• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 Summary of tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the survey...
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Flagler County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026085/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Flagler County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 206 p., 3, 71 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Natural Resources Conservation Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1997]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Flagler County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Flagler County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 129-130).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service ; in cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 98-0045-P.
General Note: "Issued October 1997"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026085
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 003481952
oclc - 37999154
notis - ALR6164

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page 1
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    Summary of tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    General nature of the survey area
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    How this survey was made
        Page 7
        Map unit composition
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
    General soil map units
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
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        Page 64
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        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 71
        Crops and pasture
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
        Rangeland and grazeable woodland
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 82
        Recreation
            Page 82
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 83
            Page 84
        Engineering
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
    Soil properties
        Page 91
        Engineering index properties
            Page 91
        Phsysical and chemical properties
            Page 92
        Soil and water features
            Page 93
            Page 94
        Phsycial, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
        Engineering index test data
            Page 98
    Classification of the soils
        Page 99
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 99
        Adamsville series
            Page 99
        Astatula series
            Page 100
        Basinger series
            Page 100
        Bimini series
            Page 101
        Bulow series
            Page 102
        Cassia series
            Page 102
        Chobee series
            Page 103
        Cocoa series
            Page 104
        EauGallie series
            Page 104
        Favoretta series
            Page 105
        Gator series
            Page 106
        Hicoria series
            Page 107
        Holopaw series
            Page 107
        Hontoon series
            Page 108
        Immokalee series
            Page 108
        Malabar series
            Page 109
        Myakka series
            Page 109
        Narcoossee series
            Page 110
        Orsino series
            Page 111
        Palm Beach series
            Page 111
        Paola series
            Page 112
        Pellicer series
            Page 113
        Pineda series
            Page 114
        Placid series
            Page 114
        Pomello series
            Page 115
        Pomona series
            Page 116
        Riviera series
            Page 116
        Samsula series
            Page 117
        Smyrna series
            Page 118
        St. Johns series
            Page 118
        Tavares series
            Page 119
        Terra Ceia series
            Page 120
        Tumbull series
            Page 120
        Tuscawilla series
            Page 121
        Valkaria series
            Page 121
        Wabasso series
            Page 122
        Welaka series
            Page 123
        Winder series
            Page 124
    Formation of the soils
        Page 125
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 125
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
    References
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Glossary
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Tables
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
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        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    General soil map
        Page 207
    Index to map sheets
        Page 208
        Page 209
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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Full Text


SUnited States In cooperation with the S o il S survey of
Department of University of Florida, o l Sy
SAgriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, Flag ler C o unity,
Natural Agricultural Experiment C o
Resources Stations, and Soil F o
Conservation Science Department, and Flori
Service the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services



































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.. ..-.-z- .. ... _. -.








-.,- -.,,,- _. ,-,.il
A.- '- 0. ,
~ .~--?- .















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can -
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas. -- -

Kok mo
To find information about
your area of interest, 1 2 J 4
locate that area on the ,
Index to Map Sheets, y 13 pqC MAP SHEET
which precedes the soil
maps. Note the number of i ...... 1',- ia--. i- -90-... -
the map sheet, and turn to I T
that sheet. INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
that sheet.


Locate your area of Fa\ a
interest on the map NBa AsB
sheet. Note the map unit B_ ac J /( /ci
symbols that are in that A
area. Turn to the Index -
to Map Units (see Con- AREA OF INTEREST
tents), which lists the map NOTE: Map unil symbols in a soil
enswsurvey may consist only of numbers or
units by symbol and letters, or they may be a combination
name and shows the of numbers and letters.
page where each map MAP SHEET
unit is described.

The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal,
State, and local agencies. The Natural Resources Conservation Service
(formerly the Soil Conservation Service) has leadership for the Federal part of
the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1989. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1990. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1990. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service and the
University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department and the Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance
furnished to the Flagler Soil and Water Conservation District. The Flagler County
Board of County Commissioners contributed office space for the soil survey
party.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
A prior soil survey was made for Flagler County in 1918 (19). This survey
updates the 1918 survey. It is a more detailed soil survey on aerial photography
and contains more interpretative information.
All programs and services of the Natural Resources Conservation Service are
offered on a nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national
origin, religion, sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: Coquina rock outcrop in an area of Beaches. This plastic rock, composed of
cemented shells and sand, is part of the Anastasia Formation.















ii

















Contents


Index to map units ............................. iv Gator series ............................... 106
Summary of tables ...................... ...... v Hicoria series................................. 107
Foreword ....................................... vii Holopaw series .............................. 107
General nature of the survey area ................. 1 Hontoon series .............................. 108
How this survey was made ................. ...... 7 Immokalee series ................. ..... ..... 108
Map unit composition ........................... 8 Malabar series. .............................. 109
General soil map units .......................... 11 Myakka series ............................... 109
Detailed soil map units ................... .... 21 Narcoossee series ............................ 110
Use and management of the soils............... 71 Orsino series ................................ 111
Crops and pasture ........................... 71 Palm Beach series .......................... 111
Rangeland and grazeable woodland ............. 75 Paola series ................................ 112
Woodland management and productivity ......... 79 Pellicer series ............................... 113
Windbreaks and environmental plantings ....... 82 Pineda series................................ 114
Recreation ................................... 82 Placid series .......................... .. .. 114
Wildlife habitat................................ 83 Pomello series ................................ 115
Engineering .................................. 85 Pomona series ........................... 116
Soil properties .................................. 91 Riviera series ................................. 116
Engineering index properties ................... 91 Samsula series ................................ 117
Physical and chemical properties ............... 92 Smyrna series ................................ 118
Soil and water features .......................... 93 St. Johns series .......................... 118
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses Tavares series........... ........ .......... 119
of selected soils............................. 95 Terra Ceia series ............... ..... ...... 120
Engineering index test data ..................... 98 Turnbull series................................... 120
Classification of the soils............... ....... 99 Tuscawilla series .... ...... ..... ........... 121
Soil series and their morphology............ ...... 99 Valkaria series ........ .......... .......... 121
Adamsville series ........................... 99 Wabasso series ............................ 122
Astatula series ............................... 100 Welaka series ...... .......................... 123
Basinger series ............... ........... 100 Winder series ................................ 124
Bimini series ................................. 101 Formation of the soils......................... 125
Bulow series ................................. 102 Factors of soil formation ..................... 125
Cassia series ................ ............ 102 Processes of soil formation ................... 126
Chobee series ................. ............. 103 References ................................. 129
Cocoa series .............................. 104 Glossary......... ......... ..... ............ 131
EauGallie series ........................... 104 Tables .................................... 139
Favoretta series ............................. 105

Issued October 1997






iii


















Index to Map Units


2-Riviera fine sand ............................. 21 23-Adamsville fine sand, 0 to 3 percent
3-Samsula and Hontoon soils, depressional ...... 23 slopes ......................... ...... ... 51
4-Wabasso fine sand .......................... 24 24-Samsula and Placid soils, frequently
5-Pineda-Wabasso complex ..................... 25 flooded .................................... 52
6-Favoretta clay ............................... 27 25-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes....... 53
7-Favoretta, Chobee, and Winder soils, 26-Turnbull and Pellicer soils, tidal ............... 54
frequently flooded ............................ 28 27-Cassia fine sand........................... 55
8-Hicoria, Riviera, and Gator soils, 29-Udarents, moderately wet.................... 57
depressional ............................... 30 30-Pits ..................................... 58
9-EauGallie fine sand ......................... 32 31-Palm Beach gravelly sand, 0 to 8 percent
10-Winder fine sand ........................... 33 slopes..................................... 58
11-Myakka fine sand ........................... 36 32-Narcoossee, shell substratum-Welaka
12-Placid, Basinger, and St. Johns soils, complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............... 59
depressional ............................... 37 33-Beaches ...................... ....... 60
13-Immokalee fine sand ........................ 38 34-Cocoa-Bulow complex, 0 to 5 percent
14-Pineda fine sand............................ 40 slopes..................................... 60
15-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes....... 41 35-Quartzipsamments, dredged ................. 62
16-Malabar fine sand........................... 42 36-Bimini fine sand ............................. 62
17-Holopaw fine sand ........................... 44 37-Tuscawilla fine sand ........................ 63
18-Valkaria-Smyrna complex.................... 45 38-Paola fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes ........ 65
19-Valkaria fine sand ............................ 46 39-Udarents, smoothed........................... 66
20-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ....... 48 40-Pomona fine sand .......................... 67
21-Smyrna fine sand .......................... 49 41-Terra Ceia muck, frequently flooded .......... 67
22-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes....... 50



















iv

















Summary of Tables



Temperature and precipitation (table 1) ............. ..................... 140

Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2)............. ...... ............... 141

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3) .................... 142

Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 4)... 143

Woodland management and productivity (table 5)........................ 146

Recreational development (table 6) ................ ...................... 151

W wildlife habitat (table 7) ................................................ 155

Building site development (table 8) ................................ .... 158

Sanitary facilities (table 9) .............................................. 162

Construction materials (table 10) ........................................ 167

Water management (table 11)........................................... 171

Engineering index properties (table 12) ................. ... .............. 177

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 13) .................. 184

Soil and water features (table 14) ....................................... 188

Depth to water table in selected soils (table 15).......................... 192

Physical properties of selected soils (table 16)........................... 193

Chemical properties of selected soils (table 17) ........................... 197

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 18) ........................... 201

Engineering index test data (table 19) ................................ 204

Classification of the soils (table 20) ...................................... 206



v




















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Flagler County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected
land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters, and
agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan
land use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to
ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists
in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use
the survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey
or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high
water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the
Natural Resources Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Natural Resources Conservation Service









vii














Soil Survey of

Flagler County, Florida


By Elmer L. Readle, Robert Baldwin, Kim C. Goerg, and Jeffrey E. Leppo,
Natural Resources Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
In cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil Science Department, and the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services




FLAGLER COUNTY is in the northeastern part of
peninsular Florida (fig. 1). It is bordered by St. Johns
County to the north, by Putnam County to the west, by
Volusia County to the south, and by the Atlantic Ocean
to the east. Talla
The total area of the county is 314,090 acres, or
about 507 square miles. Areas of water more than 40
acres in size make up 10,688 acres. The county is
about 29 miles from the north to south and about 23
miles from the east to west. The county seat, Bunnell, is
in the east-central part of the county.
The economy of Flagler County is somewhat
diversified, although agriculture, construction, tourism,
and light industry are the main economic elements.


General Nature of the County
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that
affect the use and management of soils in Flagler
County are described. These factors include climate,
history and development, physiography and
geomorphology, water and mineral resources, farming,
recreation, and transportation.
Climate Figure 1.-Location of Flagler County in Florida.
Climate
This section was compiled from data and information provided by
the National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, North Carolina, and and mild winters. Both summer and winter temperatures
from data collected by the University of Florida Agriculture Research are moderated by the close proximity to the Atlantic
Center in Hastings, Florida. Ocean. The frequency of frost and freezing
Flagler County has a subtropical maritime climate temperatures is greater in the western part of the
that is characterized by long, warm and humid summers county, and rainfall is more frequent in the eastern part.








2 Soil Survey


The average annual temperature is about 70 degrees F, any time of the day. Overcast, drizzly conditions can
and the average annual rainfall is about 53 inches. sometimes last for 2 or 3 days. Droughty conditions can
Rainfall is heaviest during the summer. The winters are occur at any time, even during the rainy season, but
generally mild, except for brief invasions of cold, dry air these conditions are generally more severe in the
associated with cold fronts that move southward across spring because the temperatures are higher and the
the state. The prevailing winds are primarily from the rate of plant growth is increased.
east, but many are from the southwest or northwest. Tropical storms or depressions can produce very
The average wind speed is about 10 to 12 miles per heavy rainfall at any time from June to November.
hour but is slightly higher during a period from mid- These low pressure systems produce very high winds
February through March. The hurricane season extends and large amounts of rainfall, which may affect weather
from June to November. conditions for several days. The more intense storm
In summer, temperatures vary only slightly from day systems can cause considerable damage and flooding
to day. The afternoon temperatures can reach 90 in the lower areas. High surf and storm-driven waves
degrees or more, and by morning the temperature can can inundate the lower areas along bays and inlets.
fall into the low 70's. Although temperatures above 100 They can cause severe erosion along beaches,
degrees have been recorded, they rarely occur. especially in areas where the natural vegetation has
Daytime temperatures rarely exceed 95 degrees been removed or is badly disturbed.
because of the cooling effects of sea breezes near the During fall and early winter, heavy fog is common
coast and because of the thunderstorms that occur early in the morning, but it usually dissipates soon after
further inland. The probability of a thunderstorm sunrise. The dew is usually heavy in the morning
occurring at a given location on any summer day is because of the high humidity. In the spring, the relative
about 50 percent, humidity in the afternoon ranges from 40 to 50 percent.
The temperatures in winter vary considerably from From June through September, the relative humidity
day to day as periodic cold fronts move southward early in the morning ranges from 40 to 60 percent and
across the state. Temperatures may vary from the 70- results in a heavy dew.
degree range during the middle of the day to below
freezing in the early morning. The coldest days History and Development
generally occur on the second or third day after a front
passes through the area. The average daily maximum John A. Clegg, historian and author, prepared this section.
winter temperature is 67 degrees, and the average daily The Timicuan Indians were early inhabitants of the
minimum temperature is 40 degrees. Temperatures of area now known as Flagler County. They lived in the
32 degrees or lower, which occur 12 to 15 times per hammocks beside the rivers on the East Coast (8). As
year, have been recorded as early as the middle of the Spanish settled Florida, Indian missions were
November and as late as the middle of March. Table 1 established at St. Joseph and Bulowville. The first
gives data on temperatures and precipitation for the permanent European family to settle in this area was
survey area from 1952 to 1987. Table 2 shows freeze the Duponts. They arrived in 1792. Many descendants
dates in spring and fall. of this family still live in Flagler County.
The average annual rainfall is about 53 inches. About Although large sugar plantations were established in
60 percent of the rainfall occurs during the rainy the early 1800's, all of these plantations were burned
season, which extends from June through the middle of during the Seminole Indian War from 1835 to 1836.
October. The remainder is evenly distributed during the After about 1850, orange groves, cattle ranches, and
rest of the year and can occur at any time during the truck farms were established along the Old Kings Road,
day. The rainfall during the summer is generally a result which traversed the eastern part of the county from the
of convection thundershowers that occur late in the north to south. When the railroad was built in 1885,
afternoon and early in the evening. These showers are settlers began to establish the communities of
local in extent and of short duration. They may produce Espanola, St. Johns Park, Dupont, Haw Creek, Korona,
more than 3 inches of rain in an hour or less. During and Bunnell. Timber, turpentine, and truck farming
the late summer and early fall, temperatures begin to made up the economic base for these communities.
moderate and the showers occur earlier in the day and The town of Bunnell was established in 1913. Flagler
diminish in frequency. Day-long rains in the summer are County was created out of St. Johns and Volusia
rare and are usually associated with a tropical Counties in 1917, and Bunnell was chosen as the
depression. After the end of the rainy season, rainfall is county seat. Flagler County was named after Henry M.
generally associated with the passage of a front. The Flagler, the railroad builder. Ocean City, on the East
rainfall is generally over a wide area and can occur at Coast, became Flagler Beach in 1923. The largest








Flagler County, Florida 3


above mean sea level. Crescent Lake is the major
: drainage basin in the western half of the county.
sT. JoNs CouNTaY ,' -\ Tributaries flowing into the lake include Salt Creek, Haw
r Creek, Black Branch, and Hunter Branch. Lake Diston,
SO located in the southwestern corner of the county,
AW-0 .. receives drainage from the surrounding wetlands and
SALT CR from Little Haw Creek.
d Espanola Hill, a topographic high point within the
SHELL BLUFF Eastern Valley, is an elongated feature that parallels the
W-5033 coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. It has a maximum
\a i, LER elevation of 59 feet above mean sea level. The
.W. 34 \ \C orientation of Espanola Hill and its location, which is
S,,, proximal to the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, suggest that the
-- -17feature may be a relict beach ridge.
C. o Four narrow, linear geomorphic provinces are in the
,. -11861 eastern third of Flagler County and run parallel to the
A- Atlantic coastline. These geomorphic provinces include
Sthe Atlantic Coastal Ridge, the Atlantic Coastal
oI 5 i -5o39 \ Lagoons, the Atlantic Barrier Chain, and the Atlantic
S 4. B' I 'Beach Ridges. During the Pamlico sea-level stands
about 340,000 years ago (18), the shoreline known as
I D CUON I the Atlantic Coastal Ridge was developed. The
-VO-A COUNTY-- oscillating regression of the Pamlico seas produced
EXPLANATION linear coastal deposits, which are components of the
IIJ Atlantic Beach Ridges Atlantic Barrier Chain. The Atlantic Beach Ridges and
E Atlantic coastal Lagoons Coastal Lagoons are products of Holocene shoreline
sedimentation.
Atlantic Barrier Chain sedimentation.
SAtlantic Coastal Ridge Geology and Stratigraphy
D Eastern Valley Flagler County is underlain by several thousand feet
oaa f sedimentary rocks that overlie the upper Precambrian
| Espanola Hill and lower Cambrian crystalline basement, beginning at
approximately 5,000 feet in depth (3). The Avon Park
Figure 2.-Geomorphology of Flagler County. The locations of the aro 5,0 f i r
cross-sections in figures 3 and 4 are also indicated. Formation, which is of Middle Eocene age, is the oldest
geologic formation penetrated by water wells in the
county. It is overlain by the limestones of the Ocala
community is presently Palm Coast, which ITT began to Group and the phosphatic clays, sands, and limestones
develop in 1970. of the Hawthorn Group. These units underlie
Pleistocene and Recent undifferentiated sand, shell,
Physiography and Geomorphology and clay deposits, which are exposed at the surface.
Figure 2 shows the location of geologic cross-sections.
Jonathan D. Arthur, geologist, Florida Geological Survey, helped Figures 3 and 4 show the geologic formations that are
to prepare this section. penetrated by wells in Flagler County.
Flagler County is in the Atlantic Coastal Lowlands The Avon Park Formation (15) in this region contains
physiographic zone. White (24) has delineated six a variable lithology, both vertically and laterally. It
geomorphic features within Flagler County (fig. 2). The generally consists of dense, reddish brown to buff,
following discussion is primarily a summary of his organic-rich, seamed limestone and brown to gray,
observations, crystalline dolomitic limestone near the base. It grades
The largest geomorphic feature in Flagler County is upward to interbedded gray to white, chalky limestone
the Eastern Valley, which covers the western two-thirds and hard, crystalline dolomite near the top (5). Some of
of the county. This valley is approximately 20 miles the limestone beds contain numerous foraminifera and
wide and contains most of the low wetlands of Flagler echinoids. The top of the Avon Park Formation is at a
County. Elevations in this region range from 5 to 28 feet depth ranging from 205 feet to 370 feet below mean









4 Soil Survey


A A'








MSL -- 0
SAND AND CLAY (UNDIFFERENTIATED)
SAND AND SHELL
-50 (UNDIFFERENTIATED)

SA|N AND, AWTHORN GROUP (UNDIFFERENTIATED)
-10 ..


-150


-200 OCALA GROUP
(UNDIFFERENTIATED)

-250


-300 AVON PARK FORMATION


-350 INDICATES NO SAMPLES
TD 540' TD 410' AVAILABLE

0 1 2 3 4 5 MILES
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION 211X I
NW VERTICAL EXAGGERATION 211X 0 2 4 6 8 KILOMETERS SE

Figure 3.-A geologic cross-section of A to A', as indicated in figure 2, in Flagler County.



sea level. This formation is a component of the Floridan Group range in thickness from 50 feet in the southern
aquifer system, part of Flagler County to approximately 200 feet in the
The Ocala Group (16) consists of three formations. In northwestern part. The depth to the top of the Ocala
ascending order, they are the Inglis Formation, the Group averages about 100 feet below mean sea level.
Williston Formation, and the Crystal River Formation. The Ocala Group is a component of the Floridan aquifer
The lithology of the Ocala Group generally consists of system and is the principle source of water in the area.
tan to buff, coarsely granular limestone of the Inglis The Hawthorn Group (17) unconformably overlies the
Formation at the base, which becomes more indurated Ocala Group beneath Flagler County. Three formations
in the Williston Formation, and white to cream, chalky, are in the Hawthorn Group in northern Florida. In
massive marine limestone in the Crystal River ascending order, they are the Penney Farms Formation,
Formation. The fossils within these formations include a which consists of interbedded phosphatic sand, clay,
variety of foraminifera, bryzoans, mollusks, and and carbonate; the Marks Head Formation, which
echinoids. The delineation of the Ocala Group into consists of complexly interbedded phosphatic clay,
formations was based upon the presence of these sand, and carbonate; and the Coosawatchee Formation,
fossils and the lithology. Sediments from the Ocala which consists of green to tan phosphatic quartz sand









Flagler County, Florida 5


B B'


0
o- 0 I 0
in Wn
-' I I
50 4


MSL-- 0 -INDICATES NO SAMPLES
SAND AND CLAY (UNDIFFERENTIATED)AVAILABLE

-50 .. -- (UNDIFFERENTIATED)
15 XD0 1 2 3 4 5 MILES
SAFITHORN GROUP (UNDIFFERENTIATED)I
1000 2 4 6 8 KILOMETERS
-100 -

VERTICAL EXAGERATION = 211X
--150
OCALA GROUP
-200 (UNDIFFERENTIATED)


-250


--300 -
AVON PARK
FORMATION
-350

TD 410'
N S

Figure 4.-A geologic cross-section of B to B', as indicated in figure 2, in Flagler County.



that contains variable amounts of clay and dolomite, have not been assigned to a specific formation. As a
These formations have been described separately in result, these surficial and coastal lithologies are called
one core (W-15282) located in northeastern Flagler Pliocene to Holocene (undifferentiated) sediments.
County. A lithologic description of this well indicates 9 The Pliocene component of this undifferentiated
feet of the Penney Farms Formation overlain by 33 feet package is the Nashua Formation. This formation
of the Coosawatchee Formation. The Marks Head represents a near-shore marine depositional
Formation is absent (12). The Hawthorn Group is environment. It was named by Matson and Clapp (14).
approximately 35 feet in thickness. It becomes thinner The Nashua Formation consists of quartz sand that
toward the southern and eastern parts of Flagler contains variable amounts of clay and carbonate matrix
County. The depth to the top of the Hawthorn Group and common mollusk shells.
sediments ranges from 60 to 80 feet below mean sea The remaining overlying sand, shells, and clay are
level. The clayey sediments of the Hawthorn Group either part of the Pleistocene Anastasia Formation or
serve as confining beds for the Floridan aquifer system. are Pleistocene to Holocene undifferentiated deposits.
Small bodies of sand in the Hawthorn Group are Variably cemented shell beds, or coquina, and
components of a near-surface aquifer in the area. unconsolidated sand and shells make up the Anastasia
In the subsurface layer of coastal northeastern Formation, which is found only near the coast in Flagler
Florida, Pliocene and Pleistocene Formations have County.
been delineated on a regional basis; however, in Flagler Shell-bearing lithologies vary in thickness. They are
County, the sand, shells, and clay at or near the surface over 100 feet thick in areas near the coast but thin and








6 Soil Survey


eventually become absent in areas toward the western primarily by rainfall in the county.
part of Flagler County. The total thickness of Pliocene The Floridan aquifer system is the major source of
to Holocene deposits in the area ranges from about 50 water for irrigation, public uses, and industry. It
to 140 feet. underlies all of Flagler County at a depth that ranges
from about 80 to 190 feet. This aquifer consists mainly
Water and Mineral Resources of Eocene limestone and dolomite from the Avon Park
Jonathan D. Arthur, geologist, Florida Geological Survey, helped Formation and the Ocala Group. The Floridan aquifer is
to prepare this section. recharged by the overlying surficial and intermediate
r R s aquifers. In some parts of the county, this aquifer yields
water that has a high chloride content as a result of the
The water resources in Flagler County are used for intrusion of salt water.
agricultural, industrial, residential, and recreational Dead Lake and Crescent Lake are the major
purposes. In most parts of the county, adequate freshwater bodies in Flagler County. Several smaller
supplies of fresh water are available for most uses. lakes are on the Espanola Ridge northwest of
However, during periods of high usage or during Espanola. Haw Creek, Pellicer Creek, and Bulow Creek
seasonal dry periods, temporary shortages may be are the major streams in the county. These water areas
experienced. An increasing population and urban are intensively used for recreational purposes.
development in the county are placing increased
demands upon the water supplies in Flagler County. Mineral Resources
Three main sources of water, or aquifer systems, are The mineral resources in Flagler County include
in Flagler County. They are a surficial aquifer system, sand, clay, and coquina. An overview of these
which is made up of surface water and ground water; resources and their commercial use is provided in the
an intermediate aquifer system; and the Floridan aquifer following paragraphs.
system. Sand accumulations cover about 75 percent of
The surficial aquifer system is the uppermost Flagler County. The maximum thickness of the sand is
freshwater aquifer in Flagler County. The surface water in the northwestern part of the county, where it reaches
in lakes, ponds, and streams and the ground water is a depth of 140 feet. The sand commonly contains small
used to a limited extent for irrigation or domestic shell fragments and localized clay lenses. Recent tests
purposes. Ground water is subsurface water in the zone by the Florida Geological Survey indicate that the sand
of saturation. The zone of saturation is a zone in which is suitable for brick masonry, sand-cement, riprap,
all pore spaces are filled with water under a pressure sand-asphalt hot mix, and sand seal coat. Because it
no greater than atmospheric pressure. The quantity of contains a large percentage of impurities, the sand is
surface water and ground water available is directly and probably not suitable for the manufacture of glass.
immediately affected by the amount of rainfall received. Although economic heavy mineral deposits occur in
The surficial aquifer system is not confined, and its north-central and northeastern Florida, no public
upper surface reflects the depth to the water table. In information exists regarding the abundance or
general, the water table fluctuates with the rate of distribution of heavy minerals in the sand bodies in
precipitation and conforms to the topography of the land Flagler County.
surface. The surficial aquifer system is recharged Few relatively pure clay deposits occur near the
primarily by rainfall percolating downward through the surface in Flagler County. Most of the clay is found as a
loose surficial siliciclastic sediments and, to a lesser clayey-sand lithology. Calver (7) reports pure clay
extent, by seepage upward from the underlying deposits located near Black Point and Haw Creek that
Floridian aquifer system. The surficial aquifer system are suitable for the manufacture of common brick,
can yield quantities of water suitable for consumption, hollow block, and drain tile. Bell (4) reports an eight-foot
but in some areas, the concentration of iron and tannic thick unit of clay at a depth of three feet in the vicinity
acid color the water and impart a poor taste, of Shell Bluff, which borders Crescent Lake. This clay is
The intermediate aquifer system is primarily within thought to underlie an extensive portion of western
the sediments of the Hawthorn Group. These sediments Flagler County. Physical properties suggest that the
consist of variable amounts of sand and shell fragments Shell Bluff clay may also be used for brick, tile, and
and some silt and clay. The aquifer underlies all of hollow blockware. Bell also reports exposures of clay
Flagler County. It ranges in thickness from 5 to 80 feet. beds near St. Johns Park, on the north shore of Dead
It yields good quality water that is the primary source Lake.
for domestic uses and, to a limited extent, municipal Coquina is a plastic sedimentary rock composed of
uses. The intermediate aquifer system is recharged shells and shell fragments cemented by calcium








Flagler County, Florida 7


carbonate. The Anastasia Formation is the source of Bulow Creek State Reserve and Bulow Plantation
coquina in Flagler County. Cooke (9) reports two Ruins State Monument are on the mainland, south of
coquina pits exposed on either side of the State Road Florida State Road 100 and west of Old Kings Road.
100, about 2.6 miles west of Flagler Beach. These pits, The Bulow Plantation Ruins State Monument is a
along with several others, are currently in operation. historical preservation that contains an old plantation
Well cemented coquina is suitable for use as building mansion and sugarcane mill ruins. The Flagler County
material. Less consolidated varieties are useful as recreation area and fairground is west of Bunnell. It has
concrete mix and road surfacing material, facilities for baseball, rodeo, agricultural exhibitions, and
open play. The Palm Coast area also has many sites
Farming for organized recreational activities. It offers several golf
courses, a swimming and tennis club, a racquet club,
The soils and climate of Flagler County are favorable and a marina. The Pelay Wildlife Management Area
for farming. Since the early 1800's, when a large offers seasonal hunting opportunities for the public on
plantation in the Bulowville area produced sugar cane, 25,463 acres in the southern part of the county.
cotton, indigo, corn, and rice, agriculture has been an Crescent Lake is accessible by two boat ramps. It
important part of the economy of Flagler County (8). provides good fishing and boating opportunities.
The commonly grown crops currently include Irish Many other community centers, parks and play
potatoes, cabbage, and a variety of vegetable crops. A areas, and school facilities are available for recreational
small acreage is planted to blueberries, and a few acres activities throughout Flagler County.
of watermelons are planted in most years.
The production of beef cattle is an important livestock Transportation
operation in Flagler County. Most cattle ranches are
cow-calf operations that utilize improved pastures Flagler County is served by several major highways.
supplemented by small acreages of range and U.S. Highway 1 and Interstate 95 cross the eastern half
grazeable woodland. In 1982, approximately 9,000 head of the county in a north to south direction. They provide
of beef cattle were in Flagler County (23). access to many areas within the county and link Flagler
Urban development has removed some land that was County to St. Johns County to the north and to Volusia
previously farmed from agricultural uses, but the loss of County to the south. Florida State Road A1A serves as
acreage has been small. Most of the land that was a major road, extending the entire length of the county
converted to urban uses was previously used for the on the barrier island that is adjacent to the Atlantic
commercial production of pine trees. Ocean and is separated from the mainland by the
Intracoastal Waterway. Florida State Road 11 extends
southward from Bunnell to the central part of Volusia
Recreation County. Florida State Road 100 is the major east-west
A wide variety of areas that support recreational road, extending from Flagler Beach on the Atlantic
activities are available in Flagler County. These areas Ocean to the western boundary with Putnam County.
offer opportunities for such diversified recreational Several county roads connect the outlying communities
activities as freshwater or saltwater fishing, boating, to the major roads in the county.
birdwatching,, surfing, sunbathing, camping, hunting, The Florida East Coast Railroad runs north to south,
playing organized sports, and many other activities, roughly parallel to U.S. Highway 1. The Intracoastal
The coastal section of Flagler County provides many Waterway runs parallel to the Atlantic Ocean and
recreational opportunities on the Atlantic Ocean and provides a route for transportation by boats and barges.
Intracoastal Waterway. The Flagler Beach Pier and The Flagler County Airport is adjacent to Florida State
beach are important access points. A large commercial Highway 100, east of Bunnell. Air transportation is not
marine and water show facility is on Florida State Road regularly scheduled out of the Bunnell airport. The
A1A, adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean in the northeastern Daytona Beach International Airport, about 25 miles
part of the county. It is world-renowned for a variety of south of Bunnell, has scheduled passenger service
marine attractions and shows. The Whitney Laboratory provided by major domestic air carriers.
for Marine Science Research at the University of Florida
also is nearby. The Washington Oaks State Gardens How This Survey Was Made
and Flagler Beach State Recreation Area provide
natural settings for outdoor activities. Wadsworth Park This survey was made to provide information about
has facilities for football, soccer, baseball, racquetball, the soils in the survey area. The information includes a
and other sports, description of the soils and their location and a









8 Soil Survey


discussion of the suitability, limitations, and of the soils in the area are generally collected for
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of scientists interpret the data from these analyses and
slopes; the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
crops and native plants growing on the soils; and the the soil properties to determine the expected behavior
kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of
profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or the soils are field tested through observation of the soils
horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface in different uses under different levels of management.
down into the unconsolidated material from which the Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
soil formed. The unconsolidated material is devoid of and some new interpretations are developed to meet
roots and other living organisms and has not been local needs. Data are assembled from other sources,
changed by other biological activity, such as research information, production records, and
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly field experience of specialists. For example, data on
pattern that is related to the geology, landforms, relief, crop yields under defined levels of management are
climate, and natural vegetation of the area. Each kind of assembled from farm records and from field or plot
soil is associated with a particular kind of landscape or experiments on the same kinds of soil.
with a segment of the landscape. By observing the soils Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
in the survey area and relating their position to specific soil properties but also on such variables as climate
segments of the landscape, a soil scientist develops a and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
concept, or model, of how the soils were formed. Thus, over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
during mapping, this model enables the soil scientist to from year to year. For example, soil scientists can
predict with a considerable degree of accuracy the kind predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given
of soil at a specific location on the landscape, soil will have a high water table within certain depths in
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
into one another as their characteristics gradually table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, specific date.
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between After soil scientists located and identified the
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
supplemented by an understanding of the soil- photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
determine the boundaries. accurately.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture, Map Unit Composition
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, reaction, and A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
other features that enable them to identify soils. After area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
describing the soils in the survey area and determining dominated by two or three kinds of soil. A map unit is
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to identified and named according to the taxonomic
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils the soils are natural objects. In common with other
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
confirm data and assemble additional data based on soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to
experience and research. other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units,
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some these latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.







Flagler County, Florida 9


In the general soil map units, they are called soils of The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
minor extent. taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral landscape into segments that have similar use and
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in management requirements. The delineation of such
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar) information for the development of resource plans, but
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have in small areas.
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use In Flagler County, a ground-penetrating radar (GPR)
or require different management. These are contrasting system and hand transfers were used to document the
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small type and variability of soils occurring within map units
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps (10, 11, 13). The GPR system was successfully used on
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions all the soils to detect the presence of major soil
of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit horizons or other soil features, to determine their
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been variability, and to measure their depth. In Flagler
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the County, 325 random transects were made with the GPR
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so and by hand. Information from notes and ground-truth
complex that it was impractical to make enough observations made in the field were used, along with
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the radar data from this study, to classify the soils and to
landscape. determine the composition of map units. The map units,
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units," are
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data. based on this data.



















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication palmetto, maidencane, pineland threeawn, gallberry,
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of bluestem, panicum, and sedges.
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general This map unit makes up about 18,952 acres, or
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it about 7 percent of the county. It is about 37 percent
consists of one or more major soils and some minor Pineda soils, 25 percent Winder soils, 18 percent
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making Riviera soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
up one unit can occur in another but in a different Pineda soils are poorly drained and are in sloughs
pattern, and low areas on flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 1
The general soil map can be used to compare the percent. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, fine sand about 10 inches thick. The upper part of the
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. subsoil is brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of 19
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for inches and yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of 24
planning the management of a farm or field or for inches. A layer of grayish brown fine sand about 2
selecting a site for a road or a building or other inches thick is between the upper and lower parts of the
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from subsoil. The lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of 33
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other inches, is light gray fine sandy loam that has tongues of
characteristics that affect management. grayish brown fine sand. It is gray fine sandy loam to a
depth of 40 inches. The underlying material is dark gray
Soils on Flatwoods loamy fine sand to a depth of 47 inches and greenish
The five general soil map units in this group consist gray loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
dominantly of nearly level, poorly drained and very Winder soils are poorly drained and are in low
poorly drained soils. Some of the soils are sandy flatwood areas. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
throughout. Some soils are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
inches or less and are loamy below that depth. Other about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
soils are clayey throughout. The map units make up brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The upper part of
about 221,721 acres, or about 71 percent of the county. the subsoil is grayish brown sandy loam to a depth of
about 25 inches. It is mixed with tongues of fine sand
1. Pineda-Winder-Riviera from the overlying subsurface layer. The lower part of
the subsoil is gray, light gray, and greenish gray sandy
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils clay loam to a depth of about 58 inches. The underlying
that are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches or less and material to a depth of 80 inches or more is greenish
are loamy below that depth gray sandy loam.
This map unit consists mainly of soils on low Riviera soils are poorly drained and very poorly
flatwoods and in sloughs interspersed with scattered drained. They are in low areas on flatwoods and in
areas of swamps and depressional areas that are depressions. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Typically, the
ponded for long periods. It is in the northwestern and surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick.
southwestern parts of the county north of Lake Disston. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of 28 inches. It
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent, is gray fine sand in the upper part and is light gray and
The overstory vegetation on these soils consists of grayish brown fine sand in the lower part. The upper
slash pine, longleaf pine, cabbage palm, scattered part of the subsoil, to a depth of 35 inches, is gray fine
baldcypress, sweetgum, red maple, and water oak. The sandy loam that has tongues of light gray fine sand.
understory vegetation consists of native shrubs, saw The lower part of the subsoil is gray sandy clay loam to








12 Soil Survey


a depth of 51 inches. The underlying material is gray inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine
loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. sand about 10 inches thick. The upper part of the
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are subsoil is brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of about
Chobee, Favoretta, and Wabasso soils. Chobee and 19 inches and yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of
Favoretta soils are near drainageways and are on flood about 24 inches. A layer of grayish brown fine sand
plains. Wabasso soils are on broad flatwoods and have about 2 inches thick is between the upper and lower
an organic-stained subsoil. parts of the subsoil. The lower part of the subsoil, to a
Most areas of this map unit are used for commercial depth of 33 inches, is light gray fine sandy loam that
woodland. Some areas are used for woodland grazing, has tongues of grayish brown fine sand. The lower part
A small acreage has been cleared and seeded to of the subsoil is gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 40
improved pasture. A few areas have been drained, inches. The underlying material is dark gray loamy fine
cleared, and used for cultivated crops. The soils in this sand to a depth of about 47 inches and greenish gray
map unit are well suited to the commercial production of loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
slash pine. They are moderately suited to cultivated EauGallie soils are poorly drained and are on broad
crops. Wetness is the major limitation. flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Typically,
the surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches
2. Wabasso-Pineda-EauGallie thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a
depth of 22 inches. The subsoil is black and dark
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are underlain by reddish brown fine sand that is well coated with organic
loamy material; some are sandy to a depth of less than material to a depth of about 33 inches, dark brown to
20 inches over a yellowish, iron-stained subsoil, and brown fine sand to a depth of about 45 inches, light
some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches over a gray fine sand to a depth of about 56 inches, and light
dark, organic-stained subsoil gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about 70 inches. The
This map unit consists mostly of soils in low, broad substratum is light gray loamy fine sand to a depth of
flatwood areas that are interspersed with sloughs. It is 80 inches or more.
in the south-central and west-central parts of the county The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Gator,
east of Crescent Lake. Slopes range from 0 to 2 Hicoria, Malabar, and Riviera soils. Gator and Hicoria
percent. soils are in depressions. They are very poorly drained.
The natural vegetation on these soils consists of Malabar soils are in low areas on the flatwoods. Riviera
slash pine, longleaf pine, cabbage palm, and water oak. soils are in low areas and depressions. They are poorly
The understory vegetation consists of saw palmetto, drained and very poorly drained.
gallberry, pineland threeawn, panicum, and bluestem. Most areas of this map unit are used for the
The dominant vegetation in the depressions and commercial production of pine trees and for woodland
swamps consists of cypress, bay, red maple, gum, and grazing for cattle. A few areas have been cleared and
other hardwoods, seeded to improved pasture. Some small acreages
This map unit makes up about 67,390 acres, or have been drained and used for cultivated crops. The
about 22 percent of the county. It is about 35 percent soils in this map unit are well suited to the commercial
Wabasso soils, 25 percent Pineda soils, 20 percent production of slash pine. They are moderately suited to
EauGallie soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent, cultivated crops. Wetness is the major limitation.
Wabasso soils are poorly drained and are on broad
flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Typically, 3. Myakka-Smyrna-Valkaria
the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 4
inhe subsurface layer is lights gray fine Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are underlain by
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine material some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40
sand to a depth of about 15 inches and gray fine sand sandy material; some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40
sand to a depth of about 15 inches and gray fine sand inches or less over a dark, organic-stained subsoil, and
to a depth of about 22 inches. The upper part of the some are sandy to a depth of less than 20 inches over a
subsoil is black fine sand to a depth of 30 inches. The h irn ind subsoil
lower part of the subsoil extends to a depth of about 53 yellowish, iron-stained subsoil
inches and is dark gray and gray fine sandy loam in the This map unit, which is the largest in the county,
upper part and dark gray loamy fine sand in the lower consists of soils on broad flatwoods that are
part. The underlying material is greenish gray loamy interspersed with depressional areas and small swamps
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. that are ponded for long periods of time. It is in the
Pineda soils are poorly drained and are in sloughs eastern part of the county west of the coastal sand
and on low flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent, ridges and is in the southwestern part of the county
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3 east of Disston Lake. A small area extends from north








Flagler County, Florida 13


of Espanola to the St. Johns County line. Slopes range improved pasture. Most areas in the eastern part are
from 0 to 2 percent. used for urban development, although some small
The natural vegetation on these soils consists of areas are used as commercial woodland. The soils in
slash pine, longleaf pine, and scattered areas of this map unit are moderately suited to the commercial
waxmyrtle. The understory vegetation consists of saw production of trees, are well suited to pasture, and are
palmetto, gallberry, pineland threeawn, bluestem, and moderately suited to cultivated crops. Wetness is the
panicum. In the depressions and swamps, the major limitation.
vegetation consists of cypress, bay, and mixed
hardwoods with an understory of St. Johnswort, 4. Pomona-Malabar
maidencane, and cordgrass.
This map unit makes up about 77,336 acres, or Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are underlain by
about 25 percent of the county. It is about 34 percent loamy material below a depth of 40 inches; some are
Myakka and similar soils, 29 percent Smyrna and sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches over a dark, organic-
similar soils, 16 percent Valkaria soils, and 21 percent stained subsoil, and some are sandy to a depth of less
soils of minor extent, than 20 inches over a yellowish, iron-stained subsoil
Myakka soils are poorly drained and are on broad This map unit consists of soils on broad flatwoods
flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Typically, and low flatwoods interspersed with scattered
the surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches depressions and swamps that are ponded for long
thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand about 19 periods. It is mainly in the north-central and southern
inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of about 31 inches, parts of the county. A small area is in the central part of
is black fine sand in the upper part and dark reddish the county near Bunnell, and another small area is in
brown fine sand in the lower part. The next layer the western part of the county along the Putnam County
extends to a depth of about 40 inches and is dark line. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
yellowish brown fine sand. The underlying material to a The natural vegetation on these soils consists of
depth of 80 inches or more is fine sand. It is brown in slash pine, longleaf pine, water oak, cabbage palm,
the upper part and light gray in the lower part. scattered maple, and sweetgum. The understory
Smyrna soils are poorly drained and are in broad vegetation consists of saw palmetto, gallberry,
areas on the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 maidencane, pineland threeawn, chalky bluestem,
percent. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand panicum, and lopsided indiangrass. The vegetation in
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray and the depressions and swamps consists of cypress, bay,
light gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is gum, maple, and other hardwoods.
dark reddish brown fine sand to a depth of 21 inches. This map unit makes up about 28,469 acres, or
The next layer, to a depth of 50 inches, is brown fine about 8 percent of the county. It is about 48 percent
sand. Gray fine sand extends to a depth of 70 inches, Pomona and similar soils, 32 percent Malabar and
and very dark gray fine sand extends to a depth of 80 similar soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
inches or more. Pomona soils are poorly drained and are in broad
Valkaria soils are poorly drained and are on low flats areas on the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2
and in low areas connecting depressions in the percent. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand
flatwoods. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Typically, the about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine
surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 6 inches sand about 17 inches thick. The upper part of the
thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about subsoil is black loamy fine sand to a depth of about 28
11 inches thick. The subsoil is brownish yellow and inches and dark reddish brown fine sand to a depth of
yellow fine sand to a depth of about 38 inches. The about 50 inches. The lower part of the subsoil is grayish
underlying layer is gray fine sand to a depth of 80 brown fine sandy loam to a depth of about 63 inches.
inches or more. The underlying material is dark grayish brown fine
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
EauGallie, Immokalee, and Pomona soils on the Malabar soils are poorly drained and are in low areas
flatwoods. Small areas of Basinger, Hontoon, Placid, St. on the flatwoods. Typically, the surface layer is black
Johns, and Samsula soils are in depressions and fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
swamps. The soils are very poorly drained, gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of
Most areas of this map unit in the northern and the subsoil is yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of
southwestern parts of the county are used as about 30 inches. Gray and grayish brown fine sand
commercial woodland. Some small areas in the extends to a depth of about 60 inches, and grayish
southwestern part are used for sod farming and for brown sandy clay loam extends to a depth of 80 inches








14 Soil Survey


or more. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. flood plains. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Typically, the
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are surface layer is very dark gray clay about 12 inches
Basinger, EauGallie, Hicoria, Myakka, Wabasso, and thick. The subsoil is dark gray and gray clay to a depth
Valkaria soils. Basinger and Hicoria soils are in of about 66 inches and light brownish gray clay to a
depressions. Hicoria soils are very poorly drained, depth of 80 inches or more.
EauGallie, Myakka, and Wabasso soils are in broad The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Gator,
areas on the flatwoods. Valkaria soils are on low flats Hicoria, Pineda, and Riviera soils. Gator and Hicoria
and in low areas that connect depressions in the soils are in depressions. They are very poorly drained.
flatwoods. Pineda soils are in sloughs and on low flatwoods.
Most areas of this map unit are used for the Riviera soils are on low flatwoods and in depressions.
commercial production of pine trees and for woodland Most areas of this map unit are used for the
grazing for cattle. Some small areas are used as commercial production of pine trees. Some small areas
improved pasture. Some areas in the vicinity of Bunnell are used for row crops and as improved pasture. The
have been cleared and used for urban development, soils in this map unit are poorly suited to the
The soils in this map unit are well suited to the commercial production of trees, to cultivated crops, and
commercial production of trees and to woodland grazing to improved pasture. Flooding, wetness, and the high
for cattle. Wetness is the main limitation, content of clay in the soils are the major limitations.

5. Winder-Favoretta Soils on Inland and Coastal Wetlands
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained The six general soil map unts in this group consist of
soils; some are sandy to a depth of less than 20 inches nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
and are loamy below that depth, and some are clayey soils. The coastal wetlands, whichare donated by
throughout organic soils, are in the tidal marshes near the Atlantic
throughout
coast. The inland wetlands are on the flood plains and
This map unit consists mainly of soils on narrow to in the large swamps, marshes, and poorly defined
broad, low flatwoods near major streams and drainageways that are throughout the county. The map
drainageways in the western part of the county. The units make up about 52,602 acres, or about 16 percent
areas near the streams and drainageways are subject of the county.
to flooding. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
The natural vegetation on these soils consists of 6. Samsula-Hontoon
water oak, cabbage palm, sweetgum, slash pine, and
red maple and a few scattered areas of bay and Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some are organic.
cypress. The understory consists of scattered saw to a depth of 16 to 51 inches and are sandy below that
palmetto, bluestem, pineland threeawn, maidencane, depth, and some are organic to a depth of 51 inches or
gallberry, panicum, and sedges. more
This map unit makes up about 29,574 acres, or This map unit consists mainly of soils along
about 9 percent of the county. It is about 58 percent drainageways in wetland swamps, marshes, and
Winder and similar soils, 18 percent Favoretta and depressions on the flatwoods. The largest areas of this
similar soils, and 24 percent soils of minor extent. map unit are in the northwestern parts of the county.
Winder soils are poorly drained and are in low Some small areas are in the north-central and
flatwood areas, on flood plains, and in drainageways. southeastern parts of the county. Slopes are 0 to 1
Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Typically, the surface layer is percent.
very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The The natural vegetation is mainly cypress, bay, and
subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand about 5 other hardwoods. The understory vegetation consists of
inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is grayish maidencane, sawgrass, St. Johnswort, greenbrier,
brown sandy loam to a depth of about 25 inches. It is sedges, and water-tolerant grasses.
mixed with tongues of grayish brown fine sand from the This map unit makes up about 16,316 acres, or
overlying subsurface layer. The lower part of the subsoil about 6 percent of the county. It is about 55 percent
is gray, light gray, and greenish gray sandy clay loam to Samsula soils, 20 percent Hontoon soils, and about 25
a depth of about 58 inches. The underlying material to a percent soils of minor extent.
depth of 80 inches or more is greenish gray sandy Samsula soils are very poorly drained and are in
loam. depressions. Slopes are less than 1 percent. Typically,
Favoretta soils are poorly drained and are in low the surface soil is muck. It is about 31 inches thick. It is
flatwood areas near streams and drainageways and on dark reddish brown in the upper 10 inches and is black







Flagler County, Florida 15


in the lower 21 inches. The underlying material, to a thick. The subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand
depth of 80 inches, is fine sand. The upper 10 inches is to a depth of 22 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth
very dark gray, the following 9 inches is grayish brown, of 50 inches. The upper 13 inches is dark grayish
and the lower 30 inches is light brownish gray. brown fine sandy loam that has tongues of light gray
Hontoon soils are very poorly drained and are in fine sand, the next 5 inches is dark grayish brown
depressions. Slopes are less than 1 percent. Typically, sandy clay loam, and the lower 10 inches is gray sandy
the surface soil is muck. It is more than 80 inches thick. clay loam. The next layer is dark grayish brown fine
It is dark reddish brown in the upper 25 inches and is sandy loam about 10 inches thick. The underlying
black in the lower 55 inches. material is light brownish gray loamy sand to a depth of
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are 80 inches or more.
Basinger, Placid, and St. Johns soils. These minor soils Gator soils are very poorly drained and are in
did not form in organic material. They are usually along depressions. Typically, the surface soil is muck to a
the outer margin of depressional areas. depth of about 26 inches. The upper part is black, and
Most areas of this map unit support the natural the lower part is very dark gray. The underlying material
vegetation and are used for wildlife habitat. The map is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of
unit is not suited to the commercial production of pine about 29 inches, dark gray fine sandy loam to a depth
trees. Wetness is the major limitation. In some areas of about 49 inches, and gray sandy clay loam to a
cypress and other hardwoods are harvested during depth of 80 inches or more.
extended dry periods. The soils of minor extent in this map unit are
Basinger, Favoretta, Hontoon, Samsula, and Winder
7. Hicoria-Riviera-Gator soils. Basinger, Favoretta, and Winder soils formed in
Nearly level, poorly drained and vey poorly drained mineral materials. They are on the outer edges of the
soils; some have a thick or thin dark sandy or mucky swamps and depressions. Hontoon and Samsula soils
surface layer over a loamy subsoil, and some have a are in depressions. Hontoon soil formed in organic
thick layer of muck over a loamy substratum layers more than 80 inches thick, and Samsula soils
formed in organic layers less than 52 inches thick.
This map unit consists mainly of very poorly drained Most areas of this map unit support the natural
soils in swamps and depressions on the flatwoods. vegetation and are used for wildlife habitat. In some
These areas are ponded for long periods. The map unit areas hardwoods are harvested during extended dry
is mainly in the northwestern part of the county, but a periods. This map unit is poorly suited or is generally
small area is in the center of the county, about 5 miles not suited to the commercial production of trees.
west of Bunnell. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Wetness is the major limitation.
The natural vegetation on these soils consists of
cypress, red maple, sweetgum, and waxmyrtle and 8. Placid-Basinger-St. Johns
scattered areas of slash pine and water oak. The
understory vegetation consists of sawgrass, Nearly level, very poorly drained sandy soils; some have
maidencane, needlegrass, fern, sedges, and other a thick or thin dark surface layer over a dark organic-
water-tolerant grasses, stained subsoil, and some have a thick dark-colored
This map unit makes up about 8,583 acres, or about surface layer over sandy underlying material
3 percent of the county. It is about 45 percent Hicoria
soils, 25 percent Riviera soils, 18 percent Gator soils, This map unit consists of soils in swamps,
and 12 percent soils of minor extent. depressions, and poorly defined drainageways on the
Hicoria soils are very poorly drained and are in flatwoods. It is mainly in the northeastern part of the
depressions. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Typically, the county north of Bunnell, but a small area is in the
surface soil is about 20 inches thick. It is black mucky southeastern part of the county west of Favoretta.
fine sand in the upper 10 inches and very dark gray fine Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
sand in the lower 10 inches. The subsurface layer is The natural vegetation on these soils consists of
dark gray fine sand to a depth of 32 inches. The subsoil pondcypress, red maple, sweetgum, and swamp elm.
is gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about 55 inches The understory vegetation consists of sawgrass,
and is gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or maidencane, sedges, iris, waxmyrtle, and greenbrier.
more. This map unit makes up about 5,949 acres, or about
Riviera soils are very poorly drained and are in 1 percent of the county. It is about 55 percent Placid
depressions. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Typically, the soils, 25 percent Basinger soils, 15 percent St. Johns
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 3 inches soils, and 5 percent soils of minor extent.








16 Soil Survey


Placid soils are very poorly drained and are in maidencane, and a few water-tolerant sedges and
depressions and narrow drainageways. Slopes are 0 to grasses.
1 percent. Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about This map unit makes up about 8,752 acres, or about
15 inches thick. It is black in the upper 8 inches and 3 percent of the county. It is about 55 percent Favoretta
very dark gray in the lower 7 inches. The underlying soils, 35 percent Chobee soils, and 10 percent soils of
material, to a depth of about 80 inches, is grayish minor extent.
brown fine sand in the upper part, light brownish gray Favoretta soils are very poorly drained and are along
fine sand in the next part, and light gray fine sand in the drainageways and on flood plains. Slopes range from 0
lower part. to 2 percent. Typically, the surface layer is very dark
Basinger soils are very poorly drained and are in gray clay about 12 inches thick. The subsoil is dark
depressions. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Typically, the gray and gray clay to a depth of about 66 inches and is
surface layer is black fine sand about 2 inches thick, light brownish gray clay to a depth of 80 inches or
The subsurface layer is about 27 inches thick. It is light more.
gray fine sand in the upper part and grayish brown fine Chobee soils are very poorly drained and are along
sand in the lower part. The subsoil is dark yellowish drainageways and on flood plains. Slopes range from 0
brown and grayish brown fine sand about 21 inches to 2 percent. Typically, the surface layer is about 10
thick. The underlying material is pale brown fine sand to inches thick. The upper part is black loamy fine sand,
a depth of about 80 inches. and the lower part is very dark gray loamy fine sand.
St. Johns soils are very poorly drained and are in The subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam to a depth of
depressions. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Typically, the about 25 inches and is gray sandy clay loam to a depth
surface layer is black fine sand about 10 inches thick. of 55 inches. The underlying material, to a depth of 80
The subsurface layer is gray fine sand about 15 inches inches or more, is gray fine sandy loam.
thick. The subsoil is very dark grayish brown fine sand The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Pineda,
to a depth of about 39 inches and dark yellowish brown Riviera, Samsula, and Winder soils. Pineda soils are
fine sand to a depth of about 54 inches. The underlying poorly drained and are on low flatwoods. Riviera and
material is dark gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches Winder soils are on low flatwoods and in depressions.
or more. Samsula soils formed in organic material in
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are depressions.
Hontoon, Samsula, and Valkaria soils. Hontoon and Most areas of this map unit support the natural
Samsula soils formed in organic material in vegetation and are used for wildlife habitat. In some
depressions. They are very poorly drained. Valkaria areas natural stands of hardwoods are commercially
soils are in low areas between depressions. They are harvested. These areas are allowed to reseed
poorly drained, themselves naturally. The soils in this map unit are
Most areas of this map unit support the natural poorly suited to the commercial production of trees.
vegetation and are used for wildlife habitat. In some Flooding and wetness are the major limitations.
areas hardwoods are harvested from natural stands
during extended dry periods. The soils in this map unit 10. Turnbull-Pellicer
are poorly suited to the commercial production of trees.
Wetness and flooding are the major limitations. Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are subject to
frequent tidal flooding; some have an organic surface
9. Favoretta-Chobee layer underlain by loamy and sandy material, and some
are loamy and clayey throughout
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are frequently This map unit consists of soils in the very poorly
flooded; some have a sandy surface less than 20 inches drained tidal marshes along the Atlantic coastline, which
thick and are underlain by loamy material, and some are are inundated by saltwater twice daily during high tides.
clayey throughout The marshes are flooded by storm-driven tides during
This map unit is made up of frequently flooded soils hurricanes and severe weather conditions. Slopes are
in the freshwater swamps on the flood plains of Haw less than 1 percent.
Creek, Black Branch, and Sweetwater Branch. Slopes The natural vegetation on these soils consists of
range from 0 to 2 percent, needlegrass rush, seashore saltgrass, smooth
The natural vegetation on these soils consists of red cordgrass, bushy seaoxeye, marshy cordgrass,
maple, sweetgum, swamp ash, water oak, cabbage glasswort, and bigleaf sumpweed.
palm, and baldcypress. The understory vegetation This map unit makes up about 5,949 acres, or about
consists of waxmyrtle, greenbrier, sawgrass, 1 percent of the county. It is about 42 percent Turnbull








Flagler County, Florida 17


soils, 37 percent Pellicer soils, and 21 percent soils of about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
minor extent, brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The upper part of
Turnbull soils are very poorly drained and are in the the subsoil is grayish brown sandy loam to a depth of
tidal marshes. Slopes are less than 1 percent. Typically, 25 inches. It has tongues of grayish brown fine sand
the surface layer is very dark gray muck about 8 inches mixed from the overlying subsurface layer. The lower
thick. The underlying material is olive gray clay to a part of the subsoil is gray, light gray, and greenish gray
depth of 42 inches and is gray loamy fine sand to a sandy clay loam to a depth of about 58 inches. The
depth of 80 inches. underlying material is greenish gray sandy loam to a
Pellicer soils are very poorly drained and are in the depth of 80 inches or more.
tidal marshes. Slopes are less than 1 percent. Typically, Most areas of this map unit support the natural
the surface layer is very dark grayish brown silty clay vegetation and are used for wildlife habitat. Flooding
loam about 10 inches thick. The underlying material is and wetness are the major limitations for other uses.
dark gray clay loam to a depth of 50 inches, dark gray
sandy clay to a depth of 55 inches, and dark gray fine Soils on Sand Ridges and Coastal Dunes
sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. The five general map units in this group consist
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Terra mainly of excessively drained to somewhat poorly
Ceia soils, which formed in organic material. They are drained, nearly level to sloping soils on ridges and
subject to tidal flooding. slopes adjacent to well defined drainageways and
Most areas of this map unit support the natural coastal areas. These soils are sandy throughout. Some
vegetation and are used for wildlife habitat. Flooding have a dark, organic-stained subsoil layer, and some
and wetness are the major limitations for other uses. have a elastic rock subsoil layer. They generally are
along the Atlantic coast, but small areas are north of
11. Terra Ceia-Winder Espanola in the north-central part of the county and
border St. Johns County in the northeast. The map
Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained soils units make about 31,362 acres, or about 10 percent of
that are frequently flooded; some are organic to a depth the county.
of 51 inches or more, and some are sandy to a depth of
less than 20 inches and are loamy below that depth 12. Orsino-Astatula-Tavares
This map unit consists mainly of soils in broad,
swampy areas on the flood plains along lakes and Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained and
streams. It is mainly along Crescent Lake and Dead moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout
Lake, along the southwestern part of Lake Disston, and This map unit consists of soils on narrow sand ridges
on the flood plain along Haw Creek. Slopes range from west of the intracoastal waterway and on the adjoining
0 to 2 percent. sand ridges that extend from St. Johns County in the
The natural vegetation on these soils consists of northern part of the county. Slopes range from 0 to 8
sweetgum, red maple, cypress, bay, and cabbage palm. percent.
Some areas do not have trees, but they support a The natural vegetation on these soils consists of
dense growth of marsh vegetation consisting mostly of sand pine, scrub live oak, turkey oak, and blackjack oak
sawgrass. and scattered areas of slash pine and longleaf pine.
This map unit makes up about 7,053 acres, or about The understory vegetation consists of saw palmetto,
2 percent of the county. It is about 60 percent Terra pineland threeawn, bluestem, indiangrass, panicum,
Ceia soils, 25 percent Winder soils, and 15 percent and paspalum.
soils of minor extent. This map unit makes up about 8,752 acres, or about
Terra Ceia soils are very poorly drained and are on 3 percent of the county. It is about 30 percent Orsino
flood plains. Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent. and similar soils, 28 percent Astatula and similar soils,
Typically, the soil is muck. It is more than 80 inches 22 percent Tavares and similar soils, and 20 percent
thick. The upper 25 inches is dark reddish brown. Below soils of minor extent.
that depth, black muck extends to a depth of 80 inches Orsino soils are moderately well drained and are on
or more. moderately high ridges and knolls. Slopes range from 0
Winder soils are poorly drained and are on flood to 5 percent. Typically, the surface layer is grayish
plains and in depressions. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand layer is white fine sand about 9 inches thick. The








18 Soil Survey


subsoil, to a depth of 49 inches, is brown fine sand. It This map unit makes up 12,918 acres, or about 4
has common tongues of white fine sand in the upper percent of the county. It is about 36 percent Cassia and
part and is pale brown fine sand in the lower part. The similar soils, 32 percent Pomello and similar soils, 10
underlying layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of 80 percent Orsino soils, and 22 percent soils of minor
inches. extent.
Astatula soils are excessively drained and are on Pomello soils are moderately well drained and are on
high ridges and knolls. Slopes range from 0 to 8 moderately high ridges and knolls. Slopes range from 0
percent. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish to 5 percent. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray
brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
material is very pale brown fine sand to a depth of 80 light gray fine sand about 36 inches thick. The subsoil,
inches or more. to a depth of about 66 inches, is very dark brown fine
Tavares soils are moderately well drained and are on sand in the upper 14 inches and is very dark gray fine
narrow to broad ridges and knolls. Slopes range from 0 sand in the lower 11 inches. The underlying material, to
to 5 percent. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine a depth of 80 inches, is grayish brown fine sand in the
sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying material is upper part and gray fine sand in the lower part.
pale brown and very pale brown sand about 46 inches Cassia soils are somewhat poorly drained and are on
thick. It has a few fine faint brownish yellow mottles and low ridges and knolls. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
pockets of white fine sand below a depth of 32 inches. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
From a depth of 46 to 80 inches is white fine sand that about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray and
has a few distinct yellow and strong brown mottles. white fine sand about 21 inches thick. The subsoil, to a
Similar soils are Adamsville, Cassia, and Paola soils. depth of 42 inches, is very dark brown fine sand in the
Adamsville and Cassia soils are somewhat poorly upper 10 inches and dark yellowish brown fine sand in
drained. Paola soils have a yellowish brown subsoil. the lower 6 inches. The underlying material is pale
The soils of minor extent are Bulow and Cocoa soils, brown fine sand to a depth of 69 inches and is light
which are underlain by coquina limestone at a depth of brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
20 to 60 inches. more.
Many areas of this map unit are used for the Orsino soils are moderately well drained and are on
commercial production of pine trees. Some areas are moderately high ridges and knolls. Slopes range from 0
used for residential development. Other areas have to 5 percent. Typically, the surface layer is grayish
been cleared and are used as improved pasture and for brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface
hay. Some large areas in the northern part of the layer is white fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
county support the natural vegetation and are used for subsoil, to a depth of 49 inches, is brown fine sand. It
wildlife habitat. The soils in this map unit are has common tongues of white fine sand in the upper
moderately suited to the production of trees. The soils part and is pale brown fine sand in the lower part. The
are sandy, and droughtiness is the main limitation, underlying layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of 80
inches.
13. Pomello-Cassia-Orsino Similar soils in this map unit are Adamsville and
Tavares soils. Adamsville soils are on low knolls.
Nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained Tavares soils are on slightly higher knolls. Soils of
and somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy minor extent in this map unit are Bulow, Cocoa,
throughout; some have an organic-stained layer at a Immokalee, Myakka, and Paola soils. Bulow and Cocoa
depth of 20 to 50 inches soils are underlain by coquina limestone. Immokalee
This map unit consists mainly of soils on low ridges and Myakka soils are poorly drained. Paola soils are on
and knolls in the flatwoods and on coastal ridges. It is high knolls.
mainly west of Graham Swamp. Some other areas are Most areas of this map unit are used for residential
along the Atlantic coastline at Bonn Terra and north of development. Some small areas still support the natural
Espanola. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent, vegetation. The area north of Espanola is used mainly
The natural vegetation on these soils consists of for the production of pine, but small areas support the
sand live oak, laurel oak, sand pine, slash pine, longleaf natural vegetation and are used for woodland grazing.
pine, and turkey oak. The understory consists of The soils in this map unit are moderately suited to
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, building site development. Wetness is the main
runner oak, and saw palmetto. limitation.








Flagler County, Florida 19


14. Palm Beach-Narcoossee-Welaka slopes of primary dunes and high knolls. Slopes range
from 2 to 5 percent. Typically, the surface layer is dark
Nearly level to sloping, well drained to excessively gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface
drained, somewhat poorly drained and well drained soils; layer is light gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
some are sandy and have shell fragments throughout, subsoil is brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of about
and some have shell fragments in the substratum below 42 inches. The underlying material is very pale brown
a depth of 40 inches gravelly fine sand to a depth of about 50 inches and is
This map unit consists of soils on narrow, rolling light gray very gravelly fine sand to a depth of 80 inches
sandy ridges that are interspersed with narrow swales. or more.
The ridges and swales are elongated and are generally The soils of minor extent in this map unit are
parallel to the Atlantic coastline. The ridges form the Myakka, Orsino, and Paola soils. These soils are not
primary dunes adjacent to the ocean beach and the underlain by materials that have a high content of shell
relict dunes farther inland. The slopes in the ridges are fragments within a depth of 80 inches.
complex. They range from 0 to 8 percent. The slopes in Some areas of this map unit, along the primary sand
the swales range from 0 to 2 percent, dunes, have been preserved. They support the natural
The overstory vegetation consists of dwarf live oak, vegetation and are used for wildlife habitat. Because
scrub oak, shore bay, cabbage palm, eastern redcedar, this map unit contains attractive beaches, it is used
longleaf pine, slash pine, and sand pine. The extensively for recreation and urban development. The
understory vegetation consists of yaupon holly, saw soils generally have slight to moderate limitations for
palmetto, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, and runner oak building site development. Wetness is the main
and scattered areas of rosemary and sea oats. limitation for the Narcoossee soils.
This map unit makes up 2,805 acres, or about 1
percent of the county. It is about 31 percent Palm 15. Paola-Pomello-Cocoa
Beach soils, 10 percent Narcoossee soils, 5 percent
Welaka soils, and 54 percent soils of minor extent. Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained to moderately
Palm Beach soils are well drained to excessively well drained soils that are sandy throughout; some have
drained and are on primary sand dunes. Slopes range a dark, organic-stained subsoil, and some have a grayish
from 0 to 8 percent. Typically, the surface layer is and brownish sandy surface soil underlain by coquina
grayish brown gravelly sand about 4 inches thick. It rock
contains about 15 percent sand-sized shell fragments. This map unit consists of soils on narrow, rolling, low
The underlying layer is light brownish gray gravelly ridges and knolls that are interspersed with narrow
sand that has about 15 percent shell fragments to a swales. The ridges are old relict sand dunes and are
depth of about 22 inches, pale brown very gravelly sand generally parallel to the coastline. The map unit is
that has about 40 percent sand-sized shell fragments to mainly west of the intracoastal waterway, south of
a depth of about 47 inches, and light gray extremely Flagler Beach and west of Graham Swamp. Another
gravelly sand to a depth of 80 inches. It is about 75 large area is west of the primary sand dunes at
percent, by volume, shell fragments. Washington Oaks Garden State Park and Marineland.
Narcoossee soils are somewhat poorly drained and Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent.
are on swales and low knolls. Slopes range from 0 to 2 The natural vegetation on these soils consists of
percent. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray cabbage palm, laurel oak, live oak, longleaf pine, pignut
fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is hickory, and sand pine and scattered areas of turkey
fine sand about 14 inches thick. It is gray in the upper 2 oak, scrub live oak, southern magnolia, and southern
inches and is light gray in the lower 12 inches. The redcedar. The understory vegetation consists of
subsoil extends to a depth of 41 inches. The upper part creeping bluestem, dogfennel, iron bush, panicum,
is dark brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper pineland threeawn, rosemary, saw palmetto, and wild
2 inches of the subsoil is weakly expressed and is grapes.
discontinuous in 20 to 25 percent of the pedons. The This map unit makes up about 6,887 acres, or about
lower part of the subsoil is brown fine sand about 18 2 percent of the county. It is about 54 percent Paola
inches thick. The underlying material is light gray and similar soils, 19 percent Pomello soils, 17 percent
extremely gravelly fine sand and gravelly fine sand. It is Cocoa soils, and 10 percent soils of minor extent.
stratified with layers of light gray fine sand to a depth of Paola soils are excessively drained and are on high
more than 80 inches. knolls and ridges. Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent.
Welaka soils are well drained and are on secondary Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 6
and primary sand dunes and also on the lower back inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand,









20


about 10 inches thick, that tongues into the underlying 16. Favoretta-Tuscawilla
horizon. The subsoil is yellowish brown fine sand to a
depth of 31 inches. The underlying material is yellowish Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches. soils; some have a sandy surface layer less than 20
Pomello soils are moderately well drained and are on inches thick and are loamy below that depth, and some
moderately high knolls and ridges. Slopes range from 0 are clayey throughout
to 5 percent. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray This map unit consists mainly of soils on a narrow,
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is hardwood hydric hammock that runs parallel to the
light gray fine sand about 36 inches thick. The subsoil, Atlantic coastline and is about 1 mile inland. It consists
to a depth of about 66 inches, is very dark brown fine mainly of poorly drained areas that are interspersed
sand in the upper 14 inches and very dark gray fine with numerous very poorly drained depressional areas,
sand in the lower 11 inches. The underlying material to which are ponded for long periods of time, and poorly to
a depth of about 80 inches is grayish brown fine sand in well defined drainageways, which are periodically
the upper part and is gray fine sand in the lower part. flooded. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Cocoa soils are well drained and are on narrow The natural vegetation on these soils consists mainly
coastal ridges. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent, of deciduous hardwoods, such as American hornbeam,
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand about pignut hickory, red maple, sweetgum, and southern
3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is pale brown sand magnolia. Other trees include cabbage palm, laurel oak,
about 13 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is longleaf pine, slash pine, and water oak. The
reddish yellow sand to a depth of 29 inches. The lower understory vegetation consists of bluestem,
part of the subsoil is yellowish red loamy sand to a maidencane, panicum, pineland threeawn, saw
depth of about 35 inches. Coquina limestone is at a palmetto, sedges, and waxmyrtle.
depth of about 35 inches, but the depth varies from This map unit makes up about 8,414 acres, or about
about 20 to 40 inches within a short distance. 3 percent of the survey area. It is about 52 percent
Similar soils are Adamsville, Astatula, and Tavares Favoretta soils, 32 percent Tuscawilla soils, and 16
soils. Adamsville and Tavares soils are in the lower percent soils of minor extent.
areas. Astatula soils do not have a light-colored Favoretta soils are very poorly drained. Slopes are
subsurface layer. The soils of minor extent are Bimini, less than 1 percent. Typically, the surface layer is very
Bulow, Cassia, and Orsino soils. Bimini soils have dark gray clay about 12 inches thick. The subsoil is
shells in the substratum. Bulow soils are underlain by dark gray and gray clay to a depth of 66 inches and is
limestone below a depth of 42 inches. Cassia and light brownish gray clay to a depth of 80 inches or
Orsino soils have an organic-stained subsoil or a high- more.
chroma subsoil. Tuscawilla soils are poorly drained. Slopes are 0 to 1
Most areas of this map unit support the natural percent. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand
vegetation and are used for wildlife habitat. Some areas about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray
are used for homesites. A few areas have been cleared fine sand about 7 inches thick. The upper part of the
and are used for improved pasture. A large area in the subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about
northeastern part of the county is used for Washington 25 inches. The lower part of the subsoil is gray sandy
Oaks State Garden Park and Marineland. Some areas clay loam that is mixed with shells and calcium
west of Graham Swamp are used for the commercial carbonate nodules to a depth of about 45 inches. The
production of pine trees. The soils in this map unit are underlying layer is gray loamy fine sand that is mixed
well suited to building site development, are moderately with shells and calcium carbonate nodules to a depth of
suited to the production of trees, and are poorly suited 60 inches and light gray gravelly fine sandy loam that
to pasture. Droughtiness is the main limitation for the has about 20 percent shells and nodules to a depth of
production of trees or for pasture. 80 inches or more.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are
Soils on a Low-Lying Hammock EauGallie, Pineda, Pomona, Wabasso, and Winder
The general soil map unit in this group consists of soils. These soils are poorly drained. They are in low
nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained flatwood areas.
soils. Some have a sandy surface layer less than 20 Most areas of this map unit support the natural
inches thick and are loamy below that depth. Others are vegetation and are used as wildlife habitat.
clayey throughout. This map unit makes up about 8,414 Wetness and flooding are the main limitations for other
acres, or about 3 percent of the county. uses.








21









Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area. made up of all of them. Favoretta, Chobee, and Winder
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soils, frequently flooded, is an undifferentiated group in
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and this survey area.
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
used to plan the management needed for those uses. other than those for which the map unit is named.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given Some of these included soils have properties that differ
under the heading "Use and Management of the Soils." substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents differences could significantly affect use and
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils for which the unit is named. soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes a special symbol on the soil maps.
general facts about the soil and gives the principal This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for areas have little or no soil material and support little or
specific uses. no vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the be shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils maps.
of a series have major horizons that are similar in Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
composition, thickness, and arrangement. of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into 2-Riviera fine sand. This very deep, nearly level,
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed poorly drained soil is in broad to narrow, low areas on
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil the flatwoods. Individual areas of this soil are irregular
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or in shape. They range from 3 to 700 acres in size.
management. Slopes are smooth and are less than 2 percent.
Some map units are made up of two or more major In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Riviera fine
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or sand, Riviera and similar soils make up 84 to 96
undifferentiated groups, percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 4 to
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such 16 percent.
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar 28 inches. It is gray fine sand in the upper part and light
in all areas. Pineda-Wabasso complex is an example. gray and grayish brown fine sand in the lower part. The
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 35 inches, is
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped gray fine sandy loam that has tongues of light gray fine
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made sand. The lower part of the subsoil is gray sandy clay
for use and management. The pattern and proportion of loam to a depth of 51 inches. The underlying material is
the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can gray loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.








22 Soil Survey


Some areas contain soils that are similar to the Riviera from a fully stocked stand of trees 25 years old. The
soil but have a surface layer more than 8 inches thick main management concerns for producing and
or have a brown or pale brown sandy layer above the harvesting timber are the equipment limitation, the
subsoil. seedling mortality rate, the windthrow hazard, and plant
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small competition. Planting on beds helps to overcome the
areas of Favoretta, EauGallie, and Wabasso soils. They limitations caused by the excessive wetness. Although
are in landscape positions similar to those of the Riviera conventional methods of harvesting timber generally
soil. Favoretta soils are clayey throughout. EauGallie can be used, their use can be limited during rainy
and Wabasso soils have an organic-stained layer in the seasons. The use of equipment during wet periods can
subsoil. cause soil compaction. Using special equipment, such
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to as high-flotation rubber tires or crawler machinery, can
18 inches for as much as 6 months during most years. reduce the equipment limitation. Site preparation, such
It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during as chopping, applying herbicide, and bedding, reduces
long dry periods. Permeability is slow or very slow. debris, reduces immediate plant competition, and
Available water capacity is low. facilitates hand and mechanical planting. Other good
Most areas are used for woodland or for the management practices include the selection of
production of vegetable crops. A few areas are used for appropriate species, restricted burning, and a
pasture and hay. The natural vegetation consists of harvesting system that leaves residual biomass
slash pine, longleaf pine, cabbage palm, scattered distributed throughout the site.
baldcypress, sweetgum, water oak, and red maple. The This soil is well suited to range and grazeable
understory vegetation consists of gallberry, woodland. It has a moderate to high potential for the
maidencane, saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, and production of native forage. The dominant plants
bluestem. suitable for grazing include chalky bluestem, creeping
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The bluestem, indiangrass, and panicum. This soil is in the
main limitations are excessive wetness and poor soil North Florida Flatwoods range site.
quality. Irish potatoes and cabbage are the main crops This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
grown. Proper row management, lateral ditches or tiles, basements, local roads and streets, and small
and well constructed outlets help to remove the excess commercial buildings because of the wetness caused
surface water. A furrow irrigation system is suited to this by the seasonal high water table. If suitable outlets are
soil. Land grading and smoothing improve the surface available, shallow surface drainage can help to remove
drainage, allow a more uniform application of irrigation the excess water. Suitable fill material can be used to
water, and permit the more efficient use of farm elevate building sites and increase the effective depth
equipment. Returning all of the crop residue to the soil to the water table. The limitations are severe for shallow
and including grasses, legumes, or grass-legume excavations because cutbacks are unstable and
mixtures in the crop rotation help to conserve moisture, excavations fill with water when the water table is high.
maintain fertility, and control erosion. Frequent Shoring sidewalls of excavations can help to prevent
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for the caving. Installing dewatering wells can lower the water
best yields. table and help to overcome the wetness. The wetness
With good water-control management, this soil is well and the slow permeability in the subsoil are severe
suited to pasture. The main limitations are a result of limitations for septic tank absorption fields. Using
the wetness. Excessive water on the surface can be suitable fill to mound the absorption field can help to
removed by using field ditches and tile drains. Grasses overcome these limitations. The seepage and the
and legumes grow well if adequate fertilizer is used. wetness are severe limitations for sewage lagoons and
The low available water capacity limits the production of trench-type sanitary landfills. Lining the lagoons and
plants during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants, trenches with impervious soil material can reduce the
such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, tolerate excess seepage. Water-control measures should be
drought conditions better if they are properly fertilized used to remove the excess surface and ground water.
and limed. Proper stocking rates, a system of pasture The wetness, the slow permeability in the subsoil,
rotation, and the timely deferment of grazing help to and the sandy surface are severe limitations for
keep the pasture in good condition, recreational development. This soil remains wet for long
This soil is well suited to the production of slash pine. periods because water percolates through it slowly. The
Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean site index for installation of a water-control system that removes
slash pine is 80. The potential for commercial excess water can reduce the wetness caused by the
production of pulpwood is 42 cords per acre harvested seasonal high water table and the slow permeability.








Flagler County, Florida 23


The trafficability of the sandy surface layer is poor in areas of Basinger soils and other mineral soils that
areas of high use as a result of the loose, unstable have a loamy subsoil. Basinger soils are sandy
sand. Planting a vegetative cover, adding mulch or throughout and do not have the surface layer of muck.
suitable topsoil, or constructing paved areas can help to These dissimilar soils are usually along the outer
overcome the limitations caused by the sandy surface margin of depressional areas.
layer. In most years, undrained areas of this map unit are
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland, ponded for 6 months or more. The water table is
woodland, and wetland wildlife is fair. Areas of this soil ponded as much as 24 inches above the surface,
provide nesting sites, den sites, and food and cover for except during long dry periods. The permeability of the
a diverse and numerous wildlife population. Many larger Samsula and Hontoon soils is rapid. The available
animals are found in areas where this soil joins other water capacity is moderate in the Samsula soil and very
ecological communities. Areas of this soil are well high in the Hontoon soil.
suited to deer, quail, bobcat, skunk, opossum, and Most areas of this map unit are used for wildlife
raccoon. Other species typically include cottontail habitat. The natural vegetation consists of bay and
rabbit, fox squirrel, gray fox, and a variety of birds, cypress and scattered areas of red maple and
reptiles, and amphibians. sweetgum. The understory vegetation consists of
This Riviera soil is in capability subclass llw. The maidencane, sawgrass, greenbrier, sedges, ferns, and
woodland ordination symbol is 10w. The ecological other water-tolerant grasses.
community is North Florida Flatwoods. In their natural state, these soils are poorly suited to
cultivated crops. Because the map unit is typically in the
3-Samsula and Hontoon soils, depressional. flatwoods, adequate water outlets for drainage are not
These very deep, nearly level, very poorly drained soils generally available or are difficult to install.
are in depressions on the flatwoods. Individual areas This map unit is poorly suited to pasture. The main
are circular to irregular in shape. They range from 3 to limitations are the excessive wetness and the ponding.
6,000 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave. Water stands above the surface for long periods.
They are less than 2 percent, although they are mainly Because the map unit is in a low position on the
less than 1 percent. landscape, adequate drainage is difficult to establish.
Hontoon, Samsula, and similar soils make up 85 to This map unit is generally not suited to the
99 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas commercial production of pine trees. Some areas are
mapped as Samsula and Hontoon soils, depressional. suited to the production of cypress and hardwoods, but
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 15 percent, harvesting and planting are more effective during
Generally, the mapped areas are about 60 percent extended dry periods. The main management concern
Samsula and similar soils and 33 percent Hontoon and is the water table, which is above the surface for much
similar soils. Each of the soils is not present in every of the year. The ponding and the high content of
mapped area, and the relative proportion of the soils is organic matter in the surface layer prevent the use of
variable. Although individual areas of the soils are large heavy equipment. The high water table will kill planted
enough to map separately, they were mapped as one seedlings. Outlets are generally not present in these
unit based upon the present and predicted uses. areas, and drainage is not practical.
Typically, the surface soil of the Samsula soil is This map unit is poorly suited to range or grazeable
muck. It is about 31 inches thick. It is dark reddish woodland. Water covers the surface of the soil for long
brown in the upper 10 inches and black in the lower 21 periods of time. The growth of forage suitable for use by
inches. The underlying material, to a depth of 80 cattle is limited by the excessive wetness and the dense
inches, is fine sand. The upper 10 inches is very dark shade caused by thick stands of cypress hardwoods.
gray, the next 9 inches is grayish brown, and the lower This map unit is not assigned to a range or grazeable
30 inches is light brownish gray. Some areas contain woodland site.
soils that are similar to Samsula muck but are mineral The excessive wetness and the low strength are
soils that have a thin layer of organic material or are severe limitations for dwellings without basements, local
mineral soils that have a thick, dark surface layer. roads and streets, and small commercial buildings.
Typically, the muck layer of the Hontoon soil is more Because the map unit is in a low position on the
than 80 inches thick. It is dark reddish brown in the landscape, overcoming these limitations is difficult.
upper 25 inches and black in the lower 55 inches. Outlets needed for water control are often not readily
Some areas contain soils that are similar to the available. The organic layers have low strength and
Hontoon muck but have a higher soil reaction. cannot support a heavy load. Removing the organic
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small layers and using fill to elevate the building sites and









24 Soil Survey


roadbeds can help to overcome the wetness and the loam in the upper part and dark gray loamy fine sand in
low strength. The limitations are severe for shallow the lower part. The underlying material is greenish gray
excavations because cutbanks are unstable, the content loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. Some
of organic matter is high, and water stands on the areas contain soils that are similar to the Wabasso soil
surface. Shoring the sidewalls of excavations prevents but have a very weakly expressed upper subsoil layer.
caving. The installation of water-control measures that The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small
remove the excess surface water and ground water areas of Malabar and Riviera soils, and also included
helps to overcome the limitations caused by wetness, are areas of soils that have a thick, dark surface layer.
The ponding and the poor filtering of effluent are severe The soils are in landscape.positions similar to those of
limitations for septic tank absorption fields. Using the Wabasso soil. Malabar and Riviera soils do not
suitable fill to mound absorption fields can help to have an organic-stained layer in the upper part of the
overcome these limitations. Because the map unit is in subsoil.
a low position on the landscape, large amounts of fill The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to
may be required to adequately elevate the absorption 18 inches for as much as 3 months during most years.
field. This map unit is unsuited to sewage lagoons and It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during dry
trench-type sanitary landfills. The seepage, the high periods. Permeability is slow or very slow. The available
content of organic matter, and ponding are severe water capacity is low.
limitations. Most areas are used for the commercial production of
The limitations for recreational development are pine trees. A few areas are used for improved pasture
severe because water stands above the surface of the and vegetable crops. A small acreage is used as sites
soil for long periods and because the surface of the soil for homes. The natural vegetation consists mostly of
contains too much organic matter. Water-control slash pine, cabbage palm, water oak, and longleaf pine.
measures and the stabilization of the surface can help The understory vegetation consists of saw palmetto,
to overcome these limitations. During dry seasons, gallberry, pineland threeawn, and bluestem.
blowing dust produced by the high content of organic This soil is moderately suited to most cultivated
matter is a hazard. crops. The main limitations are the wetness and the
The potential of this map unit as habitat for openland poor soil quality. By installing a good water-control
and woodland wildlife is poor or very poor and for system, a variety of vegetable crops can be grown. Irish
wetland wildlife is good. The dense vegetative cover potatoes and cabbage are the main crops grown. If
provides good cover and fair sources of food. This map suitable outlets are available, lateral ditches and tile
unit supports a large variety of wildlife. It is especially drains can be used to lower the water table. A furrow
well suited to waterfowl, reptiles, amphibians, and many irrigation system is suited to this soil. Irrigation is
birds. Other species include black bear, bobcat, deer, generally feasible in most areas where irrigation water
gray squirrel, otter, and raccoon. is readily available. Land grading and smoothing
This map unit is in capability subclass Vllw. The improve the surface drainage, allow a more uniform
woodland ordination symbol is 6w. The ecological application of irrigation water, and permit the more
community is Swamp Hardwoods. efficient use of farm equipment. Returning all of the
crop residue to the soil and including grasses, legumes,
4-Wabasso fine sand. This very deep, nearly level, or grass-legume mixtures in the crop rotation help to
poorly drained soil is in broad flatwood areas. Individual maintain fertility and tilth. Most crops respond well to
areas of this soil are irregular in shape. They range applications of complete fertilizer. Lime is generally
from 4 to 200 acres in size. Slopes are smooth and necessary. Soil blowing is a hazard in cultivated areas.
range from 0 to 2 percent. It can be controlled with a good ground cover of close-
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Wabasso fine growing plants.
sand, Wabasso and similar soils make up 84 to 95 This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The main
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 5 to limitations are the wetness and the poor soil quality.
16 percent. Excessive water on the surface can be removed by
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine using surface ditches. The low available water capacity
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light limits the production of plants during extended dry
gray fine sand to a depth of about 15 inches and gray periods. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal
fine sand to a depth of about 22 inches. The upper part bermudagrass and bahiagrass, tolerate drought
of the subsoil is black fine sand to a depth of 30 inches, conditions better if they are properly fertilized and limed.
The lower part of the subsoil extends to a depth of Proper stocking rates, a system of pasture rotation, and
about 53 inches. It is dark gray and gray fine sandy the timely deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture








Flagler County, Florida 25


in good condition. Applications of fertilizer and lime are sewage lagoons and trench-type sanitary landfills.
necessary for the optimum growth of grasses and Lining the lagoons and trenches with impervious soil
legumes, material can reduce the excess seepage. Water-control
This soil is well suited to the production of slash pine. measures should be used to remove the excess surface
Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean site index for and ground water.
slash pine is 80. The potential for commercial The wetness, the slow permeability in the subsoil,
production of pulpwood is 42 cords per acre harvested and the sandy surface are severe limitations for
from a fully stocked stand of trees 25 years old. The recreational development. This soil remains wet for long
main management concerns for producing and periods because water runs through it slowly. The
harvesting timber are the equipment limitation, the installation of a water-control system that removes
seedling mortality rate, and plant competition. The excess water can reduce the wetness caused by the
sandy texture of the surface layer and the wetness limit seasonal high water table and the slow permeability.
the use of equipment. After harvesting, reforestation The trafficability of the sandy surface layer is poor in
must be carefully managed to reduce competition from areas of high use as a result of the loose, unstable
undesirable understory plants. Competing vegetation sand. Planting a vegetative cover, adding mulch or
can be controlled by proper site preparation that suitable topsoil, or constructing paved areas can help to
eliminates unwanted weeds, brush, or trees. Planting on overcome the limitations caused by the sandy surface
beds helps to overcome the limitations caused by the layer.
excessive wetness. Although conventional methods of The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
harvesting timber generally can be used, their use can wetland wildlife is poor and for woodland wildlife is fair.
be limited during rainy periods. Using special Areas of this soil provide nesting sites, den sites, and
equipment, such as high-flotation rubber tires or crawler food and cover for a diverse and numerous wildlife
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods can population. Many larger animals are found in areas
reduce the equipment limitation. Harvesting during dry where this soil joins other ecological communities.
periods reduces soil compaction and minimizes root Areas of this soil are well suited to deer, quail, bobcat,
damage during thinning operations. Special site skunk, opossum, and raccoon. Other species typically
preparation, such as chopping and bedding, helps to include cottontail rabbit, fox squirrel, gray fox, and a
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality rate, variety of birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
and increases early plant growth. Other good This Wabasso soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
management practices include selecting appropriate woodland ordination symbol is 10w. The ecological
species and leaving debris onsite to conserve organic community is North Florida Flatwoods.
matter.
This soil is well suited to range and grazeable 5-Pineda-Wabasso complex. These very deep,
woodland. It has a moderate to high potential for nearly level, poorly drained soils are on broad, low flats
producing native forage. The dominant plants suitable on the flatwoods. The Wabasso soil is in a slightly
for grazing include chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, higher position on the landscape than the Pineda soil.
indiangrass, and panicum. This soil is in the North Individual areas of this complex are irregular in shape.
Florida Flatwoods range site. They range from 5 to 600 acres in size. Slopes are
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
basements, local roads and streets, and small In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Pineda-
commercial buildings because of the wetness caused Wabasso complex, Pineda, Wabasso, and similar soils
by the seasonal high water table. If suitable outlets are make up 87 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
available, shallow surface drainage can help to remove soils make up 1 to 13 percent.
the excess water. Suitable fill material can be used to Generally, the mapped areas are about 52 percent
elevate building sites and increase the effective depth Pineda and similar soils and 42 percent Wabasso and
to the water table. The wetness is a severe limitation for similar soils. The components of this map unit are so
shallow excavations. Excavations fill with water when small or so intricately intermingled that they could not
the water table is high. Installing dewatering wells can be mapped separately at the scale used. The
lower the water table and help to overcome the proportions and the patterns of the soils and similar
wetness. The wetness, the slow permeability, and the soils are relatively consistent in most delineations of the
poor filtering of effluent are severe limitations for septic map unit.
tank absorption fields. Using suitable fill to mound the Typically, the surface layer of the Pineda soil is about
absorption field can help to overcome these limitations. 3 inches thick. It is very dark gray fine sand. The
The seepage and the wetness are severe limitations for subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of 12









26 Soil Survey


inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 56 inches. In maintain fertility, and control erosion. Frequent
sequence downward, it is yellowish brown and brown applications of fertilizer and lime are generally needed
fine sand, grayish brown fine sand, gray sandy clay for the best yields.
loam that has light gray tongues from the overlying With good water-control management, this map unit
layer, and greenish gray sandy clay loam. The is well suited to pasture. The main limitations are a
substratum is greenish gray fine sandy loam to a depth result of the wetness. Excessive water can be removed
of 80 inches or more. Some areas contain soils that are by using field ditches and tile drains. Grasses and
similar to the Pineda soil but in which the depth to the legumes grow well if adequate fertilizer is used. The low
subsoil is more than 24 inches. available water capacity limits the production of plants
Typically, the surface layer of the Wabasso soil is during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants, such
very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, tolerate
subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand about drought conditions better if they are properly fertilized
18 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is dark and limed. Proper stocking rates, a system of pasture
reddish brown fine sand to a depth of 30 inches. The rotation, and the timely deferment of grazing help to
lower part of the subsoil is about 27 inches thick. It is keep the pasture in good condition.
brown sandy clay loam in the upper part and light This map unit is well suited to the production of slash
brownish gray fine sandy loam in the lower part. The pine. Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean site
underlying material, to a depth of about 80 inches, is index for slash pine is 80 for both soils. The potential
greenish gray loamy fine sand. Some areas contain for commercial production of pulpwood is 42 cords per
soils that are similar to the Wabasso soil but have a acre harvested from a fully stocked stand of trees 25
loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches, years old. The main management concerns for
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small producing and harvesting timber are the equipment
areas of Favoretta and Winder soils in landscape limitation, the seedling mortality rate, and plant
positions similar to those of the Pineda and Wabasso competition. Planting on beds helps to overcome the
soils. Favoretta soils are clayey throughout. Winder limitations caused by the excessive wetness. Although
soils have a loamy subsoil above a depth of 20 inches. conventional methods of harvesting timber generally are
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to suitable, the soil may be compacted if heavy equipment
18 inches for as much as 6 months. It can recede to a is used when the soil is wet. Using special equipment,
depth of more than 40 inches during extended dry such as high-flotation rubber tires or crawler machinery,
periods. Permeability is slow or very slow. Available and harvesting during dry periods can reduce the
water capacity is low. equipment limitation. Site preparation, such as
Most areas of this map unit are used for the chopping, burning, applying herbicide, and bedding,
commercial production of pine trees. Large areas are reduces debris, reduces immediate plant competition,
used for cultivated crops or as pasture. The natural and facilitates hand and mechanical planting. Other
vegetation consists of an open forest of longleaf pine or good management practices include the selection of
slash pine, scattered cabbage palm, and saw palmetto. appropriate species, restricted burning, and a
The Wabasso soil has a more dense growth of saw harvesting system that leaves debris onsite to conserve
palmetto than the Pineda soil. The understory organic matter.
vegetation consists of pineland threeawn, bluestem, This map unit is well suited to range and grazeable
gallberry, sedges, and maidencane. woodland. The tree and shrub vegetation on the Pineda
This map unit is moderately suited to cultivated soil is less dense than the vegetation on the Wabasso
crops. The main limitations are excessive wetness and soil and in the surrounding flatwood areas. The canopy
poor soil quality. By installing a good water-control is more open, and grasses, such as maidencane and
system, Irish potatoes, cabbage, and a variety of other chalky bluestem, are the main forage species. When
vegetable crops can be grown. Proper row well managed, this map unit has the potential to
management, lateral ditches or tiles, and well produce a large amount of forage. The Pineda soil is in
constructed outlets help to remove the excess surface the Slough range site, and the Wabasso soil is in the
water. A furrow irrigation system is suited to this map North Florida Flatwoods range site.
unit. Land grading and smoothing improve the surface This map unit has severe limitations for dwellings
drainage, allow a more uniform application of irrigation without basements, local roads and streets, and small
water, and permit the more efficient use of farm commercial buildings because of the wetness caused
equipment. Returning all of the crop residue to the soil by the seasonal high water table. If suitable outlets are
and including grasses, legumes, or grass-legume available, shallow surface drainage can help to remove
mixtures in the crop rotation help to conserve moisture, the excess water. Suitable fill material can be used to








Flagler County, Florida 27


elevate building sites and increase the effective depth the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 7 percent.
to the water table. The limitations are severe for shallow Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray clay
excavations because cutbanks are unstable and about 12 inches thick. The subsoil is dark gray and gray
excavations fill with water when the water table is high. clay to a depth of 66 inches and light brownish gray
Shoring sidewalls of excavations can help to prevent clay to a depth of 80 inches or more. Some areas
caving. Installing dewatering wells can lower the water contain soils that are similar to the Favoretta soil but
table and help to overcome the wetness. The wetness, have a thin, light surface layer of loamy fine sand or
the slow permeability, and the poor filtering of effluent very fine sandy loam. Other areas contain soils that
are severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields, have a surface layer 2 to 4 inches in thickness.
Using suitable fill to mound the absorption field can help The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small
to overcome these limitations. The seepage and the areas of Favoretta soils in depressions. These wet
wetness are severe limitations for sewage lagoons and areas have water above the soil surface for more than 6
trench-type sanitary landfills. Lining the lagoons and months in most years.
trenches with impervious soil material can reduce the The seasonal high water table is within a depth of 12
excess seepage. Water-control measures should be inches for 4 to 6 months during most years. During
used to remove the excess surface and ground water. extended dry seasons, it recedes to below a depth of
The wetness, the slow permeability in the subsoil, 40 inches. Permeability is very slow. Available water
and the sandy surface are severe limitations for capacity is moderate to high.
recreational development. This map unit remains wet Most areas are used for the commercial production of
for long periods because water percolates through the pine trees. Some areas are used for vegetable crops
soils very slowly. The installation of a water-control and as improved pasture. The natural vegetation
system can reduce the wetness caused by the seasonal consists of water oak, cabbage palm, laurel oak,
high water table and the slow permeability. The sweetgum, and red maple. The understory vegetation
trafficability of the sandy surface layer is poor in areas consists of waxmyrtle, saw palmetto, bluestem, pineland
of high use as a result of the loose, unstable sand. threeawn, maidencane, sedges, and panicum.
Planting a vegetative cover, adding mulch or suitable This soil is moderately suited to vegetable crops. The
topsoil, or constructing paved areas can help to main limitations are the wetness and the poor soil
overcome the limitations caused by the sandy surface quality. When good water-control and soil-improving
layer. measures are applied, this soil is well suited to most
The potential as habitat for openland and wetland cultivated crops. Suitable crops include cabbage,
wildlife is fair and for woodland wildlife is poor on the cucumbers, peppers, and squash. Good tilth is difficult
Pineda soil. The potential as habitat for openland and to maintain because of the fine texture. The soil can be
wetland wildlife is poor and for woodland wildlife is fair worked only within a narrow range in moisture content.
on the Wabasso soil. Areas of this map unit are good A drainage system is needed to grow most cultivated
sources of food for bobwhite quail, deer, and wading crops and pasture plants. If suitable outlets are
birds. This map unit produces poor cover for most available, lateral ditches and tile drains can be used to
wildlife species, but the adjacent flatwoods produce lower the water table. Irrigation is generally feasible in
good escape routes and an edge effect. Other species most areas where irrigation water is readily available. A
include fox, rabbit, opossum, and a variety of birds, well designed and managed sprinkler irrigation system
reptiles, and amphibians. helps to maintain optimum soil moisture and ensure the
This map unit is in capability subclass IIIw. The highest possible yields. Land grading and smoothing
woodland ordination symbol is 10w. The ecological improve the surface drainage, allow a more uniform
community for the Pineda soil is Slough and for the application of irrigation water, and permit the more
Wabasso soil is North Florida Flatwoods. efficient use of farm equipment. Returning all of the
crop residue to the soil and including grasses, legumes,
6-Favoretta clay. This very deep, nearly level, or grass-legume mixtures in the crop rotation help to
poorly drained soil is in narrow to broad flatwood areas maintain fertility and tilth. Most crops and pasture plants
near major streams and drainageways. It is subject to respond well to applications of complete fertilizer. Soil
rare flooding. Individual areas are irregular in shape. blowing is a hazard in cultivated areas. It can be
They range from 10 to more than 500 acres in size. controlled with a good ground cover of close-growing
Slopes are smooth to concave and are less than 1 plants.
percent. This soil is well suited to pasture. The main limitation
In 95 percent of the mapped as Favoretta clay, is the wetness. The excessive water on the surface can
Favoretta and similar soils make up 93 to 99 percent of be removed by using surface ditches. The wetness








28 Soil Survey


limits the choice of plants and the period of grazing. permeability are severe limitations for septic tank
The main suitable pasture plants are bermudagrass, absorption fields. Using suitable fill to mound the
bahiagrass, and clover. Proper stocking rates, a system absorption fields can help to overcome the wetness.
of pasture rotation, and the timely deferment of grazing Excavating the clayey soil material and backfilling with
help to keep the pasture in good condition. Periodic suitable fill material may also be needed to ensure the
mowing and clipping help to maintain uniform growth, proper functioning of the system. The wetness is a
discourage selective grazing, and reduce clumpy severe limitation for sewage lagoons and trench-type
growth. Applications of fertilizer are needed for the sanitary landfills. Water-control measures that maintain
optimum growth of grasses and legumes, the seasonal high water table at a lower depth can help
This soil is well suited to the commercial production to overcome the wetness.
of pine trees. Slash pine or loblolly pine are the The wetness, the slow permeability, and the high
recommended trees to plant. The wetness limits the use content of clay in the surface layer are severe
of equipment. Using special equipment, such as rubber limitations for recreational development. The seasonal
tires or crawler machinery, and harvesting during dry high water table at or near the surface of the soil
periods can reduce the equipment limitation. Harvesting causes the excessive wetness. Because of the very
during dry periods reduces soil compaction and slow permeability, the soil dries out slowly. The
minimizes root damage during thinning operations. installation of a well designed water-control system can
Planting on beds helps to overcome the limitations help to overcome these limitations. The high content of
caused by the excessive wetness. Only those trees that clay in the surface layer results in poor trafficability
can tolerate seasonal wetness should be planted. Site during wet seasons and can create a hazard of blowing
preparation, such as chopping, burning, applying dust during dry seasons. Using vegetation and mulch or
herbicide, and bedding, reduces debris, reduces constructing paved areas can help to overcome these
immediate plant competition, and facilitates hand and limitations.
mechanical planting. Special site preparation, such as The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
harrowing and bedding (or double bedding), helps to woodland wildlife is fair and for wetland wildlife is good.
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality rate, Areas of this soil provide some of the most productive
and increases early plant growth. Harvesting systems and diverse wildlife habitat in the county. The
that remove all of the tree biomass from a site will hardwoods provide good food and cover for a number
reduce the fertility of that site. A logging system that of species. The animals generally include wild hogs,
leaves residual logging biomass distributed over the site deer, turkey, black bear, gray squirrel, woodpeckers,
is preferred. owls, and reptiles.
This soil is highly suited to grazeable woodland. The This Favoretta soil is in capability subgroup IIIw. The
dominant forage includes chalky bluestem, maidencane, woodland ordination is 6w. The ecological community is
indiangrass, and various species of panicum and Wetland Hardwood Hammock.
sedges.
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without 7-Favoretta, Chobee, and Winder soils, frequently
basements, local roads and streets, and small flooded. These very deep, nearly level, poorly drained
commercial buildings. A drainage system is needed to and very poorly drained soils are in drainageways and
overcome the wetness. Fill material is needed to make on flood plains along major streams on the flatwoods.
this soil suitable for most urban uses. The low strength These soils are frequently flooded during wet seasons.
is a limitation in areas where this soil is used for roads, Individual areas range from elongated to irregular in
streets, or buildings. The subsoil shrinks and swells shape. They range from 20 to more than 1,000 acres in
excessively as the moisture content changes. Roads size. Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0
and streets can be built if they are designed to to 2 percent.
compensate for the instability of the subsoil. Buildings Favoretta, Chobee, Winder, and similar soils make
and roads can be designed to offset the effects of up 93 to 99 percent of the map unit in 90 percent of the
shrinking and swelling. If buildings are constructed on areas mapped as Favoretta, Chobee, and Winder soils,
this soil, properly designed foundations and footings frequently flooded. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 7
and the diversion of runoff away from buildings help to percent.
prevent the structural damage that results from Generally, the mapped areas are 48 percent
shrinking and swelling. The wetness is a severe Favoretta and similar soils, 28 percent Chobee and
limitation for shallow excavations. Water-control similar soils, and 21 percent Winder and similar soils.
measures are needed to keep the excavations from The soils do not occur in a regular and repeating
filling with water. The wetness and the very slow pattern. Each of the soils is not present in every








Flagler County, Florida 29


mapped area, and the relative proportion of the soils is tolerant sedges and grasses. Most areas of this map
variable. Although individual areas of the soils are large unit are used as wildlife habitat. The natural-growth
enough to map separately, they were mapped as one hardwoods are harvested in some areas.
unit based upon the present and predicted uses. In their natural state, these soils are generally
Typically, the surface layer of the Favoretta soil is unsuited to most cultivated crops because of the high
very dark gray clay about 10 inches thick. The subsoil content of clay, the flooding, and the excessive wetness
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is dark gray (fig. 5). Water-control measures that include protection
clay in the upper 28 inches, gray clay in the next 30 from flooding can help to overcome these limitations.
inches, and light brownish gray clay to a depth of 80 In their natural state, these soils are poorly suited to
inches or more. Some areas contain soils that are improved pasture grasses. By installing a water-control
similar to the Favoretta soil but in which the black or system that includes protection from flooding, these
very dark gray surface layer is more than 24 inches soils have moderate suitability. The main suitable
thick or is less than 7 inches thick, pasture plants are bahiagrass, bermudagrass, and
Typically, the surface layer of the Chobee soil is clover. Proper stocking rates, a system of pasture
about 10 inches thick. The upper part is black loamy rotation, and the timely deferment of grazing help keep
fine sand, and the lower part is very dark gray loamy pasture and soil in good condition. Applications of
fine sand. The subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam to a fertilizer are needed for the optimum growth of grasses
depth of about 25 inches and gray sandy clay loam to a and legumes.
depth of 55 inches. The underlying material, to a depth This map unit is poorly suited to the commercial
of 80 inches or more, is gray fine sandy loam. Some production of pine trees because of the flooding and the
areas contain soils that are similar to the Chobee soil excessive wetness. Pine seedlings will be killed or
but have a gray surface layer. seriously stunted by flood water or by a water table that
Typically, the surface layer of the Winder soil is black is at or near the surface of the soil for long periods of
loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer time. The high content of organic matter or clay in the
is gray loamy sand to a depth of 10 inches. The upper surface layer restricts the use of equipment. The map
part of the subsoil, to a depth of 25 inches, is gray unit may be suited to cypress and hardwoods. Although
sandy clay loam that has tongues of gray loamy sand. trees are harvested from areas, regrowth is a result of
The lower part of the subsoil is gray sandy clay loam to natural regeneration rather than the planting of
a depth of 50 inches. The substratum, to a depth of 80 seedlings. A source of desirable seedlings may not be
inches or more, is gray sandy clay loam that has readily available. Harvesting during extended dry
accumulations of light gray calcium carbonate. Some periods helps to overcome the limitations.
areas contain soils that are similar to the Winder soil This map unit is poorly suited to range or grazeable
but have a black or very dark gray surface layer more woodland. The dominant forage includes sawgrass,
than 7 inches thick. sedges, and ferns. The dense canopy restricts the
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small growth of plants suitable for forage. Areas of this map
areas of Gator and Pineda soils. They are in landscape unit are used by cattle for shade during summer months
positions similar to those of the Favoretta, Chobee, and and for shelter during bad weather. This map unit is not
Winder soils. Gator soils have a surface layer, that assigned to a range site.
formed in organic material. Pineda soils have a loamy This map unit has severe limitations for urban
subsoil below a depth of 20 inches. development. The main limitations are the flooding, the
In most years, areas of this map unit are flooded for excessive wetness, the slow permeability in the subsoil,
1 month or more during periods of high rainfall. The and the moderate or high shrink-swell potential. Major
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0 to 6 inches flood control structures and an extensive local drainage
for 6 months or more. During extended dry periods, it is system are needed to protect this map unit from
at a depth of more than 40 inches. Permeability is very flooding. Roads, streets, and building sites should be
slow in the Favoretta soil and slow or very slow in the elevated with fill material to overcome the wetness.
Chobee and Winder soils. Available water is moderate Special designs can be used to offset the effects of
to high in the Favoretta soil, moderate in the Chobee shrinking and swelling. Septic tank absorption fields
soil, and low to moderate in the Winder soil. need to be mounded to overcome the wetness and the
Most areas of this map unit support the natural slow permeability.
vegetation, which includes red maple, sweetgum, water If this map unit is used for recreational development,
oak, cabbage palm, and baldcypress. The understory the high content of clay, the flooding, and the excessive
vegetation is sparse and consists of waxmyrtle, wetness are the main limitations. Because the
greenbrier, sawgrass, maidencane, and a few water- permeability is slow or very slow, the soils dry out very








30 Soil Survey












































Figure 5.-An area of Favoretta, Chobee, and Winder soils, frequently flooded. This map unit has severe limitations for most uses because
of the flooding.



slowly. Protection from flooding is needed when this map unit is especially well suited to waterfowl, reptiles,
map unit is used for camp areas and playgrounds. amphibians, and mammals. Species include deer, gray
Trafficability limitations on the Favoretta soil are a result squirrel, otter, raccoon, and black bear.
of the high content of clay. They can be overcome by This map unit is in capability subclass VIw. The
establishing suitable vegetation or by constructing woodland ordination symbol is 6w for the Favoretta and
paved areas. Chobee soils and is 11w for the Winder soil. The
The potential of this map unit as habitat for openland ecological community is Swamp Hardwoods.
and woodland wildlife is fair and for wetland wildlife is
good. The dense hardwood vegetation provides a good 8-Hicoria, Riviera, and Gator soils, depressional.
source of food and cover. The animals in this unit are These very deep, nearly level, very poorly drained soils
adapted to wet conditions and to periodic flooding. The are in depressions on the flatwoods. Individual areas








Flagler County, Florida 31


are circular to irregular in shape. They range from 3 to organic-stained layer in the subsoil. Basinger soils are
1,500 acres in size. Undrained areas are ponded for 6 sandy throughout.
to 9 months or more each year. Slopes are concave In most years, undrained areas of this map unit are
and range from 0 to 1 percent. ponded, and as much as 24 inches of water is above
Hicoria, Riviera, Gator, and similar soils make up 75 the surface for 6 months or more except during
to 96 percent of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas extended dry periods. Permeability is slow and
mapped as Hicoria, Riviera, and Gator soils, moderately slow in the Hicoria soil and is slow and very
depressional. Dissimilar soils make up 4 to 25 percent. slow in the Riviera and Gator soils. The available water
Generally, the mapped areas are about 41 percent capacity is moderate to high in the Hicoria soil, low in
Hicoria and similar soils, 25 percent Riviera and similar the Riviera soil, and very high in the Gator soil.
soils, and 19 percent Gator and similar soils. The soils Most areas of this map unit support the natural
do not occur in a regular and repeating pattern. Each of vegetation. Some areas have been filled and are used
the soils is not present in every mapped area, and their for vegetable crops. Most areas are used for wildlife
relative proportion is variable. Although individual areas habitat. The natural-growth hardwoods are harvested in
of the soils are large enough to map separately, they some areas. The natural vegetation consists of a mixed
were mapped as one unit based upon the present and stand of pondcypress, sweet bay, red maple,
predicted uses. sweetgum, waxmyrtle, and water oak. The understory
Typically, the surface soil of the Hicoria soil is about vegetation consists of sawgrass, maidencane,
20 inches thick. It is black mucky fine sand in the upper needlegrass, fern, sedges, and other water-tolerant
10 inches and very dark gray fine sand in the lower 10 grasses.
inches. The subsurface layer is dark gray fine sand to a This map unit is poorly suited to most cultivated
depth of 32 inches. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam crops because of he ponding tha occurs for long
( periods. Because the map unit is typically in the
to a depth of 55 inches and gray fine sandy loam to a periods. Because the map unit is typically in the
flatwoods, adequate water outlets for drainage are not
depth of 80 inches or more. Some areas contain soils d i
generally available or are difficult to install.
that are similar to the Hicoria soil but have a mucky i a i i oorly to pasture. Te
a lThis map unit is poorly suited to pasture. The main
surface layer less than 10 inches thick, limitations are the excessive wetness and the ponding.
Typically, the surface layer of the Riviera soil is very Water stands above the surface for long periods during
dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The a sasns Because the map unit is in a low
subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth rainy seasons. Because the map unit is in a low
subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth position on the landscape, adequate drainage is difficult
of 22 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 50 to establish.
inches. It is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam that This map unit is generally not suited to the
has tongues of light gray fine sand in the upper 13 commercial production of pine trees. Some areas are
inches, dark grayish brown sandy clay loam in the next suited to the production of cypress and hardwoods, but
5 inches, and gray sandy clay loam in the lower 10 harvesting and planting are more effective during
inches. The next layer is dark grayish brown fine sandy extended dry periods. The main management concern
loam about 10 inches thick. The underlying material, to is the water table, which is above the surface for much
a depth of 80 inches or more, is light brownish gray of the year. The ponding and the high content of
loamy sand. Some areas contain soils that are similar to organic matter in the surface layer prevent the use of
the Riviera soil but have a surface layer that is black or heavy equipment. The high water table will kill planted
very dark gray and is 6 or more inches thick. seedlings. Outlets are generally not present in these
Typically, the surface soil of the Gator soil is muck areas, and drainage is not practical.
about 26 inches thick. The upper part is black, and the This map unit is poorly suited to range or grazeable
lower part is very dark gray. The underlying material is woodland. Water covers the surface of the soil for long
dark grayish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of about periods of time. The growth of forage suitable for use by
29 inches, dark gray fine sandy loam to a depth of cattle is limited by the excessive wetness and the dense
about 49 inches, and gray sandy clay loam to a depth shade caused by thick stands of cypress hardwoods.
of 80 inches or more. Some areas contain soils that are This map unit is not assigned to a range site.
similar to the Gator soil and include the Hontoon and The excessive wetness is a severe limitation for
Samsula soils. dwellings without basements, local roads and streets,
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small and small commercial buildings. Water stands above
areas of Favoretta, Wabasso, and Basinger soils. These the surface of the soil for long periods of time, and the
soils are on the outer edge of depressions. Favoretta organic layers have low strength. Because the map unit
soils are clayey throughout. Wabasso soils have an is in a low position on the landscape, overcoming these








32 Soil Survey


limitations is difficult. Outlets needed for water control dark reddish brown fine sand that is well coated with
are often not readily available. Using fill to elevate organic material to a depth of 33 inches, dark brown to
building sites and roadways and removing the organic brown fine sand to a depth of about 45 inches, light
layers can help to overcome the wetness and the low gray fine sand to a depth of 56 inches, and light gray
strength. The limitations are severe for shallow fine sandy loam to a depth of 70 inches. The
excavations because cutbanks are unstable, the content substratum is light gray loamy fine sand to a depth of
of organic matter is high, and water stands on the 80 inches or more. Some areas contain soils that are
surface. Shoring the sidewalls of excavations prevents similar to the EauGallie soil but do not have an organic-
caving. The installation of a water-control system that stained layer in the subsoil. Some soils have a loamy
removes excess surface water can help to overcome subsoil above a depth of 40 inches, and other soils do
the limitations caused by the wetness. The ponding, the not have a loamy subsoil above a depth of 80 inches.
slow permeability, and the poor filtering of effluent are The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small
severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields. areas of Hicoria and Riviera soils in small depressions
Using suitable fill to mound absorption fields can help to or in lower, wet areas. Hicoria soils have a mucky
overcome these limitations. Because the map unit is in surface layer and do not have a organic-stained layer in
a low position on the landscape, large amounts of fill the subsoil. Riviera soils also do not have a organic-
may be required to adequately elevate the absorption stained layer in the subsoil.
field. This map unit is unsuited to sewage lagoons and The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to
trench-type sanitary landfills. The seepage, the excess 18 inches for 2 to 4 months. It is within a depth of 40
humus, and the ponding are severe limitations for these inches for more than 6 months, and it recedes to a
uses. depth of more than 40 inches during extended dry
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational periods. The available water capacity is low.
development. Water stands above the surface of the Permeability is slow to moderate.
soil for long periods, and the surface of the soil is either Most of the areas are used as woodland or support
too sandy or has too much organic matter to use for the natural vegetation. A few areas are used for
recreational purposes. Water-control measures and the cultivated crops, improved pasture, or urban
stabilization of the surface can help to overcome these development. The natural vegetation consists of slash
limitations. During dry seasons, blowing dust produced pine, saw palmetto, cabbage palm, pineland threeawn,
by the organic material is a hazard. panicum, and bluestem grasses.
The potential of this map unit as habitat for openland By applying good water-control and soil-improving
and woodland wildlife is very poor and for wetland measures, this soil is moderately suited to cultivated
wildlife is good. The dense vegetative cover provides crops. It is limited mainly by excessive wetness during
good cover and fair sources of food. This map unit rainy seasons and by poor soil quality. It is drought
supports a large variety of wildlife. It is especially well during dry seasons. A drainage system is needed for
suited to waterfowl, reptiles, amphibians, and many most cultivated crops and pasture plants. If suitable
types of birds. Other species include black bear, outlets are available, lateral ditches and tile drains can
bobcat, deer, gray squirrel, otter, and raccoon. be used to lower the water table. Irrigation is generally
This map unit is in capability subclass VIIw. The feasible in most areas where irrigation water is readily
woodland ordination symbol is 2w for the Hicoria and available. A furrow irrigation system is suited to this soil.
Gator soils and is 3w for the Riviera soil. The ecological Land grading and smoothing improve the surface
community is Swamp Hardwoods. drainage, allow a more uniform application of irrigation
water, and permit the more efficient use of farm
9-EauGallie fine sand. This very deep, nearly level, equipment. Returning all of the crop residue to the soil
poorly drained soil is in broad flatwood areas. Individual and including grasses, legumes, or grass-legume
areas of this soil are irregular in shape. They range mixtures in the crop rotation help to maintain fertility
from 3 to more than 500 acres in size. Slopes are and tilth. Crop residue left on or near the surface helps
smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent, to conserve moisture, maintain tilth, and control erosion.
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as EauGallie fine Soil blowing is a hazard. Most crops and pasture plants
sand, EauGallie and similar soils make up 95 to 99 respond well to applications of complete fertilizer.
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 5 Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are generally
percent, needed to improve soil quality.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6 This soil is moderately suited to the commercial
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine production of pine trees. Based on a 50-year site curve,
sand to a depth of 22 inches. The subsoil is black and the mean site index for slash pine is 80. The potential








Flagler County, Florida 33


for commercial production of pulpwood is 42 cords per topsoil, or constructing paved areas can help to
acre harvested from a fully stocked stand of trees 25 overcome the limitations caused by the sandy surface
years old. The main management concerns for layer.
producing and harvesting timber are the equipment The potential of this soil as habitat for openland,
limitation, the seedling mortality rate, and plant woodland, and wetland wildlife is poor. Areas of this soil
competition. The sandy texture of the surface layer and provide nesting sites, den sites, and food and cover for
the wetness limit the use of equipment. Using special a diverse and numerous wildlife population. Many larger
equipment, such as large rubber tires or crawler animals are found in areas where this soil joins other
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods can ecological communities. Areas of this soil are well
reduce the equipment limitation. Harvesting during dry suited to deer, quail, bobcat, skunk, opossum, and
periods reduces soil compaction and minimizes root raccoon. Other species typically include cottontail
damage during thinning operations. Planting on beds rabbit, fox squirrel, gray fox, and a variety of birds,
helps to overcome the limitations caused by the reptiles, and amphibians.
excessive wetness. The soil often has a very low This EauGallie soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
content of organic matter, and a harvest system that woodland ordination symbol is 10w. The ecological
removes all of the tree biomass from the site reduces community is North Florida Flatwoods.
the fertility of the soil in these areas. A logging system
that leaves residual biomass distributed over the site is 10-Winder fine sand. This very deep, nearly level,
preferred, poorly drained soil is on low flatwoods. Individual areas
This soil is well suited to range and grazeable are irregular in shape. They range from 5 to 2,000
woodland. It has a moderate to high potential for the acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave and are
production of native forage. The dominant plants less than 2 percent.
suitable for grazing include chalky bluestem, creeping In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Winder fine
bluestem, indiangrass, and panicum. This soil is in the sand, Winder and similar soils make up 87 to 99
North Florida Flatwoods range site. percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without 13 percent.
basements, local roads and streets, and small Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
commercial buildings because of the wetness caused sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
by the seasonal high water table. If suitable outlets are grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The upper
available, shallow surface drainage can help to remove part of the subsoil is grayish brown sandy loam to a
the excess water. Suitable fill material can be used to depth of 25 inches. It has tongues of fine sand mixed
elevate building sites and increase the effective depth from the overlying subsurface layer. The lower part of
to the water table. The limitations are severe for shallow the subsoil is gray, light gray, and greenish gray sandy
excavations because cutbanks are unstable and clay loam to a depth of about 58 inches. The underlying
excavations fill with water when the water table is high. material, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is greenish
Shoring sidewalls of excavations can help to prevent gray sandy loam. Some areas contain soils that are
caving. Installing dewatering wells can lower the water similar to the Winder soil but in which the depth to the
table and help to overcome the wetness. The wetness subsoil is more than 20 inches. Other areas contain
and the poor filtering of effluent are severe limitations soils that have a surface layer thicker than 8 inches or
for septic tank absorption fields. Using suitable fill to have a very strongly acid subsoil.
mound the absorption field can help to overcome these The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small
limitations. The seepage and the wetness are severe areas of Favoretta, Chobee, and Pineda soils. Favoretta
limitations for sewage lagoons and trench-type sanitary soils are in slightly lower areas and are clayey
landfills. Lining the lagoons and trenches with throughout. Chobee soils are in lower areas and have a
impervious soil material can reduce the excess loamy subsoil at a shallower depth. Pineda soils are in
seepage. Water-control measures should be used to landscape positions similar to those of the Winder soil.
remove the excess surface and ground water. They have a thicker sandy layer over the loamy subsoil.
The wetness and the sandy surface are severe A seasonal high water table is within a depth of 6
limitations for recreational development. The installation inches for 2 to 6 months. Permeability is slow or very
of a water-control system can reduce the wetness slow. Available water capacity is low to moderate.
caused by the seasonal high water table. The Most areas are used for the commercial production of
trafficability of the sandy surface layer is poor in areas pine trees. A few areas are used for vegetables and as
of high use as a result of the loose, unstable sand. improved pasture. The natural vegetation consists
Planting a vegetative cover, adding mulch or suitable mainly of slash pine. The understory vegetation consists








Soil Survey
34














































Figure 6.-Furrow irrigation on a field of cabbage in an area of Winder fine sand.


seasons and droughtiness during dry seasons.
of gallberry, saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, seasons and droughtiness during dry seasons.
of gallberry, saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, Cabbage, Irish potatoes, and other vegetables are the
This soil is moderately suited to vegetable crops. The main crops grown. An adequate drainage system is

main limitations are excessive wetness during rainy needed. Ditches and tile drains can be used to lower








Flagler County, Florida 35


the water table. Proper arrangement and bedding of practices include the selection of appropriate species
tree rows, lateral ditches or tiles, and well constructed and restricted burning.
outlets help to remove the excess surface water and This soil is poorly suited to range or grazeable
lower the water table. Land grading and smoothing woodland. Areas that support the natural vegetation
improve the surface drainage and permit the more generally are densely shaded by the closed canopy of
efficient use of farm equipment. Irrigation is generally the hardwoods. Grasses and other plants that provide
feasible in most areas where irrigation water is readily forage for animals do not grow well, but areas of this
available (fig. 6). Because of the slow permeability, soil provide shade and shelter for cattle during periods
sprinkler irrigation systems are suited to this soil. of bad weather. This map unit is not assigned to a
Returning all of the crop residue to the soil and range site.
including grasses, legumes, or grass-legume mixtures This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
in the crop rotation help to conserve moisture, maintain basements, local roads and streets, and small
fertility, and control erosion. Crops respond well to commercial buildings because of the wetness caused
applications of lime and fertilizer, by the seasonal high water table. If suitable outlets are
This soil is well suited to pasture. The main available, shallow surface drainage can help to remove
limitations are the wetness and the poor soil quality. the excess water. Suitable fill material can be used to
Excessive water on the surface can be removed by elevate building sites and increase the effective depth
applying surface drainage. The main suitable pasture to the water table. The limitations are severe for shallow
plants are bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover. excavations because cutbacks are unstable and
excavations because cutbanks are unstable and
Proper stocking rates, a system of pasture rotation, and excavations fill with water when the water table is high.
the timely deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture Shoring sidewalls of excavations can help to prevent
in good condition. Periodic mowing and clipping help to dewatering wells can lower the water
caving. Installing dewatering wells can lower the water
maintain uniform growth, discourage selective grazing, table and help to overcome the wetness. The wetness
and reduce clumpy growth. Applications of fertilizer are e slowperme the sus e eee
needed for the optimum growth of grasses and and the slow permeability in the subsoil are severe
S e limitations for septic tank absorption fields. Using
legumes. suitable fill to mound the absorption field can help to
This soil is well suited to the production of slash pine. ver e thee imitation. he
Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean site index for overcome these limitations. The sewage and the
slash pine is 90. The potential for commercial wetness are severe limitations for sewage lagoons and
production of pulpwood is 42 cords per acre harvested trench-type sanitary landfills. Lining the lagoons and
from a fully stocked stand of trees 25 years old. The trenches with impervious soil material can reduce the
main management concerns for producing and excess seepage. A water-control system should be
harvesting timber are the equipment limitation, the installed to remove the excess surface water and
seedling mortality rate, the windthrow hazard, and the ground water.
plant competition. The excessive wetness and the The wetness, the slow permeability in the subsoil,
sandy surface layer limit the use of equipment. Using and the sandy surface are severe limitations for
special equipment, such as high-flotation rubber tires or recreational development. Installing water-control
crawler machinery, and harvesting during dry periods measures can reduce the wetness caused by the
can reduce the equipment limitation. The high water seasonal high water table and the slow rate at which
table will kill planted seedlings. Outlets are generally not water moves through the soil. The trafficability of the
present, and drainage is not practical in many areas, sandy surface layer is poor in areas of high use as a
Planting on beds helps to overcome the limitations result of the loose, unstable sand. Planting a vegetative
caused by the excessive wetness. Special site cover, adding mulch or suitable topsoil, or constructing
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding (or double paved areas can help to overcome the limitations
bedding), helps to establish seedlings, reduces the caused by the sandy surface layer.
seedling mortality rate, and increases early plant The potential of this soil as habitat for openland,
growth. The soil often has a very low content of organic woodland, and wetland wildlife is fair. Areas provide
matter, and a harvest system that removes all of the productive and diverse wildlife habitats. The hardwoods
tree biomass reduces the fertility of the soil in these provide good food and cover for numerous species. The
areas. A logging system that leaves residual biomass species generally include wild hogs, deer, turkey, black
distributed over the site is preferred. Using a nitrogen bear, gray squirrel, woodpeckers, owls, and reptiles.
fertilizer combined with phosphorus, based on a soil This Winder soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
test or tissue analysis, at mid-rotation can provide an woodland ordination symbol is 11w. The ecological
excellent growth response. Other good management community is Wetland Hardwood Hammock.








36 Soil Survey


11-Myakka fine sand. This very deep, nearly level, growth. Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for
poorly drained soil is in broad flatwood areas. Individual the optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
areas are irregular in shape. They range from 5 to 600 This soil is moderately suited to the commercial
acres in size. Slopes are smooth to convex and range production of pine trees. Based on a 50-year site curve,
from 0 to 2 percent. the mean site index for slash pine is 70. The potential
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Myakka fine for commercial production for pulpwood is 35 cords per
sand, Myakka and similar soils make up 78 to 99 acre harvested from a fully stocked stand of trees 25
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to years old. The main management concerns for
22 percent. producing and harvesting timber are the equipment
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6 limitation, the seedling mortality rate, the windthrow
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a hazard, and plant competition. The sandy texture of the
depth of about 19 inches. The subsoil, to a depth of surface layer and the wetness limit the use of
about 31 inches, is black fine sand in the upper part equipment. Using special equipment, such as large
and dark reddish brown fine sand in the lower part. The rubber tires or crawler machinery, and harvesting during
next layer extends to a depth of about 40 inches and is dry periods can reduce the equipment limitation.
dark yellowish brown fine sand. The underlying Harvesting during dry periods reduces soil compaction
material, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is fine sand. and minimizes root damage during thinning operations.
It is brown in the upper part and light gray in the lower Site preparation, such as chopping, burning, applying
part. Some areas contain soils that are similar to the herbicide, and bedding, reduces debris, reduces
Myakka soil but in which the depth to the organic- immediate plant competition, and facilitates hand and
stained layer is less than 20 inches or is more than 40 mechanical planting. Planting on beds helps to
inches. overcome the limitations caused by the excessive
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small wetness. The soil often has a very low content of
areas of Cassia, EauGallie, Myakka, Pineda, and organic matter, and a harvest system that removes all
Valkaria soils. Cassia soils are in the higher areas and of the tree biomass reduces the fertility of the soil in
are better drained than the Myakka soil. EauGallie, these areas. A logging system that leaves residual
Pineda, and Valkaria soils are in landscape positions logging biomass distributed over the site is preferred.
similar to those of the Myakka soil. EauGallie and This soil is well suited to range and grazeable
Pineda soil have a loamy subsoil layer. Valkaria soils woodland. It has a moderate to high potential for the
do not have an organic-stained subsoil layer. Myakka production of native forage. The dominant plants
soils are in depressions. suitable for grazing include chalky bluestem, creeping
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 bluestem, indiangrass, and panicum. This soil is in the
inches for 1 to 4 months during the wet season in most North Florida Flatwoods range site.
years. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6 This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
months. Permeability is moderately slow to moderately basements, local roads and streets, and small
rapid. Available water capacity is very low or low. commercial buildings because of the wetness caused
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine and by the seasonal high water table. If suitable outlets are
longleaf pine. The understory vegetation consists of available, shallow surface drainage can help to remove
saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, bluestem, and the excess water. Suitable fill material can be used to
panicum. Most areas are used for the commercial elevate building sites and increase the effective depth
production of pine trees and as improved pasture for to the water table. The limitations are severe for shallow
cattle. A large acreage is being developed for excavations because cutbanks are unstable and
residential and commercial uses. excavations fill with water when the water table is high.
This soil is well suited to pasture. The main Shoring sidewalls of excavations can help to prevent
limitations are the wetness and the poor soil quality, caving. Installing dewatering wells can lower the water
Excessive water on the surface can be removed by table and help to overcome the wetness. The wetness
using shallow surface ditches. The wetness limits the and the poor filtering of effluent are severe limitations
choice of plants and the period of grazing. The main for septic tank absorption fields. Using suitable fill to
suitable pasture plants are bermudagrass and mound the absorption field can help to overcome these
bahiagrass. Proper stocking rates, a system of pasture limitations. The seepage and the wetness are severe
rotation, and restricted grazing during wet periods help limitations for sewage lagoons and trench-type sanitary
keep the pasture in good condition. Periodic mowing landfills. Lining the lagoons and trenches with
and clipping help to maintain uniform growth, impervious soil material can reduce the excess
discourage selective grazing, and reduce clumpy seepage. Water-control measures should be used to








Flagler County, Florida 37


remove the excess surface and ground water. Typically, the surface layer of the Basinger soil is
The wetness and the sandy surface are severe black fine sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface
limitations for recreational development. Installing layer is about 27 inches thick. It is light gray fine sand
water-control measures can reduce the wetness caused in the upper part and grayish brown fine sand in the
by the seasonal high water table. The trafficability of the lower part. The subsoil is dark yellowish brown and
sandy surface layer is poor in areas of high use as a grayish brown fine sand about 21 inches thick. The
result of the loose, unstable sand. Planting a vegetative underlying material, to a depth of about 80 inches, is
cover, adding mulch or suitable topsoil, or constructing pale brown fine sand. Some areas contain soils that are
paved areas can help to overcome the limitations similar to the Basinger soil but do not have a dark layer
caused by the sandy surface layer. in the subsoil.
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland Typically, the surface layer of the St. Johns soil is
wildlife is fair and for woodland and wetland wildlife is black fine sand about 10 inches thick. The subsurface
poor. Areas of this soil provide nesting sites, den sites, layer is gray fine sand about 15 inches thick. The
and food and cover for a diverse and numerous wildlife subsoil is very dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth
population. Many larger animals are found in areas of about 39 inches and dark yellowish brown fine sand
where this soil joins other ecological communities. to a depth of about 54 inches. The underlying material
Areas of this soil are well suited to deer, quail, bobcat, to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark gray fine sand.
skunk, opossum, and raccoon. Other species typically Some areas contain soils that are similar to the St.
include cottontail rabbit, fox squirrel, gray fox, and a Johns soil but have an organic-stained subsoil layer at
variety of birds, reptiles, and amphibians. a depth of more than 30 inches.
This Myakka soil is in capability subclass IVw. The The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small
woodland ordination symbol is 8w. The ecological areas of Hontoon and Samsula soils in landscape
community is North Florida Flatwoods. positions similar to those of the St. Johns soil. They
formed in organic material.
12-Placid, Basinger, and St. Johns soils, In most years, undrained areas of this map unit are
depressional. These very deep, nearly level, very ponded for more than 6 months, and the seasonal high
poorly drained soils are in depressions on the water table is as much as 2 feet above the surface.
flatwoods. Undrained areas are ponded for long Permeability is rapid in the Placid and Basinger soils
periods. Individual areas of this map unit are irregular in and moderately slow or moderate in the St. Johns soil.
shape. They range from 3 to more than 400 acres in Available water capacity is low in the Basinger and St.
size. Slopes are concave and are less than 1 percent. Johns soils and low to moderate in the Placid soil.
Placid, Basinger, and St. Johns soils make up 91 to Most areas of this map unit support the natural
99 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas vegetation. Most areas are used as wildlife habitat. The
mapped as Placid, Basinger, and St. Johns soils, natural-growth hardwood timber is harvested from some
depressional. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 9 percent. areas of this map unit. The natural vegetation consists
Generally, the mapped areas are about 42 percent of pondcypress, red maple, sweetgum, and sweetbay.
Placid and similar soils, 28 percent Basinger and similar The understory vegetation consists of sawgrass,
soils, and 27 percent St. Johns and similar soils. The maidencane, sedges, iris, waxmyrtle, and greenbrier.
soils do not occur in a regular repeating pattern. Each This map unit is poorly suited to most cultivated
of the soils is not present in every mapped area, and crops because of the ponding that occurs for long
their relative proportion is variable. Although individual periods. Because the map unit is typically in the
areas of the soils are large enough to map separately, flatwoods, adequate water outlets for drainage are not
they were mapped as one unit based upon the present generally available or are difficult to install.
and predicted uses. This map unit is poorly suited to pasture. The main
Typically, the surface layer of the Placid soil is fine limitations are the excessive wetness and the ponding.
sand about 15 inches thick. It is black in the upper 8 Water stands above the surface for long periods during
inches and very dark gray in the lower 7 inches. The rainy seasons. Because the map unit is in a low
underlying material, to a depth of about 80 inches, is position on the landscape, adequate drainage is difficult
grayish brown fine sand in the upper part, light to establish.
brownish gray fine sand in the next part, and light gray This map unit is generally not suited to the
fine sand in the lower part. Some areas contain soils commercial production of pine trees. Some areas are
that are similar to the Placid soil but have a surface suited to the production of cypress and hardwoods, but
layer thicker than 24 inches or have a loamy subsoil at harvesting and planting are more effective during
a depth of more than 20 inches. extended dry periods. The main management concern








38 Soil Survey


is the water table, which is above the surface for much 13-Immokalee fine sand. This very deep, nearly
of the year. The ponding and the high content of level, poorly drained soil is on broad flats and low knolls
organic matter in the surface layer prevent the use of on the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in
heavy equipment. The high water table will kill planted shape. They range from 5 to 600 acres in size. Slopes
seedlings. Outlets are generally not present in these are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
areas, and drainage is not practical. In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Immokalee
This map unit is poorly suited to range or grazeable fine sand, Immokalee and similar soils make up 93 to
woodland. Water covers the surface of the soil for long 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1
periods of time. The growth of forage suitable for use by to 7 percent.
cattle is limited by the excessive wetness and the dense Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
shade caused by thick stands of cypress hardwoods. inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray
This map unit is not assigned to a range site. fine sand about 34 inches thick. The subsoil, from a
This map unit has severe limitations for dwellings depth of 39 to 60 inches, is very dark gray fine sand in
without basements, local roads and streets, and small the upper 8 inches and dark brown fine sand in the
commercial buildings because of the excessive lower 13 inches. The subsoil is coated with organic
wetness. Water stands above the surface of the soil for matter. The underlying material, to a depth of 80
long periods of time. Because the map unit is in a low inches, is dark grayish brown fine sand. Some areas
position on the landscape, overcoming this limitation is contain soils that are similar to the Immokalee soil but
difficult. Outlets needed for water control are often not have a organic-stained layer within a depth of 30
readily available. Using fill to elevate building sites and inches. Also included in mapping are some soils that
roadways can help to overcome the wetness The are similar to the Immokalee soil but have a subsoil
roadways can help to overcome the wetness. The
limitations are severe for shallow excavations because layer at a depth of more than 50 inches and other soils
cutbanks are unstable and water stands on the surface. hat have a subsoil layer drectl below the surface
Shoring the sidewalls of excavations prevents caving. layer.
The installation of a water-control system that removes The dissimilar soils in ths map unit include small
areas of St. Johns and Basinger soils in depressions.
excess surface water can help to overcome the
ts caused by the wetness The pondng an the St. Johns soils have a thicker surface layer than the
limitations caused by the wetness. The ponding and the mmokalee soil and are more poorly drained. Basinger
Immokalee soil and are more poorly drained. Basinger
poor filtering of effluent are severe limitations for septic soils have a weakly expressed, organic-stained subsoil
tank absorption fields. Using suitable fill to mound
layer.
absorption fields can help to overcome these limitations. In most years, the seasonal high water table is at a
Because the map unit is in a low position on the depth of 6 to 18 inches for about 2 months and is at a
landscape, large amounts of fill may be required to depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 8 months.
adequately elevate the absorption field. This map unit is During extended dry periods, it recedes to a depth of
unsuited to sewage lagoons and trench-type sanitary more than 40 inches. Permeability is moderate.
landfills. The seepage and the ponding are severe Available water capacity is low.
limitations for these uses. The natural vegetation consists of slash pine and
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational longleaf pine. The understory vegetation consists of
development. Water stands above the surface of the saw palmetto, fetterbush, inkberry, runner oak, pineland
soil for long periods, and the surface of the soil is too threeawn, bluestem, panicum, and sumac. Most areas
sandy to use for recreational purposes. Water-control of this soil are used for the commercial production of
measures and the stabilization of the surface can help pine trees. Some small areas have been cleared and
to overcome these limitations. planted to improved pasture.
The potential of this map unit as habitat for openland This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The
and wetland wildlife is very poor and for wetland wildlife main limitations are the wetness caused by a seasonal
is good. The dense vegetative cover provides good high water table and the droughtiness during periods of
cover and fair sources of food. This map unit supports a low rainfall. By installing a good water-control system, a
large variety of wildlife. It is especially well suited to variety of vegetable crops can be grown. If suitable
waterfowl, reptiles, amphibians, and many birds. Other outlets are available, lateral ditches and tile drains can
species include black bear, bobcat, deer, gray squirrel, be used to lower the water table. A furrow irrigation
otter, and raccoon, system is suited to this soil. Land grading and
This map unit is in capability subclass Vllw. The smoothing improve the surface drainage, allow a more
woodland ordination symbol is 2W. The ecological uniform application of irrigation water, and permit the
community is Swamp Hardwoods. more efficient use of farm equipment. Returning all of








Flagler County, Florida 39


the crop residue to the soil and including grasses, suitable, the soil can be compacted if heavy equipment
legumes, or grass-legume mixtures in the crop rotation is used when the soil is wet. The soil often has a very
help to maintain fertility and tilth. Maintaining crop low content of organic matter, and a harvest system
residue on or near the surface helps to control runoff, that removes all of the tree biomass reduces the fertility
maintain soil tilth, and maintain the content of organic of the soil in these areas. A logging system that leaves
matter. Soil blowing is a hazard in cultivated areas. It residual logging biomass distributed over the site is
can be controlled with a good ground cover of close- preferred.
growing plants. Crops respond well to applications of This soil is moderately suited to range and grazeable
lime and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizer, woodland. It has a moderate to high potential for the
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The main production of native forage. The dominant plants
limitations are excessive wetness during rainy seasons suitable for grazing include chalky bluestem, creeping
and droughtiness during extended dry periods. The bluestem, indiangrass, and panicum. This soil is in the
wetness limits the choice of plants and the period of North Florida Flatwoods range site.
grazing. Grazing when the soil is wet results in the This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
compaction of the surface layer and damages the plant basements, local roads and streets, and small
community. Excessive water on the surface can be commercial buildings because of the wetness caused
removed by using shallow surface ditches. The low or by the seasonal high water table. If suitable outlets are
very low available water capacity of the soil limits the available, shallow surface drainage can help to remove
production of plants during extended dry periods. Deep- the excess water. Suitable fill material can be used to
rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and elevate building sites and increase the effective depth
bahiagrass, tolerate drought conditions better if they to the water table. The limitations are severe for shallow
are properly fertilized and limed. Proper stocking rates, excavations because cutbanks are unstable and
a system of pasture rotation, and the timely deferment excavations fill with water when the water table is high.
of grazing help to keep the pasture in good condition. Shoring sidewalls of excavations can help to prevent
Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for the caving. Installing dewatering wells can lower the water
optimum growth of grasses and legumes, table and help to overcome the wetness. The wetness
This soil is moderately suited to the commercial and the poor filtering of effluent are severe limitations
production of pine trees. Based on a 50-year site curve, for septic tank absorption fields. Using suitable fill to
the mean site index for slash pine is 70. The potential mound the absorption field can help to overcome these
for commercial production of pulpwood is 35 cords per limitations. The seepage and the wetness are severe
acre harvested from a fully stocked stand of trees 25 limitations for sewage lagoons and trench-type sanitary
years old. The main management concerns for landfills. Lining the lagoons and trenches with
producing and harvesting timber are the equipment impervious soil material can reduce the excess
limitation, the seedling mortality rate, the windthrow seepage. Water-control measures should be used to
hazard, and plant competition. The sandy texture of the remove the excess surface and ground water.
surface layer and the wetness limit the use of The wetness and the sandy surface are severe
equipment. Using special equipment, such as large limitations for recreational development. Installing
rubber tires or crawler machinery, and harvesting during water-control measures can reduce the wetness caused
dry periods can reduce the equipment limitation, by the seasonal high water table. The trafficability of the
Harvesting during dry periods reduces soil compaction sandy surface layer is poor in areas of high use as a
and minimizes root damage during thinning operations. result of the loose, unstable sand. Planting a vegetative
After harvesting, reforestation must be carefully cover, adding mulch or suitable topsoil, or constructing
managed to reduce competition from undesirable paved areas can help to overcome the limitations
understory plants. Site preparation, such as chopping, caused by the sandy surface layer.
burning, applying herbicide, and bedding, reduces The potential of this soil as habitat for all forms of
debris, reduces immediate plant competition, and wildlife is poor. Although it is only a poor to fair source
facilitates hand and mechanical planting. If site of food and cover and sites for nesting and dens, the
preparation is not adequate, competition from soil supports a diverse and numerous wildlife
undesirable plants can prevent or prolong the natural or population. Many larger animals are found where areas
artificial reestablishment of trees. Planting on beds of this soil join other ecological communities. Areas of
helps to overcome the limitations caused by the this soil are well suited to deer, quail, bobcat, skunk,
excessive wetness. Only those trees that can tolerate opossum, and raccoon. Other species generally include
seasonal wetness should be planted. Although cottontail rabbit, fox squirrel, gray fox, and a variety of
conventional methods of harvesting timber generally are birds, reptiles, and amphibians.








40 Soil Survey


This Immokalee soil is in capability subclass IVw. vegetable crops can be grown. Proper row
The woodland ordination symbol is 8w. The ecological management, lateral ditches or tiles, and well
community is North Florida Flatwoods. constructed outlets help to remove the excess surface
water. A furrow irrigation system is suited to this soil.
14-Pineda fine sand. This very deep, nearly level, Land grading and smoothing improve the surface
poorly drained soil is in sloughs and on low flatwoods. drainage, allow a more uniform application of irrigation
Individual areas are irregular in shape. They range from water, and permit the more efficient use of farm
5 to 1,000 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave, equipment. Returning all of the crop residue to the soil
They are mainly less than 1 percent but range from 0 to and including grasses, legumes, or grass-legume
2 percent. mixtures in the crop rotation help to conserve moisture,
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Pineda fine maintain fertility, and control erosion. Frequent
sand, Pineda and similar soils make up 92 to 99 applications of fertilizer and lime are generally needed
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 8 for the best yields.
percent. With good water-control management, this soil is well
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3 suited to pasture. The main limitations are a result of
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine the wetness. Excessive water can be removed by using
sand about 10 inches thick. The upper part of the field ditches and tile drains. Grasses and legumes grow
subsoil is brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of 19 well if adequate fertilizer is used. The low available
inches and yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of 24 water capacity limits the production of plants during
inches. A grayish brown fine sand layer about 2 inches extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants, such as
thick is between the upper and lower parts of the bermudagrass and bahiagrass tolerate
subsoil. The lower part of the subsoil is light gray and drought conditions better if they are properly fertilized
has tongues of grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 33 and limed. Proper stocking rates, a system of pasture
inches. It is gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 40 deferment of grazing help to
inches. The underlying material is dark gray loamy fine
sand to a depth of 47 inches and greenish gray loamy keep the pasture in good condition.
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. Some areas This soil is well suited to the production of slash pine.
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. Some areas ,
contain soils that are similar to the Pineda soil but in Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean site index for
which the depth to the loamy subsoil is more than 40 slash pin is 0 T potential for commercial
inches. Also included in mapping are some soils that production of pulpwood is 42 cords per acre harvested
are similar to the Pineda soil but have a brown upper from a fully stocked stand of rees 25 years od. The
subsoil layer and other soils that have a loamy subsoil main management concerns for producing and
at a depth of less than 20 inches. harvesting timber are the equipment limitation, the
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small seedling mortality rate, and plant competition. Planting
areas of Wabasso and Winder soils. Wabasso and on beds helps to overcome the limitations caused by
Winder soils are in landscape positions similar to those the excessive wetness. Although conventional methods
of the Pineda soil. Wabasso soils have an organic- of harvesting timber generally are suitable, the soil can
stained subsoil layer. Winder soils have a loamy layer be compacted if heavy equipment is used when the soil
at a depth of less than 20 inches. is wet. Using special equipment, such as high-flotation
A seasonal high water table is within a depth of 6 rubber tires or crawler machinery, and harvesting during
inches for 1 to 6 months. Permeability is slow or very dry periods can reduce the equipment limitation. Site
slow. Available water capacity is low. preparation, such as chopping, applying herbicide, and
Most areas are used for the commercial production of bedding, reduces debris, reduces immediate plant
pine trees. Areas that have water-control measures are competition, and facilitates hand and mechanical
used for vegetable crops, mostly cabbage and Irish planting. Other good management practices include the
potatoes. Some areas are used for pasture and hay. selection of appropriate species, restricted burning, and
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, cabbage a harvesting system that leaves debris onsite to
palm, sweetgum, and water oak. The understory conserve organic matter.
vegetation consists of gallberry, maidencane, saw This soil is well suited to range and grazeable
palmetto, pineland threeawn, and bluestem. woodland. In most areas, the tree and shrub vegetation
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The is less dense than in the surrounding flatwood areas.
main limitations are the excessive wetness and the poor The canopy is more open, and grasses, such as
soil quality. By installing a good water-control system, maidencane and chalky bluestem, are the main forage
Irish potatoes, cabbage, and a variety of other species. When well managed, this soil has the potential








Flagler County, Florida 41


to produce a large amount of forage. It is in the Slough sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Pomello and similar soils
range site. make up 85 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without soils make up 1 to 15 percent.
basements, local roads and streets, and small Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
commercial buildings because of the wetness caused about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
by the seasonal high water table. If suitable outlets are fine sand about 36 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth
available, shallow surface drainage can help to remove of about 66 inches, is very dark brown fine sand in the
the excess water. Suitable fill material can be used to upper 14 inches and very dark gray fine sand in the
elevate building sites and increase the effective depth lower 11 inches. The underlying material, to a depth of
to the water table. The limitations are severe for shallow about 80 inches, is grayish brown fine sand in the upper
excavations because cutbanks are unstable and part and gray fine sand in the lower part. Some areas
excavations fill with water when the water table is high. contain soils that are similar to the Pomello soil but
Shoring sidewalls of excavations can help to prevent have a organic-stained layer within a depth of 30
caving. Installing dewatering wells can lower the water inches. Also included in mapping are some soils that
table and help to overcome the wetness. The wetness, are similar to the Pomello soil but have a loamy subsoil
the slow permeability, and the poor filtering of effluent layer at a depth of more than 50 inches and are better
are severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields. drained and other soils that have a loamy subsoil layer
Using suitable fill to mound the absorption field can help at a depth of less than 30 inches.
to overcome these limitations. The seepage and the The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small
wetness are severe limitations for sewage lagoons and areas of Adamsville, Bulow, and Tavares soils. They
trench-type sanitary landfills. Lining trenches with are in landscape positions similar to those of the
impervious soil material can reduce the excess Pomello soil. Adamsville, Bulow, and Tavares soils do
seepage. A water-control system should be installed to not have an organic-stained layer in the subsoil. Bulow
remove the excess surface water and ground water. soils are underlain by limestone bedrock. Also included
The wetness, the slow permeability in the subsoil, are some soils that have a loamy subsoil below the
and the sandy surface are severe limitations for sandy subsoil and other soils that have a subsoil at a
recreational development. Installing water-control depth of more than 50 inches and are poorly drained.
measures can reduce the wetness caused by the A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 24 to 42
seasonal high water table. The trafficability of the sandy inches for 1 to 4 months. Permeability is moderately
surface layer is poor in areas of high use as a result of rapid. Available water capacity is low.
the loose, unstable sand. Planting a vegetative cover, Most areas are used as wildlife habitat. A few areas
adding mulch or suitable topsoil, or constructing paved are used as sites for homes or for the commercial
areas can help to overcome the limitations caused by production of pine trees. The natural vegetation consists
the sandy surface layer, of live oak, laurel oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine. A
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and few areas have sand pine. The understory vegetation
wetland wildlife is fair and for woodland wildlife is poor. consists of saw palmetto, ironbush, pineland threeawn,
Areas of this soil provide a good source of food for bluestem, panicum, and annual forbs.
bobwhite quail, deer, and wading birds. They produce This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, but if
poor cover for most wildlife species, but the adjacent intensive management practices are used, a few
flatwoods produce good escape routes and an edge specialized crops can be grown. The soil is limited
effect. Other species include fox, rabbit, opossum, and mainly by the poor soil quality. It is drought, and
a variety of birds, reptiles, and amphibians. nutrients are leached rapidly. For maximum yields,
This Pineda soil is in capability subclass Illw. The irrigation should be provided and fertilizer and lime
woodland ordination symbol is 10w. The ecological should be applied as needed by the crop being grown.
community is Slough. Using minimum tillage and returning all of the crop
residue to the soil or regularly adding other organic
15-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This material improves the fertility and helps to maintain the
very deep, nearly level to gently sloping, moderately soil tilth and the content of organic matter. Soil blowing
well drained soil is on low ridges and knolls on the is a hazard in cultivated areas. It can be controlled with
flatwoods and coastal ridge. Individual areas are a good ground cover of close-growing plants.
irregular in shape. They range from 5 to 400 acres or This soil is poorly suited to pasture. The very low
more in size. Slopes are smooth to convex and range available water capacity of the soil limits the production
from 0 to 5 percent, of plants during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Pomello fine plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass,








42 Soil Survey


tolerate drought conditions better if they are properly measures and lining the lagoons and trenches with
fertilized and limed. A system of grazing rotation helps impervious soil material can help to overcome the
to maintain the quality of forage. Proper stocking rates, limitations.
a system of pasture rotation, and the timely deferment The sandy surface is a severe limitation for
of grazing help to keep the pasture in good condition. recreational development. Maintaining good trafficability
Periodic mowing and clipping help to maintain uniform in the loose, sandy surface is difficult, and the hazard of
growth, discourage selective grazing, and reduce blowing sand exists. Establishing a good vegetative
clumpy growth. cover, planting windbreaks, adding good topsoil, or
This soil is moderately suited to the production of constructing paved areas can help to overcome the
slash pine. Based on a mean site index of 50 for slash limitation.
pine, the yield from an even-aged, fully stocked stand of The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
trees 25 years old is 35 cords per acre. Seedling woodland wildlife is poor and for wetland wildlife is very
mortality, the equipment limitation, plant competition, poor. Although the production of food for wildlife is
and the windthrow hazard are management concerns, limited, good escape cover for deer and turkey is
The high temperature of the surface layer in the present. Other species include gopher, tortoise,
summer and the very low available water capacity also raccoon, armadillos, and several kinds of songbirds.
increase the seedling mortality rate. The sandy surface This Pomello soil is in capability subclass Vis. The
layer restricts the use of wheeled equipment, especially woodland ordination symbol is 8s. The ecological
when the soil is very dry. If site preparation is not community is Sand Pine Scrub.
intensive, competition from undesirable plants can
prevent or prolong the natural or artificial
prevent or prolong the natural or artificial 16-Malabar fine sand. This very deep, nearly level,
reestablishment of trees. Site preparation, such as
c ho pping, applying herbicide, and beddin, srucehs poorly drained soil is in low flatwood areas. Individual
chopping, applying herbicide, and bedding, reduces
debris, controls plant competition, and facilitates areas are regular in shape Th range fromto 450
mechanical planting. The soil has a very low content of acres in sze. Slope are smooth to concave. They are
organic matter, and harvesting systems that remove all mainly less than 1 percent but range to 2 percent
of the tree biomass reduce the fertility of a site. A In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Malabar fine
preferred harvesting system leaves residual biomass sand, Malabar and similar soils make up 77 to 89
distributed over the site. percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 11 to
This soil is poorly suited to range or grazeable 23 percent.
woodland. Because a fairly dense stand of trees and Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4
shrubs generally grows on this soil, the growth of native inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand
plants suitable for forage is limited. Some areas provide about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is
good shade and winter shelter for livestock. This soil is yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of about 30
in the Sand Pine Scrub range site. inches, gray and grayish brown fine sand to a depth of
This soil has a moderate limitation for dwellings about 60 inches, and grayish brown sandy clay loam to
without basements, local roads and streets, and small a depth of 80 inches or more. Some areas contain soils
commercial buildings because of the wetness caused that are similar to the Malabar soil but in which the
by a seasonal high water table. Suitable fill material, depth to the subsoil layer is less than 40 inches. Also
used to elevate building sites and roads, can help to included in mapping are some soils that are similar to
overcome the wetness. In areas that have slopes of the Malabar soil but have a thin, dark, sandy layer
more than 4 percent, the slope is an additional limitation above the loamy subsoil layer and other soils that have
for small commercial buildings. Minor land smoothing a loamy sand subsoil.
can help to overcome this limitation. The limitations are The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small
severe for shallow excavations because cutbanks are areas of Valkaria, EauGallie, Basinger, Wabasso, and
unstable and ground water flows into excavations. Hicoria soils. Basinger and Hicoria soils are in
Shoring the sidewalls of excavations and installing depressions. Basinger soils have an organic-stained
dewatering wells lower the water table. The wetness layer in the subsoil. Hicoria soils have a thicker surface
and the poor filtering of effluent are severe limitations layer and do not have the subsoil layer. Valkaria,
for septic tank absorption fields. Suitable fill material EauGallie, and Wabasso soils are in landscape
can be used to increase the effective depth to the positions similar to those of the Malabar soil. Valkaria
seasonal high water table. The wetness and the soils do not have the subsoil layer. EauGallie and
seepage are severe limitations for sewage lagoons and Wabasso soils have an organic-stained layer in the
trench-type sanitary landfills. Using water-control subsoil.








Flagler County, Florida 43


A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0 to 6 helps to overcome the limitations caused by the
inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. Permeability is excessive wetness. Although conventional methods of
slow or very slow. The available water capacity is low. harvesting timber generally can be used, their use can
The natural vegetation consists of scattered areas of be limited during rainy seasons, which are generally
slash pine, cabbage palm, water oak, red maple, from June to December. The use of equipment during
sweetgum, and cypress. The understory vegetation wet periods can cause soil compaction. Soil compaction
consists of maidencane, pineland threeawn, chalky results in less infiltration and aeration and restricted
bluestem, and panicum and scattered areas of saw root growth. Site preparation, such as chopping,
palmetto. Most areas are used for the commercial burning, applying herbicide, and bedding, reduces
production of pine trees. A few areas are used as debris, reduces immediate plant competition, and
improved pasture, facilitates hand and mechanical planting. Using a
By applying good water-control and soil-improving nitrogen fertilizer combined with phosphorus, based on
measures, this soil is moderately suited to cultivated a soil test or tissue analysis, at mid-rotation can provide
crops. It is limited mainly by the seasonal high water an excellent growth response. Other good management
table and droughtiness during periods of low rainfall, practices include the selection of appropriate species,
The root zone is limited by the seasonal high water restricted burning, and a harvesting system that leaves
table, which is less than 10 inches below the surface of debris onsite to conserve organic matter.
the soil during the growing season. Irish potatoes, This soil is well suited to range and grazeable
cabbage, and a variety of other vegetable crops are woodland. In most areas, the tree and shrub vegetation
grown. Proper row management, lateral ditches or tiles, is less dense than in the surrounding flatwood areas.
and well constructed outlets help to remove the excess The canopy is more open, and grasses, such as
surface water. A furrow irrigation system is suited to this maidencane and chalky bluestem, grow well and are
soil. Land grading and smoothing improve the surface the main forage species. When well managed, this soil
drainage, allow a more uniform application of irrigation has the potential to produce a large amount of forage. It
water, and permit the more efficient use of farm is in the Slough range site.
equipment. Returning all of the crop residue to the soil This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
and including grasses, legumes, or grass-legume basements, local roads and streets, and small
mixtures in the crop rotation help to conserve moisture, commercial buildings because of the wetness caused
maintain fertility, and control erosion. Frequent by the seasonal high water table. If suitable outlets are
applications of fertilizer and lime are generally needed available, shallow surface drainage can help to remove
to improve soil quality, the excess water. Suitable fill material can be used to
With good water-control management, this soil is well elevate building sites and increase the effective depth
suited to pasture. The main limitations are a result of to the water table. The limitations are severe for shallow
the wetness. Excessive water on the surface can be excavations because cutbanks are unstable and
removed by using field ditches and tile drains. Grasses excavations fill with water when the water table is high.
and legumes grow well if adequate fertilizer is used. Shoring sidewalls of excavations can help to prevent
The low available water capacity limits the production of caving. Installing dewatering wells can lower the water
plants during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants, table and help to overcome the wetness. The wetness
such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, tolerate and the poor filtering of effluent are severe limitations
drought conditions better if they are properly fertilized for septic tank absorption fields. Using suitable fill to
and limed. Proper stocking rates, a system of pasture mound the absorption field can help to overcome these
rotation, and the timely deferment of grazing help to limitations. The seepage and the wetness are severe
keep the pasture in good condition. limitations for sewage lagoons and trench-type sanitary
This soil is well suited to the production of slash pine. landfills. Lining trenches with impervious soil material
Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean site index for can reduce the excess seepage. Water-control
slash pine is 80. The potential for commercial measures should be used to remove the excess surface
production of pulpwood is 42 cords per acre harvested and ground water.
from a fully stocked stand of trees 25 years old. The The wetness and the sandy surface are severe
main management concerns for producing and limitations for recreational development. Installing
harvesting timber are the equipment limitation, the water-control measures can reduce the wetness caused
seedling mortality rate, and plant competition. If site by the seasonal high water table. The trafficability of the
preparation is not adequate, the competition from sandy surface layer is poor in areas of high use as a
undesirable plants can prevent or prolong the natural or result of the loose, unstable sand. Planting a vegetative
artificial reestablishment of trees. Planting on beds cover, adding mulch or suitable topsoil, or constructing








44 Soil Survey


paved areas can help to overcome the limitations crops. It is limited mainly by excessive wetness during
caused by the sandy surface layer. rainy seasons and by droughtiness during periods of
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and low rainfall. The root zone is limited by the seasonal
woodland wildlife is poor and for wetland wildlife is fair. high water table, which is less than 10 inches below the
Areas of this soil provide a good source of food for surface of the soil during the growing season. Irish
bobwhite quail, deer, and wading birds. They produce potatoes, cabbage, and a variety of other vegetable
poor cover for most wildlife species, but the adjacent crops are grown. Proper row management, lateral
flatwoods produce good escape routes and an edge ditches or tiles, and well constructed outlets help to
effect. Other species include fox, rabbit, opossum, and remove the excess surface water. A furrow irrigation
a variety of birds, reptiles, and amphibians. system is suited to this soil. Land grading and
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass IVw. The smoothing improve the surface drainage, allow a more
woodland ordination symbol is 10w. The ecological uniform application of irrigation water, and permit the
community is Slough. more efficient use of farm equipment. Returning all of
the crop residue to the soil and including grasses,
17-Holopaw fine sand. This very deep, nearly legumes, or grass-legume mixtures in the crop rotation
level, poorly drained soil is in broad to narrow, low help to conserve moisture, maintain fertility, and control
flatwood areas. Individual areas are irregular in shape. erosion. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are
They range from 5 to 80 acres or more in size. Slopes generally needed to improve soil quality.
are smooth to concave. They are mainly less than 1 With good water-control management, this soil is
percent but range from 0 to 2 percent. moderately suited to pasture. The main limitations are a
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Holopaw fine result of the wetness. Excessive water on the surface
sand, Holopaw and similar soils make up 79 to 98 can be removed by using field ditches and tile drains in
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 2 to areas where water outlets are available. Grasses and
21 percent. legumes grow well if adequate fertilizer is used. The low
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine available water capacity limits the production of plants
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants, such
gray and gray fine sand to a depth of 45 inches. The as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, tolerate
subsoil is light gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 55 drought conditions better if they are properly fertilized
inches. The underlying material, to a depth of 80 inches and limed. Proper stocking rates, a system of pasture
or more, is light gray loamy fine sand. Some areas rotation, and the timely deferment of grazing help to
contain soils that are similar to the Holopaw soil but in keep the pasture in good condition.
which the depth to the subsoil layer is less than 40 This soil is well suited to the production of pine trees.
inches. Also included in mapping are some soils that Slash pine is the recommended species for commercial
are similar to the Holopaw soil but have a thin, dark woodland production. Based on a mean site index of 80
sandy layer above the subsoil and other soils that have for slash pine, the yield from an even-aged, fully
a loamy sand subsoil. stocked stand of trees 25 years old is 42 cords per
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small acre. Seedling mortality, the equipment limitation, and
areas of Valkaria soils that are sandy throughout. plant competition are management concerns.
Valkaria soils are in landscape positions similar to those Droughtiness causes seedling mortality. Using special
of the Holopaw soil. equipment, such as oversized rubber tires on harvesting
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0 to 6 equipment, reduces the equipment limitation, minimizes
inches for 2 to 6 months during most years. the damage to roots, and reduces soil compaction
Permeability is moderate to moderately slow. Available during thinning operations. The seedling mortality rate
water capacity is low to moderate. can be reduced by providing good site preparation. Site
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, preparation, such as chopping, applying herbicide, and
longleaf pine, cabbage palm, sweetgum, red maple, and bedding reduces debris, controls immediate plant
water oak. The understory vegetation consists of competition, and facilitates mechanical planting.
waxmyrtle and gallberry and scattered areas of saw Planting trees on bedded rows lowers the effective
palmetto, bluestem, and panicum. Most areas are used depth of the water table. The soil often has a very low
for the commercial production of pine trees. A few areas content of organic matter, and harvesting systems that
are used as improved pasture, and some areas are remove all of the tree biomass reduce the fertility of the
used as sites for homes. site. A preferred harvesting system leaves residual
By applying good water-control and soil-improving biomass distributed over the site.
measures, this soil is moderately suited to cultivated This soil is well suited to range and grazeable








Flagler County, Florida 45


woodland. It has a moderate to high potential for the In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Valkaria-
production of native forage. The dominant plants Smyrna complex, Valkaria, Smyrna, and similar soils
suitable for grazing include chalky bluestem, creeping make up 88 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
bluestem, indiangrass, and panicum. This soil is in the soils make up 1 to 12 percent.
North Florida Flatwoods range site. Generally, the mapped areas are about 50 percent
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without Valkaria and similar soils and about 41 percent Smyrna
basements, local roads and streets, and small and similar soils. This map unit consists of areas of
commercial buildings because of the wetness caused Valkaria and Smyrna soils that are so small or so
by the seasonal high water table. If suitable outlets are intricately intermingled that they could not be mapped
available, shallow surface drainage can help to remove separately at the scale used. However, the proportions
the excess water. Suitable fill material can be used to and the patterns of the soils are relatively consistent in
elevate building sites and increase the effective depth most delineations of the map unit.
to the water table. The limitations are severe for shallow Typically, the surface layer of Valkaria soil is dark
excavations because cutbanks are unstable and gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
excavations fill with water when the water table is high. layer is light gray fine sand about 11 inches thick. The
Shoring sidewalls of excavations can help to prevent subsoil is brownish yellow and yellow fine sand to a
caving. Installing dewatering wells can lower the water depth of 38 inches. The underlying layer, which extends
table and help to overcome the wetness. The wetness to a depth of 80 inches or more, is gray fine sand.
and the poor filtering of effluent are severe limitations Some areas contain soils that are similar to the Valkaria
for septic tank absorption fields. Using suitable fill to soil but have a dark sandy layer below the subsoil.
mound the absorption field can help to overcome these Typically, the surface layer of Smyrna soil is black
limitations. The seepage and the wetness are severe fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
limitations for sewage lagoons and trench-type sanitary gray fine sand to a depth of 15 inches. The subsoil is
landfills. Lining the lagoons and trenches with about 5 inches thick. It is very dark brown in the upper
impervious soil material can reduce the excess 2 inches and dark reddish brown in the lower 3 inches.
seepage. Water-control measures should be used to It is fine sand that is coated with organic matter. The
remove the excess surface and ground water. next layer is brown fine sand and extends to a depth of
The wetness and the sandy surface are severe 39 inches. The underlying layer, which extends to a
limitations for recreational development. Installing depth of 80 inches or more, is gray fine sand. Some
water-control measures can reduce the wetness caused areas contain soils that are similar to the Smyrna soil
by the seasonal high water table. The trafficability of the but in which the depth to an organic-stained layer in the
sandy surface layer is poor in areas of high use as a subsoil is 20 to 30 inches.
result of the loose, unstable sand. Planting a vegetative The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small
cover, adding mulch or suitable topsoil, or constructing areas of soils that have a weakly cemented subsoil
paved areas can help to overcome the limitations layer and areas of Basinger soils in small depressions.
caused by the sandy surface layer. Basinger soils have a very weakly expressed, organic-
The potential of this soil as habitat for all forms of stained layer.
wildlife is fair. Areas of this soil provide good food and A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0 to 6
cover, nesting sites, and den sites for a diverse and inches for 1 to 6 months in the Valkaria soil and is at a
numerous wildlife population. The species generally depth of 6 to 18 inches for 1 to 4 months in the Smyrna
include deer, quail, turkey, feral hog, raccoon, opossum, soil. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6
and a variety of birds, months in most years in both soils. Permeability is rapid
This Holopaw soil is in capability subclass IVw. The in the Valkaria soil and moderate or moderately rapid in
woodland ordination symbol is 10w. The ecological the Smyrna soil. The available water capacity is low in
community is North Florida Flatwoods. both soils.
Most areas of this map unit support the natural
18-Valkaria-Smyrna complex. These very deep, vegetation. Some areas are used for pine plantations.
nearly level, poorly drained soils are on the flatwoods. The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, longleaf
The Valkaria soil is in low, grassy sloughs. The Smyrna pine, cabbage palm, and water oak and scattered areas
soil is in broad areas and slightly higher landscape of sweetgum and red maple. The understory vegetation
positions. Individual areas of this map unit are irregular consists of pineland threeawn, bluestem, panicum,
in shape. They range from 40 to 300 acres in size. maidencane, sedges, St. Johnswort, inkberry, and
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent but are generally less waxmyrtle.
than 1 percent. The map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The








46 Soil Survey


wetness is a severe limitation. With the use of a without basements, local roads and streets, and small
complete water-control system that removes excess commercial buildings because of the wetness caused
water rapidly and provides a means of applying surface by the seasonal high water table. If adequate water
irrigation, this map unit is suited to a number of outlets are available, shallow surface drainage can help
vegetable crops. Good management includes a crop remove the excess wetness. Suitable fill material can
rotation that keeps the soil in close-growing crops to be used to elevate building sites and increase the
help to maintain soil quality. Soil-improving cover crops effective depth to the water table. The limitations are
and all other crop residue should be plowed under the severe for shallow excavations because cutbanks are
surface. Seedbed preparation should include bedding, unstable and excavations fill with water when the water
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the table is high. Shoring sidewalls of excavations can help
needs of the crop and the soil condition. to prevent caving. Installing dewatering wells can lower
This map unit is moderately suited to pasture and the water table and help to overcome the wetness. The
hay. Excess surface water can be removed from most wetness and the poor filtering of effluent are severe
areas by field drains. Suitable pasture plants include limitations for septic tank absorption fields. Using
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Proper grazing suitable fill to mound the absorption field can help to
management, weed control, and applications of fertilizer overcome the limitations. The seepage and the wetness
are needed to ensure the maximum quality of forage. are severe limitations for sewage lagoons and trench-
This map unit is moderately suited to the production type sanitary landfills. Lining trenches with impervious
of slash pine. Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean soil material can reduce the excess seepage. Water-
site index for slash pine is 68 for the Valkaria soil and control measures should be used to remove the excess
80 for the Smyrna soil. The yield is 33 cords per acre surface and ground water.
for the Valkaria soil and 42 cords per acre for the The wetness and the sandy surface are severe
Smyrna soil from fully stocked stand of trees 25 years limitations for recreational development. Installing
old. The main management concern is the seasonal water-control measures can reduce the wetness caused
wetness that results in seedling mortality, plant by the seasonal high water table. The trafficability of the
competition, and equipment limitations. Site preparation, sandy surface layer is poor in areas of high use as a
such as chopping and bedding (or double bedding), result of the loose, unstable sand. Planting a vegetative
helps to establish seedlings, reduces the mortality rate, cover, adding mulch or suitable topsoil, or constructing
and increases early plant growth. Planting on beds paved areas can help to overcome the limitations
should be done so that it does not block the natural caused by the sandy surface layer.
drainage. Restricting the use of equipment to drier The potential of the Valkaria soil as habitat for
periods and using low-pressure ground equipment openland and woodland wildlife is poor and for wetland
reduce the problems associated with soil compaction, wildlife is good. Areas of this soil provide a good source
The hardwood understory can be reduced by girdling, of food for bobwhite quail, deer, and wading birds. They
burning, cutting unwanted trees, and chopping late in produce poor cover for most wildlife species, but the
fall and winter, followed by a second chopping or adjacent flatwoods produce good escape routes and an
herbicide application in spring and burning in summer. edge effect. Other species in areas of this soil include
Using a nitrogen fertilizer combined with phosphorus fox, rabbit, opossum, and variety of birds, reptiles, and
and potassium at planting time can provide an excellent amphibians.
growth response. Additional applications of fertilizer at The potential of the Smyrna soil as habitat for all
mid-rotation should be based on soil test or tissue forms of wildlife is fair. Areas of this soil provide good
analyses. Pine trees grow best with an adequate food and cover, nesting sites, and den sites for a
phosphorus supply, diverse and numerous wildlife population. The species
This map unit is well suited to range and grazeable typically include deer, quail, turkey, feral hog, raccoon,
woodland. The dominant forage is bluestem, opossum, and a variety of birds.
maidencane, and pineland threeawn. The natural The unit is in capability subclass IVw. The Valkaria
vegetation on the Valkaria soil is scattered areas of soil has a woodland ordination symbol of 8w, and the
trees and shrubs. It has a more open canopy than the ecological community is Slough. The Smyrna soil has a
vegetation on the Smyrna soil. When well managed, woodland ordination symbol of 10w, and the ecological
this map unit has the potential to produce large community is North Florida Flatwoods.
amounts of forage. The Valkaria soil is in the Slough
range site, and the Smyrna soil is in the North Florida 19-Valkaria fine sand. This very deep, nearly level,
Flatwoods range site. poorly drained soil is on low broad flats and in sloughs
This map unit has severe limitations for dwellings connecting depressions. Individual areas are irregular in








Flagler County, Florida 47


shape. They range from 5 to 100 acres in size. Slopes commercial production of pulpwood is 35 cords per acre
are smooth to concave. They are mainly less than 1 harvested from a fully stocked stand of trees 25 years
percent but range to 2 percent. old. Seedling mortality, plant competition, and the
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Valkaria fine sand, equipment limitation are management concerns. Site
Valkaria and similar soils make up 81 to 99 percent of preparation, such as double bedding, helps to establish
the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 19 percent. seedlings and reduces the mortality rate. Planting on
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand beds should be done so that it does not block the
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray natural drainage pattern. Other site preparation, such as
fine sand about 11 inches thick. The subsoil is brownish chopping and burning, reduces debris and controls
yellow and yellow fine sand to a depth of about 38 competing vegetation. Using low pressure, high-flotation
inches. The underlying layer is gray fine sand to a equipment and harvesting during dry periods reduces
depth of 80 inches or more. Some areas contain soils the soil compaction.
that are similar to the Valkaria soil but have a loamy This soil is well suited to range and grazeable
subsoil layer below a depth of 60 inches. Also included woodland. The dominant forage includes maidencane,
in mapping are some soils that are similar to the chalky bluestem, and panicum. The canopy is more
Valkaria soil but have a dark sandy layer below the open and has fewer trees and shrubs. When well
subsoil, do not have a subsoil, or have a loamy sand managed, this soil has the potential to produce a large
layer beneath the subsoil. amount of forage. It is in the Slough range site.
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
areas of Pineda, Riviera, and Myakka soils. Pineda and basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
Riviera soils are in landscape positions similar to those and streets. The wetness caused by the seasonal high
of the Valkaria soil, but they have a loamy subsoil layer, water table at or near the soil surface is the main
Myakka soils are in broad areas of flatwoods and have limitation. Building sites and local roads and streets
an organic-stained layer in the subsoil. may require additions of fill to elevate the site and to
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0 to 6 increase the effective depth to the seasonal high water
inches for 2 to 6 months. It is at the surface for a few table. Where drainage outlets are available, a water-
days to several weeks, and it is at a depth of 10 to 40 control system that lowers the high water table can help
inches during dry periods. Permeability is rapid. The to overcome the wetness.
available water capacity is low. The limitations for shallow excavations are severe.
The natural vegetation consists of St. Johnswort, Cutbanks are unstable, and excavations fill with water
maidencane, panicum, pineland threeawn, cordgrass, when the water table is high. Shoring sidewalls of
bluestem, and sundew. A large acreage is used for pine excavations can help to prevent caving. Installing
plantations. dewatering wells can lower the water table and help to
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. It is overcome the wetness. The wetness and the poor
limited mainly by the wetness and the poor soil quality, filtering of effluent are severe limitations for septic tank
Unless very extensive management is applied, the absorption fields. Using suitable fill to mound the
types of crops that can be grown on this soil are limited, absorption field can help to overcome these limitations.
By applying good water-control and soil-improving The seepage and the wetness are severe limitations for
measures, this soil can be suitable for some vegetable sewage lagoons and trench-type sanitary landfills.
crops. A water-control system is needed to remove the Lining the lagoons and trenches with impervious soil
excess water in wet seasons and to provide water by material can reduce the excess seepage. Water-control
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row crops should measures should be used to remove the excess surface
be rotated with close-growing, soil-improving crops. and ground water.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Bahiagrass, The wetness and the sandy surface are severe
bermudagrass, and clover grow well when they are limitations for recreational development. Installing
properly managed. Water-control measures that remove water-control measures can reduce the wetness caused
the excess water are necessary. Regular applications of by the seasonal high water table. The trafficability of the
fertilizer and lime are also necessary. Controlled sandy surface layer is poor in areas of high use as a
grazing, proper stocking rates, and pasture rotation help result of the loose, unstable sand. Planting a vegetative
to maintain the proper plant growth and prevent cover, adding mulch or suitable topsoil, or constructing
problems associated with overgrazing, paved areas can help to overcome the limitations
This soil is moderately suited to the production of caused by the sandy surface layer.
slash pine. Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
site index for slash pine is 70. The potential for woodland wildlife is poor and for wetland wildlife is








48 Soil Survey


good. Areas of this soil provide a good source of food nutrients are leached rapidly. The variety of crops that
for bobwhite quail, deer, and wading birds. They can be grown without irrigation is limited. Ornamental
produce poor cover for most wildlife species, but the fern is a crop that is suited to this soil. To achieve
adjacent flatwoods produce good escape routes and an maximum yields, an irrigation system should be used to
edge effect. Other species in areas of this soil include maintain the optimum soil moisture and provide freeze
fox, rabbit, opossum, and variety of birds, reptiles, and protection during cold periods. Frequent applications of
amphibians. fertilizer and lime are generally needed for the best
This Valkaria soil is in capability subclass IVw. The yields. Soil-improving crops should be used in rotation,
woodland ordination symbol is 8w. The ecological and all of the crop residue should be returned to the
community is Slough. soil.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture. The natural
20-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This fertility is low, and the moisture available to plants is
very deep, nearly level to gently sloping, moderately also low. Plant nutrients leach rapidly from the soil.
well drained soil is on ridges and knolls on the Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and
flatwoods and coastal ridges near the Atlantic Ocean. bahiagrass, tolerate drought conditions better if they
Individual areas are circular to irregular in shape. They are properly fertilized and limed. Periodic mowing and
range from 5 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are short and clipping help to maintain uniform growth, discourage
convex. selective grazing, and reduce clumpy growth. Proper
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Orsino fine sand, stocking rates, a system of pasture rotation, and the
Orsino and similar soils make up 86 to 99 percent of timely deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in
the map unit: Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 14 percent. good condition.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine This soil is moderately suited to the production of
sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white slash pine and sand pine. Based on a 50-year site
fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth curve, the mean site index for slash pine is 70. The
of 49 inches, is brown fine sand that has common potential for commercial production of pulpwood is 35
tongues of white fine sand in the upper part and is pale cords per acre harvested from a fully stocked stand of
brown fine sand in the lower part. The underlying layer, trees 25 years old. Sand pine also is suited to this soil.
to a depth of 80 inches, is light gray sand. Some areas Seedling mortality, the equipment limitation, and plant
contain soils that are similar to the Orsino soil but do competition are management concerns. The high
not have a weakly expressed, organic-stained layer in temperature of the surface layer in the summer and the
the subsoil. Also included in mapping are some soils very low available water capacity increase the seedling
that are similar to the Orsino soil but have a thicker mortality rate. Site preparation, such as chopping,
organic-stained layer in the subsoil. applying herbicide, and bedding, reduces debris,
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small controls plant competition, and facilitates mechanical
areas of Cocoa and Paola soils. Cocoa soils are in planting. The sandy surface layer restricts the use of
landscape positions similar to those of the Orsino soil, wheeled equipment, especially when the surface is very
and they are underlain by limestone within a depth of dry. The soil often has a very low content of organic
80 inches. Paola soils are in the slightly higher matter, and harvesting systems that remove all the
landscape positions and are excessively drained. biomass from the site reduce the fertility. Logging
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 48 to 60 methods that leave residual biomass distributed over
inches for 6 months in most years. Permeability is very the site are preferred.
rapid. The available water capacity is very low or low. This soil is poorly suited to range or grazeable
Most areas support the natural vegetation. A small woodland. The dominant preferred forage is
acreage is used for urban development, and some indiangrass, low panicum, bluestem, grapevine,
areas are used for pine plantations. The natural greenbrier, and perennial legumes. The soil supports a
vegetation consists of sand pine, scrub live oak, and fairly dense stand of sand pine, and the canopy cover is
turkey oak. The understory vegetation consists of saw thick. Livestock will not use the soil if other range sites
palmetto and greenbrier and a sparse growth of grasses are available, although the soil does furnish winter
that includes pineland threeawn, bluestem, indiangrass, protection. This soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range
and panicum. site.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, but if This soil has only slight limitations for dwellings
intensive management practices are applied, a few without basements, small commercial buildings, and
specialized crops can be grown. The soil is mainly local roads and streets. In areas that have slopes of
limited by the poor soil quality. It is drought, and more than 4 percent, the limitations are moderate for








Flagler County, Florida 49


small commercial buildings. Land smoothing can help to Also included are areas of soils that have a loamy layer
overcome the slope. Lawn grasses and landscaping within a depth of 40 inches.
plants require frequent irrigation. Shoring the sidewalls A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
of excavations helps to prevent caving. The limitations inches for 1 to 4 months during wet seasons in most
are slight for septic tank absorption fields, but the years. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6
hazard of ground-water contamination exists in areas months. Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid.
that have many septic tanks. Lining the trench-type Available water capacity is low.
sanitary landfills and sewage lagoons with impervious The natural vegetation consists of slash pine and
soil material can reduce the excess seepage. longleaf pine. The understory vegetation consists of
The sandy surface is a severe limitation for saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, bluestem, and
recreational development. Maintaining good trafficability panicum. Most areas of this soil are used for the
in the loose sandy surface is difficult, and the hazard of commercial production of pine trees and as improved
blowing sand is present. Establishing a good vegetative pasture for cattle. A large acreage is being developed
cover, planting windbreaks, adding good topsoil, or for residential and commercial uses.
constructing paved areas can help to overcome the This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The
limitation. main limitations are excessive wetness and poor soil
The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and quality. By using a good water-control system, Irish
woodland wildlife is poor and for wetland wildlife is very potatoes and a variety of cabbage and vegetable crops
good. Although the production of food for wildlife is can be grown. Proper row management, lateral ditches
limited, good escape cover for deer and turkey is or tiles, and well constructed outlets help to remove the
present. Other species include gopher, tortoise, excess surface water. A furrow irrigation system is
raccoon, armadillos, and several kinds of song birds. suited to this soil. Land grading and smoothing improve
This Orsino soil is in capability subclass VIs. The the surface drainage, allow a more uniform application
woodland ordination symbol is 4s. The ecological of irrigation water, and permit the more efficient use of
community is Sand Pine Scrub. farm equipment. Returning all of the crop residue to the
soil and including grasses, legumes, or grass-legume
mixtures in the crop rotation help to conserve moisture,
:21-Smyrna fine sand. This very deep, nearly level, maintain fertility, and control erosion. Frequent
poorly drained soil is on the flatwoods. Individual areas applications of fertilizer and lime are generally needed
are broad to narrow and irregular in shape. They range to improve soil quality.
from 4 to 400 acres in size. Slopes are smooth and With good water-control management, this soil is well
range from 0 to 2 percent. suited to pasture. The main limitations are a result of
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Smyrna fine the wetness. Excessive water can be removed by using
sand, Smyrna and similar soils make up 80 to 99 field ditches and tile drains. Grasses and legumes grow
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to well if adequate fertilizer is used. The low available
20 percent. water capacity limits the production of plants during
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4 extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants, such as
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray and light gray coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, tolerate
fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is dark drought conditions better if they are properly fertilized
reddish brown fine sand to a depth of 21 inches. The and limed. Proper stocking rates, a system of pasture
next layer, to a depth of 50 inches, is brown fine sand. rotation, and the timely deferment of grazing help to
Gray fine sand extends to a depth of 70 inches, and keep the pasture in good condition.
very dark gray fine sand extends to a depth of 80 Most areas support the natural vegetation. A few
inches or more. Some areas contain soils that are areas are used as improved pasture. The natural
similar to the Smyrna soil but have a organic-stained vegetation consists of slash pine, pineland threeawn,
subsoil layer at a depth of 20 to 30 inches. Also bluestem, and saw palmetto.
included in mapping are some soils that are similar to This soil is well suited to the production of slash pine.
the Smyrna soil but do not have a gray subsurface Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean site index for
layer. slash pine is 80. The potential for commercial
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small production of pulpwood is 42 cords per acre harvested
areas of Placid and Pomona soils. Placid soils are in from a fully stocked stand of trees 25 years old. The
small depressions. Pomona soils have a loamy subsoil main management concerns for producing and
layer at a depth of 40 to 60 inches. They are in harvesting timber are the equipment limitation, the
landscape positions similar to those of the Smyrna soil. seedling mortality rate, and plant competition. If site








50 Soil Survey


preparation is not adequate, competition from cover, adding mulch or suitable topsoil, or constructing
undesirable plants can prevent or prolong the natural or paved areas can help to overcome the limitations
artificial reestablishment of trees. Planting on beds caused by the sandy surface layer.
helps to overcome the limitations caused by the The potential of this soil as habitat for all forms of
excessive wetness. Although conventional methods of wildlife is fair. Areas of this soil provide good food and
harvesting timber generally can be used, their use can cover, nesting sites, and den sites for a diverse and
be limited during rainy periods, which are generally from numerous wildlife population. The species generally
June to December. The use of equipment during wet include deer, quail, turkey, feral hog, raccoon, opossum,
periods can cause soil compaction. Soil compaction and a variety of birds.
results in less infiltration and aeration and restricted This Smyrna soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
root growth. Site preparation, such as chopping, woodland ordination symbol is 10w. The ecological
burning, applying herbicide, and bedding, reduces community is North Florida Flatwoods.
debris, reduces immediate plant competition, and
facilitates hand and mechanical planting. Using a 22-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This
nitrogen fertilizer combined with phosphorus, based on very deep, nearly level to sloping, excessively drained
a soil test or tissue analysis, at mid-rotation can provide soil is on ridges and knolls on the flatwoods and coastal
an excellent growth response. Other good management ridges near the Atlantic Ocean. Individual areas are
practices include the selection of appropriate species, oval to irregular in shape. They range from 5 to 100
restricted burning, and a harvesting system that leaves oal o ir i range from to
acres in size. Slopes are convex and range from 0 to 8
debris onsite to conserve organic matter.
This soil is well suited to range and grazeable per
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Astatula fine sand,
woodland. It has a moderate to high potential for the to 8 percent slopes, Astatul and simila soils make
production of native forage. The dominant plants 0 to 8 percent slopes, Astatula and similar soils make
production of native forage. The dominant plants
suitable for grazing include chalky bluestem, creeping up 85 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils
bluestem, indiangrass, and panicum. This soil is in the mae up 1 to 15 percent.
North Florida Flatwoods range site. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying material is
basements, local roads and streets and small very pale brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.
commercial buildings because of the wetness caused Some areas contain soils that are similar to the Astatula
soilcommercial buildings because of the wetness causedlayer. Also
by the seasonal high water table. If suitable outlets are soi but have a light-colored subsurface layer. Also
available, shallow surface drainage can help to remove included in mapping are soe soils that are similar to
the excess water. Suitable fill material can be used to the Astatula soil but have thin bands of loamy material
elevate building sites and increase the effective depth below a depth of 40 inches and other soils that have a
to the water table. The limitations are severe for shallow black fine sand layer below a depth of 52 inches.
excavations because cutbanks are unstable and The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small
excavations fill with water when the water table is high. areas of Tavares soils. Tavares soils are slightly lower
Shoring sidewalls of excavations can help to prevent on the landscape than the Astatula soil and are
caving. Installing dewatering wells can lower the water moderately well drained.
table and help to overcome the wetness. The wetness A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more
and the poor filtering of effluent are severe limitations than 72 inches in most years. Permeability is very rapid.
for septic tank absorption fields. Using suitable fill to The available water capacity is very low.
mound the absorption field can help to overcome these Most areas support the natural vegetation. A few
limitations. The wetness and the seepage are severe areas are used for improved pasture, pine plantations,
limitations for sewage lagoons and trench-type sanitary and urban development. The natural vegetation consists
landfills. Lining the lagoons and trenches with of sand pine, scrub live oak, and turkey oak. The
impervious soil material can reduce the excess understory vegetation consists of pineland threeawn,
seepage. Water-control measures should be used to bluestem, paspalum, and greenbrier and scattered
remove the excess surface and ground water, areas of saw palmetto.
The wetness and the sandy surface are severe This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
limitations for recreational development. Installing available water capacity and the natural fertility are very
water-control measures can reduce the wetness caused low in the root zone. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed, and
by the seasonal high water table. The trafficability of the nutrients are quickly leached from the soil.
sandy surface layer is poor in areas of high use as a This soil is poorly suited to pasture. Grasses, such
result of the loose, unstable sand. Planting a vegetative as bermudagrass and bahiagrass, only make fair growth








Flagler County, Florida 51


if fertilizer is used. The very low natural fertility and the limitations. Land smoothing may be required in the
available water capacity are limitations, steeper areas.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
sand pine. Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean site woodland wildlife is poor and for wetland wildlife is very
index for sand pine is 60. The potential for commercial poor. Although the production of food for wildlife is
production of pulpwood is 12 cords per acre from a fully limited, good escape cover for deer and turkey is
stocked stand of trees 25 years old. The equipment present. Other species include gopher tortoise, raccoon,
limitation and the seedling mortality rate are the main armadillos, and several kinds of songbirds.
management concerns. Using specialized equipment, This Astatula soil is in capability subclass Vis. The
such as high-flotation, oversized tires, reduces the woodland ordination symbol is 3s. The ecological
damage to roots and minimizes soil compaction during community is Sand Pine Scrub.
thinning and harvesting activities. Planting special
oversized or containerized stock can reduce the 23-Adamsville fine sand, 0 to 3 percent slopes.
seedling mortality rate that results from the This very deep, nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat
droughtiness. Road construction, logging, and site poorly drained soil is on low knolls, broad elevated flats,
preparation should include the stabilization of roads and and side slopes of ridges on the flatwoods and coastal
trails. Using culverts and bridges over drainageways areas adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. Individual areas
and other maintenance measures prevent soil erosion are irregular in shape. They range from 5 to 100 acres
and water flow problems. A preferred harvesting system in sze. Slopes are short and convex and range from
leaves residual biomass distributed over the site. to 3 percent.
This soil is poorly suited to range or grazeable In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Adamsville fine
sand, 0 to 3 percent slopes, Adamsville and similar
woodland. The dominant preferred forage includes sand, 0 to 3 percentpes Adasvie and similar
soils make up 83 to 99 percent of the map unit.
indiangrass, low panicum, bluestem, paspalum, make up to percent
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 17 percent.
greenbrier, and perennial legumes. Livestock will notp
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine
use this soil if other range sites are available. The soil nd about 7 ihes thick. Ver is ga brown fine
Pine Scrub sand about 7 inches thick. Very pale brown fine sand
furnishes winter protection. It is in the Sand Pine Scrubto a depth of 34 inches, and light gray fine
extends to a depth of 34 inches, and light gray fine
range site. sand that has brown mottles extends to a depth of 80
This soil has slight limitations for building site inches or more. Some areas contain soils that are more
development. The soil properties are favorable for brownish in the substratum than the Adamsville soil and
dwellings without basements and for local roads and are better drained. Other areas contain soils that have a
streets. The limitations for small commercial buildings weakly developed layer darkened by accumulations of
are slight in areas where the slope is less than 4 organic material.
percent and are moderate in areas where the slope is The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small
more than 4 percent. Some land smoothing may be areas of Myakka and Smyrna soils. These soils have an
needed to overcome the slope. The cutbanks of shallow organic-stained layer in the subsoil. They also are in
excavations are unstable and are subject to slumping. lower positions on the landscape than the Adamsville
Shoring the sidewalls of excavations helps to prevent soil and are more poorly drained.
caving. The limitations are slight for septic tank A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 24 to 42
absorption fields, but the hazard of ground-water inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. Permeability is
contamination exists because of poor filtration of rapid. Available water capacity is low.
effluent in areas that have many septic tanks. The Most areas are used as woodland and wildlife
seepage is a severe limitation for sewage lagoons and habitat. A few small areas are used for urban
trench-type sanitary landfills. Lining the trenches and development. The natural vegetation consists of live
lagoons with impervious soil material can reduce the oak and slash pine and scattered areas of turkey oak.
excess seepage. The understory vegetation consists of saw palmetto,
The sandy surface is a severe limitation for goldleaf aster, and pineland threeawn.
recreational development. In areas that have slopes of This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops.
more than 6 percent, the slope is an additional Periodic wetness, poor soil quality, and drought
limitation. Maintaining good trafficability in the loose conditions during dry periods are the main management
sandy surface is difficult, and the hazard of blowing concerns. The number of adapted crops is limited
sand is present. Establishing a good vegetative cover, unless intensive water-control measures are used with
planting windbreaks, adding good topsoil, or a water-control system that removes excess water in
constructing paved areas can help to overcome the wet periods and provides irrigation in dry periods. This








52 Soil Survey


soil is suited to some vegetable crops. Good absorption fields. Using suitable soil material to mound
management includes water-control measures and a the septic tank absorption field can help to overcome
crop rotation that has a close-growing crop on the land these limitations. The seepage is a severe limitation for
at least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving crops and sewage lagoons and trench-type sanitary landfills.
the residue from all the other crops should be plowed Sealing or lining the lagoons and trenches with
under the surface. Fertilizer and lime should be applied impervious soil material can reduce the excessive
according to the needs of the crops, seepage.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Bahiagrass The sandy surface is a severe limitation for
and bermudagrass are well adapted species. Fertilizer recreational development. Maintaining good trafficability
and lime should be applied according to the needs of is difficult, and the hazard of blowing sand is present.
the grasses. Periodic mowing and clipping help to Stabilizing the surface with vegetation, adding suitable
maintain uniform growth and discourage selective topsoil, or constructing paved areas can help to
grazing. Proper stocking rates, a system of pasture overcome the limitation.
rotation, and the timely deferment of grazing help to The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
keep the pasture in good condition. wetland wildlife is poor and for woodland wildlife is
This soil is moderately suited to the production of good. The hardwoods and shrubs provide a fair source
slash pine. Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean of food and cover for deer, turkey, squirrel, raccoon,
site index for slash pine is 80. The potential for and armadillos.
commercial production of pulpwood is 42 cords per acre This Adamsville soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
from a fully stocked stand of trees 25 years old. The woodland ordination symbol is 10w. The ecological
main management concerns are the equipment community is Upland Hardwood Hammock.
limitation, the seedling mortality rate, and plant
competition. Using specialized equipment, such as high- 24-Samsula and Placid soils, frequently flooded.
flotation, oversized tires, reduces the damage to roots These very deep, nearly level, very poorly drained soils
and minimizes soil compaction. Wetness can restrict the are in long, narrow drainageways that are mainly in
use of equipment to dry periods. It also increases upland areas. A few areas of this map unit are on the
seedling mortality. Planting on beds helps to overcome flatwoods. Individual areas are elongated in shape.
the wetness, but it should not block the natural surface They range from 50 to more than 200 acres in size. The
drainage. Droughtiness of the surface during dry soils are frequently flooded during wet seasons. Slopes
periods can cause seedling mortality. Other methods of are concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
site preparation, including chopping and applying In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Samsula and
herbicide, can minimize plant competition. Road Placid soils, Samsula, Placid, and similar soils make up
construction, logging, and site preparation should 79 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make
include the stabilization of roads and trails. Using up 1 to 21 percent.
culverts and bridges over drainageways and other Generally, the mapped areas are 70 percent
maintenance measures prevent soil erosion and water Samsula and similar soils and 23 percent Placid and
flow problems. A preferred harvesting system leaves similar soils. Each of the soils is not present in every
residual biomass distributed over the site. mapped area, and the relative proportion of the soils is
Because of the unusually dense canopy cover and variable. Although individual areas of the soils are large
the relatively open understory, this soil is poorly suited enough to map separately, they were mapped as one
to range or grazeable woodland. It does provide good unit based upon the present and predicted uses.
shade and resting areas. Creeping bluestem, Typically, the surface soil of the Samsula soil is dark
indiangrass, low panicum, and other grass and reddish brown in the upper 10 inches and is black muck
grasslike plants are the primary species used for in the lower 23 inches. The substratum is very dark
forage. This soil is in the Upland Hardwood Hammock gray fine sand to a depth of 45 inches and light gray
range site. fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. Some areas
This soil has a moderate limitation for dwellings contain soils that are similar to the Samsula soil but
without basements, small commercial buildings, and have a muck surface soil more than 52 inches thick.
local roads and streets mainly because of the wetness Typically, the surface layer of the Placid soil is very
caused by the seasonal high water table. Using water- dark brown fine sand about 11 inches thick. The upper
control measures helps to overcome the limitations, part of the substratum is dark grayish brown and light
Stabilizing the sidewalls of excavations helps to prevent gray fine sand to a depth of about 67 inches. The lower
caving. The wetness and the poor filtering properties of part is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches
the sandy soil are severe limitations for septic tank or more. Some areas contain soils that are similar to








Flagler County, Florida 53


the Placid soil but have a thin layer of muck on the for shade during the summer months. This map unit is
surface, not assigned to a range site.
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small This map unit has severe limitations for urban
areas of sandy soils that have several layers or strata development. The main limitations are the flooding and
of muck and loamy sediments of varying thickness and the excessive wetness. Also, the Samsula soil has a
at varying depths. They are in landscape positions very low bearing strength for building foundations and
similar to those of the Samsula and Placid soils. roads. Major flood control structures and an extensive
In most years, this map unit is flooded for 1 month or local drainage system are needed to protect this map
more during periods of high rainfall. The water table is unit from flooding. Roads, streets, and building sites
within 6 inches of the surface for 6 months or more in should be elevated with fill material to overcome the
most years. The permeability of the Samsula and Placid wetness. The organic layers should be removed and
soils is rapid. The available water capacity is moderate replaced with suitable fill. Septic tank absorption fields
in the Samsula soil and low to moderate in the Placid need to be mounded to overcome the wetness.
soil. If this map unit is used for recreational development,
Most areas of this map unit support the natural the flooding and the excessive wetness are the main
vegetation, which includes red maple, sweetgum, water limitations. Good drainage is needed to keep the water
oak, cabbage palm, and baldcypress. The understory table from rising above a depth of about 2 to 21/2 feet.
vegetation is sparse and consists of waxmyrtle, Protection from flooding is needed in areas where this
greenbrier, sawgrass, maidencane, and a few water- map unit is used for camp areas and playgrounds.
tolerant sedges and grasses. Some areas of this map During dry seasons, excessively dusty conditions can
unit are used as wildlife habitat. be produced by the organic surface of the Samsula soil.
n their natural state thesThe potential of this map unit as habitat for openland
In their natural state, these soils are generally and woodland wildlife is poor or very poor and for
and woodland wildlife is poor or very poor and for
unsuited to most cultivated crops because of theland wildlife is oo unit provides good
wetland wildlife is good. The map unit provides good
flooding and the excessive wetness.
flooding andsources of food and cover and nesting areas for several
In their natural state, these soils have a low suitability s s of od and oer a est areas for seer
for improved pasture grasses. By installing a water- kinds of wading birds and other waterfowl. It also
for improved pasture grasses. By installing a water-
provides good escape cover and travel routes for many
control system that includes protection from flooding, species. Other wildlife species in this map unit include
these soils have fair suitability for improved pasture. bobcat, deer, gray squirrel, otter, and raccoon.
bobcat, deer, gray squirrel, otter, and raccoon.
The main suitable pasture plants include bahiagrass, This map unit is in capability subclass VIIw. The
bermudagrass, and clover. Proper stocking rates, a woodland ordination symbol is 6w. The ecological
system of pasture rotation, and the timely deferment of community is Swamp Hardwoods.
grazing help to keep pasture and soil in good condition.
Fertilizer is needed for the optimum growth of grasses 25-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
and legumes. very deep, nearly level to gently sloping, moderately
The soils in this map unit are not suited to the well drained soil is on narrow to broad ridges and knolls
commercial production of pine trees because of the on the flatwoods and on upland sand ridges near
flooding and the excessive wetness. Pine seedlings will streams and drainageways. Individual areas range from
be killed or seriously stunted by flood water or by a 3 to 150 acres in size. Slopes are convex and range
water table that is at or near the surface of the soil for from 0 to 5 percent.
long periods of time. The high content of organic matter In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Tavares fine
content in the surface layer of the Samsula soil restricts sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Tavares and similar soils
the use of equipment. The organic layers and the make up 76 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
shallow root system result in a high windthrow hazard. soils make up 1 to 24 percent.
The Placid soil may be suited to cypress and Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5
hardwoods. Trees are harvested from some areas, but inches thick. The underlying material is pale brown and
regrowth is a result of natural regeneration rather than very pale brown sand to a depth of 46 inches. It has a
the planting of seedlings. A source of desirable few fine faint brownish yellow mottles and pockets of
seedlings is not readily available. Harvesting during white fine sand below a depth of 32 inches. White fine
extended dry periods helps to overcome the limitations, sand that has few distinct yellow and strong brown
This map unit has low suitability for range and mottles extends from a depth of 46 to 80 inches. Some
grazeable woodland. The dominant forage includes areas contain soils that are similar to the Tavares soil
sawgrass, sedges, and maidencane. The dense canopy but the lower part of the subsoil has a weakly
restricts the growth of forage. Cattle use this map unit developed, dark reddish brown layer. Also included in








54 Soil Survey


mapping are some soils that are not as well drained as include the selection of appropriate species, restricted
the Tavares soil. burning, and a harvesting system that leaves debris
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small onsite to conserve organic matter. Based on a 50-year
areas of Astatula and Cassia soils and other soils that site curve, the mean site index for slash pine is 80. The
have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to more than 40 potential commercial production of pulpwood is 42
inches. Astatula soils are in/ landscape positions higher cords per acre harvested from a fully stocked stand of
than those of the Tavares soil and are excessively trees 25 years old.
drained. Cassia soils are in slightly lower landscape This soil is moderately suited to range and grazeable
positions, have an organic-stained subsoil layer, and woodland. The production of vegetation suitable for
are somewhat poorly drained, livestock grazing is limited by the poor soil condition.
In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a The production and quality of forage are poor, and
depth of 48 to 72 inches for more than 6 months, but it cattle do not readily graze these areas if better sites are
recedes to a depth of more than 80 inches during available. Little or no grazing occurs when the canopy
drought periods. Permeability is rapid and very rapid, cover exceeds 60 percent. This soil is in the Longleaf
Available water capacity is very low. Pine-Turkey Oak Hill range site.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees. This soil has only slight limitations for dwellings
A few areas have been cleared and are used for urban without basements, small commercial buildings, and
development. Some small areas remain in their natural local roads and streets. In areas where the slope is
state. The natural vegetation consists of blackjack oak more than 4 percent, the limitations are moderate for
and turkey oak and scattered areas of slash pine and small commercial buildings. Land smoothing can help to
longleaf pine. The understory vegetation consists of overcome the slope. Lawn grasses and landscaping
pineland threeawn and goldleaf aster and scattered plants require frequent irrigation. Shoring the sidewalls
areas of saw palmetto, of excavations helps to prevent caving. The limitations
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because are slight for septic tank absorption fields, but the
of droughtiness and low natural fertility. Returning all of hazard of round-water contamination exists in areas
the crop residue to the soil and including grasses, trench-type
legumes, or grass-legume mixtures in the crop rotation a an ipe
sanitary landfills and sewage lagoons with impervious
help to conserve moisture, maintain fertility, and control sil atrial an help to p t e s
soil material can help to prevent excess seepage.
erosion. The soil can be used for a variety of crops. This soil has severe limitations for recreational
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are needed development. The main limitation is the loose, sandy
for good yields. A well designed and managed irrigation s le. n inteniel the sand
system helps to maintain optimum soil moisture and surface yer. n ntensvely used areas, the sady
ensures the highest possible yields. surface needs to be stabilized by the addition of
suitable topsoil, the establishment of vegetation, or the
This soil is moderately suited to improved pastures const n of p d
under a high level of management. The low natural construction of paved areas.
fertility and the low available water capacity limit the The potential of this soil as habitat for openland and
production of plants during extended dry periods. Deep- woodland wildlife is fair and for wetland wildlife is very
rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and poor. Undisturbed areas of this soil provide good
bahiagrass, tolerate drought conditions better if they escape cover for turkey and deer. Other wildlife include
are properly fertilized and limed. Frequent applications many songbirds, fox, squirrel, quail, gopher, and
of fertilizer and lime are necessary for the sustained tortoise.
production of high quality pasture. A rotation grazing This Tavares soil is in capability subclass Ills. The
system helps to maintain the quality of forage, woodland ordination symbol is 10s. The ecological
This soil is moderately suited to the production of community is Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills.
slash pine. The main management concerns are the low
fertility and the low available water capacity, which 26-Turnbull and Pellicer soils, tidal. These very
result in increased seedling mortality, increased plant deep, nearly level, very poorly drained soils are in tidal
competition, and reduced growth rates. Special site marsh areas. These soils do not occur in a regular and
preparation, such as chopping, helps to establish repeating pattern. They are frequently flooded.
seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality rate, and Individual areas are broad to narrow and elongated in
increases early plant growth. Using a nitrogen fertilizer shape. They range from 5 to 800 acres in size. Slopes
combined with phosphorus, based on a soil test or are smooth to convex and are less than 1 percent.
tissue analysis, at mid-rotation can provide an excellent Turnbull, Pellicer, and similar soils make up 84 to 99
growth response. Other good management practices percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas








Flagler County, Florida 55


mapped as Turnbull and Pellicer soils, tidal. Dissimilar content of clay, and the low strength severely restrict
soils make up 1 to 16 percent. the use of this soil for agricultural purposes. The soil
Generally, the mapped areas are about 52 percent becomes extremely acid when dried. The low soil
Turnbull and similar soils and about 43 percent Pellicer strength will not support grazing cattle or equipment.
and similar soils. Each of the soils is not present in This map unit has severe limitations for building site
every mapped area, and the relative proportion of the development. The hazard of flooding, the excessive
soils is variable. Although individual areas of the soils wetness, the low strength, and the seepage make this
are large enough to map separately, they were mapped map unit poorly suited to dwellings, small commercial
as one unit based upon the present and predicted uses. buildings, local roads and streets, and sanitary facilities.
Typically, the surface layer of the Turnbull soil is very Overcoming these limitations is impractical.
dark gray muck about 8 inches thick. The underlying This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
material is olive gray clay to a depth of 42 inches and development. Tidal flooding, wetness, and low soil
gray loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches. Some strength are severe limitations that are difficult to
areas contain soils that are similar to the Turnbull soil overcome.
but have more than 16 inches of muck on the surface, The potential of this map unit as habitat for openland
have a clayey surface layer, or have a dark sandy layer and woodland wildlife is very poor and for wetland
below the clayey layers. wildlife is fair. The native vegetation and fauna are
Typically, the surface layer of the Pellicer soil is very important links in the food chain for many sport and
dark grayish brown silty clay loam about 10 inches commercial finfish and shellfish. Many species of duck,
thick. The underlying material is dark gray clay loam to wading birds, and shore birds use this map unit for
a depth of 50 inches, dark gray sandy clay to a depth of food, shelter, and nesting.
55 inches, and dark gray fine sandy loam to a depth of This map unit is in capability subclass VIIIw. A
80 inches or more. Some areas contain soils that are woodland ordination symbol is not assigned. The
similar to the Pellicer soil but have a surface layer of ecological community is Salt Marsh.
muck or have a thin layer of sandy fill deposited on the
surface.
27-Cassia fine sand. This very deep, nearly level,
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small assa sa is erl lee
areas of EauGallie and Riviera soils that are subject to somewhat poorly drained soil is on low ridges and
tidal flooding. Also included are areas of soils that have knolls on the flatwoods. Individual areas range from 4 to
an organic layer 16 to more than 80 inches thick. The 150 acres n sze. Slopes are convex and range from
soils are in landscape positions similar to those of the to 2 percent.
Turnbull and Pellicer soils. EauGallie soils have an In 80 percent of the areas mapped as assia fine
organic-stained layer in the subsoil. Riviera soils have a sand, Cassia and similar soils make up 77 to 99
loamy subsoil layer. percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to
Most areas of this map unit are flooded twice daily by 23 percent.
the normal high tides (fig. 7). Some areas are flooded Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
only a few times each year, when weather or other sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray
conditions cause unusually high tides. The soils are and white fine sand about 21 inches thick. The subsoil,
continuously saturated. The water table is at a depth of to a depth of 42 inches, is very dark brown fine sand in
2 feet above the surface in the Turnbull soil and at a the upper 10 inches and dark yellowish brown fine sand
depth of 0 to 6 inches in the Pellicer soil. The in the lower 6 inches. The underlying material is pale
permeability is very slow in the Turnbull and Pellicer brown fine sand to a depth of 69 inches and is light
soils. The available water capacity is moderate to high brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches. Some
in the Turnbull soil and high in the Pellicer soil. areas contain soils that are similar to the Cassia soil but
Most areas of this map unit support the natural have a more weakly developed subsoil. Also included in
vegetation. The natural vegetation consists of black mapping are some soils that an organic-stained layer at
needlerush, seashore saltgrass, smooth cordgrass, a depth of more than 30 inches in the subsoil.
bushy seaweed, marshhay cordgrass, glasswort, and The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small
bigleaf swampweed. areas of Adamsville and Myakka soils. Also included
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops, are soils that have sandy loam or sandy clay loam in
improved pasture, range, grazeable woodland, or trees, the lower part of the subsoil or have a sandy subsoil at
Reclaiming the soil for agricultural uses would require a depth of more than 50 inches. Adamsville soils are in
extensive water-control structures, such as dikes and slightly lower landscape positions than the Cassia soil.
pumps. The high content of salt and sulfur, the high They do not have the organic stains in the subsoil.








56 Soil Survey








































Figure 7.-Needlegrass rush in an area of Turnbull and Pellicer soils, tidal. These soils are frequently flooded by tidal water.



Myakka soils are in lower positions on the landscape Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
and are poorly drained. cultivated crops. The shallow water table, which is 15 to
In most years, the seasonal high water table is at a 40 inches below the surface during wet seasons,
depth of 18 to 42 inches for about 6 months. It can severely restricts the root zone. After a good water-
recede to a depth of more than 42 inches during control system is applied, selected crops can be grown.
prolonged dry periods. Permeability is moderate or This soil is drought and has a very low natural fertility.
moderately rapid. Available water capacity is low. Returning all of the crop residue to the soil and
Most areas support the natural vegetation. A few including grasses, legumes, or grass-legume mixtures
areas are used as sites for homes and for urban in the crop rotation help to conserve moisture, maintain
development. The natural vegetation consists of fertility, and control erosion.
longleaf pine, slash pine, and sand pine. The Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
understory vegetation consists of bluestem, low improved pastures. The low available water capacity of
panicum, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, the soil causes drought conditions during extended dry
runner oak, and saw palmetto. periods and limits the growth of plants. Deep-rooted








Flagler County, Florida 57


plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, bobcat, skunks, raccoons, and a variety of song birds.
tolerate drought conditions better if they are properly The habitat for wildlife can be improved by controlled
fertilized and limed. Proper stocking rates, a system of burning and by planting supplemental food plots.
pasture rotation, and the timely deferment of grazing This Cassia soil is in capability subclass Vis. The
help to keep the pasture in good condition, woodland ordination symbol is 8s. The ecological
This soil is moderately suited to the production of community is Sand Pine Scrub.
pine trees. Because this soil has a sandy surface, is
very drought, and has a low natural fertility, 29-Udarents, moderately wet. This map unit
unsatisfactory seedling survival rates can be expected consists of heterogeneous soil material that was
during dry years. If site preparation is not adequate, removed from other soils and used in land-leveling
competition from undesirable plants can prevent or operations, as fill material, or as a cover for sanitary
prolong the natural or artificial establishment of trees. landfills. The material is a mixture of fine sand or of
Site preparation, such as chopping, burning, applying sand and fragments of loamy subsoil material.
herbicide, and bedding, reduces debris, reduces Individual areas are throughout the county, but most
immediate plant competition, and facilitates planting. areas are west of Interstate Highway 95 and are used
Using a nitrogen fertilizer combined with phosphorus, for urban development. The mapped areas are square
based on a soil test or tissue analysis, at mid-rotation or rectangular or are irregular in shape. They range
can provide an excellent growth response. Based on a from 3 to 200 acres in size. Slopes are smooth and
50-year site curve, the mean site index for slash pine is range from 0 to 2 percent.
70. The potential for commercial production of
70 The potent for commercial production of Udarents do not have an orderly sequence of soil
pulpwood is 35 cords per acre harvested from a fully layers. In most areas, the upper 20 to 40 inches is
stocked stand of trees 25 years old. variable and contains discontinuous lenses, pockets,
This soil is poorly suited to range and grazeable
This soil is poorly suited to range and grazeable and streaks of light gray, gray, grayish brown, brown,
woodland. The production of vegetation suitable for and yellowish brown fine sand. The average thickness
livestock grazing is limited by the low natural soil fertility of the fill material is about 30 inches. It has few or
and the droughtiness.. The dominant plants suitable for
forage are creeping buesem, indiangrass, and common fragments of a black or dark reddish brown
forage are creeping bluestem, indiangrass, and
panicum. Some areas provide good shade and winter sandy loam subsoil. The underlying material, to a depth
shelter for livestock. This soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub of about 80 inches, is undisturbed grayish brown and
range site. gray fine sand.
This soil has moderate limitations for dwellings In some areas, large cells of solid waste refuse are
without basements, small commercial buildings, and at a depth of more than 2 to 4 feet. The refuse consists
local roads and streets. The wetness caused by the of paper, plastic, wood, glass, concrete, metal, and
depth to the water table during wet seasons s a severe other materials. It ranges from 2 to 10 feet in thickness.
limitation for septic tank absorption fields. Adding It generally is stratified with layers of soil material that
suitable fill to elevate building sites, roads, and septic were used for daily cover. A final layer of soil material
tank absorption fields increases the effective depth of was spread on top of the refuse and then smoothed.
the water table and helps to overcome the wetness. If These sanitary landfill areas are identified on the soil
suitable outlets are available, a system of surface map by the words "sanitary landfill" or in small areas by
drainage can be installed. The sidewalls of shallow the letters "SLF" and by the map symbol.
excavations are unstable, and they should be shored to Included in mapping are a few small areas in which
prevent caving. Trench-type sanitary landfills and the mixed material contains shell fragments or loamy
sewage lagoons should be lined with impervious soil subsoil fragments that are slightly acid to moderately
material to help prevent excess seepage. alkaline. Some areas have pockets of muck or other
The sandy surface is a severe limitation for fragments of organic material. In some areas the fill
recreational development. The soil surface should be material is less than 20 inches thick, and in other areas
stabilized with additions of topsoil, the maintenance of about 40 inches of fill material is underlain by muck.
an adequate vegetative cover, or the construction of The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to
pavement. The plant cover can be maintained by 36 inches for 2 to 6 months. In sanitary landfill areas,
controlling traffic in the area. the high water table is controlled by using perimeter
Although the potential of this soil as wildlife habitat is drainage ditches or other water-control measures. The
poor or very poor, in its natural state it provides good available water capacity is very low to low. The
escape cover and habitat for a number of wildlife permeability is rapid.
species. The wildlife include deer, quail, turkeys, The natural vegetation consists of waxmyrtle,








58 Soil Survey


inkberry, saw palmetto, longleaf pine, and slash pine. 31-Palm Beach gravelly sand, 0 to 8 percent
The understory vegetation consists of bluestem, slopes. This very deep, nearly level to sloping, well
panicum, and pineland threeawn. drained to excessively drained soil is on primary dune
This map unit generally is not suited to vegetable ridges parallel to the Atlantic Coast. Individual areas are
crops because of the extreme variability of the soil irregular to elongated in shape. They range from 20 to
properties and the poor soil.quality, over 200 acres in size. Slopes are convex and range
In some areas, improved pasture grasses can be from 0 to 8 percent.
grown. Deep-rooting plants, such as bahiagrass, should In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Palm Beach
be selected. A large amount of fertilizer is needed. gravelly sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes, Palm Beach and
The potential of this map unit for the production of similar soils make up 82 to 99 percent of the map unit.
pine trees is low. In many areas, the map unit is not Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 18 percent.
suited because of the wide range of soil properties. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown gravelly
This map unit has severe limitations for urban sand about 4 inches thick. It has about 15 percent shell
development. The areas that have less than 2 feet of fill fragments. The underlying layer is light brownish gray
material may need additional fill material to elevate gravelly sand that has about 15 percent shell fragments
building foundation sites and subgrades for local roads to a depth of 22 inches, pale brown very gravelly sand
and streets. Areas that have less than 3 feet of fill that has about 40 percent shell fragments to a depth of
material may require additional fill material to elevate 47 inches, and light gray extremely gravelly sand to a
septic tank absorption fields. The sanitary landfill areas depth of 80 inches. The bottom layer is about 75
are not suited to urban development. The differential percent, by volume, shell fragments. Some areas
settling of the buried refuse severely limits use of this contain soils that are similar to the Palm Beach soil but
map unit for dwellings without basements and for local do not contain the shell fragments.
roads and streets. The sanitary landfill areas are not The dissimilar soils in this map unit include Orsino
suitable as septic tank absorption fields. The refuse soils. Orsino soils are on the back slopes of dunes and
would not provide an adequate filtering capacity for do not have shell fragments. Also included are some
effluent. The differential settling would cause the septic soils that have been disturbed. In some areas the
tank absorption field to cease functioning. surface layer has been removed or leveled for urban
This map unit is severely limited for recreational development.
development because the surface is too sandy. n most years, a seasonal high water is at a depth of
development because the surface is too sandy.
more than 80 inches. Permeability is very rapid.
Stabilizing the surface layer by adding suitable fill more than 80 nchesermeab s ver d.
Available water capacity is very low.
material or by paving high traffic areas helps to A e wr c y i v
Most areas support the natural vegetation. A few
overcome this limitation.
overcome this limitation small areas have been cleared and used for urban
Udarents are not assigned to a capability subclass, a development, parks, and rational areas. The natural
woodland development, parks, and recreational areas. The natural
woodland ordination symbol, or an ecological vegetation consists of sand live oak and red cedar. The
community. understory vegetation consists of runner oak, prickly
pear cactus, sea oats, saw palmetto, and waxmyrtle.
30-Pits. This map unit consists of excavated areas This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, pasture,
from which soil and geologic material was removed for woodland, range, or grazeable woodland. It receives
use mainly in road construction and as fill material, salt spray from the Atlantic Ocean. If the natural
These areas are commonly called borrow pits. Most of protective vegetation is disturbed, this soil is subject to
the areas have been excavated to a depth of 6 feet or severe wind erosion.
more. This soil has only slight limitations for building site
Included in mapping is spoil material, which is mostly development. Areas that have steep slopes have an
a mixture of sand, sandy loam, shell fragments, and additional limitation for small commercial buildings.
coquina limestone that has been scattered around the Land smoothing may be required in areas where the
edge of the pits. This map unit has little or no value as slope is more than about 4 percent. Lawns and
agricultural areas or woodland. Areas that support landscaping plants require frequent irrigation during dry
wildlife habitat or recreational development can be seasons. Some areas of this soil receive wind-blown
established after excavation operations are salt spray when high winds blow from the ocean.
discontinued. Shoring the sidewalls of excavations prevents caving.
Pits are not assigned to a capability subclass, a The limitations are slight for septic tank absorption
woodland ordination symbol, or an ecological fields, but the hazard of ground-water contamination
community, exists because of poor filtration of effluent in areas that








Flagler County, Florida 59


have many septic tanks. The excess seepage is a gray in the upper 2 inches and light gray in the lower 12
severe limitation for sewage lagoons and trench-type inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 41 inches.
sanitary landfills. Lining the lagoons and trenches with The upper part is dark brown fine sand about 6 inches
imperious soil material can help to reduce the excess thick. The upper 3 inches of the subsoil is weakly
seepage, expressed and is discontinuous in 20 to 25 percent of
The sandy surface is a severe limitation for the pedons. The lower part of the subsoil is brown fine
recreational development. The slope is an additional sand about 18 inches thick. The underlying material is
limitation in some areas. The trafficability is difficult to light gray extremely gravelly fine sand and gravelly fine
maintain in areas of heavy traffic. Blowing sand is a sand. It is stratified with layers of light gray fine sand to
hazard during periods of high wind. The surface should a depth of more than 80 inches. Some areas contain
be stabilized by planting a vegetative cover, adding soils that are similar to the Narcoossee soil but have a
suitable topsoil, or constructing paved areas. Areas that more strongly expressed and continuous subsoil. Also
have slopes of more than 6 percent should be included in mapping are some soils that are similar to
smoothed if they are to be used for playgrounds. the Narcoossee soil but have weak, discontinuous
The potential of this soil for use as wildlife habitat is organic-stained layers in the subsoil and other soils that
poor or very poor. The native vegetation provides very contain about 75 percent, by volume, shell fragments at
limited food sources, but the dense growth of shrubs a depth of about 32 inches.
provides good travel routes and escape cover. Because Typically, the surface layer of Welaka soil is dark
of intense urban development, the numbers of wildlife gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface
are low. Wildlife species include foxes, raccoons, layer is light gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
armadillos, mice, and a variety of birds. subsoil is brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of about
This Palm Beach soil is in capability subclass Vlls. It 42 inches. The underlying material is very pale brown
has not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol. gravelly fine sand to a depth of 50 inches and light gray
The ecological community is North Florida Coastal very gravelly fine sand to a depth of 80 inches. Some
Strand. areas contain soils that are similar to the Welaka soil
but do not have the light gray subsurface layer. Also
32-Narcoossee, shell substratum-Welaka included in mapping are some soils that are similar to
complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes. The very deep, nearly the Welaka soil but are in lower positions on the
level, somewhat poorly drained Narcoossee soil and the landscape and are moderately well drained.
very deep, well drained, gently sloping Welaka soil are The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small
on the Coastal Strand, between the Atlantic Ocean and areas of Myakka soils. Myakka soils are in lower
the intercoastal waterway. The soils occur in a regular, positions on the landscape than the soils in this map
repeating pattern. The Welaka soil is on the lower back unit. They are also poorly drained.
slopes of primary sand dunes, on the lower relic In most years, the seasonal high water table in the
secondary and tertiary sand dunes, and on high knolls Narcoossee soil is at a depth of 24 to 42 inches for 4 to
in the areas between the sand dunes and the salt 6 months. During extended dry periods, the water table
marshes. The Narcoossee soil is in swales between recedes to a depth of more than 42 inches. The
sand dunes and on low knolls between dunes and the seasonal high water table in the Welaka soil is
salt marshes. generally at a depth of more than 80 inches.
Narcoossee, Welaka, and similar soils make up 83 to Permeability is very rapid in the Welaka soil and rapid
99 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas and very rapid in the Narcoossee soil. The available
mapped as Narcoossee, shell substratum-Welaka water capacity is low in the Narcoossee soil and very
complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Dissimilar soils make low in the Welaka soil.
up 1 to 17 percent. A few small areas of this map unit support the natural
Generally, the mapped areas are about 61 percent vegetation. Most areas have been subdivided and are
Narcoossee and similar soils and about 29 percent used for urban development. The natural vegetation on
Welaka and similar soils. The components of this map the Narcoossee soil consists of sand live oak, longleaf
unit are so intricately intermingled that they could not be pine, and slash pine. The understory vegetation on the
mapped separately at the scale used. However, the Narcoossee soil consists of yaupon holly, saw palmetto,
proportions and patterns of the soils are relatively bluestem, panicum, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn.
consistent in most delineations of the map unit. The vegetation on the Welaka soil consists of sand
Typically, the surface layer of the Narcoossee soil is pine, dwarf live oak, and scrub oak and scattered areas
very dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The of rosemary, saw palmetto, and pineland threeawn.
subsurface layer is fine sand about 14 inches thick. It is The Narcoossee soil is poorly suited to cultivated








60 Soil Survey


crops, and the Welaka soil is very poorly suited. The for various mammals, such as rabbits, raccoons, and
poor soil quality is a limitation. The soils have a low armadillos.
available water capacity and low natural fertility, and The Narcoossee soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
they are drought. In some areas, periodic salt spray The woodland ordination symbol is 10w, and the
from the Atlantic Ocean limits plant growth. ecological community is North Florida Coastal Strand.
This map unit is poorly suited to improved pasture. The Welaka soil is in capability subclass Vis. The
The poor soil quality, the low available water capacity, woodland ordination symbol is 3s, and the ecological
the droughtiness, and the salt spray from the ocean community is North Florida Coastal Strand.
limit the production of plants suitable for pastures.
Deep-rooted plants that are drought- and salt-tolerant, 33-Beaches. This map unit consists of nearly level
when properly fertilized, produce the best forage. to sloping, narrow strips of tide- and surf-washed areas
This map unit is not used for the commercial that are adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. These areas
production of pine trees. The competition from commonly are a mixture of moderately alkaline sand
undesirable plants and the salt spray from the ocean and shell fragments. Exposures of coquina limestone,
severely limit tree growth, washed by ocean tides, are with the sand and shell
This map unit is poorly suited to range or grazeable fragments along the beaches in the northern part of
woodland. It is not generally used for these purposes Flagler County. Slopes range from 1 to 3 percent.
and is not assigned to a range site. Beaches range in width from less than 100 feet to
The wetness is a moderate limitation for dwellings about 200 feet. About 50 percent of the beach area can
without basements, small commercial buildings, and be flooded daily by high tides, and all of the beaches
local roads and streets in the Narcoossee soil. It is a can be flooded by storm tides. Beach slopes can
severe limitation for septic tank absorption fields. The change during every storm.
wetness can be overcome by adding suitable fill to help Beaches do not have a sequence of layers. However,
maintain the water table at an effective depth. If outlets they are generally sand in the surface and coarse sand
are available, a drainage system can be installed. The and fine sand in the underlying material.
Welaka soil has slight limitations for dwellings without Beaches are generally devoid of vegetation, although
basements, local roads and streets, and septic tank a sparse growth of sea oats, fiddleleaf morningglory,
absorption fields. The limitations may be severe spartina, and other salt-tolerant plants can grow down
because of the poor filtration of the effluent and from the dune or from the inland edge.
contamination of ground water in areas that have many The depth to the seasonal high water table ranges
septic tanks. In areas where the slope exceeds 4 from 0 to 72 inches. It is highly variable and depends
percent, the limitations are moderate for small upon the topography of the beach, the distance from
commercial buildings. The seepage is a severe the shore, and the tidal conditions. Available water
limitation for sewage lagoons and trench sanitary capacity is very low. Permeability is rapid or very rapid.
landfills in the Narcoossee and Welaka soils. Lining the This map unit is generally not used for uses other
lagoons and trenches with impervious soil material can than recreation and wildlife habitat. Erosion is often a
reduce the excess seepage. The sidewalls of severe hazard during strong storms.
excavations are unstable in both soils, and they should Beaches have not been assigned to a capability
be shored to help prevent caving, subclass or a woodland ordination symbol. They are in
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational the North Florida Coastal Strand ecological community.
development. Because of the close proximity to coastal
beaches, demand is placed upon the soils for use as 34-Cocoa-Bulow complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
campgrounds and as areas for parks and picnics. The These moderately deep to deep, nearly level to gently
sandy surface should be stabilized by the addition of sloping, well drained soils are on low, narrow ridges
suitable topsoil or the construction of paved areas. parallel to the Atlantic coastline. These soils are
Establishing and maintaining the plant cover on trails underlain by a coquina limestone formation. Slopes are
and paths can be accomplished by properly applying convex and range from 0 to 5 percent. Individual areas
fertilizer, seeding, mulching, and shaping slopes, are elongated. They range from 10 to 200 acres in size.
The potential of this map unit as habitat for openland In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Cocoa-Bulow
and wetland wildlife is poor and for woodland wildlife is complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Cocoa, Bulow, and
fair. The native grasses and legumes are poor or fair similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the map unit.
food sources. The map unit does have good nesting Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 20 percent.
sites for songbirds and shore birds, such as terns and Generally, the mapped areas are about 53 percent
gulls. Undisturbed areas provide escape cover and food Cocoa and similar soils and about 37 percent Bulow








Flagler County, Florida 61


and similar soils. The components of this map unit are coquina limestone. The soils require intensive
so small or so intricately intermingled that they could management practices. Droughtiness and the rapid
not be mapped separately at the scale used. However, leaching of plant nutrients are the main limitations. The
the proportions and patterns of the soils are relatively variety of crops that produce good yields without
consistent in most delineations of this map unit. irrigation is limited. Soil-improving cover crops should
Typically, the Cocoa soil has a surface layer of be used in rotation, and all of the crop residue should
grayish brown sand about 3 inches thick. The be left on the land or plowed under the surface.
subsurface layer is pale brown sand 13 inches thick. This map unit is poorly suited to pasture. The
The upper part of the subsoil is reddish yellow sand to available moisture limits the growth of plants, and the
a depth of 29 inches. The lower part of the subsoil is plant nutrients leach rapidly from the root zone. Deep-
yellowish red loamy sand to a depth of 35 inches. rooted species, such as bahiagrass and bermudagrass,
Coquina limestone is at a depth of about 35 inches, but can be used with high levels of fertilizer to maintain the
the depth varies from 20 to 40 inches within a short potential production. Periodic mowing helps to maintain
distance. Some areas contain soils that are similar to uniform growth and discourages selective grazing.
the Cocoa soil but have a lower subsoil of sandy loam Proper stocking rates, a system of pasture rotation, and
or sandy clay loam. the timely deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture
Typically, the Bulow soil has a surface layer of dark in good condition.
grayish brown sand about 5 inches thick. The This map unit is moderately suited to the production
subsurface layer is very pale brown sand about 15 of slash pine. Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean
inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is reddish site index for slash pine is 80. The potential for
yellow sand to a depth of 50 inches. The lower part of commercial production of pulpwood is 42 cords per acre
the subsoil is yellowish red sandy clay loam to a depth from a fully stocked stand of trees 25 years old. The
of 59 inches. Coquina limestone is at a depth of about main management concerns are the equipment
59 inches. Some areas contain soils that are similar to limitation, the seedling mortality rate, and plant
the Bulow soil but have coquina rock at a depth of more competition. Using specialized equipment, such as high-
than 80 inches, do not have a lower subsoil, or have a flotation, oversized tires, reduces the damage to roots
lower subsoil of loamy sand. and minimizes soil compaction. The droughtiness
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small causes seedling mortality. Planting special oversized or
areas of Bimini, Orsino, Paola, Placid, and Pomello containerized stock can reduce the seedling mortality
soils. Orsino, Paola, and Pomello soils are in landscape rate. Site preparation, such as chopping, bedding, and
positions similar to those of the Bulow and Cocoa soils. applying herbicide, can minimize plant competition and
Bimini and Placid soils are in lower areas. These soils help to establish the seedlings. Road construction,
are sandy or loamy to a depth of 80 inches or more. logging, and site preparation should include the
Also included are areas of dissimilar soils that are stabilization of roads and trails. Using culverts and
somewhat poorly drained and have a black or very dark bridges over drainageways and other maintenance
gray sandy upper subsoil over a loamy lower subsoil. measures prevent soil erosion and water flow problems.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more A preferred harvesting system leaves residual biomass
than 72 inches in most years. In both soils, the distributed over the site.
permeability is moderately rapid in the layers above the This map unit is poorly suited to range and grazeable
coquina limestone. Available water capacity is very low woodland because of the dense canopy cover, which
in both soils. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of 20 to reduces the quality and quantity of forage. Areas of this
40 inches in the Cocoa soil and is at a depth of 40 to map unit provide excellent shade and resting areas for
60 inches in the Bulow soil. cattle. Important range forage includes several species
Most areas of this map unit support the natural of bluestem, longleaf uniola, and low panicum. This
vegetation. They are used as wildlife habitat and map unit is in the Upland Hardwood Hammock range
recreational sites. A few areas have been cleared as site.
sites for homes. Some areas are used as improved The Cocoa soil in this map unit has moderate
pasture. The natural vegetation consists of live oak, limitations for dwellings without basements, small
laurel oak, cabbage palm, hickory, and southern commercial buildings, and local roads and streets. The
magnolia. The understory vegetation consists of saw shallow depth of the coquina rock is the main limitation.
palmetto, creeping bluestem, low panicum, and wild The Bulow soil has only slight limitations for these uses.
grape. In areas that have slopes of more than 4 percent,
This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops Bulow soils have an additional limitation for small
because of poor soil qualities and the moderately deep commercial buildings because of the steepness of the








62 Soil Survey


slope. Lawn grasses and landscaping plants require The existing vegetation consists of a few areas of
frequent irrigation during dry seasons. Shoring the slash pine, southern red cedar, cabbage palm, and wax
sidewalls of shallow excavations helps to prevent myrtle. The understory vegetation consists of prickly
caving. The depth to rock and the poor filtering qualities pear, dog fennel, and other weeds.
are severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields This map unit is not suited to crops or pasture
on the Cocoa soil. Removing the rock and unsuitable because of the poor soil quality. It is drought, and
material, backfilling with suitable material, and plant nutrients leach rapidly. Many areas are near salty
mounding the absorption field can help to overcome or brackish water bodies and receive some wind-borne
these limitations. The seepage is a severe limitation for salt spray during stormy weather conditions.
trench-type sanitary landfills and sewage lagoons on The map unit has a very low suitability for pine trees.
both soils. Cocoa soils also have a severe limitation The suitability for range or grazeable woodland is also
because of the shallow rock. Removing the rock and very low. This map unit is well suited to urban
lining the trenches and lagoons with impervious soil development. The limitations are slight for homes, small
material can help to overcome these limitations, commercial buildings, local roads and streets, or septic
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational tank absorption fields. However, the hazard of ground-
development. The main limitation is the loose sandy water contamination exists because of poor filtration of
surface. Maintaining good trafficability in high usage effluent in areas that have a concentration of septic
areas is difficult. Soil blowing is also a hazard. tanks.
Establishing a good vegetative cover, establishing This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
windbreaks, and adding suitable topsoil or another development. Because of the loose sandy surface,
surface stabilizer can help to overcome the limitations, maintaining good trafficability is difficult. Soil blowing is
The potential as habitat for wildlife habitat for a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a good
openland and woodland wildlife is fair or poor and for vegetative cover or windbreaks or adding suitable
wetland wildlife is very poor. The hardwoods and shrubs topsoil or another surface stabilizer helps to overcome
provide fair sources of food and shelter for deer, turkey, these limitations.
squirrel, raccoon, opossum, and many types of birds. The potential of this soil as habitat for all forms of
Both soils are in capability subclass IVs. The wildlife is very poor. The sparse vegetation on this soil
woodland ordination symbol is 10s. The ecological produces little food or cover. Planting adapted varieties
community is Upland Hardwood Hammock. of trees, shrubs, and food-producing plants can improve
conditions and provide more a suitable habitat for such
35-Quartzipsamments, dredged. This map unit species as bobwhite quail, ground tortoise, rabbit, and
consists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained, raccoon.
stratified soil material that was derived from the This map unit was not assigned a capability
hydraulic dredging of the Intracoastal Waterway and subclass, a woodland ordination symbol, or an
was deposited on the adjacent landscape. The soil and ecological community.
geologic material is composed mostly of sand that is
stratified with loamy, clayey, and organic fragments, 36-Bimini sand. This very deep, nearly level,
with shells, and with coquina limestone cobbles. Many somewhat poorly drained soil is on low knolls and
areas are used as a source of construction material or ridges that are a short distance inland and are parallel
have been leveled and are used as a source of fill for to the Atlantic Ocean. Individual areas are elongated.
building sites. Slopes mainly range from 0 to 2 percent. They range from 10 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are
No single pedon represents this map unit. The soil convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
and geologic material is deposited in circular or oval In 80 percent of areas mapped as Bimini sand,
mounds that range in size from a few acres to 100 Bimini and similar soils make up 76 to 97 percent of the
acres. Generally, the surface is fine sand and the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 3 to 24 percent.
underlying material is sand, fine sand, or loamy fine Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 6
sand. inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray sand
The water table varies with the position and about 22 inches thick. The subsoil is dark grayish brown
thickness of the overburden but generally ranges from a sand to a depth of 32 inches, very dark brown sand to a
depth of 18 to 36 inches during wet seasons. The depth of 41 inches, and dark brown sandy loam to a
permeability is variable, but it is mostly rapid and very depth of 46 inches. The underlying material is light gray
rapid. The available water capacity also is variable. It gravelly coarse sand. Some areas contain soils that are
depends upon the stratified soil material and is mostly similar to the Bimini soil but the upper subsoil is deeper
very low or low. than 30 inches.








Flagler County, Florida 63


The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small drainageways and other maintenance measures prevent
areas of Bulow, Cocoa, and Placid soils. Bulow and soil erosion and water flow problems. A preferred
Cocoa soils are in landscape positions similar to those harvesting system leaves residual biomass distributed
of the Bimini soil and are underlain by limestone over the site.
bedrock within a depth of 68 inches. Placid soils are in This soil is poorly suited to range and grazeable
lower areas and are more poorly drained than the woodland. Because of the unusually dense canopy
Bimini soil. cover, the soil is used as grazeable woodland primarily
A seasonal high water table ranges from 18 to 42 for shade and resting areas. Creeping bluestem and low
inches in most years. It recedes to a depth of 60 inches panicum are the primary forage plants. This soil is in
during extended dry periods. Permeability is slow. the Upland Hardwood Hammock range site.
Available water capacity is low. This soil has slight limitations for dwellings without
Most areas support the natural vegetation. They are basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
used as wildlife habitat. A few small areas are used for and streets. Because this soil is drought, lawns and
urban development. The natural vegetation consists of landscaping plants need regular irrigation. The sidewalls
laurel oak, live oak, hickory, and cabbage palm. The of shallow excavations should be shored to help prevent
understory consists of saw palmetto, greenbrier, and caving. Water-control measures are needed to help
bluestem. overcome the wetness. The limitations are severe for
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because septic tank absorption fields because of wetness
of the wetness and the poor soil quality. The root zone caused by the seasonal high water table. This limitation
is limited by a high water table during wet periods. The can be overcome by mounding the absorption field. The
available water capacity is very low in the root zone. seepage and the wetness are severe limitations for
The natural fertility is very low, and the response to sewage lagoons. The depth to the underlying coquina
applications of fertilizer is limited. Nutrients leach rapidly rock and the wetness are severe limitations for trench-
through the soil. type sanitary landfills. Lining the lagoons and trenches
This soil is poorly suited to pasture. A water-control with impervious soil material can reduce the seepage. If
system is needed to remove the excess water during outlets are available, water-control measures can be
wet periods. Because of the low available water established to help overcome the wetness.
capacity, this soil is drought during long, dry seasons. This soil has severe limitations for recreational
Clover, ryegrass, or a combination of both can be development. During dry periods, the sandy surface is
grown successfully with other grasses for grazing during very loose, which causes poor trafficability and
late winter and early spring. Irrigation helps to maintain increases the hazard of soil blowing. Establishing and
high production levels during dry periods. Applications maintaining a good vegetative cover or windbreaks or
of fertilizer and lime are recommended according to the adding suitable topsoil or another surface stabilizer
needs of the grasses. Periodic mowing and clipping helps to overcome these limitations
help to maintain uniform growth and discourage The potential of this soil as habitat for wildlife is poor.
selective grazing. Proper stocking rates, a system of Although the native vegetation produces good cover for
pasture rotation, and the timely deferment of grazing woodland wildlife, the production of food is low. The
help to keep the pasture in good condition. habitat can be improved by planting food plots and
This soil is moderately suited to the production of maintaining the existing cover.
slash pine. Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean This Bimini soil is in capability subclass VIs. The
site index for slash pine is 70. The potential for woodland ordination symbol is 8s. The ecological
commercial production of pulpwood is 35 cords per acre community is Upland Hardwood Hammock.
from a fully stocked stand of trees 25 years old. The
main management concerns are the equipment 37-Tuscawilla fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
limitation and the seedling mortality rate. Using drained soil is on broad, low hammocks that are parallel
specialized equipment, such as high-flotation, oversized to and a short distance inland from the Atlantic
tires, reduce the damage to roots and minimizes soil coastline. Individual areas are elongated. They range
compaction. Droughtiness causes seedling mortality, from 20 to 400 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth
Planting special oversized or containerized planting to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
stock reduces the seedling mortality rate. Special site In 95 percent of areas mapped as Tuscawilla fine
preparation, including chopping and bedding, helps to sand, Tuscawilla and similar soils make up 87 to 99
establish the seedlings. Road construction, logging, and percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to
site preparation should include the stabilization of roads 13 percent.
and trails. Using culverts and bridges over Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5








64 Soil Survey


inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray fine Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean site index for
sand about 7 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil slash pine is 88. The potential for commercial
is dark gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about 25 production of pulpwood is 47 cords per acre from a fully
inches. The lower part of the subsoil is gray sandy clay stocked stand of trees 25 years old. The main
loam that is mixed with shells and calcium carbonate management concerns are the equipment limitation, the
nodules to a depth of 45 inches. The underlying layer is seedling mortality rate, and plant competition. Using
gray loamy fine sand mixed with shells and calcium specialized equipment, such as high-flotation, oversized
carbonate nodules to a depth of 60 inches and is light tires, reduces the damage to roots and minimizes soil
gray gravelly fine sandy loam that contains about 20 compaction. The wetness restricts the use of equipment
percent shells and nodules to a depth of 80 inches or to dry periods and can cause a high rate of seedling
more. Some areas contain soils that are similar to the mortality. Planting on beds helps to overcome the
Tuscawilla soil but have a higher content of clay in the limitation, but it should not block the natural surface
subsoil and do not have shells and marl in the drainage. Other methods of site preparation, including
underlying material. chopping and applying herbicide, can minimize plant
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small competition and help to establish the seedlings. Road
areas of EauGallie, Pomona, and Wabasso soils. They construction, logging, and site preparation should
are in landscape positions similar to those of the include the stabilization of roads and trails. Using
Tuscawilla soil and have an organic-stained layer in the culverts and bridges over drainageways and other
subsoil. maintenance measures prevent soil erosion and water
A seasonal high water is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches flow problems. Ensuring adequate surface drainage is
for 2 to 6 months in most years. Permeability is recommended before trees are planted. A preferred
moderate. Available water capacity is low. harvesting system leaves residual biomass distributed
Most areas are used as recreation sites or wildlife over the site.
habitat. The natural vegetation consists of live oak, Because of the unusually dense canopy cover, this
sweetgum, pignut hickory, cabbage palm, and southern soil is poorly suited to range or grazeable woodland.
magnolia. The understory vegetation consists of The production of forage is limited because of the deep
waxmyrtle and maidencane. shade. Areas can provide shade for cattle during
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The summer and provide shelter during cold, windy weather.
main limitation is the wetness. By installing a good Longleaf uniole and low panicum are the primary forage
water-control system, a variety of vegetable crops can plants. This soil is not assigned to a range site.
be grown. The water-control system should be designed This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
to remove excess surface water and internal water basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
rapidly. Irrigation is necessary during dry seasons, and streets. The wetness caused by a seasonal high
Because the subsoil has only moderate permeability, water table is the main limitation. Elevating building
overhead sprinkler irrigation may provide better results, sites and roadways with suitable fill material can
Good management includes rotating crops, planting increase the effective depth to the water table and can
soil-improving cover crops between vegetable cycles, help to overcome the wetness. If outlets are available,
and plowing under the crop residue to improve the tilth, surface ditches can provide some drainage and help to
Other important management practices are seedbed remove the excess water. The limitations for shallow
preparation, including bedding, and applications of excavations are severe because the cutbanks are
fertilizer according to the needs of the crop. unstable. The excessive wetness is also a limitation.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. A water- Excavations rapidly fill with ground water unless water-
control system is needed to remove the excess surface control measures, such as dewatering wells, are
water during wet periods. Appropriate applications of established prior to excavation. The sidewalls of
fertilizer will provide good growth rates for bahiagrass, excavations should be shored to help prevent caving.
bermudagrass, and limpograss. Applications of lime are The wetness is a severe limitation for septic tank
generally not required. White clover and ryegrass can absorption fields. Using suitable fill material to mound
be grown with grass for late winter and early spring the absorption fields can help to overcome the wetness.
grazing. Periodic mowing helps to maintain uniform The seepage and the wetness are severe limitations for
growth and discourages selective grazing. Proper sewage lagoons and trench-type sanitary landfills.
stocking rates, a system of pasture rotation, and the Lining the lagoons and trenches with impervious soil
timely deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in material and using water-control measures can help to
good condition. overcome the limitations.
This soil is well suited to the production of slash pine. The wetness and the sandy surface are severe








Flagler County, Florida 65


limitations for recreational development. Installing of prickly pear cacti, dog fennell, panicum, bluestem,
water-control measures, which help to maintain the and rosemary and scattered areas of saw palmetto.
water table at a suitable depth, can help to overcome This soil is generally unsuited to most cultivated
the wetness. The trafficability of the sandy surface layer crops because of the low natural fertility and the
is poor in areas of high use as a result of the loose droughtiness. The low available water capacity in the
sand. The surface can be stabilized by planting a root zone, the low content of organic matter, and the
vegetative cover, adding suitable topsoil, or constructing sandy texture cause poor growing conditions for most
paved areas, crops. The crops respond poorly to applications of
The potential of this soil as habitat for woodland fertilizer because nutrients are rapidly leached from the
wildlife is good and for openland and wetland wildlife is seed.
fair. The hardwoods and shrubs provide good food and This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture. The
cover. The wildlife species include deer, wild hogs, low available water capacity limits the production of
turkey, squirrels, armadillos, reptiles, and a variety of plants during extended dry periods. Under high levels of
birds. management, such deep-rooted plants as coastal
This Tuscawilla soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The bermudagrass and bahiagrass can be grown. Irrigation,
woodland ordination symbol is 11w. The ecological proper grazing practices, weed control, and applications
community is Wetland Hardwood Hammock. of lime and fertilizer are needed for the optimum growth
of grasses and legumes.
38-Paola fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This This soil is suited to the commercial production of
nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soil is on pine trees. With proper management, sand pine grows
dunelike high knolls and ridges on the flatwoods and best. Site preparation, such as chopping, burning, and
coastal ridges. Individual areas are irregular in shape. applying herbicide, reduces debris, reduces immediate
They range from 5 to 200 acres in size. Slopes are plant competition, and facilitates planting. The soil has a
convex and range from 0 to 8 percent, very low content of organic matter, and a harvest
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Paola fine system that removes all of the tree biomass reduces the
sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes, Paola and similar soils fertility of these areas. A logging system that leaves
make up 76 to 94 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar residual biomass distributed over the site is preferred.
soils make up 6 to 24 percent. Based on a 50-year site curve, the mean site index for
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 6 sand pine is 50. The potential yield is 8 cords per acre
inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand, from a fully stocked stand of trees 25 years old.
about 10 inches thick, that tongues into the underlying This soil is poorly suited to range or grazeable
horizon. The subsoil is yellowish brown fine sand to a woodland. The poor soil quality limits the growth of
depth of 31 inches. The underlying material, to a depth desirable native species. Most areas of this soil suitable
of 80 inches, is yellowish brown fine sand. Some areas for livestock grazing also are limited by a fairly dense
contain soils that are similar to the Paola soil but do not stand of trees and shrubs that limit the production of
have a subsurface layer or have limestone bedrock native forage. Indiangrass, panicum, and bluestem are
within a depth of 80 inches. the most valuable forage plants. Unless intense grazing
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small management is applied, this soil is easily overgrazed.
areas of Cassia, Orsino, Pomello, and Tavares soils. Livestock will not use these areas if other range sites
These soils are in slightly lower positions on the are available. This soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range
landscape than the Paola soil and are not as well- site.
drained. Cassia and Pomello soils have an organic- This soil is well suited to homesites and urban
stained layer in the subsoil. Tavares soils do not have a development. The limitations for dwellings with or
light-colored subsurface layer. without basements, small commercial buildings, and
In most years, a seasonal high water table is below a local roads and streets are slight. The roads should be
depth of 72 inches. Permeability is very rapid. Available designed to offset the instability of the deep, sandy soil
water capacity is very low. surface, which offers poor traction for construction
Most areas are used for the commercial production of vehicles. Areas of this soil that are used for lawns and
pine trees. Some areas are used as improved pasture, landscaping require frequent irrigation and applications
A few small areas have been cleared and are used as of fertilizer. Those plants that are native to the area
sites for homes and for urban development. The natural should be given special preference in landscaping.
vegetation consists of sand pine, a few areas of slash They are more easily established and require less
pine and longleaf pine, scrub live oak, and scattered maintenance. The potential for an onsite sewage
areas of turkey oak. The understory vegetation consists disposal system is very high. If the density of housing is








66 Soil Survey


moderate or high, a community sewage system is moderately wet, soils. Other similar soils are soils that
needed to prevent the possible contamination of ground do not have the loamy or clayey fragments and are
water as a result of seepage. Sealing or lining sewage sandy throughout and some soils that have less than 30
lagoons and trench-type sanitary landfills with inches of fill. A few areas have continuous loamy or
impervious soil material can reduce the excess clayey layers at a depth of more than 50 inches.
seepage. The cutbanks are not stable and should be A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 36 to 48
shored to prevent caving, inches, depending upon the thickness of the fill. It
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development, recedes to depth of more than 60 inches during dry
It has severe limitations for this use. Because of the seasons. Available water capacity is low. Permeability is
loose sandy soil surface, trafficability is poor and soil moderately rapid and rapid.
blowing is a hazard. The sandy surface can be Most areas of these soils are used for urban
stabilized by adding suitable topsoil, seeding, mulching, development. The natural vegetation is variable. The
or constructing paved areas for walkways and parking vegetative growth is very sparse in some areas, but a
areas, good growth of shrubs and grasses is present in others.
The potential of this soil as wildlife habitat is very The natural vegetation consists mostly of waxmyrtle,
poor or poor. The soil provides minimal habitat for deer, southern red cedar, inkberry, and saw palmetto. Some
squirrels, gopher turtles, turkeys, quail, and several areas have a few areas of slash pine, longleaf pine, and
species of song birds. The animals in these areas are cabbage palm. The grasses include creeping bluestem,
adapted to high temperatures and to drought bushybeard bluestem, panicum, and pineland threeawn.
conditions. The production of food for wildlife is low, but Because the extent of these soils is limited, and they
the dense vegetation provides good escape cover for are mostly used for urban development, they are not
many animals. The habitat can be improved by planting used for cultivated crops, pasture, or commercial
food plots and improving the vegetative cover, woodland.
This Paola soil is in capability subclass VIs. The These soils have severe limitations for use as septic
woodland ordination symbol is 2s. The ecological tank absorption fields because of the wetness and the
community is Sand Pine Scrub. poor filtering qualities of the fill material. Mounding the
absorption fields can overcome these limitations. The
39-Udarents, smoothed. This map unit consists of limitations are moderate for dwellings without
somewhat poorly drained soils that have been basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
reworked, cut and filled, and smoothed or shaped by and streets. The wetness is the main limitation. Water-
man. They are in the eastern part of the county, mostly control measures may be necessary to overcome these
in urban areas. Most of these soils are in low areas, limitations. The differential settling of the variable fill
adjacent to canals from which the soil material has material may be a hazard in some areas. Special
been excavated. Individual areas range from irregular construction measures may be required to help to
and rounded to straight and angular in shape. They overcome this hazard. Shallow excavations are subject
range from 10 to 200 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to caving of the sidewalls and ground water entering the
and range from 0 to 2 percent. excavations. The sidewalls should be stabilized, and the
Udarents do not have an orderly sequence of soil wetness should be reduced by drainage and the use of
layers. In most areas, the surface or fill layer is about well points or other water-control measures.
30 to 50 inches thick. It is dark gray, gray, dark grayish The loose sandy surface is a severe limitation for
brown, or grayish brown sand or loamy sand that is recreational development. The trafficability can be
mixed with discontinuous gray, dark gray, or grayish improved by stabilizing the surface with paved areas or
brown fragments of sandy loam, sandy clay loam, or a vegetative cover.
sandy clay. Also mixed with the surface layer are 5 to The potential of this soil as wildlife habitat is poor.
10 percent, by volume, shells or shell fragments that The growth of vegetation that provides adequate food
range from /4 to 1/2 inch in diameter. Secondary and shelter is minimal. The wildlife habitat can be
accumulations of light gray or white calcium carbonates improved by planting food plots and by improving
also are mixed with the fill layer. They range in size protective cover.
from 1/8 to /4 inch in diameter and are from 2 to 5 This map unit has not been assigned a capability
percent, by volume. The upper 5 inches of the subclass, a woodland ordination symbol, or an
undisturbed soil below the fill layer is dark gray sand. It ecological community.
is underlain by gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more. 40-Pomona fine sand. This very deep, poorly
Included in mapping are small areas of Udarents, drained, nearly level soil is in broad flatwood areas.








Flagler County, Florida 67


Individual areas are irregular in shape. They range from index of 80 for slash pine, the yield from an even-aged,
80 to 400 acres in size. Slopes are smooth and range fully stocked stand of trees 25 years old is 42 cords per
from 0 to 2 percent, acre. The main management concerns are the restricted
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Pomona fine use of equipment and the seedling mortality that results
sand, Pomona and similar soils make up 92 to 99 from the seasonal wetness and periods of droughtiness.
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 8 Plant competition also is a management concern. Site
percent. preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, helps to
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4 establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality rate,
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand and increases early plant growth. Chopping and
about 17 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is bedding reduce debris, control competing vegetation,
black loamy fine sand to a depth of about 28 inches and facilitate planting operations. Using field machinery
and dark reddish brown fine sand to a depth of about equipped with high-flotation rubber tires or using
50 inches. The lower part of the subsoil is grayish tracked vehicles reduces the equipment limitation, soil
brown fine sandy loam to a depth of about 63 inches. compaction, and the damage to roots during thinning
The underlying material is dark grayish brown fine operations. Site preparation, planting, and harvesting
sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. during drier periods help to overcome the equipment
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small limitation. A logging system that leaves residual
areas of soils that are in depressions and have water biomass well distributed over the site will increase the
standing above the surface for 6 to 9 months of the content of organic matter and the residual fertility of the
year. soil. Applications of a fertilizer that has nitrogen and
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to phosphorous can provide excellent growth response.
18 inches for 1 to 3 months and is at a depth of 10 to This soil has good suitability for range and grazeable
40 inches for more than 6 months in most years. woodland. The dominant forage includes pineland
Available water capacity is low. The permeability is threeawn, bluestem, and panicum. This soil is in the
moderate to moderately slow. North Florida Flatwoods range site.
Most areas support the native vegetation, which The wetness is a severe limitation for dwellings and
consists of slash pine and longleaf pine. The understory local roads and streets. The wetness is a severe
vegetation consists of saw palmetto, gallberry, limitation for septic tank absorption fields. Installing
threeawn, bluestem, and lopsided indiangrass. Large water-control measures or elevating the building sites,
areas are used for the commercial production of slash roadways, and septic tank absorption fields is
pine, and some areas are used for vegetable crops. necessary to help overcome the wetness.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The The main limitations for recreational areas are the
main limitations are the seasonal wetness and the poor high water table and the sandy surface layer. A water-
soil quality. Unless intensive management is applied, control system is needed to help overcome the
the number of adapted crops is limited. By using an wetness. Trafficability is poor, and blowing sand is a
adequate water-control system, this soil is well suited to hazard. Maintaining a good vegetative cover or
a number of vegetable crops, including cabbage and windbreaks or adding suitable topsoil or another surface
Irish potatoes. The water-control system removes stabilizer helps to overcome these limitations.
excess surface water after heavy rainfalls and provides This soil provides wildlife habitat for deer, red fox,
subirrigation during dry seasons (fig. 8). Close-growing turkey, quail, armadillos, and several species of birds.
cover crops should be grown when the soil is not used The potential as habitat for openland and wetland
for cultivated crops. Returning all of the crop residue to wildlife is fair and for woodland wildlife is poor. The
the soil and using a system of conservation tillage habitat can be improved by improving the cover and
minimize the hazard of wind erosion and maintain soil planting food plots.
quality. This Pomona soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay woodland ordination symbol is 10w. The ecological
crops. Bermudagrass and bahiagrass grow well when community is North Florida Flatwoods.
properly managed. Water-control measures are needed
to remove the excess surface water after heavy rains. 41-Terra Ceia muck, frequently flooded. This very
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime and controlled deep, very poorly drained, nearly level soil is on broad
grazing are necessary to maintain plant vigor, to narrow flood plains along Haw Creek and Cresent
This soil is well suited to the commercial woodland Lake. It is frequently flooded. Individual areas are
production of pine trees. Slash pine is the irregular in shape. They range from 500 to 1,000 acres
recommended tree to plant. Based on a mean site in size. Slopes are less than 1 percent.








68 Soil Survey





















































Figure 8.-Subsurface irrigation on a field of Irish potatoes in an area of Pomona fine sand.



In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Terra Ceia Typically, the surface soil is more than 80 inches
muck, frequently flooded, Terra Ceia and similar soils thick. The upper 25 inches is dark reddish brown muck.
make up 83 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar It is underlain by black muck to a depth of 80 inches or
soils make up 1 to 17 percent. more. Some areas contain soils that are similar to the








Flagler County, Florida 69


Terra Ceia soil, but they have a muck surface soil about areas are dominated by a dense growth of sawgrass.
30 inches thick and are underlain by a mineral soil. This map unit is not assigned to a range site.
The dissimilar soils in this map unit include small This soil has severe limitations for use as septic tank
areas of Favoretta and Placid soils. They are in absorption fields, dwellings without basements, and
landscape positions similar to those of the Terra Ceia local roads and streets. It is frequently flooded and is
soil. They formed in clayey and sandy mineral material, saturated with water for long periods. The organic
The seasonal high water table is within a depth of 6 materials do not provide adequate filtration for septic
inches, except during long, dry seasons. The soil is tank absorption fields because the water runs through
flooded during rainy seasons. Available water capacity the soil too rapidly. Flooding, excessive wetness, and
is very high. Permeability is rapid. the low strength of the organic materials are limitations
Most areas support the native vegetation, which for the use of this soil as a building site for dwellings or
consists of sweetgum, red maple, cypress, bay, and for local roads and streets. Removing the organic layers
cabbage palm. The understory vegetation is sparse. and elevating the building sites and roadbeds are
Some areas do not have trees, and they support a necessary to overcome the limitations. This soil is not
dense marsh vegetation that mostly consists of suited to trench-type sanitary landfills or sewage
sawgrass. lagoons because of the hazard of flooding, the
This soil is generally unsuited to cultivated crops excessive wetness, and the high content of organic
because of the wetness and the flooding. The root zone matter. Overcoming these limitations is impractical.
is limited by the high water table and the water that This soil has severe limitations for recreational
covers the surface during rainy seasons. development. Flooding, the high water table at the
By using proper water-control measures, improved surface of the soil, and the organic surface layer are
pasture grasses and clover grow well on this soil. The limitations. The soil is in low areas, and water-control
water table should be maintained close to the surface to measures, which include flood control and lower the
prevent the excessive oxidation of the organic soil high water table to a necessary depth of 2 to 21/2 feet,
layers. Applications of fertilizers with minor elements are difficult to establish. The surface layer has poor
are needed. Controlled grazing allows the best yields, trafficability because of the low strength of the organic
The potential productivity for pine trees is very low. material. During dry seasons, soil blowing will occur.
This soil is not suited to the commercial production of In areas where this soil supports a good growth of
trees. Flooding and the excessive wetness cause a high hardwoods, it provides habitat for deer, gray squirrel,
seedling mortality rate. The low strength of the organic otter, turkey, and raccoon. The potential as habitat for
layers result in a hazard of windthrow. The equipment wetland wildlife is good and for openland and woodland
limitation is also a management concern, wildlife is poor. It can be improved by planting food
This soil has a very low suitability for range or plots.
grazeable woodland. The flooding, the excessive This Terra Ceia soil is in capability subclass Vllw. It
wetness, and the low strength for the support of grazing is not assigned to a woodland ordination group. The
animals are the main limitations. The growth of ecological community is Swamp Hardwoods.
understory plants suitable for forage is minimal. Open










71









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural land capability classification used by the Natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to Resources Conservation Service is explained; and the
prevent soil-related failures in land uses. estimated yields of the main crops and hay and pasture
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, plants are listed for each soil.
conservationists, engineers, and others collect Planners of management systems for individual fields
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral or farms should consider the detailed information given
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, in the description of each soil under the heading
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect "Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific information can be
various soil uses and management. Field experience obtained from the local office of the Natural Resources
and collected data on soil properties and performance Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior. Service.
Information in this section can be used to plan the Approximately 11,000 acres in Flagler County is used
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as for pasture and crop production, according to estimates
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, from the Flagler County Extension Service. Of this total,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks about 5,000 acres is used for vegetable and agronomic
and other recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat. crops, about 1,000 acres for hay, and about 5,000
It can be used to identify the potentials and limitations acres for pasture. Irish potatoes and cabbage are the
of each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent most extensively grown vegetable crops. Other
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil vegetable crops include broccoli, cucumbers, eggplant,
properties, peppers, zucchini, squash, yellow squash, sweet corn,
Planners and others using soil survey information and watermelons. The pasture grasses that are most
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on often grown for grazing and hay are bahiagrass and
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the coastal bermudagrass.
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain The crops are grown mostly in the Bimini, Deansville,
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with and St. Johns Park areas. EauGallie, Pineda, Riviera,
nature. Wabasso, and Winder soils are most commonly used
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of for growing vegetable crops. These poorly drained,
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to nearly level soils have established water-control
identify areas where bedrock or wetness can cause measures that provide subirrigation during dry periods
difficulty in excavation, and drain the excess water during wet periods. Many of
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and these soils have been leveled to provide for a more
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can efficient use of irrigation water. Prior to the severe
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate freezes that occurred during the late 1970's and early
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, 1980's, about 200 acres of citrus crops were grown in
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. Flagler County. Presently, no commercial citrus groves
are in Flagler County. A small acreage is used for the
Crops and Pasture production of ornamental landscape plants and for
commercial sod farming. Small acreages of blueberries
William Kuenstler, agronomist, Natural Resources Conservation are also grown commercially.
Service, helped prepare this section. Agronomic crops in the county include small
General management needed for crops and pasture acreages of corn and grain sorghum. A tropical variety
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants of field corn is planted in the late spring or early







71









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural land capability classification used by the Natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to Resources Conservation Service is explained; and the
prevent soil-related failures in land uses. estimated yields of the main crops and hay and pasture
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, plants are listed for each soil.
conservationists, engineers, and others collect Planners of management systems for individual fields
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral or farms should consider the detailed information given
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, in the description of each soil under the heading
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect "Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific information can be
various soil uses and management. Field experience obtained from the local office of the Natural Resources
and collected data on soil properties and performance Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior. Service.
Information in this section can be used to plan the Approximately 11,000 acres in Flagler County is used
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as for pasture and crop production, according to estimates
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, from the Flagler County Extension Service. Of this total,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks about 5,000 acres is used for vegetable and agronomic
and other recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat. crops, about 1,000 acres for hay, and about 5,000
It can be used to identify the potentials and limitations acres for pasture. Irish potatoes and cabbage are the
of each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent most extensively grown vegetable crops. Other
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil vegetable crops include broccoli, cucumbers, eggplant,
properties, peppers, zucchini, squash, yellow squash, sweet corn,
Planners and others using soil survey information and watermelons. The pasture grasses that are most
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on often grown for grazing and hay are bahiagrass and
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the coastal bermudagrass.
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain The crops are grown mostly in the Bimini, Deansville,
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with and St. Johns Park areas. EauGallie, Pineda, Riviera,
nature. Wabasso, and Winder soils are most commonly used
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of for growing vegetable crops. These poorly drained,
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to nearly level soils have established water-control
identify areas where bedrock or wetness can cause measures that provide subirrigation during dry periods
difficulty in excavation, and drain the excess water during wet periods. Many of
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and these soils have been leveled to provide for a more
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can efficient use of irrigation water. Prior to the severe
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate freezes that occurred during the late 1970's and early
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, 1980's, about 200 acres of citrus crops were grown in
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. Flagler County. Presently, no commercial citrus groves
are in Flagler County. A small acreage is used for the
Crops and Pasture production of ornamental landscape plants and for
commercial sod farming. Small acreages of blueberries
William Kuenstler, agronomist, Natural Resources Conservation are also grown commercially.
Service, helped prepare this section. Agronomic crops in the county include small
General management needed for crops and pasture acreages of corn and grain sorghum. A tropical variety
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants of field corn is planted in the late spring or early








72 Soil Survey










































Figure 9.-Blueberries in an area of Wabasso fine sand. Water-control measures and an irrigation system are needed to overcome the
limitations of this soil for growing crops.



summer, following the harvest of cabbage or Irish woodland, and about 5,000 acres is used as improved
potatoes. The corn uses residual fertilizer from the pasture. Food production could also be increased
vegetable crops and requires few or no additions of considerably by applying the latest technology to all of
fertilizer. On other cultivated land, a close-growing crop the cropland in the county. The use of this soil survey
of sweet sorghum or a sorghum-sudan grass hybrid is can greatly facilitate the application of such technology.
usually planted after the cash crop is harvested to help The acreage used as woodland in the county has
to prevent the leaching of residual fertilizer, to add decreased as more land is used for farming and urban
organic matter to the soil, and to protect the soil from uses. Food production can also be increased by
erosion. growing crops that are not presently grown
The potential of the soils in Flagler County for the commercially. If water is adequately controlled, soils
increased production of food is high. About 253,000 that are poorly drained and very poorly drained and that
acres of potentially good cropland is currently used as warm up early in the spring are well suited to many








Flagler County, Florida 73


vegetable crops and small fruits, such as grapes, sandblasting the leaves of young plants. Cover crops,
blueberries, and strawberries (fig. 9). Other crops, such regularly spaced strips of small grain aligned at right
as sweet potatoes and tomatoes, can be grown if angles to the prevailing winds, and windbreaks of
economic conditions are favorable. Rice, sugarcane, adapted trees and shrubs, such as slash pine, sand
corn, and similar crops are well suited to the organic pine, and waxmyrtle, also effectively reduce wind
soils. Organic soils oxidize and subside, however, when erosion and the subsequent crop damage. Wind erosion
pore space is exposed to the air. As a result, water can also spread plant diseases, insects, and weed
must be maintained at the level required for the crops seeds and can create a health hazard and present
during the growing season and then raised during other cleaning problems.
times of the year to minimize the oxidation and Water control is a major management concern in
subsidence, areas used for crops and pasture. About 85 percent of
Although the soils in Flagler County have the the soils in the county are poorly drained or very poorly
potential for increased food production, other factors drained. In most years, these soils are too wet for the
must be considered when choosing crops and selecting crops commonly grown in the area. The sandy soils
sites. These factors include the risk of possible adverse also have a low water-holding capacity and are
weather conditions, the intrusion of saltwater into the drought during dry periods. Most of the poorly drained
aquifer and the availability of an adequate supply of soils require a combination of surface drainage and
freshwater for irrigation, and such environmental subirrigation in areas where they are intensively used to
considerations as preservation of wetlands, the grow row crops. The design of both surface drainage
possibility of polluting nearby waters, and the and irrigation systems varies according to the kind of
desirability of using the land for other purposes. soil and the crop grown. More information about water
As the population increases, the demand for food will control and practices that can prevent wind erosion is
also increase. A knowledge of soils and soil properties available at the local office of the Natural Resources
is essential for the increased production of food. Some Conservation Service.
of the major soil properties that should be considered Soil fertility is naturally low for most of the soils in the
include water erosion, soil blowing, wetness, fertility, county. The soils generally have loose, sandy surface
and tilth. layers and subsurface layers that are rapidly permeable
Soil erosion by water is not as serious a problem in or very rapidly permeable, thus allowing the rapid
the agricultural areas of Flagler County as it is in many leaching of fertilizer and lime following heavy rains.
areas in the southern part of the United States. Most of Mineral soils that have a dark surface generally contain
the soils are sandy and nearly level. Erosion resulting more organic matter and more plant nutrients. Organic
from rapid runoff occurs only during periods of torrential soils require applications of a special fertilizer because
rainfall and only in a few bare areas that have short, they are low in copper and other trace elements. Most
steep slopes. In the rapidly developing urban areas, of the soils in the county are very strongly acid or
erosion can be a hazard in areas where water extremely acid. If they have never been limed,
quantities are concentrated and runoff is accelerated. applications of lime are needed to ensure the good
Installation of a properly designed water-control system growth of legumes and other crops. The levels of
can help to prevent erosion in built-up areas, nitrogen and available phosphorus and potash are
In other areas where erosion is a hazard, erosion- naturally low in most of the mineral soils. Soil fertility,
control measures that provide a protective surface however, changes as the soil is used. Additions of lime
cover, help to control runoff, and increase the infiltration and fertilizer should be based on the results of soil
rate can help to keep the soil in place. A system of tests, on the needs of the crop, and on the expected
conservation tillage that minimizes soil disturbance and level of yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can
leaves a maximum amount of crop residue on the help to determine the kinds and amounts of fertilizer
surface increases the infiltration rate and reduces the and lime that should be applied.
hazard of runoff and erosion. Soil tilth refers to the condition of the soil in relation
Wind erosion is a significant hazard on the sandy to plant growth. It is an important factor in the
soils and the mucky soils. Blowing soil can damage germination of seeds, the infiltration of water into the
both the soils and the tender truck crops in only a few soil, and the available water holding capacity of the soil.
hours if winds are strong and the soils are not protected Soils that have good tilth are granular, porous, and
by vegetation or by a surface mulch. A system of easily cultivated. Most soils used for crops in the survey
conservation tillage that maintains a plant cover or a area have a sandy surface layer and a granular
surface mulch minimizes the hazard of soil blowing on structure. Soils that have little or no structure seal over
these soils. Wind erosion damages crops by during intense rainstorms, restricting water infiltration.








74 Soil Survey


Soil structure can be improved by the regular addition varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
of organic material, such as crop residue and manure. weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable
Soils that have a light-colored surface also are low in soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
organic matter. Adding organic matter also increases phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
the fertility and water-holding capacity. crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
The pastures in the survey area produce forage and and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures
hay crops for beef cattle and horses. The main cattle the smallest possible loss.
enterprises are beef cattle cow-calf operations. No dairy For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
farms are in the county. Occasionally, sod is harvested irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
from some areas of pasture. Bahiagrass, coastal grown, that good-quality irrigation water is uniformly
bermudagrass, and Alicia bermudagrass are the main applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a
pasture plants. Extensive areas of pasture are minimum.
throughout the county, mostly on soils in the flatwoods. The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
Differences in the amount and kind of pasture yields of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
are related closely to the differences among the soils. likely to increase as new production technology is
Pasture management is based upon the relationship developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
between soils, pasture plants, lime, fertilizer, moisture, with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change.
and grazing systems. In many parts of the county, Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in
pasture has been greatly depleted by continuous the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
excessive grazing. Yields can be increased by using a because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
management system that includes grass-legume office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service or
mixtures, controlled grazing, and applications of lime of the Cooperative Extension Service can provide
and fertilizer, information about the management and productivity of
If drained, the poorly drained soils of the flatwoods, the soils for those crops.
such as EauGallie, Myakka, Riviera, Smyrna, and
Winder soils, are moderately suited to well suited to use Land Capability Classification
as pasture. Subsurface irrigation increases both the Land capability classification shows, in a general
length of time that the forage is available and the total way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops
forage produced. If irrigated and adequately limed and that require special management are excluded. The
fertilized, these poorly drained soils are well suited to soils are grouped according to their limitations for field
white clover and other legumes. If adequately limed and crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops,
fertilized, the well drained and moderately well drained and the way they respond to management. The criteria
Astatula and Tavares soils are moderately suited to used in grouping the soils do not include major and
improved bahiagrass and bermudagrass. Irrigation is generally expensive landforming that would change
needed for the best possible production levels, slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
Yields per Acre projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for
The average yields per acre that can be expected of interpretations designed to show suitability and
the principal crops under a high level of management limitations of groups of soils for woodland or for
are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be engineering purposes.
higher or lower than those indicated in the table In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
because of variations in rainfall and other climatic at three levels-capability class, subclass, and unit.
factors. Only class and subclass are used in this survey.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
considered, defined as follows:
The management needed to obtain the indicated Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil use.
and the crop. Management can include drainage, Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper the choice of plants or that require moderate
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop conservation practices.








Flagler County, Florida 75


Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that
choice of plants or that require special conservation produces a characteristic natural plant community that
practices, or both. differs from natural plant communities on other range
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that sites in kind, amount, and proportion of range plants.
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful The relationship between soils and vegetation was
management, or both. established during this survey; thus, range sites
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have generally can be determined directly from the soil map.
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their Soil properties that affect the moisture supply and plant
use. nutrients have the greatest influence on the productivity
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them of range plants. Soil reaction, salt content, and the
generally unsuitable for cultivation, seasonal high water table also are important.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make Total production is the amount of vegetation that can
them unsuitable for cultivation, be expected to grow annually on well managed
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have rangeland that supports the potential natural plant
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial community. Total production includes all vegetation,
crop production. whether or not it is palatable to grazing animals. It
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one includes the current year's growth of leaves, twigs, and
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e, fruits of woody plants, but it does not include the
w, or s, to the class numeral, for example, Ile. The letter increase in stem diameter of trees and shrubs. It is
e shows that the main hazard is the risk of erosion expressed in pounds per acre of air-dry vegetation for
unless a close-growing plant cover is maintained; w favorable and unfavorable years. In a favorable year,
shows that water in or on the soil interferes with plant the amount and distribution of precipitation and the
growth or cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be temperature make growing conditions substantially
partly corrected by artificial drainage); and s shows that better than average. In an unfavorable year, growing
the soil is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, conditions are well below average, generally because of
or stony. low available soil moisture.
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils The vegetation that grew originally in the natural
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V plant community is called the climax vegetation. It
are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other generally is the most productive vegetation on that
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland, particular site and the most suitable vegetation for
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V livestock. The climax vegetation consists of three kinds
contains only the subclasses indicated by w or s. of plants that are characterized according to their
The capability classification of each map unit is given response to grazing. These are decreasers, increases,
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" and in the and invaders. Decreasers generally are the most
yields table, palatable climax plants; therefore, they are eliminated
first if the range is subjected to continuous, heavy
Rangeland and Grazeable Woodland grazing. Increasers are plants that are less palatable to
livestock; they eventually also are eliminated. Invaders
Greg Hendricks, range conservationist, Natural Resourcesant that ar native t the site which have little
Conservation Service, helped to prepare this section.ae s at are na e e h hae tt
value as forage. Invaders will become established after
Native grasses are an important part of the overall, the other vegetation has been reduced.
year-round supply of forage for livestock producers in Range management requires a knowledge of the
Flagler County. The forage is readily available, is kinds of soil and of the potential natural plant
economical, and provides the roughage important to community or climax vegetation for the range site.
cattle. About 19,000 acres of rangeland and grazeable Range condition is determined by comparing the
woodland is in the county. Most of this acreage is west present plant community with the potential natural plant
of U.S. Highway 1 and south of State Road 100. community on a particular range site. The more closely

Rangeland the existing community resembles the potential
community, the better the range condition. Four classes
In areas that have similar climate and topography, are used to measure range condition. They are:
differences in the kind and amount of vegetation Excellent condition-Sites that produce more than
produced on rangeland are closely related to the kind of 75 percent of their potential
soil. Effective management is based on the relationship Good condition-Sites that produce 51 to 75
between the soils, vegetation, and water. percent of their potential








76 Soil Survey


Fair condition-Sites that produce 25 to 50 percent period of higher forage production further into the tree
of their potential rotation; however, this usually results in some reduction
Poor condition-Sites that produce less than 26 in wood production. Managers should consider alternate
percent of their potential spacings and planting configurations. Before planting,
Potential production refers to the amount of herbage they should determine what, if any, reduction in wood
that can be expected to grow on a well-managed range production is acceptable in order to extend the period of
site. Yields are expressed in terms of pounds of airdry higher forage production.
herbage per acre. Herbage refers to total vegetation Another factor to consider in managing grazeable
produced and does not reflect forage value or grazing woodland is restricting the use of burning in the early
potentials. Favorable years are those in which climatic years of the rotation. Young slash pine do not tolerate
factors, such as rainfall and temperature, are favorable fire until they are 12 to 15 feet tall. On wet, loamy or
for plant growth. The productivity of range sites is clayey soils that support native plant communities with
closely related to the natural drainage of the soil. The a dense hardwood overstory, woody invader species
wettest soils, such as those soils in marshes, produce begin to reestablish themselves within one year after
the greatest amount of vegetation, while the deep, the final site preparation. They are difficult to control.
drought sandhill areas generally produce the least Thorough site preparation and mechanical brush control
amount of herbage annually, are essential if sustained woodland grazing is planned
Manipulations of a range site often involve on these soils.
mechanical brush control, controlled burning, and, most Management for woodland grazing should also
importantly, controlled livestock grazing. Predicting the include such practices as maintaining proper stocking
effects of these practices on range sites is of utmost rates, cross fencing to allow the rotation and timing of
importance. Without exception, proper management of grazing in different areas, and prescribed burning in
the native range plant community will result in maximum established stands. Careful management and planning
sustained production, conservation of the soil and water can increase the quality and duration of woodland
resources, and improvement of the habitat for many grazing, maintain high levels of wood production, and
wildlife species. enhance wildlife habitat.

Grazeable Woodland Range Sites
Grazeable woodland is forested land that is primarily In the following paragraphs, the range sites found in
managed for the production of wood that has an Flagler County are described. Each site is named for a
understory of native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The landscape feature, such as "Slough," or a combination
understory is an integral part of the forest plant of dominant plant species and a landscape feature,
community. Under proper management, the native such as "Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills." Several
plants can be grazed without significantly impairing other sites or ecological communities have extensive
other forest values. All of the management factors acreage in the county but have little use for livestock
discussed for rangeland also apply to grazeable production.
woodland; however, several additional factors must be The North Florida Flatwoods range site is generally
taken into consideration to manage grazeable on nearly level, poorly drained soils. It generally
woodland. For the purpose of this discussion, the consists of a sparse to fairly dense stand of slash,
management considerations will be limited to those loblolly, and longleaf pines. Creeping bluestem, chalky
needed for planted pine. bluestem, indiangrass, and various panicum grasses
In a forest, both trees and herbaceous vegetation represent the major desirable native forage species
compete for sunlight and growth. As the trees mature, growing on mesic to xeric phases of this site when the
their height growth and subsequent canopy closure site is in excellent condition. Uncontrolled grazing tends
influence the growth of understory forage. The forest to reduce the availability of desirable forage species.
canopy is measured by the percent foliar cover of all Unpalatable species, such as pineland threeawn, saw
woody vegetation 4/2 feet or more above the ground. A palmetto, gallberry, sedges, and rushes become
sharp decline in forage production results after the dominant on sites that are in poor condition. The total
canopy closure reaches a certain point. The factors annual production is 5,500 pounds of air-dry material
that determine when this decline will occur are the per acre in favorable growth years and 3,000 pounds of
spacing, planting configuration, and growth rate of the air-dry material per acre in unfavorable growth years
planted pines on the particular site. Wider tree spacings when the site is in excellent range condition. The
and alternate planting configurations can extend the relative percentage of annual vegetative production, by








Flagler County, Florida 77


weight, is approximately 65 percent grasses and generally consists of a mostly herbaceous ecosystem
grasslike plants, 10 percent forbs, and 25 percent and a few scattered trees. Blue maidencane, chalky
woody plants and trees when the site is in excellent bluestem, and toothachegrass represent the major
range condition. EauGallie, Holopaw, Immokalee, desirable native forage species growing on this site
Myakka, Pomona, Smyrna, and Wabasso soils are in when the site is in excellent condition. Uncontrolled
this range site. grazing tends to reduce the availability of desirable
The Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site is forage species. Unpalatable species, such as pineland
generally on nearly level to gently rolling, well drained threeawn, bottlebrush threeawn, sloughgrass, and sand
to excessively drained soils. It generally consists of a cordgrass, become dominant on sites that are in poor
sparse to fairly dense stand of longleaf pine, turkey oak, condition. The total annual production is 8,000 pounds
bluejack oak, and myrtle oak. Creeping bluestem, of air-dry material per acre in favorable growth years
indiangrass, green silkyscale, and various other and 4,000 pounds of air-dry material per acre in
bluestem grasses represent the major desirable native unfavorable growth years when the site is in excellent
forage species growing on this site when the site is in range condition. The relative percentage of annual
excellent condition. Uncontrolled grazing tends to vegetative production, by weight, is approximately 90
reduce the availability of desirable forage species. percent grasses and grasslike plants, 10 percent forbs,
Unpalatable species, such as pineland threeawn, prickly and trace amounts of woody plants and trees when the
pear, saw palmetto, Lyonia species, sedges, and rushes site is in excellent range condition. Malabar, Pineda,
become dominant on sites that are in poor condition, and Valkaria soils are in this range site.
The total annual production is 4,000 pounds of air-dry The Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site is
material per acre in favorable growth years and 2,000 generally on nearly level, very poorly drained soils. It
pounds of air-dry material per acre in unfavorable generally consists of a treeless, herbaceous ecosystem.
growth years when the site is in excellent range Maidencane and cutgrass represent the major desirable
condition. The relative percentage of annual vegetative native forage species growing on this site when the site
production, by weight, is approximately 60 percent is in excellent condition. Uncontrolled grazing tends to
grass and grasslike plants, 20 percent forbs, and 20 reduce the availability of desirable forage species.
percent woody plants and trees when the site is in Unpalatable species, such as sawgrass, carpetgrass,
excellent range condition. Astatula and Tavares soils peckerelweed, smartweed, and various woody species,
are in this range site. become dominant on sites that are in poor condition.
The Sand Pine Scrub range site is generally on The total annual production is 10,000 pounds of air-dry
rolling, moderately well drained to excessively drained material per acre in favorable growth years and 5,000
soils. It generally consists of a fairly dense to extremely pounds of air-dry material per acre in unfavorable
dense stand of sand pine, sand live oak, turkey oak, growth years when the site is in excellent range
and scrub bay. Baked panicum, indiangrass, and condition. The relative percentage of annual vegetative
various bluestem grasses represent the major desirable production, by weight, is approximately 90 percent
native forage species growing on this site when the site grasses and grasslike plants, 10 percent forbs, and
is in excellent condition. Uncontrolled grazing tends to trace amounts of woody plants and trees. Terra Ceia
reduce the availability of desirable forage species, soils are in this range site.
Unpalatable species, such as broomsedge, threeawn The Wetland Hardwood Hammock range site is
grasses, rosemary, and saw palmetto, become generally on nearly level, somewhat poorly drained to
dominant on sites that are in poor condition. The total poorly drained soils. It generally consists of a diverse
annual production is 3,500 pounds of air-dry material forest canopy consisting of live oak, water oak, laurel
per acre in favorable growth years and 1,500 pounds of oak, cabbage palm, red maple, and gum trees.
air-dry material per acre in unfavorable growth years Switchgrass, longleaf uniola, eastern gamagrass, chalky
when the site is in excellent range condition. The bluestem, and maidencane grasses represent the major
relative percentage of annual vegetative production, by desirable native forage species growing on this site
weight, is approximately 40 percent grass and grasslike when the site is in excellent condition. Uncontrolled
plants, 20 percent forbs, and 40 percent woody plants grazing tends to reduce the availability of desirable
and trees when the site is in excellent range condition, forage species. Unpalatable species, such as sedges,
Cassia, Orsino, Paola, and Pomello soils are in this rushes, pineland threeawn, annual forbs, and
range site. carpetgrass, become dominant on sites that are in poor
The Slough range site is generally on nearly level, condition. The total annual production is 3,500 pounds
poorly drained and very poorly drained soils in of air-dry material per acre in favorable growth years
association with North Florida Flatwood sites. It and 2,000 pounds of air-dry material per acre in








78 Soil Survey
















p14































Figure 10.-An area of Tuscawilla fine sand in the Wetland Hardwood Hammock range site.



unfavorable growth years when the site is in excellent well drained to excessively drained areas. It generally
range condition. The relative percentage of annual consists of a diverse forest canopy consisting of live
vegetative production, by weight, is approximately 40 oak, laurel oak, water oak, hickory, magnolia, and
percent grasses and grasslike plants, 20 percent forbs, gums. Indiangrass, switchgrass, purple top, and various
and 40 percent woody plants and trees. Riviera, bluestem and panicum grasses represent the major
Tuscawilla, and Winder soils are in this range site desirable native forage species growing on this site
(fig. 10). when the site is in excellent condition. Uncontrolled
The Upland Hardwood Hammock range site is grazing tends to reduce the availability of desirable
generally in nearly level to gently rolling, moderately forage species. Unpalatable species, such as
s~ v.'










































generally in nearly level to gently rolling, moderately forage species. Unpalatable species, such as








Flagler County, Florida 79


broomsedge, pineland threeawn, blackberry, and soils. Loblolly pine, however, is also planted, especially
sedges, become dominant on sites that are in poor in areas of soils that have a shallow, loamy or clayey
condition. The total annual production is 4,500 pounds subsoil. Longleaf pine also occurs naturally in the
of air-dry material per acre in favorable growth years flatwoods. It was once the dominant species because it
and 2,500 pounds of air-dry material per acre in is well adapted to the frequent fires that occurred
unfavorable growth years when the site is in excellent throughout the Southern Pine Forest. It is currently
range condition. The relative percentage of annual being planted, to some extent, on moderately well
vegetative production, by weight, is approximately 50 drained to excessively drained soils.
percent grasses and grasslike plants, 20 percent forbs, Sand pine is grown commercially on very drought,
and 30 percent woody plants and trees. Adamsville, sandy soils, including Astatula, Orsino, Pomello, and
Bulow, and Cocoa soils are in this range site. Paola soils. Slash pine, longleaf pine, loblolly pine, sand
The Salt Marsh range site is generally on level, low- pine, pond pine, and cypress are the coniferous tree
energy, tidal influenced soils. It generally consists of a species that are actively harvested. The hardwood
treeless, herbaceous ecosystem. Smooth cordgrass, big species that are harvested include red maple,
cordgrass, marshhay cordgrass, seashore dropseed, sweetbay, sweetgum, and loblolly bay. Most of the
seashore paspalum, and seashore saltgrass represent hardwood timber is harvested from depressions,
the major desirable native forage species growing on sloughs, and drainageways.
this site when the site is in excellent condition. Forestry has traditionally influenced the economic
Uncontrolled grazing tends to reduce the availability of development of Flagler County. This influence is
desirable forage species. Unpalatable species, such as currently evident in the thriving local forest industry. The
black needlerush, sawgrass, glasswort, sea pursland, wood products produced by the mills and businesses in
and Baccharis, become dominant on sites that are in Flagler County and surrounding counties include paper,
poor condition. The total annual production is 8,000 mulch, plywood, lumber, trusses, crates, furniture, wood
pounds of air-dry material per acre in favorable growth chips, and fuel wood. The strong market for forest
years and 4,000 pounds of air-dry material per acre in resources has encouraged the intensive management of
unfavorable growth years when the site is in excellent these resources. However, many opportunities still exist
range condition. The relative percentage of annual for increasing the productivity of the woodland,
vegetative production, by weight, is approximately 90 especially on the many privately owned, nonindustrial
percent grasses and grasslike plants, 5 percent forbs, properties that have stocking levels which are lower
and 5 percent woody plants and trees. Turnbull and than optimal.
Pellicer soils are in this range site. Forestry practices focus on the elimination of cull or
weed trees and the reduction of acreage that is
Woodland Management and Productivity understocked with preferred timber species. In the
flatwoods, these goals frequently are accomplished by
Kurt Stoughton, Flagler County forester, Florida Division of clear cutting, intensive site preparation, and replanting
Forestry, helped prepare this section. with an appropriate commercial pine species. Seeding
An understanding of the influence that soils have on and natural regeneration methods also are utilized in
forestry productivity can increase the capability of reforestation. Long-term, multiple-use management of
woodland owners and managers to make optimal the forest resources and the reforestation of harvested
silvicultural and economic decisions. The relationship or idle lands will be a continuing requirement for the
between soils and the species suitability, growth woodland in Flagler County.
potential, and forest operations is examined later in this The optimal growth rate of the commercial pine
section. species is encouraged by reducing the stress of plant
Woodland makes up 253,000 acres, or about 80 competition. Prescribed burning reduces competition
percent of the area in Flagler County (fig. 11). Private from undesirable hardwoods, reduces dangerous fuel
forest industry controls about 150,000 acres, most of levels, and improves accessibility, aesthetics, and
which is under intensive management for pulpwood and wildlife habitat. Thinning reduces excessive competition
sawtimber products. These areas are either corporately between the pines, eliminates diseased or poorly
owned or are under long-term lease from other private formed trees, and increases the amount of light
owners (6). reaching the grass and herbaceous understory growth,
Most of the woodland in the county is on EauGallie, thus improving the habitat for wildlife and cattle. On
Immokalee, Myakka, Pineda, Pomona, Riviera, sites in the flatwoods, where excessive water may
Wabasso, Smyrna, and Winder soils of the flatwoods. cause seedling mortality or limited growth, planting on a
Slash pine is the most widely planted species on these prepared soil bed may be necessary. Several factors








80 Soil Survey












































Figure 11.-A slash pine plantation in an area of Valkaria-Smyrna complex. These 15-year old trees, which remain after the area was
thinned for pulpwood, will be harvested for plywood veneer.



that influence the soil productivity include the ability of Division of Forestry, and the Florida Cooperative
the soil to provide water and nutrients and the amount Extension Service.
of root development allowed by the physical qualities of This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
the soil and the depth to the water table. A planning ways to increase the productivity of forest
consideration of these soil factors will provide a land. Some soils respond better to applications of
fundamental basis for many of the timber management fertilizer than others, and some are more susceptible to
decisions facing the woodland owner and manager. landslides and erosion after roads are built and timber
These factors are further examined for each woodland is harvested. Some soils require special reforestation
grouping in the following paragraphs. Additional efforts. In the section "Detailed Soil Map Units," the
information on timber management is available from the description of each map unit in the survey area
Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Florida suitable for timber includes information about








Flagler County, Florida 81


productivity, limitations in harvesting timber, and use is restricted by wetness for less than 2 months and
management concerns in producing timber. The if special equipment is not needed. The rating is
common forest understory plants also are listed. Table moderate if slopes are so steep that wheeled equipment
5 summarizes this forestry information and rates the cannot be operated safely across the slope, if wetness
soils for a number of factors to be considered in restricts equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, if
management. Slight, moderate, and severe are used to stoniness restricts the use of ground-based equipment,
indicate the degree of the major soil limitations to be or if special equipment is needed to prevent or minimize
considered in forest management. compaction. The rating is severe if slopes are so steep
Table 5 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The that tracked equipment cannot be operated safely
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates across the slope, if wetness restricts equipment for
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator more than 6 months per year, if stoniness restricts the
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the use of ground-based equipment, or if special equipment
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential is needed to prevent or minimize compaction. Ratings
productivity is based on the site index and the point of moderate or severe indicate a need to choose the
where mean annual increment is the greatest. best suited equipment and to carefully plan the timing of
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter, harvesting and other management activities.
indicates the major kind of soil limitation affecting use Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
and management. The letter W indicates a soil in which the death of naturally occurring or properly planted
excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall, as
a significant limitation. The letter Tindicates a soil that influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features.
has, within the root zone, excessive alkalinity or acidity, Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much
sodium salts, or other toxic substances that limit the water or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil
development of desirable trees. The letter D indicates a for seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer,
soil that has a limitation because of a restricted rooting depth to a seasonal high water table and the length of
depth, such as a shallow soil that is underlain by hard the periods when the water table is high, rock fragments
bedrock, a hardpan, or other layers that restrict roots. in the surface layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of
The letter S indicates a dry, sandy soil. The letter A the slope. The mortality rate generally is highest on
indicates a soil that has no significant limitations soils that have a sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk
affecting forest use and management. If a soil has more is slight if, after site preparation, expected mortality is
than one limitation, the priority is as follows: W, T, D, less than 25 percent; moderate if expected mortality is
and S. between 25 and 50 percent; and severe if expected
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability mortality exceeds 50 percent. Ratings of moderate or
that damage may occur if site preparation or harvesting severe indicate that it may be necessary to use
activities expose the soil. The risk is slight if no containerized or larger than usual planting stock or to
particular preventive measures are needed under make special site preparations, such bedding,
ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion-control furrowing, installing a surface drainage system, and
measures are needed for particular silvicultural providing artificial shade for seedlings. Reinforcement
activities; and severe if special precautions are needed planting is often needed if the risk is moderate or
to control erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings severe.
of moderate or severe indicate the need for construction Ratings of windthrow hazard indicate the likelihood
of higher standard roads, additional maintenance of that trees will be uprooted by the wind. A restricted
roads, additional care in planning harvesting and rooting depth is the main reason for windthrow. The
reforestation activities, and the use of special rooting depth can be restricted by a high water table, a
equipment. fragipan, or bedrock or by a combination of such factors
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the as wetness, texture, structure, and depth. The risk is
use of forest management equipment, year-round or slight if strong winds cause trees to break but do not
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope, uproot them; moderate if strong winds cause an
wetness, stoniness, and susceptibility of the surface occasional tree to be blown over and many trees to
layer to compaction. As slope gradient and length break; and severe if moderate or strong winds
increase, it becomes more difficult to use wheeled commonly blow trees over. Ratings of moderate or
equipment. On the steeper slopes, tracked equipment is severe indicate that care is needed in thinning or that
needed. On the steepest slopes, even tracked the stand should not be thinned at all. Special
equipment cannot be operated and more sophisticated equipment may be needed to prevent damage to
systems are needed. The rating is slight if equipment shallow root systems in partial cutting operations. A







82 Soil Survey


plan for the periodic removal of windthrown trees and personal preference are three factors among many that
the maintenance of a road and trail systems may be rt' influence 'the choice t'f trees ofor use in
needed. reforestation.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
competition is more severe on the more productive
soils, bn poorly drained soils, and on soils having a Windbreaks protect crops, livestock, buildings, and
restricted root zonhe that holds moisture. The risk is yards from wind and blowing sand. They also protect
'slight if competition from undesirable plants hinders fruit trees and gardens, and they furnish habitat for
adequate natural or artificial reforestation but does not wildlife. Planting several rows of low- and high-growing
necessitate'irtensive site preparation and maintenance, broadleaf and coniferous trees and shrubs around field
The risk is moderate if competition from undesirable borders and planting intermittent rows of small grain
plants hinders natural or-artificial reforestation to the among crops provide the most protection from the wind.
extent that intensive site preparation and maintenance Field windbreaks and field windstrips are narrow
are needed. The risk is severe if competition from plantings made at right angles to the prevailing wind
uildesirable plants prevents adequate natural or artificial and at specific intervals across the field. Windbreaks
reforestation unless the site isintensively prepared and generally consist of two to four rows of slash pine,
maintained. A moderate or severe rating indicates the loblolly pine, or redcedar'trees that are planted around
need for site -peparation to ensure the development of field borders. Field windstrips generally consist of
an adequately stocked stand. Managers must'plan site intermittent rows of rye or sorghum that are planted
preparation measures to ensure reforestation without amongrow crops, such as watermelons and tobacco.
delays. The interval depends on the erodibility of the soil and
dy the crop being grown. The combination of field wind
The potential productivity of common trees oh a soil is the crop being grown. The combination of field wind
expressed as a site index om be rows and windstrips helps to protect young crops from
n expressed s a 'iste in tdexnd r 6f their nmber. the sandblasting effects of blowing topsoil, minimizes
Comrhon trends are listed in the order of theirbobserved the loss o topsoil, and provides food and cover for
the loss of topsoil, and provides food and cover for
general occurrence. Generally, dnly two or three tree wildife
species dominate. The first tree listed for each soil is Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
the indicator species for that soil. An indicator species houses and other buildings and help to abate noise.
is a tfee that is common in the area and that is The plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are
generally the most productive on a given soil. closely spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy
The site index is determined by taking height planting stock of suitable species should be planted
measurements and determining the age of selected properly on a well prepared site and maintained in good
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the condition. Irrigation and mulching may be needed on
average height, in feet, that trees attain in a specified some of the more drought soils.
number of years. This:index applies to fully stocked, Additional information about planning windbreaks,
even-aged, unmanaged stands. windstrips, and screens and about planting and caring
The productivity class is the yield likely to be for trees and shrubs can be obtained from the local
produced-by the most important trees, expressed in offices of.the'Nlatural ResourcesConservation Service
cubic mettes'per hectare per year calculated at the age orihe CodprfatiVb Extensibh Service or from local
of-culmiriatidn of mean annual increment. Cubic meters nurseries.
per hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by
multiplying by 14.3. Itican be converted to board feet by Recreation
multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, a
productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected The mild climate and the wide Variety of recreational
to produce 114-cubic feet per acre per year at the age facilities available throughout Flagler County attract
of culmination of mean annual increment, or about 568 many people to'the area. The beautiful beaches along
board feet per acre per year. Cubic feet per acre can be the Atlantic Odean, such as the Flagler Beach area, are
converted to cords per acre by dividing by 85. extremely popular. As the population of the county
Trees to plantare those that are used for rapidly increases, the need for more'outdoor
reforestation-or, under suitable conditions, natural recreational'facilities and cultural attractions continues
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and can to grow. The knowledge of soil properties is valuable
produce a commercial Wood crop. The-desired product, when planning and selecting sites for additional
topographic position (such as a low, wet area), and recreational areas.







82 Soil Survey


plan for the periodic removal of windthrown trees and personal preference are three factors among many that
the maintenance of a road and trail systems may be rt' influence 'the choice t'f trees ofor use in
needed. reforestation.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
competition is more severe on the more productive
soils, bn poorly drained soils, and on soils having a Windbreaks protect crops, livestock, buildings, and
restricted root zonhe that holds moisture. The risk is yards from wind and blowing sand. They also protect
'slight if competition from undesirable plants hinders fruit trees and gardens, and they furnish habitat for
adequate natural or artificial reforestation but does not wildlife. Planting several rows of low- and high-growing
necessitate'irtensive site preparation and maintenance, broadleaf and coniferous trees and shrubs around field
The risk is moderate if competition from undesirable borders and planting intermittent rows of small grain
plants hinders natural or-artificial reforestation to the among crops provide the most protection from the wind.
extent that intensive site preparation and maintenance Field windbreaks and field windstrips are narrow
are needed. The risk is severe if competition from plantings made at right angles to the prevailing wind
uildesirable plants prevents adequate natural or artificial and at specific intervals across the field. Windbreaks
reforestation unless the site isintensively prepared and generally consist of two to four rows of slash pine,
maintained. A moderate or severe rating indicates the loblolly pine, or redcedar'trees that are planted around
need for site -peparation to ensure the development of field borders. Field windstrips generally consist of
an adequately stocked stand. Managers must'plan site intermittent rows of rye or sorghum that are planted
preparation measures to ensure reforestation without amongrow crops, such as watermelons and tobacco.
delays. The interval depends on the erodibility of the soil and
dy the crop being grown. The combination of field wind
The potential productivity of common trees oh a soil is the crop being grown. The combination of field wind
expressed as a site index om be rows and windstrips helps to protect young crops from
n expressed s a 'iste in tdexnd r 6f their nmber. the sandblasting effects of blowing topsoil, minimizes
Comrhon trends are listed in the order of theirbobserved the loss o topsoil, and provides food and cover for
the loss of topsoil, and provides food and cover for
general occurrence. Generally, dnly two or three tree wildife
species dominate. The first tree listed for each soil is Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
the indicator species for that soil. An indicator species houses and other buildings and help to abate noise.
is a tfee that is common in the area and that is The plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are
generally the most productive on a given soil. closely spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy
The site index is determined by taking height planting stock of suitable species should be planted
measurements and determining the age of selected properly on a well prepared site and maintained in good
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the condition. Irrigation and mulching may be needed on
average height, in feet, that trees attain in a specified some of the more drought soils.
number of years. This:index applies to fully stocked, Additional information about planning windbreaks,
even-aged, unmanaged stands. windstrips, and screens and about planting and caring
The productivity class is the yield likely to be for trees and shrubs can be obtained from the local
produced-by the most important trees, expressed in offices of.the'Nlatural ResourcesConservation Service
cubic mettes'per hectare per year calculated at the age orihe CodprfatiVb Extensibh Service or from local
of-culmiriatidn of mean annual increment. Cubic meters nurseries.
per hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by
multiplying by 14.3. Itican be converted to board feet by Recreation
multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, a
productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected The mild climate and the wide Variety of recreational
to produce 114-cubic feet per acre per year at the age facilities available throughout Flagler County attract
of culmination of mean annual increment, or about 568 many people to'the area. The beautiful beaches along
board feet per acre per year. Cubic feet per acre can be the Atlantic Odean, such as the Flagler Beach area, are
converted to cords per acre by dividing by 85. extremely popular. As the population of the county
Trees to plantare those that are used for rapidly increases, the need for more'outdoor
reforestation-or, under suitable conditions, natural recreational'facilities and cultural attractions continues
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and can to grow. The knowledge of soil properties is valuable
produce a commercial Wood crop. The-desired product, when planning and selecting sites for additional
topographic position (such as a low, wet area), and recreational areas.








Flagler County, Florida 83


Hunting is a very popular activity, not only for local or no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
enthusiasts but also for sportsmen who travel great remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
distances to hunt in the county. Also, the hunters often and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
camp in the area, and numerous hunting camps and constructing campsites.
privately operated campgrounds are maintained Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
throughout the county. Sport-fishing, both for freshwater vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
and saltwater species, is very popular. The numerous areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
creeks, ponds, and shallow lakes and the Atlantic are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
Ocean provide a diversity of opportunities for anglers. during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
The Atlantic Ocean and the Inland Waterway support stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
saltwater fishing, while Dead Lake and Crescent Lake sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
are noted for their freshwater fishing opportunities. Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
Boating is a common activity in the county. foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
In table 6, the soils of the survey area are rated wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil rains, and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed,
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the the depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. be considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines. once a year during the period of use. They have
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also the surface.
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
recreational uses by the duration and intensity of some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of the when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
height, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They
essential. have moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
In table 6, the degree of soil limitation is expressed surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil not considered in rating the soils.
properties are generally favorable and that limitations
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that Wildlife Habitat
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil John F. Vance, biologist, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be helped prepare this section.
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design, Wildlife is a valuable natural resource in Flagler
intensive maintenance, limited use, or a combination of County. Although agriculture and urban development
these measures. have significantly reduced the number of acres of
The information in table 6 can be supplemented by wildlife habitat, extensive areas still support a large
other information in this survey, for example, variety and number of wildlife species. These areas can
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 9 be assigned to a distinct ecological community, based
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and on the kind of animals and plants that inhabit and grow
for local roads and streets in table 8. in the area (21).
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping Game species include white-tailed deer, squirrel,
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing turkey, dove, feral hogs, bobwhite quail, rail, and
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary waterfowl. Nongame species include raccoon, rabbit,
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to armadillo, opossum, skunk, bobcat, gray fox, red fox,
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best otter, and a variety of songbirds, wading birds, shore
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to birds, woodpeckers, reptiles, and amphibians.
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few Wildlife habitat is located throughout all parts of the








84 Soil Survey


county except for those intensively developed areas. producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
Relay Wildlife Management Area, located in the south- features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
central part of Flagler County, includes 25,463 acres of are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
mostly poorly drained flatwoods. This public hunting available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
area is corporately owned by a major wood products stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil
company and is jointly managed for wildlife by the moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain
owner and the Florida Game and Freshwater Fish and seed crops are corn, wheat, oats, and barley.
Commission. The salt marshes of the county are a Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
particularly valuable part of the marine ecosystem. and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
Flagler County has numerous endangered or that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
threatened species, ranging from the rare red-cockaded of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
woodpecker and the indigo snake to more commonly water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flooding,
known species, such as the alligator and wood stork. A and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
complete list of such species, with detailed information considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
on range and habitat, can be obtained from the local bahiagrass, lovegrass, white clover, sweet clover,
office of Natural Resources Conservation Service. sesbania, and hairy vetch.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect established grasses and forbs, including weeds Soil
p established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
the construction of water impoundments. The ukind and properties and features that affect the growth of these
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitatla are et te r tet surface
can be created or improved by planting appropriate layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
can be created or improved by planting appropriate
stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, orste a lo onid ion. l of
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable mosture are also nsiderations. Examples of wild
plants. herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod,
plants. beggarweed, maidencane, and pineland threeawn.
In table 7, the soils in the survey area are rated beggarweed maidencane, and pineland threeawn.
according to their potential for providing habitat for Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining these plants are oak, poplar, cherry, sweetgum, apple,
the intensity of management needed for each element hawthorn, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and blueberry.
of the habitat. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or planting on soils rated good are wild plum, blueberry,
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or blackberry, and firethorn.
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, properties and features that affect the growth of
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
established, improved, or maintained in most places. Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar,
Moderately intensive management is required for and juniper.
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that Shrubs are bushy woody plants that produce fruit,
limitations are severe for the designated element or buds, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil properties and
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or features that affect the growth of shrubs are depth of
maintained in most places, but management is difficult the root zone, available water capacity, salinity, and soil
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates moisture. Examples of shrubs are waxmyrtle and
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are sawpalmetto.
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
impractical or impossible. Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the properties and features affecting wetland plants are
following paragraphs, texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- and slope. Examples of wetland plants are smartweed,








Flagler County, Florida 85


sawgrass, saltgrass, cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
reeds. not considered in preparing the information in this
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less section. Local ordinances and regulations should be
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
created by dams, levees, or other water-control Soil properties, site features, and observed
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow performance were considered in determining the ratings
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, slope, and in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
permeability. Examples of shallow water areas are determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds. liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 or 6 feet of the
in the following paragraphs. surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland, table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, fractions, and the kinds of adsorbed cations. Estimates
and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity,
areas include bobwhite quail, doves, meadowlark, field shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, and
sparrow, cottontail, rabbits, and red fox. other behavioral characteristics affecting engineering
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of uses.
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and This information can be used to evaluate the
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild and recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
turkey, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox, construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
raccoon, deer, and bear. roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
attracted to such areas are ducks, herons, shore birds, detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
and otter. locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
Engineering ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and predict performance of proposed
This section provides information for planning land small structures and pavements by comparing the
uses related to urban development and to water performance of existing similar structures on the same
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the or similar soils.
most limiting features are identified. Ratings are given The information in the tables, along with the soil
for building site development, sanitary facilities, maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
construction materials, and water management. The this survey, can be used to make additional
ratings are based on observed performance of the soils interpretations.
and on the estimated data and test data in the "Soil Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
Properties" section. special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Information in this section is intended for land use Glossary.
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and Building Site Development
construction. The information, however, has limitations. Table 8 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
For example, estimates and other data generally apply that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 6 feet. without basements, small commercial buildings, local
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific limitations are considered slight if soil properties and
soil. site features are generally favorable for the indicated
The information is not site specific and does not use and limitations are minor and easily overcome;
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or moderate if soil properties or site features are not
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
design and construction of engineering works. design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or








86 Soil Survey


site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to slope, stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or
overcome that special design, significant increases in organic matter in the surface layer affect trafficability
construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance after vegetation is established.
are required. Special feasibility studies may be required
where the soil limitations are severe. Sanitary Facilities
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a Table 9 shows the degree and the kind of soil
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves, limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and are considered slight if soil properties and site features
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging, are generally favorable for the indicated use and
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
bedrock, stone content, soil texture, and slope. The soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
time of the year that excavations can be made is indicated use and special planning, design, or
affected by the depth to a seasonal high water table maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
and the susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
resistance of the excavation walls or banks to sloughing are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
or caving is affected by soil texture and depth to the special design, significant increases in construction
water table. costs, and possibly increased maintenance are
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are required.
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed Table 9 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are that soil properties and site features are favorable for
made for small commercial buildings without the use and that good performance and low
basements, for dwellings with basements, and for maintenance can be expected; fair indicates that soil
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on properties and site features are moderately favorable
soil properties, site features, and observed performance for the use and one or more soil properties or site
of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrinking and features make the soil less desirable than the soils
swelling, and organic layers can cause the movement of rated good; and poor indicates that one or more soil
footings. Depth to a high water table, depth to bedrock, properties or site features are unfavorable for the use
large stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires
and construction. Landscaping and grading that require special design, extra maintenance, or costly alteration.
cuts and fills of more than 5 or 6 feet are not Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
considered. effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. part of the soil between depths of 24 and 60 inches is
They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material; and a features, and observed performance of the soils.
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally Permeability, depth to a high water table, depth to
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil bedrock or to a cemented pan, and flooding affect
properties, site features, and observed performance of absorption of the effluent. Large stones and bedrock or
the soils. Depth to bedrock, depth to a high water table, a cemented pan interfere with installation.
flooding, large stones, and slope affect the ease of Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
excavating and grading. Soil strength (as inferred from fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
the engineering classification of the soil), shrink-swell surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
potential, and depth to a high water table affect the public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
traffic-supporting capacity. permeable sand or fractured bedrock is less than 4 feet
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf below the base of the absorption field or if the water
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established table is near the surface. There must be unsaturated
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil soil material beneath the absorption field to filter the
properties, site features, and observed performance of effluent effectively. Local ordinances require that this
the soils. Soil reaction, depth to a high water table, material be of a certain thickness.
depth to bedrock, the available water capacity in the Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
upper 40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the
sulfidic materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly








Flagler County, Florida 87


level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of during wet and dry periods. Loamy soils that are free of
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold large stones or excess gravel are the best cover for a
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are difficult
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing.
required to minimize seepage and contamination of After soil material has been removed, the soil
ground water. material remaining in the borrow area must be thick
Table 9 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes enough over bedrock or the water table to permit
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 revegetation. The soil material used as the final cover
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are for a landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface
excavated to provide material for the embankments, layer generally has the best workability, more organic
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, matter, and the best potential for plants. Material from
and observed performance of the soils. Considered in the surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the
the ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high final cover.
water table, depth to bedrock, flooding, large stones,
and content of organic matter. Construction Materials
Excessive seepage resulting from rapid permeability Table 10 gives information about the soils as a
in the soil or a water table that is high enough to raise source of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils
the level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to are rated good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and
function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is topsoil. They are rated as a probable or improbable
excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high source of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on
content of organic matter is detrimental to proper soil properties and site features that affect the removal
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
activity. Slope or bedrock can cause construction compaction, minor processing, and other standard
problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
the lagoon floor. evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of and used in road embankments in another place. In this
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the exacting in design than higher embankments.
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
layer of soil from a source away from the site. Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy their profile. The table showing engineering index
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground- properties provides detailed information about each soil
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation layer. This information can help to determine the
should be considered, suitability of each layer for use as roadfill. The
The ratings in table 9 are based on soil properties, performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or
site features, and observed performance of the soils, cement is not considered in the ratings.
Permeability, depth to bedrock, depth to a water table, The ratings are based on soil properties, site
slope, and flooding affect both types of landfill. Texture, features, and observed performance of the soils. The
stones and boulders, highly organic layers, soil reaction, thickness of suitable material is a major consideration.
and content of salts and sodium affect trench landfills. The ease of excavation is affected by large stones or a
Unless otherwise stated, the ratings apply only to that high water table. How well the soil performs in place
part of the soil within a depth of about 6 feet. For after it has been compacted and drained is determined
deeper trenches, a limitation rated slight or moderate by its strength (as inferred from the engineering
may not be valid. Onsite investigation is needed, classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used Soils rated good contain signilicanl amounts of sand
to cover compacted solid waste in an area sanitary or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported material, a low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
to the landfill, and spread over the waste, stones. Depth to the water table is more than 3 feet.
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope Soils rated fair are more than 35 percent silt- and clay-
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material sized particles and have a plasticity index of less than








88 Soil Survey


10. They have a moderate shrink-swell potential, slopes The soils are not so wet that excavation is difficult.
of 15 to 25 percent, or many stones. Depth to the water Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
table is 1 to 3 feet. Soils rated poor have a plasticity than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large
index of more than 10, a high shrink-swell potential, or amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or have a
many stones. They are wet and have a water table at a seasonal high water table at or near the surface.
depth of less than 1 foot. They may have layers of The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet for topsoil because of its organic matter content.
thick. Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for retention of moisture and releases a variety of plant
commercial use with a minimum of processing. They nutrients as it decomposes.
are used in many kinds of construction. Specifications
for each use vary widely. In table 10, only the Water Management
probability of finding material in suitable quantity is Table 11 gives information on the soil properties and
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific site features that affect water management. The degree
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
excavation of the material, areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source excavated ponds. The limitations are considered slight if
of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as soil properties and site features are generally favorable
indicated by the engineering classification of the soil), for the indicated use and limitations are minor and are
the thickness of suitable material, and the content of easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site
rock fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification features are not favorable for the indicated use and
are given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
grain sizes is given in the table on engineering index overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
properties. properties or site features are so unfavorable or so
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of difficult to overcome that special design, significant
clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is increase in construction costs, and possibly increased
up to 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at maintenance are required.
least 3 feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, This table also gives the restrictive features that
large stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable affect each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as diversions, and grassed waterways.
limestone and dolomite, are not considered to be sand Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
and gravel, embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow material. Excessive slope can affect the storage
area. capacity of the reservoir area.
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading constructed to impound water or to protect land against
is affected by rock fragments, a water table, soil texture, overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation of the material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the
borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, rock soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about
fragments, bedrock, and toxic material. 5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a mixed and compacted during construction.
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
cobbles and have little or no gravel. They are low in soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
content of soluble salts, are naturally fertile or respond depth greater than the height of the embankment can
well to fertilizer, and are not so wet that excavation is affect performance and safety of the embankment.
difficult. Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have determine these properties.
a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
to 40 inches of suitable material, or soils that have an seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts. compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features








Flagler County, Florida 89


include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
content of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The
or sodium. A high water table affects the amount of design and management of an irrigation system are
usable material. It also affects trafficability. affected by depth to the water table, the need for
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed construction of a system is affected by large stones and
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that depth to bedrock. The performance of a system is
impound water 3 feet or more above the original affected by the depth of the root zone, the amount of
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a salts or sodium, and soil reaction.
permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
the salinity of the soil. Depth to bedrock and the content combination of channels and ridges constructed across
of large stones affect the ease of excavation, a slope to control erosion and conserve moisture by
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and depth to bedrock affect the construction of terraces and
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to diversions. A restricted rooting depth, a severe hazard
bedrock or to other layers that affect the rate of water of wind erosion or water erosion, an excessively coarse
movement, permeability, depth to a high water table or texture, and restricted permeability adversely affect
depth of standing water if the soil is subject to ponding, maintenance.
slope, susceptibility to flooding, and subsidence of Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
organic layers. Excavating and grading and the stability channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
of ditchbanks are affected by depth to bedrock, large surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving. The stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock affect the
productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely construction of grassed waterways. A hazard of wind
affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in erosion, low available water capacity, restricted rooting
the root zone, such as salts, sodium, and sulfur. depth, toxic substances such as salts or sodium, and
Availability of drainage outlets is not considered in the restricted permeability adversely affect the growth and
ratings. maintenance of the grass after construction.







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