion. It can be farmed intensively because it is nearly responds to good management, and is not subject to
level. Special attention needs to be given to control of serious erosion. Plant roots penetrate the subsoil freely.
runoff on the more sloping areas. This soil retains Much of this soil has been cleared of native vegetation
moisture and plant nutrients, has good tilth, and is very and is used for crops and pasture. Good yields of corn,
responsive to good management. Moderate amounts of soybeans, and small grains are common. Good manage-
lime and liberal applications of fertilizer are needed to ment requires primarily that fertility be built up and
maintain productivity. Growing of legume cover crops maintained by adding lime, fertilizer, and organic mat-
in rotation with general farm crops is beneficial, ter and by using a suitable crop rotation.
The small part of the acreage cleared of trees pro- Kalmia fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase
duces good yields of corn, soybeans, and small grains. (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Kb; IIe-1).-This soil is similar
Improved pastures produce abundant grazing after mod- to, and is most commonly associated with, Kalmia fine
erate fertilization and liming, sandy loam, level phase. The thickness of its surface







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 17

Izagora Series Kalmia Series
The soils of the Izagora series are on stream terraces Soils of the Kalmia series developed from materials
and have formed from thin beds of sandy alluvium over- that washed from the adjacent upland soils. They occur
lying alluvium of fine texture. These materials were along streams on terraces not reached by ordinary over-
washed from acid upland soils. The Izagora soils are flow. These soils closely resemble those of the Norfolk
associated with the Kalmia, Wahee, and Myatt soils. series of the uplands. They are associated with the soils
The Izagora soils differ from the Kalmia soils primarily of the Myatt, Izagora, and Huckabee series.
in having much finer texture in the lower horizons; from Kalmia soils are better drained and have more yellow
Wahee soils, in being better drained and more friable in subsoils than the Myatt soils. They differ from the Iza-
the upper part of the subsoil; and from the Myatt, in hav- gora soils primarily in having coarser texture and less
ing better drainage and more yellow throughout the mottlings in the lower layers. Kalmia soils contain more
profile. materials of fine texture throughout the solum than the
The Izagora soils are moderately well drained and Huckabee soils, which have 30 to 72 inches of loamy fine
have slow to moderate permeability. They are strongly sands above the materials of finer texture.
acid and rather low in organic matter and in natural The Kalmia soils are moderately well to well drained
fertility. One soil of this series was mapped in the and are moderately permeable. They are acid and con-
county. tain little organic matter or plant nutrients.
Izagora fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Ib; Kalmia fine sandy loam, level phase (0 to 2 percent
IIw-1).-Small irregular bodies of this soil occur in slopes) (Ka; I-1).-This soil commonly occurs in long
moderately well drained areas along the Escambia River narrow strips parallel to the nearly level stream terraces
in the northeastern part of the county. This soil more along the Perdido and Escambia Rivers. The native
commonly occurs near poorly drained Mixed alluvial vegetation consists primarily of pine and a few scattered
land, and it frequently lies between this miscellaneous oaks and sweetgums. The undergrowth is mostly gall-
land type and better drained soils. The native trees are berry and wiregrass.
primarily pine, sweetgum, and oak. The undergrowth Profile description:
is generally gallberry and wiregrass. 0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
Profile description: weak fine crumb structure; contains a small amount of
organic matter.
0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; 6 to 12 inches, yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
weak fine and medium crumb structure, weak fine crumb structure.
6 to 12 inches, light yellowish-brown fine sandy loam with 12 to 36 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam; weak
shadings of gray and brownish yellow; friable; weak me- medium subangular blocky structure.
dium crumb structure. 36 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam promi-
12 to 28 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam with nently mottled with a few medium-sized areas of yellowish
a few, faint, fine mottlings of yellowish red; firm; moder- brown and yellowish red; friable; weak medium subangu-
ate medium subangular blocky structure, lar blocky structure.
28 to 42 inches, sandy clay with brownish-yellow, light-gray,
strong-brown, and red mottles; very firm; moderate medium The surface soil varies from dark grayish brown to
subangular blocky structure, brown in color and from 4 to 7 inches in thickness. The
The surface soil varies from dark gray to very dark texture of the subsoil ranges from a light fine sandy clay
grayish brown in color and from 5 to 8 inches in thick- loam to a moderately heavy fine sandy clay loam. The
ness. The subsoil ranges from light yellowish brown to depth to mottles varies considerably within short dis-
brownish yellow and contains a few, faint, yellowish-red tances. A few areas too small to describe separately,
that have a yellowish-red subsoil, are included with this
mottles. A few slightly eroded areas on slopes in excess that have a ylo h-red subsoil, are included with this
of 2 percent are included with this soil. Also included soil
are a few areas with brownish-yellow fine sandy clay Use and management.-This soil is not extensive, but
Sa f a wih b ni- w fine n c it is important on the farms where it occurs. It is suited
loam subsoil that were too small to be mapped separately. to many crops. Because the soil is sandy, good tilth and
Use and management.-This soil is not extensive and productivity are easier to establish and maintain. It can
is much less important to agriculture than many similar be cultivated over a wide range of moisture conditions
soils of the uplands. This soil is not subject to serious and not clod. It retains moisture and plant nutrients,
erosion. It can be farmed intensively because it is nearly responds to good management, and is not subject to
level. Special attention needs to be given to control of serious erosion. Plant roots penetrate the subsoil freely.
runoff on the more sloping areas. This soil retains Much of this soil has been cleared of native vegetation
moisture and plant nutrients, has good tilth, and is very and is used for crops and pasture. Good yields of corn,
responsive to good management. Moderate amounts of soybeans, and small grains are common. Good manage-
lime and liberal applications of fertilizer are needed to ment requires primarily that fertility be built up and
maintain productivity. Growing of legume cover crops maintained by adding lime, fertilizer, and organic mat-
in rotation with general farm crops is beneficial, ter and by using a suitable crop rotation.
The small part of the acreage cleared of trees pro- Kalmia fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase
duces good yields of corn, soybeans, and small grains. (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Kb; IIe-1).-This soil is similar
Improved pastures produce abundant grazing after mod- to, and is most commonly associated with, Kalmia fine
erate fertilization and liming, sandy loam, level phase. The thickness of its surface







18 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

soil is less uniform. Because of rapid runoff, it is more essential plant nutrients through leaching; therefore,
susceptible to erosion. A few slightly and moderately complete fertilizer mixtures consisting of nitrogen, phos-
eroded areas, on slopes in excess of 5 percent, are in- phate, and potash must be applied liberally, and often,
cluded with this soil. Also included are a few areas too 'after grass is established.
small to map separately that have a yellowish-red sub- Most of this soil remains as cutover pineland, and the
soil. native cover furnishes poor grazing for cattle. Most of
Use and management.-Much of this soil is uncleared, the salable timber has been cut, but some fair stands of
It is used for native range and to produce pine trees, second-growth pine are grown for pulpwood. To en-
A few acres are used for crops and pasture of the kinds courage growth of pine, management practices ought to
grown on the level phase. Runoff and erosion need to include adequate protection from fire and the selective
be controlled before this soil can be used intensively, cutting of timber. It is desirable to restore some of this
Under common management fair yields are obtained, but soil to forest by planting, especially in areas where there
under improved management yields are comparable to are not enough seed trees to provide stock for reseeding.
those on the level phase. Klej loamy sand, very gently sloping phase (2 to 5
percent slopes) (Kd; IIIs-2).-This soil is almost identi-
Klej Series cal with Klej loamy sand, level phase. It generally
occurs on short slopes adjacent to the more nearly level
Soils of the Klej series have developed from thick beds Klej soils and merges with poorly drained Mixed alluvial
of sands and loamy sands, under the influence of a high land. This soil includes some small areas of Klej sand
water table. These upland soils have a dark-gray to and a few areas with slopes in excess of 5 percent that
black surface soil and yellowish-brown to brownish-yel- were not large enough to be mapped separately.
low subsoil. They are associated with the Rutlege, Plum- Use and management.-This soil is small in acreage
mer, and Leon soils. The Klej soils are somewhat better and is not cultivated. Runoff is much more rapid than
drained and contain more yellow in the subsoil than the on the level phase. Satisfactory improved pasture can
Rutlege and Plummer soils. They do not have the or- be maintained under good management, including heavy
ganic hardpan and the yellow layer above that is charac- applications of fertilizers and a few simple practices to
teristic of Leon soils. control erosion. The principal use of this soil is for
Klej soils are somewhat poorly drained. They are acid forest and native range. Second-growth pine grows well
throughout and low in natural fertility and in organic in areas that have had adequate protection from fire
matter. They are seldom used to produce cultivated for years.
crops. Klej sand, level phase (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Ke;
Klej Foamy sand, level phase (0 to 2 percent slopes) IIIs-2).-This soil is distinguished from the level phase
(Kc; IIIs-2).-This soil occurs in somewhat poorly of Klej loamy sand primarily because it contains a
drained, level to nearly level areas in the southwestern slightly greater proportion of medium and coarse sand
part of the county. It generally is in long, narrow strips grains and less materials of fine texture throughout the
that in many areas are adjacent to the Rutlege soils, profile. It occurs in flat or nearly level areas in the
The native vegetation consists principally of pine, saw- southwestern part of the county and is closely associated
palmetto, runner oak, and wiregrass. with the Leon and Rutlege soils.
Profile description: This soil is the most extensive of the Klej soils. The
0 to 4 inches, very dark gray loamy sand; very friable; native vegetation consists principally of pine, saw-
weak fine crumb structure. palmetto, runner oak, and wiregrass.
4 to 12 inches, dark grayish-brown loamy sand; very friable; Profile description:
weak fine crumb structure.
12 to 28 inches, pale-yellow loamy sand faintly mottled with 0 to 4 inches, very dark gray sand; loose and single grained
a few medium areas of olive yellow, brownish yellow, and (structureless).
white; very friable; weak fine crumb structure. 4 to 12 inches, dark grayish-brown sand; loose and single
grained (structureless).
The surface soil varies from dark gray to black in 12 to 28 inches, pale-yellow sand faintly mottled with a few,
color and from 3 to 6 inches in thickness. The subsoil medium, areas of olive yellow, brownish yellow, and white;
layers range from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown loose and single grained (structureless).
sands and contain various amounts of yellowish- 28 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow sand with common, medium,
loamy sands and conta various amounts of yellowishdistinct mottles of yellowish red, strong brown, and yellow;
red, strong-brown, and yellow mottling. A few small lenses of white; loose and single grained (structureless).
areas that have materials of finer texture as depths of 30 to
42 inches are included with this soil. Also included are The surface soil varies from dark gray to very dark
some areas of Klej sand that were too small to map grayish brown in color and from 3 to 6 inches in depth.
separately. The subsoil ranges from yellowish brown to brownish
Use and management.-Surface runoff is slow; internal yellow and contains various quantities of yellowish-red,
drainage, slow to medium. Although this soil absorbs strong-brown, and yellow mottles. In a few areas a
water readily, it stays nearly saturated during the rainy layer of white sand occurs at a depth of about 40 inches.
seasons, primarily because of the high water table. A few areas of Klej loamy sand and Leon sand are in-
Though this soil is suitable for cultivation under inten- eluded with this soil because they were too small to map
sive management, it is best used for pasture and forest separately.
under present conditions. If it is cleared and drained, Use and management.-Almost all of this soil is in
fairly good improved pasture can be obtained. Lime forest, but a small part is in pasture. It stays nearly
must be applied. This soil loses large quantities of saturated during rainy seasons because the water table







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 19

is very close to the surface. Runoff is slow; internal Profile description:
drainage is slow to medium. 0 to 4 inches, dark grayish-brown loamy fine sand: very fri-
The soil could be drained by canals and lateral ditches. able: weak fine cruiml structure: contains small amounts
Because the land is owned in many small tracts and the of o rganic matter.
outlets for ditches from the individual tracts are inade- 4 to i; inches. ellwisl-brown loamy fine sand; very friable;
wve;ik tihke cr11lii) strliuetnre.
quate, drainage districts would need to be (I L:llII /,] 1; to 42 in.lces, brownish-yellow loamy fine sand; very fri-
This soil loses large quantities of plant nutrients through able: weak tine crumb structure.
leaching. The surface soil varies from dark grayish brown to
This soil produces fairly good improved pasture where brown in color and from 2 to 5 inches in thickness. This
it has been drained and cleared and is treated frequently soil is underlain by materials of finer texture below 42
with liberal amounts of lime and a complete fertilizer. inches and, in most places, within 72 inches. Areas of
Under good management 2 or 3 acres can support a cow. Lakeland loamv sand that were too small to map sepa-
Pasture should not be established unless it is economi- ratelv are included with this soil, as are a few small
call sound to provide a drainage system. areas that have materials of finer texture beginning at
A sparse stand of pine grows on most of the soil, and depths of 30 to 42 inches.
the native cover furnishes poor grazing for cattle. Trees /'se and manaqcent.-This soil is low in its capacity
need to be planted to restore forest. Improved manage- to hold water. Water moves downward so rapidly that
ment, particularly protection from fire and selective cut- little is retained for plants. Leaching rapidly removes
ting of trees, benefits all areas. most of the plant nutrients. Yields from cultivated
Klej sand, very gently sloping phase (2 to 5 percent crops are generally low. They are considerably higher
slopes) (Kf; IIIs-2).-This soil is the least extensive of under a high level of management, which requires heavy
the Klej series. Except for stronger slopes it is similar applications of fertilizers and turning under crop resi-
to Klej sand, level phase, and occurs near it in small. dues and legumes.
irregular areas. Small areas with a loamy sand surface This soil is used to a limited extent, but other soils
soil and a few areas with slopes in excess of 5 percent of higher productivity are preferred. Many fields in
are included with this soil. the northern part of the county have small areas of this
Use and management.-This soil is used mostly for soil along their outer edges. Corn. cotton, soybeans, field
forest and native range, but. under good management, peas, and sweetpotatoes grow fairly well and return
improved pasture can be established. Because of its fair to poor yields. Winter cover crops also grow fairly
slightly stronger slopes, runoff is much more rapid on well.
this soil than on the level phase. A few simple practices Grasses for improved pasture have been planted on
to control erosion are needed along the stronger slopes, several hundred acres of this soil. Lime and a fertilizer
Frequent applications of lime and a complete fertilizer mixture that contains nitrogen, phosphate, and potash
are required because this soil is leached of large quanti- are applied annually after the grass is established. Two
ties of plant nutrients. Where this soil is used for or three acres of such pasture will support a cow.
forestry, adequate protection from fire and selective cut- There are some good stands of longleaf pine on this
ting of trees are needed. soil (fig. 5). Timber grows fairly well where adequate
protection from fire has been furnished for years. Slash
Lakeland Series pine grows considerably better in fields that were aban-
(doned after cultivation than where plantings are made
The soils of the Lakeland series have formed from
moderately thick beds of unconsolidated acid sands and
loamy sands. which are on sediments of finer texture
that begin at depths greater than 30 inches. These soils
are associated with Norfolk and Eustis soils. They differ
from the Norfolk soils in containing loose sandy mate-
rials to a depth greater than 30 inches. From the Eustis
soils they differ in lacking the reddish-yellow or strong-
brown color throughout the subsoil.
The Lakeland soils are somewhat excessively drained;
permeability of the subsoil is very rapid. The soils are
acid throughout. They are low in fertility, in content
of organic matter, and in capacity to hold water. These
soils generally are not used for cultivated crops in Escam-
bia County.
Lakeland loamy fine sand, level phase (0 to 2 percent -
slopes) (La; IIs-1).--This soil has a grayish-brown sur-
face soil that merges with the brownish-yellow loamy
fine sand of the subsoil. It occurs on flat or nearly level
ridges and is most extensive in the northern part of the
county. The native vegetation consists of turkey oak -.
and blackjack oak, a scattering of pine and dogwood, Figure 5.-Well-managed natural stand of longleaf pine on
and various native grasses. Lakeland loamy fine sand.







20 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. S

on the virgin soil. Most of this soil is cutover pineland, second layer may be yellowish brown or brownish yellow,
and the native cover furnishes poor grazing. and the rest of the profile is brownish yellow. This soil
Lakeland loamy fine sand, very gently sloping phase contains materials of finer texture at depths between 42
(2 to 5 percent slopes) (Lb; IIIs-1).-This soil is similar and 72 inches.
to Lakeland loamy fine sand, level phase, but external In the northeastern part of the county, small areas
drainage is more rapid because slopes are stronger. of Lakeland sand are included with this soil because
Use and management.-The crops grown, fertilizers they were too small to map separately. Also included
needed, yields obtained, and uses of this soil are similar are a few areas that contain materials of finer texture
to those of the level phase of Lakeland loamy fine sand. at depths of 30 to 42 inches.
But this soil requires more careful management-con- Use and management.-A small acreage of this soil is
tour cultivation and, in some places, terracing to reduce used for general crops. Because the soil is porous, there
erosion and conserve moisture. is little runoff, but water moves downward so rapidly
Only a very small acreage of this soil has been cleared that extreme leaching occurs. Since the capacity of this
of native vegetation, and much of this has been aban- soil to hold water is low, and since it contains little
doned. Plantings of slash pine grow well. plant nutrients, yields of cultivated crops are generally
Lakeland loamy fine sand, gently sloping phase (5 low. Crop yields are considerably above the average,
to 8 percent slopes) (Lc; IVs-1).-Except for having however, if large quantities of fertilizer are applied and
stronger slopes, this soil is similar to Lakeland loamy crop residues and legumes are turned under.
fine sand, level phase. It generally occurs on short Lakeland loamy sand generally is not used for culti-
slopes adjacent to streams and drainageways in the vated crops. But small areas occur in many fields and
northern part of the county, are used to a limited extent where more productive soils
Use and management.-This soil is not well suited to are not available. Corn, cotton, soybeans, and field peas
cultivation. Yields from cultivated crops are low, and grow fairly well and return low to moderate yields.
exposed areas are subject to erosion. Areas used for Winter cover crops also grow fairly well. Even under
pasture should be carefully managed to maintain a good careful management, however, yields are good only if the
sod cover, weather is favorable.
Under proper management this soil produces fairly The native grasses furnish poor forage for cattle. Sev-
good grazing. Without good management, the quality eral hundred acres of this soil have been planted to
of the forage is poor, the yield is light, and the carrying grasses for improved pasture. Before planting, lime
capacity is very low. Only a small acreage of this soil must be added to bring the reaction of the surface soil
has been cleared. Much of it remains in forest, the use to pH 5.0. Frequent applications of a complete ferti-
to which it is best suited. lizer are needed, even after the grass has been established.
Lakeland loamy fine sand, sloping phase (8 to 12 per- This soil responds well if legumes are plowed under.
cent slopes) (Ld; VIe-2).-This soil is similar to Lakeland Two or three acres of improved pasture will support
loamy fine sand, level phase, but has stronger slopes. It a cow.
occurs in long. narrow areas adjacent to streams and Trees grow fairly well on this soil, and there are good
drainageways in the northern part of the county. In- stands of longleaf pine where protection from fire has
cluded with this soil are a few areas with slopes in ex- been adequate for years. A considerable acreage has
cess of 12 percent, and areas of Norfolk, Ruston, and been planted to slash pine. In the early stages of devel-
Cuthbert soils that were too small to map separately. opment, slash pine consistently grows better on fields
Use and management.-Almost none of this soil is abandoned after cultivation than on virgin soil. Most
farmed. Unless an exceptionally good sod is established, of this soil remains as cutover pineland and supports
care is needed to prevent erosion, even when it is used scattered stands of longleaf pine, turkey oak. a few
for pasture. It is best for forest, bluejack and blackjack oaks, and various grasses.
Longleaf pines grow best on lower slopes adjacent to Lakeland loamy sand, very gently sloping phase (2
drainageways, where moisture is available. The best to 5 percent slopes) (Lf; IIIs-1).-The profile of this soil
stands of pines grow where the trees are protected from is similar to that of Lakeland loamy sand, level phase.
fire and grazing. Runoff is more rapid because of the slightly stronger
Lakeland loamy sand, level phase (0 to 2 percent slopes. Some small areas affected by sheet erosion and,
slopes) (Le; IIs-1).-This soil differs from the Lakeland in some places, by gully erosion, are included with this
loamy fine sand, level phase, primarily because it con- soil.
tains a greater amount of medium and coarse sand grains Use and management.-Crop suitability, fertilization,
throughout the profile. The largest and most typical yields, and uses of this soil are similar to those of the
areas occur on flat or nearly level sandy ridges in the level phase, but because of the slope, this soil is not
central part of the county. The native vegetation con- quite so easily handled. More careful management is
sists of turkey oak. a few scattered longleaf pines, black- required to reduce erosion and conserve moisture. Sim-
jack oaks, and various native grasses. ple practices such as contour cultivation and growing of
Profile description: cover crops for green manure will control erosion and
0 to 4 inches, dark grayish-brown loamy sand; very friable; conserve moisture. Only a small acreage of this soil has
contains small amounts of organic matter, been cleared for cultivation, and much of that has been
4 to 10 inches, yellowish-brown loamy sand; very friable, abandoned. Plantings of slash pine grow well.
16 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow loamy sand; very friable. Lakeland loamy sand, gently sloping phase (5 to 8
The surface soil varies from dark grayish brown to percent slopes) (Lg: IVs-1).-This soil has a profile simi-
brown in color and from 2 to 5 inches in thickness. The lar to that of Lakeland loamy sand, level phase, but has








ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 21

stronger slopes. This soil generally occurs on short through oxidation and leaching. Loss of moisture is
slopes adjacent to streams and drainageways throughout also excessive.
the county. It is well drained to somewhat excessively Scattered stands of longleaf pine grow fairly well to
drained and has rapid external and internal drainage, poorly where protection from fire has been adequate for
It contains little organic matter or plant nutrients. years. Some of this soil is used for building sites.
Some small areas affected by sheet erosion and, in some Lakeland sand, very gently sloping phase (2 to 5
places, gully erosion, are included with this soil. percent slopes) (Lk; IVs-2).-Except for having stronger
Use and management.-This soil is not well suited to slopes, this soil is similar to the level phase of Lakeland
intensive agricultural use. The rapid runoff during sand. The largest areas are only in the southeastern
heavy rains causes various degrees of erosion in many part of the county. Because of slightly stronger slopes,
areas. This soil produces fairly good grazing under runoff is more rapid than on the level phase. Small
good management. Without this management the qual- areas that have been affected by sheet erosion and, in
ity of the forage is poor, the yield is light, and the some places, by gully erosion, are included with this soil.
carrying capacity is very low. Only a small acreage Use and management.-This soil is poorly suited for
of this soil has been cleared; much remains in forest, the crops and pasture. It is extremely porous and rapidly
use to which most of it is best suited, permeable, and it is readily leached of most plant nu-
Lakeland loamy sand, sloping phase (8 to 12 percent trients. Organic matter is easily oxidized. The poor
slopes) (Lh; VIe-2).-This soil has a profile similar to physical qualities of this soil result in poor yields.
that of Lakeland loamy sand, level phase, but slopes are Areas adequately protected from fire for years now
stronger. This soil is on short slopes adjacent to streams have scattered stands of longleaf pine that make poor
and drainageways throughout the county. The grayish- to fair growth. Some of this soil is used for building
brown surface soil grades to the brownish-yellow loamy sites.
sand of the subsoil. The soil is well drained to some- Lakeland sand, gently sloping phase (5 to 8 percent
what excessively drained. It contains little organic mat- slopes) (LI; IVs-2).-This soil is similar to the level phase
ter or plant nutrients. The rapid runoff during heavy of Lakeland sand, but its slopes are stronger. Generally
rains causes various degrees of erosion in areas sparsely this soil occupies long, narrow areas adjacent to streams
covered with vegetation. In the northern part of the and drainageways; most of it is in the southeastern part
county, this soil includes areas of Norfolk, Ruston, and of the county. Included with this soil are areas of Lake-
Cuthbert soils that were too small to map separately, land fine sand that were too small to map separately.
Use and management.-This soil is more suitable for Use and management.-This soil is poorly suited to
forest than for crops or pasture. Almost none of it is crops and pasture. Oxidation and leaching remove much
used for farming. Longleaf pine grows more abundantly of the organic matter and essential plant nutrients.
where it is protected from fire. Most of the trees- Fertility is very low. Loss of moisture is excessive be-
turkey oaks and a few longleaf pines-grow best on the cause the soil is extremely porous and rapidly permeable
lower slopes adjacent to drainageways, where moisture and has little capacity for holding water. In some
is available. These areas, are only a small part of the places shallow gullies have formed.
total acreage of the soil. Scattered stands of longleaf pine grow poorly to fairly
Lakeland sand, level phase (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Li; well where adequate protection from fire has existed for
IVs-2).-This soil is on flat or nearly level sand ridges, years. This soil is used to a limited extent for building
mostly in the southeastern part of the county. It differs sites.
from the level phases of Lakeland loamy fine sand and Lakeland sand, sloping phase (8 to 12 percent slopes)
Lakeland loamy sand primarily in containing through- (Lm; VIIs-1).-This soil is similar to the level phase of
out its profile more medium and coarse sand and less Lakeland sand but has stronger slopes. It occurs prin-
material of fine texture. In most places the native vege- cipally in the southeastern part of the county. The
station consists of turkey oak, a few scattered longleaf long, narrow areas are on short slopes adjacent to streams
pines, and various native grasses. and drainageways. This soil is somewhat excessively
Profile description: drained; it has rapid external and internal drainage.
0 to 3 inches, dark grayish-brown sand; loose and single Areas sparsely covered with vegetation erode during
grained (structureless); contains small amount of organic heavy rains. Shallow gullies have formed in many
matter, places.
3 to 10 inches, yellowish-brown sand; loose and single grained Use and management.-This soil is not suitable for
(structureless).
10 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow sand; loose and single crops or improved pasture. It is low in fertility, ex-
grained (structureless). tremely porous and drought, and strongly sloping. It
The surface soil ranges from dark grayish brown to is best for forest. The trees are mainly turkey oaks and
yellowish brown in color and from 2 to 4 inches in thick- longleaf pines. The trees grow best on lower slopes
ns. T n a ni- o i- adjacent to drainageways, where moisture is more avail-
ness. The second layer a brownish-yellow or yellowish- able. Well-timbered areas are only a small part of the
brown sand, merges with the yellow or brownish-yellow total acreage.
subsoil. Areas of Eustis sand that were too small to
map separately are included with this soil. Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk Soils
Use and management.-The poor physical qualities of
this soil make it poorly suited to crops and moderately In this undifferentiated group are small areas of Lake-
suited to pasture. It is extremely porous and loses much land, Ruston, and Norfolk soils so intricately mixed
organic matter and other essential plant nutrients that they cannot be separated on a map of the scale








22 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

used.2 Variations in texture occur both parallel and Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, eroded gently
perpendicular to the prevailing slopes. Sandy soils oc- sloping phases (5 to 8 percent slopes) (Lp; IVe-1).-This
cur in more places than soils of finer texture. Surface undifferentiated unit differs from the very gently sloping
runoff and erosion vary considerably according to the phases of Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils primarily
degree of slope and the native cover. Most areas of these because it has stronger slopes, more rapid external drain-
soils are poorly suited to crops and pasture, age, and somewhat more shallow soil profiles. Also, it
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, very gently is more susceptible to erosion. In places all of the topsoil
sloping phases (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Ln; IIIs-1).- and some of the subsoil have been removed. Most of the
This undifferentiated group of soils occurs most consist- area is so eroded that ordinary tillage implements extend
ently in the northern and central parts of the county. through the remaining topsoil into the subsoil. In some
The soils generally are in long, narrow strips adjacent areas there are a few gullies approximately 125 feet
to streams and drainageways. A few widely scattered apart, but they generally can be crossed with ordinary
areas are in the southern part of the county. Runoff farm machinery.
from areas under native vegetation is medium to rapid Use and management.-These soils are not well suited
because of the very gentle slopes. Internal drainage to intensive agriculture. Only a small acreage has been
varies in the subsoil, and other variations in the profile cleared.
are common. The native trees are mainly longleaf pine Satisfactory permanent pasture can be established only
and turkey oak, but there is some red oak. under a high level of management that will control ero-
Use and management.-Under careful management, sion. The less severely eroded and less sloping areas
soils of this undifferentiated unit can be used for general can be reclaimed by terracing and other good manage-
field crops. A considerable acreage is affected by sheet ment practices. The more sloping and more severely
erosion and, in some places, by gully erosion. Immedi- eroded areas are not easily reclaimed.
ately after the land is cleared precautions need to be Most of the acreage remains in forest, the use to which
taken to reduce erosion and to conserve moisture, these soils are probably best suited. Longleaf pine grows
Sandy areas of this unit are highly susceptible to more abundantly where adequate protection from fire
leaching and produce little. Liberal and frequent appli- and selective cutting of timber have been practiced for
cation of a complete fertilizer is required. Though suit- years.
able for cultivation, these soils are better for improved Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, eroded sloping
pasture. Unless management is good, the quality of the phases (8 to 12 percent slopes) (Lr; VIe-2).-These soils
vegetation is poor, the yield is light, and the carrying differ from the very gently sloping phases of Lakeland,
capacity of the pasture is poor. Ruston, and Norfolk soils because they are more suscep-
Most of this undifferentiated unit is used for forest tible to erosion and have somewhat thinner profiles, more
and native range. Second-growth pine grows especially rapid runoff, and stronger slopes. They occur in long,
well on the Ruston and Norfolk soils and almost as well narrow strips adjacent to streams and drainageways
on the Lakeland soils.. Improved forest management, throughout the county. The lower horizons vary greatly
particularly fire control and selective cutting of trees, from place to place within short distances. They range
benefits all areas of this unit. from brownish yellow to yellowish red in color and from
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, gently sloping loamy fine sand to fine sandy clay in texture. Frequently
phases (5 to 8 percent slopes) (Lo; IVe-1).-These soils occurring within these soils are small areas that have
are similar to the very gently sloping Lakeland, Ruston, prominently mottled yellow, red, and gray subsoils. In
and Norfolk soils, but they have stronger slopes. They some places a red iron crust crops out on the slopes or
generally occur on short slopes adjacent to streams and lies near the surface, and in a few places many well-
drainageways in the central and northern parts of the rounded gravel fragments are scattered throughout the
county. Included with these soils are many areas af- solum.
fected by sheet erosion and, in some places, by gully Use and management.-These soils are not suitable for
erosion. These eroded areas are too small to map sepa- intensive agricultural use. In a few of the more desirable
rately. Small areas that have lost almost all of the areas, however, satisfactory improved pasture can be
surface soil are common along the upper slopes, established under management that checks erosion. Com-
Use and management.-Some areas are cleared of na- mon on the upper slopes of these soils are small areas
tive vegetation and are used for crops and pasture, but where all of the original surface soil and parts of the sub-
yields are normally lower than those of the very gently soil have been removed by erosion. These small areas are
sloping phases. These soils also require more exacting so eroded that ordinary tillage implements extend through
management, for they are lower in plant nutrients and the remaining surface soil into the subsoil.
organic matter, slightly lower in water-holding capacity, Most of the acreage remains in forest, the use to which
ard considerably more susceptible to erosion. Contour it is probably best suited. Most of the trees are long-
tillage and the use of crop rotations help to conserve leaf pine, hickory, red oak, and turkey oak. The use of
moisture and to curb loss of soil in areas that are used for improved management practices, particularly fire control
row crops. All areas of these soils that are not cleared and the selective cutting of trees, benefits all areas and
for agriculture greatly benefit under improved forest encourages the more desirable trees to grow.
management, particularly fire control and the selective Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, eroded
cuing o tre. strongly sloping phases (12 to 17 percent slopes.) (Ls;
cutting of trees. VIIe-1).-These soils differ from the very gently sloping
2 For descriptions of the separate soils see Lakeland loamy fine phases of Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils in having
sand, Ruston fine sardy loam, and Norfolk fine sandy loam. more rapid external drainage, greater susceptibility to








ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 23

erosion, somewhat more shallow soil profiles, and stronger excessive drainage creates a critical moisture condition
slopes. These intricately mixed soils occur most con- throughout much of the year. As population increases,
sistently in the northern part of the county in long, this soil rapidly becomes more important as building
narrow strips adjacent to streams and drainageways. sites because it is so close to water and beaches.
The surface soils are generally thin and range from Lakewood sand, very gently sloping phase (2 to 5
dark grayish brown to grayish brown in color and from percent slopes) (Lu; VIIs-2).-Except for its stronger
loamy fine sand to fine sandy loam in texture. Within slopes, this soil is similar to the level phase of Lakewood
short distances the lower horizons range from brownish sand. It occurs near the coastline in the southwestern
yellow to yellowish red in color and from loamy fine sand part of the county. It is associated with the Leon and
to fine sandy clay in texture. Included with these soils Lakeland soils and the level phase of Lakewood sand.
are many small areas that have prominently mottled This soil has a thin, light-gray surface soil and brown-
yellow, red, and gray subsoils. Also included are a few ish-yellow sand in the subsoil beginning at a depth of
areas that have many well-rounded gravel fragments approximately 16 inches. Some areas that have slopes
scattered throughout the profile and a few areas that in excess of 5 percent are included in this soil. Also
have slopes in excess of 17 percent, included are a few areas that contain white sand through-
Use and management.-Mainly because of slope, these out the profile but were too small to map separately.
soils are not suitable for agricultural use. In places all Use and management.-This soil is of little or no agri-
of the surface soil and parts of the subsoil have been cultural value; some of it is used for building sites. The
removed by erosion. The degree varies considerably, soil contains little organic matter and plant nutrients.
but most of these soils have been eroded to the extent It is rapidly permeable, has a low capacity for holding
that ordinary tillage implements extend through the re- water, and tends to be drought most of the year. Be-
maining surface soil into the subsoil. Most of the acre- cause of this, there is almost no erosion in spite of the
age remains in cutover forest consisting of longleaf pine, slopes.
red oak, hickory, and turkey oak. Improved forest man-
agement benefits these soils. Leon Series

Lakewood Series Soils of the Leon series developed from thick beds of
unconsolidated sands under the influence of a high water
Soils of the Lakewood series developed from thick table. These soils have a hardpan layer at depths of
beds of loose sand materials. These soils have a light less than 30 inches. They are associated with the Plum-
gray surface soil that contains small amounts of organic mer, Rutlege, and Klej soils. Leon soils are better
matter, which give it a salt and pepper appearance, drained than Plummer soils and have a considerably
They are associated with soils of the Leon and Lakeland lighter colored surface soil than the Rutlege soils. They
series. They do not have the dark organic-matter stained differ from the Klej soils in having an organic-matter
pan present in the Leon soils and are better drained, stained pan and in lacking yellow coloring above the pan.
Between the surface soil and the brownish-yellow sub- The Leon soils are acid throughout the profile. They
layers, which begin at 14 to 20 inches, they have a layer are low in natural fertility and are not used to produce
of white sand that is not present in the Lakeland soils. cultivated crops.
Lakewood soils are acid throughout the profile. They Leon sand (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Lv; Vs-1).-This is
are extremely low in natural fertility and contain little a level to nearly level somewhat poorly drained soil. It
organic matter. These soils are excessively drained, occurs only in the southwestern part of the county. The
Lakewood sand, level phase (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Lt; native vegetation consists principally of pine, runner oak,
VIIs-2).-This light-colored upland soil occurs only in saw-palmetto, and wiregrass.
the southwestern part of the county as long, narrow Profile description:
strips parallel to and adjacent to the coastline. The 0 to 4 inches, dark-gray to very dark gray sand; loose and
native vegetation consists of scrub live oak, turkey oak, single grained.
prickleypear cactus, a few scattered pines, and a sparse 4 to 18 inches, light-gray sand; loose and single grained.
growth of grasses. 18 to 22 inches, dark reddish-brown sand; strongly cemented;
Profile description: massive (structureless); this is an organic-matter stained
pan.
0 to 4 inches, light-gray sand; loose and single grained; con- 22 to 28 inches, yellow sand mottled with reddish yellow;
tains small amount of organic matter, loose and single grained.
4 to 16 inches, white sand; loose and single grained. 28 to 42 inches, yellow, reddish-yellow, and very pale brown
16 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow sand; loose and single sand; mottled; loose and single grained; lighter colored as
grained. depth increases.
The surface soil varies from light gray to light brown- The organic-matter stained pan varies greatly in thick-
ish gray in color and from 4 to 6 inches in thickness. ness and degree of cementation within short distances.
The lower sublayers vary from brownish yellow to red- A thin layer of light-gray, weakly cemented sandy loam
dish yellow in color and in most places are within 14 to commonly occurs immediately above the organic-matter
20 inches of the surface. stained pan. The sands vary considerably in thickness
Use and management.-Grazing on the sparse growth above the pan layer.
of native vegetation is the principal agricultural use of Use and management.-Almost none of this soil is cul-
this soil. Although the soil is level or nearly level tivated, although in some places it is used for backyard
and is easily worked, it is not suitable for crops gardens. Because of the high water table this soil is
or pasture. Its productivity is very low, as well as its nearly saturated during rainy seasons. It loses consider-
capacity to hold water and store plant nutrients. The able amounts of plant nutrients through leaching and








ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 23

erosion, somewhat more shallow soil profiles, and stronger excessive drainage creates a critical moisture condition
slopes. These intricately mixed soils occur most con- throughout much of the year. As population increases,
sistently in the northern part of the county in long, this soil rapidly becomes more important as building
narrow strips adjacent to streams and drainageways. sites because it is so close to water and beaches.
The surface soils are generally thin and range from Lakewood sand, very gently sloping phase (2 to 5
dark grayish brown to grayish brown in color and from percent slopes) (Lu; VIIs-2).-Except for its stronger
loamy fine sand to fine sandy loam in texture. Within slopes, this soil is similar to the level phase of Lakewood
short distances the lower horizons range from brownish sand. It occurs near the coastline in the southwestern
yellow to yellowish red in color and from loamy fine sand part of the county. It is associated with the Leon and
to fine sandy clay in texture. Included with these soils Lakeland soils and the level phase of Lakewood sand.
are many small areas that have prominently mottled This soil has a thin, light-gray surface soil and brown-
yellow, red, and gray subsoils. Also included are a few ish-yellow sand in the subsoil beginning at a depth of
areas that have many well-rounded gravel fragments approximately 16 inches. Some areas that have slopes
scattered throughout the profile and a few areas that in excess of 5 percent are included in this soil. Also
have slopes in excess of 17 percent, included are a few areas that contain white sand through-
Use and management.-Mainly because of slope, these out the profile but were too small to map separately.
soils are not suitable for agricultural use. In places all Use and management.-This soil is of little or no agri-
of the surface soil and parts of the subsoil have been cultural value; some of it is used for building sites. The
removed by erosion. The degree varies considerably, soil contains little organic matter and plant nutrients.
but most of these soils have been eroded to the extent It is rapidly permeable, has a low capacity for holding
that ordinary tillage implements extend through the re- water, and tends to be drought most of the year. Be-
maining surface soil into the subsoil. Most of the acre- cause of this, there is almost no erosion in spite of the
age remains in cutover forest consisting of longleaf pine, slopes.
red oak, hickory, and turkey oak. Improved forest man-
agement benefits these soils. Leon Series

Lakewood Series Soils of the Leon series developed from thick beds of
unconsolidated sands under the influence of a high water
Soils of the Lakewood series developed from thick table. These soils have a hardpan layer at depths of
beds of loose sand materials. These soils have a light less than 30 inches. They are associated with the Plum-
gray surface soil that contains small amounts of organic mer, Rutlege, and Klej soils. Leon soils are better
matter, which give it a salt and pepper appearance, drained than Plummer soils and have a considerably
They are associated with soils of the Leon and Lakeland lighter colored surface soil than the Rutlege soils. They
series. They do not have the dark organic-matter stained differ from the Klej soils in having an organic-matter
pan present in the Leon soils and are better drained, stained pan and in lacking yellow coloring above the pan.
Between the surface soil and the brownish-yellow sub- The Leon soils are acid throughout the profile. They
layers, which begin at 14 to 20 inches, they have a layer are low in natural fertility and are not used to produce
of white sand that is not present in the Lakeland soils. cultivated crops.
Lakewood soils are acid throughout the profile. They Leon sand (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Lv; Vs-1).-This is
are extremely low in natural fertility and contain little a level to nearly level somewhat poorly drained soil. It
organic matter. These soils are excessively drained, occurs only in the southwestern part of the county. The
Lakewood sand, level phase (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Lt; native vegetation consists principally of pine, runner oak,
VIIs-2).-This light-colored upland soil occurs only in saw-palmetto, and wiregrass.
the southwestern part of the county as long, narrow Profile description:
strips parallel to and adjacent to the coastline. The 0 to 4 inches, dark-gray to very dark gray sand; loose and
native vegetation consists of scrub live oak, turkey oak, single grained.
prickleypear cactus, a few scattered pines, and a sparse 4 to 18 inches, light-gray sand; loose and single grained.
growth of grasses. 18 to 22 inches, dark reddish-brown sand; strongly cemented;
Profile description: massive (structureless); this is an organic-matter stained
pan.
0 to 4 inches, light-gray sand; loose and single grained; con- 22 to 28 inches, yellow sand mottled with reddish yellow;
tains small amount of organic matter, loose and single grained.
4 to 16 inches, white sand; loose and single grained. 28 to 42 inches, yellow, reddish-yellow, and very pale brown
16 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow sand; loose and single sand; mottled; loose and single grained; lighter colored as
grained. depth increases.
The surface soil varies from light gray to light brown- The organic-matter stained pan varies greatly in thick-
ish gray in color and from 4 to 6 inches in thickness. ness and degree of cementation within short distances.
The lower sublayers vary from brownish yellow to red- A thin layer of light-gray, weakly cemented sandy loam
dish yellow in color and in most places are within 14 to commonly occurs immediately above the organic-matter
20 inches of the surface. stained pan. The sands vary considerably in thickness
Use and management.-Grazing on the sparse growth above the pan layer.
of native vegetation is the principal agricultural use of Use and management.-Almost none of this soil is cul-
this soil. Although the soil is level or nearly level tivated, although in some places it is used for backyard
and is easily worked, it is not suitable for crops gardens. Because of the high water table this soil is
or pasture. Its productivity is very low, as well as its nearly saturated during rainy seasons. It loses consider-
capacity to hold water and store plant nutrients. The able amounts of plant nutrients through leaching and








24 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

therefore needs frequent heavy applications of a com- tered blackgum, and a thick undergrowth of wiregrass.
plete fertilizer. Profile description:
This soil is used mainly for forest and native range 0 to 6 inches, very dark gray fine sandy loam; friable; weak
Most of the salable timber has been cut, and the rather fine crumb structure.
poor stands of second-growth pine are used for pulp- 6 to 12 inches, pale-yellow fine sandy loam; friable; moder-
wood. Satisfactory improved pasture can be maintained ate fine crumb structure.
on this soil under good management, particularly intri- 12 to 24 inches, light yellowish-brown fine sandy clay loam
with a few, medium, faint, yellow and strong-brown mot-
cate water control and heavy fertilization, ties; friable; weak fine subangular blocky structure.
Leon sand, light colored surface phase (0 to 2 percent 24 to 42 inches, fine sandy clay loam with brownish-yellow,
slopes) (Lw; Vs-1).-This level to nearly level soil occurs yellow, strong-brown, and pale-yellow mottles; friable; weak
in the southwestern part of the county in close associa- fine subangular blocky structure.
tion with Leon sand. It differs from Leon sand pri- The surface soil varies from very dark gray to dark
marily because it has a lighter colored surface soil. The grayish brown in color and from 5 to 7 inches in thick-
native vegetation of both these soils is similar, although ness. In this county the range of drainage is greater
on this light-colored soil it generally is not so dense. than is normal for Lynchburg soils. The dominant range
The vegetation is a scattered growth of scrub live oaks, in subsoil color is from brownish yellow to light yellow-
a few turkey oaks, and a sparse stand of grasses, ish brown. The depth to mottled materials varies con-
Profile description: siderably from place to place.
0 to 3 inches, gray sand; loose and single grained. Use and management.-Most of this soil is in cutover
3 to 26 inches, white sand; loose and single grained. forest. Only a small acreage is cleared and used for
26 to 30 inches, dark-brown sand; strongly cemented; mas- agriculture. The soil is suited to pasture and to corn,
sive (structureless); this is an organic-matter stained pan. soybeans, small grains, and other field crops. Good tilth
30 to 42 inches, light yellowish-brown sand; loose and single can be established and maintained because the soil is
grainedsandy. It retains moisture and plant nutrients, has little
The surface soil ranges from gray to light brownish tendency to clod, and can be cultivated over a wide range
gray in color and from 2 to 5 inches in thickness. The of moisture content. Plant roots penetrate the subsoil
organic-matter stained pan ranges from a dark-brown freely. The soil responds well to fertilization and other
to dark grayish-brown massive sand. Variations in the good management.
depth to the organic-matter stained pan are common; Management requires mainly that fertility be built and
however, in most instances it occurs below 24 inches. maintained and that excess surface water be controlled.
Use and management.-This soil is more suitable for Shallow open ditches generally will dispose of the excess
forest than for crops and pasture. Improved forest man- surface water. For maximum yields of nonlegumes, a
agement, particularly fire control and selective cutting complete fertilizer and lime are needed. Legumes need
of trees, benefits all areas, lime, phosphate, and potash.
Lynchburg fine sandy loam, very gently sloping
Lynchburg Series phase (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Lz; IIIw-1).-This soil has
a very dark gray surface soil. The light yellowish-
The soils of the Lynchburg series were formed from brown subsoil is mottled with strong brown and yellow
unconsolidated beds of acid sandy loam to sandy clay in the lower part. The profile is similar to that of
materials. These soils have a very dark gray to black sur- Lynchburg fine sandy loam, level phase. This soil is
face soil and a light yellowish-brown to brownish-yellow closely associated with it and the Norfolk soils. A few
subsoil. In the southern and central parts of the county slightly eroded areas and a few areas with slopes in
they are associated with the Norfolk and Lakeland soils. excess of 5 percent are included with this soil.
Lynchburg gravelly very fine sandy loam, which occurs Use and management.-Practically all of this soil is
only in the northern part of the county, is associated wooded. The crop suitability, fertility, yields, and man-
with the Tifton, Irvington, and Grady soils. agement requirements are somewhat similar to those of
The Lynchburg soils are more poorly drained than the level phase of Lynchburg fine sandy loam. If the
the Norfolk and Lakeland soils. They contain a higher soil is to be used intensively, it needs fertilizer and
percentage of silt and clay throughout the profile than simple practices to control runoff and erosion.
the Lakeland soils. Lynchburg gravelly very fine sandy Lynchburg gravelly very fine sandy loam (0 to 2 per-
loam differs from the Tifton and Irvington soils pri- cent slopes) (Lx; IIIw-1).-This soil differs from the level
marily in being more poorly drained. It has more mate- phase of Lynchburg fine sandy loam primarily because
rials of fine texture throughout the profile than the Tif- it has a higher percentage of very fine sand, silt, and
ton soils, is slightly better drained, and contains less clay throughout the profile, is somewhat more poorly
gray coloring than the Grady soils, drained, and has numerous rounded, brown or reddish-
The soils of the Lynchburg series are somewhat poorly brown iron concretions on the surface and within the
drained. They are acid in reaction. They contain a profile. It commonly occurs around or adjacent to
moderate amount of organic matter and little of plant ponded areas and draiageways. The native vegetation
nutrients. consists mostly of a thick ground cover of various water-
Lynchburg fine sandy loam, level phase (0 to 2 per- tolerant herbs and grasses, some scattered slash pines,
cent slopes) (Ly; IIIw-1).-This soil generally occurs in and gallberry.
small areas adjacent to streams or the bases of slopes in Profile description:
the southern and central parts of the county. The natu- o to 4 inches, black gravelly very fine sandy loam; friable;
ral vegetation consists primarily of pine, gallberry, scat- weak fine crumb structure.








ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 25
4 to 10 inches, light yellowish-brown very fine sandy loam; tempt to map the soils separately would be impracticable.
friable; weak fine crumb structure. This land is subject to frequent overflow. In many
10 to 18 inches, yellow fine sandy clay loam; firm fine sub- places it lies only a few inches above the water level of
angular blocky structure. places it lies only a few inches above the water level of
18 to 42 inches, fine sandy clay loam with yellowish-brown, adjacent streams. The characteristics of this miscella-
gray, strong-brown, and yellow mottles; firm subangular neous land type change from time to time as new mate-
blocky structure. rial is deposited or removed with each overflow.
The surface soil varies from very dark gray to black Texture of this land varies greatly, depending on the
in color and from 3 to 5 inches in thickness. The sub- source of the material and the condition of the stream
soil is a yellow to yellowish-brown fine sandy clay loam. when the material was deposited. Locally, texture varies
The depth to mottled material varies, but in most places from silt loam to sand. The color ranges from gray to
mottling begins 16 to 20 inches from the surface. A few black according to the amount of organic matter in it.
areas on slopes in excess of 2 percent are included with The land is mostly level to nearly level. Internal drain-
this soil. age is variable; surface runoff, very slow.
Use and management.-The surface runoff is slow on Use and management.-As a result of the wide varia-
the nearly level areas of this soil. Permeability is re- tions in texture, and more particularly because of the
tarded by the subsoil of fine texture and the underlying hazard of flood, none of this miscellaneous land type is
materials. Artificial drainage is necessary to insure used for cultivated crops. Drainage is too expensive.
normal growth of crops. Some of the better drained areas along the smaller drain-
In areas where drainage is feasible, this soil can be used ageways are cleared and used for pasture. Most of this
for pasture plants and crops that tolerate wetness. If land type is forested with swamp hardwoods and, in
drainage is improved and adequate fertilizer and lime some places, has an undergrowth of various kinds of
are applied, this soil will produce excellent pasture. water-tolerant plants.
Practically all of this soil is in native vegetation.
Myatt Series
Mixed Local Alluvial Land, Moderately Well The Myatt soils occupy the lowest and most poorly
Drained drained areas on the stream terraces. They were derived
from alluvium washed from the Norfolk and Ruston soils
Mixed local alluvial land (Mb) is composed of colluvial- and related soils of the uplands. Most areas of the
alluvial materials that have washed, rolled, or sloughed Myatt soils are associated with the Kalmia, Izagora, and
from areas of Red Bay, Ruston, Tifton, and associated Wahee soils. They are more poorly drained than these
soils. These materials have accumulated in moderately soils. In addition, they have less yellow coloring in the
well drained depressions and shallow drainageways or lower horizons than the Kalmia soils; have a more fri-
near the base of slopes. The areas generally are long able and coarser textured subsoil than the Izagora soils;
rr tr level or near areas are scattered and have a more friable, grayer subsoil than the Wahee
throughout the northern part of the county. The native soils.
vegetation consists of a thick growth of native grasses Myatt soils are poorly drained; surface runoff is slow;
and, in some places, pine and dogwood. internal drainage, very slow. They are strongly acid
The color, texture, and structure of this land vary with throughout.
the surrounding soils, the amount of material accumu- Myatt very fine sandy loam, level phase (0 to 2 per-
lated, and the kind of material on which it was deposited, cent slopes) (Md; Vw-1).-This soil occurs principally
In places most of the surface soil is brown to reddish- in the northeastern part of the county. Nevertheless,
brown friable fine sandy loam; the subsoil is a light- small irregular patches are along the rivers and larger
brown to brown friable fine sandy loam. Runoff is slow creeks throughout the county and in low, nearly level
to medium, and internal drainage is medium. After places near streams or slightly depressed areas at the
heavy rains, however, water may stand in low places foot of slopes that are occupied by better drained soils
long enough to damage crops. of the terraces. Much of the soil is forested with sweet-
Use and management.-None of this miscellaneous land gum, blackgum, cypress, and a few scattered pines. The
type is cultivated. With proper control of surface run- more open areas are covered with water-tolerant herbs
off from the adjacent higher soils, it can be used for and grasses and a scattered stand of slash pine and
improved pasture. Selected small areas are suitable for cypress.
field crops. Management requires primarily that fertility Profile description:
be built and maintained by applying lime and fertilizer, t 4 i l -
adding organic matter, and using a suitable crop rota- table s lightbrnsh-ra very fine sandy loam;
tion. Improved pastures of a high carrying capacity 4 to 14 inches, light-gray very fine sandy loam with a few
could be maintained fairly easily. fine brownish-yellow mottles; friable; weak medium crumb
structure.
14 to 36 inches, light brownish-gray fine sandy clay loam
Mixed Alluvial Land, Poorly Drained with common, medium, distinct, brownish-yellow mottles;
friable; moderate fine subangular blocky structure.
Mixed alluvial land, poorly drained (Ma) represents a 36 to 42 inches, light grayish-brown, brownish-yellow, reddish-
mixture of dissimilar materials that border the streams yellow, and strong-brown fine sandy clay loam; mottled;
throughout the county and make up a very large total friable; moderate medium subangular blocky structure.
acreage. This land is a result of soil material accumula- The surface soil varies from dark gray to light brown-
tion rather than soil development. The materials vary so ish gray in color and from 3 to 5 inches in thickness.
greatly in color, texture, and consistence that any at- The subsoil is friable fine sandy clay loam that ranges








ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 25
4 to 10 inches, light yellowish-brown very fine sandy loam; tempt to map the soils separately would be impracticable.
friable; weak fine crumb structure. This land is subject to frequent overflow. In many
10 to 18 inches, yellow fine sandy clay loam; firm fine sub- places it lies only a few inches above the water level of
angular blocky structure. places it lies only a few inches above the water level of
18 to 42 inches, fine sandy clay loam with yellowish-brown, adjacent streams. The characteristics of this miscella-
gray, strong-brown, and yellow mottles; firm subangular neous land type change from time to time as new mate-
blocky structure. rial is deposited or removed with each overflow.
The surface soil varies from very dark gray to black Texture of this land varies greatly, depending on the
in color and from 3 to 5 inches in thickness. The sub- source of the material and the condition of the stream
soil is a yellow to yellowish-brown fine sandy clay loam. when the material was deposited. Locally, texture varies
The depth to mottled material varies, but in most places from silt loam to sand. The color ranges from gray to
mottling begins 16 to 20 inches from the surface. A few black according to the amount of organic matter in it.
areas on slopes in excess of 2 percent are included with The land is mostly level to nearly level. Internal drain-
this soil. age is variable; surface runoff, very slow.
Use and management.-The surface runoff is slow on Use and management.-As a result of the wide varia-
the nearly level areas of this soil. Permeability is re- tions in texture, and more particularly because of the
tarded by the subsoil of fine texture and the underlying hazard of flood, none of this miscellaneous land type is
materials. Artificial drainage is necessary to insure used for cultivated crops. Drainage is too expensive.
normal growth of crops. Some of the better drained areas along the smaller drain-
In areas where drainage is feasible, this soil can be used ageways are cleared and used for pasture. Most of this
for pasture plants and crops that tolerate wetness. If land type is forested with swamp hardwoods and, in
drainage is improved and adequate fertilizer and lime some places, has an undergrowth of various kinds of
are applied, this soil will produce excellent pasture. water-tolerant plants.
Practically all of this soil is in native vegetation.
Myatt Series
Mixed Local Alluvial Land, Moderately Well The Myatt soils occupy the lowest and most poorly
Drained drained areas on the stream terraces. They were derived
from alluvium washed from the Norfolk and Ruston soils
Mixed local alluvial land (Mb) is composed of colluvial- and related soils of the uplands. Most areas of the
alluvial materials that have washed, rolled, or sloughed Myatt soils are associated with the Kalmia, Izagora, and
from areas of Red Bay, Ruston, Tifton, and associated Wahee soils. They are more poorly drained than these
soils. These materials have accumulated in moderately soils. In addition, they have less yellow coloring in the
well drained depressions and shallow drainageways or lower horizons than the Kalmia soils; have a more fri-
near the base of slopes. The areas generally are long able and coarser textured subsoil than the Izagora soils;
rr tr level or near areas are scattered and have a more friable, grayer subsoil than the Wahee
throughout the northern part of the county. The native soils.
vegetation consists of a thick growth of native grasses Myatt soils are poorly drained; surface runoff is slow;
and, in some places, pine and dogwood. internal drainage, very slow. They are strongly acid
The color, texture, and structure of this land vary with throughout.
the surrounding soils, the amount of material accumu- Myatt very fine sandy loam, level phase (0 to 2 per-
lated, and the kind of material on which it was deposited, cent slopes) (Md; Vw-1).-This soil occurs principally
In places most of the surface soil is brown to reddish- in the northeastern part of the county. Nevertheless,
brown friable fine sandy loam; the subsoil is a light- small irregular patches are along the rivers and larger
brown to brown friable fine sandy loam. Runoff is slow creeks throughout the county and in low, nearly level
to medium, and internal drainage is medium. After places near streams or slightly depressed areas at the
heavy rains, however, water may stand in low places foot of slopes that are occupied by better drained soils
long enough to damage crops. of the terraces. Much of the soil is forested with sweet-
Use and management.-None of this miscellaneous land gum, blackgum, cypress, and a few scattered pines. The
type is cultivated. With proper control of surface run- more open areas are covered with water-tolerant herbs
off from the adjacent higher soils, it can be used for and grasses and a scattered stand of slash pine and
improved pasture. Selected small areas are suitable for cypress.
field crops. Management requires primarily that fertility Profile description:
be built and maintained by applying lime and fertilizer, t 4 i l -
adding organic matter, and using a suitable crop rota- table s lightbrnsh-ra very fine sandy loam;
tion. Improved pastures of a high carrying capacity 4 to 14 inches, light-gray very fine sandy loam with a few
could be maintained fairly easily. fine brownish-yellow mottles; friable; weak medium crumb
structure.
14 to 36 inches, light brownish-gray fine sandy clay loam
Mixed Alluvial Land, Poorly Drained with common, medium, distinct, brownish-yellow mottles;
friable; moderate fine subangular blocky structure.
Mixed alluvial land, poorly drained (Ma) represents a 36 to 42 inches, light grayish-brown, brownish-yellow, reddish-
mixture of dissimilar materials that border the streams yellow, and strong-brown fine sandy clay loam; mottled;
throughout the county and make up a very large total friable; moderate medium subangular blocky structure.
acreage. This land is a result of soil material accumula- The surface soil varies from dark gray to light brown-
tion rather than soil development. The materials vary so ish gray in color and from 3 to 5 inches in thickness.
greatly in color, texture, and consistence that any at- The subsoil is friable fine sandy clay loam that ranges








26 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

from light gray to light grayish brown and in which dark gray in color and from 4 to 7 inches in thickness.
brownish-yellow mottles are common. From place to The subsoil, a loamy fine sand, ranges from light gray
place the soil varies somewhat in texture, but all areas to grayish brown and has light-yellow and pale-brown
contain noticeable amounts of fine sand. Some small mottles in the lower part. A few small areas with a
areas with silt loam and fine sandy loam surface soil fine sandy loam surface soil are included with this soil,
are included with this soil. as well as a few areas with slopes in excess of 2 percent.
Use and management.-The use of this soil is limited Use and management.-This soil is best suited to forest
because it has very slow internal drainage and is suscep- and pasture. It is saturated in rainy seasons, and water
tible to flooding in the rainy seasons. None of it is stands on the surface for long periods after rains.
cultivated. In the drier months the water table is gener- Although this soil is not used to produce cultivated
ally within a few feet of the surface. The excessive crops, fairly good pasture can be obtained after it is
moisture in the subsoil does not favor root development cleared of native vegetation and drained. A complete
of the deeper rooted plants. fertilizer needs to be applied liberally and frequently
Where drainage is feasible through the construction because this soil loses large quantities of plant nutrients
of shallow open ditches, fairly good pasture can be ob- through leaching. Moderate amounts of lime are also
trained if the land is cleared, limed, and fertilized. Drain- needed. Under good management 2 or 3 acres can sup-
age, however, is generally difficult to establish because port a cow.
the soil occurs in low positions and depressions and is Plantings of slash pine grow especially well where
very slowly permeable. This soil is used mainly as open shallow open ditches are used to dispose of excess sur-
range for cattle. The soil needs to be at least partially face water. These ditches are constructed in the same
drained if planted slash pine is to grow satisfactorily, manner as fire lines but closer together and generally
Myatt very fine sandy loam, very gently sloping parallel or nearly parallel to the surrounding slope.
phase (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Me; Vw-1).-This soil oc- Improved forest management, particularly fire control
curs principally in the northeastern part of the county. and the selective cutting of trees, benefit the timbered
Generally it is closely associated with Myatt very fine areas.
sandy loam, level phase. Frequently there is a narrow
band or strip of this soil between the level phase and Norfolk Series
the adjacent soils in better drained positions. Variations
within the profile are similar to those described for the The Norfolk series consists of well-drained acid soils
level phase, developed in the uplands from unconsolidated sandy loam
Use and management.-The use of this soil is normally to sandy clay materials. They are associated with the
limited by the very slow internal drainage and high Ruston, Tifton, Lakeland, and Savannah soils. Norfolk
water table or by seepage water from the higher soils, soils differ from the Ruston soils in having a brownish-
This soil is not well suited to crops that require tillage. yellow rather than yellowish-red subsoil; from the Tifton
Fairly good pasture can be established if this soil is soils in having less materials of fine texture in the sub-
properly drained and fertilized. Drainage of the more soil and in being quite free of iron concretions through-
sloping areas requires cautious consideration. If open out the profile; from the Lakeland soils in having a
ditches are used, measures need to be taken to prevent higher content of clay in the subsoil, as the Lakeland
erosion. soils are notably sandy throughout their entire depth;
Slash pine planted in partially drained areas of this and from the Savannah soils of the central part of the
soil grows well where protection from fire has been county chiefly in the absence of a tendency toward de-
furnished for years. velopment of a pan in the lower horizons.
Myatt loamy fine sand, thick surface phase (0 to 2 In the northern part of the county Norfolk soils differ
percent slopes) (Mc; Vw-l).-This soil differs from from the Savannah soils primarily because their texture
Myatt very fine sandy loam, level phase, primarily be- is not so fine. They are more friable throughout the
cause it contains a slightly greater proportion of fine, solum, and they do not tend to develop a pan in the
medium, and coarse sand grains and less materials of lower horizons.
fine texture throughout the profile. It occurs mostly in Norfolk soils are well drained and are moderately to
the southwestern part of the county along the poorly slowly permeable in the subsoil. Although they are low
drained stream terraces and is associated with the Barth in content of organic matter and natural fertility, they
and Huckabee soils. It differs from these soils chiefly respond well to good management.
because it is less yellow and is more poorly drained. Norfolk fine sandy loam, level phase (0 to 2 percent
The native vegetation consists mostly of pine, waxmyrtle, slopes) (Na; I-1).-This is one of the more extensive soils
and various water-tolerant herbs and grasses, in the county. It occurs along the broad ridgetops or
Profile description: nearly level slopes in the northern and central parts of
the county. A few small areas occur in the southern
0 to 6 inches, dark-gray loamy fine sand; very friable; weak part. The native vegetation consists mainly of longleaf
fine crumb structure.
6 to 18 inches, gray loamy fine sand; very friable; weak pine, gallberry, and wiregrass. Small red oak and dog-
fine crumb structure, wood trees frequently are in the undergrowth.
18 to 42 inches, light-gray loamy fine sand with light-yellow Profile description:
and pale-brown mottles; very friable; weak fine crumb
structure. 0 to 5 inches, grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; weak
fine crumb structure.
Some variations occur within the mapped areas of this 5 to 12 inches, yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
soil. The surface soil varies from dark gray to very weak fine crumb structure.








ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 27
12 to 18 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam; fri- texture below a depth of 30 inches. Also included are
able; weak medium subangular blocky structure, some small areas with slopes in excess of 8 percent and
18 to 32 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam; fri- a few areas that have been affected by sheet roon and
able; moderate medium subangular blocky structure. a few areas that have been affected by sheet erosion and,
32 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam with in some places, by gully erosion.
common, medium, faint mottles of reddish yellow in the Use and management.-Only a small amount of this
lower part; friable; moderate medium subangular blocky soil is cleared for agriculture. It is lower than Norfolk
structure. fine sandy loam, level phase, in content of plant nutrients
The surface soil varies from very dark gray to grayish and organic matter, slightly lower in its capacity to hold
brown in color and from 4 to 7 inches in thickness. The water, and more susceptible to erosion. Crop yields are
subsoil, ranging from yellow to brownish yellow, is a normally lower than on the level phase. Contour tillage
friable fine sandy clay loam, and in most areas it has and use of adequate rotations on the more sloping areas
faint mottlings in the lower part. A few areas that have help conserve moisture and curb soil loss. Pastures of
materials of finer texture below 30 inches are included a high carrying capacity can be maintained where the
in this soil because they were too small to map sepa- most desirable grasses and legumes are adequately limed
rately. and fertilized.
Use and management.-This soil is suited to many
kinds of crops. It is so sandy that good tilth is easy Pamlico Series
to establish and maintain. It can be cultivated over a
wide range of moisture content with little tendency to The Pamlico soils formed from the remains of sedges,
clod. Plant roots penetrate the subsoil freely. This soil grasses, lilies, bay, gallberry, titi, and many other water-
retains moisture and plant nutrients. It responds well tolerant plants. The plant remains are fairly well de-
to fertilization and other good management practices composed and are mixed with mineral matter that makes
such as liming, adding organic matter, and rotating up approximately 30 to 60 percent of the entire mass.
crops. These soils are associated with poorly drained Mixed
Most of this soil has been cleared of native vegetation alluvial land and the Plummer and Myatt soils. In
and is used for crops and pasture. Good yields of corn, places the somewhat excessively drained Lakeland and
cotton, soybeans, and small grains are common. Potatoes Huckabee soils occur on slopes near the Pamlico soils.
generally are not grown on this soil. The Pamlico soils differ from those soils primarily in
Pasture legumes and grasses produce abundant grazing having a darker and thicker surface soil and in contain-
of high quality under moderate fertilization and ade- ing much more organic matter.
quate liming. Additional lime is necessary for field The Pamlico soils are very poorly drained; water cov-
crops when the reaction of the surface soil is less than ers the surface many months of the year. The soils are
pH 5.5 and for legumes when the reaction of that layer strongly to very strongly acid throughout the profile.
is less than pH 6.0. One soil of this series was mapped in the county.
Norfolk fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase Pamlico muck (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Pa; IIIw-2).-
(2 to 5 percent slopes) (Nb; IIe-1).-This soil generally The surface soil is a black muck of various thicknesses
is closely associated with the level phase of Norfolk fine that rests on a black mucky sand. The small areas occur
sandy loam and is similar to that soil in color, texture, in depressions and ponded tracts along streams in the
structure, and consistence. A few slightly eroded areas central and southern parts of the county. The native
and some small areas with materials of finer texture vegetation consists of bay, titi, gallberry, and a dense
below a depth of 30 inches are included in this soil. growth of miscellaneous water-tolerant plants.
Also included are a few small areas that have red mot- Profile description:
things in the lower subsoil. 0 to 30 inches, black, well-decomposed, sticky muck that
Use and management.-Most of this soil has been shrinks and cracks when it dries.
cleared of native vegetation and is used for crops and 30 to 42 inches, black mucky sand.
pasture. Its suitability for crops and its fertilizer re- The surface soil is uniformly black; it varies from a
quirements are about the same as for the level phase. few inches to many feet in thickness but averages about
More exacting management is required, particularly along 30 inches. The underlying black mucy sand contains
the more sloping areas where runoff needs to be controlled. vay ing amountsucky sd conr
Although yields are normally slightly lower than those varying amounts of orgamc matter.
obtained on the level phase, they are approximately Use and management.-This soil is of minor agricul-
equal under good management. tural importance. None of it produces cultivated crops.
Norfolk fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase (5 to It is generally flooded in rainy seasons, and because of
8 percent slopes) (Nc; IIIe-1).-This soil has profile its slightly lower position it acts as catch basin for
characteristics similar to those of Norfolk fine sandy seepage water. The water spreads through the soil, and
loam, level phase. This soil differs chiefly because it a part ofit eventually reaches small streams within the
occupies stronger slopes and has a slightly thinner sur- poorly drained Mixed alluvial land. In mos t he surface
face soil. Most of this soil occurs as narrow strips level of te m
adjacent to smoother Norfolk soils. Runoff develops the muc
quickly during heavy rains, and the degree of erosion This soil should not be cultivated unless it is economi-
varies greatly. Small spots that have lost much of the cally sound to provide water control and liberal appli-
surface soil are common along the upper slopes. This cations of lime and complete fertilizer. Drainage is diffi-
soil includes some small areas with red mottlings in the cult and expensive. Some of this muck is used by
lower subsoil and a few areas with materials of finer nurserymen for potting plants.








28 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Pits, Dumps, and Made Land strong-brown and brownish-yellow mottles. Variations
are common. The texture of the surface soil generally
This miscellaneous land type (Pb) consists mostly of open ranges from loamy fine sand to loamy sand, but in places
excavations from which gravel has been removed, uneven it is a light sandy loam. In some places materials of
areas of sand and waste materials that remain after fine texture occur at shallow depths. Included with this
the gravel is mined, and areas that man has filled in soil are some areas of Rutlege soils that were too small
with several feet of materials, to map separately, as well as some areas that are very
Gravel pits are confined to the northeastern part of poorly drained and permanently wet.
the county. In some areas, mostly in the southern part Use and management.-This soil is not used to produce
of the county, there are borrow pits, or places where soil cultivated crops. It is generally flooded during seasons
materials were excavated for use in building airports, of heavy rains, and seepage water from the higher soils
roads, and railroads. Many of the small ponds that keeps it saturated most of the year.
form after the gravel is removed contain several feet of This soil is best suited to forest and pasture. Most
water throughout the year. of it remains under native vegetation that furnishes very
Sands and waste material removed from the gravel poor grazing for cattle. If the soil is cleared and
pits are sometimes returned to the excavation, but most drained, fairly good pasture can be obtained. Lime is
of the time they are dumped on adjoining land. Some needed, and a complete fertilizer should be applied liber-
of the dumps are almost barren; on others the vegeta- ally every year after the grass is established. Under
tion consists of a scant growth of grasses, weeds, pine, good management 2 or 3 acres of the resulting pasture
and sweetgum. can support a cow.
In a few places along the coast, materials that consist Some slash pine has been planted on this soil; results
of sand and shells have been dredged onto formerly low- have been excellent where shallow open ditches were used
lying areas and used as building sites. to dispose of the excess surface water. The ditches are
Much of this mapping unit is wasteland that furnishes constructed in the same manner as fire lanes but at closer
poor grazing for cattle. It was not assigned to a capa- intervals and generally parallel to the surrounding slope.
ability unit. Plummer loamy sand, very gently sloping phase (2
to 5 percent slopes) (Pe; Vw-1).-This soil occurs
Plummer Series throughout the central and northern parts of the county.
S In most places it is adjacent to streams and drainageways.
These soils developed under conditions of poor drain- Variations within its profile are similar to those described
age from thick beds of acid sand and loamy sand. They for Plummer loamy sand, level phase. This soil includes
are associated with the Rutlege, Leon, Klej, Portsmouth, some small areas with slopes considerably in excess of
and Lynchburg soils. The Plummer soils do not have 5 percent.
the thick black surface soil common to Rutlege soils nor Use and management.-This soil is not well suited to
the organic-matter stained layer that is in the Leon soils, crops that require tillage. Management practices are
They are more poorly drained and contain less yellow somewhat more exacting than those for the level phase.
coloring than the Klej soils. Plummer soils have a Drainage and runoff, especially along the more sloping
lighter colored surface soil and lack the finer textured areas, require considerable attention. If open ditches are
subsoils that are present in Portsmouth and Lynchburg used, precautions need to be taken to prevent erosion.
soils. o t P s a Slash pine planted on drained or partially drained areas
The soils of the Plummer series are poorly drained of this soil grows well where fire protection has been
and are acid throughout the profile. They have little furnished for years.
natural fertility and contain little organic matter. Plum- Plummer fine sand (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Pc; Vw-
mer soils are not used to produce cultivated crops. 1).-This soil differs from the level phase of Plummer
Plummer loamy sand, level phase (0 to 2 percent loamy sand primarily because it has more fine sand and
slopes) (Pd; Vw-1).-This soil occupies poorly drained, less material of finer texture throughout the profile. It
low-lying, nearly level areas, mostly in the central and is confined to poorly drained, nearly level areas or de-
northern parts of the county. It generally occurs in pressions in the central and southern parts of the county.
long, narrow strips near the heads of streams and drain- The native vegetation consists of a few scattered cypress
ageways and extends along these to a point where it and slash pine trees and an undergrowth of various
merges with poorly drained Mixed alluvial land. The water-tolerant herbs and grasses.
native vegetation consists of a few scattered longleaf Profile description:
and slash pines and an undergrowth of various water-
tolerant herbs and grasses. 0 to 6 inches, dark-gray fine sand; loose and single grained.
rofle desrition 6 to 42 inches, light brownish-gray fine sand; loose and
Profile description: single grained.
0 to 4 inches, dark-gray loamy sand; very friable; weak The surface soil varies from gray to very dark gray
fine crumb structure.
4 to 24 inches, gray loamy sand mottled with strong brown in color and from 4 to 7 inches in thickness. The sub-
and light gray; very friable; weak fine crumb structure, surface horizons contain more brown color than those of
24 to 42 inches, light-gray loamy sand mottled with strong the other Plummer soils. Some small areas with a loamy
brown; very friable; weak fine crumb structure. fine sand surface soil, and a few small areas with slopes
The surface soil varies from gray to very dark gray in excess of 2 percent, are included with this soil. This
in color and from 4 to 7 inches in thickness. The sub- Plummer soil is saturated during the rainy seasons, and
soil, ranging from a light gray to grayish brown in water stands on much of the surface for long periods
color, is a loamy sand that, in many places, contains after rains. The water table is always high.








28 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Pits, Dumps, and Made Land strong-brown and brownish-yellow mottles. Variations
are common. The texture of the surface soil generally
This miscellaneous land type (Pb) consists mostly of open ranges from loamy fine sand to loamy sand, but in places
excavations from which gravel has been removed, uneven it is a light sandy loam. In some places materials of
areas of sand and waste materials that remain after fine texture occur at shallow depths. Included with this
the gravel is mined, and areas that man has filled in soil are some areas of Rutlege soils that were too small
with several feet of materials, to map separately, as well as some areas that are very
Gravel pits are confined to the northeastern part of poorly drained and permanently wet.
the county. In some areas, mostly in the southern part Use and management.-This soil is not used to produce
of the county, there are borrow pits, or places where soil cultivated crops. It is generally flooded during seasons
materials were excavated for use in building airports, of heavy rains, and seepage water from the higher soils
roads, and railroads. Many of the small ponds that keeps it saturated most of the year.
form after the gravel is removed contain several feet of This soil is best suited to forest and pasture. Most
water throughout the year. of it remains under native vegetation that furnishes very
Sands and waste material removed from the gravel poor grazing for cattle. If the soil is cleared and
pits are sometimes returned to the excavation, but most drained, fairly good pasture can be obtained. Lime is
of the time they are dumped on adjoining land. Some needed, and a complete fertilizer should be applied liber-
of the dumps are almost barren; on others the vegeta- ally every year after the grass is established. Under
tion consists of a scant growth of grasses, weeds, pine, good management 2 or 3 acres of the resulting pasture
and sweetgum. can support a cow.
In a few places along the coast, materials that consist Some slash pine has been planted on this soil; results
of sand and shells have been dredged onto formerly low- have been excellent where shallow open ditches were used
lying areas and used as building sites. to dispose of the excess surface water. The ditches are
Much of this mapping unit is wasteland that furnishes constructed in the same manner as fire lanes but at closer
poor grazing for cattle. It was not assigned to a capa- intervals and generally parallel to the surrounding slope.
ability unit. Plummer loamy sand, very gently sloping phase (2
to 5 percent slopes) (Pe; Vw-1).-This soil occurs
Plummer Series throughout the central and northern parts of the county.
S In most places it is adjacent to streams and drainageways.
These soils developed under conditions of poor drain- Variations within its profile are similar to those described
age from thick beds of acid sand and loamy sand. They for Plummer loamy sand, level phase. This soil includes
are associated with the Rutlege, Leon, Klej, Portsmouth, some small areas with slopes considerably in excess of
and Lynchburg soils. The Plummer soils do not have 5 percent.
the thick black surface soil common to Rutlege soils nor Use and management.-This soil is not well suited to
the organic-matter stained layer that is in the Leon soils, crops that require tillage. Management practices are
They are more poorly drained and contain less yellow somewhat more exacting than those for the level phase.
coloring than the Klej soils. Plummer soils have a Drainage and runoff, especially along the more sloping
lighter colored surface soil and lack the finer textured areas, require considerable attention. If open ditches are
subsoils that are present in Portsmouth and Lynchburg used, precautions need to be taken to prevent erosion.
soils. o t P s a Slash pine planted on drained or partially drained areas
The soils of the Plummer series are poorly drained of this soil grows well where fire protection has been
and are acid throughout the profile. They have little furnished for years.
natural fertility and contain little organic matter. Plum- Plummer fine sand (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Pc; Vw-
mer soils are not used to produce cultivated crops. 1).-This soil differs from the level phase of Plummer
Plummer loamy sand, level phase (0 to 2 percent loamy sand primarily because it has more fine sand and
slopes) (Pd; Vw-1).-This soil occupies poorly drained, less material of finer texture throughout the profile. It
low-lying, nearly level areas, mostly in the central and is confined to poorly drained, nearly level areas or de-
northern parts of the county. It generally occurs in pressions in the central and southern parts of the county.
long, narrow strips near the heads of streams and drain- The native vegetation consists of a few scattered cypress
ageways and extends along these to a point where it and slash pine trees and an undergrowth of various
merges with poorly drained Mixed alluvial land. The water-tolerant herbs and grasses.
native vegetation consists of a few scattered longleaf Profile description:
and slash pines and an undergrowth of various water-
tolerant herbs and grasses. 0 to 6 inches, dark-gray fine sand; loose and single grained.
rofle desrition 6 to 42 inches, light brownish-gray fine sand; loose and
Profile description: single grained.
0 to 4 inches, dark-gray loamy sand; very friable; weak The surface soil varies from gray to very dark gray
fine crumb structure.
4 to 24 inches, gray loamy sand mottled with strong brown in color and from 4 to 7 inches in thickness. The sub-
and light gray; very friable; weak fine crumb structure, surface horizons contain more brown color than those of
24 to 42 inches, light-gray loamy sand mottled with strong the other Plummer soils. Some small areas with a loamy
brown; very friable; weak fine crumb structure. fine sand surface soil, and a few small areas with slopes
The surface soil varies from gray to very dark gray in excess of 2 percent, are included with this soil. This
in color and from 4 to 7 inches in thickness. The sub- Plummer soil is saturated during the rainy seasons, and
soil, ranging from a light gray to grayish brown in water stands on much of the surface for long periods
color, is a loamy sand that, in many places, contains after rains. The water table is always high.







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 29

Use and management.-Because of its limited extent mostly of water-tolerant herbs and grasses, but in some
and poor drainage, Plummer fine sand is of minor agri- areas there are a few scattered gum and oak trees.
cultural importance. None of it is cultivated. Drainage Profile description:
ditches are required for satisfactory use. This soil is o to 14 inches, black loam; friable; fine crumb structure;
best suited to forest and pasture. Improved pasture contains large amounts of organic matter.
should not be established unless drainage is economically 14 to 20 inches, very dark grayish-brown fine sandy clay
feasible and lime and complete fertilizers can be applied loam; firm; weak medium subangular blocky structure.
easily and lime and complete fertilizer can to 28 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy clay loam with
liberally. This soil needs at least partial drainage if brownish-yellow and gray mottles; firm; moderate medium
planted slash pine is to grow satisfactorily, subangular blocky structure.
Plummer sand (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Pf; Vw-1).- The black surface soil ranges from 10 to 14 inches in
This soil is essentially similar to Plummer loamy sand, thickness. The subsoil, ranging from a light gray to
level phase, and to Plummer fine sand. It differs pri- light grayish brown, is a firm fine sandy clay loam. The
marily in having less material of fine texture and more amount of mottling generally increases with depth. Tex-
medium and coarse sand throughout the profile. This ture and structure vary to some extent. Areas near
soil is confined to poorly drained, nearly level areas in Mixed alluvial land, poorly drained, generally have a
the southwestern part of the county. It is closely asso- somewhat coarser texture than those in the small depres-
ciated with Rutlege sand. In some places the native sions surrounded by upland soils of fine texture. Natu-
vegetation consists only of a ground cover of water- ral drainage is very poor, and water stands on much of
tolerant herbs and grasses, but in other areas a few the soil during wet seasons. Surface runoff is slow
scattered cypress trees and slash pines also grow. Some because the soil is nearly level, and the fine texture of
small areas support a dense growth of titi. the subsoil impedes the downward movement of water.
Profile description: Use and management.-This soil cannot be cultivated
0 to 3 inches, dark-gray sand; loose and single grained. without artificial drainage. Good pasture cannot be had
3 to 14 inches, gray sand; loose and single grained, without partial drainage. If lime and complete fertilizer
14 to 42 inches, light-gray sand; loose and single grained, are applied, pasture can be established where it is eco-
The surface soil varies from gray to very dark gray nomically feasible to improve drainage.
in color and from 2 to 5 inches in thickness. In places As this soil occurs in Escambia County, it is best for
the subsoil contains brownish-gray sands. Some areas forest. Though it is capable of higher uses, reclamation
of Rutlege sand are included with this soil because they is seldom feasible. Growth of slash pine can be im-
were too small to map separately. proved with simple drainage.
This soil is poorly drained. Water often stands on
the surface for long periods during the rainy seasons, Portsmouth, Grady, and Bayboro Soils
and the water table is always high. Few areas are large
enough or in positions suitable for drainage. The soil Portsmouth, Grady, and Bayboro soils (0 to 2 percent
is strongly acid throughout the profile and contains small slopes) (Ph; Vw-1).-These soils occur in wet, ponded
amounts of organic matter, areas in the northern part of the county. They vary in
Use and management.-This soil is of little agricul- texture and color and are so intricately mixed that they
tural value. Low fertility and poor drainage limit the cannot be shown separately on a map of the scale used.
use primarily to forest and the grazing of native vegeta- This undifferentiated group of soils occupies naturally
tion. Improved pastures should be established only if it wooded areas, all, or most, of which are covered with
is economically sound to provide water control and to water or stay saturated throughout the year. Most of
apply lime and complete fertilizers liberally. At least these areas occur within the Tifton-Irvington-Lynchburg
partial drainage is necessary if planted slash pine is to soil association. Profiles of Grady and Portsmouth soils
grow satisfactorily. are described under the Grady and Portsmouth series.
Following is a description of a Bayboro profile:
Portsmouth Series 0 to 14 inches, black fine sandy loam; friable; crumb struc-
ture.
The soils of the Portsmouth series are in upland areas. 14mass inches, very dark gray fine sandy clay loam; firm;
They formed under conditions of very poor drainage 20 to 30 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy clay with a
from thick beds of acid sandy clays and clays. They are few brownish-yellow mottlings; firm; massive.
associated with the Norfolk and Lynchburg soils. They 30 to 42 inches, gray fine sandy clay with common, medium,
differ from these soils in being poorly or very poorly brownish-yellow mottles; firm; massive.
drained, in having thicker and darker surface layers, Variations are common in the profile of the Bayboro
and in having less yellow coloring in the lower horizons. soil and the other soils in this mapping unit. In places
The Portsmouth soils have almost no surface runoff. there is a shallow covering of organic matter.
They are acid throughout their profiles. These soils are Use and management.-These soils are not suitable for
not used for cultivated crops unless drained. the crops generally grown. Although a few of the
Portsmouth loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Pg; smaller areas may be drained at a somewhat low cost,
Portsmoth loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Pg; it is not economically feasible to drain most of them.
2).-This soil is in slight depressions that slope gradu- In extremely dry seasons, some of these soils become dry
ally toward the center. Small areas are scattered enough to provide limited pasture for cattle. Improved
throughout the county. Where the soil occurs near forest management, as described for other poorly drained
Mixed alluvial land, poorly drained, it slopes stream- areas, would prove nearly as beneficial for these soils
ward very gradually. The native vegetation consists as improvement for pasture.







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 29

Use and management.-Because of its limited extent mostly of water-tolerant herbs and grasses, but in some
and poor drainage, Plummer fine sand is of minor agri- areas there are a few scattered gum and oak trees.
cultural importance. None of it is cultivated. Drainage Profile description:
ditches are required for satisfactory use. This soil is o to 14 inches, black loam; friable; fine crumb structure;
best suited to forest and pasture. Improved pasture contains large amounts of organic matter.
should not be established unless drainage is economically 14 to 20 inches, very dark grayish-brown fine sandy clay
feasible and lime and complete fertilizers can be applied loam; firm; weak medium subangular blocky structure.
easily and lime and complete fertilizer can to 28 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy clay loam with
liberally. This soil needs at least partial drainage if brownish-yellow and gray mottles; firm; moderate medium
planted slash pine is to grow satisfactorily, subangular blocky structure.
Plummer sand (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Pf; Vw-1).- The black surface soil ranges from 10 to 14 inches in
This soil is essentially similar to Plummer loamy sand, thickness. The subsoil, ranging from a light gray to
level phase, and to Plummer fine sand. It differs pri- light grayish brown, is a firm fine sandy clay loam. The
marily in having less material of fine texture and more amount of mottling generally increases with depth. Tex-
medium and coarse sand throughout the profile. This ture and structure vary to some extent. Areas near
soil is confined to poorly drained, nearly level areas in Mixed alluvial land, poorly drained, generally have a
the southwestern part of the county. It is closely asso- somewhat coarser texture than those in the small depres-
ciated with Rutlege sand. In some places the native sions surrounded by upland soils of fine texture. Natu-
vegetation consists only of a ground cover of water- ral drainage is very poor, and water stands on much of
tolerant herbs and grasses, but in other areas a few the soil during wet seasons. Surface runoff is slow
scattered cypress trees and slash pines also grow. Some because the soil is nearly level, and the fine texture of
small areas support a dense growth of titi. the subsoil impedes the downward movement of water.
Profile description: Use and management.-This soil cannot be cultivated
0 to 3 inches, dark-gray sand; loose and single grained. without artificial drainage. Good pasture cannot be had
3 to 14 inches, gray sand; loose and single grained, without partial drainage. If lime and complete fertilizer
14 to 42 inches, light-gray sand; loose and single grained, are applied, pasture can be established where it is eco-
The surface soil varies from gray to very dark gray nomically feasible to improve drainage.
in color and from 2 to 5 inches in thickness. In places As this soil occurs in Escambia County, it is best for
the subsoil contains brownish-gray sands. Some areas forest. Though it is capable of higher uses, reclamation
of Rutlege sand are included with this soil because they is seldom feasible. Growth of slash pine can be im-
were too small to map separately. proved with simple drainage.
This soil is poorly drained. Water often stands on
the surface for long periods during the rainy seasons, Portsmouth, Grady, and Bayboro Soils
and the water table is always high. Few areas are large
enough or in positions suitable for drainage. The soil Portsmouth, Grady, and Bayboro soils (0 to 2 percent
is strongly acid throughout the profile and contains small slopes) (Ph; Vw-1).-These soils occur in wet, ponded
amounts of organic matter, areas in the northern part of the county. They vary in
Use and management.-This soil is of little agricul- texture and color and are so intricately mixed that they
tural value. Low fertility and poor drainage limit the cannot be shown separately on a map of the scale used.
use primarily to forest and the grazing of native vegeta- This undifferentiated group of soils occupies naturally
tion. Improved pastures should be established only if it wooded areas, all, or most, of which are covered with
is economically sound to provide water control and to water or stay saturated throughout the year. Most of
apply lime and complete fertilizers liberally. At least these areas occur within the Tifton-Irvington-Lynchburg
partial drainage is necessary if planted slash pine is to soil association. Profiles of Grady and Portsmouth soils
grow satisfactorily. are described under the Grady and Portsmouth series.
Following is a description of a Bayboro profile:
Portsmouth Series 0 to 14 inches, black fine sandy loam; friable; crumb struc-
ture.
The soils of the Portsmouth series are in upland areas. 14mass inches, very dark gray fine sandy clay loam; firm;
They formed under conditions of very poor drainage 20 to 30 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy clay with a
from thick beds of acid sandy clays and clays. They are few brownish-yellow mottlings; firm; massive.
associated with the Norfolk and Lynchburg soils. They 30 to 42 inches, gray fine sandy clay with common, medium,
differ from these soils in being poorly or very poorly brownish-yellow mottles; firm; massive.
drained, in having thicker and darker surface layers, Variations are common in the profile of the Bayboro
and in having less yellow coloring in the lower horizons. soil and the other soils in this mapping unit. In places
The Portsmouth soils have almost no surface runoff. there is a shallow covering of organic matter.
They are acid throughout their profiles. These soils are Use and management.-These soils are not suitable for
not used for cultivated crops unless drained. the crops generally grown. Although a few of the
Portsmouth loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Pg; smaller areas may be drained at a somewhat low cost,
Portsmoth loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Pg; it is not economically feasible to drain most of them.
2).-This soil is in slight depressions that slope gradu- In extremely dry seasons, some of these soils become dry
ally toward the center. Small areas are scattered enough to provide limited pasture for cattle. Improved
throughout the county. Where the soil occurs near forest management, as described for other poorly drained
Mixed alluvial land, poorly drained, it slopes stream- areas, would prove nearly as beneficial for these soils
ward very gradually. The native vegetation consists as improvement for pasture.







30 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Red Bay Series
The soils of the Red Bay series are among the reddest
soils of the county. They developed from beds of un-
consolidated sandy loam to sandy clay Coastal Plain
materials. These soils are associated with the Blakely,
Ruston, Faceville, and Norfolk soils. Red Bay soils
differ from the Blakely soils in all horizons because they
contain less reddish-brown color. They differ from the
Norfolk, Ruston, and Faceville soils because they contain
more red color. They are less friable throughout the '. "
lower horizons than the Norfolk and Ruston soils. .. A 6 h
The Red Bay soils are well drained and are moderately 4 .."..: '.
permeable in the subsoil. They are low in content of .l ; .
organic matter and in natural fertility. Red Bay soils .
are acid throughout their profile. They are used mostly -
to produce field crops. _4 V'
Red Bay fine sandy loam, level phase (0 to 2 percent : "
slopes) (Ra; I-1).-This is one of the more important f .
agricultural soils of the county. The largest areas occur ..-'. i.
in the northern part, although there are a few isolated
areas in the central part. This soil occurs as nearly Figure 6.-Soybeans on Red Bay fine sandy loam.
level areas along the smooth interstream divides. The
native vegetation consists of a mixture of hardwoods Legumes and grasses suitable for temporary pasture
and longleaf pines, produce abundant grazing of high quality if lime and
Profile description: moderate amounts of fertilizer are applied and if un-
0 to 6 inches, dark reddish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; desirable herbage is clipped. Permanent pastures are
weak fine crumb structure. rarely established, as this soil is well suited to intensive
6 to 12 inches, yellowish-red fine sandy loam; friable; weak use for most of the crops generally grown.
fine crumb structure. Red Bay fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase
12 to 24 inches, red fine sandy clay loam; friable; fine sub- (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Rb; IIe-l).-This soil has profile
angular blocky structure. characteristics similar to those of the Red Bay fine sandy
24 to 42 inches, red fine sandy clay loam; firm; medium
subangular blocky structure. loam, level phase, and generally occurs in close associa-
tion with it. Runoff is more rapid than on the level
The surface soil varies from dark grayish brown to phase because of the slightly stronger slopes. A few
dark reddish brown in color and from 4 to 8 inches in areas that have been affected by sheet erosion and, in
thickness. The fine sandy clay loam subsoil ranges from some places, by gully erosion are included with this soil.
red to yellowish red. Approximately one-third of the Use and management.-Most of this soil has been
total acreage of .this soil contains fine sandy loam mate- cleared and is used for field crops and pasture. Its suit-
rials to depths of 18 to 20 inches. In these areas the ability for crops, need for fertilization, yields, and man-
subsoil is a fine sandy clay loam that has the color, con- agement requirements are somewhat similar to those
sistence, structure, or texture of the subsoil that occurs described for Red Bay fine sandy loam, level phase.
in the typical areas at depths between 10 and 14 inches. Susceptibility to erosion increases with slope, and the
The acreage that has the sandy clay loam subsoil closer surface soil therefore averages a little thinner than that
to the surface is more desirable for most crops. This of the level phase. Because this soil is permeable and
soil is not eroded, nor is it subject to serious erosion. has gentle slopes, erosion can be controlled satisfactorily
Use and management.-Red Bay fine sandy loam, level by contour plowing, use of crop rotations that include
phase, is one of the best general-purpose soils in the close-growing plants at least half the time, and similar
county. Practically all of it has been cleared of native simple practices. In some places terracing may be de-
vegetation and is used for field crops and pasture. Good sirable. Under a high level of management, yields are
tilth is easy to establish and maintain. This soil can be similar to those on the level phase.
cultivated over a wide range of moisture content and Red Bay fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase (5 to
has little tendency to clod. Plant roots freely penetrate 8 percent slopes) (Rc; IIIe-1).-This soil is on gentle
the subsoil. This soil responds well to fertilization and slopes. Its profile is similar to that of Red Bay fine
t. i sandy loam, level phase. Practically all of this soil is
other good management practices, such as liming, the on short slopes adjacent to drainageways and to Red
incorporation of organic matter, and using a suitable Bay soils of smoother relief. Runoff develops rapidly
crop rotation. after heavy rains, and the degree of erosion varies widely.
This soil retains sufficient moisture and plant nutrients The surface soil is almost removed in small areas along
for the common field crops; however, potatoes are not the upper slopes, and it is very shallow in most places.
grown because they require more moisture. Under good On the lower slopes, however, an accumulation of soil
management and with a favorable distribution of rain- material commonly has been deposited on the surface
fall, excellent yields of cotton, corn, soybeans, wheat, layer. Some small areas with slopes in excess of 8 per-
and oats are common (fig. 6). cent are included with this soil, as well as a few that








ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 31

have been affected by sheet erosion and, in some places, for cattle. Satisfactory improved pastures can be estab-
by gully erosion, lished if lime and complete fertilizers are used.
Use and management.-Some of this soil has been Fire control, the selective cutting of trees, and use of
cleared and is now used for crops and pasture. Crop similar improved forest management will benefit all areas
yields are normally considerably lower than those ob- of this soil that are not being used for crops and pasture.
trained on the level phase. Where the soil is cultivated, Red Bay loamy fine sand, very gently sloping thick
precautions need to be taken to reduce erosion and to surface phase (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Re; IIIs-1).-The
conserve moisture. This soil is capable of producing profile characteristics of this soil are similar to those of
excellent pasture. To maintain a high carrying capacity, Red Bay loamy fine sand, level thick surface phase. This
adequate lime and moderate amounts of complete ferti- soil is closely associated with the level phases of Red
lizer need to be applied to pastures frequently. Bay loamy fine sand and fine sandy loam. Runoff is
Red Bay loamy fine sand, level thick surface phase more rapid than on the level thick surface phase of Red
(0 to 2 percent slopes) (Rd;IIs-1).-This soil differs from Bay loamy fine sand. Some very small areas of Eustis
the Red Bay fine sandy loam, level phase, primarily loamy fine sand and Red Bay fine sandy loam are in-
because (1) it has fine sandy loam or fine sandy clay cluded with this soil. A few areas of Red Bay loamy
loam at greater depths; (2) its surface soil is a loamy fine sand, very gently sloping thick surface phase, that
fine sand instead of a fine sandy loam; and (3) it is are affected by sheet erosion and, in some places, by
sandier throughout the profile. Small areas of this soil gully erosion, are included.
occur in many fields, generally in close association with Use and rnanaremcnt.-Only a small acreage of this
Red Bay fine sandy loams. Many small areas are be- soil is used for crops. Its low fertility and low moisture-
tween the Red Bay fine sandy loams and the Eustis soils, holding capacity make intensive soil improvement neces-
The largest and most typical areas of this soil are in sary if the soil is to be used as cropland. Crop yields
the northern part of the county; however, many smaller are somewhat lower than those obtained on Red Bay
areas are in the central part. The native vegetation con- loamy fine sand, level thick surface phase, but in kinds
sists mainly of scattered longleaf pine, some scattered of crops suited, fertilization needed, and management
dogwood, and a sparse growth of bluejack oak and south- required, it is somewhat similar to that soil.
ern red oak. Precautions are required to prevent erosion where this
Profile description: soil is cultivated. Normally, contour cultivation is suffi-
cient, but frequent use of cover crops or green-manure
Sto inches, dark grayish-bron loamy fine sand; ery crops is needed on some of the stronger slopes.
friable; weak fine crumb structure.
4 to 14 inches, dark-brown loamy fine sand; very friable; Most of this soil remains in cutover forest. Fire con-
weak fine crumb structure, trol, selective cutting of trees, and similar improved
14 to 30 inches, yellowish-red fine sandy loam; friable; mod- forest management greatly benefit all cutover forest
erate fine crumb structure.
30 to 42 inches, red fine sandy loam; friable; moderate are
crumb structure. Red Bay loamy fine sand, gently sloping thick sur-
face phase (5 to 8 percent slopes) (Rf; IVs-1).-This soil
The surface soil varies from dark brown to dark gray- is similar to Red Bay loamy fine sand, level thick surface
ish brown in color and from 3 to 6 inches in thickness. phase. It generally occurs along short slopes adjacent
The subsoil is yellowish red to red in color and, in most to drainageways and in close association with other Red
places, contains increasing proportions of clay at greater Bay soils. The surface soil averages a little thinner than
depths. The depth to materials of fine texture varies that of the level thick surface phase of Red Bay loamy
considerably within short distances. Some small areas fine sand. Surface runoff increases with slope, and the
of Red Bay fine sandy loam and of Eustis loamy fine soil is moderately susceptible to. erosion. Small areas
sand are included with this soil because they are too that have lost almost all of the surface soil are common
small to warrant separate mapping. Also included are along the upper slopes. A large acreage has been af-
a few slightly eroded areas. fected by sheet erosion and, in some places, by gully
Use and management.-In most places erosion is negli- erosion. Included with this soil are some areas that have
gible because of the gentle relief and the capacity of this slopes in excess of 8 percent. They were too small to
soil to absorb moisture rapidly. However, the rapid map separately. A few small areas of Eustis loamy fine
percolation removes so much moisture and plant nutrients sand and Red Bay fine sandy loam are also included with
before the plants can use them that there is not a suffi- this soil.
cient supply for maximum yields of crops commonly Use and management.-External drainage on this soil
grown. Corn, cotton, soybeans, and small grains grow is generally excessive in areas that are cleared of native
fairly well and generally return rather low yields. vegetation. Where the soil is cultivated, precautions
Even where good management is practiced, the yields need to be taken to reduce erosion and conserve moisture.
depend on favorable weather conditions because the sup- Normally, contour cultivation is sufficient, but in many
ply of moisture is near the critical level for plant growth places terraces have been used. Adequate terraces are
most of the year. To maintain fertility, organic matter too difficult to maintain and are no longer recommended.
and plant residues need to be turned under frequently. Because this soil has low fertility and is susceptible
Also, lime and liberal applications of complete fertilizers to leaching, complete fertilizers need to be applied fre-
are necessary. quently and liberally. This soil is not well suited to
Most of this soil is not cleared of native vegetation intensive agricultural use; however, under proper man-
and remains as cutover forest that furnishes poor grazing agement it provides good grazing.
500032-60- 3









32 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Rough Broken Land yellow fine sandy clay loam. A few small areas that
have materials of finer texture at depths of 30 inches or
Rough broken land (Rg; VIIe-2) consists of steep land more were included with this soil because they were too
that is broken by many drainage channels that are some- small to map separately.
times dry. It occupies rough areas in the northern part Use and management.-This soil is one of the more
of the county where external drainage is very rapid, and productive in the county. Most of it has been cleared
internal drainage is moderate. Most areas are widely of native vegetation and is now used for cultivated crops,
scattered and range from a few to approximately 25 small grains, and pasture. This soil is not damaged by
acres in size. Slopes range from 5 to about 60 percent serious erosion when ordinary care is taken. Good tilth
but in most places are between 8 and 30 percent. is easy to establish and maintain. This soil retains mois-
The surface soil, generally thin, ranges from dark ture and plant nutrients. It can be cultivated over a
grayish brown to grayish brown in color and from loamy wide range of moisture content, and plant roots penetrate
fine sand to fine sandy loam in texture. The lower hor- the subsoil freely. Winter legumes greatly help to build
zons vary within short distances. In color they range and maintain the productivity of this soil. Lime is re-
from brownish yellow to prominently mottled yellow, red, quired in moderate amounts, and crops respond well to
and gray, and in texture they range from loamy fine sand fertilizers, especially nitrogen, phosphate, potash, and to
to fine sandy clay. In places a red iron crust crops out organic matter.
on the slopes or lies near the surface. Some soil materials This soil can be farmed intensively. Good yields of
resembling those of the Lakeland, Sunsweet, and Cuth- corn and soybeans are common. This soil is especially
bert soils have been recognized, good for cotton.
This miscellaneous land type is not extensive. It is Pasture legumes and grasses produce abundant grazing
used exclusively for forest because the surface is too of high quality if they are moderately fertilized and
rough for the use of ordinary farm machinery. Ade- adequately limed.
quate measures to prevent fires are about the only requi- Ruston fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase
sites for re-establishing good longleaf pine where enough (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Rk; IIe-1).-This soil is similar
trees remain to afford stock for reseeding. Growing in to Ruston fine sandy loam, level phase, in color, texture,
the present forest are some slash pine, hickory, red oak, structure, and consistence and is closely associated with
and other hardwoods, in addition to longleaf pine. Good it. Some small areas that contain materials of finer
management practices include selective cutting of timber texture at a depth of 30 inches or more, and a few
to encourage the growth of the more desirable species, slightly eroded areas, are included with this soil.
Use and management.-A large area of this soil has
Ruston Series been cleared of native vegetation and is used for crops
and pasture. Much organize matter and liberal applica-
The soils of the Ruston series were formed mostly from tions of lime and fertilizer are necessary to bring pro-
thick beds of acid sandy loam to sandy clay materials. ductivity to a reasonably high level. Because of slightly
They are associated with the Norfolk, Red Bay, Face- stronger slopes, management is somewhat more exacting
ville, and Eustis soils. The Ruston soils differ from the than on the level phase. Special attention needs to be
Norfolk soils primarily in being redder; from the Red given to control of runoff. Although yields normally
Bay soils in being less red; from the Eustis soils in con- are a little lower than those obtained on the level phase,
tainng more fine-textured materials throughout the pro- they are approximately equal under good management.
file; and from Faceville soils in being more friable and Ruston fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase (5 to
in having a more sandy solum. 8 percent slopes) (Rm; IIIe-l).-This soil has a profile
Ruston soils are well drained and have a moderately similar to that of Ruston fine sandy loam, level phase.
permeable subsoil. They are acid throughout the pro- Almost all of this soil occurs as narrow strips adjacent
file. The content of organic matter and natural fertility to the smoother Ruston soils. Runoff develops quickly
are low. The Ruston soils are well suited to most of the during heavy rains, and the degree of erosion varies
crops commonly grown in the area. greatly. Small areas that have the surface soil almost
Ruston fine sandy loam, level phase (0 to 2 percent removed are common along the upper slopes. In places,
slopes) (Rh; I-1).-The largest acreages of this soil are in especially on the lower parts of slopes, sandy surface
the central and northern parts of the county. The soil soil material has accumulated to a considerable depth.
lies along the.broad, nearly level ridgetops. The native This soil includes some areas that have been affected by
vegetation is longleaf pine, dogwood, oak, and hickory. sheet erosion and, in some places, by gully erosion. Small
Profile description: areas that have slopes in excess of 8 percent are also
included.
0 to 5 inches, very dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam;
friable; weak fine crumb structure. Use and management.-Some of this soil has been
5 to 10 inches, dark yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; fri- cleared of native vegetation and is used for crops and
able; weak fine crumb structure, pasture. It requires more exacting management than the
10 to 24 inches, strong-brown heavy fine sandy loam; friable; level phase, for it is lower in nutrients and organic mat-
moderate fine crumb structure. ter, slightly lower in its capacity to hold water, and
24 to 42 inches, yellowish-red fine sandy clay loam; friable; y Ca t
weak fine subangular blocky structure. more susceptible to erosion. Contour tillage and use of
adequate crop rotations are needed on the more sloping
The surface soil varies from grayish brown to very areas to conserve moisture and curb soil loss through
dark grayish brown in color and from 3 to 7 inches in erosion. Crop yields are normally lower than those
thickness. The subsoil is a yellowish-red to reddish- obtained on the level phase.









32 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Rough Broken Land yellow fine sandy clay loam. A few small areas that
have materials of finer texture at depths of 30 inches or
Rough broken land (Rg; VIIe-2) consists of steep land more were included with this soil because they were too
that is broken by many drainage channels that are some- small to map separately.
times dry. It occupies rough areas in the northern part Use and management.-This soil is one of the more
of the county where external drainage is very rapid, and productive in the county. Most of it has been cleared
internal drainage is moderate. Most areas are widely of native vegetation and is now used for cultivated crops,
scattered and range from a few to approximately 25 small grains, and pasture. This soil is not damaged by
acres in size. Slopes range from 5 to about 60 percent serious erosion when ordinary care is taken. Good tilth
but in most places are between 8 and 30 percent. is easy to establish and maintain. This soil retains mois-
The surface soil, generally thin, ranges from dark ture and plant nutrients. It can be cultivated over a
grayish brown to grayish brown in color and from loamy wide range of moisture content, and plant roots penetrate
fine sand to fine sandy loam in texture. The lower hor- the subsoil freely. Winter legumes greatly help to build
zons vary within short distances. In color they range and maintain the productivity of this soil. Lime is re-
from brownish yellow to prominently mottled yellow, red, quired in moderate amounts, and crops respond well to
and gray, and in texture they range from loamy fine sand fertilizers, especially nitrogen, phosphate, potash, and to
to fine sandy clay. In places a red iron crust crops out organic matter.
on the slopes or lies near the surface. Some soil materials This soil can be farmed intensively. Good yields of
resembling those of the Lakeland, Sunsweet, and Cuth- corn and soybeans are common. This soil is especially
bert soils have been recognized, good for cotton.
This miscellaneous land type is not extensive. It is Pasture legumes and grasses produce abundant grazing
used exclusively for forest because the surface is too of high quality if they are moderately fertilized and
rough for the use of ordinary farm machinery. Ade- adequately limed.
quate measures to prevent fires are about the only requi- Ruston fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase
sites for re-establishing good longleaf pine where enough (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Rk; IIe-1).-This soil is similar
trees remain to afford stock for reseeding. Growing in to Ruston fine sandy loam, level phase, in color, texture,
the present forest are some slash pine, hickory, red oak, structure, and consistence and is closely associated with
and other hardwoods, in addition to longleaf pine. Good it. Some small areas that contain materials of finer
management practices include selective cutting of timber texture at a depth of 30 inches or more, and a few
to encourage the growth of the more desirable species, slightly eroded areas, are included with this soil.
Use and management.-A large area of this soil has
Ruston Series been cleared of native vegetation and is used for crops
and pasture. Much organize matter and liberal applica-
The soils of the Ruston series were formed mostly from tions of lime and fertilizer are necessary to bring pro-
thick beds of acid sandy loam to sandy clay materials. ductivity to a reasonably high level. Because of slightly
They are associated with the Norfolk, Red Bay, Face- stronger slopes, management is somewhat more exacting
ville, and Eustis soils. The Ruston soils differ from the than on the level phase. Special attention needs to be
Norfolk soils primarily in being redder; from the Red given to control of runoff. Although yields normally
Bay soils in being less red; from the Eustis soils in con- are a little lower than those obtained on the level phase,
tainng more fine-textured materials throughout the pro- they are approximately equal under good management.
file; and from Faceville soils in being more friable and Ruston fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase (5 to
in having a more sandy solum. 8 percent slopes) (Rm; IIIe-l).-This soil has a profile
Ruston soils are well drained and have a moderately similar to that of Ruston fine sandy loam, level phase.
permeable subsoil. They are acid throughout the pro- Almost all of this soil occurs as narrow strips adjacent
file. The content of organic matter and natural fertility to the smoother Ruston soils. Runoff develops quickly
are low. The Ruston soils are well suited to most of the during heavy rains, and the degree of erosion varies
crops commonly grown in the area. greatly. Small areas that have the surface soil almost
Ruston fine sandy loam, level phase (0 to 2 percent removed are common along the upper slopes. In places,
slopes) (Rh; I-1).-The largest acreages of this soil are in especially on the lower parts of slopes, sandy surface
the central and northern parts of the county. The soil soil material has accumulated to a considerable depth.
lies along the.broad, nearly level ridgetops. The native This soil includes some areas that have been affected by
vegetation is longleaf pine, dogwood, oak, and hickory. sheet erosion and, in some places, by gully erosion. Small
Profile description: areas that have slopes in excess of 8 percent are also
included.
0 to 5 inches, very dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam;
friable; weak fine crumb structure. Use and management.-Some of this soil has been
5 to 10 inches, dark yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; fri- cleared of native vegetation and is used for crops and
able; weak fine crumb structure, pasture. It requires more exacting management than the
10 to 24 inches, strong-brown heavy fine sandy loam; friable; level phase, for it is lower in nutrients and organic mat-
moderate fine crumb structure. ter, slightly lower in its capacity to hold water, and
24 to 42 inches, yellowish-red fine sandy clay loam; friable; y Ca t
weak fine subangular blocky structure. more susceptible to erosion. Contour tillage and use of
adequate crop rotations are needed on the more sloping
The surface soil varies from grayish brown to very areas to conserve moisture and curb soil loss through
dark grayish brown in color and from 3 to 7 inches in erosion. Crop yields are normally lower than those
thickness. The subsoil is a yellowish-red to reddish- obtained on the level phase.








ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 33

This soil is well suited to pasture. Where the more Some very small areas of Eustis loamy fine sand and
desirable grasses and legumes are adequately limed and Ruston fine sandy loam are included with this soil. Also
fertilized, a high carrying capacity can be maintained, included are a few areas that have been affected by sheet
Ruston loamy fine sand, level thick surface phase (0 and occasional gully erosion.
to 2 percent slopes) (Rn; IIs-1).-This soil differs from Use and management.-Crop adaptation, yields, and
Ruston fine sandy loam, level phase, primarily because fertilization closely parallel those of Ruston loamy fine
it has fine sandy loam or fine sandy clay loam at greater sand, level thick surface phase. Where the soil is to be
depths, has a loamy fine sand instead of fine sandy loam cultivated, precautions need to be taken to prevent ero-
surface soil, and is more sandy throughout. It is gener- sion. Normally, contour cultivation is used to conserve
ally closely associated with Ruston fine sandy loam and moisture and reduce erosion. This soil responds to good
Eustis soils. management, but its low fertility and unfavorable mois-
The larger areas of this soil are confined to the central ture conditions make it somewhat poorly suited to culti-
and northern parts of the county. The native vegetation vated crops. Most of the acreage remains as cutover
consists of scattered longleaf pine, dogwood, some blue- forest, and the native cover furnishes poor grazing for
jack oak and southern red oak, and various native cattle.
grasses. Ruston loamy fine sand, gently sloping thick surface
Profile description: phase (5 to 8 percent slopes) (Rp; IVs-1).-This soil oc-
0 to 4 inches, dark grayish-brown loamy fine sand; very cupies gentle slopes. The profile characteristics are simi-
friable; weak fine crumb structure; contains small amounts lar to those of the level thick surface phase of Ruston
of organic matter. loamy fine sand. This soil occurs on short slopes adja-
4 to 12 inches, dark yellowish-brown loamy fine sand; very cent to drainageways. It is closely associated with other
friable; weak fine crumb structure.
12 to 24 inches, yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; Ruston soils and Red Bay soils.
moderate fine crumb structure. Much of the total area of this soil has been affected
24 to 42 inches, strong-brown fine sandy loam; friable; mod- by slight sheet erosion and, in some places, by gully
rate fine crumb structure. erosion. Small areas that have lost much of the surface
The surface soil varies from dark grayish brown to soil are common along the upper slopes. This soil in-
grayish brown in color and from 3 to 7 inches in thick- cludes some small areas that have sandy materials
ness. The subsoil is yellowish red to strong brown in throughout the profile on the lower slopes, as well as a
color and generally contains more clay as depth in- few areas that have slopes in excess of 8 percent and
creases. are too small to map separately.
Some small areas of Ruston fine sandy loam and Eustis Runoff from areas under native vegetation is rapid to
loamy fine sand are included with this soil because they excessive. In areas that are cleared for crop production
were too small to map separately, it is generally excessive. Internal drainage is rapid,
Because the sandy surface soil is porous, water perco- but in cleared areas less moisture penetrates to the sub-
lates through it rather rapidly and removes part of the soil because of the surface runoff.
soluble plant nutrients before the plants can use them. Use and management.-Where the soil is cultivated,
There is almost no erosion because of the gentle slope precautions need to be taken to reduce erosion and con-
and the capacity of this soil to absorb moisture readily. serve moisture. Close-growing crops should occupy cul-
Use and management.-Small areas of this soil are in tivated fields most of the time. The occasional row
many fields. The low water-holding capacity and the crops should be planted on the contour. Terraces are
content of plant nutrients are not sufficient for maximum too difficult to maintain and are no longer recommended
yields of crops, although average yields are obtained for this soil. Without proper management the quality
under good management. Corn, cotton, soybeans, and of vegetation is poor, the yield is light, and the carrying
field peas make fair growth and generally return aver- capacity of pasture is very low. Because this soil has
age yields, low fertility and is susceptible to leaching, it requires
Large quantities of organic matter need to be turned liberal applications of complete fertilizer. It is not well
under each year, or at least in alternate years, to main- suited to intensive agricultural use. Under careful man-
tain productivity. Liberal applications of complete fer- agement, however, it can provide good grazing.
tilizers are also necessary. Where good management is
practiced the yields depend mostly on favorable weather Rutlege Series
conditions, as the supply of moisture is near the critical t Seri
level during much of the growing season. The Rutlege soils formed under poor drainage from
To establish improved pasture, frequent applications thick beds of acid sandy materials. They are associated
of fertilizers are required, and lime is needed. Annual with the Plummer, Portsmouth, Leon, and Klej soils.
applications of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are nec- They differ from Plummer soils because they have a thick
essary after the grass has been established. Under good black surface soil, and from the Portsmouth soil because
management, 2 or 3 acres of the resulting pasture can lac e o fieteture mterils
support a cow. they lac a layer of fine-textured materials within a
Ruston loamy fine sand, very gently sloping thick depth of 30 inches. Rutlege soils are more poorly
surface phase (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Ro;IIIs-1).-This drained and have a darker and thicker surface layer
soil is similar to the level thick surface phase of Ruston than the Leon and Klej soils.
loamy fine sand and is closely associated with other The Rutlege surface soil contains much organic matter.
Ruston soils. External drainage is more rapid than on The soils are poorly and very poorly drained, primarily
the level phase because of the slightly stronger slopes, because of a high water table. They are acid in reaction








34 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

throughout the profile. One soil of this series was texture and in being less friable throughout the solum;
mapped in the county; it is not used for cultivated crops, whereas, in the central part they differ from the Norfolk
Rutlege sand (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Rs; IIIw-2).- soils mainly on the basis of their tendency to develop
The dominantly large, irregular bodies of this soil are a pan. Savannah soils are moderately well drained and
mostly in poorly drained and very poorly drained, nearly moderately to slowly permeable in the subsoil. They are
level areas in the southwestern part of the county. The acid throughout.
soil commonly occurs adjacent to Fresh water swamp, Savannah fine sandy loam, level thick solum phase
and generally between this miscellaneous land type and (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Sa; IIw-1).-The most typical
better drained soils. It frequently occurs in depressions areas of this soil are confined to the northern part of the
and has a very gradual slope toward the center of the county, where they occupy parts of the smooth inter-
depression. stream divides. This soil was originally forested with a
In places the native vegetation consists only of a heavy growth of longleaf pine. Except in a few very
ground cover of herbs and grasses that grow in water small areas, the timber has been removed.
or water-saturated soil, but in other areas a few scat- Profile description:
tered cypress, slash pine, and gallberry also grow. Many 0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
small areas that have a dense growth of titi are scattered weak fine crumb structure.
over this soil. 5 to 10 inches, yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
Profile description: weak fine crumb structure.
0 to 12 inches, black sand; very friable; weak fine crumb 10 to 24 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam; firm;
structure. fine subangular blocky structure.
12 to 32 inches, dark-gray sand; very friable; weak fine 24 to 36 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam weakly
crumb structure, mottled with brown, pale yellow, and red; firm; moderate
32 to 42 inches, light brownish-gray sand; loose and single subangular blocky structure.
grained. 36 to 42 inches, fine sandy loam with brownish-yellow, strong-
brown, pale-yellow, and red mottles; firm; massive and
The surface soil is black and varies from 10 to 14 tending toward development of a pan.
inches in thickness. The subsurface horizons range from The surface soil varies from very dark grish brown
gray to very dark gray and in many places contain o raish ro i cor a fom 3 to 7 inches in
more brown color than the typical Rutlege soils. This to grayish brown in color and from 3 to 7 inches in
more brown color than the typical Rutlege soils. This thickness. The subsoil is a yellow to a brownish-yellow
soil includes' some areas of Plummer sand that were too fine sandy clay loam. The depth to mottled materials
s lto map separately. fine sandy clay loam. The depth to mottled materials
small to map separately. varies considerably within short distances. In many
Unless it is drained, Rutlege sand is not well suited varies considerably within short distances. In many
to crops that require tillage. The water table is con- places the tendency toward pan formation is not appar-
to crops that require tillage. The water table is con- ent within a depth of 42 inches. In most places it is
tinuously high, and it is generally normal for water to difficult to recognize the tendency toward a pan if a soil
stand on the surface for long periods during rainy sea- auger is used in taking samples.
sons. It is economically unsound to provide water con--In the northern part of the
trol in most of the depressional areas because of the Use and ,this soil has go physical properthern part of these, good work-
difficulties and expense involved. This soil is best suited county this soil has good physical properties, good work-
to forest and pasture. ability, and a good capacity for absorbing moisture.
to forest and pasture. Control of erosion is not a difficult problem. The soil
Use and management.- here it is economically soundwell suited
to provide water control, this soil is suitable for a limited responds well to good management and is well suited
to intensive use. Moderate amounts of lime and liberal
variety of crops, but is fairly good for pasture. Lime i o ete feilie e d t i
must be applied, and liberal amounts of a complete fer- applications of complete fertilizer are required to main-
tilizer are needed annually after the grass is established. tain high productivity.
Under good management 2 or 3 acres of the resulting' Most of this soil has been cleared of native vegetation
pastUnder good management or 3 acres of the resulting and is in constant use for field crops. Corn, cotton, soy-
Slash pine is planted in a few areas. For its satisfac- beans, small grains, and potatoes produce good yields.
tory growth, this soil requires at least partial drainage. Since this is one of the better soils for general field
Growth is excellent where a sufficient number of shallow crops, it is not often used for pasture. Where fertility
open ditches are used to dispose of the excess surface is kept at a fairly high level, excellent pasture of high
water. Poor drainage limits the use of this soil mostly quality can be produced. Where legumes are grown lime
to forest and grazing of native vegetation. needs to be added when the reaction of the surface soil
falls below pH 6.0.
Savannah fine sandy loam, very gently sloping thick
Savannah Series solum phase (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Sb; IIe-3).-This
The Savannah soils formed from thick beds of uncon- soil differs from Savannah fine sandy loam, level thick
solidated sandy clay loams and sandy clays. They are solum phase, because it has a somewhat sandier solum,
associated with the Tifton, Faceville, Carnegie, and has a lower capacity for holding water, and erodes more
Norfolk soils. Savannah soils differ from them in tend- easily. Various amounts of iron concretions are pres-
ing toward a pan development in the lower subsoil. ent. The largest and most typical areas of this soil are
They do not have the numerous reddish-brown iron con- confined to the central part of the county.
cretions that are in the Tifton soils, and from the Face- This soil contains areas of less than one-quarter acre
ville soils they differ in lacking the yellowish-red to red up to several acres in size that have lost various amounts
lower horizons. of the surface soil through sheet erosion. These eroded
The Savannah soils in the northern part of the county areas produce less and do not have so good a moisture
differ from the Norfolk soils mainly in having a finer supply or so much organic matter as the uneroded areas.








ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 35

Use and management.-Conservation practices are Most of this soil is used for forest products and wood-
more difficult on this soil than on the level thick solum land pasture. Where the soil is used exclusively for
phase of Savannah fine sandy loam. But the soil re- forest, management needs to include fire control and the
spends to good management, and it is similar to the selective cutting of timber.
level phase in productivity, land use, fertilizer require-
ments, and suitability for crops. The use of this soil Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert Soils
and the yields produced depend much on the care it
receives. Only a small percentage of the total acreage In parts of this county small areas of Sunsweet, Car-
is cultivated; most of it remains as cutover forest. negie, and Cuthbert soils are so intricately mixed that
they cannot be shown separately on a map of the scale
Stough Series used. The largest and most typical areas are in the
northern part of the county. To a lesser extent, there
The soils of the Stough series developed from materials are areas in the central part, but in the southern part
that were washed from acid upland soils by the streams there are none.
when they flowed at higher levels. These soils are asso- The small bodies of soils are mixed, both across and
ciated with the Barth, Kalmia, and Myatt soils, up and down the slopes. Surface runoff and erosion
The Stough soils differ from the Barth soils primarily vary considerably with the degree of slope and the plant
because they contain more soil materials of fine texture cover. Most of the areas are poorly suited to crops or
throughout the profile. From the Kalmia soils they pasture.
differ in being somewhat more poorly drained, and from Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, very gently
the Myatt soils they differ in being better drained and sloping phases (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Sd; VIe-1).-
more yellow throughout the profile. These soils occur most consistently in the northern part
Surface runoff on Stough soils is slow; internal drain- of the county, although a few widely scattered areas
age is slow to medium. These soils are acid throughout are in the central part. In most areas they are in long,
their profile. Although the content of organic matter narrow strips adjacent to streams and drainageways.
and natural fertility are low, these soils are suited to Runoff is rapid, and internal drainage is medium to
many of the crops commonly grown in the area. slow. The vegetation is primarily longleaf pine, with
Stough fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Sc; a few scattered red oaks and dogwoods.
IIIw-1).-The most typical areas of this soil are con- A profile of Carnegie fine sandjr loam is described on
fined to narrow strips along the Perdido River in the page 10. Profiles of the other two soils are described
southwestern part of the county and along the Escambia as follows:
River in the northeast. The soil occurs on nearly level Sunsweet soil:
terraces that are somewhat poorly drained. The native 0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
cover is a mixture of pine, sweetgum, and several kinds weak crumb structure.
of oak. 6 to 12 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam; friable;
Profile dcriion: weak medium subangular blocky structure.
rofile description: 12 to 20 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam with
0 to 6 inches, dark-gray fine sandy loam; friable; weak fine few pale-yellow, yellowish-brown, and red mottles; firm;
crumb structure. moderate medium subangular blocky structure.
6 to 12 inches, grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; weak 20 to 42 inches, fine sandy clay mottled with pale yellow,
fine crumb structure. strong brown, red, and light gray; firm; massive (struc-
12 to 24 inches, light yellowish-brown fine sandy clay loam tureless).
faintly mottled with yellow in the lower part; friable; Small, rounded, brown or reddish-brown iron concre-
weak fine subangular blocky structure.
24 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam mottled tions occur on and throughout the surface soil. In places
with yellow, strong brown, and light gray; friable; weak an iron crust of varying thicknesses lies at or near the
fine subangular blocky structure, surface' The thickness of the surface soil varies widely
The surface soil varies from very dark gray to dark according to slope and degree of erosion.
grayish brown in color and from 5 to 7 inches in thick- Cuthbert soil:
ness. The subsoil is light yellowish-brown to brownish- 0 to 4 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
yellow, friable fine sandy clay loam. A few areas that weak fine crumb structure; some iron concretions.
have a loamy fine sand surface soil are included with 4 to 16 inches, yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
moderate medium crumb structure; iron concretions may
this soil, as are a few very gently to gently sloping or may not be present.
areas with slopes in excess of 2 percent. 16 to 42 inches, reddish-yellow fine sandy clay; common,
Use and management.-This soil is of only local agri- medium, red and gray mottles present; firm; massive
cultural importance. Drainage ditches are necessary if (structureless).
it is to be used successfully for row crops or pasture. According to differences in slope and erosion, the sur-
Corn, soybeans, small grains, and similar crops produce face soil varies from very dark grayish brown to grayish
fair yields if moderate quantities of lime and liberal brown in color, and also varies in thickness. In places
amounts of complete fertilizers are applied. Good yields iron concretions occur within the upper horizons. The
are common in seasons that have a favorable distribution depth to mottling varies, and the mottles themselves vary
of rainfall, in abundance, size, and contrast.
Fairly good improved pasture can be maintained on Use and management.-Most areas of these soils are
this soil by applying a complete fertilizer frequently and used for forestry and native range. Second-growth pine
supplying enough lime to keep the soil reaction within does very well. Fire control, selective cutting of trees,
the best range for plant growth. Under good manage- and similar good management would benefit the forested
ment 2 or 3 acres of this pasture can support a cow. areas.








ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 35

Use and management.-Conservation practices are Most of this soil is used for forest products and wood-
more difficult on this soil than on the level thick solum land pasture. Where the soil is used exclusively for
phase of Savannah fine sandy loam. But the soil re- forest, management needs to include fire control and the
spends to good management, and it is similar to the selective cutting of timber.
level phase in productivity, land use, fertilizer require-
ments, and suitability for crops. The use of this soil Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert Soils
and the yields produced depend much on the care it
receives. Only a small percentage of the total acreage In parts of this county small areas of Sunsweet, Car-
is cultivated; most of it remains as cutover forest. negie, and Cuthbert soils are so intricately mixed that
they cannot be shown separately on a map of the scale
Stough Series used. The largest and most typical areas are in the
northern part of the county. To a lesser extent, there
The soils of the Stough series developed from materials are areas in the central part, but in the southern part
that were washed from acid upland soils by the streams there are none.
when they flowed at higher levels. These soils are asso- The small bodies of soils are mixed, both across and
ciated with the Barth, Kalmia, and Myatt soils, up and down the slopes. Surface runoff and erosion
The Stough soils differ from the Barth soils primarily vary considerably with the degree of slope and the plant
because they contain more soil materials of fine texture cover. Most of the areas are poorly suited to crops or
throughout the profile. From the Kalmia soils they pasture.
differ in being somewhat more poorly drained, and from Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, very gently
the Myatt soils they differ in being better drained and sloping phases (2 to 5 percent slopes) (Sd; VIe-1).-
more yellow throughout the profile. These soils occur most consistently in the northern part
Surface runoff on Stough soils is slow; internal drain- of the county, although a few widely scattered areas
age is slow to medium. These soils are acid throughout are in the central part. In most areas they are in long,
their profile. Although the content of organic matter narrow strips adjacent to streams and drainageways.
and natural fertility are low, these soils are suited to Runoff is rapid, and internal drainage is medium to
many of the crops commonly grown in the area. slow. The vegetation is primarily longleaf pine, with
Stough fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Sc; a few scattered red oaks and dogwoods.
IIIw-1).-The most typical areas of this soil are con- A profile of Carnegie fine sandjr loam is described on
fined to narrow strips along the Perdido River in the page 10. Profiles of the other two soils are described
southwestern part of the county and along the Escambia as follows:
River in the northeast. The soil occurs on nearly level Sunsweet soil:
terraces that are somewhat poorly drained. The native 0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
cover is a mixture of pine, sweetgum, and several kinds weak crumb structure.
of oak. 6 to 12 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam; friable;
Profile dcriion: weak medium subangular blocky structure.
rofile description: 12 to 20 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam with
0 to 6 inches, dark-gray fine sandy loam; friable; weak fine few pale-yellow, yellowish-brown, and red mottles; firm;
crumb structure. moderate medium subangular blocky structure.
6 to 12 inches, grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable; weak 20 to 42 inches, fine sandy clay mottled with pale yellow,
fine crumb structure. strong brown, red, and light gray; firm; massive (struc-
12 to 24 inches, light yellowish-brown fine sandy clay loam tureless).
faintly mottled with yellow in the lower part; friable; Small, rounded, brown or reddish-brown iron concre-
weak fine subangular blocky structure.
24 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam mottled tions occur on and throughout the surface soil. In places
with yellow, strong brown, and light gray; friable; weak an iron crust of varying thicknesses lies at or near the
fine subangular blocky structure, surface' The thickness of the surface soil varies widely
The surface soil varies from very dark gray to dark according to slope and degree of erosion.
grayish brown in color and from 5 to 7 inches in thick- Cuthbert soil:
ness. The subsoil is light yellowish-brown to brownish- 0 to 4 inches, dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
yellow, friable fine sandy clay loam. A few areas that weak fine crumb structure; some iron concretions.
have a loamy fine sand surface soil are included with 4 to 16 inches, yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; friable;
moderate medium crumb structure; iron concretions may
this soil, as are a few very gently to gently sloping or may not be present.
areas with slopes in excess of 2 percent. 16 to 42 inches, reddish-yellow fine sandy clay; common,
Use and management.-This soil is of only local agri- medium, red and gray mottles present; firm; massive
cultural importance. Drainage ditches are necessary if (structureless).
it is to be used successfully for row crops or pasture. According to differences in slope and erosion, the sur-
Corn, soybeans, small grains, and similar crops produce face soil varies from very dark grayish brown to grayish
fair yields if moderate quantities of lime and liberal brown in color, and also varies in thickness. In places
amounts of complete fertilizers are applied. Good yields iron concretions occur within the upper horizons. The
are common in seasons that have a favorable distribution depth to mottling varies, and the mottles themselves vary
of rainfall, in abundance, size, and contrast.
Fairly good improved pasture can be maintained on Use and management.-Most areas of these soils are
this soil by applying a complete fertilizer frequently and used for forestry and native range. Second-growth pine
supplying enough lime to keep the soil reaction within does very well. Fire control, selective cutting of trees,
the best range for plant growth. Under good manage- and similar good management would benefit the forested
ment 2 or 3 acres of this pasture can support a cow. areas.








36 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Few areas can be used safely for field crops, but most sweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, particularly control
areas will produce satisfactory improved pasture. Man- of fire and selective cutting, will encourage growth of
agement is complicated, however, by the fact that the more desirable trees in these soils.
soils vary so much within short distances. As soon as
the soils are cleared, steps should be taken to control Tidal Marsh
erosion and conserve moisture. Good management will
include use of lime and fertilizer to establish a good sod Tidal marsh (Ta; VIII-1) consists of areas along the
cover, coast that are often covered by salt water or brackish
Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, gently slop- water at high tide. It lies adjacent to bays and lagoons
ing phases (5 to 8 percent slopes) (Se; VIe-1).-These in the southwestern part of the county. These flat or
soils normally are on short slopes adjacent to streams nearly level areas are associated with Coastal dune land
and drainageways in the central and northern parts of and beach; they are only a few feet above sea level.
the county. Most of the acreage has been affected by Included with this land are a few tidal flats that are
varying amounts of sheet erosion and occasional gully almost barren because they are so salty.
erosion. Some small areas are so eroded that ordinary Use and management.-This land has little agricul-
tillage will reach into the subsoil. In other places all tural value. It is used mainly for wildlife. It is tree-
of the surface soil and part of the subsoil have been less but has a dense covering of salt-tolerant rushes,
removed, herbs, and grasses that have accumulated various amounts
Use and management.-Only a small part of the total of partly broken up and decayed organic matter. Many
acreage has been cleared, as these soils are not well suited burrows of fiddler crabs are in these salt flats and along
to cultivation. They need more exacting management the edges of the dense vegetation.
than Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, very gently
sloping phases, and crop yields are slightly to consider- Tifton Series
ably lower. Forest management suggested for the very
gently sloping phases would be beneficial on these soils. Soils of the Tifton series developed from beds of un-
Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, eroded slop- consolidated sandy clay loams and sandy clays. An out-
ing phases (8 to 12 percent slopes) (Sf; VIIe-l).-The standing feature of these upland soils is the presence of
largest and most typical areas of these soils are adjacent many small, brown or gray, rounded iron concretions
to streams and drainageways in the northern part of the on the surface and throughout the profile. Tifton soils
county. Smaller areas are in the north-central part. are associated with Carnegie, Norfolk, and Irvington
Most of the areas are eroded to the extent that ordinary soils and Lynchburg gravelly very fine sandy loam.
tillage will reach into the subsoil. In places, particu- Tifton soils differ from the Carnegie soils in ranging
larly on the upper slopes, all of the surface soil and from yellow to brownish yellow, rather than yellowish
part of the subsoil have been removed by erosion. The red to red, in the subsoil. From the Norfolk soils they
profiles of these soils are variable, and in places a red differ because they have many concretions, are browner
iron crust crops out on the slopes or lies near the sur- in color, and contain more materials of fine texture
face. These soils are more extensive than the other throughout the profile. They differ from Irvington soils
phases of Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils. in being better drained and in containing mottled hori-
Use and management.-These soils are not well suited zons at greater depths. From Lynchburg gravelly very
to agriculture, but satisfactory improved pastures can be fine sandy loam they differ in occupying a higher topo-
established on the more desirable areas if a high level graphic position, in being better drained, in containing
of management is practiced. The strong slopes and fewer mottles at greater depths, and in having a fine
slowly permeable subsoil will cause serious erosion if sandy loam, instead of a very fine sandy loam, surface
the soils are not protected by vegetation, soil.
Most of the acreage is in forest and is probably best Tifton soils are well drained and are moderately per-
Most of the acreage is in forest and is probably best meable in the subsoil. They have a low supply of
suited to that use. The growth consists mostly of long- meable matter, and all horizons of the profile are acid.
leaf pine and red oak. The forest management practices organic matter, and all horizons of the profile are acid.
leaf pine and red oak. The forest management practices Tifton soils are well suited to the crops generally grown
suggested for other phases of Sunsweet, Carnegie, and in the area.
Cuthbert soils are suitable for these soils. n the area.
Soils si l Tifton fine sandy loam, level phase (0 to 2 percent
Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, severely slopes) (Tb; I-2).-This soil occurs along broad ridgetops
eroded sloping phases (8 to 12 percent slopes) (Sg; and is confined to the central and northern parts of the
VIIe-1).--These intricately mixed soils occur in long, county. It is one of the most extensive soils in the
narrow strips adjacent to streams and drainageways, county. The native vegetation consists mainly of pines
mainly in the northern part of the county. The amount and a few scattered oaks and hickory.
of erosion varies, but in most areas practically all, or all, Profile description:
of the original surface soil has been removed, and in o to 4 inches, dark-gray fine sandy loam; friable; granular
some places part of the subsoil is gone. Included are structure.
a few areas that are less eroded than the rest. 4 to 10 inches, brownish-yellow heavy fine sandy loam; fri-
Use and manageent.-Mainly because of strong able; fine crumb structure; iron concretions.
Use and anaement.-Main because of strong to inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam to fine
slopes and erosion, these soils are not suited to agricul- sandy clay; friable to firm; medium subangular blocky
ture. Most of the acreage is in cutover forest consisting structure; iron concretions.
of af pine, rd o hic a The 36 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay mottled with
of longleaf pine, red oak, hickory, and dogwood. Thestrong brown and reddish yellow; friable to firm; medium
forest management suggested for other phases of Sun- subangular blocky structure.








36 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Few areas can be used safely for field crops, but most sweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, particularly control
areas will produce satisfactory improved pasture. Man- of fire and selective cutting, will encourage growth of
agement is complicated, however, by the fact that the more desirable trees in these soils.
soils vary so much within short distances. As soon as
the soils are cleared, steps should be taken to control Tidal Marsh
erosion and conserve moisture. Good management will
include use of lime and fertilizer to establish a good sod Tidal marsh (Ta; VIII-1) consists of areas along the
cover, coast that are often covered by salt water or brackish
Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, gently slop- water at high tide. It lies adjacent to bays and lagoons
ing phases (5 to 8 percent slopes) (Se; VIe-1).-These in the southwestern part of the county. These flat or
soils normally are on short slopes adjacent to streams nearly level areas are associated with Coastal dune land
and drainageways in the central and northern parts of and beach; they are only a few feet above sea level.
the county. Most of the acreage has been affected by Included with this land are a few tidal flats that are
varying amounts of sheet erosion and occasional gully almost barren because they are so salty.
erosion. Some small areas are so eroded that ordinary Use and management.-This land has little agricul-
tillage will reach into the subsoil. In other places all tural value. It is used mainly for wildlife. It is tree-
of the surface soil and part of the subsoil have been less but has a dense covering of salt-tolerant rushes,
removed, herbs, and grasses that have accumulated various amounts
Use and management.-Only a small part of the total of partly broken up and decayed organic matter. Many
acreage has been cleared, as these soils are not well suited burrows of fiddler crabs are in these salt flats and along
to cultivation. They need more exacting management the edges of the dense vegetation.
than Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, very gently
sloping phases, and crop yields are slightly to consider- Tifton Series
ably lower. Forest management suggested for the very
gently sloping phases would be beneficial on these soils. Soils of the Tifton series developed from beds of un-
Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, eroded slop- consolidated sandy clay loams and sandy clays. An out-
ing phases (8 to 12 percent slopes) (Sf; VIIe-l).-The standing feature of these upland soils is the presence of
largest and most typical areas of these soils are adjacent many small, brown or gray, rounded iron concretions
to streams and drainageways in the northern part of the on the surface and throughout the profile. Tifton soils
county. Smaller areas are in the north-central part. are associated with Carnegie, Norfolk, and Irvington
Most of the areas are eroded to the extent that ordinary soils and Lynchburg gravelly very fine sandy loam.
tillage will reach into the subsoil. In places, particu- Tifton soils differ from the Carnegie soils in ranging
larly on the upper slopes, all of the surface soil and from yellow to brownish yellow, rather than yellowish
part of the subsoil have been removed by erosion. The red to red, in the subsoil. From the Norfolk soils they
profiles of these soils are variable, and in places a red differ because they have many concretions, are browner
iron crust crops out on the slopes or lies near the sur- in color, and contain more materials of fine texture
face. These soils are more extensive than the other throughout the profile. They differ from Irvington soils
phases of Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils. in being better drained and in containing mottled hori-
Use and management.-These soils are not well suited zons at greater depths. From Lynchburg gravelly very
to agriculture, but satisfactory improved pastures can be fine sandy loam they differ in occupying a higher topo-
established on the more desirable areas if a high level graphic position, in being better drained, in containing
of management is practiced. The strong slopes and fewer mottles at greater depths, and in having a fine
slowly permeable subsoil will cause serious erosion if sandy loam, instead of a very fine sandy loam, surface
the soils are not protected by vegetation, soil.
Most of the acreage is in forest and is probably best Tifton soils are well drained and are moderately per-
Most of the acreage is in forest and is probably best meable in the subsoil. They have a low supply of
suited to that use. The growth consists mostly of long- meable matter, and all horizons of the profile are acid.
leaf pine and red oak. The forest management practices organic matter, and all horizons of the profile are acid.
leaf pine and red oak. The forest management practices Tifton soils are well suited to the crops generally grown
suggested for other phases of Sunsweet, Carnegie, and in the area.
Cuthbert soils are suitable for these soils. n the area.
Soils si l Tifton fine sandy loam, level phase (0 to 2 percent
Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, severely slopes) (Tb; I-2).-This soil occurs along broad ridgetops
eroded sloping phases (8 to 12 percent slopes) (Sg; and is confined to the central and northern parts of the
VIIe-1).--These intricately mixed soils occur in long, county. It is one of the most extensive soils in the
narrow strips adjacent to streams and drainageways, county. The native vegetation consists mainly of pines
mainly in the northern part of the county. The amount and a few scattered oaks and hickory.
of erosion varies, but in most areas practically all, or all, Profile description:
of the original surface soil has been removed, and in o to 4 inches, dark-gray fine sandy loam; friable; granular
some places part of the subsoil is gone. Included are structure.
a few areas that are less eroded than the rest. 4 to 10 inches, brownish-yellow heavy fine sandy loam; fri-
Use and manageent.-Mainly because of strong able; fine crumb structure; iron concretions.
Use and anaement.-Main because of strong to inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay loam to fine
slopes and erosion, these soils are not suited to agricul- sandy clay; friable to firm; medium subangular blocky
ture. Most of the acreage is in cutover forest consisting structure; iron concretions.
of af pine, rd o hic a The 36 to 42 inches, brownish-yellow fine sandy clay mottled with
of longleaf pine, red oak, hickory, and dogwood. Thestrong brown and reddish yellow; friable to firm; medium
forest management suggested for other phases of Sun- subangular blocky structure.







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 37

The surface soil varies from dark gray to very dark Use and imanagement.-Some of this soil has been
grayish brown in color and from 4 to 7 inches in thick- cleared of native vegetation and is being used for crops.
ness. Mottlings in the subsoil, generally at depths of Suitability for crops, fertilization, and, under proper
30 inches or more, vary considerably as to abundance, management, yields closely parallel those of Tifton fine
size, and contrast. In places the surface is nearly cov- sandy loam, level phase. To keep productivity at a rea-
ered with small, rounded, iron concretions, and in others sonably high level, cover crops need to be grown. They
they are nearly absent. In most places, however, the help to increase the content of organic matter and to
quantity ranges from 10 to 25 percent of the soil mass improve the moisture-holding capacity. Because of the
and the greatest amount is at depths between 6 and 18 dominantly gentle slopes, this soil is only moderately
inches. This soil is not susceptible to erosion, primarily susceptible to severe erosion; however, intensively used
because of its gentle slope. It is well drained and has areas that have stronger slopes need some simple prac-
moderate internal drainage. tices to control runoff and erosion. The management
In the northwestern part of the county, some small needs of this soil are primarily liming, fertilization, in-
areas of Irvington soils are included with this soil. corporation of organic matter, use of a suitable crop rota-
Use and management.-This is one of the best agri- tion, and control of surface runoff.
cultural soils in the county, and much of it is under Tifton fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase (5 to 8
cultivation (fig. 7). Plant roots penetrate the sidbsoil percent slopes) (Td; IIIe-2).-This soil is similar to Tif-
freely, and the soil retains enough moisture to insure at ton fine sandy loam, level phase. Almost all of it occurs
least part of a crop during the more severe droughts. as an outer border, or narrow band, around areas of the
This soil can be cultivated over a wide range of moisture level phase or on slightly stronger slopes adjacent to
content. Because it contains so much sand, good tilth drainageways. The color of the subsoil varies somewhat
is easy to establish and maintain, and in places may range from brownish yellow to yel-
lowish red. Much of this soil has been affected by sheet
erosion and, in some places, by gully erosion.
Use and management.-Most of this soil remains in
cutover forest, and the native vegetation furnishes poor
grazing for cattle. If this soil is cultivated, it requires
careful management that will conserve and maintain its
productivity. Erosion needs to be checked. Normally,
contour cultivation is used; however, in many places
terraces are needed. Crop yields in most places are
somewhat lower than those obtained on Tifton fine sandy
loam, level phase. Although this soil is a little more
difficult to work and conserve than the level phase, it
responds well to applications of lime and fertilizer.
Legume crops can be grown to add the required organic
matter.
Where fertility is kept high, pastures of high quality
can be produced (fig. 8). The more desirable grasses
and legumes grow well under good management, and a
pasture of high carrying capacity is not extremely diffi-
cult to maintain.

Figure 7.-Soybeans and corn on Tifton fine sandy loam. Trees
in background are on Red Bay fine sandy loam. Soils of both
series are desirable for soybeans and corn; excellent yields are
obtained.
This soil can be used intensively. It is well suited to
a wide range of crops and pasture. Potatoes. soybeans.
corn, small grains, and, to a lesser extent, cotton will
grow well and return high yields. Where potatoes are
grown the soil reaction needs to be kept at a somewhat
lower pH than for other crops, to control potato scab.
Management requirements of this soil are not very ex-
acting. Primarily they are additions of lime in moderate
amounts, fertilization, incorporation of organic matter,
and use of a suitable crop rotation.
Tifton fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase (2
to 5 percent slopes) (Tc; IIe-2).-In profile character-
istics and in most other respects this soil is similar to
the Tifton fine sandy loam, level phase. It generally is
closely associated with other Tifton soils. A few slightly
eroded areas and some small areas that have a reddish- Figure 8.-Dairy cattle grazing improved grass-legume pasture on
yellow subsoil are included. Tifton fine sandy loam.







38 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. S

Wahee Series may or may not be similar in their suitability for agri-
culture.
Soils of the Wahee series developed from materials The soils of Escambia County can be generalized in
that washed from acid upland soils. These materials 12 soil associations, which arc shown on the colored map
were brought down and deposited by streams when they at the back of this report. Each association has a de-
flowed at higher levels. The Wahee soils are associated scriptive name, as shown in the legend for the lmap. A
with the Izagora, Kalmia, and Myatt soils. They differ part of this descriptive name is the name of those soil
from the Izagora and Kalnia soils in being less well series dominant in the association. The name of the
drained. They have finer textured subsurface layers series most extensive in the association is given first.
than the Izagora, Kahnia, and Myatt soils. The Wahlee Thus, in association 2 (Tifton-Irvington-Lynchburg),
soils are somewhat poorly drained, or slightly better the Tifton soil is listed first because it is the most exten-
drained than the soils of tile Myatt series. Wahee soils sive. In any association there may be minor areas of
have slow surface runoff, very slow internal drainage, soils belonging to series not listed in the name of the
and a very strongly acid reaction throughout the profile. association.
One soil of the Wahee series was mapped in the county. Soil association maps are used for different purposes
Wahee very fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) than detailed soil maps. Thev are useful to those who
(Wa: Vw-1 ).-This soil is in small areas or strips along are interested in the ability of large areas to support a
the Escambia River in the northeastern part of the prosperous agriculture, or to people interested in the
county. It is in level to nearly level, somewhat poorly main problems that confront the farmers 1oi most of the
drained areas that slope very gently streamward. The farms in a given area. Soil association maps are also
native vegetation consists of pine, sweetgum, and several useful in regional studies of agricultural production,
kinds of oak. forestry, water storage, flood reduction. and highways,
Profile description: electric services, and other public facilities.
0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown very fine sandy loam; In the following pages the 12 soil associations are
friable; weak medium crumb structure. discussed il the order they are shown on the map legend.
5 to 16 inches, light olive-brown fine sandy clay loam with The associations have been separated into three major
ommoin, nediumr faint mottkle of t yellow; friable; weak groups according to topographic positions. Nearly level
niedium suha.mngular blocky structure.
16 to 22 inches, light yellowish-brown silty clay loamni with to gently sloping soils on uplands; sloping to steel) soils
common, medium, distinct mottles of brownish yellow and on uplands; and nearly level soils of river terraces, de-
a few fine prominent mottles of yellowish red; firm; mod- pressions, and lowlands.
rate mmedium suhangular blocky structure.
22 to 42 inches, clay mottled with light brownish gray,
brownish yellow, and red; very firm; strong medium sub- Nearly Level to Gently Sloping Soils on
angular blocky structure. Uplands
The surface soil varies from dark grayish brown to
very dark grayish brown in color and from 4 to ( inches The nearly level to gently sloping soils on the uplands
in thickness. The subsoil is a firm silty clay loam to in this county make up associations 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 9.
clay that is prominently mottled with red. yellow, and The locations of the various areas of these soil associa-
gray. A few small, slightly better drained areas that tions are shown on the colored map at the back of this
have a yellowish-red and red subsoil and show some report.
variation in texture and structure are included with this Dark reddishbrown loams and sandy loams; red
soil. Included also are a few areas that have very subsoils; well drained: Red Bay-Blakely (1)
gentle slopes in excess of 2 percent.
Some of this soil is overflowed when streams are at This association occurs in level to gently undulating
high flood stage. Drainage is rather poor because the areas, mostly in the northern part of the county. The
surface is nearly level and the subsoil is fine textured. soils are well drained. Internal drainage is medium.
Since the compact subsoil does not allow water to perco- The Blakely soils occur as scattered pockets within
late readily, this soil may erode under cultivation, al- much larger areas of Red Bay soils. The Red Bay soils
though the slope is mainly less than 2 percent. The soil occupy more than 75 times the acreage occupied by the
does not allow easy penetration of roots. Blakely soils.
Use and 111.1111o1 ,11 ,n ,.-There is little of Wahee very Many of the better farms are on this soil association.
fine sandy loam in the county. It is almost all in un- Nearly all of the acreage has been cleared and is used
developed woodland. None is cultivated. Adequate fo general farming. Tilled crops, small grais, and
water control for cultivated crops is difficult and gener- legumes are the main crops. The soils are low in natu-
ally not feasible. This soil is suitable for improved ral fertility, but they can be built up to, and maintained
Si. Tis sil is it i at, a good level of productivity. The soils of this asso-
pasture if simple surface drainage is provided. citation present only a few simple problems of manage-
ment. They are well suited to intensive agricultural use.
Soil Associations Dark-gray sandy loams; mottled subsoils; well
drained to somewhat poorly drained: Tifton-
A soil association consists of an area in which the Irvington-Lynchburg (2)
soils form a characteristic geographic pattern. It may This soil association lies in a broad strip extending
contain many soils or only a few. The soils may be north from Walnut Hill to the State line and southward
similar or very different. The soils in an association on both sides of Boggy Creek as far as McKinnonville.







38 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. S

Wahee Series may or may not be similar in their suitability for agri-
culture.
Soils of the Wahee series developed from materials The soils of Escambia County can be generalized in
that washed from acid upland soils. These materials 12 soil associations, which arc shown on the colored map
were brought down and deposited by streams when they at the back of this report. Each association has a de-
flowed at higher levels. The Wahee soils are associated scriptive name, as shown in the legend for the lmap. A
with the Izagora, Kalmia, and Myatt soils. They differ part of this descriptive name is the name of those soil
from the Izagora and Kalnia soils in being less well series dominant in the association. The name of the
drained. They have finer textured subsurface layers series most extensive in the association is given first.
than the Izagora, Kahnia, and Myatt soils. The Wahlee Thus, in association 2 (Tifton-Irvington-Lynchburg),
soils are somewhat poorly drained, or slightly better the Tifton soil is listed first because it is the most exten-
drained than the soils of tile Myatt series. Wahee soils sive. In any association there may be minor areas of
have slow surface runoff, very slow internal drainage, soils belonging to series not listed in the name of the
and a very strongly acid reaction throughout the profile. association.
One soil of the Wahee series was mapped in the county. Soil association maps are used for different purposes
Wahee very fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) than detailed soil maps. Thev are useful to those who
(Wa: Vw-1 ).-This soil is in small areas or strips along are interested in the ability of large areas to support a
the Escambia River in the northeastern part of the prosperous agriculture, or to people interested in the
county. It is in level to nearly level, somewhat poorly main problems that confront the farmers 1oi most of the
drained areas that slope very gently streamward. The farms in a given area. Soil association maps are also
native vegetation consists of pine, sweetgum, and several useful in regional studies of agricultural production,
kinds of oak. forestry, water storage, flood reduction. and highways,
Profile description: electric services, and other public facilities.
0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown very fine sandy loam; In the following pages the 12 soil associations are
friable; weak medium crumb structure. discussed il the order they are shown on the map legend.
5 to 16 inches, light olive-brown fine sandy clay loam with The associations have been separated into three major
ommoin, nediumr faint mottkle of t yellow; friable; weak groups according to topographic positions. Nearly level
niedium suha.mngular blocky structure.
16 to 22 inches, light yellowish-brown silty clay loamni with to gently sloping soils on uplands; sloping to steel) soils
common, medium, distinct mottles of brownish yellow and on uplands; and nearly level soils of river terraces, de-
a few fine prominent mottles of yellowish red; firm; mod- pressions, and lowlands.
rate mmedium suhangular blocky structure.
22 to 42 inches, clay mottled with light brownish gray,
brownish yellow, and red; very firm; strong medium sub- Nearly Level to Gently Sloping Soils on
angular blocky structure. Uplands
The surface soil varies from dark grayish brown to
very dark grayish brown in color and from 4 to ( inches The nearly level to gently sloping soils on the uplands
in thickness. The subsoil is a firm silty clay loam to in this county make up associations 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 9.
clay that is prominently mottled with red. yellow, and The locations of the various areas of these soil associa-
gray. A few small, slightly better drained areas that tions are shown on the colored map at the back of this
have a yellowish-red and red subsoil and show some report.
variation in texture and structure are included with this Dark reddishbrown loams and sandy loams; red
soil. Included also are a few areas that have very subsoils; well drained: Red Bay-Blakely (1)
gentle slopes in excess of 2 percent.
Some of this soil is overflowed when streams are at This association occurs in level to gently undulating
high flood stage. Drainage is rather poor because the areas, mostly in the northern part of the county. The
surface is nearly level and the subsoil is fine textured. soils are well drained. Internal drainage is medium.
Since the compact subsoil does not allow water to perco- The Blakely soils occur as scattered pockets within
late readily, this soil may erode under cultivation, al- much larger areas of Red Bay soils. The Red Bay soils
though the slope is mainly less than 2 percent. The soil occupy more than 75 times the acreage occupied by the
does not allow easy penetration of roots. Blakely soils.
Use and 111.1111o1 ,11 ,n ,.-There is little of Wahee very Many of the better farms are on this soil association.
fine sandy loam in the county. It is almost all in un- Nearly all of the acreage has been cleared and is used
developed woodland. None is cultivated. Adequate fo general farming. Tilled crops, small grais, and
water control for cultivated crops is difficult and gener- legumes are the main crops. The soils are low in natu-
ally not feasible. This soil is suitable for improved ral fertility, but they can be built up to, and maintained
Si. Tis sil is it i at, a good level of productivity. The soils of this asso-
pasture if simple surface drainage is provided. citation present only a few simple problems of manage-
ment. They are well suited to intensive agricultural use.
Soil Associations Dark-gray sandy loams; mottled subsoils; well
drained to somewhat poorly drained: Tifton-
A soil association consists of an area in which the Irvington-Lynchburg (2)
soils form a characteristic geographic pattern. It may This soil association lies in a broad strip extending
contain many soils or only a few. The soils may be north from Walnut Hill to the State line and southward
similar or very different. The soils in an association on both sides of Boggy Creek as far as McKinnonville.







38 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. S

Wahee Series may or may not be similar in their suitability for agri-
culture.
Soils of the Wahee series developed from materials The soils of Escambia County can be generalized in
that washed from acid upland soils. These materials 12 soil associations, which arc shown on the colored map
were brought down and deposited by streams when they at the back of this report. Each association has a de-
flowed at higher levels. The Wahee soils are associated scriptive name, as shown in the legend for the lmap. A
with the Izagora, Kalmia, and Myatt soils. They differ part of this descriptive name is the name of those soil
from the Izagora and Kalnia soils in being less well series dominant in the association. The name of the
drained. They have finer textured subsurface layers series most extensive in the association is given first.
than the Izagora, Kahnia, and Myatt soils. The Wahlee Thus, in association 2 (Tifton-Irvington-Lynchburg),
soils are somewhat poorly drained, or slightly better the Tifton soil is listed first because it is the most exten-
drained than the soils of tile Myatt series. Wahee soils sive. In any association there may be minor areas of
have slow surface runoff, very slow internal drainage, soils belonging to series not listed in the name of the
and a very strongly acid reaction throughout the profile. association.
One soil of the Wahee series was mapped in the county. Soil association maps are used for different purposes
Wahee very fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) than detailed soil maps. Thev are useful to those who
(Wa: Vw-1 ).-This soil is in small areas or strips along are interested in the ability of large areas to support a
the Escambia River in the northeastern part of the prosperous agriculture, or to people interested in the
county. It is in level to nearly level, somewhat poorly main problems that confront the farmers 1oi most of the
drained areas that slope very gently streamward. The farms in a given area. Soil association maps are also
native vegetation consists of pine, sweetgum, and several useful in regional studies of agricultural production,
kinds of oak. forestry, water storage, flood reduction. and highways,
Profile description: electric services, and other public facilities.
0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown very fine sandy loam; In the following pages the 12 soil associations are
friable; weak medium crumb structure. discussed il the order they are shown on the map legend.
5 to 16 inches, light olive-brown fine sandy clay loam with The associations have been separated into three major
ommoin, nediumr faint mottkle of t yellow; friable; weak groups according to topographic positions. Nearly level
niedium suha.mngular blocky structure.
16 to 22 inches, light yellowish-brown silty clay loamni with to gently sloping soils on uplands; sloping to steel) soils
common, medium, distinct mottles of brownish yellow and on uplands; and nearly level soils of river terraces, de-
a few fine prominent mottles of yellowish red; firm; mod- pressions, and lowlands.
rate mmedium suhangular blocky structure.
22 to 42 inches, clay mottled with light brownish gray,
brownish yellow, and red; very firm; strong medium sub- Nearly Level to Gently Sloping Soils on
angular blocky structure. Uplands
The surface soil varies from dark grayish brown to
very dark grayish brown in color and from 4 to ( inches The nearly level to gently sloping soils on the uplands
in thickness. The subsoil is a firm silty clay loam to in this county make up associations 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 9.
clay that is prominently mottled with red. yellow, and The locations of the various areas of these soil associa-
gray. A few small, slightly better drained areas that tions are shown on the colored map at the back of this
have a yellowish-red and red subsoil and show some report.
variation in texture and structure are included with this Dark reddishbrown loams and sandy loams; red
soil. Included also are a few areas that have very subsoils; well drained: Red Bay-Blakely (1)
gentle slopes in excess of 2 percent.
Some of this soil is overflowed when streams are at This association occurs in level to gently undulating
high flood stage. Drainage is rather poor because the areas, mostly in the northern part of the county. The
surface is nearly level and the subsoil is fine textured. soils are well drained. Internal drainage is medium.
Since the compact subsoil does not allow water to perco- The Blakely soils occur as scattered pockets within
late readily, this soil may erode under cultivation, al- much larger areas of Red Bay soils. The Red Bay soils
though the slope is mainly less than 2 percent. The soil occupy more than 75 times the acreage occupied by the
does not allow easy penetration of roots. Blakely soils.
Use and 111.1111o1 ,11 ,n ,.-There is little of Wahee very Many of the better farms are on this soil association.
fine sandy loam in the county. It is almost all in un- Nearly all of the acreage has been cleared and is used
developed woodland. None is cultivated. Adequate fo general farming. Tilled crops, small grais, and
water control for cultivated crops is difficult and gener- legumes are the main crops. The soils are low in natu-
ally not feasible. This soil is suitable for improved ral fertility, but they can be built up to, and maintained
Si. Tis sil is it i at, a good level of productivity. The soils of this asso-
pasture if simple surface drainage is provided. citation present only a few simple problems of manage-
ment. They are well suited to intensive agricultural use.
Soil Associations Dark-gray sandy loams; mottled subsoils; well
drained to somewhat poorly drained: Tifton-
A soil association consists of an area in which the Irvington-Lynchburg (2)
soils form a characteristic geographic pattern. It may This soil association lies in a broad strip extending
contain many soils or only a few. The soils may be north from Walnut Hill to the State line and southward
similar or very different. The soils in an association on both sides of Boggy Creek as far as McKinnonville.







38 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. S

Wahee Series may or may not be similar in their suitability for agri-
culture.
Soils of the Wahee series developed from materials The soils of Escambia County can be generalized in
that washed from acid upland soils. These materials 12 soil associations, which arc shown on the colored map
were brought down and deposited by streams when they at the back of this report. Each association has a de-
flowed at higher levels. The Wahee soils are associated scriptive name, as shown in the legend for the lmap. A
with the Izagora, Kalmia, and Myatt soils. They differ part of this descriptive name is the name of those soil
from the Izagora and Kalnia soils in being less well series dominant in the association. The name of the
drained. They have finer textured subsurface layers series most extensive in the association is given first.
than the Izagora, Kahnia, and Myatt soils. The Wahlee Thus, in association 2 (Tifton-Irvington-Lynchburg),
soils are somewhat poorly drained, or slightly better the Tifton soil is listed first because it is the most exten-
drained than the soils of tile Myatt series. Wahee soils sive. In any association there may be minor areas of
have slow surface runoff, very slow internal drainage, soils belonging to series not listed in the name of the
and a very strongly acid reaction throughout the profile. association.
One soil of the Wahee series was mapped in the county. Soil association maps are used for different purposes
Wahee very fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) than detailed soil maps. Thev are useful to those who
(Wa: Vw-1 ).-This soil is in small areas or strips along are interested in the ability of large areas to support a
the Escambia River in the northeastern part of the prosperous agriculture, or to people interested in the
county. It is in level to nearly level, somewhat poorly main problems that confront the farmers 1oi most of the
drained areas that slope very gently streamward. The farms in a given area. Soil association maps are also
native vegetation consists of pine, sweetgum, and several useful in regional studies of agricultural production,
kinds of oak. forestry, water storage, flood reduction. and highways,
Profile description: electric services, and other public facilities.
0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown very fine sandy loam; In the following pages the 12 soil associations are
friable; weak medium crumb structure. discussed il the order they are shown on the map legend.
5 to 16 inches, light olive-brown fine sandy clay loam with The associations have been separated into three major
ommoin, nediumr faint mottkle of t yellow; friable; weak groups according to topographic positions. Nearly level
niedium suha.mngular blocky structure.
16 to 22 inches, light yellowish-brown silty clay loamni with to gently sloping soils on uplands; sloping to steel) soils
common, medium, distinct mottles of brownish yellow and on uplands; and nearly level soils of river terraces, de-
a few fine prominent mottles of yellowish red; firm; mod- pressions, and lowlands.
rate mmedium suhangular blocky structure.
22 to 42 inches, clay mottled with light brownish gray,
brownish yellow, and red; very firm; strong medium sub- Nearly Level to Gently Sloping Soils on
angular blocky structure. Uplands
The surface soil varies from dark grayish brown to
very dark grayish brown in color and from 4 to ( inches The nearly level to gently sloping soils on the uplands
in thickness. The subsoil is a firm silty clay loam to in this county make up associations 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 9.
clay that is prominently mottled with red. yellow, and The locations of the various areas of these soil associa-
gray. A few small, slightly better drained areas that tions are shown on the colored map at the back of this
have a yellowish-red and red subsoil and show some report.
variation in texture and structure are included with this Dark reddishbrown loams and sandy loams; red
soil. Included also are a few areas that have very subsoils; well drained: Red Bay-Blakely (1)
gentle slopes in excess of 2 percent.
Some of this soil is overflowed when streams are at This association occurs in level to gently undulating
high flood stage. Drainage is rather poor because the areas, mostly in the northern part of the county. The
surface is nearly level and the subsoil is fine textured. soils are well drained. Internal drainage is medium.
Since the compact subsoil does not allow water to perco- The Blakely soils occur as scattered pockets within
late readily, this soil may erode under cultivation, al- much larger areas of Red Bay soils. The Red Bay soils
though the slope is mainly less than 2 percent. The soil occupy more than 75 times the acreage occupied by the
does not allow easy penetration of roots. Blakely soils.
Use and 111.1111o1 ,11 ,n ,.-There is little of Wahee very Many of the better farms are on this soil association.
fine sandy loam in the county. It is almost all in un- Nearly all of the acreage has been cleared and is used
developed woodland. None is cultivated. Adequate fo general farming. Tilled crops, small grais, and
water control for cultivated crops is difficult and gener- legumes are the main crops. The soils are low in natu-
ally not feasible. This soil is suitable for improved ral fertility, but they can be built up to, and maintained
Si. Tis sil is it i at, a good level of productivity. The soils of this asso-
pasture if simple surface drainage is provided. citation present only a few simple problems of manage-
ment. They are well suited to intensive agricultural use.
Soil Associations Dark-gray sandy loams; mottled subsoils; well
drained to somewhat poorly drained: Tifton-
A soil association consists of an area in which the Irvington-Lynchburg (2)
soils form a characteristic geographic pattern. It may This soil association lies in a broad strip extending
contain many soils or only a few. The soils may be north from Walnut Hill to the State line and southward
similar or very different. The soils in an association on both sides of Boggy Creek as far as McKinnonville.







38 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. S

Wahee Series may or may not be similar in their suitability for agri-
culture.
Soils of the Wahee series developed from materials The soils of Escambia County can be generalized in
that washed from acid upland soils. These materials 12 soil associations, which arc shown on the colored map
were brought down and deposited by streams when they at the back of this report. Each association has a de-
flowed at higher levels. The Wahee soils are associated scriptive name, as shown in the legend for the lmap. A
with the Izagora, Kalmia, and Myatt soils. They differ part of this descriptive name is the name of those soil
from the Izagora and Kalnia soils in being less well series dominant in the association. The name of the
drained. They have finer textured subsurface layers series most extensive in the association is given first.
than the Izagora, Kahnia, and Myatt soils. The Wahlee Thus, in association 2 (Tifton-Irvington-Lynchburg),
soils are somewhat poorly drained, or slightly better the Tifton soil is listed first because it is the most exten-
drained than the soils of tile Myatt series. Wahee soils sive. In any association there may be minor areas of
have slow surface runoff, very slow internal drainage, soils belonging to series not listed in the name of the
and a very strongly acid reaction throughout the profile. association.
One soil of the Wahee series was mapped in the county. Soil association maps are used for different purposes
Wahee very fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) than detailed soil maps. Thev are useful to those who
(Wa: Vw-1 ).-This soil is in small areas or strips along are interested in the ability of large areas to support a
the Escambia River in the northeastern part of the prosperous agriculture, or to people interested in the
county. It is in level to nearly level, somewhat poorly main problems that confront the farmers 1oi most of the
drained areas that slope very gently streamward. The farms in a given area. Soil association maps are also
native vegetation consists of pine, sweetgum, and several useful in regional studies of agricultural production,
kinds of oak. forestry, water storage, flood reduction. and highways,
Profile description: electric services, and other public facilities.
0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown very fine sandy loam; In the following pages the 12 soil associations are
friable; weak medium crumb structure. discussed il the order they are shown on the map legend.
5 to 16 inches, light olive-brown fine sandy clay loam with The associations have been separated into three major
ommoin, nediumr faint mottkle of t yellow; friable; weak groups according to topographic positions. Nearly level
niedium suha.mngular blocky structure.
16 to 22 inches, light yellowish-brown silty clay loamni with to gently sloping soils on uplands; sloping to steel) soils
common, medium, distinct mottles of brownish yellow and on uplands; and nearly level soils of river terraces, de-
a few fine prominent mottles of yellowish red; firm; mod- pressions, and lowlands.
rate mmedium suhangular blocky structure.
22 to 42 inches, clay mottled with light brownish gray,
brownish yellow, and red; very firm; strong medium sub- Nearly Level to Gently Sloping Soils on
angular blocky structure. Uplands
The surface soil varies from dark grayish brown to
very dark grayish brown in color and from 4 to ( inches The nearly level to gently sloping soils on the uplands
in thickness. The subsoil is a firm silty clay loam to in this county make up associations 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 9.
clay that is prominently mottled with red. yellow, and The locations of the various areas of these soil associa-
gray. A few small, slightly better drained areas that tions are shown on the colored map at the back of this
have a yellowish-red and red subsoil and show some report.
variation in texture and structure are included with this Dark reddishbrown loams and sandy loams; red
soil. Included also are a few areas that have very subsoils; well drained: Red Bay-Blakely (1)
gentle slopes in excess of 2 percent.
Some of this soil is overflowed when streams are at This association occurs in level to gently undulating
high flood stage. Drainage is rather poor because the areas, mostly in the northern part of the county. The
surface is nearly level and the subsoil is fine textured. soils are well drained. Internal drainage is medium.
Since the compact subsoil does not allow water to perco- The Blakely soils occur as scattered pockets within
late readily, this soil may erode under cultivation, al- much larger areas of Red Bay soils. The Red Bay soils
though the slope is mainly less than 2 percent. The soil occupy more than 75 times the acreage occupied by the
does not allow easy penetration of roots. Blakely soils.
Use and 111.1111o1 ,11 ,n ,.-There is little of Wahee very Many of the better farms are on this soil association.
fine sandy loam in the county. It is almost all in un- Nearly all of the acreage has been cleared and is used
developed woodland. None is cultivated. Adequate fo general farming. Tilled crops, small grais, and
water control for cultivated crops is difficult and gener- legumes are the main crops. The soils are low in natu-
ally not feasible. This soil is suitable for improved ral fertility, but they can be built up to, and maintained
Si. Tis sil is it i at, a good level of productivity. The soils of this asso-
pasture if simple surface drainage is provided. citation present only a few simple problems of manage-
ment. They are well suited to intensive agricultural use.
Soil Associations Dark-gray sandy loams; mottled subsoils; well
drained to somewhat poorly drained: Tifton-
A soil association consists of an area in which the Irvington-Lynchburg (2)
soils form a characteristic geographic pattern. It may This soil association lies in a broad strip extending
contain many soils or only a few. The soils may be north from Walnut Hill to the State line and southward
similar or very different. The soils in an association on both sides of Boggy Creek as far as McKinnonville.







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

The land is dominantly smooth, though there are some Much of the level to very gently sloping acreage in
very gentle slopes. The Tifton soils predominate; their this association has been cleared and is used for general
aggregate area is almost twice that of the Irvington and farming. Almost all of it is sufficiently fertile to be
Lynchburg soils. Surface runoff is slow because of the used for pasture or forest. The Carnegie soils are very
nearly level relief. The underlying slowly permeable susceptible to erosion, especially in areas that are too
sandy clay materials cause slow internal drainage, and steep to permit tillage. A large acreage of nearly level
there is little lateral movement of water, land is in forest; it is good as potential agricultural land.
The Tifton soils of this association tend to have darker Gray sands; very sandy subsoils; somewhat
surface soil and to be slightly less well drained than the excessively drained: Lakeland-Eustis (5)
more sloping Tifton soils in other parts of the county excessively drained: Lakeland-Eustis (5)
The Lynchburg soils are somewhat poorly drained. The The Lakeland-Eustis soil association occurs in rather
Irvington soils are intermediate in drainage between the large areas throughout the county. The soils are mostly
Lynchburg and Tifton soils of the area. level or gently sloping, although irregular strips of
Throughout the year the soils of this association have steeper soils occur along the major drains. The soils of
a moisture supply favorable for crops, but it is necessary this association are somewhat excessively drained. Ex-
to remove excess surface water. The physical properties eternal and internal drainage are rapid. The aggregate
of these soils were once considered too unfavorable to area of Lakeland soils is almost twice that of Eustis.
permit intensive agriculture. Recently, however, large The Lakeland soils differ from Eustis chiefly in having
acreages have been cleared and, with the use of mecha- yellow to pale-brown subsoil instead of reddish-yellow
nized equipment and a system of drainage, they have to reddish-brown subsoil. In most places the soils of this
proved to be among the better soils of the county for association are sandy to depths greater than 42 inches,
pasture and for production of potatoes, soybeans, and corn. but there are a few areas of Lakeland soil with a sandy
clay layer at depths between 30 and 42 inches.
Grayish-brown sandy loams; yellowish subsoils; well The soils of this association are very drought. They
drained or moderately well drained: Norfolk-Ruston- contain small amounts of organic matter and have low
Savannah (3) fertility. Under proper management they can be used
The Norfolk-Ruston-Savannah soil association occurs for cultivation, for improved pasture, and for forest.
mainly on level to gently sloping smooth stream divides. Crop yields, however, are generally lower than on the
The Norfolk soils occupy almost twice as much of the soils of associations 1, 2, 3, and 4. The steeper slopes
association as the Ruston and Savannah. are very susceptible to erosion and, when cultivated,
The Norfolk soils are well drained, the Ruston are present serious problems of conservation. These soils
slightly better drained than the Norfolk, and the Savan- are not well suited to intensive agricultural use.
nah are moderately well drained to imperfectly drained. Because of low productivity, large areas of this associ-
The Norfolk and Ruston soils are much alike in structure action remain in their natural state. In this county, a
but differ slightly in color. The Savannah soil has a majority of the fields that were once cultivated and now
fragipan, or weakly cemented layer, in the subsoil that abandoned are in this soil association.
does not appear in the Ruston and Norfolk. Light-gray sands; sandy subsoils; excessively drained
Rather large areas have not been'cleared for agricul- or somewhat excessively drained: Lakewood-
ture. The association is well suited to most crops planted Lakeland (9)
in this county, but it is low in organic matter and plant This soil association' occurs in a limited area in the
nutrients. If management is applied to improve and to extreme southwestern part of the county. The Lake-
maintain productivity, it will produce good yields of wood soils predominate; only a small acreage is Lake-
most crops. The steeper parts of the association are very land soil. The soils of this association are level to very
susceptible to erosion, but they can be used for limited gently sloping. The Lakeland soils differ from Lake-
cultivation, for pasture, or for forestry. wood primarily because they do not have a layer of
Dark-gray sandy loams; slightly compact subsoils; white sand between the surface soil and the brownish-
well drained: Tifton-Carnegie-Faceville (4) yellow sublayers.
These excessively drained deep sands contain very little
This soil association occurs north of alternate United organic matter. They are not suitable for agricultural
States Highway 90 and in scattered areas throughout the use. Their productivity and fertility are extremely low.
county to the Alabama State line. These soils generally They produce poor forage and poor stands of trees.
are level to gently sloping. The Tifton soils predomi- Some areas are used as building sites.
nate; their aggregate is about twice that of the Carnegie
soils and almost ten times that of the Faceville soils. Sloping to Steep Soils on Uplands
Tifton soils differ from Carnegie and Faceville soils
chiefly in having a yellow to brownish-yellow subsoil The sloping to steep soils on the uplands in this
rather than a yellowish-red to red subsoil. Carnegie county make up soil association 10. The association is
soils have more iron concretions, both on the surface and made up of two undifferentiated mapping units, each of
which contains the soils of several series.
throughout the profile, than do the Faceville soils. which contains the souls of several series
The soils of this association are well drained. Inter- Undifferentiated soils: Lakeland, Ruston, and
nal drainage is moderate. They are moderately fertile Norfolk-Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert (10)
and can be built up to, and maintained at, a good level This soil association is made up of two sets of undif-
of productivity. ferentiated mapping units, one consisting of Lakeland,
500032-60-4







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

The land is dominantly smooth, though there are some Much of the level to very gently sloping acreage in
very gentle slopes. The Tifton soils predominate; their this association has been cleared and is used for general
aggregate area is almost twice that of the Irvington and farming. Almost all of it is sufficiently fertile to be
Lynchburg soils. Surface runoff is slow because of the used for pasture or forest. The Carnegie soils are very
nearly level relief. The underlying slowly permeable susceptible to erosion, especially in areas that are too
sandy clay materials cause slow internal drainage, and steep to permit tillage. A large acreage of nearly level
there is little lateral movement of water, land is in forest; it is good as potential agricultural land.
The Tifton soils of this association tend to have darker Gray sands; very sandy subsoils; somewhat
surface soil and to be slightly less well drained than the excessively drained: Lakeland-Eustis (5)
more sloping Tifton soils in other parts of the county excessively drained: Lakeland-Eustis (5)
The Lynchburg soils are somewhat poorly drained. The The Lakeland-Eustis soil association occurs in rather
Irvington soils are intermediate in drainage between the large areas throughout the county. The soils are mostly
Lynchburg and Tifton soils of the area. level or gently sloping, although irregular strips of
Throughout the year the soils of this association have steeper soils occur along the major drains. The soils of
a moisture supply favorable for crops, but it is necessary this association are somewhat excessively drained. Ex-
to remove excess surface water. The physical properties eternal and internal drainage are rapid. The aggregate
of these soils were once considered too unfavorable to area of Lakeland soils is almost twice that of Eustis.
permit intensive agriculture. Recently, however, large The Lakeland soils differ from Eustis chiefly in having
acreages have been cleared and, with the use of mecha- yellow to pale-brown subsoil instead of reddish-yellow
nized equipment and a system of drainage, they have to reddish-brown subsoil. In most places the soils of this
proved to be among the better soils of the county for association are sandy to depths greater than 42 inches,
pasture and for production of potatoes, soybeans, and corn. but there are a few areas of Lakeland soil with a sandy
clay layer at depths between 30 and 42 inches.
Grayish-brown sandy loams; yellowish subsoils; well The soils of this association are very drought. They
drained or moderately well drained: Norfolk-Ruston- contain small amounts of organic matter and have low
Savannah (3) fertility. Under proper management they can be used
The Norfolk-Ruston-Savannah soil association occurs for cultivation, for improved pasture, and for forest.
mainly on level to gently sloping smooth stream divides. Crop yields, however, are generally lower than on the
The Norfolk soils occupy almost twice as much of the soils of associations 1, 2, 3, and 4. The steeper slopes
association as the Ruston and Savannah. are very susceptible to erosion and, when cultivated,
The Norfolk soils are well drained, the Ruston are present serious problems of conservation. These soils
slightly better drained than the Norfolk, and the Savan- are not well suited to intensive agricultural use.
nah are moderately well drained to imperfectly drained. Because of low productivity, large areas of this associ-
The Norfolk and Ruston soils are much alike in structure action remain in their natural state. In this county, a
but differ slightly in color. The Savannah soil has a majority of the fields that were once cultivated and now
fragipan, or weakly cemented layer, in the subsoil that abandoned are in this soil association.
does not appear in the Ruston and Norfolk. Light-gray sands; sandy subsoils; excessively drained
Rather large areas have not been'cleared for agricul- or somewhat excessively drained: Lakewood-
ture. The association is well suited to most crops planted Lakeland (9)
in this county, but it is low in organic matter and plant This soil association' occurs in a limited area in the
nutrients. If management is applied to improve and to extreme southwestern part of the county. The Lake-
maintain productivity, it will produce good yields of wood soils predominate; only a small acreage is Lake-
most crops. The steeper parts of the association are very land soil. The soils of this association are level to very
susceptible to erosion, but they can be used for limited gently sloping. The Lakeland soils differ from Lake-
cultivation, for pasture, or for forestry. wood primarily because they do not have a layer of
Dark-gray sandy loams; slightly compact subsoils; white sand between the surface soil and the brownish-
well drained: Tifton-Carnegie-Faceville (4) yellow sublayers.
These excessively drained deep sands contain very little
This soil association occurs north of alternate United organic matter. They are not suitable for agricultural
States Highway 90 and in scattered areas throughout the use. Their productivity and fertility are extremely low.
county to the Alabama State line. These soils generally They produce poor forage and poor stands of trees.
are level to gently sloping. The Tifton soils predomi- Some areas are used as building sites.
nate; their aggregate is about twice that of the Carnegie
soils and almost ten times that of the Faceville soils. Sloping to Steep Soils on Uplands
Tifton soils differ from Carnegie and Faceville soils
chiefly in having a yellow to brownish-yellow subsoil The sloping to steep soils on the uplands in this
rather than a yellowish-red to red subsoil. Carnegie county make up soil association 10. The association is
soils have more iron concretions, both on the surface and made up of two undifferentiated mapping units, each of
which contains the soils of several series.
throughout the profile, than do the Faceville soils. which contains the souls of several series
The soils of this association are well drained. Inter- Undifferentiated soils: Lakeland, Ruston, and
nal drainage is moderate. They are moderately fertile Norfolk-Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert (10)
and can be built up to, and maintained at, a good level This soil association is made up of two sets of undif-
of productivity. ferentiated mapping units, one consisting of Lakeland,
500032-60-4







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

The land is dominantly smooth, though there are some Much of the level to very gently sloping acreage in
very gentle slopes. The Tifton soils predominate; their this association has been cleared and is used for general
aggregate area is almost twice that of the Irvington and farming. Almost all of it is sufficiently fertile to be
Lynchburg soils. Surface runoff is slow because of the used for pasture or forest. The Carnegie soils are very
nearly level relief. The underlying slowly permeable susceptible to erosion, especially in areas that are too
sandy clay materials cause slow internal drainage, and steep to permit tillage. A large acreage of nearly level
there is little lateral movement of water, land is in forest; it is good as potential agricultural land.
The Tifton soils of this association tend to have darker Gray sands; very sandy subsoils; somewhat
surface soil and to be slightly less well drained than the excessively drained: Lakeland-Eustis (5)
more sloping Tifton soils in other parts of the county excessively drained: Lakeland-Eustis (5)
The Lynchburg soils are somewhat poorly drained. The The Lakeland-Eustis soil association occurs in rather
Irvington soils are intermediate in drainage between the large areas throughout the county. The soils are mostly
Lynchburg and Tifton soils of the area. level or gently sloping, although irregular strips of
Throughout the year the soils of this association have steeper soils occur along the major drains. The soils of
a moisture supply favorable for crops, but it is necessary this association are somewhat excessively drained. Ex-
to remove excess surface water. The physical properties eternal and internal drainage are rapid. The aggregate
of these soils were once considered too unfavorable to area of Lakeland soils is almost twice that of Eustis.
permit intensive agriculture. Recently, however, large The Lakeland soils differ from Eustis chiefly in having
acreages have been cleared and, with the use of mecha- yellow to pale-brown subsoil instead of reddish-yellow
nized equipment and a system of drainage, they have to reddish-brown subsoil. In most places the soils of this
proved to be among the better soils of the county for association are sandy to depths greater than 42 inches,
pasture and for production of potatoes, soybeans, and corn. but there are a few areas of Lakeland soil with a sandy
clay layer at depths between 30 and 42 inches.
Grayish-brown sandy loams; yellowish subsoils; well The soils of this association are very drought. They
drained or moderately well drained: Norfolk-Ruston- contain small amounts of organic matter and have low
Savannah (3) fertility. Under proper management they can be used
The Norfolk-Ruston-Savannah soil association occurs for cultivation, for improved pasture, and for forest.
mainly on level to gently sloping smooth stream divides. Crop yields, however, are generally lower than on the
The Norfolk soils occupy almost twice as much of the soils of associations 1, 2, 3, and 4. The steeper slopes
association as the Ruston and Savannah. are very susceptible to erosion and, when cultivated,
The Norfolk soils are well drained, the Ruston are present serious problems of conservation. These soils
slightly better drained than the Norfolk, and the Savan- are not well suited to intensive agricultural use.
nah are moderately well drained to imperfectly drained. Because of low productivity, large areas of this associ-
The Norfolk and Ruston soils are much alike in structure action remain in their natural state. In this county, a
but differ slightly in color. The Savannah soil has a majority of the fields that were once cultivated and now
fragipan, or weakly cemented layer, in the subsoil that abandoned are in this soil association.
does not appear in the Ruston and Norfolk. Light-gray sands; sandy subsoils; excessively drained
Rather large areas have not been'cleared for agricul- or somewhat excessively drained: Lakewood-
ture. The association is well suited to most crops planted Lakeland (9)
in this county, but it is low in organic matter and plant This soil association' occurs in a limited area in the
nutrients. If management is applied to improve and to extreme southwestern part of the county. The Lake-
maintain productivity, it will produce good yields of wood soils predominate; only a small acreage is Lake-
most crops. The steeper parts of the association are very land soil. The soils of this association are level to very
susceptible to erosion, but they can be used for limited gently sloping. The Lakeland soils differ from Lake-
cultivation, for pasture, or for forestry. wood primarily because they do not have a layer of
Dark-gray sandy loams; slightly compact subsoils; white sand between the surface soil and the brownish-
well drained: Tifton-Carnegie-Faceville (4) yellow sublayers.
These excessively drained deep sands contain very little
This soil association occurs north of alternate United organic matter. They are not suitable for agricultural
States Highway 90 and in scattered areas throughout the use. Their productivity and fertility are extremely low.
county to the Alabama State line. These soils generally They produce poor forage and poor stands of trees.
are level to gently sloping. The Tifton soils predomi- Some areas are used as building sites.
nate; their aggregate is about twice that of the Carnegie
soils and almost ten times that of the Faceville soils. Sloping to Steep Soils on Uplands
Tifton soils differ from Carnegie and Faceville soils
chiefly in having a yellow to brownish-yellow subsoil The sloping to steep soils on the uplands in this
rather than a yellowish-red to red subsoil. Carnegie county make up soil association 10. The association is
soils have more iron concretions, both on the surface and made up of two undifferentiated mapping units, each of
which contains the soils of several series.
throughout the profile, than do the Faceville soils. which contains the souls of several series
The soils of this association are well drained. Inter- Undifferentiated soils: Lakeland, Ruston, and
nal drainage is moderate. They are moderately fertile Norfolk-Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert (10)
and can be built up to, and maintained at, a good level This soil association is made up of two sets of undif-
of productivity. ferentiated mapping units, one consisting of Lakeland,
500032-60-4







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

The land is dominantly smooth, though there are some Much of the level to very gently sloping acreage in
very gentle slopes. The Tifton soils predominate; their this association has been cleared and is used for general
aggregate area is almost twice that of the Irvington and farming. Almost all of it is sufficiently fertile to be
Lynchburg soils. Surface runoff is slow because of the used for pasture or forest. The Carnegie soils are very
nearly level relief. The underlying slowly permeable susceptible to erosion, especially in areas that are too
sandy clay materials cause slow internal drainage, and steep to permit tillage. A large acreage of nearly level
there is little lateral movement of water, land is in forest; it is good as potential agricultural land.
The Tifton soils of this association tend to have darker Gray sands; very sandy subsoils; somewhat
surface soil and to be slightly less well drained than the excessively drained: Lakeland-Eustis (5)
more sloping Tifton soils in other parts of the county excessively drained: Lakeland-Eustis (5)
The Lynchburg soils are somewhat poorly drained. The The Lakeland-Eustis soil association occurs in rather
Irvington soils are intermediate in drainage between the large areas throughout the county. The soils are mostly
Lynchburg and Tifton soils of the area. level or gently sloping, although irregular strips of
Throughout the year the soils of this association have steeper soils occur along the major drains. The soils of
a moisture supply favorable for crops, but it is necessary this association are somewhat excessively drained. Ex-
to remove excess surface water. The physical properties eternal and internal drainage are rapid. The aggregate
of these soils were once considered too unfavorable to area of Lakeland soils is almost twice that of Eustis.
permit intensive agriculture. Recently, however, large The Lakeland soils differ from Eustis chiefly in having
acreages have been cleared and, with the use of mecha- yellow to pale-brown subsoil instead of reddish-yellow
nized equipment and a system of drainage, they have to reddish-brown subsoil. In most places the soils of this
proved to be among the better soils of the county for association are sandy to depths greater than 42 inches,
pasture and for production of potatoes, soybeans, and corn. but there are a few areas of Lakeland soil with a sandy
clay layer at depths between 30 and 42 inches.
Grayish-brown sandy loams; yellowish subsoils; well The soils of this association are very drought. They
drained or moderately well drained: Norfolk-Ruston- contain small amounts of organic matter and have low
Savannah (3) fertility. Under proper management they can be used
The Norfolk-Ruston-Savannah soil association occurs for cultivation, for improved pasture, and for forest.
mainly on level to gently sloping smooth stream divides. Crop yields, however, are generally lower than on the
The Norfolk soils occupy almost twice as much of the soils of associations 1, 2, 3, and 4. The steeper slopes
association as the Ruston and Savannah. are very susceptible to erosion and, when cultivated,
The Norfolk soils are well drained, the Ruston are present serious problems of conservation. These soils
slightly better drained than the Norfolk, and the Savan- are not well suited to intensive agricultural use.
nah are moderately well drained to imperfectly drained. Because of low productivity, large areas of this associ-
The Norfolk and Ruston soils are much alike in structure action remain in their natural state. In this county, a
but differ slightly in color. The Savannah soil has a majority of the fields that were once cultivated and now
fragipan, or weakly cemented layer, in the subsoil that abandoned are in this soil association.
does not appear in the Ruston and Norfolk. Light-gray sands; sandy subsoils; excessively drained
Rather large areas have not been'cleared for agricul- or somewhat excessively drained: Lakewood-
ture. The association is well suited to most crops planted Lakeland (9)
in this county, but it is low in organic matter and plant This soil association' occurs in a limited area in the
nutrients. If management is applied to improve and to extreme southwestern part of the county. The Lake-
maintain productivity, it will produce good yields of wood soils predominate; only a small acreage is Lake-
most crops. The steeper parts of the association are very land soil. The soils of this association are level to very
susceptible to erosion, but they can be used for limited gently sloping. The Lakeland soils differ from Lake-
cultivation, for pasture, or for forestry. wood primarily because they do not have a layer of
Dark-gray sandy loams; slightly compact subsoils; white sand between the surface soil and the brownish-
well drained: Tifton-Carnegie-Faceville (4) yellow sublayers.
These excessively drained deep sands contain very little
This soil association occurs north of alternate United organic matter. They are not suitable for agricultural
States Highway 90 and in scattered areas throughout the use. Their productivity and fertility are extremely low.
county to the Alabama State line. These soils generally They produce poor forage and poor stands of trees.
are level to gently sloping. The Tifton soils predomi- Some areas are used as building sites.
nate; their aggregate is about twice that of the Carnegie
soils and almost ten times that of the Faceville soils. Sloping to Steep Soils on Uplands
Tifton soils differ from Carnegie and Faceville soils
chiefly in having a yellow to brownish-yellow subsoil The sloping to steep soils on the uplands in this
rather than a yellowish-red to red subsoil. Carnegie county make up soil association 10. The association is
soils have more iron concretions, both on the surface and made up of two undifferentiated mapping units, each of
which contains the soils of several series.
throughout the profile, than do the Faceville soils. which contains the souls of several series
The soils of this association are well drained. Inter- Undifferentiated soils: Lakeland, Ruston, and
nal drainage is moderate. They are moderately fertile Norfolk-Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert (10)
and can be built up to, and maintained at, a good level This soil association is made up of two sets of undif-
of productivity. ferentiated mapping units, one consisting of Lakeland,
500032-60-4







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

The land is dominantly smooth, though there are some Much of the level to very gently sloping acreage in
very gentle slopes. The Tifton soils predominate; their this association has been cleared and is used for general
aggregate area is almost twice that of the Irvington and farming. Almost all of it is sufficiently fertile to be
Lynchburg soils. Surface runoff is slow because of the used for pasture or forest. The Carnegie soils are very
nearly level relief. The underlying slowly permeable susceptible to erosion, especially in areas that are too
sandy clay materials cause slow internal drainage, and steep to permit tillage. A large acreage of nearly level
there is little lateral movement of water, land is in forest; it is good as potential agricultural land.
The Tifton soils of this association tend to have darker Gray sands; very sandy subsoils; somewhat
surface soil and to be slightly less well drained than the excessively drained: Lakeland-Eustis (5)
more sloping Tifton soils in other parts of the county excessively drained: Lakeland-Eustis (5)
The Lynchburg soils are somewhat poorly drained. The The Lakeland-Eustis soil association occurs in rather
Irvington soils are intermediate in drainage between the large areas throughout the county. The soils are mostly
Lynchburg and Tifton soils of the area. level or gently sloping, although irregular strips of
Throughout the year the soils of this association have steeper soils occur along the major drains. The soils of
a moisture supply favorable for crops, but it is necessary this association are somewhat excessively drained. Ex-
to remove excess surface water. The physical properties eternal and internal drainage are rapid. The aggregate
of these soils were once considered too unfavorable to area of Lakeland soils is almost twice that of Eustis.
permit intensive agriculture. Recently, however, large The Lakeland soils differ from Eustis chiefly in having
acreages have been cleared and, with the use of mecha- yellow to pale-brown subsoil instead of reddish-yellow
nized equipment and a system of drainage, they have to reddish-brown subsoil. In most places the soils of this
proved to be among the better soils of the county for association are sandy to depths greater than 42 inches,
pasture and for production of potatoes, soybeans, and corn. but there are a few areas of Lakeland soil with a sandy
clay layer at depths between 30 and 42 inches.
Grayish-brown sandy loams; yellowish subsoils; well The soils of this association are very drought. They
drained or moderately well drained: Norfolk-Ruston- contain small amounts of organic matter and have low
Savannah (3) fertility. Under proper management they can be used
The Norfolk-Ruston-Savannah soil association occurs for cultivation, for improved pasture, and for forest.
mainly on level to gently sloping smooth stream divides. Crop yields, however, are generally lower than on the
The Norfolk soils occupy almost twice as much of the soils of associations 1, 2, 3, and 4. The steeper slopes
association as the Ruston and Savannah. are very susceptible to erosion and, when cultivated,
The Norfolk soils are well drained, the Ruston are present serious problems of conservation. These soils
slightly better drained than the Norfolk, and the Savan- are not well suited to intensive agricultural use.
nah are moderately well drained to imperfectly drained. Because of low productivity, large areas of this associ-
The Norfolk and Ruston soils are much alike in structure action remain in their natural state. In this county, a
but differ slightly in color. The Savannah soil has a majority of the fields that were once cultivated and now
fragipan, or weakly cemented layer, in the subsoil that abandoned are in this soil association.
does not appear in the Ruston and Norfolk. Light-gray sands; sandy subsoils; excessively drained
Rather large areas have not been'cleared for agricul- or somewhat excessively drained: Lakewood-
ture. The association is well suited to most crops planted Lakeland (9)
in this county, but it is low in organic matter and plant This soil association' occurs in a limited area in the
nutrients. If management is applied to improve and to extreme southwestern part of the county. The Lake-
maintain productivity, it will produce good yields of wood soils predominate; only a small acreage is Lake-
most crops. The steeper parts of the association are very land soil. The soils of this association are level to very
susceptible to erosion, but they can be used for limited gently sloping. The Lakeland soils differ from Lake-
cultivation, for pasture, or for forestry. wood primarily because they do not have a layer of
Dark-gray sandy loams; slightly compact subsoils; white sand between the surface soil and the brownish-
well drained: Tifton-Carnegie-Faceville (4) yellow sublayers.
These excessively drained deep sands contain very little
This soil association occurs north of alternate United organic matter. They are not suitable for agricultural
States Highway 90 and in scattered areas throughout the use. Their productivity and fertility are extremely low.
county to the Alabama State line. These soils generally They produce poor forage and poor stands of trees.
are level to gently sloping. The Tifton soils predomi- Some areas are used as building sites.
nate; their aggregate is about twice that of the Carnegie
soils and almost ten times that of the Faceville soils. Sloping to Steep Soils on Uplands
Tifton soils differ from Carnegie and Faceville soils
chiefly in having a yellow to brownish-yellow subsoil The sloping to steep soils on the uplands in this
rather than a yellowish-red to red subsoil. Carnegie county make up soil association 10. The association is
soils have more iron concretions, both on the surface and made up of two undifferentiated mapping units, each of
which contains the soils of several series.
throughout the profile, than do the Faceville soils. which contains the souls of several series
The soils of this association are well drained. Inter- Undifferentiated soils: Lakeland, Ruston, and
nal drainage is moderate. They are moderately fertile Norfolk-Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert (10)
and can be built up to, and maintained at, a good level This soil association is made up of two sets of undif-
of productivity. ferentiated mapping units, one consisting of Lakeland,
500032-60-4







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

The land is dominantly smooth, though there are some Much of the level to very gently sloping acreage in
very gentle slopes. The Tifton soils predominate; their this association has been cleared and is used for general
aggregate area is almost twice that of the Irvington and farming. Almost all of it is sufficiently fertile to be
Lynchburg soils. Surface runoff is slow because of the used for pasture or forest. The Carnegie soils are very
nearly level relief. The underlying slowly permeable susceptible to erosion, especially in areas that are too
sandy clay materials cause slow internal drainage, and steep to permit tillage. A large acreage of nearly level
there is little lateral movement of water, land is in forest; it is good as potential agricultural land.
The Tifton soils of this association tend to have darker Gray sands; very sandy subsoils; somewhat
surface soil and to be slightly less well drained than the excessively drained: Lakeland-Eustis (5)
more sloping Tifton soils in other parts of the county excessively drained: Lakeland-Eustis (5)
The Lynchburg soils are somewhat poorly drained. The The Lakeland-Eustis soil association occurs in rather
Irvington soils are intermediate in drainage between the large areas throughout the county. The soils are mostly
Lynchburg and Tifton soils of the area. level or gently sloping, although irregular strips of
Throughout the year the soils of this association have steeper soils occur along the major drains. The soils of
a moisture supply favorable for crops, but it is necessary this association are somewhat excessively drained. Ex-
to remove excess surface water. The physical properties eternal and internal drainage are rapid. The aggregate
of these soils were once considered too unfavorable to area of Lakeland soils is almost twice that of Eustis.
permit intensive agriculture. Recently, however, large The Lakeland soils differ from Eustis chiefly in having
acreages have been cleared and, with the use of mecha- yellow to pale-brown subsoil instead of reddish-yellow
nized equipment and a system of drainage, they have to reddish-brown subsoil. In most places the soils of this
proved to be among the better soils of the county for association are sandy to depths greater than 42 inches,
pasture and for production of potatoes, soybeans, and corn. but there are a few areas of Lakeland soil with a sandy
clay layer at depths between 30 and 42 inches.
Grayish-brown sandy loams; yellowish subsoils; well The soils of this association are very drought. They
drained or moderately well drained: Norfolk-Ruston- contain small amounts of organic matter and have low
Savannah (3) fertility. Under proper management they can be used
The Norfolk-Ruston-Savannah soil association occurs for cultivation, for improved pasture, and for forest.
mainly on level to gently sloping smooth stream divides. Crop yields, however, are generally lower than on the
The Norfolk soils occupy almost twice as much of the soils of associations 1, 2, 3, and 4. The steeper slopes
association as the Ruston and Savannah. are very susceptible to erosion and, when cultivated,
The Norfolk soils are well drained, the Ruston are present serious problems of conservation. These soils
slightly better drained than the Norfolk, and the Savan- are not well suited to intensive agricultural use.
nah are moderately well drained to imperfectly drained. Because of low productivity, large areas of this associ-
The Norfolk and Ruston soils are much alike in structure action remain in their natural state. In this county, a
but differ slightly in color. The Savannah soil has a majority of the fields that were once cultivated and now
fragipan, or weakly cemented layer, in the subsoil that abandoned are in this soil association.
does not appear in the Ruston and Norfolk. Light-gray sands; sandy subsoils; excessively drained
Rather large areas have not been'cleared for agricul- or somewhat excessively drained: Lakewood-
ture. The association is well suited to most crops planted Lakeland (9)
in this county, but it is low in organic matter and plant This soil association' occurs in a limited area in the
nutrients. If management is applied to improve and to extreme southwestern part of the county. The Lake-
maintain productivity, it will produce good yields of wood soils predominate; only a small acreage is Lake-
most crops. The steeper parts of the association are very land soil. The soils of this association are level to very
susceptible to erosion, but they can be used for limited gently sloping. The Lakeland soils differ from Lake-
cultivation, for pasture, or for forestry. wood primarily because they do not have a layer of
Dark-gray sandy loams; slightly compact subsoils; white sand between the surface soil and the brownish-
well drained: Tifton-Carnegie-Faceville (4) yellow sublayers.
These excessively drained deep sands contain very little
This soil association occurs north of alternate United organic matter. They are not suitable for agricultural
States Highway 90 and in scattered areas throughout the use. Their productivity and fertility are extremely low.
county to the Alabama State line. These soils generally They produce poor forage and poor stands of trees.
are level to gently sloping. The Tifton soils predomi- Some areas are used as building sites.
nate; their aggregate is about twice that of the Carnegie
soils and almost ten times that of the Faceville soils. Sloping to Steep Soils on Uplands
Tifton soils differ from Carnegie and Faceville soils
chiefly in having a yellow to brownish-yellow subsoil The sloping to steep soils on the uplands in this
rather than a yellowish-red to red subsoil. Carnegie county make up soil association 10. The association is
soils have more iron concretions, both on the surface and made up of two undifferentiated mapping units, each of
which contains the soils of several series.
throughout the profile, than do the Faceville soils. which contains the souls of several series
The soils of this association are well drained. Inter- Undifferentiated soils: Lakeland, Ruston, and
nal drainage is moderate. They are moderately fertile Norfolk-Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert (10)
and can be built up to, and maintained at, a good level This soil association is made up of two sets of undif-
of productivity. ferentiated mapping units, one consisting of Lakeland,
500032-60-4








40 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Ruston, and Norfolk soils, and the other of Sunsweet, soils are more extensive. The total acreage of the Plum-
Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils. The aggregate area of the mer soil is considerably larger than that of the Rutlege.
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils is approximately The Rutlege soil has a thick, dark surface layer. The
five times that of the Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert Plummer soils, in contrast, have a thin surface layer
soils. The soils in both sets of mapping units are so over light-gray sands.
closely associated that it was not practical to show them The soils of this association are poorly and very poorly
separately. In the association are small areas of other drained. There is practically no runoff. The poor
soils not mentioned in the name of the association. drainage presents difficult problems in management. Al-
The soils are mostly on steeper slopes along streams most all of the acreage in this association is under native
and drainageways. Those soils with finer textured pro- cover, a sparse stand of timber. Only a few areas of
files (Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert) are adjacent these soils are desirable for agriculture under existing
to soils of the Irvington, Tifton, Carnegie, and Red Bay conditions.
series. The areas with coarser textured profiles (Lake-
land, Ruston, and Norfolk) are intricately mixed and Soils on river terraces; well drained or moderately
occur adjacent to Eustis, Lakeland, Norfolk, and Ruston well drained: Huckabee-Kalmia-Izagora (8)
soils. This soil association is on the better drained level to
The soils of this association are very susceptible to very gently sloping stream terraces along the Escambia
erosion. Even with a cover of native vegetation, the and Perdido Rivers. The Huckabee soils predominate;
soils on steeper slopes present serious problems in con- their aggregate is about twice that of the Kalmia or
servation. Surface runoff is high. Internal drainage Izagora soils. The Huckabee soils are well drained and
varies with the texture of the underlying material. In have rapid internal drainage. The Kalmia and Izagora
places, there are outcrops of ironpan that make working soils are moderately well drained and have moderate
the soils almost impossible. internal drainage. The Huckabee soils have 30 to 72
Under proper management, the gently sloping areas inches of sandy material above finer textured material,
can be used for pasture and limited cultivation for pro- whereas the Kalmia soils have less than 30 inches of
duction of crops especially adapted to the soils. Prac- sandy loam above finer textured material. The Izagora
tically all of the steeper areas are in forest, the use to soils differ from Kalmia chiefly in being much finer
which most of the land is probably best suited, textured in the lower layers.
Most of this association has not been cleared for agri-
Nearly Level Soils of River Terraces, cultural use. The fertility of the soils is medium to low.
Depressions, and Lowlands Although they contain little organic matter and plant
Depressions, and Liowlands nutrients, these soils are fairly suitable for most crops.
The soils of the county on terraces, in depressions, and To maintain productivity, proper management is needed.
on lowlands make up soil associations 6, 7, 8, 11, and 12. Average to good yields of most crops can be produced.
These soils are also well suited to plantings for improved
Gray sandy soils on lowlands; somewhat poorly pasture. Much of the acreage in this association is in
drained; moderately high water table: Klej-Leon (6) forest. These forested areas can be considered as poten-
.. trial agricultural land.
This soil association occurs only in the southwestern trial agricultural land.
part of the county. The soils are dominantly level to Undifferentiated coastal soils bordering salt water:
very gently sloping. The Klej soils predominate; their Coastal dune land and beach-Tidal marsh (11)
aggregate area is almost twice that of the Leon soils. The two undifferentiated mapping units in this soil
Because the soils are nearly level and have a high water association occur as narrow strips adjacent to the Gulf
table, runoff is low and internal drainage is slow. of Mexico. Santa Rosa Island and Gulf Beach are com-
The Klej soils differ from the Leon in having a pale- posed entirely of these mapping units.
yellow to brownish-ellow subsoil, instead of a dark Tidal marsh differs from Coastal dune land and beach
reddish-brown or yellow subsoil. Also, the Leon soils chiefly in being periodically inundated by tides. Tidal
have a leached layer and an organic-matter stained hard- marsh is used mainly for wildlife. Coastal dune land
pan, which the Klej soils do not have. and beach is used for recreation and building sites. This
The soils of this association are low in fertility, and association has no agricultural value.
only small areas have been cleared for agricultural use.
Although the soils are low in organic matter and plant Undifferentiated poorly drained flood plains and
nutrients, they are fairly suitable for improved pasture swamps: Mixed alluvial land-Fresh water swamp
if water is controlled and other management is good. (12)
Gray or very dark gray fine sands; poorly drained: This soil association occurs mostly as irregular strips
Plummer-Rutlege (7) of bottom land along the Escambia and Perdido Rivers
and their tributaries. The aggregate area of Mixed
This soil association occurs mostly in nearly level areas alluvial land is many times that of Fresh water swamp.
in the southwestern part of the county. To lesser extent, The areas are mainly level or nearly level, though some
however, it occurs in seepy areas adjacent to the Perdido are very gently sloping.
River. Most of the Mixed alluvial land lies almost level with
The Rutlege soils are dominant in the areas of this the water in adjacent streams and is frequently flooded.
association in the southwestern part of the county, but It consists of stratified stream sediments that have been
in the seepy areas along the Perdido River, the Plummer washed chiefly from adjoiinng uplands but partly from








40 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Ruston, and Norfolk soils, and the other of Sunsweet, soils are more extensive. The total acreage of the Plum-
Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils. The aggregate area of the mer soil is considerably larger than that of the Rutlege.
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils is approximately The Rutlege soil has a thick, dark surface layer. The
five times that of the Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert Plummer soils, in contrast, have a thin surface layer
soils. The soils in both sets of mapping units are so over light-gray sands.
closely associated that it was not practical to show them The soils of this association are poorly and very poorly
separately. In the association are small areas of other drained. There is practically no runoff. The poor
soils not mentioned in the name of the association. drainage presents difficult problems in management. Al-
The soils are mostly on steeper slopes along streams most all of the acreage in this association is under native
and drainageways. Those soils with finer textured pro- cover, a sparse stand of timber. Only a few areas of
files (Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert) are adjacent these soils are desirable for agriculture under existing
to soils of the Irvington, Tifton, Carnegie, and Red Bay conditions.
series. The areas with coarser textured profiles (Lake-
land, Ruston, and Norfolk) are intricately mixed and Soils on river terraces; well drained or moderately
occur adjacent to Eustis, Lakeland, Norfolk, and Ruston well drained: Huckabee-Kalmia-Izagora (8)
soils. This soil association is on the better drained level to
The soils of this association are very susceptible to very gently sloping stream terraces along the Escambia
erosion. Even with a cover of native vegetation, the and Perdido Rivers. The Huckabee soils predominate;
soils on steeper slopes present serious problems in con- their aggregate is about twice that of the Kalmia or
servation. Surface runoff is high. Internal drainage Izagora soils. The Huckabee soils are well drained and
varies with the texture of the underlying material. In have rapid internal drainage. The Kalmia and Izagora
places, there are outcrops of ironpan that make working soils are moderately well drained and have moderate
the soils almost impossible. internal drainage. The Huckabee soils have 30 to 72
Under proper management, the gently sloping areas inches of sandy material above finer textured material,
can be used for pasture and limited cultivation for pro- whereas the Kalmia soils have less than 30 inches of
duction of crops especially adapted to the soils. Prac- sandy loam above finer textured material. The Izagora
tically all of the steeper areas are in forest, the use to soils differ from Kalmia chiefly in being much finer
which most of the land is probably best suited, textured in the lower layers.
Most of this association has not been cleared for agri-
Nearly Level Soils of River Terraces, cultural use. The fertility of the soils is medium to low.
Depressions, and Lowlands Although they contain little organic matter and plant
Depressions, and Liowlands nutrients, these soils are fairly suitable for most crops.
The soils of the county on terraces, in depressions, and To maintain productivity, proper management is needed.
on lowlands make up soil associations 6, 7, 8, 11, and 12. Average to good yields of most crops can be produced.
These soils are also well suited to plantings for improved
Gray sandy soils on lowlands; somewhat poorly pasture. Much of the acreage in this association is in
drained; moderately high water table: Klej-Leon (6) forest. These forested areas can be considered as poten-
.. trial agricultural land.
This soil association occurs only in the southwestern trial agricultural land.
part of the county. The soils are dominantly level to Undifferentiated coastal soils bordering salt water:
very gently sloping. The Klej soils predominate; their Coastal dune land and beach-Tidal marsh (11)
aggregate area is almost twice that of the Leon soils. The two undifferentiated mapping units in this soil
Because the soils are nearly level and have a high water association occur as narrow strips adjacent to the Gulf
table, runoff is low and internal drainage is slow. of Mexico. Santa Rosa Island and Gulf Beach are com-
The Klej soils differ from the Leon in having a pale- posed entirely of these mapping units.
yellow to brownish-ellow subsoil, instead of a dark Tidal marsh differs from Coastal dune land and beach
reddish-brown or yellow subsoil. Also, the Leon soils chiefly in being periodically inundated by tides. Tidal
have a leached layer and an organic-matter stained hard- marsh is used mainly for wildlife. Coastal dune land
pan, which the Klej soils do not have. and beach is used for recreation and building sites. This
The soils of this association are low in fertility, and association has no agricultural value.
only small areas have been cleared for agricultural use.
Although the soils are low in organic matter and plant Undifferentiated poorly drained flood plains and
nutrients, they are fairly suitable for improved pasture swamps: Mixed alluvial land-Fresh water swamp
if water is controlled and other management is good. (12)
Gray or very dark gray fine sands; poorly drained: This soil association occurs mostly as irregular strips
Plummer-Rutlege (7) of bottom land along the Escambia and Perdido Rivers
and their tributaries. The aggregate area of Mixed
This soil association occurs mostly in nearly level areas alluvial land is many times that of Fresh water swamp.
in the southwestern part of the county. To lesser extent, The areas are mainly level or nearly level, though some
however, it occurs in seepy areas adjacent to the Perdido are very gently sloping.
River. Most of the Mixed alluvial land lies almost level with
The Rutlege soils are dominant in the areas of this the water in adjacent streams and is frequently flooded.
association in the southwestern part of the county, but It consists of stratified stream sediments that have been
in the seepy areas along the Perdido River, the Plummer washed chiefly from adjoiinng uplands but partly from








40 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Ruston, and Norfolk soils, and the other of Sunsweet, soils are more extensive. The total acreage of the Plum-
Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils. The aggregate area of the mer soil is considerably larger than that of the Rutlege.
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils is approximately The Rutlege soil has a thick, dark surface layer. The
five times that of the Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert Plummer soils, in contrast, have a thin surface layer
soils. The soils in both sets of mapping units are so over light-gray sands.
closely associated that it was not practical to show them The soils of this association are poorly and very poorly
separately. In the association are small areas of other drained. There is practically no runoff. The poor
soils not mentioned in the name of the association. drainage presents difficult problems in management. Al-
The soils are mostly on steeper slopes along streams most all of the acreage in this association is under native
and drainageways. Those soils with finer textured pro- cover, a sparse stand of timber. Only a few areas of
files (Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert) are adjacent these soils are desirable for agriculture under existing
to soils of the Irvington, Tifton, Carnegie, and Red Bay conditions.
series. The areas with coarser textured profiles (Lake-
land, Ruston, and Norfolk) are intricately mixed and Soils on river terraces; well drained or moderately
occur adjacent to Eustis, Lakeland, Norfolk, and Ruston well drained: Huckabee-Kalmia-Izagora (8)
soils. This soil association is on the better drained level to
The soils of this association are very susceptible to very gently sloping stream terraces along the Escambia
erosion. Even with a cover of native vegetation, the and Perdido Rivers. The Huckabee soils predominate;
soils on steeper slopes present serious problems in con- their aggregate is about twice that of the Kalmia or
servation. Surface runoff is high. Internal drainage Izagora soils. The Huckabee soils are well drained and
varies with the texture of the underlying material. In have rapid internal drainage. The Kalmia and Izagora
places, there are outcrops of ironpan that make working soils are moderately well drained and have moderate
the soils almost impossible. internal drainage. The Huckabee soils have 30 to 72
Under proper management, the gently sloping areas inches of sandy material above finer textured material,
can be used for pasture and limited cultivation for pro- whereas the Kalmia soils have less than 30 inches of
duction of crops especially adapted to the soils. Prac- sandy loam above finer textured material. The Izagora
tically all of the steeper areas are in forest, the use to soils differ from Kalmia chiefly in being much finer
which most of the land is probably best suited, textured in the lower layers.
Most of this association has not been cleared for agri-
Nearly Level Soils of River Terraces, cultural use. The fertility of the soils is medium to low.
Depressions, and Lowlands Although they contain little organic matter and plant
Depressions, and Liowlands nutrients, these soils are fairly suitable for most crops.
The soils of the county on terraces, in depressions, and To maintain productivity, proper management is needed.
on lowlands make up soil associations 6, 7, 8, 11, and 12. Average to good yields of most crops can be produced.
These soils are also well suited to plantings for improved
Gray sandy soils on lowlands; somewhat poorly pasture. Much of the acreage in this association is in
drained; moderately high water table: Klej-Leon (6) forest. These forested areas can be considered as poten-
.. trial agricultural land.
This soil association occurs only in the southwestern trial agricultural land.
part of the county. The soils are dominantly level to Undifferentiated coastal soils bordering salt water:
very gently sloping. The Klej soils predominate; their Coastal dune land and beach-Tidal marsh (11)
aggregate area is almost twice that of the Leon soils. The two undifferentiated mapping units in this soil
Because the soils are nearly level and have a high water association occur as narrow strips adjacent to the Gulf
table, runoff is low and internal drainage is slow. of Mexico. Santa Rosa Island and Gulf Beach are com-
The Klej soils differ from the Leon in having a pale- posed entirely of these mapping units.
yellow to brownish-ellow subsoil, instead of a dark Tidal marsh differs from Coastal dune land and beach
reddish-brown or yellow subsoil. Also, the Leon soils chiefly in being periodically inundated by tides. Tidal
have a leached layer and an organic-matter stained hard- marsh is used mainly for wildlife. Coastal dune land
pan, which the Klej soils do not have. and beach is used for recreation and building sites. This
The soils of this association are low in fertility, and association has no agricultural value.
only small areas have been cleared for agricultural use.
Although the soils are low in organic matter and plant Undifferentiated poorly drained flood plains and
nutrients, they are fairly suitable for improved pasture swamps: Mixed alluvial land-Fresh water swamp
if water is controlled and other management is good. (12)
Gray or very dark gray fine sands; poorly drained: This soil association occurs mostly as irregular strips
Plummer-Rutlege (7) of bottom land along the Escambia and Perdido Rivers
and their tributaries. The aggregate area of Mixed
This soil association occurs mostly in nearly level areas alluvial land is many times that of Fresh water swamp.
in the southwestern part of the county. To lesser extent, The areas are mainly level or nearly level, though some
however, it occurs in seepy areas adjacent to the Perdido are very gently sloping.
River. Most of the Mixed alluvial land lies almost level with
The Rutlege soils are dominant in the areas of this the water in adjacent streams and is frequently flooded.
association in the southwestern part of the county, but It consists of stratified stream sediments that have been
in the seepy areas along the Perdido River, the Plummer washed chiefly from adjoiinng uplands but partly from








40 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Ruston, and Norfolk soils, and the other of Sunsweet, soils are more extensive. The total acreage of the Plum-
Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils. The aggregate area of the mer soil is considerably larger than that of the Rutlege.
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils is approximately The Rutlege soil has a thick, dark surface layer. The
five times that of the Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert Plummer soils, in contrast, have a thin surface layer
soils. The soils in both sets of mapping units are so over light-gray sands.
closely associated that it was not practical to show them The soils of this association are poorly and very poorly
separately. In the association are small areas of other drained. There is practically no runoff. The poor
soils not mentioned in the name of the association. drainage presents difficult problems in management. Al-
The soils are mostly on steeper slopes along streams most all of the acreage in this association is under native
and drainageways. Those soils with finer textured pro- cover, a sparse stand of timber. Only a few areas of
files (Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert) are adjacent these soils are desirable for agriculture under existing
to soils of the Irvington, Tifton, Carnegie, and Red Bay conditions.
series. The areas with coarser textured profiles (Lake-
land, Ruston, and Norfolk) are intricately mixed and Soils on river terraces; well drained or moderately
occur adjacent to Eustis, Lakeland, Norfolk, and Ruston well drained: Huckabee-Kalmia-Izagora (8)
soils. This soil association is on the better drained level to
The soils of this association are very susceptible to very gently sloping stream terraces along the Escambia
erosion. Even with a cover of native vegetation, the and Perdido Rivers. The Huckabee soils predominate;
soils on steeper slopes present serious problems in con- their aggregate is about twice that of the Kalmia or
servation. Surface runoff is high. Internal drainage Izagora soils. The Huckabee soils are well drained and
varies with the texture of the underlying material. In have rapid internal drainage. The Kalmia and Izagora
places, there are outcrops of ironpan that make working soils are moderately well drained and have moderate
the soils almost impossible. internal drainage. The Huckabee soils have 30 to 72
Under proper management, the gently sloping areas inches of sandy material above finer textured material,
can be used for pasture and limited cultivation for pro- whereas the Kalmia soils have less than 30 inches of
duction of crops especially adapted to the soils. Prac- sandy loam above finer textured material. The Izagora
tically all of the steeper areas are in forest, the use to soils differ from Kalmia chiefly in being much finer
which most of the land is probably best suited, textured in the lower layers.
Most of this association has not been cleared for agri-
Nearly Level Soils of River Terraces, cultural use. The fertility of the soils is medium to low.
Depressions, and Lowlands Although they contain little organic matter and plant
Depressions, and Liowlands nutrients, these soils are fairly suitable for most crops.
The soils of the county on terraces, in depressions, and To maintain productivity, proper management is needed.
on lowlands make up soil associations 6, 7, 8, 11, and 12. Average to good yields of most crops can be produced.
These soils are also well suited to plantings for improved
Gray sandy soils on lowlands; somewhat poorly pasture. Much of the acreage in this association is in
drained; moderately high water table: Klej-Leon (6) forest. These forested areas can be considered as poten-
.. trial agricultural land.
This soil association occurs only in the southwestern trial agricultural land.
part of the county. The soils are dominantly level to Undifferentiated coastal soils bordering salt water:
very gently sloping. The Klej soils predominate; their Coastal dune land and beach-Tidal marsh (11)
aggregate area is almost twice that of the Leon soils. The two undifferentiated mapping units in this soil
Because the soils are nearly level and have a high water association occur as narrow strips adjacent to the Gulf
table, runoff is low and internal drainage is slow. of Mexico. Santa Rosa Island and Gulf Beach are com-
The Klej soils differ from the Leon in having a pale- posed entirely of these mapping units.
yellow to brownish-ellow subsoil, instead of a dark Tidal marsh differs from Coastal dune land and beach
reddish-brown or yellow subsoil. Also, the Leon soils chiefly in being periodically inundated by tides. Tidal
have a leached layer and an organic-matter stained hard- marsh is used mainly for wildlife. Coastal dune land
pan, which the Klej soils do not have. and beach is used for recreation and building sites. This
The soils of this association are low in fertility, and association has no agricultural value.
only small areas have been cleared for agricultural use.
Although the soils are low in organic matter and plant Undifferentiated poorly drained flood plains and
nutrients, they are fairly suitable for improved pasture swamps: Mixed alluvial land-Fresh water swamp
if water is controlled and other management is good. (12)
Gray or very dark gray fine sands; poorly drained: This soil association occurs mostly as irregular strips
Plummer-Rutlege (7) of bottom land along the Escambia and Perdido Rivers
and their tributaries. The aggregate area of Mixed
This soil association occurs mostly in nearly level areas alluvial land is many times that of Fresh water swamp.
in the southwestern part of the county. To lesser extent, The areas are mainly level or nearly level, though some
however, it occurs in seepy areas adjacent to the Perdido are very gently sloping.
River. Most of the Mixed alluvial land lies almost level with
The Rutlege soils are dominant in the areas of this the water in adjacent streams and is frequently flooded.
association in the southwestern part of the county, but It consists of stratified stream sediments that have been
in the seepy areas along the Perdido River, the Plummer washed chiefly from adjoiinng uplands but partly from








40 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Ruston, and Norfolk soils, and the other of Sunsweet, soils are more extensive. The total acreage of the Plum-
Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils. The aggregate area of the mer soil is considerably larger than that of the Rutlege.
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils is approximately The Rutlege soil has a thick, dark surface layer. The
five times that of the Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert Plummer soils, in contrast, have a thin surface layer
soils. The soils in both sets of mapping units are so over light-gray sands.
closely associated that it was not practical to show them The soils of this association are poorly and very poorly
separately. In the association are small areas of other drained. There is practically no runoff. The poor
soils not mentioned in the name of the association. drainage presents difficult problems in management. Al-
The soils are mostly on steeper slopes along streams most all of the acreage in this association is under native
and drainageways. Those soils with finer textured pro- cover, a sparse stand of timber. Only a few areas of
files (Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert) are adjacent these soils are desirable for agriculture under existing
to soils of the Irvington, Tifton, Carnegie, and Red Bay conditions.
series. The areas with coarser textured profiles (Lake-
land, Ruston, and Norfolk) are intricately mixed and Soils on river terraces; well drained or moderately
occur adjacent to Eustis, Lakeland, Norfolk, and Ruston well drained: Huckabee-Kalmia-Izagora (8)
soils. This soil association is on the better drained level to
The soils of this association are very susceptible to very gently sloping stream terraces along the Escambia
erosion. Even with a cover of native vegetation, the and Perdido Rivers. The Huckabee soils predominate;
soils on steeper slopes present serious problems in con- their aggregate is about twice that of the Kalmia or
servation. Surface runoff is high. Internal drainage Izagora soils. The Huckabee soils are well drained and
varies with the texture of the underlying material. In have rapid internal drainage. The Kalmia and Izagora
places, there are outcrops of ironpan that make working soils are moderately well drained and have moderate
the soils almost impossible. internal drainage. The Huckabee soils have 30 to 72
Under proper management, the gently sloping areas inches of sandy material above finer textured material,
can be used for pasture and limited cultivation for pro- whereas the Kalmia soils have less than 30 inches of
duction of crops especially adapted to the soils. Prac- sandy loam above finer textured material. The Izagora
tically all of the steeper areas are in forest, the use to soils differ from Kalmia chiefly in being much finer
which most of the land is probably best suited, textured in the lower layers.
Most of this association has not been cleared for agri-
Nearly Level Soils of River Terraces, cultural use. The fertility of the soils is medium to low.
Depressions, and Lowlands Although they contain little organic matter and plant
Depressions, and Liowlands nutrients, these soils are fairly suitable for most crops.
The soils of the county on terraces, in depressions, and To maintain productivity, proper management is needed.
on lowlands make up soil associations 6, 7, 8, 11, and 12. Average to good yields of most crops can be produced.
These soils are also well suited to plantings for improved
Gray sandy soils on lowlands; somewhat poorly pasture. Much of the acreage in this association is in
drained; moderately high water table: Klej-Leon (6) forest. These forested areas can be considered as poten-
.. trial agricultural land.
This soil association occurs only in the southwestern trial agricultural land.
part of the county. The soils are dominantly level to Undifferentiated coastal soils bordering salt water:
very gently sloping. The Klej soils predominate; their Coastal dune land and beach-Tidal marsh (11)
aggregate area is almost twice that of the Leon soils. The two undifferentiated mapping units in this soil
Because the soils are nearly level and have a high water association occur as narrow strips adjacent to the Gulf
table, runoff is low and internal drainage is slow. of Mexico. Santa Rosa Island and Gulf Beach are com-
The Klej soils differ from the Leon in having a pale- posed entirely of these mapping units.
yellow to brownish-ellow subsoil, instead of a dark Tidal marsh differs from Coastal dune land and beach
reddish-brown or yellow subsoil. Also, the Leon soils chiefly in being periodically inundated by tides. Tidal
have a leached layer and an organic-matter stained hard- marsh is used mainly for wildlife. Coastal dune land
pan, which the Klej soils do not have. and beach is used for recreation and building sites. This
The soils of this association are low in fertility, and association has no agricultural value.
only small areas have been cleared for agricultural use.
Although the soils are low in organic matter and plant Undifferentiated poorly drained flood plains and
nutrients, they are fairly suitable for improved pasture swamps: Mixed alluvial land-Fresh water swamp
if water is controlled and other management is good. (12)
Gray or very dark gray fine sands; poorly drained: This soil association occurs mostly as irregular strips
Plummer-Rutlege (7) of bottom land along the Escambia and Perdido Rivers
and their tributaries. The aggregate area of Mixed
This soil association occurs mostly in nearly level areas alluvial land is many times that of Fresh water swamp.
in the southwestern part of the county. To lesser extent, The areas are mainly level or nearly level, though some
however, it occurs in seepy areas adjacent to the Perdido are very gently sloping.
River. Most of the Mixed alluvial land lies almost level with
The Rutlege soils are dominant in the areas of this the water in adjacent streams and is frequently flooded.
association in the southwestern part of the county, but It consists of stratified stream sediments that have been
in the seepy areas along the Perdido River, the Plummer washed chiefly from adjoiinng uplands but partly from








40 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Ruston, and Norfolk soils, and the other of Sunsweet, soils are more extensive. The total acreage of the Plum-
Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils. The aggregate area of the mer soil is considerably larger than that of the Rutlege.
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils is approximately The Rutlege soil has a thick, dark surface layer. The
five times that of the Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert Plummer soils, in contrast, have a thin surface layer
soils. The soils in both sets of mapping units are so over light-gray sands.
closely associated that it was not practical to show them The soils of this association are poorly and very poorly
separately. In the association are small areas of other drained. There is practically no runoff. The poor
soils not mentioned in the name of the association. drainage presents difficult problems in management. Al-
The soils are mostly on steeper slopes along streams most all of the acreage in this association is under native
and drainageways. Those soils with finer textured pro- cover, a sparse stand of timber. Only a few areas of
files (Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert) are adjacent these soils are desirable for agriculture under existing
to soils of the Irvington, Tifton, Carnegie, and Red Bay conditions.
series. The areas with coarser textured profiles (Lake-
land, Ruston, and Norfolk) are intricately mixed and Soils on river terraces; well drained or moderately
occur adjacent to Eustis, Lakeland, Norfolk, and Ruston well drained: Huckabee-Kalmia-Izagora (8)
soils. This soil association is on the better drained level to
The soils of this association are very susceptible to very gently sloping stream terraces along the Escambia
erosion. Even with a cover of native vegetation, the and Perdido Rivers. The Huckabee soils predominate;
soils on steeper slopes present serious problems in con- their aggregate is about twice that of the Kalmia or
servation. Surface runoff is high. Internal drainage Izagora soils. The Huckabee soils are well drained and
varies with the texture of the underlying material. In have rapid internal drainage. The Kalmia and Izagora
places, there are outcrops of ironpan that make working soils are moderately well drained and have moderate
the soils almost impossible. internal drainage. The Huckabee soils have 30 to 72
Under proper management, the gently sloping areas inches of sandy material above finer textured material,
can be used for pasture and limited cultivation for pro- whereas the Kalmia soils have less than 30 inches of
duction of crops especially adapted to the soils. Prac- sandy loam above finer textured material. The Izagora
tically all of the steeper areas are in forest, the use to soils differ from Kalmia chiefly in being much finer
which most of the land is probably best suited, textured in the lower layers.
Most of this association has not been cleared for agri-
Nearly Level Soils of River Terraces, cultural use. The fertility of the soils is medium to low.
Depressions, and Lowlands Although they contain little organic matter and plant
Depressions, and Liowlands nutrients, these soils are fairly suitable for most crops.
The soils of the county on terraces, in depressions, and To maintain productivity, proper management is needed.
on lowlands make up soil associations 6, 7, 8, 11, and 12. Average to good yields of most crops can be produced.
These soils are also well suited to plantings for improved
Gray sandy soils on lowlands; somewhat poorly pasture. Much of the acreage in this association is in
drained; moderately high water table: Klej-Leon (6) forest. These forested areas can be considered as poten-
.. trial agricultural land.
This soil association occurs only in the southwestern trial agricultural land.
part of the county. The soils are dominantly level to Undifferentiated coastal soils bordering salt water:
very gently sloping. The Klej soils predominate; their Coastal dune land and beach-Tidal marsh (11)
aggregate area is almost twice that of the Leon soils. The two undifferentiated mapping units in this soil
Because the soils are nearly level and have a high water association occur as narrow strips adjacent to the Gulf
table, runoff is low and internal drainage is slow. of Mexico. Santa Rosa Island and Gulf Beach are com-
The Klej soils differ from the Leon in having a pale- posed entirely of these mapping units.
yellow to brownish-ellow subsoil, instead of a dark Tidal marsh differs from Coastal dune land and beach
reddish-brown or yellow subsoil. Also, the Leon soils chiefly in being periodically inundated by tides. Tidal
have a leached layer and an organic-matter stained hard- marsh is used mainly for wildlife. Coastal dune land
pan, which the Klej soils do not have. and beach is used for recreation and building sites. This
The soils of this association are low in fertility, and association has no agricultural value.
only small areas have been cleared for agricultural use.
Although the soils are low in organic matter and plant Undifferentiated poorly drained flood plains and
nutrients, they are fairly suitable for improved pasture swamps: Mixed alluvial land-Fresh water swamp
if water is controlled and other management is good. (12)
Gray or very dark gray fine sands; poorly drained: This soil association occurs mostly as irregular strips
Plummer-Rutlege (7) of bottom land along the Escambia and Perdido Rivers
and their tributaries. The aggregate area of Mixed
This soil association occurs mostly in nearly level areas alluvial land is many times that of Fresh water swamp.
in the southwestern part of the county. To lesser extent, The areas are mainly level or nearly level, though some
however, it occurs in seepy areas adjacent to the Perdido are very gently sloping.
River. Most of the Mixed alluvial land lies almost level with
The Rutlege soils are dominant in the areas of this the water in adjacent streams and is frequently flooded.
association in the southwestern part of the county, but It consists of stratified stream sediments that have been
in the seepy areas along the Perdido River, the Plummer washed chiefly from adjoiinng uplands but partly from







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 41

areas farther upstream. The deposits along the larger Some class II soils are gently sloping; consequently,
streams are sandy near the present streambanks. Adja- they need moderate care to prevent erosion. Other soils
cent to these sandy deposits are deposits of silty clay, in class II may be slightly drought, or slightly wet, or
clay, and stratified materials. The areas are somewhat somewhat limited in depth.
poorly drained to very poorly drained. Class III soils can be cropped regularly but have a
Fresh water swamp consists of naturally wooded areas narrower range of use. These need even more careful
that are covered with water or are saturated much of management.
the time. The areas are all in forest consisting domi- In class IV are soils that have greater natural limita-
nantly of swamp hardwoods and a few scattered pines. tions than those in class III, but they can be cultivated
This soil association is not well suited to agricultural for some crops under very careful management.
use. In classes V, VI, and VII are soils that normally
should not be cultivated for annual or short-lived crops,
but they can be used for pasture or range, for woodland,
Use, Management, and Estimated or for wildlife.
Yields Class V soils are nearly level and gently sloping but
elds are drought, wet, low in fertility, or otherwise unsuit-
This section has three main parts. The first explains able for cultivation.
the system used in grouping soils according to their Class VI soils are not suitable for crops because they
capability; the second places the soils in capability units, are steep or drought or otherwise limited, but they give
or groups of soils that need about the same kind of fair yields of forage or forest products. Some soils in
management and respond in about the same way; and class VI can, without damage, be cultivated enough so
the third gives estimated average acre yields for princi- that fruit trees or forest trees can be set out or pasture
pal crops at two levels of management. crops seeded.
Class VII soils are not suitable for crops and only
iof Sois poorly suited to pasture; they are too steep, are drought,
Capability Groups of Soils" or are otherwise limited. They are best suited to forest
Capability grouping is a system of classification used and produce fair to good yields of forest products.
to show the relative suitability of soils for crops, graz- In class VIII are soils that have practically no agri-
ing, forestry, and wildlife. It is a practical grouping cultural use. Some of them have value as watersheds,
based on the needs and limitations of the soils, the risks as wildlife habitats, or for recreation.
of damage to them, and also their response to manage- The soils of Escambia County have been grouped in
ment. There are three levels above the soil mapping the following capability classes, subclasses, and units:
unit in this grouping. They are the capability unit, Class I.-Nearly level productive soils that are very good
subclass, and class. for crops and other uses and have few limitations.
The capability unit, which can also be called a man- Unit I-1.-Well-drained, nearly level soils that
agement group, is the lowest level of soil capability have fine sandy clay loam subsoil.
grouping. A capability unit is made up of soils similar Unit I-2.-Well-drained, nearly level soils that
in the kind of management they need, in risk of damage, have subsoils with slightly greater moisture-
and in general suitability for use. holding capacity than the soils of unit I-1.
The next broader grouping, the subclass, is used to Class II.-Soils that have some limitations that reduce
indicate the dominant kind of limitation. The letter the choice of plants or require some conservation
symbol "e" indicates that the main limiting factor is risk practices.
of erosion if the plant cover is not maintained; "w" Subclass Ile.-Very gently sloping soils that are
means excess water that retards plant growth or inter- likely to erode if not protected.

feres with cultivation; "s" shows that the soils are shal- Unit IIe-1.-Well-drained, very gently sloping
low, drought, or generally low in fertility. soils that have clay loam or fine sandy clay
The broadest grouping, the land capability class, is loam subsoils.
identified by Roman numerals. All the soils in one class Unit IIe-2.-Well-drained, very gently sloping
have limitations and management problems of about the soils that have subsoils with slightly greater
same degree, but of different kinds, as shown by the moisture-holding capacity than the soils of
subclass. All the land classes except class I may have unit IIe-1.
one or more subclasses. Unit IIe-3.-Moderately well drained very
In classes I, II, and III are soils that are suitable for gently sloping soils.
annual or periodic cultivation of annual or short-lived Subclass IIs.-Loamy sands that have moderate
crops. limitations because of low moisture-holding ca-
Class I soils are those that have the widest range of pacity.
use and the least risk of damage. They are level, or Unit IIs-1.-Loamy sands that do not have fine-
nearly level, productive, well drained, and easy to work. textured subsoils within 18 inches of the sur-
They can be cultivated with almost no risk of erosion face.
and will remain productive if managed with normal care. Subclass IIw.-Moderately well drained soils in
Class II soils can be cultivated regularly, but do not which excess water restricts the choice of crops
have quite so wide a range of suitability as class I soils, or requires some corrective measures.
3 By W. H. BUCKHANNAN, soil scientist, Soil Conservation Unit IIw-l.-Moderately well drained soils that
Service. have a high water table part of the time.







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 41

areas farther upstream. The deposits along the larger Some class II soils are gently sloping; consequently,
streams are sandy near the present streambanks. Adja- they need moderate care to prevent erosion. Other soils
cent to these sandy deposits are deposits of silty clay, in class II may be slightly drought, or slightly wet, or
clay, and stratified materials. The areas are somewhat somewhat limited in depth.
poorly drained to very poorly drained. Class III soils can be cropped regularly but have a
Fresh water swamp consists of naturally wooded areas narrower range of use. These need even more careful
that are covered with water or are saturated much of management.
the time. The areas are all in forest consisting domi- In class IV are soils that have greater natural limita-
nantly of swamp hardwoods and a few scattered pines. tions than those in class III, but they can be cultivated
This soil association is not well suited to agricultural for some crops under very careful management.
use. In classes V, VI, and VII are soils that normally
should not be cultivated for annual or short-lived crops,
but they can be used for pasture or range, for woodland,
Use, Management, and Estimated or for wildlife.
Yields Class V soils are nearly level and gently sloping but
elds are drought, wet, low in fertility, or otherwise unsuit-
This section has three main parts. The first explains able for cultivation.
the system used in grouping soils according to their Class VI soils are not suitable for crops because they
capability; the second places the soils in capability units, are steep or drought or otherwise limited, but they give
or groups of soils that need about the same kind of fair yields of forage or forest products. Some soils in
management and respond in about the same way; and class VI can, without damage, be cultivated enough so
the third gives estimated average acre yields for princi- that fruit trees or forest trees can be set out or pasture
pal crops at two levels of management. crops seeded.
Class VII soils are not suitable for crops and only
iof Sois poorly suited to pasture; they are too steep, are drought,
Capability Groups of Soils" or are otherwise limited. They are best suited to forest
Capability grouping is a system of classification used and produce fair to good yields of forest products.
to show the relative suitability of soils for crops, graz- In class VIII are soils that have practically no agri-
ing, forestry, and wildlife. It is a practical grouping cultural use. Some of them have value as watersheds,
based on the needs and limitations of the soils, the risks as wildlife habitats, or for recreation.
of damage to them, and also their response to manage- The soils of Escambia County have been grouped in
ment. There are three levels above the soil mapping the following capability classes, subclasses, and units:
unit in this grouping. They are the capability unit, Class I.-Nearly level productive soils that are very good
subclass, and class. for crops and other uses and have few limitations.
The capability unit, which can also be called a man- Unit I-1.-Well-drained, nearly level soils that
agement group, is the lowest level of soil capability have fine sandy clay loam subsoil.
grouping. A capability unit is made up of soils similar Unit I-2.-Well-drained, nearly level soils that
in the kind of management they need, in risk of damage, have subsoils with slightly greater moisture-
and in general suitability for use. holding capacity than the soils of unit I-1.
The next broader grouping, the subclass, is used to Class II.-Soils that have some limitations that reduce
indicate the dominant kind of limitation. The letter the choice of plants or require some conservation
symbol "e" indicates that the main limiting factor is risk practices.
of erosion if the plant cover is not maintained; "w" Subclass Ile.-Very gently sloping soils that are
means excess water that retards plant growth or inter- likely to erode if not protected.

feres with cultivation; "s" shows that the soils are shal- Unit IIe-1.-Well-drained, very gently sloping
low, drought, or generally low in fertility. soils that have clay loam or fine sandy clay
The broadest grouping, the land capability class, is loam subsoils.
identified by Roman numerals. All the soils in one class Unit IIe-2.-Well-drained, very gently sloping
have limitations and management problems of about the soils that have subsoils with slightly greater
same degree, but of different kinds, as shown by the moisture-holding capacity than the soils of
subclass. All the land classes except class I may have unit IIe-1.
one or more subclasses. Unit IIe-3.-Moderately well drained very
In classes I, II, and III are soils that are suitable for gently sloping soils.
annual or periodic cultivation of annual or short-lived Subclass IIs.-Loamy sands that have moderate
crops. limitations because of low moisture-holding ca-
Class I soils are those that have the widest range of pacity.
use and the least risk of damage. They are level, or Unit IIs-1.-Loamy sands that do not have fine-
nearly level, productive, well drained, and easy to work. textured subsoils within 18 inches of the sur-
They can be cultivated with almost no risk of erosion face.
and will remain productive if managed with normal care. Subclass IIw.-Moderately well drained soils in
Class II soils can be cultivated regularly, but do not which excess water restricts the choice of crops
have quite so wide a range of suitability as class I soils, or requires some corrective measures.
3 By W. H. BUCKHANNAN, soil scientist, Soil Conservation Unit IIw-l.-Moderately well drained soils that
Service. have a high water table part of the time.







42 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

Class III.-Soils that have severe limitations that reduce Unit VIIe-1.-Sloping and strongly sloping
the choice of plants, or require special conservation mixed soils.
practices, or both. Unit VIIe-2.-Severely gullied or rough broken
Subclass IIIe.-Sloping soils that will erode if not land.
protected. Subclass VIIs.-Dry soils that are low in fertility.
Unit IIIe-1.-Well-drained, gently sloping soils Unit VIIs-1.-Deep, somewhat excessively
that have clay loam or fine sandy clay loam drained sandy soils.
subsoils. Unit VIIs-2.-Deep, drought sands.
Unit IIIe-2.-Well-drained, gently sloping soils Class VIII.-Soils not suitable for production of crops,
that have subsoils with slightly greater mois- grasses, or woody plants.
ture-holding capacity than those of unit IIIe-1. Unit VIII-1.-Coastal dunes and tidal marsh.
Subclass IIIs.-Soils severely limited by moderate
or low moisture-holding capacity. Management by Capability Units
Unit IIIs-1.-Deep, well-drained loamy fine
sands. Soils in one capability unit have about the same limita-
Unit IIIs-2.-Deep, moderately well drained to tions and similar risks of damage. The soils in one unit,
somewhat poorly drained loamy fine sands to therefore, need about the same kind of management,
sands. though they may have formed from different kinds of
Subclass IIIw.-Soils severely limited by excess parent materials in different ways. The capability units
water, are described in the following pages. The soils in each
Unit IIIw-1.-Somewhat poorly drained soils unit are listed and suitable management is suggested.
that are wet part of the time unless artificially Capability unit I-1
drained.
Unit IIIw-2.-Very poorly drained, dark-col- In this unit are well-drained, nearly level soils that
ored soils that are suitable for cultivation if have fine sandy clay loam subsoil. They have 10- bo
drained. 18-inch surface layers that contain little organic matter.
Class IV.-Soils that have very severe limitations that These are underlain by moderately fine textured subsoils
restrict the choice of plants, or require very careful that range from 30 to 42 inches in thickness. The sub-
management, or both. soils are thick and friable; are readily penetrated by
Subclass IVe.-Soils that will erode if not protected. plant roots, water, and air; and have high available
Unit IVe-1.-Gently sloping mixed soils, some moisture capacity. These soils are:
highly erodible and having low moisture- Blakely loam.
holding capacity. Kalmia fine sandy loam, level phase.
Subclass IVs.-Soils severely limited by low mois- Norfolk fine sandy loam, level phase.
Red Bay fine sandy loam, level phase.
ture-holding capacity. Ruston fine sandy loam, level phase.
Unit IVs-1.-Sloping, deep, well-drained, coarse-
textured sandy soils. The soils of this unit are especially well suited to the
Unit IVs-2.-Nearly level to gently sloping, deep-rooted general farm crops commonly grown in the
deep sandy soils. county and to nut and fruit trees.
Class V.-Soils that have limitations, other than erosion These soils have no special limitations, but good farm-
hazard, that limit their use largely to permanent cover, ing is needed to maintain fertility and structure. Use
Subclass Vw.-Wet soils of low fertility that can a rotation that includes a sod crop; grow green-manure
be used for pasture or woodland. crops, preferably legumes; return to the soil straw,
Unit Vw--Poorl to very poorly drained stalks, and other crop residues; and apply lime and
soUnit w-.-t Poorly to very poorly drained fertilizer. Although these soils are not very susceptible
soils that are low m organme matter and fer- .
utility. to erosion, terraces may be required to carry off water
Subclass Vs.-Sandy soils that can be used for pas- that flows onto the soils where they adjoin more sloping
ture or woodland. land.
Unit Vs-1.-Somewhat poorly drained soils These soils can produce high yields of forest products,
with an organic pan layer in the subsoil. but because they are used for high-value cultivated crops
Class VI.-Soils that have severe limitations that make and pasture, a very small acreage is forested. Longleaf
them generally unsuited to cultivation and limit their pine is native. Practice good management-cut trees
use largely to permanent cover, selectively, protect the areas from fire and overgrazing,
Subclass VIe.-Sloping soils highly susceptible to and plant slash pine in unused areas.
erosion. The soils are well suited to produce food for wildlife,
Unit VIe-1.-Mixed very gently or gently particularly the deep-rooted legumes. Although most of
sloping soils that are extremely erodible if the areas that have these soils are cultivated, those in
not protected. fence rows and field corners can be used to produce
Unit VIe-2.-Sloping, deep, sandy soils, abundant brushy cover for wildlife.
Class VII.-Soils unsuitable for cultivation that have
very severe limitations. Capability unit 1-2
Subclass VIIe.-Soils subject to rapid erosion if not This capability unit consists of well-drained nearly
protected, level soils that have subsoils with slightly greater mois-







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

ture-holding capacity than the soils of unit I-1. They These soils are well suited to produce desirable feed
differ from the soils of unit I-1 principally in having plants for wildlife. Such plants need to be encouraged
slightly finer textured subsoils, slightly higher available to grow along fence rows, borders of fields, and in field
moisture capacity, and slightly higher productivity. The corners.
soils of this unit are: Capability unit Ie-2
Carnegie fine sandy loam, level phase. In this capability unit are well-drained, very gently
Faceville fine sandy loam, level phase.
Tifton fine sandy loam, level phase, sloping soils that have subsoils with slightly greater
moisture-holding capacity than the soils of unit IIe-1.
The soils of this capability unit are slightly more The soils of unit IIe-2 have surface soils that are moder-
favorable to a wider range of legumes than the soils of ately coarse textured and that are underlain by fine-
capability unit I-1. Nevertheless, soils of the two units textured subsoils. The soils are:
are alike in that they can be used intensively and are
very slightly limited in capability. Management prac- Carnegie fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase.
tices are similar. Carnegie fine sandy loam, eroded very gently sloping phase.
Faceville fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase.
The yields of forest products and the woodland man- Tifton fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase.
agement needed for soils of both units are very similar.
The soils of both units are equally suitable as producers The soils of this unit are easily cultivated and among
of food and cover for wildlife. them are some of the most productive, well-drained soils
of the county. In use and management they are gener-
Capability unit Ile-1 ally comparable to the soils of capability unit IIe-1,
In this capability unit are well-drained, very gently but they are capable of maintaining a higher level of
sloping soils that have clay loam or fine sandy clay loam productivity than soils of that unit. These soils differ
subsoils. These soils are likely to erode if not protected. from those of capability unt IIe-1 principally because
The surface soils are moderately coarse textured and, they have subsoils of slightly finer texture, which causes
in most places, range from about 12 to 18 inches in some difference in suitability for crops and in manage-
thickness. They merge with the friable, moderately fine ment practices needed.
textured, thick subsoils. Although these soils are well Since these soils are slightly more erodible than those
drained, and water moves through them freely they of capability unit IIe-1, adequate water control is more
have a fairly high available moisture capacity. Slopes essential. Needed are terraces, protected terrace outlets,
range from 2 to 5 percent and are slightly to moderately and waterways, and proper crop rotations. Close-grow-
susceptible to erosion by water. The soils in this capa- ng cover crops, including legumes, ought to be on the
ability unit are: soils at least half the time. A good litter of organic
material on the surface will help increase infiltration
Kalmia fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase. and reduce erosion.
Norfolk fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase. In comparison with the soils of unit IIe-1, the soils
Red Bay fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase.
Ruston fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase, of this unit are better for legumes and other general
farm crops that require more moisture. To maintain
The natural characteristics of these soils, and the ease high yields, lime is needed, especially for legumes, and
with which high fertility and a favorable content of a complete fertilizer is required. These soils produce
organic matter can be maintained, make them among the good grass-legume mixtures and, therefore, have high
most productive in the county. Good management often value as pasture.
requires that a complete water-control system be estab- Longleaf pine is native, and yields of all forest prod-
lished to prevent erosion. Terraces and terrace outlets ucts are high. Plantings of slash pine grow well, but
need to be properly constructed. But if good infiltration few areas now produce trees because they are preferred
is maintained and proper tillage and contour cultivation for cultivated crops.
are used, terraces are less essential on these friable soils Most of the acreage in this unit is cultivated or in
than on those that have finer texture or more compact improved pasture, but the remaining uncleared areas,
subsoils. Crop rotations that include a close-growmg field corners, and fence rows are excellent places to pro-
cover crop at least one-half the time will protect against duce plants that will provide feed and shelter for wild-
excessive runoff and erosion and help to maintain or- life.
ganic matter and nitrogen. Appropriate quantities of
lime and fertilizers need to be added. Capability unit le-3
These soils are well suited to grasses suitable for im- This capability unit is made up of moderately well
proved pasture, but a complete fertilizer and lime are drained very gently slopig soils. Their moderately
required to obtain the best yields. Some of the most texture surface soils, grayish brown to dark
drought-resistant legumes can be grown, but these soils c e t s s g b t
are not so suitable for legumes as the soils in capability grayish brown in color, are about 5 inches thick. They
unit IIe-2, which have subsoils of finer texture and a merge with yellowish-brown to light yellowish-brown
higher available moisture capacity, subsurface layers that are of similar texture and 6 to 10
These soils are well suited to produce forest products. inches thick. Below these depths the subsoils are yellow
Longleaf pine is the native tree, and slash pine grows to brownish-yellow friable material of moderately fine
well in reforested areas. Because of the high value of texture. At depths of about 36 inches the subsoils grade
these soils for tilled crops, however, only a small acreage to mottled material that is either of slightly finer texture
is used for forestry. or more compact. This finer or more compact material







44 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

tends to restrict internal drainage. These soils have requires a cultivation that leaves at least part of the
slopes that range from 2 to 5 percent. They are: plant residue on the surface. Spring furrowing and
Angle fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase. stripcropping (planting of close-growing crops in alter-
Savannah fine sandy loam, very gently sloping thick solum nate strips) may be required to prevent blowing of the
phase. soils in larger clean-tilled fields.
The dominant hazard in management of these soils is These soils contain a fairly small amount of plant
susceptibility to erosion. Adequate water control is even nutrients, but they can be managed so as to obtain fairly
more essential than for the soils of capability unit IIe-2, high yields of nearly all general farm crops. This re-
not only because these soils have a slowly permeable quires additions of organic matter by growing crops that
subsoil, but also because they have a fairly high water, improve the soil and by applying adequate lime and
table. Simple practices, however, will overcome these fertilizer.
limitations. Establish a complete water-control system These soils are suited to only the most drought-resist-
that includes properly constructed terraces, provides pro- ant and deep-rooted legumes. Improved pasture grasses,
tected outlets and other necessary waterways, and keeps especially the more deeply rooted grasses, grow well if
a plant cover on the soils at least half the time. These fertilizer and lime are liberally applied.
practices ahd appropriate fertilization are most satisfac- Yields of forest products are moderately high to high.
tory for maximum protection and production. On short Longleaf pine is the dominant native tree. Plantings of
slopes, contour tillage and return of good cover crops to slash pine grow well. Good management for obtaining
the soil are sufficient protection. Periodic additions of maximum yields includes protection from fire, planting
organic matter increase the infiltration rate, improve the of pine in sites unfavorable for natural reseeding, and
ability of the soil to retain water, furnish nitrogen for selective cutting and thinning of undesirable hardwoods.
the growing crop, and help to prevent rapid loss of com- Legumes that are drought resistant and deep rooted
mercial fertilizer, are suitable for producing good yields of desirable feed
The soils are well suited to high-value pasture mix- for wildlife. Uncleared areas and field borders or fence
tures. Forage crops, particularly legumes, are well rows and field corners should be managed so as to pro-
suited, especially during extended droughts. To main- duce cover and feed for wildlife.
tain high yields of forage crops a complete fertilizer Capability unit IIw-1
and lime are needed. The legumes, especially, need the
lime. This capability unit consists of pioderately well drained
Yields of forest products are high. Longleaf pine is soils that have a high water table part of the time.
native. Slash pine grows well and is the most suitable They have moderately coarse textured surface soils about
for reforesting. Good forestry management includes 10 to 18 inches thick that merge into moderately fine
fire control, selective cutting of trees, and protection textured subsoils that have some compaction at lower
from overgrazing, depths. These soils are:
The soils of this capability unit are well suited to the Irvington fine sandy loam.
production of feed plants for wildlife. More of the Izagora fine sandy loam.
acreage is uncleared than on unit IIe-2 and, therefore, Savannah fine sandy loam, level thick solum phase.
can be improved as a habitat for wildlife. Good wild- These soils are well suited to many kinds of cultivated
life management includes improvement of feed and cover crops and to improved pasture, but for some crops their
along fence rows, along field borders, and in areas under use is limited by periodic wetness. The lack of drainage,
native vegetation. or high water table, limits their use for crops that are
Capability unit IIs-1 most sensitive to moisture but makes them suitable for
Si crops that require large amounts of water. The Irving-
The soils of this capability unit are loamy sands that ton and Savannah soils are used much more extensively
have fine-textured subsoils at depths greater than 18 for vegetables than the Izagora soil.
inches. They are well drained and well suited to gen- Slow drainage delays cultivation following heavy
eral farm crops. However, a few adverse characteristics rains. The soils must be carefully tilled at the right
somewhat limit their capacity to produce permanent time; otherwise, they will puddle. Puddling can be
high yields. These soils have almost no slope, and run- decreased by growing cover crops that add large amounts
off is not a hazard. Water moves through these soils of organic matter. Because of the slow internal drain-
freely; their capacity to hold water is low to moderately age, the soils are cold and crops germinate slowly in
low. The soils in this unit are: spring. Crop rotations should keep legume cover crops
Eustis loamy fine sand, level phase, on the soil half the time.
Eustis loamy sand, level phase. Nearly all cultivated crops require simple measures
Huckabee loamy fine sand, level phase.
Lakeland loamy fine sand, level phase, that will prevent extensive saturation of the soils dur-
Lakeland loamy sand, level phase. ing periods of high rainfall. These soils, however, are
Red Bay loamy fine sand, level thick surface phase, not so wet that drainage is necessary for improved pas-
Ruston loamy fine sand, level thick surface phase. ture. These soils are well suited to the production of
These soils require fertilizer and maximum use of soil- a balanced mixture of grasses and legumes; they respond
building crops to maintain as large an amount of organic favorably to lime and fertilizer and have fairly good
matter as possible. Cover crops should occupy the land moisture conditions for most of the year.
half the time and be returned to the soil. These soils The yield of forest products is high. Longleaf pine
are susceptible to wind erosion, especially during critical is the dominant native tree, but plantings of slash pine
stages of crop growth; consequently, good management grow exceptionally well. Yields of feed for wildlife are







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 45

favorable, especially where suitable legumes and other than in the soils of capability unit IIIe-1. Because of
plants are established and properly managed. Most areas this, runoff is greater and the soils are more susceptible
of these soils are adjacent to poorly drained, wooded to erosion when cultivated. They have a fairly high
areas that produce cover for wildlife, available moisture capacity, and crops withstand droughts
Capability unit Ie-1 better than on soils of unit IIIe-1. The soils of this
capability unit are as follows:
In this capability unit are well-drained, gently sloping ,
soils that have clay loam or fine sandy clay loam sub- Carnegie fine sandy loam, gent ly ssopin g phase.
soils. They are suitable for cultivation but are more Tifton fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase.
susceptible to erosion because slopes range from 5 to 8.
percent. The soils are uniformly thick and are permeable These soils are naturally productive and are well suited
to roots and water. Their surface soils-moderately to nearly all general farm crops. Under comparable
coarse textured and 12 to 18 inches thick-are underlain management, yields of all crops are higher than on soils
by friable, moderately fine textured subsoils that have a of unit Ille-1. These soils, however, are rapidly de-
high available moisture capacity. The soils of this unit pleted if good management is not followed. This is
are: especially true if the soils are used mainly to produce
row or intertilled crops. If they have been cultivated
Norfolk fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase. for a long time and have not been properly managed,
Red Bay fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase. many of these soils are seriously eroded or otherwise
Ruston fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase, depleted. Nevertheless, increased yields and general im-
These soils are suitable for many kinds of farm crops. provement of the soils are possible, even in the most
They have permanent hazards if cultivated continuously, severely depleted areas.
but they respond favorably if soil building and conserv- Since permeability is somewhat restricted and the soils
ing practices are applied. These soils do not have much are sloping, intensive control of erosion is necessary. A
erosion, but in a few areas moderately eroded spots are complete water-disposal system that includes terraces,
included. contour tillage, and suitable outlets is also necessary.
To maintain long-time production, these soils need Maximum use of summer and winter cover crops is needed
good crop rotations and a complete water-disposal sys- to improve the tilth of the soils and to increase intake of
tem. An adequate cropping system includes growing and water. Rotations made up mainly of sod crops are par-
plowing under of green-manure crops in a rotation that ticularly effective, even on the areas most susceptible to
keeps close-growing crops on the soils two-thirds of the erosion. Lime and fertilizers are essential, and close-
time. Also, terraces are spaced at closer intervals than growing crops ought to be on the soils at least two-
on soils of class IIe-1. Terrace outlets and waterways thirds of the time. It is important that all crop residues
are protected by grass. Emphasis is placed on contour be left on the land.
cultivation and planting perennial vegetation at intervals Most grasses and legumes suitable for improved pas-
or in contoured strips, particularly on the longer slopes, ture will grow well on these soils if they are properly
Rotations consisting mainly of sod crops are especially fertilized and managed. The soils are particularly suit-
effective in decreasing erosion on the long slopes, able for high-quality pasture.
These soils are suitable for nearly all general farm Forest products yield well, and a fairly large acreage
crops. Yields correspond to those on soils of capability is in trees. The native tree is longleaf pine, but plant-
unit IIe-1 if management is adequate. The soils are ings of slash pine also grow well.

suitable for the most drought-resistant legumes and are The soils are well suited to produce feed and cover
very suitable for nearly all grasses used in improved for wildlife. Uncleared areas and fence rows or field
pastures. Liberal applications of lime and fertilizer are borders and corners are favorable sites for this use.
required for optimum yields.
Yields of forest products are high, but only a small Capability unit IIIs-1
part of the total acreage is in trees. Longleaf pine is This unit consists of deep, well-drained loamy fine
the dominant native tree. Slash pine grows well and is sands. Most of the soils have a coarse or moderately
probably the most desirable for reforestation. Forest coarse subsoil and a moderate or moderately low capacity
management described for soils of capability unit IIe-1 to hold moisture available to plants. Some of the map-
also applies to soils of this unit. ping units consist partly of soils that have finer textured
These soils are well suited to the production of feed subsoils and a high available moisture capacity. Slopes
and cover for wildlife; legumes that produce feed for range from 2 to 5 percent. The soils are:
wildlife grow well. Such plants should be encouraged Eustis loamy fine sand, very gently sloping phase.
to grow in field borders and corners and in other unused Eustis loamy sand, very gently sloping phase.
areas. Huckabee loamy fine sand, very gently sloping phase.
Lakeland loamy fine sand, very gently sloping phase.
Capability unit lle-2 Lakeland loamy sand, very gently sloping phase.
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, very gently sloping
This capability unit contains well-drained, gently phases. r r y sin
sloping soils. Their subsoils have a slightly greater Red Bay loamy fine sand, very gently sloping thick surface
moisture-holding capacity than those of unit IIIe-1. The phase.
moderately coarse surface soils are underlain at depths Ruston loamy fine sand, very gently sloping thick surface
of 10 to 18 inches by thick subsoils of moderately fine phase.
to fine texture. Although the subsoils are readily per- In general, these soils produce less than the soils of
meable to roots, water moves through them more slowly subclass IIIe and are severely limited in suitability for







46 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

crops that require lots of moisture. They are best for of the plants to obtain moisture from the lower depths
crops that require little moisture. Because of low mois- during long droughts. Water control generally is needed
ture-holding capacity, crops are damaged by drought. only where crops are grown that have little tolerance
Favorable growth is limited to seasons of high rainfall, for excess moisture. Such control is accomplished by
Intensive soil-building and soil-conserving practices are digging shallow, open drainage ditches.
essential if good yields are to be maintained under con- Organic matter and plant nutrients are so rapidly
tinued cultivation. Fairly high yields of deep-rooted leached from these soils that intensive use of soil-build-
crops are obtained if cover crops that include legumes ing crops is required. High yields are limited princi-
are kept on these soils two-thirds of the time and if pally by low fertility and low available moisture capac-
adequate applications of lime and fertilizers are used. ity. Maximum yields require intensive use of crop
Water erosion is a definite problem, particularly on the rotations and liberal applications of lime and fertilizer.
longer slopes. A complete water-disposal system is re- These soils are not suited to so many kinds of crops
quired to prevent loss of soil by excessive runoff, espe- as the well-drained soils of class III. The crops most
cially if clean-tilled crops are grown in areas that have suitable are those that tolerate wetness during periods
subsoils of moderately fine texture. Green-manure crops of heavy rainfall. Fairly high yields of forage or pas-
or established sods turned into the soils will add organic ture are possible if lime and a complete fertilizer are
matter, increase the capacity of the soils to hold moisture, liberally applied.
and help prevent excessive leaching of plant nutrients. Yields of forest products are fairly high. Plantings
Wind erosion is a hazard in many places, particularly of slash pine grow well. Good forest management is
in large, open fields. Crop residues left on the surface necessary to encourage reproduction and the growth of
will greatly reduce this hazard. Where wind erosion is longleaf pine, slash pine, and other desirable species.
serious, alternate strips of vegetation need to be main- Needed practices are planting of slash pine, selective
trained while the soil between the strips is clean tilled. cutting of trees, and protection from fire and overgrazing.
Deep-rooted pasture grasses are adapted to these soils, Many areas are especially well suited to produce feed
but for high yields fertilizers need to be applied liber- and cover for wildlife. Good management includes se-
ally during periods of most abundant rainfall. Although election of suitable plants, addition of fertilizer, and pro-
the more drought-resistant legumes grow fairly well, tection from fire and overgrazing.
high-quality pastures of mixed grasses and legumes are Capability unit llIw-1
more difficult to establish and maintain on these soils
than on soils of capability units IIIe-1 and IIIe-2. In this unit are somewhat poorly drained soils that
However, good sods can be established and are an impor- are wet part of the time unless artificially drained. The
tant means by which the soils can be protected and the surface soils are moderately coarse in texture and con-
amount of their organic matter increased. Rotation of tain a moderate amount of organic matter. The surface
dense sod with tilled crops is a means of keeping the layers, at depths of 12 to 18 inches, are underlain by
soils at highest productivity, friable moderately fine textured subsoils.
Longleaf pine is the dominant native tree. Slash pine These soils have a high available moisture capacity.
grows well and is the most desirable for reforestation. The slopes are normally 2 percent or less, but in a few
Moderately high to high yields of forest products are places they range up to slightly more than 5 percent.
obtained if the stands are protected from fire and over- The soils in this unit are:
grazing and the trees are selectively cut or thinned. Lynchburg fine sandy loam, level phase.
These soils are somewhat limited in their suitability Lynchburg fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase.
for some of the legumes that produce desirable feed for Lynchburg gravelly very fine sandy loam.
wildlife. If a suitable legume is selected and is fertilized Stough fine sandy loam.
and protected from fire and overgrazing, it will produce The subsoils are periodically wet or waterlogged;
well. The rather large number of uncleared areas and therefore, intensive management is needed to control
the field borders and corners are places suitable for water. The more sloping areas are susceptible to ero-
growing feed and cover for wildlife. sion, particularly gullying, so control of surface runoff
Capability unit IIIs-2 may be needed. These soils are inherently low in plant
nutrients and contain little organic matter. They rapidly
The level to very gently sloping soils of this capability lose their limited content of both during cultivation.
unit are deep, moderately well drained to somewhat Good management includes liberal applications of ferti-
poorly drained loamy fine sands to sands. They are lizer and use of crop rotations that periodically add
coarse textured to depths of more than 42 inches, and large amounts of organic matter to the soil.
their capacity to hold moisture available for plants is The water table fluctuates between depths of 2 and 4
low. These soils are: feet and, on the average, is about 30 inches from the
Barth loamy fine sand, surface. The water table, slight relief, low position, and
Klej loamy sand, level phase. rather slowly permeable subsoil, make drainage and
Klej loamy sand, very gently sloping phase. water control difficult. The soils, however, are suitable
Klej sand, level phase. for subirrigation where the surface layer is about 18
Klej sand, very gently sloping phase. inches thick. A system of properly designed shallow
The water table is in the lower part of the subsoil ditches, with simple structures to control flow, will pro-
most of the year, and during heavy rainfall it rises to vide both subirrigation and drainage.
near the surface. The fluctuating height of the water These soils, if properly drained, will still hold ample
table tends to restrict deep root growth and the ability water for most general farm crops. Permanent high







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 47

yields of suitable tilled crops can be obtained under tices also needed are thinning of undesirable trees, selec-
good management, which requires intensive use of soil- tive cutting, and fire control.
building cover crops and additions of fertilizer and lime. In their natural state these soils provide fairly good
These soils are particularly suitable for grass pasture, cover and feed for wildlife. Where water control is
Shallow-rooted clovers produce well except during pe- established, wildlife feed can be increased by planting
riods of extreme drought. Good pastures of mixed suitable feed plants.
legumes and grass generally can be obtained. If pastures
are to be good, adequate use of lime and fertilizer and Capability unit IVe-1
proper control of water are necessary. In this capability unit are gently sloping mixed soils,
High yields of forest products are obtained on these some highly erodible and having low moisture-holding
soils. They are well suited to longleaf and slash pines capacity. They are on slopes of 5 to 8 percent. They
Good management includes protection from fire, selec- are well drained to somewhat excessively drained, have
tive cutting of trees, and planting of slash pine in sites coarse to moderately coarse textured surface soils, and
unfavorable for natural reseeding. have subsoils that range from coarse to moderately fine.
These soils will produce feed and cover for wildlife. These soils are:
The fairly abundant supply of moisture throughout most Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, gently sloping phases.
of the year encourages growth of the legumes that are Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, eroded gently sloping
most desirable as wildlife feed. These legumes need phases.
fertilizer and protection from overgrazing and fire. These soils are similar to those of capability units
Most of these soils are uncleared and provide good wild- IIe-1 and IIIs-1, but they are more difficult to manage
life habitats. because of their mixed pattern and generally stronger
Capability unit IIIw-2 slopes.
These soils produce moderate to high yields of adapted
This capability unit contains very poorly drained, crops under proper management, but they are too erodi-
dark-colored soils that are suitable for cultivation if ble for continuous cultivation. They should be kept in
drained. They have black, coarse- to medium-textured close-growing cover crops at least three-fourths of the
surface soils that contain large to very large amounts of time. Terraces would be necessary for more intensive
organic matter and nitrogen and are more than 6 inches cultivation on slopes as strong as these. Terraces, how-
thick. The soils are very low in plant nutrients other ever, are too difficult to maintain in most areas because
than nitrogen. Their subsoils are either muck or coarse of the wide range in texture of the surface soils and
to moderately fine textured mineral material. The soils subsoils. These soils respond better to sod-base rotations.
in this unit are: Establish a good improved grass sod after a tilled crop,
Rutlege sand. and let the sod remain 3 years or more before growing
Pamlico muck. the next cultivated crop.
Portsmouth loam. These soils are best suited to pasture or forestry. High-
The soils in this unit are quite different in some char- quality pasture can be established and maintained under
acteristics, but they are enough alike to require similar simple management. Most areas have good internal
use and management, moisture conditions and respond well to fertilizer and
Controlled drainage is necessary because the natural lime. Several kinds of improved grass will produce
water table remains within a few inches of the surface good yields and provide a good protective cover. Good
for long periods each year and frequently rises above the management includes liberal applications of fertilizer
surface. A good water-control system, with properly and lime and controlled grazing.
designed ditches and locks, will regulate the level of the The native vegetation is mostly longleaf pine. Slash
water. It will function as a drainage system during wet pine grows rapidly and, in several respects, is a better
seasons and as a subirrigation system during dry seasons. tree for reforestation. For good forest management,
Because of differences in texture, these soils have wide plant seedlings in areas where natural reseeding is poor,
differences in available moisture capacity. This is not remove trees of undesirable species, harvest selectively,
so important as in the well-drained soils, because water and protect the areas from fire and overgrazing.
is available from the high water table. Many undeveloped areas of cutover woodland provide
If properly drained, these soils are well suited to feed and cover for wildlife. Wildlife populations can be
water-tolerant or shallow-rooted crops. Under good increased under well-planned management. Good feed
management, yields of cultivated crops and pasture are plants for many kinds of wildlife grow well on these
high. These soils are especially suitable for truck crops, soils. Such plants need to be encouraged; the areas need
grasses, and legumes that require lots of water. Mix- to be planted, fertilized, and protected from fire and
tures of grasses and shallow-rooted legumes produce high grazing.
yields of good-quality pasture. Soils of this unit require Capability unit IVs-1
fertilizer and hme in amounts appropriate for the crop
grown; they are generally deficient in both major and The soils of this capability unit are sloping, deep,
minor elements. sandy, well drained, and coarse textured. Slopes range
Uncleared areas of these soils support a heavy growth from 5 to 8 percent. They have moderately low to low
of water-tolerant hardwoods. Most of these grow slowly available moisture capacity and low native fertility.
and are of little commercial value. Water control is These soils are:
essential for high yields of slash pine and the more de- Eustis loamy fine sand, gently sloping phase.
sirable forest products. Other good management prac- Eustis loamy sand, gently sloping phase.







48 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8
Lakeland loamy fine sand, gently sloping phase, growth during rainy seasons if lime and fertilizer are
Lakeland loamy sand, gently sloping phase. used liberal
Red Bay loamy fine sand, gently sloping thick surface phase. used liberal.
Ruston loamy fine sand, gently sloping thick surface phase. Pine trees do not grow so rapidly as on many other
soils in the county, but pine production is one of the
To depths of more than 18 inches, these are loamy best uses for these soils. Good forest management in-
sands that contain little organic matter. They are sus- cludes planting of seedlings where natural reproduction
ceptible to erosion and require contour cultivation and is poor, selective harvesting, removal of undesirable
frequent use of cover crops or green-manure crops. Ter- hardwoods, and protection from fire and overgrazing.
races and terrace outlets are difficult to maintain and Better tree stands can be obtained and early growth is
are not recommended. Only the more drought-resistant more rapid in old fields or other sites where competing
crops are suitable. These soils can produce at higher scrubby vegetation has been eliminated.
levels only if fertilizer is liberally applied and soil- Much of this unit consists of undeveloped woodland
improving crops are on them at least 3 years out of 4. and offers limited feed and shelter for many kinds of
These soils are moderately well suited to improved wildlife. A much higher wildlife population could be
pasture. Deep-rooted, drought-resistant, improved grasses maintained if feed plants were grown in selected loca-
are suitable. These grasses require liberal applications tions and protected from fire and overgrazing.
of lime and fertilizer. Few legumes are well suited to
these soils; consequently, it is normally not practical to Capability unit Vw-1
attempt growing grass-legume mixtures. The heavy sod The soils of this capability unit are poorly to very
on a well-managed, improved grass pasture gives ample poorly drained and low in organic matter and fertility.
protection from erosion. Their surface soils range from coarse to medium in tex-
These soils are suitable for pine trees. The native ture, and their subsoils, from coarse to fine. These soils
vegetation is dominantly longleaf pine, which grows have low to moderate available moisture capacity. They
well. Slash pine is also suitable and, in several respects, are:
is more desirable for reforestation than longleaf. Good
management practices include planting of seedlings in Grady loam.
areas where natural reseeding is poor, control of fire and Myatt very fine sandy loam, leave phasloping phase.
Myatt very fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase.
overgrazing, and selective cutting. Myatt loamy fine sand, thick surface phase.
Improving feed and cover for wildlife is a part of Plummer loamy sand, level phase.
good management. Suitable plants can be grown along Plummer loamy sand, very gently sloping phase.
Plummer fine sand.
field borders and fence rows and in open forested areas. Plummer sand.
They need to be protected from fire and overgrazing. Portsmouth, Grady, and Bayboro soils.
Capability unit IVs-2 Wahee very fine sandy loam.
Capability unit IVs-2
This capability unit consists of nearly level to gently These soils vary considerably in texture, both in their
sloping, deep sandy soils. They are loose and porous, surface soils and subsoils. They have low to high or-
are somewhat excessively drained, and hold little water ganic-matter content. Excessive wetness is the dominant
for use of plants. These soils are: limitation common to all. Some of these soils produce
more than others. The productivity and response to
Eustis sand, level phase, fertilizers is greater for those of finer texture or high
Eustis sand, very gently sloping phase. organic-matter content.
Lakeland sand, level phase.
Lakeland sand, very gently sloping phase. These soils are very difficult to drain satisfactorily
Lakeland sand, gently sloping phase. because of low position, high water table, or seepage,
These soils are very low in native fertility, and leach- and poor drainage outlets. Adequate water control for
ing is rapid. There is some hazard of erosion on the cultivated crops is very complex and generally not
more sloping areas. These soils are suitable for pasture feasible.
and forest but only occasionally, under good manage- Where suitable drainage outlets are available, simple
ment, will they support tilled crops. water-control systems c anbe devised that will permit
These soils can be somewhat improved by intensive establishing and maintaining improved pasture. A pas-
use of soil-building crops that constantly replenish the ture consisting of improved pasture grasses and legumes
organic matter. Such crops should be used at least 3 will provide high-quality grazing if fertilizer and lime
years out of 4 in a rotation that includes tilled crops. are applied.
The vegetation produced by these cover crops should be The natural forest cover varies widely, but slash pine
turned into the soil in a way that will leave part of it predominates. In the very poorly drained areas, yields
on the surface to retard erosion. These soils are not suit- from water-tolerant hardwoods are low or very low. In
able for terracing. Even under the best management, the better drained areas that have subsoils of fine tex-
leaching is rapid. Adequate and frequent applications ture, yields of longleaf and slash pines are high. Good
of fertilizer are needed for each crop. The most drought- forest management includes water control, fire control,
resistant crops make fair yields. Quick-growing crops selective cutting, thinning of undesirable hardwoods, and
planted to take advantage of seasons of frequent rains, planting of slash pine in areas of poor natural reseeding.
and a few drought-resistant specialized crops, do better; Water control improves conditions for natural reseeding,
but yields of most general farm crops are low, even with survival of plantings, and growth.
good management. Extensive areas of these soils are undeveloped and
These soils are somewhat restricted in their suitability are favorable for wildlife. Much higher wildlife popu-
for pasture. A few drought-resistant grasses make fair lations can be maintained under good management prac-







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 49

tices, which include water control in the more poorly is a continuing hazard, complete vegetative cover or
drained areas, planting of suitable feed plants, proper crop residues need to cover the soils throughout the year.
fertilizing, and protection from fire and overgrazing. Because runoff is rapid and the soils are drought in
Ca ility ut V most places, only drought-resistant vegetation is suitable.
Capability unit Vs- Good improved pastures can be maintained on these soils
These are somewhat poorly drained soils with an where proper erosion control is established, adapted
organic pan layer in the subsoil. They are coarse tex- grasses are planted, and liberal applications of fertilizer
tured throughout and are characterized by dark-gray, are used. Yields are highest in seasons of most abun-
thin surface soils with very little organic matter. These dant rainfall. Adapted legumes can be grown success-
are underlain by light-gray subsoils and, at depths rang- fully only under good management. Because of intri-
ing from about 20 to 30 inches, by dark reddish-brown cate local variations in the soils and extreme differences
organic pans that vary in denseness and thickness within in their suitability, only fair yields from legumes can
a short distance. These soils have very low fertility and be expected.
low available moisture capacity. The level of the water Since these soils are so susceptible to erosion, they
table fluctuates; plants get too much moisture in wet probably are best for forestry. In general, yields of
seasons and too little in dry seasons. The soils of this forest products are moderately high to high. Longleaf
unit are: pine is the native tree, but plantings of slash pine grow
Leon sand. well. For maximum production, good forestry practices
Leon sand, light colored surface phase, are required. These include planting of slash pine where
Use of these soils is restricted to forest, to improved native pine trees do not reseed, protection from fire and
pasture, or to a limited amount of grazing in their grazing, and selective cutting or thinning of undesirable
natural state. The organic pan and the fluctuating trees.
water table hinder deep penetration of roots. Fairly Under natural conditions these soils provide good
good pasture of adapted grasses can be developed, how- cover and some feed for wildlife. Good wildlife manage-
ever, if lime and fertilizer are liberally applied. A sys- ment includes planting and fertilizing suitable feed
tem of properly designed shallow ditches with simple plants selected sites.
control structures provides adequate water control for a Capability unit VIe-2
wide range of forage crops, including a few adapted
legumes. Generally, though, except in the lowest lying This capability unit consists of deep, sandy soils. Their
areas, this soil is not suitable for most legumes, texture is coarse. In a few small widely scattered areas,
The native trees are dominantly longleaf pine, but however, the surface soil is coarse but the subsoil is of
slash pine grows better and is preferred for reforesta- moderately fine texture. These soils are well drained.
tion. Yields of forest products are generally moderate, Permeability is rapid. Their available moisture capacity
but they are fairly high under good management, which is low, except in the small, widely scattered areas where
includes fire control, selective cutting of trees, restock- the subsoils are of moderately fine texture. Slopes range
ing by planting slash pine in areas of poor natural re- from 8 to 12 percent. These soils are:
seeding, and protection from overgrazing. Eustis loamy fine sand, sloping phase.
Extensive areas have not been developed, and they Eustis loamy sand, sloping phase.
provide some cover and feed for wildlife under natural Lakeland loamy fine sand, sloping phase.
conditions. More feed can be made available by careful Lakelan loam sand,, eroded sloping phase
management--growing adapted feed plants, adding ferti- Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, eroded sloping phases.
management-growing adapted feed plants, adding ferti-
lizer, and protecting the areas from fire and grazing. These soils have a low content of organic matter and
low fertility. In a few places, particularly where the
Capability unit Vie-1 soils have moderately fine textured subsoils, the soils are
In this capability unit are mixed very gently or gently slightly to moderately eroded.
sloping soils that are extremely erodible if not protected. These soils have strong slopes and are susceptible to
They vary widely in their characteristics, and they occur erosion. They are not suitable for cultivation. Water
as small, intricately associated areas. They differ greatly control measures, such as terracing, would be required,
in depth, texture of subsoil, and permeability to roots, and their loose sandy nature makes them very unsuitable
air, and water. These soils are: for terraces. These soils respond poorly to soil improve-
Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, very gently sloping ment practices and produce little. Because of these lim-
phases. stations and hazards, the soils of this capability unit are
Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, gently sloping phases. probably best for permanent pasture or forest.
In these intricately intermingled areas of contrasting Drought-resistant, deep-rooted, improved pasture
soils, the shallowest or least permeable soil is the one grasses are adapted to these soils. The soils are not
considered in determining limitations in use and treat- suitable for legumes, and high-quality grass-legume pas-
ment. The soils are not used for cultivated crops, because tures are difficult to establish and maintain. Good yields
of susceptibility to erosion or other permanent limita- of adapted grasses can be obtained if they are planted
tions and hazards. during periods of the most abundant rainfall, and lime
These soils are fairly suitable for improved pastures, and fertilizers are liberally applied. There is little dam-
but if planted to improved grasses, the soils need protec- age from erosion where the grasses are established in
tion while the grasses are becoming established. They alternate strips.
are susceptible to sheet and gully erosion and, in some Yields of forest products are fairly high, but proper
places, may require diversion ditches. Because erosion forest management is necessary to obtain them. This in-







50 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8
eludes the encouragement of natural reproduction and The dominant management practices needed for this
growth of desirable forest species such as longleaf pine, land include diversion of water from affected areas;
planting of slash pine in areas where natural reproduc- planting of trees, shrubs, or other strong-rooted peren-
tion of other desirable forest species is not favorable, nials; and protection of the established vegetation from
selective cutting of trees, and control of fire and grazing, fire and grazing. Special control structures may need
These soils are fairly suitable for production of feed to be established in the gullies most difficult to control.
and cover for wildlife. Good management includes Much of this land is not suitable for commercial for-
planting and encouraging reproduction of adapted plants, estry because of difficulties in harvesting the forest prod-
adding adequate fertilizer, and protecting the areas from ucts. To stabilize the soil, slash pine or other adapted
fire and grazing, plants need to be spot planted, and natural vegetation
C ability uni V e1 needs to be encouraged. These areas, under proper man-
Capability unit Vile-1 agement, will produce suitable cover and feed for wildlife.
In this capability unit are sloping and strongly sloping Capability unit V s-
mixed soils. Although they differ widely in many char- ability unit VIIs-1
acteristics, they are similar in steepness of slope, degree In this capability unit are deep, somewhat excessively
of erosion, texture of subsoils, and suitability. These drained sandy soils. Their texture is coarse to depths
soils are: of more than 42 inches. They have very low available
Lakeland, Ruston, and Norfolk soils, eroded strongly sloping moisture capacity and are very low in fertility. The
phases. slopes are 8 percent or more. These soils are:
Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, eroded sloping phases. Eustis sand, sloping phase.
Sunsweet, Carnegie, and Cuthbert soils, severely eroded Lakeland sand, sloping phase.
sloping phases.
Steepness of slope, combined with the shallowness to The water table in these soils normally is several feet
Steepness of slope, combined with the shallowness to below the surface, and the soils are very drought. They
the slowly permeable subsoils, make these soils susceptible elow t only he suracesuitablnd e for cultivation but are also
to rapid runoff and severe accelerated erosion. If they severely lim ned for other uses. vaton bu are also
are used for cultivated crops, they will deteriorate se- These soils provide some grazing of native grasses, but
verely and permanently. They are of limited value for ese soils provide some grazing of native grasses, but
merely and permanently. They are of limited value for severe restrictions are necessary to prevent overgrazing,
pasture. which results in loss of cover and increased susceptibility
These soils require a year round cover of perennials. to erosion. To establish improved pasture on these soils,
They can be pastured if grazing is carefully controlled contour tillage and planting in alternate strips is re-
and the grasses are adequately fertilized to assure com- quired. Improved pastures also require restricted graz-
plete cover. In many places, however, slopes and gullies ng in order to maintain a plant cover throughout the
do not permit use of machinery to properly establish year.
plantings and to carry on necessary maintenance. Good management of woodland includes practices that
Strongly sloping and gullied areas need to be reforested provide reseeding of the desirable and adapted trees,
and carefully managed as woodland. protection from fire and grazing, and selective harvesting.
In general, these soils are best suited to forestry, and Slash pine needs to be planted in areas favorable to
yields of forest products, especially under good manage- natural reseeding. Under good management, yields are
ment, are moderately high to high. These practices in- greatly increased.

elude planting of slash pine in areas that reseed poorly, The soils of this unit provide suitable cover and some
selective cutting of trees, and control of fire and grazing. feed for wildlife under natural conditions. Most areas
Much of the acreage is in woodland and provides a good of this unit are not very suitable for plants that produce
habitat for wildlife. Wildlife populations can be in- feed for wildlife. Any success in such production re-
creased by management that includes growing feed plants quires good management that includes proper fertilizing
in selected sites, fertilizing, and protecting the areas from and protection from fire and grazing.
fire and grazing.
fire and grazing. Capability unit VIIs-2
Capability unit VIIe-2 .
This capability unit is made up of deep, drought
This capability unit is comprised of severely gullied sands. They are coarse in texture, very porous, and
or rough broken land. It includes a wide range of soils extremely low in fertility. They contain little organic
and soil materials not specifically classified. The map- matter, and their available moisture capacity is very low.
ping units are: These soils are:
Gullied land. Lakewood sand, level phase.
Rough broken land. Lakewood sand, very gently sloping phase.
These lands are so deeply cut by eroded gullies, and These soils produce no plants except the most drought-
slopes are so steep, that cultivation by tractor-drawn resistant native species, and yields of forest products are
farm implements is not feasible. Use and management very low. The natural vegetation consists principally of
practices for these lands are confined almost entirely to brush and the most drought-resistant, slow-growing trees.
those used in forestry. Management is emphasized that Management practices for these soils include retaining a
will best prevent erosion and stabilize gullies. The kind vegetative cover, encouraging natural reseeding of de-
of management and difficulties to overcome vary in indi- sirable trees, and protecting the areas from fire. Barren
vidual areas. Some gullies are very difficult to control, areas are susceptible to wind erosion. A good cover of
especially if they have cut deeply into soft materials, vegetation helps retard this. Plantings of adapted pines







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 51

may grow successfully in the more nearly denuded areas, be precisely defined, nor can the response to the im-
These soils have very little value for wildlife except proved management practices be precisely predicted for
as cover or refuge, and the native plants provide only a given crop on a given soil. Some unknown deficiency
a small amount of feed. Planting more desirable plants that is not being corrected may materially affect yields.
to produce such feed is not generally worthwhile, for the Because good management cannot be rigidly defined,
soils are so poor. To receive the most benefit from these and because information is scarce about crop yields under
areas the vegetation needs to be protected from fire. conditions that approximate good management, the ex-
Most areas of these soils are being developed as resi- pected yields in columns B are based principally on
dential sites, estimates of men who have had experience with the soils
Capability unit VIII-1 and crops. Almost every soil in Escambia County will
produce profitable increases in yields under more inten-
This capability unit is composed of coastal dunes and sive, improved management.
tidal marsh. The mapping units are: Yields are not listed for all of the soils in the county.
Coastal dune land and beach. Most soils not listed are not used for cultivated crops.
Tidal marsh. The miscellaneous land types are not listed because they
Included are barren sands and marshy areas along the are not considered suitable for crops under the systems
coast that are affected by salt water. They produce no of management specified. These land types are: Coastal
useful vegetation and are suitable only for recreation or dune land and beach; Fresh water swamp; Gullied land;
as a habitat for a few species of waterfowl. Mixed alluvial land, poorly drained; Pits, dumps, and
made land; Rough broken land; and Tidal marsh.
Land types not classified
Four miscellaneous land types shown on the soil map
are not included in the capability grouping because they Forests and Forest Soils of
are unsuitable for farming, forestry, or pasture. Specific Escambia County '
sites of some of these units, if suitably treated, may have
some capability for crops, grazing, or woodland. In
general, however, these land types have little potential Forest products are an important source of income in
for such development. They are: Escambia County. Of the 420,480 acres of land in the
county, 346,000 acres is classified as commercial forest.
resh water poorly drained. Sawmills, pressure and open-vat treating plants, a paper
Mixed local alluvial land, moderately well drained, mill, producers of stump-wood naval stores, and a fiber-
Pits, dumps, and made land. board manufacturer operate in the county. The greatest
volume of cutting is for pulpwood; the remainder is
Estimated Yields primarily for poles, piling, and sawtimber.
The native forest is classified as Southeastern Pine
Estimated average acre yields for the principal crops Forest and River-Bottom Forest by Shantz and Zon (6).
grown in the county are listed in table 4. These estimates The pine forests consist mostly of longleaf pine and some
are based on different levels of management. In col- slash pine. Although longleaf and slash pines often grow
umns A are yields to be expected under the management in mixed stands, slash pine is better suited to the some-
generally practiced in the county; and in columns B are what poorly drained soils than the longleaf pine. Long-
yields to be expected under improved management. leaf pine, in contrast, seems to tolerate the dry sandy
The yield estimates in columns A are based mostly on soils much better than does slash pine. On soils between
observations made by members of the soil survey party; these two extremes, both species are about equally well
on interviews with local farmers; on information ob- suited (5). Longleaf pine predominates, primarily be-
tained from other agricultural workers who have had cause forest fires have helped to control brown-spot
experience with the soils and crops of the area; and, needle diseases and to eliminate competing species that
where available, records of crop yields. For most soils, have much less fire resistance.
however, records on crop yields were not available. The river-bottom forests consist of red gum, tupelo
In columns B are expected average yields under more gum, and black gum, cypress, bay, water oak, and asso-
intensive management practices. This management in- cited species.
cludes proper choice and rotation of crops; the correct
use of commercial fertilizers, lime, or other amendments; Forest Types
use of proper tillage methods; return of organic matter
to the soils; applying mechanical means of water control The forest types may be roughly divided as: (a) Cy-
to maintain productivity of the soils or to increase it press-gum, (b) slash pine-gum-oak, (c) longleaf pine,
within practical limits; and the conservation of soil mate- and (d) longleaf pine-scrub oak. Throughout the
rial, plant nutrients, and moisture. The level of man- county, the boundaries of these groups coincide roughly
agement needed to get the yields in columns B is about with boundaries of groups of associated soils.
equivalent to that described for the capability units in THE CYPRESS-GUM GROUP consists of a mixed forest
the subsection, Capability Groups of Soils. that varies with the amount of standing water on the
The estimates in columns B take into consideration soil or the nearness of the water table to the surface.
the known deficiencies of the soils and the increases in Cypress and tupelo gum occupy the sloughs and areas
crop yields that can be expected when these deficiencies
are corrected within practical limits. These limits cannot '4 Prepared in cooperation with the Florida Forest Service.







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 51

may grow successfully in the more nearly denuded areas, be precisely defined, nor can the response to the im-
These soils have very little value for wildlife except proved management practices be precisely predicted for
as cover or refuge, and the native plants provide only a given crop on a given soil. Some unknown deficiency
a small amount of feed. Planting more desirable plants that is not being corrected may materially affect yields.
to produce such feed is not generally worthwhile, for the Because good management cannot be rigidly defined,
soils are so poor. To receive the most benefit from these and because information is scarce about crop yields under
areas the vegetation needs to be protected from fire. conditions that approximate good management, the ex-
Most areas of these soils are being developed as resi- pected yields in columns B are based principally on
dential sites, estimates of men who have had experience with the soils
Capability unit VIII-1 and crops. Almost every soil in Escambia County will
produce profitable increases in yields under more inten-
This capability unit is composed of coastal dunes and sive, improved management.
tidal marsh. The mapping units are: Yields are not listed for all of the soils in the county.
Coastal dune land and beach. Most soils not listed are not used for cultivated crops.
Tidal marsh. The miscellaneous land types are not listed because they
Included are barren sands and marshy areas along the are not considered suitable for crops under the systems
coast that are affected by salt water. They produce no of management specified. These land types are: Coastal
useful vegetation and are suitable only for recreation or dune land and beach; Fresh water swamp; Gullied land;
as a habitat for a few species of waterfowl. Mixed alluvial land, poorly drained; Pits, dumps, and
made land; Rough broken land; and Tidal marsh.
Land types not classified
Four miscellaneous land types shown on the soil map
are not included in the capability grouping because they Forests and Forest Soils of
are unsuitable for farming, forestry, or pasture. Specific Escambia County '
sites of some of these units, if suitably treated, may have
some capability for crops, grazing, or woodland. In
general, however, these land types have little potential Forest products are an important source of income in
for such development. They are: Escambia County. Of the 420,480 acres of land in the
county, 346,000 acres is classified as commercial forest.
resh water poorly drained. Sawmills, pressure and open-vat treating plants, a paper
Mixed local alluvial land, moderately well drained, mill, producers of stump-wood naval stores, and a fiber-
Pits, dumps, and made land. board manufacturer operate in the county. The greatest
volume of cutting is for pulpwood; the remainder is
Estimated Yields primarily for poles, piling, and sawtimber.
The native forest is classified as Southeastern Pine
Estimated average acre yields for the principal crops Forest and River-Bottom Forest by Shantz and Zon (6).
grown in the county are listed in table 4. These estimates The pine forests consist mostly of longleaf pine and some
are based on different levels of management. In col- slash pine. Although longleaf and slash pines often grow
umns A are yields to be expected under the management in mixed stands, slash pine is better suited to the some-
generally practiced in the county; and in columns B are what poorly drained soils than the longleaf pine. Long-
yields to be expected under improved management. leaf pine, in contrast, seems to tolerate the dry sandy
The yield estimates in columns A are based mostly on soils much better than does slash pine. On soils between
observations made by members of the soil survey party; these two extremes, both species are about equally well
on interviews with local farmers; on information ob- suited (5). Longleaf pine predominates, primarily be-
tained from other agricultural workers who have had cause forest fires have helped to control brown-spot
experience with the soils and crops of the area; and, needle diseases and to eliminate competing species that
where available, records of crop yields. For most soils, have much less fire resistance.
however, records on crop yields were not available. The river-bottom forests consist of red gum, tupelo
In columns B are expected average yields under more gum, and black gum, cypress, bay, water oak, and asso-
intensive management practices. This management in- cited species.
cludes proper choice and rotation of crops; the correct
use of commercial fertilizers, lime, or other amendments; Forest Types
use of proper tillage methods; return of organic matter
to the soils; applying mechanical means of water control The forest types may be roughly divided as: (a) Cy-
to maintain productivity of the soils or to increase it press-gum, (b) slash pine-gum-oak, (c) longleaf pine,
within practical limits; and the conservation of soil mate- and (d) longleaf pine-scrub oak. Throughout the
rial, plant nutrients, and moisture. The level of man- county, the boundaries of these groups coincide roughly
agement needed to get the yields in columns B is about with boundaries of groups of associated soils.
equivalent to that described for the capability units in THE CYPRESS-GUM GROUP consists of a mixed forest
the subsection, Capability Groups of Soils. that varies with the amount of standing water on the
The estimates in columns B take into consideration soil or the nearness of the water table to the surface.
the known deficiencies of the soils and the increases in Cypress and tupelo gum occupy the sloughs and areas
crop yields that can be expected when these deficiencies
are corrected within practical limits. These limits cannot '4 Prepared in cooperation with the Florida Forest Service.







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 51

may grow successfully in the more nearly denuded areas, be precisely defined, nor can the response to the im-
These soils have very little value for wildlife except proved management practices be precisely predicted for
as cover or refuge, and the native plants provide only a given crop on a given soil. Some unknown deficiency
a small amount of feed. Planting more desirable plants that is not being corrected may materially affect yields.
to produce such feed is not generally worthwhile, for the Because good management cannot be rigidly defined,
soils are so poor. To receive the most benefit from these and because information is scarce about crop yields under
areas the vegetation needs to be protected from fire. conditions that approximate good management, the ex-
Most areas of these soils are being developed as resi- pected yields in columns B are based principally on
dential sites, estimates of men who have had experience with the soils
Capability unit VIII-1 and crops. Almost every soil in Escambia County will
produce profitable increases in yields under more inten-
This capability unit is composed of coastal dunes and sive, improved management.
tidal marsh. The mapping units are: Yields are not listed for all of the soils in the county.
Coastal dune land and beach. Most soils not listed are not used for cultivated crops.
Tidal marsh. The miscellaneous land types are not listed because they
Included are barren sands and marshy areas along the are not considered suitable for crops under the systems
coast that are affected by salt water. They produce no of management specified. These land types are: Coastal
useful vegetation and are suitable only for recreation or dune land and beach; Fresh water swamp; Gullied land;
as a habitat for a few species of waterfowl. Mixed alluvial land, poorly drained; Pits, dumps, and
made land; Rough broken land; and Tidal marsh.
Land types not classified
Four miscellaneous land types shown on the soil map
are not included in the capability grouping because they Forests and Forest Soils of
are unsuitable for farming, forestry, or pasture. Specific Escambia County '
sites of some of these units, if suitably treated, may have
some capability for crops, grazing, or woodland. In
general, however, these land types have little potential Forest products are an important source of income in
for such development. They are: Escambia County. Of the 420,480 acres of land in the
county, 346,000 acres is classified as commercial forest.
resh water poorly drained. Sawmills, pressure and open-vat treating plants, a paper
Mixed local alluvial land, moderately well drained, mill, producers of stump-wood naval stores, and a fiber-
Pits, dumps, and made land. board manufacturer operate in the county. The greatest
volume of cutting is for pulpwood; the remainder is
Estimated Yields primarily for poles, piling, and sawtimber.
The native forest is classified as Southeastern Pine
Estimated average acre yields for the principal crops Forest and River-Bottom Forest by Shantz and Zon (6).
grown in the county are listed in table 4. These estimates The pine forests consist mostly of longleaf pine and some
are based on different levels of management. In col- slash pine. Although longleaf and slash pines often grow
umns A are yields to be expected under the management in mixed stands, slash pine is better suited to the some-
generally practiced in the county; and in columns B are what poorly drained soils than the longleaf pine. Long-
yields to be expected under improved management. leaf pine, in contrast, seems to tolerate the dry sandy
The yield estimates in columns A are based mostly on soils much better than does slash pine. On soils between
observations made by members of the soil survey party; these two extremes, both species are about equally well
on interviews with local farmers; on information ob- suited (5). Longleaf pine predominates, primarily be-
tained from other agricultural workers who have had cause forest fires have helped to control brown-spot
experience with the soils and crops of the area; and, needle diseases and to eliminate competing species that
where available, records of crop yields. For most soils, have much less fire resistance.
however, records on crop yields were not available. The river-bottom forests consist of red gum, tupelo
In columns B are expected average yields under more gum, and black gum, cypress, bay, water oak, and asso-
intensive management practices. This management in- cited species.
cludes proper choice and rotation of crops; the correct
use of commercial fertilizers, lime, or other amendments; Forest Types
use of proper tillage methods; return of organic matter
to the soils; applying mechanical means of water control The forest types may be roughly divided as: (a) Cy-
to maintain productivity of the soils or to increase it press-gum, (b) slash pine-gum-oak, (c) longleaf pine,
within practical limits; and the conservation of soil mate- and (d) longleaf pine-scrub oak. Throughout the
rial, plant nutrients, and moisture. The level of man- county, the boundaries of these groups coincide roughly
agement needed to get the yields in columns B is about with boundaries of groups of associated soils.
equivalent to that described for the capability units in THE CYPRESS-GUM GROUP consists of a mixed forest
the subsection, Capability Groups of Soils. that varies with the amount of standing water on the
The estimates in columns B take into consideration soil or the nearness of the water table to the surface.
the known deficiencies of the soils and the increases in Cypress and tupelo gum occupy the sloughs and areas
crop yields that can be expected when these deficiencies
are corrected within practical limits. These limits cannot '4 Prepared in cooperation with the Florida Forest Service.








52 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. 8

TABLE 4.-Estimated average acre yields of principal crops grown in Escambia County, Florida

[Yields in columns A are those to be expected under common management practices; those in columns B, under good management practices.
Absence of yield indicates crop is not commonly grown and soil is not physically suitable for it under the management specified]

Corn Cotton Soybeans Oats
Soil type
A B A B A B A B

Bu. Bu. Bales Bales Bu. Bu. Bu. Bu.
Angie fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase ---------- 25 40 ---------------- 15 20 25 50
Barth loamy fine sand---------------------------------- 10 15 --------------- --------------- 15 20
Blakely loam--------------------------------------- 35 50 % 11Y 20 25 35 60
Carnegie fine sandy loam, level phase-------------------- 35 50 4 12 20 25 35 60
Carnegie fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase ------- 35 50 4 1%/ 20 25 35 60
Carnegie fine sandy loam, eroded very gently sloping phase_ 30 45 12 4 15 20 30 55
Carnegie fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase ------------ 30 45 M 34 15 20 30 55
Carnegie fine sandy loam, eroded gently sloping phase------ 25 40 % % 12 18 25 50
Eustis loamy fine sand, level phase_ ---------------------- 10 15 -------------------------------- 15 20
Eustis loamy fine sand, very gently sloping phase ---------- 10 15 ------------------------ 15 20
Eustis loamy fine sand, gently sloping phase-------------- 8 12 -------------------------------- 10 15
Eustis loamy sand, level phase-------------------------- 10 15 ------------------------- 15 20
Eustis loamy sand, very gently sloping phase ------------- 10 15 --------------- ------- -------- 15 20
Eustis loamy sand, gently sloping phase ---------------- 8 12 ------ ---------- ------- 10 15
Faceville fine sandy loam, level phase -------------------- 35 50 Y 1% 15 25 35 60
Faceville fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase ------- 35 50 3% 1Y 15 25 35 60
Grady loam -- --------------------------------------- 20 30 -------------10 15 ----
Irvington fine sandy loam 1 ---- ---------------- 35 60 ---------------- 15 25
Izagora fine sandy loam -------------------------------- 30 50 4 1%Y 15 25 30 50
Kalmia fine sandy loam, level phase --------------------- 30 50 3M 1% 15 25 30 50
Kalmia fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase --------- 30 50 % 1% 15 25 30 50
Klej loamy sand, level phase---------------------------- 10 15 ----------------- __---- -------- 15 20
Klej loamy sand, very gently sloping phase --------------- 10 15 ----------------------------15 20
Lakeland loamy fine sand, level phase------------- 10 15 ---------------- ----- 15 20
Lakeland loamy fine sand, very gently sloping phase ------- 10 15 ------_ -------_ ------------- 15 20
Lakeland loamy sand, level phase------------------------ 8 12 ---------------------- 10 15
Lakeland loamy sand, very gently sloping phase ----------- 8 12 __________________ 10 15
Lynchburg fine sandy loam, level phase---------------- 25 50 --------------- 20 25 30 45
Lynchburg fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase------ 25 50 ----- ------_ 20 25 30 45
Lynchburg gravelly very fine sandy loam ---------------- 25 50 ---------------- 20 25 30 45
Mixed local alluvial land, moderately well drained --------- 20 25
Myatt loamy fine sand, thick surface phase 1 ------------- 15 20
Myatt very fine sandy loam, level phase 1---_ ----------__ 15 20
Myatt very fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase 1---- 15 20
Norfolk fine sandy loam, level phase--------------------- 40 55 34 1/Y 25 30 35 60
Norfolk fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase -------- 40 55 % 1% 25 30 35 60
Norfolk fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase ------------- 35 50 2 1 20 25 35 60
Red Bay fine sandy loam, level phase -------------------- 35 50 V 1% 20 25 35 60
Red Bay fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase ------- 35 50 34 1% 20 25 35 60
Red Bay fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase------------ 25 40 1% 4 15 20 35 60
Red Bay loamy fine sand, level thick surface phase-------- 25 35 14 2 15 20 25 45
Red Bay loamy fine sand, very gently sloping thick surface
phase ---------------------------------------------- 25 35 1M 1 15 20 25 45
Ruston fine sandy loam, level phase ---------------------- 35 50 4 1V4 20 25 35 60
Ruston fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase--------- 35 50 % 14I 20 25 35 60
Ruston fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase ------------- 25 40 Y/2 4 15 20 35 60
Ruston loamy fine sand, level thick surface phase ---------- 25 35 M 3 15 20 25 45
Ruston loamy fine sand, very gently sloping thick surface
phase -------------------------------------------- 25 35 4 2 15 20 25 45
Savannah fine sandy loam, level thick solum phase -------- 40 55 3 1% 25 30 35 60
Savannah fine sandy loam, very gently sloping thick solum
phase -------------------------------------------- 40 55 4 1%2 25 30 35 60
Stough fine sandy loam ----------------------------- -- 25 50 ---------------- 20 25 30 45
Tifton fine sandy loam, level phase --- ------------- 40 55 M 12 25 30 35 60
Tifton fine sandy loam, very gently sloping phase ---------- 40 55 34 12 25 30 35 60
Tifton fine sandy loam, gently sloping phase-------------- 35 50 12 4 20 25 35 60

1 Drainage is required to obtain estimated yields.
that are under water most of the time. The overflow not reseed easily, and it grows slowly. Second-growth
areas are commonly stocked with a mixture of cypress, timber of desirable quality, therefore, makes little prog-
red gum, tupelo gum, black gum, bay, water oak, and ress. To some extent, gum and poplar are cut for saw
associated species. logs. Poplar, bay, and willow are used to some extent
Cypress was an important product of the swamp forest, for pulpwood.
but it was overcut severely during early logging. Only Reseeding in flood areas is difficult. The soil must be
defective and low-grade trees are left. Cypress does above water long enough for seedlings to become estab-







ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 53

lished and grow tall enough to have leaves and buds Soils affect forests much the same as soils affect any
above high water that remains for several days. Much other crop. But crops grow and mature within a few
of the restocking in such areas is accomplished through weeks, and trees absorb nutrients slowly over an entire
root sprouting, but often the trees that come up from season. This means that plant nutrients too slowly
the roots are not desirable species. available to be adequate for other crops are sufficient for
The soils of the bottom lands are not classified by soil trees. Also, minerals absorbed from the soil by the for-
series because the areas are too difficult to reach and the ests are normally replaced in the yearly leaf fall.
soils occur in too intricate a pattern to be described Nature normally perpetuates the forests. Good profit-
separately. able growth, however, develops when man protects them
THE SLASH PINE-POPLAR-OAK GROUP consists of a front fire and grazing and thins them suitably at proper
mixed stand of slash pine, tulip-poplar, gum, live oak, intervals. This increased growth actually allows the
white oak, chinquapin oak, bay, and magnolia. This forest to replace the volume thinned out. Natural seed-
group occurs adjacent to moist areas and on slopes above ing has restocked large acreages with longleaf pine where
the flood level where the water table is near the surface sufficient seed trees were left from previous cutting.
or where seepage water is sufficient for these trees. Slash Generally adequate is 7 to 10 good seed trees per acre,
pine is in this group partly because it is well suited to well distributed. Longleaf pine makes little growth in
moist sites, and also because fires have occurred less fre- height until it reaches an inch or more in diameter at
quently in these moist locations, the ground level.
Soils with a dark-gray surface soil and yellow subsoil A potential forest soil needs to be planted if it is not
predominate in areas where this forest group occurs. restocking adequately with desirable species of trees or
is not restocking in a reasonable length of time. The
Some of them have mottlings in the subsoil that indicate fs not stocking in reasonable length of time. Tlh
somewhat restricted drainage. The Izagora, Wahee, and forest plantings i recent years have been mostly slash
Stough soils are on the stream terraces; the Lynchburg pine (6g. 9). This pine is easy to produce in the nursery,
soils occur on the level to very gently sloping uplands. easy to plant survives well, and grows rapidly. In
Production of number, turpentine, and pulpwood it com-
THIE LONGLEAF PINE GROUP consists of pure stands of Production of lumber turpentine, and pulpwood it com-
TH LONGLEAF PINE GROUP consists of pure stands of pares with longleaf, but it is more susceptible to fire,
second-growth longleaf pine; stands of mixed longleaf es ea but t s more to fire
and slash pines; and stands of longleaf pine and some
hardwoods, primarily of the red oak and white oak
groups. Although slash pine is scarce, it is well suited to
the soils where these trees grow.
This forest group grows in the dominantly deep and
well-drained Norfolk, Tifton, Carnegie, Faceville, and
Red Bay soils.
THE LONGLEAF-SCRUB OAK GROUP Consists of longleaf
pine and a severe invasion of scrub oak (turkey, black-
jack, bluejack, and post); stands of longleaf pine and
a moderate invasion of scrub oak; and stands of almost
all scrub oak. Most of the pine-scrub oak forests are
overcut. Natural restocking of pine is prevented by a
lack of seed trees, too many and ill-timed fires, poor site,
competition of wiregrass, and severe competition of scrub
oak. Some restocking of longleaf pine, however, will de-
velop where seed trees are present and the land is pro-
tected from fire. But this type of seeding is exceedingly
slow.
Studies being cooperatively financed by the United
States Forest Service and the Florida Forest Service
indicate that almost complete elimination of root compe-
tition is necessary for satisfactory survival of pine seed- Figure 9.-Seven-year-old planting of slash pine on Tifton fine
lings planted in the dry sandy soils of West Florida (9). sandy loam.
In this forest group are deep, acid, drought sands and
loamy sands of the Lakeland, Eustis, and related soils. Soil that has been in cultivation generally needs no
Trees grow more slowly on these soils than on those that special preparation for planting. Recently cutover forest
contain more moisture. soil often may be used without preparation other than
to control the burning of accumulated grass, weeds, and
brush. In addition to making the planting easier, loosen-
Forest Management ing the soil will generally improve the height of seedlings.
Proper management is essential for maximum produc- study of planted slash pine in several locations
Proper management is essential for maximum produc- throughout Florida shows that in every place where
tion of high-quality forest products. It increases the slash pine was planted in fields that were abandoned
returns from good forest soils and brings a profit from after cultivation, it responded with considerably more
soils that otherwise might be almost worthless. To pro- growth than pine planted on comparable virgin soil.
duce a maximum of quality timber, stands need to be Fields abandoned after cultivation offer almost no root
fully stocked with the right species. competition. They generally contain some residual sup-







54 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. S

ply of plant nutrients and are in a much better physical Some terms used by the agricultural soil scientist may
condition for plant growth than virgin soils, be unfamiliar to the engineer, and some words, for ex-
A study of the effects of limited ground preparation ample, soil, clay, silt, sand, and aggregate, may have
is being carried on in Calhoun County by the Florida special meanings in soil science. These terms, as well as
Forest Service in cooperation with the International other special terms used in soil survey reports, are defined
Paper Company. In the limited cultivation practiced, in the glossary.
slash pine was planted in cutover soil that was pre-
pared through use of an Athens harrow pulled behind Soil Engineering Tests and Classifications
a tractor. One trip was made for each strip. The strips
were 10 feet between centers. Trees were planted at To make the best use of the soil map and the soil
6-foot intervals, in the center of these prepared strips, survey report, the engineer needs to know the physical
They were also planted on an unprepared check plot. properties of the soil materials and the in-place condition
There has been no significant difference in survival of of the soils. In this section several tables summarize
planted trees on the prepared strips and those on the the physical properties of the soils that affect their use
check plot. After 41/2 years, trees on the prepared plot in engineering structures and foundations. This informa-
showed 70 percent greater height than on the unpre- tion will aid the engineer in preliminary planning but
pared check plot, and at 7 years they showed 39 percent is not intended as a substitute for the engineering tests
greater height. A comparison of the plots 12 years after that will need to be made at the site selected for con-
planting indicates little difference in total height growth, struction.
The owner who plants trees or desires to practice man- Table 5 records data on samples from nine extensive
agement on forest land will likely encounter many prob- soil types tested in accordance with standard procedures
lems on which he may need the advice of a professional (1). The data in this table were used in evaluating the
forester. Each site presents its own special set of condi- soils of the county for engineering purposes. At some
tions and problems, many of which require decisions on sites the samples vere obtained from depths of less than
a technical basis. Technical assistance may be obtained 5 feet; therefore, the test data may not be representative
from the County Forester, through the County Agent, or for materials that will be found in the substrata in deep
through the local representative of the Soil Conservation excavations.
Service. Table 6 shows the characteristics of the soils that are
considered in classifying them by the A.A.S.II.O. sys-
tem (1), and table 7, those properties taken into account
Engineering Applications in classifying soils by the Unified system (10). These
two tables are intended primarily for those not familiar
This soil survey report for Escambia County contains with these systems of classification.
information that engineers can use to: Table 8 summarizes the primary engineering features
1. Make soil and land-use studies that will aid in of the soils-their slope, natural drainage, depth to
the selection and development of industrial, busi- water table, and kinds of materials in the various layers.
ness, residential, and recreational sites. Table 9 is considerably more detailed. It lists selected
2. Estimate runoff and erosion characteristics for use soils, and for each layer in typical profiles of those soils
in designing drainage and irrigation structures it gives depth, permeability, structure, moisture capacity,
and in planning dlams and other structures for pH, shrink-swell potential, and suitability as a source of
water and soil conservation. material for topsoil material for topdressing roadbanks.
3. Make reconnaissance surveys of soil and ground In this table the depths for the profile are essentially the
conditions that will aid in selecting highway and same as those given for the typical profile in the section,
airport locations and in planning detailed soil Soil Descriptions. They are not always identical, how-
studies for the intended locations, ever, for the depths given in table 9 indicate changes in
4. Locate sand and gravel for use in structures, soil material that are significant in engineering. Hence,
5. Determine the suitability of soils for cross-country in table 9, adjacent soil layers having essentially the
movements of vehicles and construction equip- same engineering properties have been shown as one layer.
meant. In evaluating the data in table 9, it should be remem-
6. Supplement information obtained from other pub- bered that the depths of the layers will vary for each
listed maps and reports and aerial photographs, soil listed in the table, and that depths of layers in other
for the purpose of making soil maps and reports soils of the same kind will also vary. For example,
that can be readily used by engineers. table 9 lists typical depths for Eustis loamy sand, level
The mapping / and the descriptire report are somewhat phase. Depths vary in this soil, and they vary in the
, ,,, ,I.,;:. ,1 and should be used only in planning more other Eustis loamy sands mapped.
,/. ti;/,,1 p. Id .4 sys to determine the in-plaee condition The estimated permeability of the soils listed in table 9
of the soil at the site of the proposed engineering is for the soil in its natural condition. Tile estimates are
constuctio0,n based mostly on examination of soil texture and struc-
5 This section was prepared by P. C. SMITH, supervisory high- ture, but other properties of the soil may influence perme-
way research engineer, Division of Physical Research, Bureau of ability. Permeability of each soil layer is important in
Public Roads, with assistance of personnel of the Soil Conserva- planning the drainage for a farm and in other construc-
tion Service. Ilorida Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Florida work L ers tht impede drainage or tt are too
State Road Department. Test data in table 5 were obtained in tion work. Layers that impede drainage or that are too
the Soils Laboratory, Bureau of Public Roads. permeable, in comparison with adjacent layers, may







54 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1955, NO. S

ply of plant nutrients and are in a much better physical Some terms used by the agricultural soil scientist may
condition for plant growth than virgin soils, be unfamiliar to the engineer, and some words, for ex-
A study of the effects of limited ground preparation ample, soil, clay, silt, sand, and aggregate, may have
is being carried on in Calhoun County by the Florida special meanings in soil science. These terms, as well as
Forest Service in cooperation with the International other special terms used in soil survey reports, are defined
Paper Company. In the limited cultivation practiced, in the glossary.
slash pine was planted in cutover soil that was pre-
pared through use of an Athens harrow pulled behind Soil Engineering Tests and Classifications
a tractor. One trip was made for each strip. The strips
were 10 feet between centers. Trees were planted at To make the best use of the soil map and the soil
6-foot intervals, in the center of these prepared strips, survey report, the engineer needs to know the physical
They were also planted on an unprepared check plot. properties of the soil materials and the in-place condition
There has been no significant difference in survival of of the soils. In this section several tables summarize
planted trees on the prepared strips and those on the the physical properties of the soils that affect their use
check plot. After 41/2 years, trees on the prepared plot in engineering structures and foundations. This informa-
showed 70 percent greater height than on the unpre- tion will aid the engineer in preliminary planning but
pared check plot, and at 7 years they showed 39 percent is not intended as a substitute for the engineering tests
greater height. A comparison of the plots 12 years after that will need to be made at the site selected for con-
planting indicates little difference in total height growth, struction.
The owner who plants trees or desires to practice man- Table 5 records data on samples from nine extensive
agement on forest land will likely encounter many prob- soil types tested in accordance with standard procedures
lems on which he may need the advice of a professional (1). The data in this table were used in evaluating the
forester. Each site presents its own special set of condi- soils of the county for engineering purposes. At some
tions and problems, many of which require decisions on sites the samples vere obtained from depths of less than
a technical basis. Technical assistance may be obtained 5 feet; therefore, the test data may not be representative
from the County Forester, through the County Agent, or for materials that will be found in the substrata in deep
through the local representative of the Soil Conservation excavations.
Service. Table 6 shows the characteristics of the soils that are
considered in classifying them by the A.A.S.II.O. sys-
tem (1), and table 7, those properties taken into account
Engineering Applications in classifying soils by the Unified system (10). These
two tables are intended primarily for those not familiar
This soil survey report for Escambia County contains with these systems of classification.
information that engineers can use to: Table 8 summarizes the primary engineering features
1. Make soil and land-use studies that will aid in of the soils-their slope, natural drainage, depth to
the selection and development of industrial, busi- water table, and kinds of materials in the various layers.
ness, residential, and recreational sites. Table 9 is considerably more detailed. It lists selected
2. Estimate runoff and erosion characteristics for use soils, and for each layer in typical profiles of those soils
in designing drainage and irrigation structures it gives depth, permeability, structure, moisture capacity,
and in planning dlams and other structures for pH, shrink-swell potential, and suitability as a source of
water and soil conservation. material for topsoil material for topdressing roadbanks.
3. Make reconnaissance surveys of soil and ground In this table the depths for the profile are essentially the
conditions that will aid in selecting highway and same as those given for the typical profile in the section,
airport locations and in planning detailed soil Soil Descriptions. They are not always identical, how-
studies for the intended locations, ever, for the depths given in table 9 indicate changes in
4. Locate sand and gravel for use in structures, soil material that are significant in engineering. Hence,
5. Determine the suitability of soils for cross-country in table 9, adjacent soil layers having essentially the
movements of vehicles and construction equip- same engineering properties have been shown as one layer.
meant. In evaluating the data in table 9, it should be remem-
6. Supplement information obtained from other pub- bered that the depths of the layers will vary for each
listed maps and reports and aerial photographs, soil listed in the table, and that depths of layers in other
for the purpose of making soil maps and reports soils of the same kind will also vary. For example,
that can be readily used by engineers. table 9 lists typical depths for Eustis loamy sand, level
The mapping / and the descriptire report are somewhat phase. Depths vary in this soil, and they vary in the
, ,,, ,I.,;:. ,1 and should be used only in planning more other Eustis loamy sands mapped.
,/. ti;/,,1 p. Id .4 sys to determine the in-plaee condition The estimated permeability of the soils listed in table 9
of the soil at the site of the proposed engineering is for the soil in its natural condition. Tile estimates are
constuctio0,n based mostly on examination of soil texture and struc-
5 This section was prepared by P. C. SMITH, supervisory high- ture, but other properties of the soil may influence perme-
way research engineer, Division of Physical Research, Bureau of ability. Permeability of each soil layer is important in
Public Roads, with assistance of personnel of the Soil Conserva- planning the drainage for a farm and in other construc-
tion Service. Ilorida Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Florida work L ers tht impede drainage or tt are too
State Road Department. Test data in table 5 were obtained in tion work. Layers that impede drainage or that are too
the Soils Laboratory, Bureau of Public Roads. permeable, in comparison with adjacent layers, may









ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 55

greatly affect the suitability of a soil for engineering animal life in and on the soil; (4) the relief or lay of
purposes. the land; and (5) the length of time the four forces
Also to be considered in planning are soil structure, already mentioned have acted on the soil material.
consistence, and content of organic matter, which affect The interaction of climate and vegetation change the
the moisture-holding capacity of the soils. parent material from an inert, heterogeneous mass into a
Clayey materials-those having a high shrink-swell po- body having more or less definite genetic morphology.
tential-have low stability when wet, but they can be The action of these factors on the parent material is ac-
used for cores of dams or dikes. Materials that have a celebrated or retarded in a varying degree by the relief,
low shrink-swell potential, such as the loamy sand of the which determines to some extent surface runoff, the move-
Eustis soils, are preferred for a road subgrade or a ment of water through the soil, natural erosion, and the
foundation for a pavement, natural vegetation. The character of the parent material
In table 10 are summarized features of the soils that itself also influences climate and vegetation in soil forma-
affect their use in highway work and in soil conservation tion and is important in determining the temperature and
work. The soils are of variable suitability for use in moisture conditions within the soil and the kinds of
road subgrades and embankments of various kinds. Their natural vegetation.
suitability is rated on the assumption that the material Throughout the genesis of soil, time brings about
is at proper moisture content for suitable compaction. changes; hence, age is a factor in the development of the
On some soils, this means that drainage ditches will be soil into a body in equilibrium with its environment.
needed, and that moisture content will be controlled by The degree of profile development is the product of the
adding or extracting water, before the material will be action of climate, living organisms, and vegetation, as
used in subgrades or embankments. conditioned by relief and time. In the following pages
Highly organic material in poorly drained, depressed the factors of soil formation and their effects on soil
areas is not suitable for road construction. It should be development in Escambia County are discussed.
removed from the roadway section and placed where it
will not be detrimental. It can be mixed with other soil Factors of Soil Formation
materials to improve fertility and then be used as a top- Climate
dressing on cut or fill slopes and in ditches.
Many soils have a shallow water table or are pounded The climate of Escambia County gives rise to Red-
for significant parts of each year. Roads on these soils Yellow Podzolic and Reddish-Brown Lateritic soils. The
need to be built on embankments or provided with an average annual temperature is 680 F.; and the average
adequate system of surface drains and underdrains. Such annual ranfall is 61.6 inches. The winters are mild, with
drains may be needed where roads are to be built on only few short cold periods. The soils are occasionally
soils that have layers of clay interbedded with very frozen to a very shallow depth for brief periods.
permeable layers. In lowlands and other areas that are The climate is such that biological activity, leaching,
flooded, roads need to be built on a continuous embank- and translocation of insoluble material are active through-
ment several feet above flood level, out the year. This is one of the reasons that the soils
Part of table 10 concerns soil conservation work-con- of the county contain little of organic matter and soluble
struction of dikes, farm ponds, drainage, and irrigation. plant nutrients. Leaching has prevented the accumula-
The information given is based on interpretation of the tion of free carbonate of lime in any of the soils. The
characteristics and properties of the soils given in tables climate is fairly constant throughout the county and,
8 and 9 and takes into account experience with soils in therefore, has not been a major factor in producing dif-
the county or with similar soils in other areas. ferences among the soils.
At the site selected for construction, there may be Parent material
major variations in a soil within the depth proposed for The parent material of the soils of Escambia County
excavation, and several soils may be encountered within c is of (a) marine deposits, and (b) stream deposits.
a short distance. Therefore, in planning, the engineering Sand and gravel formations of the Pleistocene series
data given in this section should be supplemented by cover most of the county. Under those are sand, gravel,
study of other parts of the soil report, particularly the end clay of the Citronelle formation, which belongs to
section, Soil Descriptions, and by investigating the soil the Pliocene series. The Citronelle formation is exposed
materials and soil conditions at the site selected forseries. The Citronelle formation is exposed
materials and soil conditions at the site selected for at varying heights in the bluffs along the rivers and bays
construction. Nevertheless, by using this report, the soils at varying heights in the bluffs along the rivers and bays
engineer can eliminate considerable preliminary inves- as far south as Pensacola.
engineer can e ate considerable pre ary ves The Pleistocene sands and gravels are in a series of
tigation. marine-terrace plains. The various terraces record oscil-
lation of sea level and are best defined by reference to
the present altitudes of their respective shorelines. Ac-
Genesis, Morphology, and Classification cording to Cooke (3) there are seven established terraces,
of Soils with shorelines at altitudes as follows:
Terrace: Feet
Soil is the product of the forces of soil development Brandywine ----------------------------- 270
acting on parent material deposited or accumulated Coharie ----------- ---------------- 215
through geologic agencies. These forces are (1) the Sunderland ------------------------------- 170
climate under which the soil material has accumulated Penholoway ----------------------------- 100
Penholoway ------------------------------------ 70
and has since existed; (2) the physical and mineralogical Talbot ------------------------------- 42
composition of the parent material; (3) the plant and Pamlico --------------------------------- 25









ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 55

greatly affect the suitability of a soil for engineering animal life in and on the soil; (4) the relief or lay of
purposes. the land; and (5) the length of time the four forces
Also to be considered in planning are soil structure, already mentioned have acted on the soil material.
consistence, and content of organic matter, which affect The interaction of climate and vegetation change the
the moisture-holding capacity of the soils. parent material from an inert, heterogeneous mass into a
Clayey materials-those having a high shrink-swell po- body having more or less definite genetic morphology.
tential-have low stability when wet, but they can be The action of these factors on the parent material is ac-
used for cores of dams or dikes. Materials that have a celebrated or retarded in a varying degree by the relief,
low shrink-swell potential, such as the loamy sand of the which determines to some extent surface runoff, the move-
Eustis soils, are preferred for a road subgrade or a ment of water through the soil, natural erosion, and the
foundation for a pavement, natural vegetation. The character of the parent material
In table 10 are summarized features of the soils that itself also influences climate and vegetation in soil forma-
affect their use in highway work and in soil conservation tion and is important in determining the temperature and
work. The soils are of variable suitability for use in moisture conditions within the soil and the kinds of
road subgrades and embankments of various kinds. Their natural vegetation.
suitability is rated on the assumption that the material Throughout the genesis of soil, time brings about
is at proper moisture content for suitable compaction. changes; hence, age is a factor in the development of the
On some soils, this means that drainage ditches will be soil into a body in equilibrium with its environment.
needed, and that moisture content will be controlled by The degree of profile development is the product of the
adding or extracting water, before the material will be action of climate, living organisms, and vegetation, as
used in subgrades or embankments. conditioned by relief and time. In the following pages
Highly organic material in poorly drained, depressed the factors of soil formation and their effects on soil
areas is not suitable for road construction. It should be development in Escambia County are discussed.
removed from the roadway section and placed where it
will not be detrimental. It can be mixed with other soil Factors of Soil Formation
materials to improve fertility and then be used as a top- Climate
dressing on cut or fill slopes and in ditches.
Many soils have a shallow water table or are pounded The climate of Escambia County gives rise to Red-
for significant parts of each year. Roads on these soils Yellow Podzolic and Reddish-Brown Lateritic soils. The
need to be built on embankments or provided with an average annual temperature is 680 F.; and the average
adequate system of surface drains and underdrains. Such annual ranfall is 61.6 inches. The winters are mild, with
drains may be needed where roads are to be built on only few short cold periods. The soils are occasionally
soils that have layers of clay interbedded with very frozen to a very shallow depth for brief periods.
permeable layers. In lowlands and other areas that are The climate is such that biological activity, leaching,
flooded, roads need to be built on a continuous embank- and translocation of insoluble material are active through-
ment several feet above flood level, out the year. This is one of the reasons that the soils
Part of table 10 concerns soil conservation work-con- of the county contain little of organic matter and soluble
struction of dikes, farm ponds, drainage, and irrigation. plant nutrients. Leaching has prevented the accumula-
The information given is based on interpretation of the tion of free carbonate of lime in any of the soils. The
characteristics and properties of the soils given in tables climate is fairly constant throughout the county and,
8 and 9 and takes into account experience with soils in therefore, has not been a major factor in producing dif-
the county or with similar soils in other areas. ferences among the soils.
At the site selected for construction, there may be Parent material
major variations in a soil within the depth proposed for The parent material of the soils of Escambia County
excavation, and several soils may be encountered within c is of (a) marine deposits, and (b) stream deposits.
a short distance. Therefore, in planning, the engineering Sand and gravel formations of the Pleistocene series
data given in this section should be supplemented by cover most of the county. Under those are sand, gravel,
study of other parts of the soil report, particularly the end clay of the Citronelle formation, which belongs to
section, Soil Descriptions, and by investigating the soil the Pliocene series. The Citronelle formation is exposed
materials and soil conditions at the site selected forseries. The Citronelle formation is exposed
materials and soil conditions at the site selected for at varying heights in the bluffs along the rivers and bays
construction. Nevertheless, by using this report, the soils at varying heights in the bluffs along the rivers and bays
engineer can eliminate considerable preliminary inves- as far south as Pensacola.
engineer can e ate considerable pre ary ves The Pleistocene sands and gravels are in a series of
tigation. marine-terrace plains. The various terraces record oscil-
lation of sea level and are best defined by reference to
the present altitudes of their respective shorelines. Ac-
Genesis, Morphology, and Classification cording to Cooke (3) there are seven established terraces,
of Soils with shorelines at altitudes as follows:
Terrace: Feet
Soil is the product of the forces of soil development Brandywine ----------------------------- 270
acting on parent material deposited or accumulated Coharie ----------- ---------------- 215
through geologic agencies. These forces are (1) the Sunderland ------------------------------- 170
climate under which the soil material has accumulated Penholoway ----------------------------- 100
Penholoway ------------------------------------ 70
and has since existed; (2) the physical and mineralogical Talbot ------------------------------- 42
composition of the parent material; (3) the plant and Pamlico --------------------------------- 25









ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 55

greatly affect the suitability of a soil for engineering animal life in and on the soil; (4) the relief or lay of
purposes. the land; and (5) the length of time the four forces
Also to be considered in planning are soil structure, already mentioned have acted on the soil material.
consistence, and content of organic matter, which affect The interaction of climate and vegetation change the
the moisture-holding capacity of the soils. parent material from an inert, heterogeneous mass into a
Clayey materials-those having a high shrink-swell po- body having more or less definite genetic morphology.
tential-have low stability when wet, but they can be The action of these factors on the parent material is ac-
used for cores of dams or dikes. Materials that have a celebrated or retarded in a varying degree by the relief,
low shrink-swell potential, such as the loamy sand of the which determines to some extent surface runoff, the move-
Eustis soils, are preferred for a road subgrade or a ment of water through the soil, natural erosion, and the
foundation for a pavement, natural vegetation. The character of the parent material
In table 10 are summarized features of the soils that itself also influences climate and vegetation in soil forma-
affect their use in highway work and in soil conservation tion and is important in determining the temperature and
work. The soils are of variable suitability for use in moisture conditions within the soil and the kinds of
road subgrades and embankments of various kinds. Their natural vegetation.
suitability is rated on the assumption that the material Throughout the genesis of soil, time brings about
is at proper moisture content for suitable compaction. changes; hence, age is a factor in the development of the
On some soils, this means that drainage ditches will be soil into a body in equilibrium with its environment.
needed, and that moisture content will be controlled by The degree of profile development is the product of the
adding or extracting water, before the material will be action of climate, living organisms, and vegetation, as
used in subgrades or embankments. conditioned by relief and time. In the following pages
Highly organic material in poorly drained, depressed the factors of soil formation and their effects on soil
areas is not suitable for road construction. It should be development in Escambia County are discussed.
removed from the roadway section and placed where it
will not be detrimental. It can be mixed with other soil Factors of Soil Formation
materials to improve fertility and then be used as a top- Climate
dressing on cut or fill slopes and in ditches.
Many soils have a shallow water table or are pounded The climate of Escambia County gives rise to Red-
for significant parts of each year. Roads on these soils Yellow Podzolic and Reddish-Brown Lateritic soils. The
need to be built on embankments or provided with an average annual temperature is 680 F.; and the average
adequate system of surface drains and underdrains. Such annual ranfall is 61.6 inches. The winters are mild, with
drains may be needed where roads are to be built on only few short cold periods. The soils are occasionally
soils that have layers of clay interbedded with very frozen to a very shallow depth for brief periods.
permeable layers. In lowlands and other areas that are The climate is such that biological activity, leaching,
flooded, roads need to be built on a continuous embank- and translocation of insoluble material are active through-
ment several feet above flood level, out the year. This is one of the reasons that the soils
Part of table 10 concerns soil conservation work-con- of the county contain little of organic matter and soluble
struction of dikes, farm ponds, drainage, and irrigation. plant nutrients. Leaching has prevented the accumula-
The information given is based on interpretation of the tion of free carbonate of lime in any of the soils. The
characteristics and properties of the soils given in tables climate is fairly constant throughout the county and,
8 and 9 and takes into account experience with soils in therefore, has not been a major factor in producing dif-
the county or with similar soils in other areas. ferences among the soils.
At the site selected for construction, there may be Parent material
major variations in a soil within the depth proposed for The parent material of the soils of Escambia County
excavation, and several soils may be encountered within c is of (a) marine deposits, and (b) stream deposits.
a short distance. Therefore, in planning, the engineering Sand and gravel formations of the Pleistocene series
data given in this section should be supplemented by cover most of the county. Under those are sand, gravel,
study of other parts of the soil report, particularly the end clay of the Citronelle formation, which belongs to
section, Soil Descriptions, and by investigating the soil the Pliocene series. The Citronelle formation is exposed
materials and soil conditions at the site selected forseries. The Citronelle formation is exposed
materials and soil conditions at the site selected for at varying heights in the bluffs along the rivers and bays
construction. Nevertheless, by using this report, the soils at varying heights in the bluffs along the rivers and bays
engineer can eliminate considerable preliminary inves- as far south as Pensacola.
engineer can e ate considerable pre ary ves The Pleistocene sands and gravels are in a series of
tigation. marine-terrace plains. The various terraces record oscil-
lation of sea level and are best defined by reference to
the present altitudes of their respective shorelines. Ac-
Genesis, Morphology, and Classification cording to Cooke (3) there are seven established terraces,
of Soils with shorelines at altitudes as follows:
Terrace: Feet
Soil is the product of the forces of soil development Brandywine ----------------------------- 270
acting on parent material deposited or accumulated Coharie ----------- ---------------- 215
through geologic agencies. These forces are (1) the Sunderland ------------------------------- 170
climate under which the soil material has accumulated Penholoway ----------------------------- 100
Penholoway ------------------------------------ 70
and has since existed; (2) the physical and mineralogical Talbot ------------------------------- 42
composition of the parent material; (3) the plant and Pamlico --------------------------------- 25




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