• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 Summary of tables
 Foreword
 General nature of this survey
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Dade County Area, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026084/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Dade County Area, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 116 p., 3, 61 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Natural Resources Conservation Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1995]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Miami-Dade County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Miami-Dade County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 71-72).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 96-0096-P.
General Note: "Issued January 1996"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026084
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002076664
oclc - 34036209
notis - AKR5057

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    Summary of tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    General nature of this survey
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    How this survey was made
        Page 6
        Soil classification and soil mapping
            Page 6
        Soil variability and map unit composition
            Page 7
        Confidence limits of soils survey information
            Page 7
            Page 8
    General soil map units
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 37
        Crops
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 41
        Recreation
            Page 41
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 42
        Engineering
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
    Soil properties
        Page 49
        Engineering index properties
            Page 49
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 50
        Soil and water features
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
    Classification of the soils
        Page 55
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 55
        Basinger series
            Page 55
        Biscayne series
            Page 56
        Canaveral series
            Page 57
        Cardsound series
            Page 57
        Chekika series
            Page 58
        Dade series
            Page 58
        Dania series
            Page 59
        Demory series
            Page 59
        Hallandale series
            Page 60
        Kesson series
            Page 60
        Krome series
            Page 61
        Lauderhill series
            Page 61
        Margate series
            Page 62
        Matecumbe series
            Page 62
        Opalocka series
            Page 63
        Pahokee series
            Page 63
        Perrine series
            Page 64
        Plantation series
            Page 65
        Pomello series
            Page 65
        St. Augustine series
            Page 66
        Tamiami series
            Page 67
        Terra Ceia series
            Page 67
        Vizcaya series
            Page 68
    Formation of the soils
        Page 69
        Page 70
    References
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Glossary
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Tables
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    General soil map
        Page 118
    Index to map sheets
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
Full Text


.,. United States In cooperation with
.W:' Department of University of Florida, S oil S urve y of
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, Dade County
Natural Agricultural Experiment
Resources Stations, and Soil A r F i d a
Conservation Science Department; 1 F r Id a
Service Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services; and Florida
Department of
Transportation













I M INI,,t'




-1


A.6
















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can- -
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas. -- -

Koke mo
To find information about N
your area of interest, 1 J 4 t
locate that area on the . q
Index to Map Sheets, -MAP SHEET
which precedes the soil 4 3
maps. Note the number of .. 1, 16. .1. 20..
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet. INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
that sheet.


Locate your area of 7 Fa
interest on the map BaC AsB
sheet. Note the map unit ) Ba
symbols that are in that i I// "a-
area. Turn to the Index
to Map Units (see Con- AREA OF INTEREST
tents), which lists the map NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
survey may consist only of numbers or
units by symbol and letters, or they may be a combination
name and shows the of numbers and letters.
page where each map MAP SHEET
unit is described.

The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal
agencies, State agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil
Conservation Service) has leadership for the Federal part of the National
Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1986. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1987. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1987. This survey was
made cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service; the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services; and the Florida Department of
Transportation. The survey is part of the technical assistance furnished by the
South Dade Soil and Water Conservation District. Assistance was provided by
the Dade County Board of Commissioners.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Natural Resources Conservation Service are
offered on a nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national
origin, religion, sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: Urban land, natural wetlands in an area of Vizcaya soils, and farmland in an area of
Chekika soils.

















ii

















Contents


Index to map units ............................... iv Cardsound series .............................. 57
Summary of tables ............................. v Chekika series................................. 58
Foreword ....................................... vii Dade series ......... ..... ............. 58
General nature of the survey area ................. 1 Dania series .................................. 59
How this survey was made........................ 6 Demory series ............... ..... ........... 59
Soil classification and soil mapping ............... 6 Hallandale series ............................. 60
Soil variability and map unit composition........... 7 Kesson series ............................... 60
Confidence limits of soil survey information ....... 7 Krome series ............ ............... 61
General soil map units......................... 9 Lauderhill series .................. ........... 61
Detailed soil map units .......................... 13 Margate series .............. .............. 62
Use and management of the soils ............... 37 Matecumbe series............................. 62
Crops ......................................... 37 Opalocka series............. ... ..... 63
Windbreaks and environmental plantings ........ 41 Pahokee series .............. ................ 63
Recreation ................................... 41 Pennsuco series ............ ........ ......... 63
Wildlife habitat ................ ............. 42 Perrine series............. ...... ...... 64
Engineering ................................... 43 Plantation series ............................... 65
Soil properties ................................. 49 Pomello series ................................ 65
Engineering index properties .................. 49 St. Augustine series............................ 66
Physical and chemical properties ............... 50 Tamiami series .............................. 67
Soil and water features ........................ 51 Terra Ceia series .............. ............. 67
Classification of the soils ....................... 55 Vizcaya series ................................ 68
Soil series and their morphology................. 55 Formation of the soils ........... ........... 69
Basinger series ............................... 55 References ................................... 71
Biscayne series .............................. 56 Glossary .................... ............... 73
Canaveral series .............................. 57 Tables ............................ ....... 83

Issued January 1996















iii
















Index to Map Units


2-Biscayne gravelly marl, drained ............... 13 24-Matecumbe muck......................... 24
3-Lauderhill muck, depressional................. 14 25-Biscayne-Rock outcrop complex............. 26
4-Pennsuco marl, drained ....................... 15 26-Perrine marl, tidal ........................... 26
5-Pennsuco marl ............................. 16 28-Demory-Rock outcrop complex............... 27
6-Perrine marl, drained ......................... 17 30-Pahokee muck, depressional ............... 27
7-Krome very gravelly loam...................... 18 31-Pennsuco marl, tidal ....................... 28
9-Udorthents-water complex .............. .. 18 32-Terra Ceia muck, tidal .................... 28
10-Udorthents, limestone substratum-Urban 33-Plantation muck ............................ 29
land complex ................. ............ 19 34- Hallandale fine sand ......................... 29
11-Udorthents, marl substratum-Urban 35-Margate fine sand .......................... 30
land complex .............. ............ 19 37-Basinger fine sand ........................... 30
12-Perrine marl................................ 20 38-Rock outcrop-Vizcaya-Biscayne complex...... 31
13- Biscayne marl ............................. 20 39- Beaches .................. ................ 32
14-Dania muck, depressional .................. 21 40-Pomello sand ................. ........... 32
15-Urban land .............. ................ 21 41-Dade fine sand .................. ..........32
16-Biscayne marl, drained ...................... 22 42-Udorthents, limestone substratum, 0 to 5
18-Tamiami muck, depressional ................. 22 percent slopes ............................. 33
20-Cardsound-Rock outcrop complex ............ 23 45-Canaveral sand.......................... 33
22-Opalocka-Rock outcrop complex ............. 24 47-St. Augustine sand.......................... 34
23-Chekika very gravelly loam ................... 24 48-Kesson muck, tidal........................... 34






















iv
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) .................... .............. 84

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 2) .................... 85

Recreational development (table 3) ....................................... 86

Wildlife habitat (table 4) .............................................. 89

Building site development (table 5) .................. .................... 92

Sanitary facilities (table 6) ...................................... ......... 95

Construction materials (table 7) ....................... .................. 99

Water management (table 8)....................... .................... 102

Engineering index properties (table 9) ................................... 106

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 10).................... 110

Soil and water features (table 11) ................... ................... 113

Classification of the soils (table 12) ...................................... 116



















v



















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in the survey area. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected
land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers and
agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan
land use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to
ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists
in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use
the survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow over bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey
or wet soils are poorly suited to septic tank absorption fields. A high water table
makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the
Natural Resources Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Natural Resources Conservation Service













vii














Soil Survey of

Dade County Area, Florida


By Chris V. Noble, Robert W. Drew, and James D. Slabaugh, Natural Resources
Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil Science Department; Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services; and Florida Department of Transportation



This survey area is in the extreme southeast part of the survey area. These factors are climate, history and
Florida (fig. 1). It is bordered on the north by Broward development, geomorphology, geology, hydrogeology,
County, on the west mainly by the Everglades National and transportation facilities.
Park, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the
south by Biscayne Bay. Climate
The survey area makes up 621,080 acres, or about This survey area has a subtropical marine climate
970 square miles. Miami, the county seat, is in the characterized by long, warm, rainy summers and mild,
northeastern part of the survey area, on the west shore dry winters. Temperatures are moderated by the
of Biscayne Bay. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf Stream, but the moderating
The economy of the survey area is fairly well effects quickly diminish inland. Table 1 gives data on
diversified. Because of the money generated by tourism temperature and precipitation for the survey area as
and retirement living, the Miami area and adjacent recorded at the Miami International Airport. In winter,
coastal areas are known as the "Gold Coast." The the average temperature is 68 degrees F and the
leading industries or economic activities include average daily minimum temperature is 60 degrees. The
construction, real state, housing, recreation, the service lowest temperature on record, which occurred in
trades, sports events, motion picture and television December 1934, is 26 degrees. In summer, the average
filming, transportation, manufacturing, limestone mining, temperature is 82 degrees and the average daily
and cement production. maximum temperature is 89 degrees. The highest
Miami is one of Florida's principal deep-water ports. recorded temperature, which occurred in July 1942, is
Commercial and sport fishing and agricultural crops, 100 degrees.
including such major cash crops as citrus, vegetables, Frosts occur about once a year. Killing frosts
and special tropical fruits and vegetables, are important occurred in February 1917, December and January
to the economy. Ornamental nursery plants, for indoor 1917 and 1918, January 1928, December 1934,
and outdoor landscaping, have surpassed citrus and January 1940, January and February 1958, December
sugarcane as the major cash crops in Florida. 1962, and January 1970, 1977, and 1981 (23).
Rainfall varies greatly from place to place during the
General Nature of the Survey Area year and on a yearly basis. The total annual
precipitation is approximately 57.6 inches. Of this, 10.6
This section describes the environmental and cultural inches, or about 18 percent, usually falls in the period
factors that affect the use and management of soils in November through March. The growing season for most







2 Soil Survey


completely depopulated (9). It came under the control of
England in 1763. In that year, Spain again was given
control of Florida. The Creek Indians, who later became
SI the Seminoles of north Florida, were known to hunt in
the Everglades and make raids as far south as Key
West, but they were not permanent settlers until after
the Tekesta Indians moved to Cuba. By 1830, the
Seminoles had taken over and absorbed any remaining
tribes. Florida became part of the United States in
1821.
In 1808, the Spanish Government granted John Egan
100 acres of land along the Miami River, in an area
where Miami is now located. Richard Fitzpatrick
established a cotton plantation along the Miami River.
Early settlers grew oranges, lemons, limes, bananas,
coconuts, and grapes (4).
On July 2, 1838, Congress granted one township
/ near present-day Cutler to Dr. Henry Perrine for the
purpose of introducing purely tropical plants and trees
Sto south Florida. In 1847, Dr. Perrine was killed by
Seminole Indians before his project was implemented
(4).
Dade County was established on February 4, 1836.
The present boundaries were established after the
Figure 1.-Location of Dade County area in Florida. formation of Palm Beach County in 1909 and Broward
County in 1915. The first county seat was on Indian
Key, which was the most important settlement. In 1844,
the county seat was moved to Miami. In 1889, it was
vegetable crops is included in this period. The heaviest moved to June. In 1900, it was moved back to Miami.
one-day rainfall during the period of record was 16 The county was named in honor of Major Francis L.
inches in April 1979. Thunderstorms occur about 74 Dade, who along with his troops was killed by
days each year, and most occur in late afternoon (22). Seminoles near what is now Bushnell, Florida, in 1835
Hurricanes occasionally strike the survey area, (4).
especially in September and October. Damaging The population of the county began to grow after the
hurricanes occurred in October 1906, September 1926, Homestead Act of 1866. By 1870, small settlements
November 1935, September 1945 and 1947, October were established in Biscayne, Lemon City, Ft. Dallas
1950, September 1960, August 1964, and September (Miami), Coconut Grove, and Cutler. The settlers
1965 (22). supported themselves through hunting, fishing, farming,
The average relative humidity in midafternoon is and making starch from Florida arrowroot. Development
about 74 percent. Humidity is higher at dawn, when the was hindered because the only way in or out was by
average is about 84 percent. The sun shines 78 percent boat. In 1896, Henry Flagler extended a railroad into
of the time possible in summer and 66 percent in Miami. By 1900, the population had grown to 5,000. In
winter. The prevailing wind is from the east-southeast. 1915, Dixie Highway, which linked Miami with the rest
of the country, was completed.
History and Development Construction of water-control structures, which began
in 1906 and continues to the present, has allowed
Tekesta Indians were the first known permanent farming and urban development in areas in the
settlers in the survey area. They were encountered by Everglades that originally were too wet for these uses.
Ponce de Leon in 1513. They were nonagricultural and A period of large-scale land development and
lived by hunting, fishing, and trading with other tribes increasing population occurred in the county from 1920
and later with the Spanish. Their numbers were greatly through 1926. The takeover of Cuba by Fidel Castro in
reduced by disease and by warfare with the Creek 1959 triggered the migration of 500,000 people to the
Indians. The final 80 families moved to Cuba with the county. The addition of the Mariel Refugees in 1980
Spanish in 1763. The survey area evidently was also increased the population of the county.






Dade County Area, Florida 3


Geomorphology and clay (13) and forms the base of the Biscayne
aquifer. The lower part of the group consists of soft or
Geology, Department of Natural Resources, helped prepare this hard, sandy, phosphatic dolostone or limestone.The
section and the sections "Geology" and "Hydrogeology." group attains a thickness of more than 900 feet in the
This survey area is on the southeastern peninsula of survey area (14). The upper part of the group actsas a
Florida, in the southern or distal zone. The area is confining unit for the Floridan aquifer system, which
divided into the Everglades Trough, the Atlantic Coastal yields water to flowing wels n the survey area but is
Ridge (Miami Ridge), the Southern Slope, and the Gulf no used because the water is saline.
Coastal Lagoons (fig. 2). In some areas the Hawthorn Group is overlain by a
Most of the northern and western parts of the survey thin layer of limy sand containing scattered phosphate
area are made up of the Everglades Trough. This grains and small quantities of shell material. This bed is
trough formed when dissolution of the underlying probably equivalent to the Tamiami Formation, but not
ton lowered the lnd s e to bel he er much information is available concerning this formation
limestone lowered the land surface to below the water .
in this survey area. Where it occurs in the survey area,
table.
The Miami Ridge is the southern extension of the it probably forms the base of the Biscayne aquifer.
The Miami Ridge is the southern extension of the
The Caloosahatchee Formation may occur as
Atlantic Coastal Ridge, which extends along the eastern The Caloosahatchee Formation may occur as
scattered remnants as much as 25 feet thick in the
Atlantic shore of Florida south from the vicinity of scattered remnants as much as 25 feet thick in the
Jacksonville. The Miami Ridge is along most of the survey area, but little definite information is available
Jacksonville. The Miami Ridge is along most of the
eastern coast of the survey area. In this area, it is made concerning the occurrence of this formation in the area.
The formation consists of shells, sand, and some
up of oolitic limestone, which formed as a broad, low st
shoal under warm, shallow marine water during a period limtoe and sandstone
of higher Pleistocene sea level, beginning about 2 The Fort Thompson Formation, which cons of
interbedded limestone, sand, and shells, is one of the
million years ago. Because of tidal action, swales cut
into the top of the ridge generally have a northwest- most productive units within the Biscayne aquifer. It
into the top of the ridge generally have a northwest-
southwest orientation. A wave-cut cliff, or scarp, formed averages 50 to 70 feet in thickness and thickens to the
along the southeast edge of the ridge during a period of east, as shown in figure 3 (13). It typically consists of
higher sea level. This cliff has been called the Silver alternating freshwater and marine sediments, which
higheBf Scarp generally are permeable. The limestone beds in the Fort
Bluff Scarp (12).
On aerial photographs the Southern Slope shows a Thompson Formation can be cavernous and
interconnected, thus providing channels through which
parallel pattern of drainage within an area that generally watercnncncannc
is covered by water. The apparent parallelism is caused F a s
by the coalescence of small islands of trees into linear e nastasia oatio n a san she mestone
strings of vegetation. Two small areas of Gulf Coastal
Lagoons are between the Southern Slope and Florida miles to the north of this survey area. Although it does
Lagoons are between the Southern Slope and Florida
not occur at the surface anywhere in the survey area, it
Bay to the south. These lagoons are more typical of the not occur at the surface in the sur area, it
forms a major part of the Biscayne aquifer in coastal
southwest coast of Florida and barely extend into the
survey area at this location areas, where it is as much as 120 feet thick (13). This
unit typically has beds of marine limestone, consisting
Geology mainly of cemented whole and broken shells (coquina).
These beds are extremely permeable. Because they are
The sediments of south Florida are dominated by relatively close to the surface and in close proximity to
limestone and dolostone. The survey area is underlain the ocean, however, the water contained in them can
by at least 11,800 feet of these carbonate sediments be saline (10).
(3). Only the section of rocks normally encountered Key Largo Limestone merges laterally with the
when water wells are drilled, generally to a depth of Anastasia Formation and with Miami Limestone in the
less than 200 feet, is considered in the following southern and east-central parts of the survey area (13).
discussion of geology. A geological cross section of the This formation is at the surface throughout the upper
survey area is shown in figure 3. keys, but in this survey area it is generally below the
The Hawthorn Group (undifferentiated) consists of surface. It consists of hard limestone derived from coral,
interbedded sand, silt, clay, dolostone, and limestone, algae, and some shells. It is as much as 60 feet thick in
All of the lithological components are interbedded and the survey area (13). It is essentially a fossil reef, which
intermixed. This group is intermixed throughout with formed during a period of higher Pleistocene sea level.
phosphate, generally in the form of sand-sized grains. It typically is very porous and is a very prolific water-
In this survey area the top of the group consists of sand producing part of the Biscayne aquifer (13).






4 Soil Survey


ATLANTIC COASTAL RIDGE
EVERGLADES TROUGH


BIG CYPRESS ......

COLLIER CO



S. SILVER BLUFF SCARP


SCALE
SCAE ATLANTIC OCEAN


MONROE CO. SOUTHERN SLOPE
RETICULATE COASTAL
SWAMPS
GULF COASTAL LAGOONS

FLORIDA BAY

Figure 2.-Geomorphological areas of Dade County.


Miami Limestone is at or near the surface in almost Hydrogeology
all of the survey area. This formation is a soft, oolitic
limestone that is generally less than 40 feet thick (12). It The Biscayne aquifer of the surficial aquifer system
characteristically contains large quantities of ooliths, provides copious quantities of water to wells in the
which are small, spherical particles formed when calcite survey area. It extends from the surficial material near
or aragonite was deposited in concentric layers around or at the surface to a depth of almost 200 feet in the
a nucleus of some type. Miami Limestone is considered northeast corner of the county (13). The base of the
to be a part of the Biscayne aquifer. It is a good source aquifer is generally considered to be the deepest
of water, although it yields less water than the porous limestone bed in the section above the relatively
underlying formations and does so less easily, impermeable sand, silt, and clay of the Hawthorn Group
Limestone is the primary mineral resource in the or "tight" sand in the Tamiami Formation (13). The
survey area. It is mined from below water level by water in the aquifer begins as rainfall, which percolates
draglines in at least 31 pits (5). Most of the pits are into the sand or limestone at the surface and flows by
mined for Miami Limestone. Some of the pits in the gravity below the water table, where it can be tapped by
north-central part of the survey area, however, are wells. Most wells that are not municipal or commercial
mined for material similar to Tamiami Limestone, which are less than 100 feet deep and have casing that
is at the surface in Collier County, along the Tamiami extends from the surface to below the water table.
Trail. The limestone is used as a source of base Many commercial or municipal wells are 100 to 200 feet
material for roads, in the manufacture of cement deep. The lower part of all the wells is left uncased in
products, and in a variety of other ways. the limestone or shell beds. The water is derived from








Dade County Area, Florida 5


MIAMI RIDGE
10 40 MILE BEND (SAND AND KROE AVE
-. c ORGANIC ) KOME A
MSL SURFICIAL MATERIAL ~
SMSL

BS MIAMI LIMESTONE
OF FT. THOMPSON
BISCAYNE FORMATION
-20 AQUIFER
(LIMESTONE, SAND,
AND SHELL ) KEY LARGO
LIMESTONE

40 TAMIAMI FORMATION AND
HAWTHORN GROUP



-60 ( SAND, SILT, CLAY, AND CARBONATE )

ANASTASIA
FORMATION
SCALE LOCATION D FORMATl~ON
0 2 4 6 MILES I
-80 0 4 8 Km
BASE OF /
OF
MODIFIED FROM SCHROEDER, KLEIN AND HOY (1958) BISCAYNE AQUIFER

100


Figure 3.-A geological cross section of Dade County area.



these beds. The formations that make up the Biscayne Road (U.S. Highway 27) runs in a northwest-southeast
aquifer are identified in the section "Geology." direction, connecting Miami with the Homestead
Because of relatively low elevations throughout the Extension and with Krome Avenue (County Road 997).
survey area and a close proximity to the ocean, salty Krome Avenue runs in a north-south direction from
ocean water moving into canals toward the west can the Homestead Extension to near the north end
infiltrate the Biscayne aquifer during dry periods, when of the county. It is the westernmost through road.
the amount of rainfall is low. The upward flow of saline Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41) runs in an east-west
water toward the surface and evaporation at the surface direction. It is the only road that runs across the entire
can cause contamination of the soil by salt in width of the county. State Road 9 extends from U.S.
agricultural areas and elsewhere (10). Highway 1 north into Broward County. U.S. Highway
441 parallels U.S. Interstate 95 north into Broward
Transportation Facilities County.
Miami is served by a complex urban loop highway
This survey area is served by several major system, a commuter rail, and a bus system. Seven
highways. U.S. Highway 1 runs in a north-south bridges connect the barrier islands with the mainland.
direction in the eastern part of the survey area. It is the The Port of Miami receives goods from and ships them
only highway that runs the entire length of the county. to areas throughout the world. The port also serves as
Highway A1A connects the barrier islands. U.S. a point of departure for many cruise ships.
Interstate 95 runs in a north-south direction, merging Two railroad lines serve the survey area. Amtrak
with U.S. Highway 1 in Miami. The Homestead service is available from Miami. Access to the
Extension of the Florida Turnpike runs in a north-south Intracoastal Waterway and the Atlantic Ocean is readily
direction near the center of the survey area. It connects available. Miami International Airport is a major
with U.S. Highway 1 near Florida City. Okeechobee metropolitan airport. It provides direct flights to many







6 Soil Survey


parts of the world. Other commercial airports include have been named, described, interpreted, and
Homestead General Aviation Airport, New Tamiami delineated on aerial photographs and when the
Airport, Opa-Locka Airport, and Opa-Locka West laboratory data and other data have been assembled.
Airport. The survey area has many private landing The mass of detailed information then should be
fields. organized so that it can be used by farmers, woodland
managers, engineers, planners, developers and
builders, home buyers, and others.
How This Survey Was Made
Soil Classification and Soil Mapping
This soil survey updates the survey of Dade Countyoil Classification and Soil Mapping
published in 1958 (18). It describes the soils to a After describing the soils in a survey area and
greater depth than the previous survey. Many of the soil measuring or characterizing their properties, soil
and map unit names have been changed because of scientists systematically classify the soils into taxonomic
new information. Though some soil boundaries have classes that have a specified range of characteristics.
been readjusted, most are essentially the same as The system of taxonomic classification used for soils in
those in the original survey. the United States, described in "Soil Taxonomy" (19),
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what soils has categories that are based mainly on the kind and
are in the survey area, where they are, and how they character of soil properties and the arrangement of soil
can be used. They observed the steepness, length, and horizons within the profile. Once the individual soils in a
shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general survey area are classified, they can be compared and
pattern of drainage; and the kinds of native plants or correlated with similar soils in the same taxonomic class
crops. They dug many holes to study the soil profile, that have been recognized in other areas.
which is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in the landscape in an orderly pattern
a soil. The profile extends from the surface down into geology, the landforms, and the
the parent material, which has been changed very little v action. Each kind of soil is associated with a
vegetation. Each kind of soil is associated with a
by leaching or by plant roots.
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the particular kind of landscape or with segment of the
profiles that they studied and compared those profiles landscape. By obsering the soils in the survey area
with others in nearby counties and in more distant and relating their position to specific segments of the
landscape, the soil scientists can evolve a concept, or
places. They classified and named the soils according landscape the soil scientists can evolve a concept or
to uniform nationwide procedures. They drew the model, of how the soils formed. During mapping, this
boundaries of the soils on aerial photographs. These model enables the soi scientists to predict with a
photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and considerable degree of accuracy the location of specific
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. soils on the landscape.
The soil maps at the back of this publication were Individual soils on the landscape commonly merge
prepared from aerial photographs. into one another as their characteristics gradually
The areas shown on a soil map are called map units. change. To construct an accurate soil map, the soil
Most map units are made up of one kind of soil. Some scientists must determine the boundaries between the
are made up of two or more kinds. The map units in soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
this survey area are described under the headings profiles. Compared to the whole three-dimensional soil
"General Soil Map Units" and "Detailed Soil Map volume, the areas examined are little more than points.
Units." These few observations, however, supplemented by an
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some understanding of the soil-landscape relationship, are
soils are taken for laboratory measurements and for sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in an
engineering tests. The characteristics of all the soils are area and to determine the boundaries. The delineated
determined through field tests. Interpretations of those map units are based on inferences derived from this
characteristics may be modified during the survey. Data small sample.
are assembled from other sources, such as test results, A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system and hand
records, field experience, and State and local transects were used to document the type and
specialists. For example, data on crop yields under variability of the soils occurring in the map units (7, 8,
defined management are assembled from farm records 11, 15). The GPR system was used successfully on all
and from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soils to measure the depth to and determine the
soil. variability of major soil horizons or other soil features. In
Only part of a soil survey is done when the soils this survey area 133 random transects were made by







6 Soil Survey


parts of the world. Other commercial airports include have been named, described, interpreted, and
Homestead General Aviation Airport, New Tamiami delineated on aerial photographs and when the
Airport, Opa-Locka Airport, and Opa-Locka West laboratory data and other data have been assembled.
Airport. The survey area has many private landing The mass of detailed information then should be
fields. organized so that it can be used by farmers, woodland
managers, engineers, planners, developers and
builders, home buyers, and others.
How This Survey Was Made
Soil Classification and Soil Mapping
This soil survey updates the survey of Dade Countyoil Classification and Soil Mapping
published in 1958 (18). It describes the soils to a After describing the soils in a survey area and
greater depth than the previous survey. Many of the soil measuring or characterizing their properties, soil
and map unit names have been changed because of scientists systematically classify the soils into taxonomic
new information. Though some soil boundaries have classes that have a specified range of characteristics.
been readjusted, most are essentially the same as The system of taxonomic classification used for soils in
those in the original survey. the United States, described in "Soil Taxonomy" (19),
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what soils has categories that are based mainly on the kind and
are in the survey area, where they are, and how they character of soil properties and the arrangement of soil
can be used. They observed the steepness, length, and horizons within the profile. Once the individual soils in a
shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general survey area are classified, they can be compared and
pattern of drainage; and the kinds of native plants or correlated with similar soils in the same taxonomic class
crops. They dug many holes to study the soil profile, that have been recognized in other areas.
which is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in the landscape in an orderly pattern
a soil. The profile extends from the surface down into geology, the landforms, and the
the parent material, which has been changed very little v action. Each kind of soil is associated with a
vegetation. Each kind of soil is associated with a
by leaching or by plant roots.
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the particular kind of landscape or with segment of the
profiles that they studied and compared those profiles landscape. By obsering the soils in the survey area
with others in nearby counties and in more distant and relating their position to specific segments of the
landscape, the soil scientists can evolve a concept, or
places. They classified and named the soils according landscape the soil scientists can evolve a concept or
to uniform nationwide procedures. They drew the model, of how the soils formed. During mapping, this
boundaries of the soils on aerial photographs. These model enables the soi scientists to predict with a
photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and considerable degree of accuracy the location of specific
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. soils on the landscape.
The soil maps at the back of this publication were Individual soils on the landscape commonly merge
prepared from aerial photographs. into one another as their characteristics gradually
The areas shown on a soil map are called map units. change. To construct an accurate soil map, the soil
Most map units are made up of one kind of soil. Some scientists must determine the boundaries between the
are made up of two or more kinds. The map units in soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
this survey area are described under the headings profiles. Compared to the whole three-dimensional soil
"General Soil Map Units" and "Detailed Soil Map volume, the areas examined are little more than points.
Units." These few observations, however, supplemented by an
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some understanding of the soil-landscape relationship, are
soils are taken for laboratory measurements and for sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in an
engineering tests. The characteristics of all the soils are area and to determine the boundaries. The delineated
determined through field tests. Interpretations of those map units are based on inferences derived from this
characteristics may be modified during the survey. Data small sample.
are assembled from other sources, such as test results, A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system and hand
records, field experience, and State and local transects were used to document the type and
specialists. For example, data on crop yields under variability of the soils occurring in the map units (7, 8,
defined management are assembled from farm records 11, 15). The GPR system was used successfully on all
and from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soils to measure the depth to and determine the
soil. variability of major soil horizons or other soil features. In
Only part of a soil survey is done when the soils this survey area 133 random transects were made by







Dade County Area, Florida 7


GPR or by hand. Information from notes and ground- Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
truth observations made in the field were used, along Information
with radar data, to classify the soils and to determine
the composition of map units. The map units described Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" are based on soil properties but also on such variables as climate
these data and on data in the survey published in 1958. and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
over long periods, but they are not predictable from
Soil Variability and Map Unit Composition year to year. For example, soil scientists can predict
with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given soil
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an will have a high water table within certain depths in
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
dominated by two or three kinds of soil. A map unit is table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
identified and named according to the taxonomic specific date.
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a Confidence limits in soil surveys are statistical
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for expressions of the probability that a soil property or the
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, composition of a map unit will vary within prescribed
the soils are natural objects. In common with other limits. These limits can be assigned numerical values
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed data for determining confidence limits, the natural
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a variability of soils and the way soil surveys are made
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic must be considered. The composition of map units and
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including other information are derived largely from extrapolations
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes. These areas made from a small sample. Also, information about the
of differing soils are called inclusions, soils does not extend below a depth of about 6 feet.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral The information in the soil survey is not meant to be
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in used as a substitute for onsite investigation. Soil survey
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and information can be used to select from among
management. These are referred to as similar alternative practices or general designs that may be
inclusions. Their properties are noted in the description needed to minimize the possibility of soil-related
of the dominant soil or soils. Some inclusions have failures. It cannot be used to interpret specific points on
properties and behavior different enough to affect use the landscape.
or require different management. They generally occupy Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
small areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil units in this survey area were determined by random
maps because of the scale used in mapping. The transects made by ground-penetrating radar or by hand
dissimilar inclusions are mentioned in the map unit across mapped areas. The data are given in the
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been description of each soil under the heading "Detailed
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the Soil Map Units." Soil scientists made enough transects
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so and took enough samples to characterize each map unit
complex that it was impractical to make enough at a specific confidence level. For example, map unit 40
observations to identify all of the kinds of soil on the was characterized at a 95 percent confidence level
landscape, based on transect data. The composition is described
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way as follows: "On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data. Pomello sand, Pomello and similar soils make up 98 to
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure 99 percent of the mapped areas." On the other 5
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the percent of the acreage, the percentage of Pomello and
landscape into segments that have similar use and similar soils may be higher than 99 percent or lower
management requirements. The delineation of such than 98 percent.
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient The composition of some of the map units in this
information for the development of resource plans, but survey area, such as Urban land and other
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses miscellaneous areas, was determined on the basis of
in small areas. the judgment of the soil scientist rather than by a
statistical procedure.







Dade County Area, Florida 7


GPR or by hand. Information from notes and ground- Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
truth observations made in the field were used, along Information
with radar data, to classify the soils and to determine
the composition of map units. The map units described Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" are based on soil properties but also on such variables as climate
these data and on data in the survey published in 1958. and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
over long periods, but they are not predictable from
Soil Variability and Map Unit Composition year to year. For example, soil scientists can predict
with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given soil
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an will have a high water table within certain depths in
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
dominated by two or three kinds of soil. A map unit is table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
identified and named according to the taxonomic specific date.
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a Confidence limits in soil surveys are statistical
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for expressions of the probability that a soil property or the
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, composition of a map unit will vary within prescribed
the soils are natural objects. In common with other limits. These limits can be assigned numerical values
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed data for determining confidence limits, the natural
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a variability of soils and the way soil surveys are made
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic must be considered. The composition of map units and
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including other information are derived largely from extrapolations
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes. These areas made from a small sample. Also, information about the
of differing soils are called inclusions, soils does not extend below a depth of about 6 feet.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral The information in the soil survey is not meant to be
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in used as a substitute for onsite investigation. Soil survey
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and information can be used to select from among
management. These are referred to as similar alternative practices or general designs that may be
inclusions. Their properties are noted in the description needed to minimize the possibility of soil-related
of the dominant soil or soils. Some inclusions have failures. It cannot be used to interpret specific points on
properties and behavior different enough to affect use the landscape.
or require different management. They generally occupy Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
small areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil units in this survey area were determined by random
maps because of the scale used in mapping. The transects made by ground-penetrating radar or by hand
dissimilar inclusions are mentioned in the map unit across mapped areas. The data are given in the
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been description of each soil under the heading "Detailed
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the Soil Map Units." Soil scientists made enough transects
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so and took enough samples to characterize each map unit
complex that it was impractical to make enough at a specific confidence level. For example, map unit 40
observations to identify all of the kinds of soil on the was characterized at a 95 percent confidence level
landscape, based on transect data. The composition is described
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way as follows: "On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data. Pomello sand, Pomello and similar soils make up 98 to
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure 99 percent of the mapped areas." On the other 5
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the percent of the acreage, the percentage of Pomello and
landscape into segments that have similar use and similar soils may be higher than 99 percent or lower
management requirements. The delineation of such than 98 percent.
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient The composition of some of the map units in this
information for the development of resource plans, but survey area, such as Urban land and other
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses miscellaneous areas, was determined on the basis of
in small areas. the judgment of the soil scientist rather than by a
statistical procedure.









9









General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication fill material. Typically, the fill material is light gray and
shows the soil associations in this survey area. Each white extremely stony loam about 55 inches thick.
association has a distinctive pattern of soils, relief, and Below this is hard, porous limestone bedrock. These
drainage. Each is a unique natural landscape. Typically, soils are intricately mixed with areas of Urban land.
an association consists of one or more major soils and Of minor extent in this association are Basinger,
some minor soils. It is named for the major soils. The Biscayne, Cardsound, Dade, Demory, Hallandale,
soils making up one association can occur in another Krome, Margate, Opalocka, Pennsuco, Perrine,
but in a different pattern. Plantation, St. Augustine, and Terra Ceia soils and
The general soil map can be used to compare the Rock outcrop.
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of Almost all of this association is used for urban or
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, recreational development. Farming is of no importance
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. because of the extensive urban development. Wetness
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for is a limitation affecting most nonfarm uses. Established
planning the management of a farm or field or for drainage systems and additions of fill material have
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. helped to overcome this limitation. Udorthents that
The soils in any one association differ from place to overlie organic material are severely limited as sites for
place in slope, depth, drainage, and other roads and buildings. The organic material is
characteristics that affect management. compressible and cannot support heavy loads. This
limitation can be overcome by replacing the organic
Soils of the Coastal Ridge and Barrier Islands material with stable fill material or by constructing
Areas of this group consist of Urban land and nearly foundations on pilings.
level to gently sloping, moderately well drained or well
drained soils. The soils consist of mixed stony loam fill Soils of the Freshwater and Sawgrass Marsh
spread over natural soils that are underlain by marl or These soils are nearly level and are somewhat poorly
limestone, drained to very poorly drained. They are organic soils
that are shallow to deep over limestone bedrock and
1. Urban Land-Udorthents Association soils that consist of marl and are very shallow to deep
Built-up areas and nearly level to very steep, moderately over oolitic mestoe bedrock.
well drained or well drained soils consisting of fill material 2. Lauderhill-Dania-Pahokee Association
that is 8 to more than 80 inches deep over limestone
bedrock Nearly level, very poorly drained soils consisting of
This association is primarily in the northeastern part organic material that is 8 to more than 51 inches deep
of the survey area, along the Atlantic Coastal Ridge over limestone bedrock
south to Black Creek Canal and on the Barrier Islands. This association consists of shallow to deep, organic
This association makes up about 34.9 percent of the soils in sawgrass and freshwater marshes and ponds.
survey area. It is about 70 percent Urban land, 23 These soils extend west from the Atlantic Coastal Ridge
percent Udorthents, and 7 percent soils of minor extent. into the Everglades.
Urban land is covered by streets, sidewalks, parking The native vegetation is sawgrass, willows, and
lots, buildings, and other structures that so obscure the cattails. Melaleuca trees have invaded many areas.
soils that identification of the soil series is not feasible. This association makes up about 17 percent of the
Udorthents are nearly level areas of extremely stony survey area. It is about 41 percent Lauderhill soils, 34







10 Soil Survey


percent Dania soils, 22 percent Pahokee soils, and 3 gravelly loam about 5 inches thick. Below this is hard,
percent soils of minor extent, porous limestone bedrock.
Typically, Lauderhill soils are black and very dark Of minor extent in this association are Dania, Krome,
brown muck to a depth of about 30 inches. They are Lauderhill, Matecumbe, Opalocka, and Vizcaya soils.
underlain by hard, porous limestone bedrock. Most areas of this association are used as wildlife
Typically, Dania soils are black muck to a depth of habitat. Some areas are used for crops, such as
about 15 inches. They are underlain by soft, porous malanga, corn, and beans, or for citrus or mango
limestone bedrock. groves.
Typically, Pahokee soils are black and very dark
brown muck to a depth of about 46 inches. They are 4. Perrine-Biscayne-Pennsuco Association
underlain by hard, porous limestone bedrock. Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
Of minor extent in this association are Tamiami,
f minor eent ine ois a consisting of marl that is 8 to more than 80 inches deep
Biscayne, and Perrine soils.
over hard limestone bedrock
Most areas of this association support native
vegetation and are used for wildlife habitat. Some areas This association consists of very shallow to deep
are used for urban development, soils that consist of marl. These soils are on low coastal
plains to the south and southeast of the Atlantic Coastal
3. Rock Outcrop-Biscayne-Chekika Association Ridge, adjacent to Biscayne Bay, and in transverse
glades.
Areas of limestone outcrop and nearly level, poorly The natural vegetation consists of sawgrass, whitetop
drained, very pdrainedrained, and somewhat poorly sedge, yellowtop, goldenrod, gulfdune paspalum, broom
drained soils that have been mechanically scarified in sedge, glades lobelia, dogfennel, gulf muhly, bluejoint
places and are 1 to 10 inches deep over limestone panicum, bushy beard bluestem, and south Florida
bedrock bluestem.
This association consists mainly of outcrops of Miami This association makes up about 17 percent of the
oolitic limestone and Biscayne and Chekika soils. survey area. It is about 45 percent Perrine soils, 38
Chekika soils formed through scarification of the oolitic percent Biscayne soils, 10 percent Pennsuco soils, and
limestone outcrops and the loamy residuum that 7 percent soils of minor extent.
partially covers the limestone and fills the many cavities Perrine soils are poorly drained or very poorly
or solution holes. They are in transitional areas between drained. Typically, the surface layer is about 11 inches
the Miami Ridge and soils that consist of marl. Biscayne of grayish brown marl that has a texture of silt loam.
soils formed through the precipitation of calcium The next 15 inches is light brownish gray and light gray
carbonates by algae. In some areas the outcrops of marl that has a texture of silt loam. Soft limestone
oolitic limestone have very jagged pinnacles extending bedrock is at a depth of about 26 inches.
as much as 12 inches above the surface. Biscayne soils are poorly drained or very poorly
The native vegetation on the Chekika soils, which drained. Typically, the surface layer is about 5 inches of
consisted of sawgrass, gulf muhly, sedges, scattered gray marl that has a texture of silt loam. The next 10
south Florida slash pine, and saw palmetto, was inches is gray and light gray marl that has a texture of
removed prior to rock-plowing. The native vegetation on silt loam. Hard limestone bedrock is at a depth of about
the Biscayne soils is sawgrass, cattails, sedges, 15 inches.
scattered saw palmetto, and willows. Pennsuco soils are poorly drained or very poorly
This association makes up about 15 percent of the drained. Typically, the surface layer is about 8 inches of
survey area. It is about 39 percent Rock outcrop, 25 dark grayish brown marl that has a texture of silt loam.
percent Biscayne soils, 18 percent Chekika soils, and The underlying material extends to a depth of about 44
18 percent soils of minor extent. inches. It is marl that has a texture of silt loam. It is
Biscayne soils are poorly drained or very poorly grayish brown in the upper 19 inches and dark gray in
drained. Typically, the surface layer is about 5 inches of the lower 17 inches. Soft limestone bedrock is at a
gray marl that has a texture of silt loam. Below this is depth of about 44 inches.
gray and light gray marl. Hard, porous limestone is at a Of minor extent in this association are Dania,
depth of about 15 inches. Lauderhill, and Pahokee soils.
Chekika soils are somewhat poorly drained. Most areas of this association support natural
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown very vegetation. Some areas are used for urban







Dade County Area, Florida 11


development. Some are used for potatoes, sweet corn, limestone or of organic material that is more than 51
malanga, or ornamental nursery plants, inches thick

Soils of the Miami Ridge This association consists of nearly level soils in
mangrove swamps that are inundated daily by high
These soils are nearly level and gently sloping and tides. It generally is in the southeastern part of
are moderately well drained. They formed through the survey area, in a narrow band adjoining Biscayne
mechanical scarification or rock-plowing. They are very Bay.
shallow over oolitic limestone bedrock. The natural vegetation in areas of this association
SK consists of red, black, and white mangrove.
5. Krome Association This association makes up about 4.1 percent of the
Nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained survey area. It is about 34 percent Perrine soils, 30
soils that have been mechanically scarified or rock- percent Terra Ceia soils, 14 percent Pennsuco soils,
plowed and are 3 to 9 inches deep over limestone and 22 percent soils of minor extent.
bedrock Perrine soils are poorly drained or very poorly
drained. Salt water inundates most areas of these soils
This association consists of very shallow, gravelly, at high tide. The soils are farther from the coast than
mineral soils on the Miami Ridge. They formed through the Terra Ceia soils and in areas between the small
scarification of oolitic limestone outcrops and the loamy streams that drain into Biscayne Bay. They dominantly
residuum or sandy overwash that partially covers the support stunted red mangrove. Typically, the surface
limestone and fills the many cavities or solution holes. layer is about 12 inches of dark brown marl that has a
The native vegetation, which consisted of south texture of silt loam. The next 14 inches is dark gray
Florida slash pine, saw palmetto, and various shrubs marl that has a texture of silt loam. Soft limestone
and grasses, was removed prior to rock-plowing, bedrock is at a depth of about 26 inches.
This association makes up about 12 percent of the Terra Ceia soils are very poorly drained. Salt water
survey area. It is about 81 percent Krome soils and 19 inundates most areas of these soils at high tide. The
percent soils of minor extent. soils are closer to the coast than the other major soils
Typically, the surface layer of the Krome soils is dark and in areas along small streams that drain into
brown very gravelly loam about 7 inches thick. Below Biscayne Bay. They dominantly support large red
this is hard, porous limestone bedrock. mangrove. Typically, they are very dark brown and
Of minor extent in this association are Matecumbe black muck to a depth of about 80 inches.
and Opalocka soils, Rock outcrop, Urban land, and Pennsuco soils are poorly drained or very poorly
Udorthents. drained. Salt water inundates most areas of these soils
Most areas of this association are planted to row at high tide. The soils are farther from the coast than
crops, such as tomatoes, beans, and squash. Some the Terra Ceia soils and in areas between the small
areas are used for urban development. Some are used streams that drain into Biscayne Bay. They dominantly
for avocado, mango, or citrus groves, support stunted red mangrove. Typically, they consist of

Soils of the Tidal Swamps about 51 inches of light gray marl that has a texture of
silt loam. Below this is soft limestone bedrock.
These soils are nearly level and are poorly drained or Of minor extent in this association are soils
very poorly drained. They consist of marl that is deep or consisting of muck that is less than 51 inches deep over
very deep over limestone or of deep or very deep muck. limestone bedrock.
6. Perrine-Terra Ceia-Pennsuco Association Most areas of this association support natural
vegetation.
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
consisting of marl that is 40 to 80 inches deep over










13









Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back differences could significantly affect use and
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area. management of the soils in the map unit. The included
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be a special symbol on the soil maps.
used to plan the management needed for those uses. This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given areas have little or no soil material and support little or
under the heading "Use and Management of the Soils." no vegetation. Urban land is an example. Miscellaneous
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
soils for which the unit is named. the soil maps.
A number identifying the soil precedes the map unit Table 2 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
general facts about the soil and gives the principal Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The
specific uses. "Glossary" defines many of the terms used in
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up describing the soils.
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils 2-Biscayne gravelly marl, drained. This very
of a series have major horizons that are similar in shallow, nearly level, poorly drained soil is on broad,
composition, thickness, and arrangement. low flats, in sloughs, and in transverse glades that
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface extend from the Pineland Ridge. Individual areas are
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ irregularly shaped or rectangular and range from 6 to
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, 100 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or concave and
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the are less than 2 percent.
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Biscayne
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed gravelly marl, drained, Biscayne and similar soils make
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil up 78 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or Typically, the surface layer is about 7 inches of dark
management. For example, Perrine marl is a phase of gray gravelly marl that has a texture of silt loam. It is
the Perrine series, underlain by hard, porous limestone having less than 20
Some map units are made up of two or more major percent solution holes that are 4 to 12 inches deep and
soils. These map units are called soil complexes. A soil 6 to 18 inches wide and contain very dark grayish
complex consists of two or more soils, or one or more brown silty clay. The content of limestone fragments is
soils and a miscellaneous area, in such an intricate mainly 15 to 25 percent, by volume, but ranges to as
pattern or in such small areas that they cannot be much as 35 percent. The fragments range from 2
shown separately on the soil maps. The pattern and millimeters to 7.5 centimeters in diameter.
proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in all areas. Included in mapping are soils that are similar to
Biscayne-Rock outcrop complex is an example. Biscayne gravelly marl, drained, but have less than 15
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils or more than 35 percent gravel, by volume, are ponded
other than those for which the map unit is named. and may have a continuous layer or layers of organic
Some of these included soils have properties that differ material that are more than 8 inches thick but make up
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such less than half of the total soil depth, or have limestone







14 Soil Survey


bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. in the Sawgrass Marsh and Freshwater Marsh
Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in ecological plant communities.
mapping occur as small areas of Chekika and This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
Pennsuco soils. Also included are areas of rock sanitary facilities, and recreational development
outcrop. Dissimilar inclusions make up 1 to 22 percent because of the wetness and the depth to bedrock.
of most mapped areas. Chekika soils are somewhat Additional drainage measures and large amounts of
poorly drained and are in the higher positions on the suitable fill material are needed.
landscape. Pennsuco soils are on broad, low coastal The capability subclass is Illw.
flats. They are deep or very deep.
The water table in the Biscayne soil remains within 3-Lauderhill muck, depressional. This moderately
10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months during most deep, nearly level, very poorly drained soil is in narrow
years, receding to as deep as 36 inches during dry drainageways and broad open areas within sawgrass
periods. Permeability is moderate. marshes. It is ponded for 9 to 12 months in most years.
All areas have been drained, rock-plowed or Individual areas are long and narrow or broad and
mechanically scarified, and cultivated at some time in irregularly shaped and range from 10 to several
the past. The natural vegetation no longer remains, thousand acres in size. Slopes are smooth or concave
Abandoned fields rapidly become overgrown with thick and are less than 2 percent.
stands of Brazilian pepper, leather.eaf fern, and a On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Lauderhill
variety of.shrubs, broadleaf weeds, and grasses. muck, depressional, Lauderhill and similar soils make
In most areas a water-control system has been up 98 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
installed. If the water-control system is properly Typically, the soil is muck to a depth of about 30
inches. The upper 7 inches is black, and the lower 23
maintained, this soil is well suited to a variety of
shallow-rooted cultivated crops. Much of the cultivated incestone be dark ibown. Hard, porous, oolitic
acreage is used for corn snap beans, potatoes, limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 30 inches.
acreage is used for corn, snap beans, potatoes, Included in mapping are soils that are similar to
malanga, or bananas. Land grading and smoothing fill dressiolt are mr t o
Lauderhill muck, depressional, but are more than 36 or
in the small depressions that are common in areas of less than 20 inches deep over limestone bedrock, may
this soil and thus generally permit more efficient use of be saline because of a close proximity to the coast, or
farm equipment and more uniform application of have continuous layers of marl more than 4 inches
irrigation water. Yearly rock-plowing may be necessary thick.
to incorporate some of the finer textured soil material in Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in
solution holes. Bedding is necessary if root crops are mapping occur as small areas of Biscayne, Matecumbe,
grown. Returning crop residue to the soil or regularly Pennsuco, and Perrine soils. Dissimilar soils make up 2
adding other organic material improves fertility and tilth. percent or less of most mapped areas. Biscayne and
Disking during wet periods normally results in Perrine soils are in positions on the landscape similar to
cloddiness. Important management practices include those of the Lauderhill soil. They are made up of marl.
preparing a good seedbed and applying fertilizer Biscayne soils are shallow over bedrock, and Perrine
according to the results of soil tests and the needs of soils are moderately deep over limestone bedrock.
the crop. Because of a high pH, some micronutrients Matecumbe soils are in the higher positions on the
may not be available to certain crops. Boron toxicity landscape and are moderately well drained. Pennsuco
may affect some crops, soils are in the slightly higher positions on the
This soil is poorly suited to the production of landscape. They are made up of marl and are deep or
ornamental trees and shrubs for nursery stock because very deep over limestone bedrock.
of the depth to bedrock. It is poorly suited to the Under natural conditions, the Lauderhill soil is
production of citrus and mangos because of the ponded for 9 to 12 months during most years. The
wetness. It is unsuited to the production of avocados, water table is within 10 inches of the surface for the
This soil is suited to pasture. Common bermudagrass rest of the year. Permeability is rapid. If drained, the
and improved bahiagrass grow well if the pasture is organic material initially shrinks to about half the
properly managed. Regular applications of fertilizer are original thickness and then subsides further as a result
needed. Irrigation is needed during dry periods. of compaction and oxidation. These losses are most
Controlled grazing helps to prevent overgrazing and rapid during the first 2 years. If drained, the soil
maintains plant vigor. Deferred grazing during wet continues to subside at a rate of about 1 inch per year.
periods helps to prevent compaction of the soil. The lower the water table, the more rapid the loss.
This soil is not used as rangeland or forest land. It is Most areas support natural vegetation, which








Dade County Area, Florida 15


consists of cattail and sawgrass. Areas that have been inches. Soft, porous limestone bedrock is at a depth of
drained or disturbed, however, may be dominated by about 44 inches.
Brazilian pepper and melaleuca. Areas of this soil Included in mapping are soils that are similar to
provide cover for deer and excellent habitat for wading Pennsuco marl, drained, but have limestone bedrock at
birds and other kinds of wetland wildlife, a depth of less than 40 or more than 80 inches or are
Under natural conditions, this soil generally is not ponded and in the upper 40 inches may have
suited to cultivation. If water is controlled through a continuous layers of muck that are more than 8 inches
system of dikes, ditches, and pumps, however, the soil thick.
is well suited to most winter vegetable crops. A well Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in
designed and maintained water-control system can mapping occur as small areas of Biscayne and
remove excess water during periods when crops are Lauderhill soils and small areas of Udorthents.
growing on the soil and can keep the soil saturated at Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 13 percent of most
all other times. Keeping the soil saturated minimizes mapped areas. Biscayne soils are in positions on the
oxidation. Important management practices include landscape similar to those of the Pennsuco soil. They
good seedbed preparation and a suitable crop rotation. are shallow or very shallow over limestone bedrock.
Cover crops and crop residue should be left on the Lauderhill soils are in the lower positions on the
surface or plowed under. Fertilizer should be applied landscape. They have an organic surface layer.
according to the needs of the crop. Udorthents are in the slightly higher areas of mineral fill
This soil is not suited to the production of citrus, material.
avocados, or pine trees because of the wetness. During most years the water table in the Pennsuco
This soil is not used as rangeland. It is in the soil remains within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 4
Freshwater Marsh ecological plant community. months and is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for the rest
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, of the year. Permeability is moderately slow.
sanitary facilities, and recreational development All areas have been drained and cultivated at some
because of the ponding, excess humus, subsidence, time in the past. The native vegetation no longer
low strength, and the depth to bedrock. Water-control remains Abandoned fields quickly become overgrown
measures are needed to prevent ponding. The organic with thick stands of Bazan p er, Australian pine,
material should be removed, and suitable backfill leatherleaf fern, and a variety of shrubs, broadleaf
material should be provided. Sealing or lining sewage weeds, sedges, and grasses.
lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil A water-control system has been installed in most
material helps to prevent seepage. The sides of shallow areas. If the water-control system is properly
excavations should be shored Mounding may be maintained, this soil is well suited to a variety of
cultivated vegetable and grain crops. Much of the
needed on sites for septic tank absorption fields. cultivated aege ed or cor poo p
cultivated acreage is used for corn, potatoes, snap
The capability subclass is Vllw. beans, sorghum (fig. 4), malanga, or ornamental trees
and shrubs. Land grading and smoothing fill in the small
4-Pennsuco marl, drained. This deep, nearly level, depressions that are common in areas of this soil and
poorly drained soil is on broad, low coastal flats and in thus improve surface drainage and permit more efficient
transverse glades. Individual areas are broad and use of farm equipment and more uniform application of
irregularly shaped and range from 10 to 350 acres in irrigation water. Bedding generally is necessary if
size. Slopes are smooth or concave and are less than 1 ornamental plants or root crops are grown. Returning
percent. crop residue to the soil or regularly adding other organic
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pennsuco material improves fertility and tilth and increases the
marl, drained, Pennsuco and similar soils make up 87 rate of water intake. Prolonged cultivation with heavy
to 99 percent of the mapped areas. equipment can result in the formation of a tillage pan.
Typically, the surface layer is about 8 inches of dark Subsoiling during dry periods helps to break up the pan
grayish brown marl that has a texture of silt loam. The and thus permits deeper root penetration. Disking
underlying material extends to a depth of about 44 during wet periods often results in cloddiness. Important
inches. It is marl that has a texture of silt loam. It is management practices include preparing a good
grayish brown in the upper 19 inches and dark gray in seedbed, applying fertilizer according to the results of
the lower 17 inches. Common very pale brown, soft soil tests and the needs of the crop, and controlling
accumulations of calcium carbonate are between depths weeds and brush. Because of a high pH, some
of 8 and 44 inches. Common very dark gray pockets micronutrients may not be available to certain crops.
and vertical streaks are below a depth of about 27 Boron toxicity may affect some crops.








16 Soil Survey



































Figure 4.-Sorghum in an area of Pennsuco marl, drained.



This soil is poorly suited to the production of citrus suitable fill material generally are needed to overcome
and mangos because of the wetness. It is unsuited to these limitations.
the production of avocados. The capability subclass is Illw.
This soil is suited to pasture. Common bermudagrass
and improved bahiagrass grow well if the pasture is 5-Pennsuco marl. This deep, nearly level, very
properly managed. Regular applications of fertilizer are poorly drained soil is in broad, low coastal marshes and
needed. Irrigation is needed during dry periods. sloughs and in small depressional areas. Individual
Controlled grazing helps to prevent overgrazing and areas are broad and irregularly shaped and range from
maintains plant vigor. Deferred grazing during wet 6 to 200 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or concave
periods helps to prevent compaction of the soil. and are less than 1 percent.
This soil generally is not used as rangeland or forest On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pennsuco
land. Under natural conditions, it is in the Freshwater marl, Pennsuco and similar soils make up 99 percent of
Marsh and Sawgrass Marsh ecological plant the mapped areas.
communities. Typically, the surface layer is about 4 inches of light
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, brownish gray marl that has a texture of silt loam and
sanitary facilities, and recreational development has common black streaks in old root channels. The
because of the wetness and the depth to bedrock. underlying material, to a depth of about 46 inches, is
Additional drainage measures and large amounts of light gray marl that has a texture of silt loam and has a








Dade County Area, Florida 17


few black streaks. The soil has common whole snail sanitary facilities, and recreational development
shells and shell fragments that are sand sized to 1 inch because of the ponding. Extensive water-control
in diameter. Soft, porous limestone bedrock is at a measures and large amounts of suitable fill material are
depth of about 46 inches. needed to overcome this limitation.
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to The capability subclass is IIIw.
Pennsuco marl but have limestone bedrock at a depth
of less than 40 or more than 80 inches, in the upper 40 6-Perrine marl, drained. This moderately deep,
inches may have continuous layers of muck that are nearly level, poorly drained soil is on broad, low coastal
more than 8 inches thick, or have been drained, flats and in transverse glades. Individual areas are
Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in broad and irregularly shaped and range from 6 to 3,000
mapping occur as small areas of Biscayne, Lauderhill, acres in size. Slopes are smooth or concave and are
Pahokee, and Tamiami soils and small areas of less than 1 percent.
Udorthents. Dissimilar soils make up about 1 percent of On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Perrine
most mapped areas. Biscayne soils are in positions on marl, drained, Perrine and similar soils make up 98 to
the landscape similar to those of the Pennsuco soil. 99 percent of the mapped areas.
They are shallow or very shallow over limestone Typically, the surface layer is about 10 inches of
bedrock. Lauderhill, Pahokee, and Tamiami soils are in grayish brown marl that has a texture of silt loam. The
the lower positions on the landscape. They have an underlying layer, to a depth of about 26 inches, is light
organic surface layer, brownish gray marl that has a texture of silt loam. Few
The water table in the Pennsuco soil remains within a to many light gray, soft accumulations of calcium
depth of 6 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years carbonate and few grayish brown stains are in pockets
and is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for most of the rest or around pores and root channels between depths of
of the year. Permeability is moderately slow. 11 and 26 inches. Soft, porous limestone bedrock is at
All areas have been cleared, drained, and cultivated a depth of about 26 inches.
at some time in the past. The native vegetation no Included in mapping are soils that are similar to
longer remains. Abandoned fields quickly become Perrine marl, drained, but have limestone bedrock at a
overgrown with thick stands of Brazilian pepper, depth of less than 20 or more than 40 inches or are
Australian pine, leatherleaf fern, and a variety of shrubs, ponded and may have continuous layers of muck more
broadleaf weeds, ferns, and grasses, than 8 inches thick.
A water-control system has been installed in most Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in
areas. If the water-control system is properly mapping occur as small areas of Lauderhill soils and
maintained, this soil is well suited to a variety of small areas of Udorthents. Dissimilar soils make up
cultivated vegetable and grain crops. Much of the about 1 percent of most mapped areas. Lauderhill soils
cultivated acreage is used for corn, potatoes, snap are in the lower positions on the landscape. They have
beans, sorghum, malanga, or ornamental trees and an organic surface layer. Udorthents are in the slightly
shrubs. Land grading and smoothing fill in the small higher areas of mineral fill material.
depressions that are common in areas of this soil and Under natural conditions, the Perrine soil has water
thus improve surface drainage and permit more efficient above the surface for 1 to 3 months during most years.
use of farm equipment and more uniform application of During most years the water table remains within 10
irrigation water. Bedding generally is necessary if inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months and is at a
ornamental plants or root crops are grown. Returning depth of 10 to 30 inches for most of the rest of the year.
crop residue to the soil or regularly adding other organic Permeability is moderately slow.
material improves fertility and tilth and increases the All areas have been cleared, drained, and cultivated
rate of water intake. Prolonged cultivation with heavy at some time in the past. The native vegetation no
equipment can result in the formation of a tillage pan. longer remains. Abandoned fields quickly become
Subsoiling during dry periods helps to break up the pan overgrown with thick stands of Brazilian pepper,
and thus permits deeper root penetration. Disking Australian pine, leatherleaf fern, and a variety of shrubs,
during wet periods often results in cloddiness. Important broadleaf weeds, ferns, and grasses.
management practices include good seedbed A water-control system has been installed in most
preparation. areas. If the water-control system is properly
This soil generally is not used as rangeland or forest maintained, this soil is well suited to a variety of
land. It is in the Freshwater Marsh and Sawgrass Marsh cultivated vegetable and grain crops. Much of the
ecological plant communities. cultivated acreage is used for corn, potatoes, snap
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, beans, sorghum, malanga, or ornamental trees and







18 Soil Survey


shrubs. Land grading and smoothing fill in the small contain silty clay loam or silty clay.
depressions that are common in areas of this soil and Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
thus improve surface drainage and permit more efficient Krome soil but contain more than 60 percent or less
use of farm equipment and more uniform application of than 35 percent gravel or have slopes of as much as 5
irrigation water. Bedding generally is necessary if percent. Also included are some areas in groves where
ornamental plants or root crops are grown. Returning as much as 2 inches of accumulated leaf litter is on the
crop residue to the soil or regularly adding other organic surface.
material improves fertility and tilth and increases the Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in
rate of water intake. Prolonged cultivation with heavy mapping occur as small areas of Biscayne, Chekika,
equipment can result in the formation of a tillage pan. Cardsound, and Matecumbe soils. Also included are
Subsoiling during dry periods helps to break up the pan areas of rock outcrop. Dissimilar inclusions make up 2
and thus permits deeper root penetration. Disking percent or less of most mapped areas. Biscayne soils
during wet periods often results in cloddiness. Important are in the lower positions on the landscape. They have
management practices include preparing a good a surface layer of marl. Chekika, Cardsound, and
seedbed, applying fertilizer according to the results of Matecumbe soils are in positions on the landscape
soil tests and the needs of the crop, and controlling similar to those of the Krome soil. They do not have a
weeds and brush. Because of a high pH, some gravelly surface layer.
micronutrients may not be available to certain crops. The water table in areas of the Krome soil is within
Boron toxicity may affect some crops. the limestone bedrock. It is at a depth of 40 to 60
This soil is suited to pasture. Common bermudagrass inches in most years. Permeability is moderate.
and improved bahiagrass grow well if the pasture is All areas have been rock-plowed or mechanically
properly managed. Regular applications of fertilizer are scarified and cultivated at some time in the past. The
needed. Irrigation is needed during dry periods, natural vegetation no longer remains. This soil is
Controlled grazing helps to prevent overgrazing and suitable for a wide variety of fruit and vegetable crops,
maintains plant vigor. Deferred grazing during wet but special management is needed. This management
periods helps to prevent compaction of the soil. includes yearly rock-plowing, bedding, regularly adding
This soil is poorly suited to the production of citrus fertilizer, and irrigating during the winter growing
and mangos because of the wetness. It is unsuited to season. Because of a favorable climate, the water
the production of avocados. available for irrigation, and the demand by northern
This soil generally is not used as rangeland or forest markets, this high level of management is practical.
land. Under natural conditions, it is in the Sawgrass This soil is suitable for the production of fruit and
Marsh and Freshwater Marsh ecological plant citrus, but this production requires trenching, drilling, or
communities. blasting into the limestone. Regular applications of
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, fertilizer and irrigation water also are needed.
sanitary facilities, and recreational development This soil is suited to pasture. Common bermudagrass
because of the wetness and the depth to bedrock, and improved bahiagrass grow well if the pasture is
Additional drainage measures and large amounts of properly managed. Regular applications of fertilizer are
suitable fill material generally are needed to overcome needed. Irrigation is needed during dry periods.
these limitations. Controlled grazing helps to prevent overgrazing and
The capability subclass is IIIw. maintains plant vigor.
This soil generally is not used as rangeland or forest
7-Krome very gravelly loam. This very shallow, land. It is in the Everglades Flatwoods ecological plant
nearly level, moderately well drained soil is on broad, community.
very low hills on the Miami Ridge. Individual areas are This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
broad and irregularly shaped and range from 6 to 100 sanitary facilities, and recreational development
acres in size. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 because of the depth to bedrock and small stones.
percent. Local construction methods generally can overcome
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Krome very these limitations. The soil commonly is used for urban
gravelly loam, Krome and similar soils make up 98 to development.
99 percent of the mapped areas. The capability subclass is Vs.
Typically, the soil is dark brown very gravelly loam
about 7 inches thick. Hard, porous limestone bedrock is 9-Udorthents-water complex. This map unit
at a depth of about 7 inches. Solution holes in the consists of Udorthents and open bodies of water. The
limestone extend to a depth of about 10 inches. They Udorthents are very shallow to deep over limestone







Dade County Area, Florida 19


bedrock. They consist of unconsolidated or This map unit is not used as cropland. The
heterogeneous geologic material removed during the Udorthents consist mostly of stony limestone fragments
excavation of ditches, canals, lakes, ponds, and used as fill material in low areas. The fill material
quarries. The material commonly is piled along banks or improves the suitability of the low areas for building site
in scattered areas. Slopes are 15 to 60 percent. About development or other urban uses. If lawns and
65 percent of this map unit is Udorthents, and about 20 ornamental plants are to be established and maintained
percent is water. Included in this map unit are small on the soils in this map unit, a layer of good topsoil
areas of a Udorthents-Urban land complex, which about 6 inches thick is needed. Proper watering and
makes up less than 15 percent of any one area. regular applications of fertilizer also are needed.
Typically, the Udorthents consist of mixed light gray No capability classification is assigned.
and white limestone gravel and loamy carbonatic
material, which extend to a depth of 80 inches or more. 11-Udorthents, marl substratum-Urban land
The water table in areas of the Udorthents is within complex. About 40 to 70 percent of this map unit
the limestone bedrock. Permeability is moderate, consists of Udorthents in open areas, and 25 to 60
Weeds and native grasses have become established percent consists of Urban land, or areas covered by
in some areas. Other areas support little or no concrete and buildings. The Udorthents consist of
vegetation. heterogeneous geologic material that has been
This map unit is not used as cropland. In many areas excavated and spread. The Udorthents and Urban land
it is used as a source of road-building material and as a occur as areas so intermixed or so small that mapping
source of fill for new homesites, golf courses, and other them separately is impractical. Slopes are 0 to 2
purposes, percent.
No capability classification is assigned. The Udorthents are in areas of lawns, vacant lots,
parks, and playgrounds. The Urban land consists of
10-Udorthents, limestone substratum-Urban land streets, driveways, sidewalks, parking lots, buildings,
complex. About 40 to 70 percent of this map unit and other structures in areas where the soil is covered
consists of Udorthents in open areas, and 25 to 60 and cannot be readily observed.
percent consists of Urban land, or areas covered by Typically, the upper 12 inches of the Udorthents is fill
concrete and buildings. The Udorthents and Urban land material that is light gray very gravelly loam. The next
occur as areas so intermixed or so small that mapping 29 inches is brown gravelly sandy loam. Below this to a
them separately is impractical. Slopes are 0 to 2 depth of 60 inches or more is natural soil, which is
percent, predominantly marl that has a texture of silt loam. Hard,
The Udorthents are in areas of lawns, vacant lots, porous limestone bedrock is at a depth of 60 inches or
parks, and playgrounds. The Urban land consists of more.
streets, driveways, sidewalks, parking lots, buildings, Included in this map unit are small areas in which the
and other structures in areas where the soil is covered fill material is less than 40 or more than 80 inches thick.
and cannot be readily observed. Also included are areas where the fill material directly
Typically, the Udorthents consist of fill material that is overlies limestone bedrock or muck. Included soils
light gray and white extremely stony loam about 55 make up 10 percent or less of any one area.
inches thick. The fill material is underlain by hard, Depth to the water table in the Udorthents is
porous limestone bedrock. dominantly more than 40 inches, but it varies,
Included in this map unit are small areas of Krome depending on the thickness of the fill material.
and Cardsound soils and areas in which the fill material Permeability is moderately slow or moderate in the
is less than 8 or more than 80 inches thick. Also layers of marl.
included are areas where a few inches of marl is This map unit is not used as cropland. The
between the fill and the limestone and areas where 2 to Udorthents consist of gravelly limestone fragments used
4 inches of marl overlies the stony fill. Included soils as fill material in low areas of marl. The fill material
make up 10 percent or less of any one area. Cardsound improves the suitability of the low areas for building site
and Krome soils are in positions on the landscape development or other urban uses. If lawns and
similar to those of the Udorthents. They are very ornamental plants are to be established and maintained
shallow over limestone bedrock. on the soils in this map unit, a layer of good topsoil
The water table in areas of the Udorthents is within about 6 inches thick is needed. Proper watering and
the limestone bedrock. Permeability is moderate in the regular applications of fertilizer also are needed.
stony fill material. No capability classification is assigned.







20 Soil Survey


12-Perrine marl. This moderately deep, nearly Because of a high pH, some micronutrients may not be
level, very poorly drained soil is in broad, low coastal available to certain crops. Boron toxicity may affect
marshes and sloughs and in small depressional areas. some crops.
It is ponded for 9 to 12 months in most years. Individual This soil is unsuited to the production of citrus,
areas are broad and irregularly shaped and range from mangos, and avocados because of the ponding.
6 to 600 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or concave This soil generally is not used as rangeland or forest
and are less than 1 percent. land. It is in the Sawgrass Marsh and Freshwater Marsh
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Perrine ecological plant communities.
marl, Perrine and similar soils make up 82 to 99 percent This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
of the mapped areas. sanitary facilities, and recreational development, mainly
Typically, the surface layer is about 4 inches of because of the ponding and the depth to bedrock.
grayish brown marl that has a texture of silt loam. The Extensive water-control measures and large amounts of
underlying material, to a depth of about 29 inches, is suitable fill material are needed to overcome these
marl that has a texture of silt loam, is mottled in shades limitations.
of light brownish gray and light gray, and has common The capability subclass is Vllw.
or many very dark grayish brown pockets and streaks.
Soft, porous limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 13-Biscayne marl. This very shallow or shallow,
29 inches. nearly level, very poorly drained soil is on broad, low
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to coastal flats, in freshwater marshes and sloughs, and in
Perrine marl but have limestone bedrock at a depth of small depressional areas. It is ponded for 2 to 4 months
less than 20 or more than 40 inches and may have in most years. Individual areas are broad and irregularly
continuous layers of muck more than 8 inches thick. shaped and range from 6 to 200 acres in size. Slopes
Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in are smooth or slightly concave and are less than 2
mapping occur as small areas of Dania, Lauderhill, and percent.
Tamiami soils and small areas of Udorthents. Dissimilar On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Biscayne
soils make up 1 to 18 percent of most mapped areas. marl, Biscayne and similar soils make up 82 to 99
Dania, Lauderhill, and Tamiami soils are in positions on percent of the mapped areas.
the landscape similar to those of the Perrine soil. They Typically, the surface layer is about 5 inches of gray
have an organic surface layer. Udorthents are in the marl that has a texture of silt loam. Below this, to a
slightly higher areas of mineral fill material, depth of about 17 inches, is gray or grayish brown marl
The water table in the Perrine soil remains at or that has a texture of silt loam. Hard, porous limestone
above the surface for 2 to 6 months in most years and bedrock is at a depth of about 17 inches.
is within a depth of 12 inches for the rest of the year. Included in mapping are soils that are similar to
Permeability is moderately slow. Biscayne marl but have more than 15 percent gravel,
The natural vegetation consists of sawgrass, cattail, have been drained, are less than 1 inch deep over
primrose willow, smooth cordgrass, buttonbush, bedrock, have continuous organic layers that are more
boneset, gulf muhly, broom sedge, and a variety of than 8 inches thick but make up less than half of the
water-tolerant weeds, ferns, grasses, and sedges, total soil depth, or are 20 to 40 inches deep over
Calcium carbonate crusted periphyton covers the bedrock.
surface and bases of plants in many areas. Exotic tree Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in
species, including Australian pine, Brazilian pepper, and mapping occur as small areas of Dania, Hallandale,
melaleuca, have become established in some areas. Lauderhill, Pennsuco, and Tamiami soils. Dissimilar
Areas of this soil provide excellent habitat for wading soils make up 1 to 18 percent of most mapped areas.
birds, aquatic reptiles, small crustaceans, and other Dania, Lauderhill, and Tamiami soils are in positions on
kinds of wetland wildlife. the landscape similar to those of the Biscayne soil.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops and the They have an organic surface layer. Hallandale soils
production of nursery plants because of the ponding. In are in the higher positions on the landscape. They do
areas nearest to the coast, the soil is too saline for not have marl in the surface layer. Pennsuco soils are
most cultivated crops and ornamental plants. If a in the slightly higher positions on the landscape. They
complete water-control system that can remove excess are deep or very deep over limestone bedrock.
water rapidly were installed and carefully maintained, The water table in the Biscayne soil remains at or
many areas of the soil would be well suited to a variety above the surface for 2 to 4 months during most years,
of cultivated crops, ornamental plants, and pasture, receding to as deep as 20 inches during dry periods.
Bedding is needed if ornamental plants are grown. Permeability is moderate.







Dade County Area, Florida 21


The natural vegetation consists of sawgrass, cattail, positions on the landscape similar to those of the Dania
primrose willow, smooth cordgrass, buttonbush, soil. They have a surface layer of marl. Udorthents are
boneset, gulf muhly, broom sedge, and a variety of in the slightly higher areas of mineral fill material.
water-tolerant sedges and grasses. Calcium carbonate Under natural conditions, the Dania soil usually is
crusted periphyton covers the surface and bases of ponded throughout most of the year. The water table is
plants in many areas. Exotic tree species, including within 10 inches of the surface for the rest of the year.
Australian pine, Brazilian pepper, and melaleuca, have Permeability is rapid in the organic material. Oxidation
become established in some areas. Areas of this soil decreases the amount of organic material each year. If
provide habitat for wading birds, aquatic reptiles, small drained, the organic material initially shrinks to about
crustaceans, and other kinds of wetland wildlife, half the original thickness and then subsides further as
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, nursery a result of compaction and oxidation. These losses are
plants, and pasture because of the ponding. In areas most rapid during the first 2 years. The lower the water
nearest to the coast, the soil is too saline for most table, the more rapid the loss. The marl does not
cultivated crops and ornamental nursery plants. If a subside.
complete water-control system, including canals and Most areas support native vegetation, which consists
field ditches, were installed and carefully maintained, of sawgrass and cattail. Melaleuca trees have invaded
many areas of the soil would be well suited to a variety some areas. Areas of this soil provide cover for deer
of vegetable crops, ornamental nursery plants, and and excellent habitat for wading birds and other kinds of
pasture. wetland wildlife.
This soil is unsuited to the production of citrus, Under natural conditions, this soil generally is not
mangos, and avocados because of the ponding. suited to cultivation. If water is controlled through a
This soil is not used as rangeland or forest land. It is system of dikes, ditches, and pumps, however, the soil
in the Sawgrass Marsh and Freshwater Marsh is well suited to most winter vegetable crops. A well
ecological plant communities. designed and maintained water-control system can
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, remove excess water during periods when crops are
sanitary facilities, and recreational development growing on the soil and can keep the soil saturated at
because of the ponding and the depth to bedrock. all other times. Keeping the soil saturated minimizes
Extensive water-control measures and large amounts of oxidation. Cover crops and crop residue should be left
suitable fill material are needed to overcome these on the surface or plowed under. Fertilizer should be
limitations. applied according to the needs of the crop. In some
The capability subclass is Vllw. areas the soil is used as improved pasture. Improved
bahiagrass and pangolagrass are suitable.
14-Dania muck, depressional. This shallow, nearly This soil is not suited to the production of citrus,
level, very poorly drained soil is in poorly defined mangos, or avocados because of the wetness.
drainageways and adjacent to deeper organic soils This soil is not used as native rangeland or forest
within sawgrass marshes. It is ponded for 9 to 12 land. It is in the Sawgrass Marsh ecological plant
months in most years. Individual areas are long and are community.
narrow or broad. They range from 6 to 3,000 acres in This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
size. Slopes are smooth and are less than 2 percent. sanitary facilities, and recreational development
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Dania because of the ponding, excess humus, low strength,
muck, depressional, Dania and similar soils make up 83 and the depth to bedrock. Water-control measures are
to 99 percent of the mapped areas. needed to prevent ponding. The organic material should
Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 15 be removed, and suitable backfill material should be
inches thick. Soft, porous limestone bedrock is at a provided. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons and trench
depth of about 15 inches. sanitary landfills with impervious soil material helps to
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to prevent seepage. Mounding may be needed on sites for
Dania muck, depressional, but have limestone bedrock septic tank absorption fields.
at a depth of more than 20 or less than 8 inches or The capability subclass is Vllw.
have a layer of periphyton or marl in the upper 1 to 8
inches. 15-Urban land. This map unit is in areas where
Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in more than 85 percent of the surface is covered by
mapping occur as small areas of Biscayne soils and shopping centers, parking lots, streets, sidewalks,
small areas of Udorthents. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to airports, large buildings, houses, and other structures.
17 percent of most mapped areas. Biscayne soils are in The natural soil cannot be observed. The soils in open







22 Soil Survey


areas, mostly lawns, vacant lots, playgrounds, and areas. If the water-control system is properly
parks, are mainly Udorthents. These soils generally maintained, this soil is well suited to a variety of
have been altered by land grading and shaping or have shallow-rooted cultivated crops. Much of the cultivated
been covered with about 18 inches of extremely stony, acreage is used for corn, potatoes, snap beans,
loamy fill material. Areas of these soils are so small that sorghum, malanga, or ornamental trees and shrubs.
mapping them separately is impractical. Land grading and smoothing fill in the small
No capability classification is assigned. depressions that are common in areas of this soil and
thus improve surface drainage and permit more efficient
16-Biscayne marl, drained. This very shallow or use of farm equipment and more uniform application of
shallow, nearly level, poorly drained soil is on broad, irrigation water. Bedding is necessary if ornamental
low coastal flats and in transverse glades that extend plants or root crops are grown. Returning crop residue
into the Pineland Ridge. Individual areas are broad and to the soil or regularly adding other organic material
irregularly shaped or are rectangular. They range from improves fertility and tilth and increases the rate of
6 to 3,000 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or concave water intake. Prolonged cultivation with heavy
and are less than 2 percent, equipment can result in the formation of a tillage pan.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Biscayne Subsoiling during dry periods helps to break up the pan
marl, drained, Biscayne and similar soils make up 80 to and thus permits deeper root penetration. Disking
99 percent of the mapped areas. during wet periods often results in cloddiness. Important
Typically, the surface layer is about 5 inches of gray management practices include preparing a good
marl that has a texture of silt loam. The underlying seedbed, applying fertilizer according to the results of
layer, to a depth of about 15 inches, is gray and light soil tests and the needs of the crop, and controlling
gray marl that has a texture of silt loam. Hard, porous weeds and brush. Because of a high pH, some
limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 15 inches. It micronutrients may not be available to certain crops.
has scattered small solution holes containing very dark Boron toxicity may affect some crops.
gray, noncalcareous mucky silt loam. This soil is suited to pasture. Common bermudagrass
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to and improved bahiagrass grow well if the pasture is
Biscayne marl, drained, but have more than 15 percent properly managed. Regular applications of fertilizer are
gravel, by volume, are ponded and may have a needed. Irrigation is needed during dry periods.
continuous layer or layers of organic material that are Controlled grazing helps to prevent overgrazing and
more than 8 inches thick but make up less than half of maintains plant vigor. Deferred grazing during wet
the total soil depth, or have limestone bedrock at a periods helps to prevent compaction of the soil.
depth of more than 20 or less than 40 inches. This soil is poorly suited to the production of citrus
Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in and mangos because of the wetness. It is unsuited to
mapping occur as small areas of Chekika, Dania, the production of avocados.
Lauderhill, and Pennsuco soils. Also included are areas This soil generally is not used as rangeland or forest
of rock outcrop. Dissimilar inclusions make up about 1 land. Under natural conditions, it is in the Freshwater
to 20 percent of most mapped areas. Chekika soils are Marsh and Sawgrass Marsh ecological plant
in the slightly higher positions on the landscape. They communities.
have more than 35 percent gravel in the surface layer. This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
Dania and Lauderhill soils are in the slightly lower sanitary facilities, and recreational development

positions on the landscape. They have an organic because of the wetness and the depth to bedrock.
surface layer. Pennsuco soils are in positions on the Additional drainage measures and large amounts of
landscape similar to those of the Biscayne soil. They suitable fill material are needed to overcome these
are deep or very deep over limestone bedrock, limitations.
The water table in the Biscayne soil remains within The capability subclass is IIIw.
10 inches of the surface for 4 to 6 months during most
years, receding to as deep as 20 inches during dry 18-Tamiami muck, depressional. This moderately
periods. Permeability is moderate, deep or deep, nearly level, very poorly drained soil is in
All areas have been drained and cultivated at some freshwater swamps and marshes. It is ponded for 9 to
time in the past. The native vegetation no longer 12 months in most years. Individual areas are broad
remains. Abandoned fields quickly become overgrown and irregularly shaped and range from 50 to 1,000
with thick stands of Brazilian pepper, leatherleaf fern, acres in size. Slopes are smooth or slightly concave
and a variety of shrubs, broadleaf weeds, and grasses. and are less than 2 percent.
A water-control system has been installed in most On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Tamiami








Dade County Area, Florida 23


muck, depressional, Tamiami and similar soils make up in the Freshwater Marsh ecological plant community.
83 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 4 sanitary facilities, and recreational development
inches thick. The next 8 inches is gray marl that has a because of the ponding, excess humus, low strength,
texture of silt loam. Below this, to a depth of about 31 and the depth to bedrock. Water-control measures are
inches, is very dark gray muck. Hard, porous limestone needed to prevent ponding. The organic material should
bedrock is at a depth of about 31 inches. be removed, and suitable backfill material should be
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to provided. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons and trench
Tamiami muck, depressional, but have layers of marl sanitary landfills with impervious soil material helps to
less than 6 inches thick or consist of muck that is more prevent seepage. The sides of shallow excavations
than 51 inches deep over limestone, should be shored. Mounding may be needed on sites
Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in for septic tank absorption fields.
mapping occur as small areas of Biscayne soils and The capability subclass is Vllw.
areas where the layers of marl make up more than half
of the total soil depth. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 17 20-Cardsound-Rock outcrop complex. This map
percent of most mapped areas. Biscayne soils are in unit consists of a Cardsound soil intermingled with
positions on the landscape similar to those of the areas of Rock outcrop. The Cardsound soil and Rock
Tamiami soil. They consist of marl and are shallow or outcrop occur as areas so intermixed or so small that
very shallow over limestone, mapping them separately is impractical. Individual areas
Under natural conditions, the Tamiami soil is ponded are irregularly shaped or rectangular and range from 5
for 9 to 12 months during most years. The water table to 100 acres in size. Slopes are smooth and range from
is within 10 inches of the surface for the rest of the 0 to 2 percent.
year. Permeability is moderate. The organic layers are About 54 percent of this map unit is Cardsound and
subject to oxidation, which decreases the amount of similar soils, and 38 percent is Rock outcrop.
organic material each year. If drained, the organic Typically, the surface layer of the Cardsound soil is
material initially shrinks to about half the original dark yellowish brown silty clay loam about 4 inches
thickness and then subsides further as a result of thick. Hard, porous limestone bedrock is at a depth of
compaction and oxidation. These losses are most rapid about 4 inches. It has solution holes that contain silty
during the first 2 years. If drained, the soil continues to clay loam or silty clay.
subside at a rate of about 1 inch per year. The lower Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
the water table, the more rapid the loss. Cardsound soil but are darker or are very gravelly and
Most areas support natural vegetation, which loamy. Also included are areas where a mat of pine
consists of cattail, sawgrass, gulf muhly, star rush, needles overlies the limestone bedrock.
milkwort, and sedges. Some areas that have been Dissimilar soils that are included with the Cardsound
drained or disturbed may be dominated by Brazilian soil in mapping occur as small areas of Matecumbe
pepper and melaleuca. Areas of this soil provide cover soils and small areas of Udorthents. Dissimilar soils
for deer and excellent habitat for wading birds and other make up less than 10 percent of most mapped areas.
kinds of wetland wildlife. Matecumbe soils are in the slightly higher positions on
Under natural conditions, this soil generally is not the landscape. They have an organic surface layer.
suited to cultivation. If water is controlled through a Udorthents are in the slightly higher areas of mineral fill
system of dikes, ditches, and pumps, however, the soil material.
is well suited to most winter vegetable crops. A well Under natural conditions, the water table in areas of
designed and maintained water-control system can the Cardsound soil is within the limestone bedrock. It is
remove excess water during periods when crops are at a depth of 60 to 72 inches in most years.
growing on the soil and can keep the soil saturated at Permeability is moderately slow.
all other times. Keeping the soil saturated minimizes Under natural conditions, this map unit is not used
oxidation. Important management practices include for fruit or vegetable crops or as rangeland. It is in the
good seedbed preparation and a suitable crop rotation. Everglades Flatwoods ecological plant community.
Cover crops and crop residue should be left on the This map unit is severely limited as a site for urban
surface or plowed under. Fertilizer should be applied uses because of the depth to bedrock. Local
according to the needs of the crop. construction methods generally can overcome this
This soil is not suited to the production of citrus, limitation. The map unit commonly is used for urban
avocados, or pine trees because of the wetness. development.
This soil is not used as rangeland or forest land. It is The Cardsound soil is in capability subclass IVw.







24 Soil Survey


The Rock outcrop is not assigned a capability very gravelly loam about 5 inches thick. Hard, porous
classification, limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 5 inches.
Solution holes in the limestone extend to a depth of
22-Opalocka-Rock outcrop complex. This map about 9 inches. They contain silt loam or silty clay loam.
unit consists mainly of a Opalocka soil intermingled with Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
areas of Rock outcrop. The Opalocka soil and Rock Chekika soil but contain less than 35 percent or more
outcrop occur as areas so intermixed or so small that than 60 percent gravel.
mapping them separately is impractical. Individual areas Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in
range from 5 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are smooth mapping occur as small areas of Biscayne, Krome,
and range from 0 to 2 percent. Matecumbe, and Opalocka soils. Also included are
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Opalocka- areas of rock outcrop. Dissimilar inclusions make up 1
Rock outcrop complex, Opalocka and similar soils and to 23 percent of most mapped areas. Biscayne soils are
Rock outcrop make up 98 to 99 percent of the mapped on low flats and are poorly drained. Krome soils are on
areas. About 60 percent of this map unit is Opalocka low hills and are moderately well drained. Matecumbe
and similar soils, and 40 percent is Rock outcrop. soils are on hammocks. They have an organic surface
Typically, the surface layer of the Opalocka soil is layer. Opalocka soils are in the slightly higher positions
brown sand about 6 inches thick. Hard, porous on the landscape. They have a sandy surface layer.
limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 6 inches. It The water table in areas of the Chekika soil is within
has solution holes that contain sand. Sandy loam, the limestone bedrock. It is at a depth of 12 to 36
sandy clay loam, or sandy clay is next to the limestone, inches in most years. Permeability is moderate.
lining the bottom and sides of some solution holes. All areas have been rock-plowed and used for
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Opalocka vegetable crops at some time in the past (fig. 5). This
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Krome soils. soil is suitable for a wide variety of fruit and vegetable
These soils make up about 1 to 2 percent of most crops, but special management is needed. This
mapped areas. They are in positions on the landscape management includes yearly rock-plowing, bedding,
similar to those of the Opalocka soil. They have a regularly adding fertilizer, and irrigating during the
gravelly surface layer, winter growing season. Because of a favorable climate,
Permeability is very rapid in the Opalocka soil. The the water available for irrigation, and the demand by
water table is always within the limestone bedrock. It is northern markets, this high level of management is
at a depth of 60 to 72 inches, practical.
Under natural conditions, this map unit is not used This soil is suitable for the production of fruit and
for fruit or vegetable crops. If cleared and rock-plowed, citrus, but this production requires trenching, drilling, or
however, the map unit becomes Krome very gravelly blasting into the limestone. Regular applications of
loam, which commonly is used for crop production, fertilizer and irrigation water also are needed.
This map unit is not used as rangeland. It is in the This soil is suited to pasture. Common bermudagrass
Everglades Flatwoods ecological plant community, and improved bahiagrass grow well if the pasture is
This map unit is severely limited as a site for urban properly managed. Regular applications of fertilizer are
uses because of the depth to bedrock. Local needed. Irrigation is needed during dry periods.
construction methods generally can overcome this Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant vigor.
limitation. The map unit commonly is used for urban This soil is not used as rangeland or forest land. It is
development, in the Everglades Flatwoods ecological plant
The Opalocka soil is in capability subclass VIs. The community.
Rock outcrop is not assigned a capability classification. This soil is severely limited as a site for urban uses
because of the depth to bedrock and the wetness.
23-Chekika very gravelly loam. This very shallow, Water-control measures are needed to prevent
nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soil is in excessive wetness. Mounding may be needed on sites
transitional areas between the Miami Ridge and the for septic tank absorption fields and buildings.
Everglades. Individual areas are broad and irregularly The capability subclass is Illw.
shaped and range from 6 to 100 acres in size. Slopes
are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. 24-Matecumbe muck. This very shallow,
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Chekika moderately well drained soil is on small tropical
very gravelly loam, Chekika and similar soils make up hardwood hammocks on the Miami Ridge and in the
77 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Everglades. It is occasionally flooded. Individual areas
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown range from 5 to 40 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or








Dade County Area, Florida 25





































Figure 5.-Rock-plowing in an area of Chekika very gravelly loam. This measure helps to prepare the soil for planting.



slightly convex and are less than 2 percent. landscape. They are moderately deep over limestone
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as bedrock.
Matecumbe muck, Matecumbe and similar soils make The water table in areas of the Matecumbe soil is
up 80 to 100 percent of the mapped areas. within the limestone bedrock. It is at a depth of 18 to 36
Typically, the surface layer is a thin bed of leaf litter, inches in most years. Permeability is rapid.
twigs, and branches in varying stages of decomposition. This soil is not suited to pasture, vegetable crops, or
Soft limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 3 inches. the production of fruit or citrus because of the depth to
Solution holes in the limestone extend to a depth of bedrock. Clearing and rock-plowing cause rapid
about 40 inches. They contain silty clay loam, silty clay, depletion of this shallow, organic soil. If the soil is
or muck. Sinkholes vary in size and depth. cleared and rock-plowed, it generally is included in the
Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in surrounding map unit.
mapping occur as small areas of Cardsound and This soil is not used as rangeland. It is in the
Lauderhill soils. Also included are areas of rock outcrop. Tropical Hammocks ecological plant community.
Dissimilar inclusions make up 20 percent or less of This soil is well suited to wildlife habitat. It provides
most mapped areas. Cardsound soils are in the slightly habitat for many endangered and threatened species.
higher positions on the landscape and are well drained. This soil is severely limited as a site for urban uses
Lauderhill soils are in the lower positions on the because of the depth to bedrock.








26 Soil Survey


The capability subclass is VIIs. needed to overcome these limitations.
The Biscayne soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
25-Biscayne-Rock outcrop complex. This map unit Rock outcrop is not assigned a capability classification.
consists mainly of Biscayne marl intermingled with
areas of Rock outcrop. The Biscayne soil and Rock 26-Perrine marl, tidal. This moderately deep,
outcrop occur as areas so intermixed or so small that nearly level, very poorly drained soil is in tidal
mapping them separately is impractical. Individual areas mangrove swamps near the coast in southeastern
are broad and irregularly shaped and range from 6 to Florida and is subject to tidal flooding. Individual areas
500 acres in size. Slopes are smooth and are less than range from 6 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
2 percent. concave and are less than 1 percent.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Biscayne- On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Perrine
Rock outcrop complex, Biscayne and similar soils and marl, tidal, Perrine and similar soils make up 82 to 99
Rock outcrop make up 86 to 97 percent of the mapped percent of the mapped areas.
areas. About 55 percent of this map unit is Biscayne Typically, the surface layer is about 12 inches of dark
and similar soils, and 42 percent is Rock outcrop, brown marl that has a texture of silt loam. Below this, to
Typically, the surface layer of the Biscayne soil is a depth of about 26 inches, is dark gray marl that has a
about 4 inches of grayish brown marl that has a texture texture of silt loam. Soft, porous limestone bedrock is at
of silt loam. Hard, porous limestone bedrock is at a a depth of about 26 inches.
depth of about 4 inches. It has solution holes that Included in mapping are soils that are similar to
contain silty clay or clay. Perrine marl, tidal, but have limestone bedrock at a
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the depth of more than 40 inches or are nonsaline and in
Biscayne soil but are gravelly, the upper 40 inches may have layers of organic
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Biscayne material that are more than 8 inches thick.
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Chekika, Dania, Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in
and Krome soils. Dissimilar soils make up 3 to 14 mapping occur as small areas of Lauderhill and Terra
percent of most mapped areas. Chekika and Krome Ceia soils and small areas of organic soils having
soils have coarse fragments in the surface layer, layers of marl that are more than 4 inches thick but
Chekika soils are in the higher positions on the make up less than half of the total soil depth. Dissimilar
landscape. Krome soils are moderately well drained, soils make up 1 to 18 percent of most mapped areas.
Dania soils are in concave areas. They are organic. Lauderhill soils are in shallow depressions. They are
The water table in the Biscayne soil is below the organic. Terra Ceia soils are in positions on the
surface for the majority of most years, but the soil can landscape similar to those of the Perrine soil. They are
be briefly ponded during extremely wet periods, organic to a depth of more than 51 inches.
Permeability is moderate. Under natural conditions, the Perrine soil remains
Most areas support natural vegetation, which saturated and the water table fluctuates with the tides.
consists of scattered cabbage-palm and melaleuca. The The soil is moderately saline or saline. Permeability is
understory includes South Florida bluestem, sawgrass, moderately slow.
gulf muhly, boneset, milkwort, Carolina willow, and The natural vegetation consists of scattered and
various water-tolerant grasses. Dense stands of natural stunted red mangrove. Areas of this soil provide
vegetation are in rock cavities or solution holes. excellent habitat for birds and small marine
Under natural conditions, this map unit is not used crustaceans.
for fruit or vegetable crops, ornamental plants, or Because of tidal flooding and salinity, this soil is not
pasture. If rock-plowed, the map unit becomes either suited to cropland, groves, or improved pasture.
Biscayne gravelly marl or Chekika very gravelly loam, This soil generally is not used as rangeland. It is in
depending on the depth to limestone bedrock and the the Mangrove Swamp ecological plant community.
amount and type of material incorporated from the This soil is severely limited as a site for all urban
solution holes. uses because of the tidal flooding, the depth to
This map unit is not used as rangeland or forest land. bedrock, and the wetness.
It is in the Freshwater Marsh ecological plant This soil is in mangrove swamps, which are unique
community. and biologically productive areas that are very important
This map unit is severely limited as a site for urban to many species of fish and wildlife. Many sport and
uses and recreational development because of the commercial finfish, shellfish, and other crustaceans use
wetness and the depth to bedrock. Additional drainage these areas as spawning grounds. Mangrove swamps
measures and large amounts of suitable fill material are along coastal areas and in estuaries also serve as








Dade County Area, Florida 27


protective barriers against excessive wave action during months in most years. Individual areas range from 30 to
tropical storms. 1,000 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or concave and
The capability subclass is VllIw. are less than 1 percent.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pahokee
28-Demory-Rock outcrop complex. This map unit muck, depressional, Pahokee and similar soils make up
consists of a nearly level, poorly drained, very shallow 99 percent of the mapped areas.
Demory soil intermingled with areas of Rock outcrop. Typically, the soil is muck to a depth of about 46
The unit is in transitional areas between organic soils inches. The upper 11 inches is black, and the lower 35
and poorly drained, sandy soils. The Demory soil and inches is very dark brown. Hard, porous limestone
Rock outcrop occur as areas so intermingled or so bedrock is at a depth of about 46 inches.
small that mapping them separately is impractical. Included in mapping are soils that are similar to
Individual areas range from 5 to 500 acres in size. Pahokee muck, depressional, but are less than 36 or
Slopes are smooth and are less than 2 percent. more than 51 inches deep over limestone bedrock or
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Demory- have small, discontinuous lenses or pockets of marl
Rock outcrop complex, Demory and similar soils and within a depth of 30 inches.
Rock outcrop make up 86 to 99 percent of the mapped Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in
areas. About 70 percent of this map unit is Demory and mapping occur as small areas of Dania soils and small
similar soils, and 25 percent is Rock outcrop, areas of soils that are more than 80 inches deep over
Typically, the surface layer of the Demory soil is limestone bedrock. Dissimilar soils make up 1 percent
about 7 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is very dark or less of most mapped areas. Dania soils are very
brown sandy clay loam, and the lower 3 inches is black shallow or shallow over limestone bedrock.
sandy clay loam. Below this is about 3 inches of dark Under natural conditions, the Pahokee soil is ponded
brown sandy loam. Hard, porous limestone bedrock is for 9 to 12 months during most years. The water table
at a depth of about 10 inches. is within 10 inches of the surface for the rest of the
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Demory soil year. Permeability is rapid. This soil is subject to
in mapping occur as small areas of Biscayne, Chekika, oxidation, which decreases the amount of the organic
and Dania soils. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 14 material each year. If drained, the organic material
percent of most mapped areas. Biscayne soils are in initially shrinks to about half the original thickness and
the higher positions on the landscape. They have a then subsides further as a result of compaction and
surface layer of marl. Chekika soils are somewhat oxidation. These losses are most rapid during the first 2
poorly drained. They have coarse fragments in the years. If drained, the soil continues to subside at a rate
surface layer. Dania soils are organic. of about 1 inch per year. The lower the water table, the
The water table in the Demory soil is below the more rapid the loss.
surface for the majority of most years. The soil is Most areas support natural vegetation, which
flooded on rare occasions during periods of high consists of cattail and sawgrass. Areas that have been
rainfall. Permeability is moderately slow. drained or disturbed, however, may be dominated by
Most areas support natural vegetation. Water-tolerant Brazilian pepper and melaleuca. Areas of this soil
vegetation, such as South Florida bluestem, sawgrass, provide cover for deer and excellent habitat for wading
gulf muhly, cabbage-palm, and willow, dominates the birds and other kinds of wetland wildlife.
landscape. Under natural conditions, this soil generally is not
This map unit is not used as rangeland or forest land. suited to cultivation. If water is controlled through a
It is in the Freshwater Marsh ecological plant system of dikes, ditches, and pumps, however, the soil
community. is well suited to most winter vegetable crops. A well
This map unit is severely limited as a site for urban designed and maintained water-control system can
development and recreational development because of remove excess water during periods when crops are
the wetness and the depth to bedrock. Additional growing on the soil and can keep the soil saturated at
drainage measures and large amounts of suitable fill all other times. Keeping the soil saturated minimizes
material are needed to overcome these limitations, oxidation. Important management practices include
The Demory soil is in capability subclass Vlls. The good seedbed preparation and a suitable crop rotation.
Rock outcrop is not assigned a capability classification. Cover crops and crop residue should be left on the
surface or plowed under. Fertilizer should be applied
30-Pahokee muck, depressional. This moderately according to the needs of the crop.
deep, nearly level, very poorly drained soil is in This soil is not suited to the production of citrus,
freshwater swamps and marshes. It is ponded for 6 to 9 avocados, or pine trees because of the wetness.








28 Soil Survey


This soil is not used as rangeland. It is in the uses because of tidal flooding and ponding.
Freshwater Marsh ecological plant community. This soil is in mangrove swamps, which are unique
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, and biologically productive areas that are very important
sanitary facilities, and recreational development to many species of fish and wildlife. Many sport and
because of the ponding, excess humus, low strength, commercial finfish, shellfish, and other crustaceans use
and the depth to bedrock. Water-control measures are these areas as spawning grounds. Mangrove swamps
needed to prevent ponding. The organic material should along coastal areas and in estuaries also serve as
be removed, and suitable backfill material should be protective barriers against excessive wave action during
provided. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons and trench tropical storms.
sanitary landfills with impervious soil material helps to The capability subclass is VIllw.
prevent seepage. The sides of shallow excavations
should be shored. Mounding may be needed on sites 32-Terra Ceia muck, tidal. This deep, level, very
for septic tank absorption fields. poorly drained soil is in saltwater swamps and marshes
The capability subclass is Vllw. and is subject to tidal flooding. Individual areas are long
and narrow and range from 100 to 500 acres in size.
31-Pennsuco marl, tidal. This deep, nearly level, Slopes are less than 1 percent.
very poorly drained soil is in tidal mangrove swamps On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Terra Ceia
near the coast in southeastern Florida and is subject to muck, tidal, Terra Ceia and similar soils make up 82 to
tidal flooding. Individual areas range from 6 to 100 99 percent of the mapped areas.
acres in size. Slopes are smooth or concave and are Typically, the soil is muck to a depth of 80 inches or
less than 1 percent, more. The upper 8 inches is very dark brown, and the
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pennsuco lower 72 inches or more is black.
marl, tidal, Pennsuco and similar soils make up 75 to 99 Included in mapping are soils that are similar to Terra
percent of the mapped areas. Ceia muck, tidal, but are less than 51 inches deep over
Typically, the surface layer is about 51 inches of light limestone bedrock or have discontinuous lenses or
gray marl that has a texture of silt loam. Soft, porous pockets of marl within the control section.
limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 51 inches. Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to mapping occur as small areas of Lauderhill soils and
Pennsuco marl, tidal, but have limestone bedrock at a small areas of the tidal Pennsuco and Perrine soils.
depth of less than 40 or more than 80 inches or in the Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 18 percent of most
upper 40 inches have layers of organic material that are mapped areas. Lauderhill soils are in positions on the
more than 8 inches thick, landscape similar to those of the Terra Ceia soil. They
Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in are moderately deep over limestone bedrock. Pennsuco
mapping occur as small areas of Lauderhill and Terra and Perrine soils have a surface layer and subsurface
Ceia soils and small areas of organic soils having layer of marl.
layers of marl that are more than 4 inches thick but Under natural conditions, the Terra Ceia soil remains
make up less than half of the total soil depth. Dissimilar saturated. Fluctuating tides cover the surface twice
soils make up 1 to 25 percent of most mapped areas. daily. Permeability is rapid.
Lauderhill soils are in shallow depressions. They are The natural vegetation consists mainly of red and
organic. Terra Ceia soils are in positions on the black mangrove. White mangrove grows in some areas.
landscape similar to those of the Pennsuco soil. They Because of tidal flooding, this soil is not suited to
are organic to a depth of more than 51 inches. cropland, citrus, or improved pasture.
Under natural conditions, this soil remains saturated This soil is not used as rangeland. It is in the
and the water table fluctuates with the tides. The soil is Mangrove Swamp ecological plant community.
moderately saline or saline. Permeability is moderately This soil is not suited to urban uses because of tidal
slow. flooding and low strength.
The natural vegetation is scattered and stunted red This soil is in mangrove swamps, which are unique
mangrove. Areas of this soil provide excellent habitat and biologically productive areas that are very important
for birds and small marine crustaceans, to many species of fish and wildlife. Many sport and
Because of tidal flooding and salinity, this soil is not commercial finfish, shellfish, and other crustaceans use
suited to cropland, groves, or improved pasture. It these areas as spawning grounds. Mangrove swamps
generally is not used as rangeland. It is in the in estuaries also serve as protective barriers against
Mangrove Swamp ecological plant community. excessive wave action during tropical storms.
This soil is severely limited as a site for all urban The capability subclass is VllIw.







Dade County Area, Florida 29


33-Plantation muck. This moderately deep, nearly according to the needs of the crop.
level, very poorly drained soil is in transitional areas This soil is not suited to the production of citrus,
between the organic soils of the Everglades and the avocados, or pine trees because of the wetness.
sandy soils of the Everglades Flatwoods. Individual This soil is suited to pasture. Common bermudagrass
areas range from 50 to 600 acres in size. Slopes are and improved bahiagrass grow well if the pasture is
less than 1 percent, properly managed. Maintaining the water table near the
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Plantation surface helps to prevent excessive subsidence of the
muck, Plantation and similar soils make up 90 to 99 organic material. Regular applications of fertilizer and
percent of the mapped areas. controlled grazing are needed.
Typically, the surface layer is muck about 14 inches This soil is not used as rangeland. It is in the
thick. The upper 6 inches is black, and the lower 8 Freshwater Marsh ecological plant community.
inches is dark reddish brown. The underlying material This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
extends to a depth of about 30 inches. It is very dark sanitary facilities, and recreational development
grayish brown fine sand in the upper 7 inches, light gray because of the ponding, excess humus, low strength,
fine sand in the next 7 inches, and brown very gravelly and the depth to bedrock. Water-control measures are
fine sand in the lower 2 inches. Soft, porous limestone needed to prevent excessive wetness. The organic
bedrock is at a depth of about 30 inches. material should be removed, and suitable backfill
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to material should be provided. Sealing or lining sewage
Plantation muck but have a surface layer of muck that lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil
is less than 8 or more than 16 inches thick or are less material helps to prevent seepage. The sides of shallow
than 20 or more than 40 inches deep over limestone excavations should be shored. Mounding may be
bedrock. needed on sites for septic tank absorption fields.
Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in The capability subclass is IVw.
mapping occur as small areas of Lauderhill soils and
small areas of Udorthents. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 34-Hallandale fine sand. This shallow, nearly level,
10 percent of most mapped areas. Lauderhill soils are poorly drained soil is on broad flats between the
in the lower positions on the landscape. They are Everglades and the low, sandy coastal ridge. Individual
organic to a depth of more than 16 inches. Udorthents areas are broad and irregularly shaped and range from
are in the slightly higher areas of mineral fill material. 50 to 1,000 acres in size. Slopes are smooth and are
Under natural conditions, the Plantation soil has less than 2 percent.
water above the surface for 1 to 3 months during most On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Hallandale
years. During most years the water table is at or near fine sand, Hallandale and similar soils make up 82 to 99
the surface for 4 to more than 6 months. It may recede percent of the mapped areas.
to as deep as 20 inches during the rest of the year. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
Permeability is rapid. If drained, the organic material sand about 4 inches thick. Below this is 8 inches of light
initially shrinks to about half the original thickness and brownish gray fine sand that has common black and
then subsides further as a result of compaction and very dark gray streaks in old root channels. The subsoil
oxidation. These losses are most rapid during the first 2 is brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. Soft, porous
years. If drained, the soil continues to subside at a rate limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 16 inches.
of about 1 inch per year. The lower the water table, the Included in mapping are small areas of Margate soils
more rapid the loss. and soils that are similar to Hallandale fine sand but
The natural vegetation consists of sawgrass, willow, have limestone bedrock at a depth of less than 7 or
and cattail. Under natural conditions, this soil generally more than 20 inches or have an organic surface layer
is not suited to cultivation. If water is controlled through that is less than 8 inches thick.
a system of dikes, ditches, and pumps, however, the Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in
soil is well suited to most winter vegetable crops. A well mapping occur as small areas of Plantation soils, small
designed and maintained water-control system can areas of Udorthents, and small areas where more than
remove excess water during periods when crops are 20 inches of fill material has been added to the surface.
growing on the soil and can keep the soil saturated at Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 18 percent in most
all other times. Keeping the soil saturated minimizes mapped areas. Plantation soils are in the lower
oxidation. Important management practices include positions on the landscape. They have an organic
good seedbed preparation and a suitable crop rotation. surface layer. Udorthents are in the higher filled areas
Cover crops and crop residue should be left on the that have coarse fragments.
surface or plowed under. Fertilizer should be applied During most years the water table in the Hallandale







30 Soil Survey


soil is within a depth of 12 inches for 4 to 6 months and Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in
is at a depth of 12 to more than 24 inches for the rest mapping occur as small areas of Udorthents and small
of the year. Permeability is rapid. areas where more than 20 inches of fill material has
Most of the acreage is pasture or idle land. The been added to the surface. Dissimilar soils make up 2
natural vegetation consists of slash pine, melaleuca, percent or less of most mapped areas. Udorthents are
and Australian pine. The understory includes pineland in the higher filled areas that have coarse fragments.
threeawn, chalky bluestem, paspalum, bluejoint During most years the water table in the Margate soil
panicum, and scattered saw palmetto. is within a depth of 12 inches for 4 to 6 months and is
This soil generally is not suited to cultivation. Under at a depth of 12 to more than 24 inches for the rest of
natural conditions, it is poorly suited to the production of the year. Permeability is rapid.
citrus and pine trees and unsuited to the production of Most areas are used as improved pasture. The
avocados because of the wetness. If a good water- natural vegetation consists of scattered slash pine and
control system is maintained and proper management is cabbage-palm, melaleuca, and Australian pine. The
applied, however, the soil is well suited to most understory includes scattered saw palmetto, pineland
vegetable crops, citrus, ornamental plants, and threeawn, chalky bluestem, bluejoint panicum, and
improved pasture. Important management practices paspalum.
include bedding in areas used for citrus, ornamental This soil generally is not suited to cultivation. Under
plants, or root crops. The proper kinds and amounts of natural conditions, it is poorly suited to the production of
fertilizer, lime, and irrigation water should be applied citrus and pine trees and unsuited to the production of
according to the needs of the crop. Cover crops and avocados because of the wetness. If a good water-
crop residue should be left on the surface or plowed control system is maintained and proper management is
under. In areas of improved pasture, controlled grazing applied, however, the soil is well suited to most
is needed to prevent overgrazing and the subsequent vegetable crops, citrus, and improved pasture. The
invasion of the less desirable forage species. proper kinds and amounts of fertilizer, lime, and
This soil is not used as rangeland or forest land. It is irrigation water should be applied according to the
in the Everglades Flatwoods ecological plant needs of the crop. Cover crops and crop residue should
community. be left on the surface or plowed under. In areas of
This soil is severely limited as a site for urban uses controlled grazing is needed to
because of the wetness and the depth to bedrock. Local overgrazing an n inain
prevent overgrazing and the subsequent invasion of the
construction methods generally can overcome these less desirable forage species. Common bermudagrass
limitations. The soil commonly is used for urban
mon eo commonly s used for urban and improved bahiagrass grow well if the pasture is
development.
The capability subclass is IVw. properly managed.
This soil is not used as rangeland or forest land. It is
in the Everglades Flatwoods ecological plant
35-Margate fine sand. This moderately deep, in the lades Flatwoods ecological plant
nearly level, poorly drained soil is on low terraces community.
between the Everglades and the sandy coastal ridge. This soil is severely limited as a site for urban uses
Individual areas are broad and irregularly shaped and because of the wetness, the depth to bedrock, and the
range from 10 to 500 acres in size. Slopes are smooth hazard of seepage. Local construction methods
and are less than 2 percent. generally can overcome these limitations. The soil
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Margate commonly is used for urban development.
fine sand, Margate and similar soils make up 98 to 99 The capability subclass is IVw.
percent of the mapped areas.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine 37-Basinger fine sand. This deep, nearly level,
sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a poorly drained soil is in sloughs and poorly defined
depth of about 18 inches, is light brownish gray fine drainageways. Individual areas range from 80 to 147
sand. The next 10 inches is brown fine sand. Below acres in size. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
this, to a depth of about 36 inches, is dark grayish On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Basinger
brown fine sand. Soft, porous limestone bedrock is at a fine sand, Basinger and similar soils make up 90 to 100
depth of about 36 inches, percent of the mapped areas.
Included in mapping are small areas of Hallandale Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
and Plantation soils and soils that are similar to sand about 6 inches thick. The next 24 inches is light
Margate fine sand but are more than 40 inches deep gray fine sand. The subsoil is brown and light brownish
over limestone bedrock. gray fine sand about 20 inches thick. Below this to a







Dade County Area, Florida 31


depth of more than 80 inches is light brownish gray fine On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Rock
sand. outcrop-Vizcaya-Biscayne complex, Rock outcrop and
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to Vizcaya, Biscayne, and similar soils make up 91 to 100
Basinger fine sand but have limestone bedrock within a percent of the mapped areas. About 56 percent of this
depth of 80 inches, have a subsurface layer that is map unit is Rock outcrop; 28 percent is Vizcaya soil,
more than 30 inches thick, or become lighter colored which is in the lower positions on the landscape; and 14
with increasing depth. percent is Biscayne soil, which is on flats.
Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in Typically, the Vizcaya soil is black mucky silt loam in
mapping occur as small areas of Dade, Plantation, and the upper 6 inches. Below this, to a depth of about 15
Pomello soils and small areas of Udorthents. Dissimilar inches, is black clay. Hard, porous limestone bedrock is
soils make up less than 10 percent of most mapped at a depth of about 15 inches.
areas. Dade soils are on low hills and are well drained. Typically, the Biscayne soil consists of about 4
Plantation soils have an organic surface layer. They are inches of grayish brown marl that has a texture of silt
in the lower positions on the landscape. Pomello soils loam. Hard, porous limestone bedrock is at a depth of
have a well developed, sandy subsoil. They are in the about 4 inches.
higher positions on the landscape. Udorthents are in Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
filled areas that have coarse fragments. Vizcaya soil but are less than 8 or more than 20 inches
The water table in the Basinger soil is within a depth deep over limestone bedrock.
of 12 inches for 1 to 6 months in most years. Dissimilar soils that are included with the Vizcaya
Permeability is rapid. and Biscayne soils in mapping occur as small areas of
Most of the acreage has been cleared and is used as Lauderhill, Pahokee, and Terra Ceia soils. Dissimilar
improved pasture or is idle land. The natural vegetation soils make up 9 percent or less of most mapped areas.
consists of waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, and scattered T ae ornc e r o st part of the
They are organic. They are on the lowest part of the
slash pine.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to landscape.
Under natural conditions, the water table in the
row crops, citrus, avocados, and improved pasture
row crops, citrus, avocados, and improved pasture Vizcaya soil is at or above the surface for 2 to 6 months
because of the wetness. If a good water-control system a at a o oe c or t t o
is maintained and proper management is applied, and at a d of more han2 nches for the res of
is maintained and proper management is applied, the year. The water table in the Biscayne soil is at the
however, the soil is well suited to most vegetable crops, sufae r t nths. ereabil slow ia the
citrus, and improved pasture. The proper kinds and surface for 2 to 4 months. Permeability is slow in the
citrus, and improved pasture. The proper kinds and
amounts of fertilizer, lime, and irrigation water should be Vizcaya soil and moderate in the Biscayne soil.
applied according to the needs of the crop. Cover crops Most areas support natural vegetation. Water-tolerant
and crop residue should be left on the surface or vegetation, such as South Florida bluestem, sawgrass,
plowed under. In areas of improved pasture, controlled gulf muhly, cabbage-palm, and willow, dominates the
grazing is needed to prevent overgrazing and the landscape. Dense stands of vegetation are in rock
subsequent invasion of the less desirable forage cavities and solution holes.
species. Common bermudagrass and improved Under natural conditions, this map unit is not suitable
bahiagrass grow well if the pasture is properly for fruit or vegetable crops, ornamental plants, or
managed. pasture. If drained and rock-plowed, the map unit
This soil is not used as rangeland or forest land. It is becomes Biscayne gravelly marl or Chekika very
in the Slough ecological plant community. gravelly loam, depending on the depth to limestone and
This soil is severely limited as a site for most kinds of the amount and type of material incorporated from the
urban development, sanitary facilities, and recreational solution holes during plowing.
development because of the wetness, the hazard of This map unit is not used as rangeland or forest land.
seepage, and the sandy texture. It is in the Freshwater Marsh ecological plant
The capability subclass is IVw. community.
This map unit is severely limited as a site for urban
38-Rock outcrop-Vizcaya-Biscayne complex. This uses and recreational development because of the
map unit consists mainly of Rock outcrop intermingled wetness and the depth to bedrock. Additional drainage
with areas of Vizcaya and Biscayne soils. The Rock measures and large amounts of suitable fill material are
outcrop and Vizcaya and Biscayne soils occur as areas needed to overcome these limitations.
so intermixed or so small that mapping them separately The Rock outcrop is not assigned a capability
is impractical. Individual areas range from 5 to several classification. The Vizcaya and Biscayne soils are in
thousand acres in size. Slopes are less than 2 percent. capability subclass Vllw.







32 Soil Survey


39-Beaches. This map unit consists of nearly level to 4 months in most years and is at a depth of 40 to 60
to sloping, narrow strips of tide- and surf-washed sandy inches during the drier periods. Permeability is
material and shell fragments along the shoreline of the moderately rapid.
Atlantic Ocean. It commonly is a mixture of moderately Most of the acreage has been cleared for
alkaline sandy material and fine shell fragments, development or is idle land. Some areas support natural
The beaches are less than 100 to 300 feet wide. As vegetation, which consists of slash pine and scattered
much as half of the beach area may be flooded daily post oak. The understory vegetation in these areas
during high tides, and all of it can be flooded by storm includes pineland threeawn, opuntia, and various weeds
tides. Most of the beaches have a uniform gentle slope and grasses.
that extends to the edge of the water, although the Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
shape and gradient of the slope can change with every cultivated crops because of droughtiness. Irrigation is
storm. needed. Important management practices include timely
This map unit generally supports no vegetation, applications of the proper amounts of fertilizer and lime.
although some clumps of seaoats, railroad vine, and The suitability of this soil for pasture is fair. Common
other salt-tolerant plants are near some of the inland bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass grow well if the
edges. pasture is properly managed. Regular applications of
Depth to the water table varies considerably, fertilizer are needed. Irrigation is needed during dry
commonly ranging from 0 to 6 feet, depending on periods. Controlled grazing helps to prevent overgrazing
distance from the shore, elevation of the beach, and the and maintains plant vigor.
tides. This soil is poorly suited to the production of citrus
This map unit can be used only as recreational areas and mangos. Only fair yields can be obtained even if
and wildlife habitat. Severe erosion is often a problem the level of management is high. A water-control system
during severe storms. Because they have great esthetic is necessary to maintain the water table at a depth of
value, the beaches are an important part of the about 4 feet during wet periods and to provide water for
coastline, irrigation during periods of low rainfall. Regular
No capability classification is assigned, applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for
maximum yields. A suitable cover crop between the tree
40-Pomello sand. This deep, nearly level, rows can help to control soil blowing. The soil is
moderately well drained soil is on moderately high, unsuited to avocado production.
broad hills on the Miami Ridge. Individual areas are This soil generally is not used as rangeland or forest
irregularly shaped and range from 10 to 100 acres in land. Under natural conditions, it is in the Sand Pine
size. Slopes are smooth. They generally are less than 2 Scrub ecological plant community.
percent but range to 5 percent. This soil is severely limited as a site for sanitary
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pomello facilities and recreational development. It is moderately
sand, Pomello and similar soils make up 98 to 99 limited as a site for dwellings without basements and for
percent of the mapped areas. small commercial buildings. Water-control measures are
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 5 needed to prevent excessive wetness. Enlargement of
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about septic tank absorption fields may be needed because of
35 inches, is sand. It is light gray in the upper 10 inches the wetness. Because of a poor filtering capacity, the
and gray in the lower 20 inches. The upper 41 inches of effluent from these fields can pollute ground water.
the subsoil is very dark grayish brown sand. The lower Community sewage systems help to prevent the
part to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark yellowish contamination of ground water in areas of moderate or
brown sand. high housing density. The sandy surface layer should
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to be stabilized in areas used for recreational purposes.
Pomello sand but are well drained or somewhat poorly Water-control measures are needed. The sides of
drained, have a weakly developed subsoil, have shallow excavations should be shored.
limestone bedrock below a depth of 70 inches, or have The capability subclass is Vis.
a surface layer that is as much as 10 inches thick.
Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in 41-Dade fine sand. This moderately deep, nearly
mapping occur as small areas of the poorly drained level, well drained soil is on broad, low hills on the
Basinger soils on the lower part of the landscape. Miami Ridge. Individual areas are irregularly shaped
These soils make up 1 to 2 percent of the map unit. and range from 10 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are
Under natural conditions, the water table in the smooth and are less than 2 percent.
Pomello soil is at a depth of 24 to 42 inches for about 1 On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Dade fine







Dade County Area, Florida 33


sand, Dade and similar soils make up 99 to 100 percent landfills because of the depth to bedrock and a poor
of the mapped areas, filtering capacity or seepage.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand The capability subclass is Vis.
about 6 inches thick. Below this is light brownish gray
fine sand about 18 inches thick. The subsoil is dark 42-Udorthents, limestone substratum, 0 to 5
grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. Soft, percent slopes. These nearly level or gently sloping,
porous limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 27 moderately well drained or well drained soils consist of
inches. thin or thick deposits of fill material. The fill material has
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to Dade been excavated from nearby areas and spread over the
fine sand but have limestone bedrock within a depth of surface. It commonly is about 30 inches thick. Individual
20 inches and do not have a subsoil layer that is well areas range from 40 to 800 acres in size.
coated with organic matter, have limestone bedrock at a No one pedon represents these soils, but in one of
depth of more than 80 inches, or are moderately well the most common profiles, the surface layer is dark
drained, gray gravelly sand about 4 inches thick. Below this, to a
Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in depth of about 30 inches, are light gray, unconsolidated
mapping occur as small areas of Pomello soils in the limestone fragments. Hard, porous limestone bedrock is
slightly lower positions on the landscape. These soils at a depth of about 30 inches.
are not underlain by limestone bedrock. They make up Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
about 1 percent of the map unit. of soils that have slopes of more than 5 percent. Also
Under natural conditions, the water table in the Dade included are small areas of Urban land, which makes
soil is at a depth of 60 to 72 inches for 1 to 3 months up 15 percent or less ofthe map unit.
Depth to the water table in the Udorthents varies,
during most years and is below a depth of 72 inches for Dept to theater table n he Udorthents varies,
the rest of the year. Permeability is very rapid depending on the amount of fill material and the
therht othe rfie drainage measures in a given area. In most areas the
Mtroughout the profile. water table is below a depth of 40 inches. Permeability
Most areas have been cleared for development.
Some areas support natural vegetation, which consists geney is
Most areas are used as sites for golf courses. The
of pineland threeawn, slash pine, live oak, scrub oak, stg eeation consists of grasses and ornamental
ad existing vegetation consists of grasses and ornamental
and saw palmetto. trees and shrubs.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to No capability classification is assigned.
cultivation or the production of citrus, avocados, or pine
trees. It is poorly suited to pasture because of 45-Canaveral sand. This very deep, nearly level or
droughtiness. If irrigated and properly managed, the soil gently sloping, moderately well drained soil is on low,
is well suited to most cultivated crops, citrus, dunelike ridges. Individual areas are long and narrow
ornamental plants, and improved pasture. Important and range from 10 to 200 acres in size. Slopes are
management practices include applying the proper dominantly less than 3 percent but range to 5 percent.
kinds and amounts of fertilizer and irrigation water On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Canaveral
according to the needs of the crop. Cover crops and sand, Canaveral and similar soils make up 99 to 100
crop residue should be left on the surface or plowed percent of the mapped areas.
under. In areas of improved pasture, controlled grazing Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
is needed to prevent overgrazing and the subsequent sand about 4 inches thick. About 10 percent of this
invasion of the less desirable forage species. Common layer is sand-sized shell fragments. The next 46 inches
bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass grow well if the is pale brown sand in which the content of sand-sized
pasture is properly managed. shell fragments is about 20 percent. The lower 30
This soil is not used as rangeland or forest land. It is inches is gray sand in which the content of sand-sized
in the Everglades Flatwoods ecological plant shell fragments is about 25 percent.
community. Included in mapping are soils that are similar to
Most of the acreage of this soil is in areas that are Canaveral sand but are better drained.
being developed for urban uses. The soil is moderately Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in
limited as a site for local roads and streets, small mapping occur as small areas of poorly drained soils
commercial buildings, and dwellings without basements. that have a black surface layer. These soils make up
It is severely limited as a site for dwellings with about 1 percent of the map unit.
basements because of the depth to bedrock and as a During most years the water table in the Canaveral
site for septic tank absorption fields and sanitary soil is at a depth of 24 to 36 inches for 2 to 4 months







34 Soil Survey


and is at a depth of 36 to 60 inches for the rest of the mapping occur as small areas of poorly drained soils
year. It is at a depth of 12 to 24 inches after periods of that have a dark surface layer. These soils are in the
heavy rainfall. Permeability is very rapid. lower positions on the landscape. They make up less
The natural vegetation consists of sand live oak, than 10 percent of most mapped areas.
cabbage-palm, and scattered saw palmetto. Exotic tree In most years the water table in the St. Augustine
species, including Australian pine and Brazilian pepper, soil is at a depth of 18 to 36 inches for 2 to 6 months.
have become established in some areas. In some areas daily tides influence the water table,
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or improved depending on the amount of fill material. Permeability is
pasture. A low available water capacity and low natural moderately rapid.
fertility severely reduce the variety of grasses that can Most of the acreage supports Australian pine and
be grown on the soil. weedy grasses. Some areas have been developed for
This soil is poorly suited to the production of citrus, urban uses.
mangos, and avocados. The suitability for these crops This soil is not used for cropland, improved pasture,
is fair, however, if intensive management measures, citrus, ornamental plants, or pine trees. It consists of
including irrigation and regular applications of fertilizer, mixed soil material used as fill in low tidal areas. The fill
are applied. A close-growing crop between the trees improves the suitability of the low areas for building site
helps to control soil blowing. development and other urban uses. The suitability of
This soil is not used as rangeland or forest land. It is this soil for urban uses is only fair because of brief
in the South Florida Coastal Strand ecological plant periods of wetness. The soil is severely limited as a site
community, for most recreational uses because of the sandy
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, texture. Onsite investigation is needed to determine the
sanitary facilities, and recreational development suitability for any use.
because of the wetness. Extensive water-control The capability subclass is VIIs.
measures and large amounts of suitable fill material are
needed to overcome this limitation. The sandy surface 48-Kesson muck, tidal. This deep, nearly level,
layer should be stabilized in areas used for recreational very poorly drained soil is in tidal mangrove swamps
purposes. Water-control measures are needed. Sealing along the coast in southeastern Florida and is subject to
or lining trench sanitary landfills and sewage lagoons tidal flooding. Individual areas range from 10 to 200
with impervious soil material helps to prevent seepage. acres in size. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
The sides of shallow excavations should be shored. On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Kesson
Because of the droughtiness of the soil, native plants muck, tidal, Kesson and similar soils make up 90 to 99
should be selected for landscaping. percent of the mapped areas.
The capability subclass is Vis. Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 6
inches thick. The next 6 inches is dark gray fine sand
47-St. Augustine sand. This deep, nearly level, mixed with shell fragments. The substratum to a depth
somewhat poorly drained soil is on Key Biscayne. of 80 inches is grayish brown and light gray fine sand
Individual areas range from 20 to 400 acres in size. mixed with shell fragments.
Slopes are smooth and are less than 2 percent. Included in mapping are soils that are similar to
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as St. Kesson muck, tidal, but have an organic surface layer
Augustine sand, St. Augustine and similar soils make that is more than 8 inches thick or have a thin surface
up 85 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. layer of marl.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand about Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in
3 inches thick. Below this is 48 inches of gray and light mapping occur as small areas of the tidal Pennsuco
gray sand that has common fine lenses of gray marl in soils and small areas of Udorthents. Dissimilar soils
the lower 22 inches. The subsoil is gray and light gray make up less than 10 percent of most mapped areas.
sand about 29 inches thick. It has few fine lenses of Pennsuco soils are in positions on the landscape similar
gray marl in the upper 6 inches. to those of the Kesson soil. They are made up of marl
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to St. and are underlain by limestone bedrock. Udorthents are
Augustine sand but do not have pockets of loamy in the slightly higher filled areas that have coarse
material or marl, have a thin or weakly pronounced fragments.
organic layer at a depth of more than 60 inches, have Under natural conditions, the Kesson soil remains
pockets of organic material or shell fragments, or are saturated. Fluctuating tides cover the surface twice
poorly drained. daily. Permeability is moderately rapid.
Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in The native vegetation consists mainly of red and







Dade County Area, Florida 35


black mangrove. White mangrove grows in some areas. and biologically productive areas that are important to
Because of tidal flooding, this soil is not suited to many species of fish and wildlife. Many sport and
cropland, citrus, or improved pasture. commercial finfish, shellfish, and other crustaceans use
This soil is not used as rangeland. It is in the these areas as spawning grounds. Mangrove swamps
Mangrove Swamp ecological plant community, in estuaries also serve as protective barriers against
This soil is not suited to urban uses because of tidal excessive wave action during tropical storms.
flooding. The capability subclass is VIIIw.
This soil is in mangrove swamps, which are unique










37








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the identified, and the system of land capability
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land classification used by the Natural Resources
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Conservation Service is explained.
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to Planners of management systems for individual fields
prevent soil-related failures in land uses. or farms should consider the detailed information given
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, in the description of each soil under the heading
conservationists, engineers, and others collect "Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific information, such as
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral estimated yields of the main crops, can be obtained
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, from the Natural Resources Conservation Service or the
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect Dade County Cooperative Extension Service.
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance Vegetable Crops
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior. Vegetables were grown on 54,100 acres in Dade
Information in this section can be used to plan the County during the 1983-84 growing season. The
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as wholesale value of these vegetables was $188,416,000.
sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, highways and The vegetables are grown mainly during the period
other transportation systems, and parks and other November through March, when mild winter weather
recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It can be conditions allow production of tender vegetable crops
used to identify the potentials and limitations of each and most other vegetable-growing areas are inactive.
soil for specific land uses and to help prevent Some vegetable crops, especially tropical vegetables,
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil are grown throughout the year.
properties. Dade County currently produces about one-quarter of
Planners and others using soil survey information the fresh market tomatoes grown in Florida, nearly half
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on of the snap beans, and one-third of the squash.
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the Essentially all of the tropical vegetables, such as bonito,
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain malanga, yuca, and calabaza, are grown on 7,400
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with acres in the county. The combined annual value of
nature (17). these tropical vegetables is $27,460,000.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of Vegetable production is considerably diverse within
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to the survey area. The wholesale value of 13 of the
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil vegetable commodities was more than $1 million each
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, during the 1983-84 season. Most of the vegetables
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and are grown on Krome and Chekika soils. Irish potatoes
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can and much of the sweet corn and malanga, however,
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate are grown on Biscayne, Perrine, and Pennsuco
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, soils.
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. Most growers plant sequentially over a period of time
to spread their risk and to increase accessibility to a
Crops rather wide marketing season. Returns per acre are
Richard Tyson, Dr. Mary Lamberts, Kirk Larson, and De Armand higher than those in northern areas, but the risk of
Hull, agricultural agents, Dade County Cooperative Extension adverse weather conditions, including rain, wind, frost,
Service, helped prepare this section. and freezing temperatures, is high. Most of the growers
General management needed for crops is suggested are successful because of the diversity of production
in this section. The crops best suited to the soils are and the wide marketing season. The major market







37








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the identified, and the system of land capability
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land classification used by the Natural Resources
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Conservation Service is explained.
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to Planners of management systems for individual fields
prevent soil-related failures in land uses. or farms should consider the detailed information given
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, in the description of each soil under the heading
conservationists, engineers, and others collect "Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific information, such as
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral estimated yields of the main crops, can be obtained
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, from the Natural Resources Conservation Service or the
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect Dade County Cooperative Extension Service.
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance Vegetable Crops
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior. Vegetables were grown on 54,100 acres in Dade
Information in this section can be used to plan the County during the 1983-84 growing season. The
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as wholesale value of these vegetables was $188,416,000.
sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, highways and The vegetables are grown mainly during the period
other transportation systems, and parks and other November through March, when mild winter weather
recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It can be conditions allow production of tender vegetable crops
used to identify the potentials and limitations of each and most other vegetable-growing areas are inactive.
soil for specific land uses and to help prevent Some vegetable crops, especially tropical vegetables,
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil are grown throughout the year.
properties. Dade County currently produces about one-quarter of
Planners and others using soil survey information the fresh market tomatoes grown in Florida, nearly half
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on of the snap beans, and one-third of the squash.
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the Essentially all of the tropical vegetables, such as bonito,
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain malanga, yuca, and calabaza, are grown on 7,400
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with acres in the county. The combined annual value of
nature (17). these tropical vegetables is $27,460,000.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of Vegetable production is considerably diverse within
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to the survey area. The wholesale value of 13 of the
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil vegetable commodities was more than $1 million each
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, during the 1983-84 season. Most of the vegetables
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and are grown on Krome and Chekika soils. Irish potatoes
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can and much of the sweet corn and malanga, however,
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate are grown on Biscayne, Perrine, and Pennsuco
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, soils.
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. Most growers plant sequentially over a period of time
to spread their risk and to increase accessibility to a
Crops rather wide marketing season. Returns per acre are
Richard Tyson, Dr. Mary Lamberts, Kirk Larson, and De Armand higher than those in northern areas, but the risk of
Hull, agricultural agents, Dade County Cooperative Extension adverse weather conditions, including rain, wind, frost,
Service, helped prepare this section. and freezing temperatures, is high. Most of the growers
General management needed for crops is suggested are successful because of the diversity of production
in this section. The crops best suited to the soils are and the wide marketing season. The major market







38 Soil Survey


competitors are other production areas in south Florida follows: boniato-5,000, 3,600, and 4,000 acres;
and imports from Mexico. calabaza-900, 900, and 1,000 acres; cassava (yuca)-
During the 1983-84 growing season, tomatoes were 350, 750, and 850 acres; chayote-35, 20, and 10
grown on 12,790 acres in the county. The wholesale acres; coriander-40, 40, and 100 acres; malanga-
value of the tomatoes was almost $100 million. Full-bed 2,100, 2,500, and 2,500 acres; and pigeon peas-45,
plastic mulch production methods were used on about 20, and 25 acres. Of these crops, boniato, calabaza,
95 percent of the acreage. Essentially all of the and coriander are double or triple cropped. In 1983,
tomatoes in the county are grown in areas of Krome typical crop yields, expressed as the number of 50-
and Chekika soils, where ground culture, or unstaked, pound bags per acre, were-boniato, 365 bags;
methods are used. cassava, 290 bags; and malanga, 165 bags. The yield
Extensive field preparation is required before the of tropical root crops is 50 to 75 more bags per acre in
tomatoes can be planted in the beds. After final bed areas of the Perrine-Biscayne-Pennsuco association
shaping with a bed press, fertilizer is applied. About 15 than in areas of the Krome association. These
percent of the fertilizer is broadcast in the beds and the associations are described under the heading "General
rest is applied in narrow bands 8 to 12 inches from the Soil Map Units."
center of the plant row. The total fertilizer requirements
are approximately 1,600 pounds per acre of an 8-16-16 Fruit Crops
analysis fertilizer, which includes micronutrients. A wide variety of tropical and subtropical fruits are
Because of the unavailability of some micronutrients, grown on approximately 22,000 acres in Dade County.
foliar micronutrient sprays are applied during the While more than two dozen species are grown
growing season to supplement the basic application, commercially, production is based principally on
After the fertilizer is applied, the tomato beds are avocado, lime, mango, mamey sapote, banana, papaya,
fumigated and plastic mulch is applied in a single lychee, longan, carambola, sugar apple, and atemoya.
operation. After a waiting period, holes are punched in Much of the commercial fruit is produced in areas of
the plastic for water penetration. The plug-mix method Krome soils on slightly elevated ridges. Chekika soils
of planting is used almost exclusively. This method also are used for fruit crops (fig. 6).
entails mixing about 1 ounce of tomato seed in 4 cubic In spite of the relatively high water table in the survey
feet of plug-mix (peat moss and fine vermiculite) and area, drainage in the porous soils and underlying
then placing about one-quarter cup (60 cubic limestone is excessive. Fruit trees grown in areas
centimeters) in each hole with a planter. Two to six where the soils are underlain by oolitic limestone are
plants germinate per hole. The number is later thinned very shallow rooted and are subject to moisture stress
to two plants per hole. An in-row spacing of 12 to 15 during periods of drought. Because of a high pH in the
inches is used. limestone, they also are subject to minor element
Tomato production practices result in high plant deficiencies. The trees commonly are planted in single
populations per acre. Fields generally are harvested or crossed trenches carved in the bedrock. This
only twice. Yields are expressed as the number of 25- measure results in deeper rooting and better
pound boxes per acre. The average yields in the survey anchorage. The trenches are 12 to 18 inches deep and
area are about 1,100 boxes per acre. The tomatoes 12 to 18 inches wide, and the trees are planted along
generally are harvested at the green-mature stage. the trenches or at points where the trenches intersect.
They are then graded, packed, and placed in ripening Mangos are grown on approximately 2,400 acres in
rooms, where a metered amount of ethylene gas is the county. They are more tolerant of a high water table
used to initiate the ripening process. The majority of the than most other fruit trees. In recent years they have
product is shipped to northern markets outside of the been extensively planted on raised beds in some of the
State. The two major tomato varieties currently grown lower areas that are subject to ponding and thus are
are Duke and F.T.E. 12. unsuitable for avocados, limes, and most other fruit
During the 1983-84 growing season, approximately crops. The principal varieties of mangos are Tommy
8,500 acres in Florida was used for tropical vegetables. Atkins, Keitt, Kent, Van Dyke, and Palmer. Many other
Most of the tropical vegetables produced in the United varieties also are grown.
States are grown in Dade County because many of The annual yield of mangos can easily be 500
these commodities require a very long growing season bushels or more per acre in the survey area if good
(9 months), which is typical of the southern tip of varieties are selected for planting and proper
Florida. management is applied. For some varieties, an annual
The estimated acreage of the tropical vegetable yield of 700 bushels or more per acre is not uncommon.
crops for 1982, 1983, and 1984, respectively, were as Mangos are most commonly planted in spring or at








Dade County Area, Florida 39


































Figure 6.-Bananas in an area of Chekika very gravelly loam.



the onset of the rainy season in May or June. Plant amounts of potassium and generally smaller amounts of
density varies considerably. The older plantings phosphorus are needed.
commonly are spaced 30 or more feet apart. The more Minor element deficiencies can occur in calcareous
recent plantings are more closely spaced, at such soils. Zinc sulfate (or oxide) and manganese sulfate are
intervals as 20 by 20 feet, 15 by 20 feet, and 12 by 25 applied as foliar sprays at least three times per year.
feet. The more closely spaced plantings are often Chelated iron should be applied as a soil drench at
mechanically topped and hedged each year so that the least once a year. Magnesium is applied as magnesium
size of the trees is controlled. Pruning immediately after surface in dry fertilizer or as a magnesium nitrate foliar
harvest helps to ensure adequate time for regrowth spray. "Fertigation," or the injection of fertilizer into drip
before the next year's bloom, irrigation systems, is an especially useful means of
The porous soils in the survey area are medium in applying iron chelates.
natural fertility. Good mango production requires high Sprinklers are used for irrigation and protection
rates of fertilization. These rates vary with variety and against frost. During periods of insufficient rainfall, 1 to
spacing. In general, the amount of nitrogen that should 11/2 acre-inches of water is applied each week. For
be applied each year ranges from 170 pounds per acre effective protection against frost, the sprinklers should
in areas of the more widely spaced trees to more than apply approximately one-quarter acre-inch of water per
250 pounds in areas of the more closely spaced trees. hour. Overtree and undertree sprinkler systems are
Small, frequent applications are preferable. Large common. Drip or low-volume systems also are common,








40 Soil Survey


particularly in areas of young trees. nurseries, which make up approximately 2,200 acres in
Anthracnose is the most serious problem affecting the county. The nurseries in Dade County ship foliage
commercial mango production in the survey area. It can throughout the world.
infect leaves, stems, flowers, and fruit. Planting
resistant varieties and fungicidal sprays helps to control Yields per Acre
this disease. Powdery mildew can infect flower panicles The yields per acre that can be expected of crops
and leaves, particularly during dry periods. Red alga under a high level of management vary from year to
can attack leaves and branches, but it is easily year, mainly because of variations in rainfall and other
controlled by copper sprays. Verticillium wilt may be a climatic factors. Estimated yields are based mainly on
problem in areas formerly used for vegetables. Mango the experience and records of farmers, conservationists,
malformation caused by fusarium moniliform is and extension agents. Available yield data from nearby
becoming more common in the survey area. This counties and results of field trials and demonstrations
fungus attacks vegetative as well as reproductive are also considered.
tissues, resulting in growth abnormalities and no fruit The management needed to obtain the estimated
set. yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
A disease of undetermined origin results in tree and the crop. Management can include drainage,
decline on approximately 10 percent of the acreage erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper
used for mangos in the survey area, particularly in planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop
young groves. Recommendations for treating the varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
decline call for removal of diseased plant parts, careful weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable
applications of minor elements, and the use of organic soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
nitrogen sources, but results are not always consistent. phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
Young trees should not be subject to stress, and crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
diseased plant parts and deceased trees should be and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures
removed promptly, the smallest possible loss.
Measures that control scale, thrips, and mites may The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
be needed in the mango groves. The Dade County of each soil for the crops. Yields are likely to increase
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information as new production technology is developed. The
about these measures. productivity of a given soil compared with that of other
soils, however, is not likely to change.
Ornamentals Crops other than those identified under the heading
"Crops" are grown in the survey area, but the yields are
The wholesale value of commercial ornamentals in not estimated because the acreage of such crops is
Dade County is more than $120 million per year. small. The Natural Resources Conservation Service and
Nursery plants are grown on 1,230 sites totaling 4,319 the Dade County Cooperative Extension Service can
acres. The county has 916 nurseries. More than 22 provide information about the management and
million plants are sold each year. productivity of the soils for those crops.
The overall industry consists of garden centers, retail
nurseries, woody container wholesale nurseries, field Land Capability Classification
nurseries, foliage nurseries, "interiorscape" businesses, Land capability classification shows, in a general
a grounds maintenance industry, bedding plant growers, way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops
landscape architects, landscape contractors, and pest that require special management are excluded. The
controllers. This industry generates more than $1 million soils are grouped according to their limitations for field
a day. crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops,
Approximately 2,000 acres in the Perrine-Biscayne- and the way they respond to management. The criteria
Pennsuco association is used for field-grown trees and used in grouping the soils do not include major and
shrubs, ranging from 600 to 800 trees or shrubs per generally expensive landforming that would change
acre. The major landscape ornamentals grown in areas slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do
of this association are queenpalm, schefflera, they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
bottlebrush, arecapalm, pitch apple, seagrape, coconut projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for
palm, buttonwood, dracaena marginata, ficus interpretations designed to show suitability and
benjamin, ligustrum (glossy privet), black olive, limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for
mahogany, and live oak. More than 200 different foliage woodland, and for engineering purposes.
and woody landscape plants are grown in container In the capability system, soils are generally grouped








Dade County Area, Florida


at three levels-capability class, subclass, and unit. Several rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and
Only class and subclass are used in this survey, coniferous trees and shrubs provide the most
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are protection.
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
defined as follows: of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
use. Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
the choice of plants or that require moderate plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
conservation practices. spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
choice of plants or that require special conservation a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
practices, or both. Information on planning windbreaks and screens and
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that on planting and caring for trees and shrubs can be
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful obtained from the Natural Resources Conservation
management, or both. Service, the Dade County Cooperative Extension
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have Service, or a nursery.
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
use. Recreation
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation. A wide variety of areas are available for recreational
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make activities in this survey area. These areas include 55
them unsuitable for cultivation, miles of coastline, Biscayne Bay, the Atlantic Ocean,
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have Everglades National Park, and Biscayne National Park.
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial Beaches make up 7.5 miles of the 55 miles of coastline.
crop production. The recreational areas offer opportunities for many
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one activities, including freshwater and saltwater fishing,
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e, boating, birding, swimming, and sunbathing.
w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The The recreational attractions at Miami include the
letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of Orange Bowl, Miami Dolphins football, and the Metro-
erosion unless a close-growing plant cover is Dade Zoo. The survey area has numerous golf courses,
maintained; w shows that water in or on the soil tennis courts, marinas, swimming pools, playgrounds,
interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some soils and parks.
the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial In table 3, the soils of the survey area are rated
drainage); s shows that the soil is limited mainly according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
because it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
only some parts of the United States, shows that the features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
chief limitation is climate that is very cold or very dry. surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils Not considered in the ratings, but important in
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland, quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
contains only the subclasses indicated by w, s, or c. The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
The capability classification of each map unit is given and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units." important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational uses by the duration and intensity of
Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of the
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards height, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
from wind and provide shade. They also protect fruit essential.
trees and gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. In table 3, the degree of soil limitation is expressed








Dade County Area, Florida


at three levels-capability class, subclass, and unit. Several rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and
Only class and subclass are used in this survey, coniferous trees and shrubs provide the most
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are protection.
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
defined as follows: of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
use. Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
the choice of plants or that require moderate plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
conservation practices. spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
choice of plants or that require special conservation a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
practices, or both. Information on planning windbreaks and screens and
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that on planting and caring for trees and shrubs can be
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful obtained from the Natural Resources Conservation
management, or both. Service, the Dade County Cooperative Extension
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have Service, or a nursery.
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
use. Recreation
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation. A wide variety of areas are available for recreational
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make activities in this survey area. These areas include 55
them unsuitable for cultivation, miles of coastline, Biscayne Bay, the Atlantic Ocean,
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have Everglades National Park, and Biscayne National Park.
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial Beaches make up 7.5 miles of the 55 miles of coastline.
crop production. The recreational areas offer opportunities for many
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one activities, including freshwater and saltwater fishing,
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e, boating, birding, swimming, and sunbathing.
w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The The recreational attractions at Miami include the
letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of Orange Bowl, Miami Dolphins football, and the Metro-
erosion unless a close-growing plant cover is Dade Zoo. The survey area has numerous golf courses,
maintained; w shows that water in or on the soil tennis courts, marinas, swimming pools, playgrounds,
interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some soils and parks.
the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial In table 3, the soils of the survey area are rated
drainage); s shows that the soil is limited mainly according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
because it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
only some parts of the United States, shows that the features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
chief limitation is climate that is very cold or very dry. surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils Not considered in the ratings, but important in
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland, quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
contains only the subclasses indicated by w, s, or c. The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
The capability classification of each map unit is given and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units." important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational uses by the duration and intensity of
Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of the
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards height, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
from wind and provide shade. They also protect fruit essential.
trees and gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. In table 3, the degree of soil limitation is expressed







42 Soil Survey


as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil Wildlife Habitat
properties are generally favorable and that limitations
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Natural Resources Conservation
are. 11 e l o m M t m n Service, helped prepare this section.
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil This survey area has extensive areas of good wildlife
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be habitat, even though much of the highly desirable
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design, habitat in the coastal areas has been lost to urban
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination development. The beaches, mangrove swamps, pine
of these measures. rock land, and tropical hammock areas are under heavy
The information in table 3 can be supplemented by pressure for development. Freshwater marshes provide
other information in this survey, for example, excellent wildlife habitat, but they are being rapidly
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 6 degraded or lost because of the spread of introduced
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and plant species, such as Brazilian pepper and melaleuca
for local roads and streets in table 5. trees.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping The most extensive areas of good wildlife habitat are
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing in undeveloped freshwater marshes in the western and
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary southern parts of the survey area. These areas are
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to inhabited by wetland wildlife, including various species
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best of birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The main game
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to species in these areas are white-tailed deer, bobwhite
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few quail, and mourning dove, and the main nongame
or no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but species are songbirds gy fo. Teers, raptoral birds
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes acc gray .
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of inhabited bythe endangered wood st and
Everglades kite and the threatened sandhill crane.
constructing campsites. Other endangered or threatened species that inhabit the
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
survey area include the bald eagle, the American
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking crocodile, and the West Indian manatee.
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, Aho the t in the suvey area
Although they are of minor extent in the survey area,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding ocean beaches and tropical hammocks provide valuable
during the period of use, and do not have slopes, habitat for wildlife. Beaches are used as nesting areas
stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping by the endangered leatherback turtle. They also serve
sites or of building access roads and parking areas. as feeding grounds for gulls, sandpipers, and plovers.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive The mangrove areas in the southern part of the
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not survey area provide rookery and roosting sites for all
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The types of wading birds. The areas of mangroves and the
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after adjacent aquatic areas provide nursery and feeding
rains, and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, sites for many marine fish and crustaceans.
the depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should The tropical hammocks in the survey area provide
be considered. cover for many types of wildlife. Also, they support
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding several species of endangered plants (20).
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
once a year during the period of use. They have few or abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
no stones or boulders on the surface. distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and can be created or improved by planting appropriate
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm by promoting the natural establishment of desirable
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject plants.
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They In table 4, the soils in the survey area are rated
have no stones or boulders on the surface. The according to their potential for providing habitat for
suitability of the soil for tees or greens is not considered various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
in rating the soils, planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and







Dade County Area, Florida 43


other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that these plants are oak, cabbage-palm, and waxmyrtle.
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining properties and features that affect the growth of
the intensity of management needed for each element coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
of the habitat. the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cedar, and
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or cypress.
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be properties and features affecting wetland plants are
established, improved, or maintained in most places, texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
Moderately intensive management is required for slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that plants are smartweed, wild millet, maidencane,
limitations are severe for the designated element or saltgrass, cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
maintained in most places, but management is difficult than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates created by dams, levees, or other water-control
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
impractical or impossible, water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the ponds.
following paragraphs. The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- in the following paragraphs.
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,
stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain areas include bobwhite quail, mourning dove,
and seed crops are corn and grain sorghum. meadowlark, field sparrow, and cottontail.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flooding, turkey, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also raccoon, and deer.
considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy
bahiagrass and sesbania. or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally attracted to such areas are ducks, geese, herons, shore
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil birds, egrets, otter, mink, and alligator.
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface Engineering
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil This section provides information for planning land
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild uses related to urban development and to water
herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod, and management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
beggarweed. most limiting features are identified. Ratings are given
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts for building site development, sanitary facilities,
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage, construction materials, and water management. The
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of ratings are based on observed performance of the soils
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, and on the estimated data and test data in the "Soil
available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of Properties" section.






44 Soil Survey


Information in this section is intended for land use special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for "Glossary."
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations. Building Site Development
For example, estimates and other data generally apply Table 5 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. that affect shallow excavations, dwellings without
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific streets, and lawns and landscaping. The limitations are
soil. considered slight if soil properties and site features are
The information is not site specific and does not generally favorable for the indicated use and limitations
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or are minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the properties or site features are not favorable for the
design and construction of engineering works. indicated use and special planning, design, or
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
not considered in preparing the information in this are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
section. Local ordinances and regulations should be special design, significant increases in construction
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design. costs, and possibly increased maintenance are
Soil properties, site features, and observed required. Special feasibility studies may be required
performance were considered in determining the ratings where the soil limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
determinations were made about grain-size distribution, maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 or 6 feet of the ratings are based on sol oerties site features, and
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to
table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure ll a at s aee et t
bedrock or a very firm, dense layer; stone content; soil
aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about ae ye
texture; and slope. The time of the year that
kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt excavations can be made is affected by the depth to a
fractions, and the kinds of adsorbed cations. Estimates seasonal high water table and the susceptibility of the
were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, soil to flooding. The resistance of the excavation walls
shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, and or banks to sloughing or caving is affected by soil
other behavioral characteristics affecting engineering texture and depth to the water table.
uses. Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
This information can be used to evaluate the structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
and recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for made for small commercial buildings without basements
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground and for dwellings without basements. The ratings are
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills, based on soil properties, site features, and observed
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan performance of the soils. A high water table, flooding,
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; shrinking and swelling, and organic layers can cause
locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and the movement of footings. Depth to a high water table,
topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, depth to bedrock, large stones, and flooding affect the
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water ease of excavation and construction. Landscaping and
conservation; and predict performance of proposed grading that require cuts and fills of more than 5 or 6
small structures and pavements by comparing the feet are not considered.
performance of existing similar structures on the same Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
or similar soils, and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.
The information in the tables, along with the soil They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base
maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material; and a
this survey, can be used to make additional flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
interpretations, limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a properties, site features, and observed performance of







Dade County Area, Florida 45


the soils. Depth to bedrock, depth to a high water table, Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
flooding, large stones, and slope affect the ease of fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
excavating and grading. Soil strength (as inferred from surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
the engineering classification of the soil), shrink-swell public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
potential, and depth to a high water table affect the permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
traffic-supporting capacity. than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established surface. There must be unsaturated soil material
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil beneath the absorption field to filter the effluent
properties, site features, and observed performance of effectively. Many local ordinances require that this
the soils. Soil reaction, depth to a high water table, material be of a certain thickness.
depth to bedrock, the available water capacity in the Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
upper 40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the
sulfidic materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly
slope, stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
organic matter in the surface layer affect trafficability compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
after vegetation is established, the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
Sanitary Facilities required to minimize seepage and contamination of
Table 6 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations ground water.
that affect septic tank absorption fields, sewage Table 6 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations are up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
considered slight if soil properties and site features are or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
generally favorable for the indicated use and limitations excavated to provide material for the embankments.
are minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
properties or site features are not favorable for the and observed performance of the soils. Considered in
indicated use and special planning, design, or the ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the water table, depth to bedrock, flooding, large stones,
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features and content of organic matter.
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that Excessive seepage resulting from rapid permeability
special design, significant increases in construction in the soil or a water table that is high enough to raise
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are the level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to
required. function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is
Table 6 also shows the suitability of the soils for use excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high
as daily cover for landfill. A rating of good indicates that content of organic matter is detrimental to proper
soil properties and site features are favorable for the functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic
use and that good performance and low maintenance activity. Slope and bedrock can cause construction
can be expected; fair indicates that soil properties and problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of
site features are moderately favorable for the use and the lagoon floor.
one or more soil properties or site features make the Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
soil less desirable than the soils rated good; and poor disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
indicates that one or more soil properties or site landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste
features are unfavorable for the use and overcoming is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and
the unfavorable properties requires special design, extra covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the
maintenance, or costly alteration. site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that layer of soil from a source away from the site.
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground-
features, and observed performance of the soils. water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
Permeability, depth to a high water table, depth to should be considered.
bedrock, and flooding affect absorption of the effluent. The ratings in table 6 are based on soil properties,
Large stones and bedrock interfere with installation, site features, and observed performance of the soils.








46 Soil Survey


Permeability, depth to bedrock, depth to a water table, cement is not considered in the ratings.
slope, and flooding affect both types of landfill. Texture, The ratings are based on soil properties, site
stones and boulders, highly organic layers, soil reaction, features, and observed performance of the soils. The
and content of salts and sodium affect trench landfills. thickness of suitable material is a major consideration.
Unless otherwise stated, the ratings apply only to that The ease of excavation is affected by large stones, a
part of the soil within a depth of about 6 feet. For high water table, and slope. How well the soil performs
deeper trenches, a limitation rated slight or moderate in place after it has been compacted and drained is
may not be valid. Onsite investigation is needed. determined by its strength (as inferred from the
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used engineering classification of the soil) and shrink-swell
to cover compacted solid waste in an area sanitary potential.
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
to the landfill, and spread over the waste. or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
Soil texture, wetness, rock fragments, and slope material, a low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are plasticity index of less than 10. They have a moderate
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
blowing. many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
After soil material has been removed, the soil Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
material remaining in the borrow area must be thick a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
enough over bedrock or the water table to permit more than 25 percent. They are wet and have a water
revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a table at a depth of less than 1 foot. They may have
landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer layers of suitable material, but the material is less than
generally has the best workability, more organic matter, 3 feet thick.
and the best potential for plants. Material from the Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final commercial use with a minimum of processing. They
cover, are used in many kinds of construction. Specifications
for each use vary widely. In table 7, only the probability
Construction Materials of finding material in suitable quantity is evaluated. The
Table 7 gives information about the soils as a source suitability of the material for specific purposes is not
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated evaluated, nor are factors that affect excavation of the
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil. material.
They are rated as a probable or improbable source of The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source
sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as
properties and site features that affect the removal of indicated by the engineering classification of the soil),
the soil and its use as construction material. Normal the thickness of suitable material, and the content of
compaction, minor processing, and other standard rock fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is are given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. grain sizes is given in the table on engineering index
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place properties.
and used in road embankments in another place. In this A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less up to 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at
exacting in design than higher embankments. least 3 feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight,
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface large stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil source. Fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale and
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading, siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
their profile. The table showing engineering index can be established and maintained. The upper 40
properties provides detailed information about each soil inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also
layer. This information can help to determine the evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow
suitability of each layer for use as roadfill. The area.
performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such








Dade County Area, Florida 47


properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and material. Excessive slope can affect the storage
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading capacity of the reservoir area.
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, constructed to impound water or to protect land against
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material, overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of 5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly
less than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble mixed and compacted during construction.
salts, are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
and are not so wet that excavation is difficult. soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have depth greater than the height of the embankment can
a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 affect performance and safety of the embankment.
to 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, determine these properties.
or soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
are not so wet that excavation is difficult. seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high
amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes content of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts
of more than 15 percent, or have a seasonal high water or sodium. A high water table affects the amount of
table at or near the surface. usable material. It also affects trafficability.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
for topsoil because of its organic matter content, extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
retention of moisture and releases a variety of plant only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
nutrients as it decomposes, impound water 3 feet or more above the original
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a
Water Management permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and
Table 8 gives information on the soil properties and the salinity of the soil. Depth to bedrock and the content
site features that affect water management. The degree of large stones affect the ease of excavation.
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
excavated ponds. The limitations are considered slight if effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
soil properties and site features are generally favorable bedrock or to other layers that affect the rate of water
for the indicated use and limitations are minor and are movement, permeability, depth to a high water table or
easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site depth of standing water if the soil is subject to ponding,
features are not favorable for the indicated use and slope, susceptibility to flooding, subsidence of organic
special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to layers, and the potential for frost action. Excavating and
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil grading and the stability of ditchbanks are affected by
properties or site features are so unfavorable or so depth to bedrock, large stones, slope, and the hazard of
difficult to overcome that special design, significant cutbanks caving. The productivity of the soil after
increase in construction costs, and possibly increased drainage is adversely affected by extreme acidity or by
maintenance are required. toxic substances in the root zone, such as salts,
This table also gives the restrictive features that sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is not
affect each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and considered in the ratings.
diversions, and grassed waterways. Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low design and management of an irrigation system are
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage affected by depth to the water table, the need for
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The







48


construction of a system is affected by large stones and texture, and restricted permeability adversely affect
depth to bedrock. The performance of a system is maintenance.
affected by the depth of the root zone, the amount of Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
salts or sodium, and soil reaction. channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
combination of channels and ridges constructed across stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock affect the
a slope to control erosion and conserve moisture by construction of grassed waterways. A hazard of soil
intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and blowing, low available water capacity, restricted rooting
depth to bedrock affect the construction of terraces and depth, toxic substances such as salts or sodium, and
diversions. A restricted rooting depth, a severe hazard restricted permeability adversely affect the growth and
of soil blowing or water erosion, an excessively coarse maintenance of the grass after construction.







49









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
the course of the soil survey. The data and the percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
explained on the following pages. is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
Soil properties are determined by field examination of defined in the "Glossary."
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some Classification of the soils is determined according to
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are adopted by the American Association of State Highway
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and Transportation Officials (1).
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are The Unified system classifies soils according to
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the properties that affect their use as construction material.
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
and compaction characteristics, of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
Estimates of soil properties are based on field according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
accurately by field observation, and help to characterize properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
key soils. for example, SP-SM.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg those properties that affect roadway construction and
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Engineering Index Properties Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
Table 9 gives estimates of the engineering soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
classification and of the range of index properties for are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most inspection.
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
upper 5 or 6 feet. groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
series under the heading "Soil Series and Their numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
Morphology." 20, or higher, for the poorest.
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay weight basis. The percentages are estimates
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters determined mainly by converting volume percentage in
in diameter. "Loam." for example. is soil that is 7 to 27 the field to weiaht nercentaae.







49









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
the course of the soil survey. The data and the percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
explained on the following pages. is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
Soil properties are determined by field examination of defined in the "Glossary."
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some Classification of the soils is determined according to
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are adopted by the American Association of State Highway
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and Transportation Officials (1).
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are The Unified system classifies soils according to
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the properties that affect their use as construction material.
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
and compaction characteristics, of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
Estimates of soil properties are based on field according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
accurately by field observation, and help to characterize properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
key soils. for example, SP-SM.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg those properties that affect roadway construction and
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Engineering Index Properties Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
Table 9 gives estimates of the engineering soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
classification and of the range of index properties for are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most inspection.
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
upper 5 or 6 feet. groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
series under the heading "Soil Series and Their numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
Morphology." 20, or higher, for the poorest.
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay weight basis. The percentages are estimates
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters determined mainly by converting volume percentage in
in diameter. "Loam." for example. is soil that is 7 to 27 the field to weiaht nercentaae.







50 Soil Survey


Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3 structure.
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074 movement of water through the soil when the soil is
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on saturated. They are based on soil characteristics
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field, texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) drainage systems and septic tank absorption fields.
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
estimates are based on test data from the survey area water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
or from nearby areas and on field examination, plants. The capacity for water storage in each major soil
The estimates of grain-size distribution and liquid layer is stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The
limit generally are rounded to the nearest 5 percent. capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect
Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg limits the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points) The most important properties are the content of
across classification boundaries, the classification in the organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
marginal zone is omitted in the table. structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
design and management of irrigation systems. Available
Physical and Chemical Properties water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
Table 10 shows estimates of some characteristics water actually available to plants at any given time.
and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
area. The estimates are based on field observations of each major horzon s based onmany tests For
and on test data for these and similar soils. many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter
r fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of corrosion.
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by corrosion.
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
in diameter. of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the laboratory measurements at representative sites of
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
moisture. They influence the shrink-swell potential, affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, and frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in a soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
soil also affect tillage and earthmoving operations. given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at construction material, and the potential of the soil to
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at corrode metal and concrete.
/3-bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil minerals with water and varies with the amount and
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk type of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, the soil and the magnitude of the change in soil
available water capacity, total pore space, and other moisture content influence the amount of swelling of
soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates soils in place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For
density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and others, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind
root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by and amount of clay minerals in the soil and on








Dade County Area, Florida 51


measurements of similar soils. 5. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are less
If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very than 20 percent clay and sandy clay loams, sandy
high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to clays, and hemic soil material. These soils are slightly
buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to control soil
often needed. blowing are used.
Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the 6. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are
change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture more than 20 percent clay and noncalcareous clay
content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The loams that are less than 35 percent clay. These soils
classes are low, a change of less than 3 percent; are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high, more than 6 ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used.
percent. Very high, more than 9 percent, is sometimes 7. Silts, noncalcareous silty clay loams that are less
used. than 35 percent clay, and fibric soil material. These
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used.
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) 8. Soils that are not subject to soil blowing because
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet of rock fragments on the surface or because of surface
and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre wetness.
per year. These estimates are based primarily on Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4 soil at various stages of decomposition. In table 10, the
percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values estimated content of organic matter is expressed as a
of K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less
more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by than 2 millimeters in diameter.
water. The content of organic matter in a soil can be
Erosion factor Tis an estimate of the maximum maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
that can occur over a sustained period without affecting infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
crop productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre other nutrients for crops.
per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have Soil and Water Features
similar properties affecting their resistance to soil
blowing in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the Table 11 gives estimates of various soil and water
susceptibility to soil blowing. Soils are grouped features. The estimates are used in land use planning
according to the following distinctions: that involves engineering considerations.
1. Coarse sands, sands, fine sands, and very fine Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult groups. They are grouped according to the infiltration of
to establish. water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
2. Loamy coarse sands, loamy sands, loamy fine precipitation from long-duration storms.
sands, loamy very fine sands, and sapric soil material. The four hydrologic soil groups are:
These soils are very highly erodible. Crops can be Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
used. mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained
3. Coarse sandy loams, sandy loams, fine sandy sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are water transmission.
highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate
measures to control soil blowing are used. when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
4L. Calcareous loams, silt loams, clay loams, and moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or
silty clay loams. These soils are erodible. Crops can be well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are moderately coarse texture. These soils have a
used. moderate rate of water transmission.
4. Clays, silty clays, noncalcareous clay loams, and Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
silty clay loams that are more than 35 percent clay. thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
These soils are moderately erodible. Crops can be layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
grown if measures to control soil blowing are used. soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These






52 Soil Survey


soils have a slow rate of water transmission, namely grayish colors or mottles in the soil. Indicated in
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate table 11 are the depth to the seasonal high water table,
(high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These the kind of water table, and the months of the year that
consist chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell the water table commonly is highest. A water table that
potential, soils that have a permanent high water table, is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated
soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the in table 11. An apparent water table is a thick zone of
surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly free water in the soil. It is indicated by the level at
impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate which water stands in an uncased borehole after
of water transmission. adequate time is allowed for adjustment in the
If a soil is assigned to two hydrologic groups in table surrounding soil.
11, the first letter is for drained areas and the second is Two numbers in the column showing depth to the
for undrained areas. water table indicate the normal range in depth to a
Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface saturated zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot.
by flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by The first numeral in the range indicates the highest
runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high water level. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
tides. Shallow water standing or flowing for short indicates that the water table is above the surface of
periods after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered the soil. "More than 6.0" indicates that the water table
flooding. Standing water in swamps and marshes or in is below a depth of 6 feet or that it is within a depth of 6
a closed depression is considered ponding. feet for less than a month.
Table 11 gives the frequency and duration of flooding Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth
and the time of year when flooding is most likely, of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of on observations during soil mapping. The rock is
occurrence are estimated. Frequency generally is specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or
expressed as none, rare, occasional, or frequent. None fractured, excavations can be made with trenching
means that flooding is not probable. Rare means that machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard
flooding is unlikely but possible under unusual weather or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is
conditions (the chance of flooding is nearly 0 percent to needed for excavation.
5 percent in any year). Occasional means that flooding Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
occurs infrequently under normal weather conditions saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
(the chance of flooding is 5 to 50 percent in any year). generally results from either desiccation and shrinkage
Frequent means that flooding occurs often under normal or oxidation of organic material, or both, following
weather conditions (the chance of flooding is more than drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually
50 percent in any year). Duration is expressed as very over a period of several years. Table 11 shows the
brief (less than 2 days), brief (2 to 7 days), long (7 days expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of
to 1 month), and very long (more than 1 month). The drainage, and total subsidence, which results from a
time of year that floods are most likely to occur is combination of factors.
expressed in months. About two-thirds to three-fourths Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
of all flooding occurs during the stated period. electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
The information on flooding is based on evidence in weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
the soil profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
organic matter content with increasing depth; and little electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion
or no horizon development, of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
Also considered is local information about the extent content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on soil. Special site examination and design may be
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the needed if the combination of factors results in a severe
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific hazard of corrosion. The steel in installations that
than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that intersect soil boundaries or soil layers is more
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency susceptible to corrosion than steel in installations that
levels, are entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a layer.
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The estimates For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed
are based mainly on the evidence of a saturated zone, as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage








Dade County Area, Florida 53


class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation
extract. extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed










55









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (19). other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and where there is much biological activity. Among the
series. Classification is based on soil properties properties and characteristics considered are particle-
observed in the field or inferred from those observations size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
or on laboratory measurements. Table 12 shows the of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
classification of the soils in the survey area. The slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
categories are defined in the following paragraphs, the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The soil properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- Typic Psammaquents.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are
example is Entisol. similar in color, texture, structure, reaction,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, consistence, mineral and chemical composition, and
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil arrangement in the profile. There can be some variation
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties in the texture of the surface layer or of the substratum
that reflect the most important variables within the within a series.
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu,
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol). Soil Series and Their Morphology
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great In this section, each soil series recognized in the
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic in alphabetic order.
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
base status. Each great group is identified by the name formed are identified for each series. The soil is
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
meaning sandy texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime), described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (21).
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (19). Unless otherwise
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Following the pedon description is the range of
Extragrades have some properties that are not important characteristics of the soils in the series.
representative of the great group but do not indicate The map units of each soil series are described in
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective Basinger Series
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. Soils of the Basinger series are siliceous,
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents. They are very







55









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (19). other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and where there is much biological activity. Among the
series. Classification is based on soil properties properties and characteristics considered are particle-
observed in the field or inferred from those observations size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
or on laboratory measurements. Table 12 shows the of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
classification of the soils in the survey area. The slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
categories are defined in the following paragraphs, the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The soil properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- Typic Psammaquents.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are
example is Entisol. similar in color, texture, structure, reaction,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, consistence, mineral and chemical composition, and
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil arrangement in the profile. There can be some variation
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties in the texture of the surface layer or of the substratum
that reflect the most important variables within the within a series.
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu,
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol). Soil Series and Their Morphology
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great In this section, each soil series recognized in the
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic in alphabetic order.
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
base status. Each great group is identified by the name formed are identified for each series. The soil is
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
meaning sandy texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime), described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (21).
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (19). Unless otherwise
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Following the pedon description is the range of
Extragrades have some properties that are not important characteristics of the soils in the series.
representative of the great group but do not indicate The map units of each soil series are described in
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective Basinger Series
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. Soils of the Basinger series are siliceous,
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents. They are very







55









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (19). other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and where there is much biological activity. Among the
series. Classification is based on soil properties properties and characteristics considered are particle-
observed in the field or inferred from those observations size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
or on laboratory measurements. Table 12 shows the of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
classification of the soils in the survey area. The slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
categories are defined in the following paragraphs, the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The soil properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- Typic Psammaquents.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are
example is Entisol. similar in color, texture, structure, reaction,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, consistence, mineral and chemical composition, and
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil arrangement in the profile. There can be some variation
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties in the texture of the surface layer or of the substratum
that reflect the most important variables within the within a series.
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu,
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol). Soil Series and Their Morphology
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great In this section, each soil series recognized in the
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic in alphabetic order.
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
base status. Each great group is identified by the name formed are identified for each series. The soil is
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
meaning sandy texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime), described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (21).
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (19). Unless otherwise
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Following the pedon description is the range of
Extragrades have some properties that are not important characteristics of the soils in the series.
representative of the great group but do not indicate The map units of each soil series are described in
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective Basinger Series
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. Soils of the Basinger series are siliceous,
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents. They are very








56 Soil Survey


deep, poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that Biscayne Series
formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediments. These
soils are in sloughs and depressions. Slopes are less Soils of the Biscayne series are loamy, carbonatic,
than 2 percent. hyperthermic, shallow Typic Fluvaquents. They are
Basinger soils are closely associated with Dade, shallow or very shallow, poorly drained or very poorly
Pomello, and Plantation soils. Dade soils are well drained, moderately permeable soils underlain by
drained. They have limestone bedrock at a depth of 20 limestone bedrock. They formed in calcareous, silty
to 40 inches. Pomello soils are moderately well drained, recent sediments of marine or freshwater origin. These
Plantation soils have a histic epipedon and have soils are on broad, low coastal flats and in freshwater
limestone bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. marshes and sloughs. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand, approximately Biscayne soils are closely associated with Chekika,
700 feet south of the Snapper Creek Canal and 200 Dania, Hallandale, Krome, Lauderhill, Pennsuco,
feet west of Douglas Road (NW. 37th Avenue); 300 feet Perrine, and Tamiami soils. Chekika and Krome soils
north and 200 feet west of the southeast corner of sec. contain more than 35 percent gravel, by volume, have
31, T. 51 S., R. 41 E. less than 50 percent silt in the fine-earth fraction, and
are better drained than the Biscayne soils. Dania,
A-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; Lauderhill, and Tamiami soils consist dominantly of
single grained; loose; many fine and very fine roots; organic material. Hallandale soils formed in sandy
slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. material. Pennsuco soils have limestone bedrock at a
E-6 to 30 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; depth of more than 40 inches. Perrine soils have
single grained; loose; common fine and very fine limestone bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Typical pedon of Biscayne marl, in a freshwater
B/E-30 to 50 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) and light marsh approximately 0.25 mile south of North Canal
brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; common and 700 feet west of a power line; 1,500 feet south and
medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks 2,100 feet west of the northeast corner of sec. 27, T. 57
along root channels; single grained; loose; few very S., R. 39 E.
fine roots; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
C-50 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine Ap-0 to 5 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) marl that has a
sand; single grained; loose; moderately acid. texture of silt loam; moderate medium granular
structure parting to weak fine granular; very friable;
The sandy material is more than 80 inches thick. few very fine and fine continuous pores; few fine
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and roots; strongly effervescent; mildly alkaline; clear
chroma of 1. It is 3 to 6 inches thick. Reaction is slightly smooth boundary.
acid to strongly acid. In some pedons a thin layer of Cgl-5 to 9 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) marl that has a
muck overlies the A horizon. texture of silt loam; moderate medium angular
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and blocky structure; friable; few fine continuous pores;
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 24 to 30 inches thick. Reaction is few fine roots; strongly effervescent; mildly alkaline;
slightly acid to strongly acid. The texture is fine sand or abrupt smooth boundary.
sand. In some pedons a transitional E/B horizon is Cg2-9 to 15 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) marl that
between the E and B/E horizons. has a texture of silt loam; moderate medium angular
The B part of the B/E horizon has hue of 7.5YR and blocky structure; friable; few fine continuous pores;
has value of 4 and chroma of 2 or value of 5 and common fine roots; strongly effervescent; mildly
chroma of 4, or it has hue of 5YR, value of 3, and alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary.
chroma of 4. The E part of this horizon is 15 to 20 2R-15 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone.
inches thick. Reaction is strongly acid or moderately
acid. The texture is fine sand or sand. In some pedons The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 1 to 20
a Bh horizon is beneath the B/E horizon. The Bh inches. Gravel-sized limestone fragments make up less
horizon has colors similar to those of the B part of the than 35 percent of the whole soil volume. The soils are
B/E horizon. nonsaline to moderately saline. In many pedons some
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6, and or all horizons have whole snail shells and shell
chroma of 2 or 3. Reaction is strongly acid or fragments 2 millimeters to 3 centimeters in diameter.
moderately acid. The texture is fine sand or sand. Reaction is mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline in the
A and C horizons.







Dade County Area, Florida 57


The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value C1-4 to 50 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; single
of 3 to 6, and chroma of 3 or less and in some pedons grained; loose; about 20 percent multicolored shell
has light brownish gray or light gray mottles. It is 1 to fragments, by volume; moderately alkaline; clear
12 inches thick. Where matrix values are 3.5 or less, smooth boundary.
the horizon is less than 7 inches thick or is less than 4 C2-50 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
inches thick if it directly overlies limestone bedrock. A grained; loose; about 25 percent multicolored shell
thin layer of organic material overlies the A horizon in fragments, by volume; moderately alkaline.
some pedons. The calcium carbonate equivalent ranges
from 70 to nearly 100 percent. The A horizon is marl The sandy material is more than 80 inches thick.
that has a texture of silt loam or gravelly silt loam. The Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline
content of limestone fragments in rock-plowed or throughout the profile. Shell fragments, which are in all
mechanically scarified areas is dominantly 15 to 25 horizons, range from 2 millimeters to 2 centimeters in
percent, by volume, but ranges to 35 percent. The diameter.
fragments range from 2 millimeters to 7.5 centimeters in The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
diameter. Rock outcrops interrupt the A horizon in some chroma of 1 to 3. It is 4 to 8 inches thick. The content
pedons. of shell fragments ranges from about 5 to 10 percent,
The Cg horizon, if it occurs, generally has hue of by volume.
10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 3 or less The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
and in some pedons has streaks and pockets with hue chroma of 1 to 4. The texture is sand or fine sand. The
of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 3 or less. It is 2 content of shell fragments ranges from about 10 to 35
to 12 inches thick. This horizon is dominantly marl that percent, by volume.
has a texture of silt or silt loam. In some pedons it has
pockets and lenses of black or very dark brown sapric Cardsound Series
material. A thin, discontinuous layer of noncalcareous S o t C
Soils of the Cardsound series are loamy, mixed
silt loam, mucky silt loam, or silty clay loam with value (calcareous), hyperthermic Lithic Udorthents. They are
of 2 or 3 and chroma of 3 or less is within or below the (calcareous), hyperthermic Lithic Udorthents. They are
Cg horizon in some pedons. The calcium carbonate very shallow, well drained, moderately slowly permeable
soils underlain by oolitic limestone bedrock. They
equivalent in the Cg horizon ranges from 80 to nearly formed in loamy marine sediments and organic material
formed in loamy marine sediments and organic material
100 percent. that overlie limestone or are in shallow solution holes
The 2R horizon is hard, porous, oolitic limestone that mesone are domin y
within the limestone. These soils are dominantly in
has a smooth or irregular surface. In many pedons it ntl e on he e e es e
has solution holes several inches to several feet wide n areopes are smooth
and as much as 3 feet deep. andare t2 percent
Cardsound soils are closely associated with Krome
Canaveral Series soils. Krome soils have been rock-plowed and are used
for crops.
Soils of the Canaveral series are hyperthermic, Typical pedon of Cardsound silty clay loam, in an
uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments. They are very area of Cardsound-Rock outcrop complex, 2,000 feet
deep, moderately well drained, very rapidly permeable north and 1,200 feet east of the southwest corner of
soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine sec. 26, T. 38 E., R. 57 S.
sediments and shell fragments. Slopes are 0 to 3
percent. A-0 to 4 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silty
Canaveral soils are closely associated with Beaches clay loam; weak fine granular structure; friable;
and with St. Augustine soils. St. Augustine soils formed about 12 percent limestone gravel; strongly

in sandy dredged material that has loamy pockets and effervescent; moderately alkaline; many fine and
lenses. They are moderately well drained, medium roots; abrupt irregular boundary.
Typical pedon of Canaveral sand, approximately 2R-4 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone.
2,300 feet east and 900 feet south of the northwest
corner of sec. 28, T. 54 S., R. 42 E., in Crandon County The depth to limestone bedrock is 2 to 8 inches.
Park: Reaction is slightly acid or neutral in the A and C
horizons.
A-0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand; The A horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR and
single grained; loose; about 10 percent multicolored has value of 3 and chroma of 4 or value of 4 and
shell fragments, by volume; moderately alkaline; chroma of 3 to 6. The content of limestone fragments is
clear smooth boundary. dominantly less than 15 percent, by volume. The







Dade County Area, Florida 57


The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value C1-4 to 50 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; single
of 3 to 6, and chroma of 3 or less and in some pedons grained; loose; about 20 percent multicolored shell
has light brownish gray or light gray mottles. It is 1 to fragments, by volume; moderately alkaline; clear
12 inches thick. Where matrix values are 3.5 or less, smooth boundary.
the horizon is less than 7 inches thick or is less than 4 C2-50 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
inches thick if it directly overlies limestone bedrock. A grained; loose; about 25 percent multicolored shell
thin layer of organic material overlies the A horizon in fragments, by volume; moderately alkaline.
some pedons. The calcium carbonate equivalent ranges
from 70 to nearly 100 percent. The A horizon is marl The sandy material is more than 80 inches thick.
that has a texture of silt loam or gravelly silt loam. The Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline
content of limestone fragments in rock-plowed or throughout the profile. Shell fragments, which are in all
mechanically scarified areas is dominantly 15 to 25 horizons, range from 2 millimeters to 2 centimeters in
percent, by volume, but ranges to 35 percent. The diameter.
fragments range from 2 millimeters to 7.5 centimeters in The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
diameter. Rock outcrops interrupt the A horizon in some chroma of 1 to 3. It is 4 to 8 inches thick. The content
pedons. of shell fragments ranges from about 5 to 10 percent,
The Cg horizon, if it occurs, generally has hue of by volume.
10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 3 or less The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
and in some pedons has streaks and pockets with hue chroma of 1 to 4. The texture is sand or fine sand. The
of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 3 or less. It is 2 content of shell fragments ranges from about 10 to 35
to 12 inches thick. This horizon is dominantly marl that percent, by volume.
has a texture of silt or silt loam. In some pedons it has
pockets and lenses of black or very dark brown sapric Cardsound Series
material. A thin, discontinuous layer of noncalcareous S o t C
Soils of the Cardsound series are loamy, mixed
silt loam, mucky silt loam, or silty clay loam with value (calcareous), hyperthermic Lithic Udorthents. They are
of 2 or 3 and chroma of 3 or less is within or below the (calcareous), hyperthermic Lithic Udorthents. They are
Cg horizon in some pedons. The calcium carbonate very shallow, well drained, moderately slowly permeable
soils underlain by oolitic limestone bedrock. They
equivalent in the Cg horizon ranges from 80 to nearly formed in loamy marine sediments and organic material
formed in loamy marine sediments and organic material
100 percent. that overlie limestone or are in shallow solution holes
The 2R horizon is hard, porous, oolitic limestone that mesone are domin y
within the limestone. These soils are dominantly in
has a smooth or irregular surface. In many pedons it ntl e on he e e es e
has solution holes several inches to several feet wide n areopes are smooth
and as much as 3 feet deep. andare t2 percent
Cardsound soils are closely associated with Krome
Canaveral Series soils. Krome soils have been rock-plowed and are used
for crops.
Soils of the Canaveral series are hyperthermic, Typical pedon of Cardsound silty clay loam, in an
uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments. They are very area of Cardsound-Rock outcrop complex, 2,000 feet
deep, moderately well drained, very rapidly permeable north and 1,200 feet east of the southwest corner of
soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine sec. 26, T. 38 E., R. 57 S.
sediments and shell fragments. Slopes are 0 to 3
percent. A-0 to 4 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silty
Canaveral soils are closely associated with Beaches clay loam; weak fine granular structure; friable;
and with St. Augustine soils. St. Augustine soils formed about 12 percent limestone gravel; strongly

in sandy dredged material that has loamy pockets and effervescent; moderately alkaline; many fine and
lenses. They are moderately well drained, medium roots; abrupt irregular boundary.
Typical pedon of Canaveral sand, approximately 2R-4 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone.
2,300 feet east and 900 feet south of the northwest
corner of sec. 28, T. 54 S., R. 42 E., in Crandon County The depth to limestone bedrock is 2 to 8 inches.
Park: Reaction is slightly acid or neutral in the A and C
horizons.
A-0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand; The A horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR and
single grained; loose; about 10 percent multicolored has value of 3 and chroma of 4 or value of 4 and
shell fragments, by volume; moderately alkaline; chroma of 3 to 6. The content of limestone fragments is
clear smooth boundary. dominantly less than 15 percent, by volume. The







58 Soil Survey


fragments range from 2 millimeters to 25 centimeters 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 to 4. The texture is silt loam or
(10 inches) in diameter, silty clay loam. The material in solution holes is
The C horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 7.5YR or 5YR, noneffervescent. Some of the solution holes have dark
value of 4, and chroma of 4 to 6. The texture is silty gray or very dark gray pockets of silty clay loam or silty
clay loam or silty clay. This horizon is noneffervescent. clay in root channels.

Chekika Series Dade Series
Soils of the Chekika series are loamy-skeletal, Soils of the Dade series are hyperthermic, uncoated
carbonatic, hyperthermic Lithic Udorthents. They are Spodic Quartzipsamments. They are moderately deep,
very shallow, somewhat poorly drained, moderately well drained, very rapidly permeable, mineral soils
permeable soils underlain by limestone bedrock. They underlain by limestone bedrock. They formed in
formed through scarification of oolitic limestone moderately thick beds of sandy marine sediments.
outcrops and marly sediments that partially cover the These soils are on broad, low hills on the Miami Ridge.
limestone and fill the many cavities or solution holes. Slopes are smooth and are less than 2 percent.
These soils are adjacent to the Miami Ridge. Slopes are Dade soils are closely associated with Basinger,
smooth and are 0 to 2 percent. Biscayne, Opalocka, Pomello, Plantation, and Terra
Chekika soils are closely associated with Biscayne, Ceia soils. Basinger soils are poorly drained. Biscayne
Krome, Cardsound,,Matecumbe, Opalocka, Pennsuco, soils consist of limnic material (marl) and are poorly
and Perrine soils. Biscayne, Pennsuco, and Perrine drained. Opalocka soils have limestone bedrock within
soils consist of limnic material (marl) and are very a depth of 20 inches. They are mapped in a complex
poorly drained or poorly drained. Biscayne soils have with Rock outcrop. Pomello soils are moderately well
less than 35 percent gravel. Pennsuco and Perrine soils drained and do not have limestone bedrock within a
are nongravelly. Pennsuco soils are more than 40 depth of 80 inches. Plantation soils have an organic
inches deep over limestone bedrock. Perrine soils are surface layer that is 8 to 16 inches thick and are poorly
20 to 40 inches deep over limestone bedrock. Krome drained. Terra Ceia soils consist of organic material and
and Cardsound soils are well drained or somewhat are very poorly drained.
excessively drained. They have dry value of less than Typical pedon of Dade fine sand, approximately
5.5. Cardsound and Opalocka soils are in unscarified 2,100 feet east and 400 feet south of the northwest
areas of the pine woods. They are mapped in corner of sec. 31, T. 51 S., R. 42 E., in an abandoned
complexes with Rock outcrop. Matecumbe soils are pasture:
nongravelly, very shallow, and organic. They are
underlain by limestone bedrock. A-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
Typical pedon of Chekika very gravelly loam, 500 grained; loose; common fine and very fine roots;
feet east of canal C-111; 800 feet west and 200 feet slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
north of the southeast corner of sec. 6, T. 57 S., R. 38 E-6 to 24 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
E. sand; single grained; loose; common fine and very
fine roots; moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Ap-0 to 5 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) very Bh-24 to 27 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
gravelly loam, gray (10YR 6/1) dry; weak fine fine sand; single grained; loose; common very fine
granular structure; very friable; about 45 percent roots; mildly alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary.
limestone gravel; strongly effervescent; mildly 2Cr-27 inches; soft, porous limestone.
alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary.
R-5 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone. The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 20 to 40
inches. It varies considerably within short distances.
The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 2 to 10 Solution holes are at a depth of more than 60 inches in
inches. some pedons.
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, The A horizon has hue of 10YR and has value of 3
and chroma of 1 to 3 when moist. It has hue of 10YR, or 4 and chroma of 2 or less or value of 5 and chroma
value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 or 2 when dry. The of 1. It is 3 to 8 inches thick. Reaction ranges from
content of limestone fragments is dominantly 35 to 60 moderately acid to mildly alkaline.
percent, by volume. The fragments range from 2 The E horizon has hue of 10YR and has value of 6
millimeters to 7.5 centimeters in diameter. Reaction is and chroma of 3 or less, value of 7 and chroma of 2 or
mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline, less, or value of 8 and chroma of 1. It is 10 to 36 inches
The C horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value of thick. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to mildly







58 Soil Survey


fragments range from 2 millimeters to 25 centimeters 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 to 4. The texture is silt loam or
(10 inches) in diameter, silty clay loam. The material in solution holes is
The C horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 7.5YR or 5YR, noneffervescent. Some of the solution holes have dark
value of 4, and chroma of 4 to 6. The texture is silty gray or very dark gray pockets of silty clay loam or silty
clay loam or silty clay. This horizon is noneffervescent. clay in root channels.

Chekika Series Dade Series
Soils of the Chekika series are loamy-skeletal, Soils of the Dade series are hyperthermic, uncoated
carbonatic, hyperthermic Lithic Udorthents. They are Spodic Quartzipsamments. They are moderately deep,
very shallow, somewhat poorly drained, moderately well drained, very rapidly permeable, mineral soils
permeable soils underlain by limestone bedrock. They underlain by limestone bedrock. They formed in
formed through scarification of oolitic limestone moderately thick beds of sandy marine sediments.
outcrops and marly sediments that partially cover the These soils are on broad, low hills on the Miami Ridge.
limestone and fill the many cavities or solution holes. Slopes are smooth and are less than 2 percent.
These soils are adjacent to the Miami Ridge. Slopes are Dade soils are closely associated with Basinger,
smooth and are 0 to 2 percent. Biscayne, Opalocka, Pomello, Plantation, and Terra
Chekika soils are closely associated with Biscayne, Ceia soils. Basinger soils are poorly drained. Biscayne
Krome, Cardsound,,Matecumbe, Opalocka, Pennsuco, soils consist of limnic material (marl) and are poorly
and Perrine soils. Biscayne, Pennsuco, and Perrine drained. Opalocka soils have limestone bedrock within
soils consist of limnic material (marl) and are very a depth of 20 inches. They are mapped in a complex
poorly drained or poorly drained. Biscayne soils have with Rock outcrop. Pomello soils are moderately well
less than 35 percent gravel. Pennsuco and Perrine soils drained and do not have limestone bedrock within a
are nongravelly. Pennsuco soils are more than 40 depth of 80 inches. Plantation soils have an organic
inches deep over limestone bedrock. Perrine soils are surface layer that is 8 to 16 inches thick and are poorly
20 to 40 inches deep over limestone bedrock. Krome drained. Terra Ceia soils consist of organic material and
and Cardsound soils are well drained or somewhat are very poorly drained.
excessively drained. They have dry value of less than Typical pedon of Dade fine sand, approximately
5.5. Cardsound and Opalocka soils are in unscarified 2,100 feet east and 400 feet south of the northwest
areas of the pine woods. They are mapped in corner of sec. 31, T. 51 S., R. 42 E., in an abandoned
complexes with Rock outcrop. Matecumbe soils are pasture:
nongravelly, very shallow, and organic. They are
underlain by limestone bedrock. A-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
Typical pedon of Chekika very gravelly loam, 500 grained; loose; common fine and very fine roots;
feet east of canal C-111; 800 feet west and 200 feet slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
north of the southeast corner of sec. 6, T. 57 S., R. 38 E-6 to 24 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
E. sand; single grained; loose; common fine and very
fine roots; moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Ap-0 to 5 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) very Bh-24 to 27 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
gravelly loam, gray (10YR 6/1) dry; weak fine fine sand; single grained; loose; common very fine
granular structure; very friable; about 45 percent roots; mildly alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary.
limestone gravel; strongly effervescent; mildly 2Cr-27 inches; soft, porous limestone.
alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary.
R-5 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone. The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 20 to 40
inches. It varies considerably within short distances.
The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 2 to 10 Solution holes are at a depth of more than 60 inches in
inches. some pedons.
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, The A horizon has hue of 10YR and has value of 3
and chroma of 1 to 3 when moist. It has hue of 10YR, or 4 and chroma of 2 or less or value of 5 and chroma
value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 or 2 when dry. The of 1. It is 3 to 8 inches thick. Reaction ranges from
content of limestone fragments is dominantly 35 to 60 moderately acid to mildly alkaline.
percent, by volume. The fragments range from 2 The E horizon has hue of 10YR and has value of 6
millimeters to 7.5 centimeters in diameter. Reaction is and chroma of 3 or less, value of 7 and chroma of 2 or
mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline, less, or value of 8 and chroma of 1. It is 10 to 36 inches
The C horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value of thick. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to mildly







Dade County Area, Florida 59


alkaline. The texture is fine sand or sand. these layers is less than half of the total soil depth.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR and value and Reaction is neutral in the Oa horizon and mildly alkaline
chroma of 3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or moderately alkaline in the marl.
hue of 10YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
10YR, value of 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is 2 to 12 chroma of 2 or less. It is 8 to 20 inches thick. The
inches thick. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to mildly content of fiber is less than 33 percent before rubbing
alkaline. The texture is fine sand or sand. In some and less than 5 percent after rubbing. The sodium
pedons this horizon is discontinuous because of the pyrophosphate extract has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and
contour of the underlying limestone. In these pedons chroma of 2.
the horizon occurs as pockets or lenses of Bh material. The 2C horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value
The matrix material has the same texture as the of 3 to 7, and chroma of 3 or less. It is 2 to 4 inches
overlying E horizon and is similar in color, thick. The calcium carbonate equivalent ranges from 70
to nearly 100 percent. Reaction is moderately alkaline.
Dania Series Demory Series
Soils of the Dania series are euic, hyperthermic, Soils of the Demory series are loamy, siliceous,
shallow Lithic Medisaprists. They are very shallow or hyperthermic Lithic Haplaquolls. They are very shallow
shallow, very poorly drained, rapidly permeable, organic or shallow, poorly drained, moderately slowly permeable
soils underlain by limestone bedrock. They formed in soils underlain by limestone bedrock. They formed in
thin layers of highly decomposed hydrophytic, a a a
nonwoody plant remains and may have layers of recent limestone edrock. These soils are on narrow, low
calcareous deposits that precipitated from fresh water. hammocks in areas between organic soils and poorly
These soils are on the fringe of deeper organic soils in are smooth and are less
drained, sandy soils. Slopes are smooth and are less
freshwater marshes. Slopes are less than 2 percent. than 2 percent
Dania soils are closely associated with Biscayne, Demory soils are closely associated with Biscayne,
Demory soils are closely associated with Biscayne,
Chekika, Hallandale, Lauderhill, Margate, Pahokee, Chekika, Dania, and Hallandale soils. Biscayne and
Plantation, and Tamiami soils. Biscayne soils formed in. B
marl that has a texture of silt loam. Chekika soils are of ni oil re ery rly raine isane soi
formed in limnic material (marl). Dania soils are organic.
mineral origin, have more than 35 percent gravel, by Chekika soils formed through mechanical scarification
volume, and are better drained than the Dania soils. Chekika soils formed through mechanical scarification
volumeof limestone bedrock and are better drained than the
Hallandale and Margate soils are of mineral origin. Also, Hallandale soils are light colored and
Margate soils have limestone bedrock at a depth of 20
to 40 inches. Lauderhill soils have limestone bedrock at sandy.
t l e Typical pedon of Demory sandy clay loam, in an area
a depth of 20 to 36 inches. Pahoke soils haveof Demory-Rock outcrop complex, approximately 1,800
limestone bedrock at a depth of 36 to 51 inches. feet west and 100 feet south of the northeast corner of
Plantation soils are dominantly sandy and have .
limestone bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Tamiami soils are 21 to 51 inches deep over bedrock. A1-0 to 4 inches; very dark brown (10YR) sandy clay
Typical pedon of Dania muck, depressional, in a loam; moderate fine granular structure; friable;
freshwater marsh approximately 0.5 mile north of many fine and very fine roots; neutral; clear wavy
Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41) and 0.75 mile west of boundary.
SW. 137th Avenue; 0.25 mile east and 1,900 feet south A2-4 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sandy clay loam;
of the northwest corner of sec. 3, T. 54 S., R. 39 E. weak fine subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky
and nonplastic; common fine and very fine roots;
Oa-0 to 15 inches; muck, black (10YR 2/1) rubbed many fine and very fine pores; neutral; abrupt
and unrubbed; about 8 percent fiber, 2 percent smooth boundary.
rubbed; massive; nonsticky and nonplastic; many C-7 to 10 inches; very dark brown (10YR 3/3) sandy
fine and very fine roots; common fine and very fine loam that has black (10YR 2/1) streaks in old root
tubular pores; noneffervescent; neutral; abrupt channels; moderate fine subangular blocky
irregular boundary. structure; slightly sticky and nonplastic; few fine
2R-15 inches; soft, porous, oolitic limestone, roots and pores; neutral; abrupt irregular boundary.
The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 8 to 20 2R-10 inches; hard, porous limestone.
inches. These soils can have one or more continuous The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 3 to 20
layers of marl at any depth. The cumulative thickness of inches.







Dade County Area, Florida 59


alkaline. The texture is fine sand or sand. these layers is less than half of the total soil depth.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR and value and Reaction is neutral in the Oa horizon and mildly alkaline
chroma of 3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or moderately alkaline in the marl.
hue of 10YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
10YR, value of 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is 2 to 12 chroma of 2 or less. It is 8 to 20 inches thick. The
inches thick. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to mildly content of fiber is less than 33 percent before rubbing
alkaline. The texture is fine sand or sand. In some and less than 5 percent after rubbing. The sodium
pedons this horizon is discontinuous because of the pyrophosphate extract has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and
contour of the underlying limestone. In these pedons chroma of 2.
the horizon occurs as pockets or lenses of Bh material. The 2C horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value
The matrix material has the same texture as the of 3 to 7, and chroma of 3 or less. It is 2 to 4 inches
overlying E horizon and is similar in color, thick. The calcium carbonate equivalent ranges from 70
to nearly 100 percent. Reaction is moderately alkaline.
Dania Series Demory Series
Soils of the Dania series are euic, hyperthermic, Soils of the Demory series are loamy, siliceous,
shallow Lithic Medisaprists. They are very shallow or hyperthermic Lithic Haplaquolls. They are very shallow
shallow, very poorly drained, rapidly permeable, organic or shallow, poorly drained, moderately slowly permeable
soils underlain by limestone bedrock. They formed in soils underlain by limestone bedrock. They formed in
thin layers of highly decomposed hydrophytic, a a a
nonwoody plant remains and may have layers of recent limestone edrock. These soils are on narrow, low
calcareous deposits that precipitated from fresh water. hammocks in areas between organic soils and poorly
These soils are on the fringe of deeper organic soils in are smooth and are less
drained, sandy soils. Slopes are smooth and are less
freshwater marshes. Slopes are less than 2 percent. than 2 percent
Dania soils are closely associated with Biscayne, Demory soils are closely associated with Biscayne,
Demory soils are closely associated with Biscayne,
Chekika, Hallandale, Lauderhill, Margate, Pahokee, Chekika, Dania, and Hallandale soils. Biscayne and
Plantation, and Tamiami soils. Biscayne soils formed in. B
marl that has a texture of silt loam. Chekika soils are of ni oil re ery rly raine isane soi
formed in limnic material (marl). Dania soils are organic.
mineral origin, have more than 35 percent gravel, by Chekika soils formed through mechanical scarification
volume, and are better drained than the Dania soils. Chekika soils formed through mechanical scarification
volumeof limestone bedrock and are better drained than the
Hallandale and Margate soils are of mineral origin. Also, Hallandale soils are light colored and
Margate soils have limestone bedrock at a depth of 20
to 40 inches. Lauderhill soils have limestone bedrock at sandy.
t l e Typical pedon of Demory sandy clay loam, in an area
a depth of 20 to 36 inches. Pahoke soils haveof Demory-Rock outcrop complex, approximately 1,800
limestone bedrock at a depth of 36 to 51 inches. feet west and 100 feet south of the northeast corner of
Plantation soils are dominantly sandy and have .
limestone bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Tamiami soils are 21 to 51 inches deep over bedrock. A1-0 to 4 inches; very dark brown (10YR) sandy clay
Typical pedon of Dania muck, depressional, in a loam; moderate fine granular structure; friable;
freshwater marsh approximately 0.5 mile north of many fine and very fine roots; neutral; clear wavy
Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41) and 0.75 mile west of boundary.
SW. 137th Avenue; 0.25 mile east and 1,900 feet south A2-4 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sandy clay loam;
of the northwest corner of sec. 3, T. 54 S., R. 39 E. weak fine subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky
and nonplastic; common fine and very fine roots;
Oa-0 to 15 inches; muck, black (10YR 2/1) rubbed many fine and very fine pores; neutral; abrupt
and unrubbed; about 8 percent fiber, 2 percent smooth boundary.
rubbed; massive; nonsticky and nonplastic; many C-7 to 10 inches; very dark brown (10YR 3/3) sandy
fine and very fine roots; common fine and very fine loam that has black (10YR 2/1) streaks in old root
tubular pores; noneffervescent; neutral; abrupt channels; moderate fine subangular blocky
irregular boundary. structure; slightly sticky and nonplastic; few fine
2R-15 inches; soft, porous, oolitic limestone, roots and pores; neutral; abrupt irregular boundary.
The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 8 to 20 2R-10 inches; hard, porous limestone.
inches. These soils can have one or more continuous The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 3 to 20
layers of marl at any depth. The cumulative thickness of inches.







60 Soil Survey


The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 7 to 20
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 1 to 9 inches thick. Reaction inches.
is slightly acid or neutral. The texture is sandy clay The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR,
loam, loamy sand, or sandy loam. value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1. It is 2 to 7 inches
The A2 horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value thick. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral. A
of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons it has thin, continuous layer of organic material overlies the A
mottles or streaks in shades of brown, black, or gray. It horizon in some areas.
is 0 to 8 inches thick. Reaction is slightly acid or The E horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value of
neutral. 5 or 6, and chroma of 2. It is 0 to 8 inches thick.
The C horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value of Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral.
3 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 4. It has mottles or streaks in The Bwl horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value
shades of brown, black, or gray. It is 0 to 17 inches of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3. It is 0 to 7 inches thick. The
thick. Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately Bw2 horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR and value
alkaline. The texture is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or and chroma of 4. The Bwl and Bw2 horizons range
loamy fine sand. from moderately acid to moderately alkaline. They are
The 2R horizon is hard, porous limestone that has a fine sand.
smooth or irregular surface. In some pedons a thin, The C horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR and has
discontinuous layer consisting of soft accumulations of value of 4 and chroma of 2 or value of 5 and chroma of
calcium carbonate is directly over the bedrock. 2 or 3. Reaction is moderately acid. The texture is fine
sand.
Hallandale Series In some pedons the 2R horizon has solution holes
Soils of the Hallandale series are siliceous, several inches to several feet wide and as much as 3
hyperthermic Lithic Psammaquents. They are very feet deep. The soil material in the solution holes is fine
shallow or shallow, poorly drained, rapidly permeable sand, loamy fine sand, or the gravelly analogs of those
soils underlain by limestone bedrock. They formed in textures. Reaction is mildly alkaline or moderately
thin beds of sandy marine sediments. These soils are alkaline. Thin, discontinuous layers consisting of soft
on broad, low flats between the Everglades and the low, accumulations of calcium carbonate directly overlie the
sandy coastal ridge. Slopes are less than 2 percent. limestone.
Hallandale soils are closely associated with
Kesson Series
Biscayne, Dania, Margate, and Plantation soils.
Biscayne soils formed in limnic material (marl). Dania Soils of the Kesson series are siliceous, hyperthermic
soils are organic. Margate soils have limestone bedrock Typic Psammaquents. They are very deep, very poorly
at a depth of more than 20 inches. Plantation soils have drained, moderately rapidly permeable soils that formed
a histic epipedon and have limestone bedrock at a in thick deposits of sandy marine sediments and shell
depth of 20 to 40 inches. fragments. These soils are in tidal swamps and
Typical pedon of Hallandale fine sand, in an area of marshes. They are flooded twice daily. Slopes are 0 to
improved pasture about 1.7 miles west of State Road 1 percent.
26 and 2.9 miles north of U.S. Highway 41; Kesson soils are closely associated with Beaches
approximately 1,800 feet east and 2,500 feet north of and with Canaveral and St. Augustine soils. Canaveral
the southwest corner of sec. 28, T. 53 S., R. 40 E. and St. Augustine soils are somewhat poorly drained
and are in the higher landscape positions.
A-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; Typical pedon of Kesson muck, tidal, on Key
single grained; loose; many fine and very fine roots; Biscayne; approximately 1,900 feet west and 1,800 feet
slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. south of the northeast corner of sec. 32, T. 54 S., R. 42
E-4 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine E., in a mangrove swamp:
sand that has common black (10YR 2/1) and very
dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks in root channels; Oa-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; massive;
single grained; loose; common fine and very fine nonsticky and nonplastic; less than 33 percent fiber
roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary. unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed; many very
Bw-12 to 16 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; fine and fine roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
single grained; loose; mildly alkaline; abrupt A-6 to 12 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
irregular boundary, many medium distinct black (10YR 2/1) mottles;
2R-16 inches; soft, porous limestone that has a single grained; loose; many very fine and fine roots;
smooth or irregular surface. about 15 percent shell fragments; strongly







60 Soil Survey


The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 7 to 20
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 1 to 9 inches thick. Reaction inches.
is slightly acid or neutral. The texture is sandy clay The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR,
loam, loamy sand, or sandy loam. value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1. It is 2 to 7 inches
The A2 horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value thick. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral. A
of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons it has thin, continuous layer of organic material overlies the A
mottles or streaks in shades of brown, black, or gray. It horizon in some areas.
is 0 to 8 inches thick. Reaction is slightly acid or The E horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value of
neutral. 5 or 6, and chroma of 2. It is 0 to 8 inches thick.
The C horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value of Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral.
3 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 4. It has mottles or streaks in The Bwl horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value
shades of brown, black, or gray. It is 0 to 17 inches of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3. It is 0 to 7 inches thick. The
thick. Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately Bw2 horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR and value
alkaline. The texture is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or and chroma of 4. The Bwl and Bw2 horizons range
loamy fine sand. from moderately acid to moderately alkaline. They are
The 2R horizon is hard, porous limestone that has a fine sand.
smooth or irregular surface. In some pedons a thin, The C horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR and has
discontinuous layer consisting of soft accumulations of value of 4 and chroma of 2 or value of 5 and chroma of
calcium carbonate is directly over the bedrock. 2 or 3. Reaction is moderately acid. The texture is fine
sand.
Hallandale Series In some pedons the 2R horizon has solution holes
Soils of the Hallandale series are siliceous, several inches to several feet wide and as much as 3
hyperthermic Lithic Psammaquents. They are very feet deep. The soil material in the solution holes is fine
shallow or shallow, poorly drained, rapidly permeable sand, loamy fine sand, or the gravelly analogs of those
soils underlain by limestone bedrock. They formed in textures. Reaction is mildly alkaline or moderately
thin beds of sandy marine sediments. These soils are alkaline. Thin, discontinuous layers consisting of soft
on broad, low flats between the Everglades and the low, accumulations of calcium carbonate directly overlie the
sandy coastal ridge. Slopes are less than 2 percent. limestone.
Hallandale soils are closely associated with
Kesson Series
Biscayne, Dania, Margate, and Plantation soils.
Biscayne soils formed in limnic material (marl). Dania Soils of the Kesson series are siliceous, hyperthermic
soils are organic. Margate soils have limestone bedrock Typic Psammaquents. They are very deep, very poorly
at a depth of more than 20 inches. Plantation soils have drained, moderately rapidly permeable soils that formed
a histic epipedon and have limestone bedrock at a in thick deposits of sandy marine sediments and shell
depth of 20 to 40 inches. fragments. These soils are in tidal swamps and
Typical pedon of Hallandale fine sand, in an area of marshes. They are flooded twice daily. Slopes are 0 to
improved pasture about 1.7 miles west of State Road 1 percent.
26 and 2.9 miles north of U.S. Highway 41; Kesson soils are closely associated with Beaches
approximately 1,800 feet east and 2,500 feet north of and with Canaveral and St. Augustine soils. Canaveral
the southwest corner of sec. 28, T. 53 S., R. 40 E. and St. Augustine soils are somewhat poorly drained
and are in the higher landscape positions.
A-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; Typical pedon of Kesson muck, tidal, on Key
single grained; loose; many fine and very fine roots; Biscayne; approximately 1,900 feet west and 1,800 feet
slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. south of the northeast corner of sec. 32, T. 54 S., R. 42
E-4 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine E., in a mangrove swamp:
sand that has common black (10YR 2/1) and very
dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks in root channels; Oa-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; massive;
single grained; loose; common fine and very fine nonsticky and nonplastic; less than 33 percent fiber
roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary. unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed; many very
Bw-12 to 16 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; fine and fine roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
single grained; loose; mildly alkaline; abrupt A-6 to 12 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
irregular boundary, many medium distinct black (10YR 2/1) mottles;
2R-16 inches; soft, porous limestone that has a single grained; loose; many very fine and fine roots;
smooth or irregular surface. about 15 percent shell fragments; strongly







Dade County Area, Florida 61


effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear wavy and 100 feet south of the northeast corner of sec. 5, T.
boundary. 57 S., R. 38 E.
Cg1-12 to 33 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; many very fine and fine Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) very gravelly
roots; about 15 percent shell fragments; strongly loam, brown (10YR 5/3) dry; weak medium granular
effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy structure; very friable; about 40 percent, by volume,
boundary. hard limestone fragments 3 inches or less in
Cg2-33 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; diameter; strongly effervescent; mildly alkaline;
single grained; loose; common very fine and fine abrupt irregular boundary.
roots; about 10 percent shell fragments; strongly R-7 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone.
effervescent; moderately alkaline. The depth to limestone bedrock is 3 to 9 inches.

Reaction is neutral to moderately alkaline throughout The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
the profile. The soils are calcareous. value of 3, and chroma of 2 or 3 when moist. It has hue
The Oa horizon, if it occurs, is less than 7 inches of 10YR value of 3to 5, and chroma of 2 or 3 when
thick. It has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and chroma of 2 dry. The content of limestone fragments is dominantly
or less. 35 to 60 percent, by volume, but ranges to 70 percent.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and The fragments range from 2 millimeters to 7.5
chroma of 2 or less. It is 2 to 6 inches thick. The centimeters in diameter. Reaction is mildly alkaline or
content of shell fragments ranges from 5 to 15 percent, moderately alkaline.
SThe C horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 5YR and has
by volume. The fragments are 2 millimeters to 4
centimeters in diameter. value of 4 or 5 and chroma of 3 to 6 or value of 5 and
centimeters in diameter.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, chroma of 8, or it has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 3
and chroma of 2 or less. The content of shell fragments to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. The texture is silt loam, silty
ranges from 5 to 20 percent. clay loam, clay loam, or silty clay. The material in
solution holes is noneffervescent. Some of the solution
holes have dark gray or very dark gray pockets of silty
Krome Series clay loam or silty clay in root channels.
Soils of the Krome series are loamy-skeletal,
carbonatic, hyperthermic Lithic Udorthents. They are Lauderill Series
very shallow, moderately well drained, moderately Soils of the Lauderhill series are euic, hyperthermic
permeable soils underlain by limestone bedrock. They Lithic Medisaprists. They are moderately deep, very
formed through scarification of oolitic limestone poorly drained, rapidly permeable, organic soils that
outcrops and the loamy residuum that partially covers formed in moderately thick beds of hydrophytic,
the limestone and fills the many cavities or solution nonwoody plant remains. These soils are in large
holes. These soils are on broad, very low hills on the freshwater marshes. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
Miami Ridge. Slopes are dominantly 0 to 2 percent but Lauderhill soils are closely associated with Biscayne,
range to 5 percent. Dania, Pahokee, Pennsuco, Perrine, Plantation, and
Krome soils are closely associated with Biscayne, Tamiami soils. Biscayne, Pennsuco, and Perrine soils
Chekika, Cardsound, Matecumbe, Pennsuco, and consist of limnic material (marl). Biscayne and Dania
Perrine soils. Biscayne, Pennsuco, and Perrine soils soils have limestone bedrock within a depth of 20
consist of limnic material (marl) and are very poorly inches. Pennsuco soils have limestone bedrock at a
drained or poorly drained. Biscayne soils have less than depth of more than 40 inches. Pahokee soils have
35 percent gravel. Pennsuco and Perrine soils are limestone bedrock at a depth of 36 to 51 inches.
nongravelly. Pennsuco soils have limestone bedrock at Plantation soils are sandy. Tamiami soils have one or
a depth of more than 40 inches. Perrine soils have more continuous layers of marl within the control
limestone bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches, section.
Chekika soils are somewhat poorly drained. They have Typical pedon of Lauderhill muck, depressional,
dry value of more than 5.5. Cardsound soils are in approximately 2 miles east of Tallahassee Road and
unscarified areas of the pine woods. They are mapped 500 feet north of North Canal; lat. 25 degrees 27
in a complex with Rock outcrop. Matecumbe soils are minutes 50 seconds N. and long. 80 degrees 22
organic and are very shallow over limestone bedrock. minutes 46 seconds W.
Typical pedon of Krome very gravelly loam, 0.5 mile
northeast of Homestead General Airport; 500 feet west Oal-0 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 15







Dade County Area, Florida 61


effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear wavy and 100 feet south of the northeast corner of sec. 5, T.
boundary. 57 S., R. 38 E.
Cg1-12 to 33 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; many very fine and fine Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) very gravelly
roots; about 15 percent shell fragments; strongly loam, brown (10YR 5/3) dry; weak medium granular
effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy structure; very friable; about 40 percent, by volume,
boundary. hard limestone fragments 3 inches or less in
Cg2-33 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; diameter; strongly effervescent; mildly alkaline;
single grained; loose; common very fine and fine abrupt irregular boundary.
roots; about 10 percent shell fragments; strongly R-7 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone.
effervescent; moderately alkaline. The depth to limestone bedrock is 3 to 9 inches.

Reaction is neutral to moderately alkaline throughout The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
the profile. The soils are calcareous. value of 3, and chroma of 2 or 3 when moist. It has hue
The Oa horizon, if it occurs, is less than 7 inches of 10YR value of 3to 5, and chroma of 2 or 3 when
thick. It has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and chroma of 2 dry. The content of limestone fragments is dominantly
or less. 35 to 60 percent, by volume, but ranges to 70 percent.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and The fragments range from 2 millimeters to 7.5
chroma of 2 or less. It is 2 to 6 inches thick. The centimeters in diameter. Reaction is mildly alkaline or
content of shell fragments ranges from 5 to 15 percent, moderately alkaline.
SThe C horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 5YR and has
by volume. The fragments are 2 millimeters to 4
centimeters in diameter. value of 4 or 5 and chroma of 3 to 6 or value of 5 and
centimeters in diameter.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, chroma of 8, or it has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 3
and chroma of 2 or less. The content of shell fragments to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. The texture is silt loam, silty
ranges from 5 to 20 percent. clay loam, clay loam, or silty clay. The material in
solution holes is noneffervescent. Some of the solution
holes have dark gray or very dark gray pockets of silty
Krome Series clay loam or silty clay in root channels.
Soils of the Krome series are loamy-skeletal,
carbonatic, hyperthermic Lithic Udorthents. They are Lauderill Series
very shallow, moderately well drained, moderately Soils of the Lauderhill series are euic, hyperthermic
permeable soils underlain by limestone bedrock. They Lithic Medisaprists. They are moderately deep, very
formed through scarification of oolitic limestone poorly drained, rapidly permeable, organic soils that
outcrops and the loamy residuum that partially covers formed in moderately thick beds of hydrophytic,
the limestone and fills the many cavities or solution nonwoody plant remains. These soils are in large
holes. These soils are on broad, very low hills on the freshwater marshes. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
Miami Ridge. Slopes are dominantly 0 to 2 percent but Lauderhill soils are closely associated with Biscayne,
range to 5 percent. Dania, Pahokee, Pennsuco, Perrine, Plantation, and
Krome soils are closely associated with Biscayne, Tamiami soils. Biscayne, Pennsuco, and Perrine soils
Chekika, Cardsound, Matecumbe, Pennsuco, and consist of limnic material (marl). Biscayne and Dania
Perrine soils. Biscayne, Pennsuco, and Perrine soils soils have limestone bedrock within a depth of 20
consist of limnic material (marl) and are very poorly inches. Pennsuco soils have limestone bedrock at a
drained or poorly drained. Biscayne soils have less than depth of more than 40 inches. Pahokee soils have
35 percent gravel. Pennsuco and Perrine soils are limestone bedrock at a depth of 36 to 51 inches.
nongravelly. Pennsuco soils have limestone bedrock at Plantation soils are sandy. Tamiami soils have one or
a depth of more than 40 inches. Perrine soils have more continuous layers of marl within the control
limestone bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches, section.
Chekika soils are somewhat poorly drained. They have Typical pedon of Lauderhill muck, depressional,
dry value of more than 5.5. Cardsound soils are in approximately 2 miles east of Tallahassee Road and
unscarified areas of the pine woods. They are mapped 500 feet north of North Canal; lat. 25 degrees 27
in a complex with Rock outcrop. Matecumbe soils are minutes 50 seconds N. and long. 80 degrees 22
organic and are very shallow over limestone bedrock. minutes 46 seconds W.
Typical pedon of Krome very gravelly loam, 0.5 mile
northeast of Homestead General Airport; 500 feet west Oal-0 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 15







62 Soil Survey


percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed; single grained; loose; few very fine roots; slightly
massive; slightly sticky and nonplastic; brown acid; clear wavy boundary.
(10YR 5/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract; many Bw2-28 to 36 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
fine and very fine roots; neutral (pH 7.0 in 0.01 M fine sand; single grained; loose; neutral; abrupt
CaCl2); gradual wavy boundary, irregular boundary.
Oa2-7 to 30 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) 2R-36 inches; soft, porous limestone.
muck; less than 15 percent fiber unrubbed;
massive; slightly sticky and nonplastic; brown The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 20 to 40
(10YR 5/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract; common inches. In some pedons a thin horizon of gravel-sized,
very fine and fine roots; neutral (pH 6.9 in 0.01 M hard limestone fragments or soft accumulations of
CaCl2); abrupt irregular boundary. calcium carbonate overlies the limestone.
2R-30 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone. The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2 or
3, and chroma of 1. It is 5 to 10 inches thick. Reaction
The organic material ranges from 20 to 36 inches in is moderately acid or slightly acid.
thickness. Reaction ranges from 6.5 to 7.2 in 0.01 M The E horizon has value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 2 or
CaCI2. less. It is 8 to 15 inches thick. Reaction is moderately
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and acid or slightly acid.
chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is 15 to 30 The Bwl horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6,
percent before rubbing and less than 10 percent after and chroma of 2 or 3. It is 5 to 10 inches thick.
rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract has hue of Reaction is slightly acid to mildly alkaline.
10YR or 5YR. It has value of 2 to 4 and chroma of 4 or The Bw2 horizon, if it occurs, has value of 4 or 5 and
less, value of 5 and chroma of 2 to 8, value of 6 and chroma of 2 to 4. It is 0 to 10 inches thick. Reaction is
chroma of 3 to 8, or value of 7 and chroma of 4 to 8. In neutral or mildly alkaline.
some pedons this horizon has discontinuous lenses or The 2R horizon is soft, porous limestone that has a
pockets of marl. smooth or irregular surface. In some pedons it has
solution holes several inches to several feet wide and
Margate Series as much as 3 feet deep.
Soils of the Margate series are siliceous, Mae
hyperthermic Mollic Psammaquents. They are Matecume es
moderately deep, poorly drained, rapidly permeable Soils of the Matecumbe series are euic,
soils underlain by limestone bedrock. They formed in isohyperthermic Lithic Tropofolists. They are very
moderately thick beds of sandy marine sediments, shallow, moderately well drained, rapidly permeable,
These soils are on low terraces between the Everglades organic soils underlain by oolitic limestone bedrock.
and the low, sandy coastal ridge. Slopes are less than 2 These soils are on small tropical hardwood hammocks
percent. on the Miami Ridge and in the Everglades. Slopes are
Margate soils are closely associated with Hallandale less than 2 percent.
and Plantation soils. Hallandale soils have limestone Matecumbe soils are closely associated with
bedrock within a depth of 20 inches. Plantation soils Biscayne, Cardsound, and Pennsuco soils. Biscayne
have a histic epipedon. soils consist of limnic material (marl) and are very
Typical pedon of Margate fine sand, in an area of poorly drained or poorly drained. Cardsound soils are in
pasture approximately 400 feet west of Red Road and unscarified areas of the pine woods. They are mapped
2,200 feet north of the Palmetto Expressway (State in a complex with Rock outcrop. Pennsuco soils consist
Road 826); 400 feet west and 1,200 feet north of the of marl and are poorly drained or very poorly drained.
southeast corner of sec. 12, T. 52 S., R. 40 E. Typical pedon of Matecumbe muck, 2,300 feet west
A and 1,300 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 30,
A-0 to 9 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; ,3 .
single grained; loose; many fine and very fine roots;
moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary. Oa-0 to 3; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 25 percent
E-9 to 18 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed; neutral;
sand; few fine black (10YR 2/1) and very dark gray abrupt irregular boundary.
(10YR 3/1) streaks in root channels; single grained; 2R-3 inches; soft, porous, oolitic limestone.
loose; few fine and very fine roots; moderately acid;
gradual wavy boundary. The depth to bedrock is 2 to 5 inches. The Oa
Bw1-18 to 28 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 2 or 3, and







62 Soil Survey


percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed; single grained; loose; few very fine roots; slightly
massive; slightly sticky and nonplastic; brown acid; clear wavy boundary.
(10YR 5/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract; many Bw2-28 to 36 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
fine and very fine roots; neutral (pH 7.0 in 0.01 M fine sand; single grained; loose; neutral; abrupt
CaCl2); gradual wavy boundary, irregular boundary.
Oa2-7 to 30 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) 2R-36 inches; soft, porous limestone.
muck; less than 15 percent fiber unrubbed;
massive; slightly sticky and nonplastic; brown The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 20 to 40
(10YR 5/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract; common inches. In some pedons a thin horizon of gravel-sized,
very fine and fine roots; neutral (pH 6.9 in 0.01 M hard limestone fragments or soft accumulations of
CaCl2); abrupt irregular boundary. calcium carbonate overlies the limestone.
2R-30 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone. The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2 or
3, and chroma of 1. It is 5 to 10 inches thick. Reaction
The organic material ranges from 20 to 36 inches in is moderately acid or slightly acid.
thickness. Reaction ranges from 6.5 to 7.2 in 0.01 M The E horizon has value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 2 or
CaCI2. less. It is 8 to 15 inches thick. Reaction is moderately
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and acid or slightly acid.
chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is 15 to 30 The Bwl horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6,
percent before rubbing and less than 10 percent after and chroma of 2 or 3. It is 5 to 10 inches thick.
rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract has hue of Reaction is slightly acid to mildly alkaline.
10YR or 5YR. It has value of 2 to 4 and chroma of 4 or The Bw2 horizon, if it occurs, has value of 4 or 5 and
less, value of 5 and chroma of 2 to 8, value of 6 and chroma of 2 to 4. It is 0 to 10 inches thick. Reaction is
chroma of 3 to 8, or value of 7 and chroma of 4 to 8. In neutral or mildly alkaline.
some pedons this horizon has discontinuous lenses or The 2R horizon is soft, porous limestone that has a
pockets of marl. smooth or irregular surface. In some pedons it has
solution holes several inches to several feet wide and
Margate Series as much as 3 feet deep.
Soils of the Margate series are siliceous, Mae
hyperthermic Mollic Psammaquents. They are Matecume es
moderately deep, poorly drained, rapidly permeable Soils of the Matecumbe series are euic,
soils underlain by limestone bedrock. They formed in isohyperthermic Lithic Tropofolists. They are very
moderately thick beds of sandy marine sediments, shallow, moderately well drained, rapidly permeable,
These soils are on low terraces between the Everglades organic soils underlain by oolitic limestone bedrock.
and the low, sandy coastal ridge. Slopes are less than 2 These soils are on small tropical hardwood hammocks
percent. on the Miami Ridge and in the Everglades. Slopes are
Margate soils are closely associated with Hallandale less than 2 percent.
and Plantation soils. Hallandale soils have limestone Matecumbe soils are closely associated with
bedrock within a depth of 20 inches. Plantation soils Biscayne, Cardsound, and Pennsuco soils. Biscayne
have a histic epipedon. soils consist of limnic material (marl) and are very
Typical pedon of Margate fine sand, in an area of poorly drained or poorly drained. Cardsound soils are in
pasture approximately 400 feet west of Red Road and unscarified areas of the pine woods. They are mapped
2,200 feet north of the Palmetto Expressway (State in a complex with Rock outcrop. Pennsuco soils consist
Road 826); 400 feet west and 1,200 feet north of the of marl and are poorly drained or very poorly drained.
southeast corner of sec. 12, T. 52 S., R. 40 E. Typical pedon of Matecumbe muck, 2,300 feet west
A and 1,300 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 30,
A-0 to 9 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; ,3 .
single grained; loose; many fine and very fine roots;
moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary. Oa-0 to 3; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 25 percent
E-9 to 18 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed; neutral;
sand; few fine black (10YR 2/1) and very dark gray abrupt irregular boundary.
(10YR 3/1) streaks in root channels; single grained; 2R-3 inches; soft, porous, oolitic limestone.
loose; few fine and very fine roots; moderately acid;
gradual wavy boundary. The depth to bedrock is 2 to 5 inches. The Oa
Bw1-18 to 28 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 2 or 3, and








Dade County Area, Florida 63


chroma of 1 or 2. It is moderately acid to neutral. The deep over limestone bedrock. Tamiami soils have one
2R horizon consists of soft coral or oolitic limestone. It or more layers of marl within the control section. The
has solution holes that contain silty clay loam, silty clay, tidal Terra Ceia soils are more than 51 inches deep
or muck. over limestone bedrock and are saline.
Typical pedon of Pahokee muck, depressional,
Opalocka Series approximately 2,300 feet north and 200 feet east of the
southwest corner of sec. 19, T. 53 S., R. 39 E.
Soils of the Opalocka series are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Lithic Udorthents. They are very shallow, Oal--0 to 11 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 15
well drained, very rapidly permeable, sandy soils percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed;
underlain by oolitic limestone bedrock. They formed in massive; slightly sticky and nonplastic; many very
sandy marine sediments over oolitic limestone. These fine and fine roots; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
soils are dominantly in natural areas on the Atlantic sodium pyrophosphate extract; neutral (pH 7.3 in
Coastal Ridge and the Pineland Ridge. Slopes are 0.01 MCaCI2); gradual wavy boundary.
smooth and are 1 to 2 percent. Oa2-11 to 46 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
Opalocka soils are closely associated with Krome muck; massive; slightly sticky and nonplastic;
soils. Krome soils have been rock-plowed and are used common very fine and fine roots; yellowish brown
for crops. (10YR 5/4) sodium pyrophosphate extract; neutral
Typical pedon of Opalocka sand, in an area of (pH 7.3 in 0.01 M CaCI2); abrupt irregular boundary.
Opalocka-Rock outcrop complex, 450 feet east and 2R-46 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone.
1,300 feet south of the northwest corner of sec. 35, T.
56 S., R. 39 E. The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 36 to 51
inches. Reaction is slightly acid or neutral in 0.01 M
A-0 to 6 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) sand; single CaCI2.
grained; loose; about 10 percent, by volume, hard The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2,
limestone fragments 3 inches or less in diameter; and chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is less than
noneffervescent; neutral; many fine and medium 20 percent before rubbing and less than 5 percent after
roots; abrupt irregular boundary. rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract has hue of
Cr-6 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone. 10YR and has value of 2 to 4 and chroma of 4 or less,
value of 5 and chroma of 2 to 4, or value of 6 and
The depth to weathered limestone bedrock is 2 to 8 chroma of 3 or 4. A thin layer of periphyton or marl
inches, but solution holes are as deep as 20 inches. overlies the Oa horizon in some pedons.
The A horizon has value of 4 to 6 and chroma of 1 to
8. It is slightly acid or neutral. The content of weathered Pennsuco Series
limestone fragments less than 3 inches in diameter is
less than 15 percent, by volume. Soils of the Pennsuco series are coarse-silty,
The Cr horizon is light gray to brownish yellow, carbonatic, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents. They are
continuous, oolitic limestone. The surface is extremely deep or very deep, poorly drained or very poorly
pitted with solution holes. These holes range from less drained, moderately slowly permeable soils underlain by
than 1 inch to about 10 inches in diameter. They are oolitic limestone bedrock. They formed in calcareous,
filled with sand or loamy sand residuum. silty recent sediments of marine or freshwater origin.
These soils are on broad, low coastal flats and in
Pahokee Series marshes and sloughs. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
Pennsuco soils are closely associated with Biscayne,
Soils of the Pahokee series are euic, hyperthermic Chekika, Krome, Lauderhill, Pahokee, Perrine, and
Lithic Medisaprists. They are moderately deep or deep, Terra Ceia soils. Biscayne soils have limestone bedrock
very poorly drained, rapidly permeable, organic soils within a depth of 20 inches. Chekika and Krome soils
underlain by limestone bedrock. They formed in have less than 50 percent silt in the fine-earth fraction,
moderately thick or thick beds of hydrophytic, nonwoody have limestone bedrock within a depth of 10 inches,
plant remains. These soils are in large freshwater and have more than 35 percent gravel. Lauderhill,
swamps and marshes. Slopes are less than 1 percent. Pahokee, and Terra Ceia soils are dominantly organic.
Pahokee soils are closely associated with Dania, Perrine soils have limestone bedrock at a depth of 20 to
Lauderhill, and Tamiami soils and the tidal Terra Ceia 40 inches.
soils. Dania soils are less than 20 inches deep over Typical pedon of Pennsuco marl, drained, in an area
limestone bedrock. Lauderhill soils are 20 to 36 inches of cropland approximately 300 feet north of Mowry Drive








Dade County Area, Florida 63


chroma of 1 or 2. It is moderately acid to neutral. The deep over limestone bedrock. Tamiami soils have one
2R horizon consists of soft coral or oolitic limestone. It or more layers of marl within the control section. The
has solution holes that contain silty clay loam, silty clay, tidal Terra Ceia soils are more than 51 inches deep
or muck. over limestone bedrock and are saline.
Typical pedon of Pahokee muck, depressional,
Opalocka Series approximately 2,300 feet north and 200 feet east of the
southwest corner of sec. 19, T. 53 S., R. 39 E.
Soils of the Opalocka series are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Lithic Udorthents. They are very shallow, Oal--0 to 11 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 15
well drained, very rapidly permeable, sandy soils percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed;
underlain by oolitic limestone bedrock. They formed in massive; slightly sticky and nonplastic; many very
sandy marine sediments over oolitic limestone. These fine and fine roots; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
soils are dominantly in natural areas on the Atlantic sodium pyrophosphate extract; neutral (pH 7.3 in
Coastal Ridge and the Pineland Ridge. Slopes are 0.01 MCaCI2); gradual wavy boundary.
smooth and are 1 to 2 percent. Oa2-11 to 46 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
Opalocka soils are closely associated with Krome muck; massive; slightly sticky and nonplastic;
soils. Krome soils have been rock-plowed and are used common very fine and fine roots; yellowish brown
for crops. (10YR 5/4) sodium pyrophosphate extract; neutral
Typical pedon of Opalocka sand, in an area of (pH 7.3 in 0.01 M CaCI2); abrupt irregular boundary.
Opalocka-Rock outcrop complex, 450 feet east and 2R-46 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone.
1,300 feet south of the northwest corner of sec. 35, T.
56 S., R. 39 E. The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 36 to 51
inches. Reaction is slightly acid or neutral in 0.01 M
A-0 to 6 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) sand; single CaCI2.
grained; loose; about 10 percent, by volume, hard The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2,
limestone fragments 3 inches or less in diameter; and chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is less than
noneffervescent; neutral; many fine and medium 20 percent before rubbing and less than 5 percent after
roots; abrupt irregular boundary. rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract has hue of
Cr-6 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone. 10YR and has value of 2 to 4 and chroma of 4 or less,
value of 5 and chroma of 2 to 4, or value of 6 and
The depth to weathered limestone bedrock is 2 to 8 chroma of 3 or 4. A thin layer of periphyton or marl
inches, but solution holes are as deep as 20 inches. overlies the Oa horizon in some pedons.
The A horizon has value of 4 to 6 and chroma of 1 to
8. It is slightly acid or neutral. The content of weathered Pennsuco Series
limestone fragments less than 3 inches in diameter is
less than 15 percent, by volume. Soils of the Pennsuco series are coarse-silty,
The Cr horizon is light gray to brownish yellow, carbonatic, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents. They are
continuous, oolitic limestone. The surface is extremely deep or very deep, poorly drained or very poorly
pitted with solution holes. These holes range from less drained, moderately slowly permeable soils underlain by
than 1 inch to about 10 inches in diameter. They are oolitic limestone bedrock. They formed in calcareous,
filled with sand or loamy sand residuum. silty recent sediments of marine or freshwater origin.
These soils are on broad, low coastal flats and in
Pahokee Series marshes and sloughs. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
Pennsuco soils are closely associated with Biscayne,
Soils of the Pahokee series are euic, hyperthermic Chekika, Krome, Lauderhill, Pahokee, Perrine, and
Lithic Medisaprists. They are moderately deep or deep, Terra Ceia soils. Biscayne soils have limestone bedrock
very poorly drained, rapidly permeable, organic soils within a depth of 20 inches. Chekika and Krome soils
underlain by limestone bedrock. They formed in have less than 50 percent silt in the fine-earth fraction,
moderately thick or thick beds of hydrophytic, nonwoody have limestone bedrock within a depth of 10 inches,
plant remains. These soils are in large freshwater and have more than 35 percent gravel. Lauderhill,
swamps and marshes. Slopes are less than 1 percent. Pahokee, and Terra Ceia soils are dominantly organic.
Pahokee soils are closely associated with Dania, Perrine soils have limestone bedrock at a depth of 20 to
Lauderhill, and Tamiami soils and the tidal Terra Ceia 40 inches.
soils. Dania soils are less than 20 inches deep over Typical pedon of Pennsuco marl, drained, in an area
limestone bedrock. Lauderhill soils are 20 to 36 inches of cropland approximately 300 feet north of Mowry Drive







64 Soil Survey


and 1.5 miles west of Tallahassee Road; 300 feet north value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 3 or less and in some
and 100 feet east of the center of sec. 16, T. 57 S., R. pedons has pockets and lenses of silt loam, mucky silt
39 E. loam, or muck with hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
wn (R 4) ml chroma of 3 or less. In some pedons the upper part of
Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) marl
this horizon has few or common fine, high-chroma
that has a texture of silt loam; moderate medium
mottles.
granular structure; slightly sticky and nonplastic; few mottl
The 2Cr horizon is soft, porous limestone that has a
very fine and fine roots; about 15 percent shell
smooth or wavy surface. It has few or common solution
fragments; strongly effervescent; moderately holes.
alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
Cgl-8 to 27 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) marl Perrine Series
that has a texture of silt loam; common fine light
gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; moderate medium angular Soils of the Perrine series are coarse-silty,
blocky structure; slightly sticky and nonplastic; many carbonatic, hyperthermic Typic Fluvaquents. They are
fine and medium continuous pores; few very fine moderately deep, poorly drained or very poorly drained,
and fine roots; about 15 percent shell fragments; moderately slowly permeable soils underlain by
strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual limestone bedrock. They formed in calcareous, silty
smooth boundary. recent sediments of marine or freshwater origin. These
Cg2-27 to 36 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) marl that soils are on broad, low coastal flats and in marshes and
has a texture of silt loam; common fine and medium sloughs. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles; moderate medium Perrine soils are closely associated with Biscayne,
angular blocky structure; slightly sticky and Chekika, Krome, Lauderhill, Pennsuco, and Tamiami
nonplastic; many fine and medium continuous soils. Biscayne soils have limestone bedrock within a
pores; few very fine and fine roots; strongly depth of 20 inches. Chekika and Krome soils have less
effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth than 50 percent silt in the fine-earth fraction, have
boundary, limestone bedrock within a depth of 10 inches, and
Cg3-36 to 44 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) marl that have more than 35 percent gravel. Also, Krome soils
has a texture of silt loam; common fine and medium are in the higher landscape positions. Lauderhill soils
light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles; moderate medium are dominantly organic. Pennsuco soils have limestone
angular blocky structure; slightly sticky and bedrock at a depth of more than 40 inches. Tamiami
nonplastic; common fine and medium continuous soils are organic.
pores; few very fine and fine roots; strongly Typical pedon of Perrine marl, drained, in an area of
effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth abandoned cropland (University of Florida Research
boundary. Farm) 200 feet north of Canal Drive and 30 feet west of
2Cr-44 inches; soft, porous, oolitic limestone, a field road; lat. 25 degrees 27 minutes 51 seconds N.
and long. 80 degrees 22 minutes 23 seconds W.
The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 40 to 80
inches. Many pedons have thin pockets and lenses in Ap-0 to 11 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) marl that
which organic matter has accumulated. In many pedons has a texture of silt loam; moderate medium
some or all horizons have snail shells and snail shell granular structure; slightly sticky and nonplastic; few
fragments. The soils are nonsaline to saline. Reaction is very fine and fine continuous pores; many very fine
mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline in the A and C and fine and few medium roots; about 14 percent
horizons, shell fragments; moderately alkaline; abrupt smooth
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value boundary.
of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 or less and in some pedons Cgl-11 to 16 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
has fine faint gray and very pale brown pockets. It is 1 marl that has a texture of silt loam; common fine
to 12 inches thick. Dry matrix values are 6 or 7. Where and medium grayish brown (10YR 5/2) vertical
matrix values are 3.5 or less, the A horizon is less than streaks; moderate medium angular blocky structure;
10 inches thick. In some areas as much as 8 inches of slightly sticky and nonplastic; many very fine and
local soil material has been added to the original fine continuous pores; common very fine and fine
surface as a result of land leveling. The calcium and few medium roots; about 13 percent shell
carbonate equivalent ranges from 70 to nearly 100 fragments; moderately alkaline; clear smooth
percent. A thin layer of organic material overlies the A boundary.
horizon in some pedons. Cg2-16 to 26 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) marl that
The Cg horizon generally has hue of 10YR to 5Y, has a texture of silt loam; many coarse grayish








Dade County Area, Florida 65


brown (10YR 5/2) horizontal layers; moderate massive; slightly sticky and nonplastic; many fine
medium angular blocky structure; slightly sticky and roots; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) sodium
nonplastic; common very fine, fine, and medium pyrophosphate extract; moderately acid (pH 6.0 in
roots; about 10 percent shell fragments; moderately 0.01 M CaCI2); gradual wavy boundary.
alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary. Oa2-6 to 14 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
2Cr-26 inches; soft, porous, oolitic limestone, muck; about 5 percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5
percent rubbed; massive; slightly sticky and
The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 20 to 40 nonplastic; common fine roots; dark brown or brown
inches. (10YR 4/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract; neutral
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to (pH 6.8 in 0.01 M CaCI2); abrupt smooth boundary.
6, and chroma of 2 or less. It has value of 6 or more A--14 to 21 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
when dry. Where matrix values are 3.5 or less, the A fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
horizon is less than 10 inches thick. A thin layer of slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
organic material overlies the A horizon in some pedons. C1-21 to 28 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
The Cg horizon generally has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, single grained; loose; neutral; gradual wavy
value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 3 or less and in some boundary.
pedons has mottles or stains in shades of gray, brown, C2-28 to 30 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very gravelly
or yellow. This horizon is 7 to 15 inches thick. Some fine sand; single grained; loose; about 40 percent
pedons have continuous layers of calcareous or limestone fragments; moderately alkaline; abrupt
noncalcareous silt loam, mucky silt loam, or silty clay irregular boundary.
loam. Value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 2 or less can occur 2R-30 inches; soft, porous limestone.
within the Cg horizon or directly above the limestone.
The layers having these colors are 5 inches or less The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 20 to 40
thick, inches. The organic material is 8 to 16 inches thick.
The 2Cr horizon is soft, porous limestone that has a Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to neutral in
smooth or irregular surface. the Oa horizon and from strongly acid to moderately
alkaline in the A and C horizons.
Plantation Series The Oal horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1. The content of fiber is less than 15
Soils of the Plantation series are sandy, siliceous, percent before rubbing and less than 5 percent after
hyperthermic Histic Humaquepts. They are moderately rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract has hue of
deep, very poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that 10YR and has value of 2 to 4 and chroma of 4 or less,
formed in thin beds of hydrophytic, nonwoody plant value of 5 and chroma of 2 to 4, or value of 6 and
remains and are underlain by sandy marine sediments chroma of 3 or 4.
and limestone bedrock. These soils are in or at the The Oa2 horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 5YR, value
edge of large marshes and swamps. Slopes are less of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2. The content of fiber is less
than 1 percent. than 33 percent before rubbing and less than 5 percent
Plantation soils are closely associated with Dania, after rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract has
Hallandale, Lauderhill, and Margate soils and with the same colors as that in the Oal horizon.
Udorthents and Urban land. Dania and Lauderhill soils The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
are organic. Dania and Hallandale soils have limestone chroma of 1 or 2. It is 5 to 9 inches thick.
bedrock within a depth of 20 inches. Hallandale and The C1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
Margate soils do not have an organic surface layer that and chroma of 3 or less. The C2 horizon has hue of
is 8 or more inches thick. Udorthents consist of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 3. The C1 and C2
extremely gravelly fill material derived from excavated horizons are sand or fine sand.
areas. In areas of Urban land, more than 60 percent of
the surface is covered by concrete and buildings. Pomello Series
Typical pedon of Plantation muck, about 0.5 mile
west of State Road 826 and 2.5 miles south of the Soils of the Pomello series are sandy, siliceous,
Dade-Broward County line; approximately 1,800 feet hyperthermic Arenic Haplohumods. They are very deep,
west and 2,800 feet south of the northeast corner of moderately well drained, moderately rapidly permeable
sec. 15, T. 52 S., R. 40 E. soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine
sediments. These soils are on moderately high hills on
Oal-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 15 the Miami Ridge. Slopes are smooth and are 0 to 2
percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed; percent.








Dade County Area, Florida 65


brown (10YR 5/2) horizontal layers; moderate massive; slightly sticky and nonplastic; many fine
medium angular blocky structure; slightly sticky and roots; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) sodium
nonplastic; common very fine, fine, and medium pyrophosphate extract; moderately acid (pH 6.0 in
roots; about 10 percent shell fragments; moderately 0.01 M CaCI2); gradual wavy boundary.
alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary. Oa2-6 to 14 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
2Cr-26 inches; soft, porous, oolitic limestone, muck; about 5 percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5
percent rubbed; massive; slightly sticky and
The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 20 to 40 nonplastic; common fine roots; dark brown or brown
inches. (10YR 4/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract; neutral
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to (pH 6.8 in 0.01 M CaCI2); abrupt smooth boundary.
6, and chroma of 2 or less. It has value of 6 or more A--14 to 21 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
when dry. Where matrix values are 3.5 or less, the A fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
horizon is less than 10 inches thick. A thin layer of slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
organic material overlies the A horizon in some pedons. C1-21 to 28 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
The Cg horizon generally has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, single grained; loose; neutral; gradual wavy
value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 3 or less and in some boundary.
pedons has mottles or stains in shades of gray, brown, C2-28 to 30 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very gravelly
or yellow. This horizon is 7 to 15 inches thick. Some fine sand; single grained; loose; about 40 percent
pedons have continuous layers of calcareous or limestone fragments; moderately alkaline; abrupt
noncalcareous silt loam, mucky silt loam, or silty clay irregular boundary.
loam. Value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 2 or less can occur 2R-30 inches; soft, porous limestone.
within the Cg horizon or directly above the limestone.
The layers having these colors are 5 inches or less The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 20 to 40
thick, inches. The organic material is 8 to 16 inches thick.
The 2Cr horizon is soft, porous limestone that has a Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to neutral in
smooth or irregular surface. the Oa horizon and from strongly acid to moderately
alkaline in the A and C horizons.
Plantation Series The Oal horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1. The content of fiber is less than 15
Soils of the Plantation series are sandy, siliceous, percent before rubbing and less than 5 percent after
hyperthermic Histic Humaquepts. They are moderately rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract has hue of
deep, very poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that 10YR and has value of 2 to 4 and chroma of 4 or less,
formed in thin beds of hydrophytic, nonwoody plant value of 5 and chroma of 2 to 4, or value of 6 and
remains and are underlain by sandy marine sediments chroma of 3 or 4.
and limestone bedrock. These soils are in or at the The Oa2 horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 5YR, value
edge of large marshes and swamps. Slopes are less of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2. The content of fiber is less
than 1 percent. than 33 percent before rubbing and less than 5 percent
Plantation soils are closely associated with Dania, after rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract has
Hallandale, Lauderhill, and Margate soils and with the same colors as that in the Oal horizon.
Udorthents and Urban land. Dania and Lauderhill soils The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
are organic. Dania and Hallandale soils have limestone chroma of 1 or 2. It is 5 to 9 inches thick.
bedrock within a depth of 20 inches. Hallandale and The C1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
Margate soils do not have an organic surface layer that and chroma of 3 or less. The C2 horizon has hue of
is 8 or more inches thick. Udorthents consist of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 3. The C1 and C2
extremely gravelly fill material derived from excavated horizons are sand or fine sand.
areas. In areas of Urban land, more than 60 percent of
the surface is covered by concrete and buildings. Pomello Series
Typical pedon of Plantation muck, about 0.5 mile
west of State Road 826 and 2.5 miles south of the Soils of the Pomello series are sandy, siliceous,
Dade-Broward County line; approximately 1,800 feet hyperthermic Arenic Haplohumods. They are very deep,
west and 2,800 feet south of the northeast corner of moderately well drained, moderately rapidly permeable
sec. 15, T. 52 S., R. 40 E. soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine
sediments. These soils are on moderately high hills on
Oal-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 15 the Miami Ridge. Slopes are smooth and are 0 to 2
percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed; percent.






66 Soil Survey


Pomello soils are closely associated with Basinger, material. They consist of sandy material containing
Dade, and Margate soils. Basinger and Margate soils loamy fragments and fragments of shells. These soils
are poorly drained. Dade and Margate soils have are along the Atlantic Coast. Slopes are less than 2
limestone bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Dade percent.
soils are well drained. St. Augustine soils are closely associated with
Typical pedon of Pomello sand, about 0.5 mile north Beaches.
of Miami Gardens Drive and 0.5 mile west of State Typical pedon of St. Augustine sand, approximately
Road 817; 2,500 feet east and 2,900 feet north of the 2,200 feet south and 500 feet east of the northwest
southwest corner of sec. 4, T. 52 S., R. 41 E., in an corner of sec. 9, T. 55 S., R. 42 E., in Bill Boggs Cape
abandoned pasture: Florida State Recreational Area:
Ap-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single A-0 to 3 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/2) sand; single
grained; loose; common very fine and fine roots; grained; loose; less than 5 percent, by volume, shell
moderately acid; clear smooth boundary, fragments; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
E1-5 to 15 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single boundary.
grained; loose; common very fine and fine roots; C1-3 to 29 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single
moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary. grained; loose; about 10 percent, by volume, shell
E2-15 to 35 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single fragments; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
grained; loose; common medium dark grayish boundary.
brown (10YR 4/2) streaks and pockets; common C2-29 to 51 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand that has
very fine roots; moderately acid; abrupt wavy common fine brown (10YR 5/2) lenses of silt loam;
boundary. moderate medium subangular blocky structure
Bhl-35 to 55 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR parting to weak fine granular; nonsticky and
3/2) sand; single grained; loose; common medium nonplastic; about 35 percent, by volume, shell
dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) streaks and pockets; fragments; moderately alkaline; clear smooth
moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary. boundary.
Bh2-55 to 76 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR Cgl-51 to 57 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) and light
3/2) sand; single grained; loose; common medium brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand that has few fine
brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) streaks and pockets; gray (10YR 5/1) lenses of silt loam; moderate
moderately acid; clear wavy boundary. medium subangular blocky structure parting to weak
BC-76 to 80 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) fine granular; nonsticky and nonplastic; moderately
sand; single grained; loose; slightly acid. alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
The solum ranges from 40 to more than 80 inches in Cg2-57 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sand; single
thickness. It is sand or fine sand throughout. It ranges grained; loose; mildly alkaline.
from very strongly acid to slightly acid.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and The depth to limestone bedrock is more than 80
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 2 to 6 inches thick. The E horizon inches. Shells and shell fragments in all horizons are
has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. sand szed to 5 centimeters in diameter.
The A horizon is 2 to 3 inches thick. The content of
The combined thickness of the A and E horizons ranges Thell fragmen is 2 t s than 5 rcent b vo e
from 40 to 50 inches, shell fragments is less than 5 percent, by volume. This
horizon is moderately effervescent in 10 percent
The Bh horizon generally has hue of O10YR to 5YR, horizon is moderately effervescent in 10 percent
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. In some pedons, hydrochloric acid. It is mildly alkaline or moderately
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. In some pedons, alkaline.
however, it has pockets or lenses with hue of 10YR, The Cll and C2 horizons generally have hue of
value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 6.
The BC horizon has hue of YR, value of 4 to 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 3 and in
and chroma of 2 to 8. The C horizon, if it occurs, has some pedons have lenses of marly silt loam in shades
colors similar o those of the BC horizon, iof brown or gray. The C1 horizon is 18 to 26 inches
thick, and the C2 horizon is 6 to 22 inches thick. The
St. Augustie Series content of shell fragments ranges from 20 to 35
St. Augustine Series ^^ by volume
percent, by volume.
Soils of the St. Augustine series are sandy, siliceous, The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,
hyperthermic Alfic Udarents. They are very deep, and chroma of 2 or hue of 5YR, value of 5 or 6, and
somewhat poorly drained, moderately rapidly permeable chroma of 1. It is more than 29 inches thick. Reaction is
soils that formed in thick beds of sandy dredged mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline.








Dade County Area, Florida 67


Tamiami Series Terra Ceia Series
Soils of the Tamiami series are euic, hyperthermic Soils of the Terra Ceia series are euic, hyperthermic
Lithic Medisaprists. They are moderately deep or deep, Typic Medisaprists. They are very deep, very poorly
very poorly drained soils that formed in moderately thick drained, rapidly permeable, organic soils that formed in
beds of hydrophytic, nonwoody plant remains and thick beds of hydrophytic, nonwoody plant remains.
water-deposited, silt-sized carbonates (marl). They are These soils are in narrow saltwater swamps and
underlain by oolitic limestone bedrock. They are rapidly marshes along the coast. They typically are flooded
permeable in the sapric layers and moderately twice daily. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
permeable in the layers of marl. These soils are in large Terra Ceia soils are closely associated with Pahokee
freshwater marshes. Slopes are less than 2 percent. soils, the tidal Pennsuco soils, and the tidal Perrine
Tamiami soils are closely associated with Biscayne, soils. Pahokee soils are 36 to 51 inches deep over
Dania, Lauderhill, Pahokee, and Perrine soils. Biscayne limestone bedrock and are in freshwater swamps and
and Perrine soils are dominantly marl. Biscayne and marshes. The tidal Pennsuco and Perrine soils formed
Dania soils are less than 20 inches deep over limestone in mineral material. Also, the tidal Perrine soils are 20
bedrock. Lauderhill and Pahokee soils do not have to 40 inches deep over limestone bedrock.
layers of marl within the control section. Typical pedon of Terra Ceia muck, tidal, about 5.5
Typical pedon of Tamiami muck, depressional, miles east of Card Sound Road and 6.0 miles south of
approximately 500 feet west of Krome Avenue and Palm Drive; approximately 700 feet north and 100 feet
3,000 feet south of Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41); west of the southeast corner of sec. 28, T. 58 S., R. 40
lat. 25 degrees 45 minutes 9 seconds N. and long. 80 E.
degrees 27 minutes 57 seconds W.
Oa-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; less than 5 Oal-0 to 8 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) muck;
percent fiber rubbed; massive; slightly sticky and about 30 percent fiber unrubbed, less than 10
nonplastic; many very fine and fine roots; neutral; percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky and nonplastic;
abrupt smooth boundary. many very fine and fine and common medium roots;
Cg-4 to 12 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) marl that has a pale brown (10YR 6/3) sodium pyrophosphate
texture of silt loam; moderate medium subangular extract; mildly alkaline (pH 8.0 in 0.01 M CaCl);
blocky structure; slightly sticky and nonplastic; many gradual smooth boundary.
very fine and fine roots; common fine pores; about Oa2-8 to 24 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 35
15 percent whole shells and shell fragments as percent fiber unrubbed, less than 10 percent
much as 5 centimeters in diameter; strongly rubbed; massive; nonsticky and nonplastic; many
effervescent; mildly alkaline; abrupt smooth very fine and fine and common medium roots; pale
boundary. brown (10YR 6/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract;
0'a-12 to 31 inches; very dark gray (5YR 3/1) muck; mildly alkaline (pH 7.8 in 0.01 M CaCI); gradual
less than 5 percent fiber rubbed; massive; slightly wavy boundary.
sticky and nonplastic; few fine roots; neutral; abrupt Oa3-24 to 80 inches; black (10YR 2/2) muck; about 35
irregular boundary, percent fiber unrubbed, less than 10 percent
R-31 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone, rubbed; massive; nonsticky and nonplastic; few fine
roots; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sodium pyrophosphate
The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 21 to 51 extract; mildly alkaline.
inches. The soils can have one or more Cg horizons at
any depth. The combined thickness of these horizons is The organic material ranges from 51 to 80 inches in
less than half of the control section, thickness. Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, alkaline throughout the profile.
and chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is less than The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2,
33 percent before rubbing and less than 5 percent after and chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is less than
rubbing. A thin layer of periphyton or marl overlies the 33 percent before rubbing and less than 10 percent
Oa horizon in some pedons. after rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract has
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, hue of 10YR. It has value of 2 to 4 and chroma of 4 or
and chroma of 2 or less. It is 6 to 12 inches thick. It less, value of 5 and chroma of 2 to 8, value of 6 and
may contain as much as 20 percent whole shells or chroma of 3 to 8, or value of 7 and chroma of 4 to 8. A
shell fragments. The calcium carbonate equivalent thin layer of periphyton or marl overlies the Oa horizon
ranges from 80 to nearly 100 percent, in some pedons.








Dade County Area, Florida 67


Tamiami Series Terra Ceia Series
Soils of the Tamiami series are euic, hyperthermic Soils of the Terra Ceia series are euic, hyperthermic
Lithic Medisaprists. They are moderately deep or deep, Typic Medisaprists. They are very deep, very poorly
very poorly drained soils that formed in moderately thick drained, rapidly permeable, organic soils that formed in
beds of hydrophytic, nonwoody plant remains and thick beds of hydrophytic, nonwoody plant remains.
water-deposited, silt-sized carbonates (marl). They are These soils are in narrow saltwater swamps and
underlain by oolitic limestone bedrock. They are rapidly marshes along the coast. They typically are flooded
permeable in the sapric layers and moderately twice daily. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
permeable in the layers of marl. These soils are in large Terra Ceia soils are closely associated with Pahokee
freshwater marshes. Slopes are less than 2 percent. soils, the tidal Pennsuco soils, and the tidal Perrine
Tamiami soils are closely associated with Biscayne, soils. Pahokee soils are 36 to 51 inches deep over
Dania, Lauderhill, Pahokee, and Perrine soils. Biscayne limestone bedrock and are in freshwater swamps and
and Perrine soils are dominantly marl. Biscayne and marshes. The tidal Pennsuco and Perrine soils formed
Dania soils are less than 20 inches deep over limestone in mineral material. Also, the tidal Perrine soils are 20
bedrock. Lauderhill and Pahokee soils do not have to 40 inches deep over limestone bedrock.
layers of marl within the control section. Typical pedon of Terra Ceia muck, tidal, about 5.5
Typical pedon of Tamiami muck, depressional, miles east of Card Sound Road and 6.0 miles south of
approximately 500 feet west of Krome Avenue and Palm Drive; approximately 700 feet north and 100 feet
3,000 feet south of Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41); west of the southeast corner of sec. 28, T. 58 S., R. 40
lat. 25 degrees 45 minutes 9 seconds N. and long. 80 E.
degrees 27 minutes 57 seconds W.
Oa-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; less than 5 Oal-0 to 8 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) muck;
percent fiber rubbed; massive; slightly sticky and about 30 percent fiber unrubbed, less than 10
nonplastic; many very fine and fine roots; neutral; percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky and nonplastic;
abrupt smooth boundary. many very fine and fine and common medium roots;
Cg-4 to 12 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) marl that has a pale brown (10YR 6/3) sodium pyrophosphate
texture of silt loam; moderate medium subangular extract; mildly alkaline (pH 8.0 in 0.01 M CaCl);
blocky structure; slightly sticky and nonplastic; many gradual smooth boundary.
very fine and fine roots; common fine pores; about Oa2-8 to 24 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 35
15 percent whole shells and shell fragments as percent fiber unrubbed, less than 10 percent
much as 5 centimeters in diameter; strongly rubbed; massive; nonsticky and nonplastic; many
effervescent; mildly alkaline; abrupt smooth very fine and fine and common medium roots; pale
boundary. brown (10YR 6/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract;
0'a-12 to 31 inches; very dark gray (5YR 3/1) muck; mildly alkaline (pH 7.8 in 0.01 M CaCI); gradual
less than 5 percent fiber rubbed; massive; slightly wavy boundary.
sticky and nonplastic; few fine roots; neutral; abrupt Oa3-24 to 80 inches; black (10YR 2/2) muck; about 35
irregular boundary, percent fiber unrubbed, less than 10 percent
R-31 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone, rubbed; massive; nonsticky and nonplastic; few fine
roots; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sodium pyrophosphate
The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 21 to 51 extract; mildly alkaline.
inches. The soils can have one or more Cg horizons at
any depth. The combined thickness of these horizons is The organic material ranges from 51 to 80 inches in
less than half of the control section, thickness. Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, alkaline throughout the profile.
and chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is less than The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2,
33 percent before rubbing and less than 5 percent after and chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is less than
rubbing. A thin layer of periphyton or marl overlies the 33 percent before rubbing and less than 10 percent
Oa horizon in some pedons. after rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract has
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, hue of 10YR. It has value of 2 to 4 and chroma of 4 or
and chroma of 2 or less. It is 6 to 12 inches thick. It less, value of 5 and chroma of 2 to 8, value of 6 and
may contain as much as 20 percent whole shells or chroma of 3 to 8, or value of 7 and chroma of 4 to 8. A
shell fragments. The calcium carbonate equivalent thin layer of periphyton or marl overlies the Oa horizon
ranges from 80 to nearly 100 percent, in some pedons.







68


Vizcaya Series sticky and nonplastic; about 20 percent snail shell
fragments; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
Soils of the Vizcaya series are clayey, mixed, C-6 to 15 inches; black (10YR 2/1) clay; massive;
hyperthermic Lithic Haplaquolls. They are very shallow slightly sticky and nonplastic; about 10 percent snail
or shallow, very poorly drained, slowly permeable, shell fragments; neutral; abrupt irregular boundary.
mineral soils underlain by oolitic limestone bedrock. 2R-15 inches; hard, porous, oolitic limestone.
They formed in thin beds of loamy and clayey marine
sediments. These soils are in broad, low freshwater The depth to limestone bedrock ranges from 4 to 20
marshes in the Everglades. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. inches. Reaction is neutral or mildly alkaline in the A
Vizcaya soils are closely associated with Biscayne, and C horizons.
Chekika, and Dania soils and with Rock outcrop. The A horizon has hue of 10YR and value and
Biscayne soils consist of limnic material (marl). Chekika chroma of 3 or less when moist. It has hue of 10YR,
soils are very gravelly. Dania soils are organic. value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 or 3 when dry. A thin
Typical pedon of Vizcaya mucky silt loam, in an area layer of periphyton or marl overlies the A horizon in
of Rock outcrop-Vizcaya-Biscayne complex, some pedons.
approximately 7,700 feet west and 2,000 feet north of The C horizon has hue of 10YR and value and
an entrance road to Chekika Park; lat. 25 degrees 37 chroma of 3 or less when moist. It has hue of 10YR,
minutes 19 seconds N. and long. 80 degrees 35 value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 or 3 when dry. The
minutes 56 seconds W. texture is clay, sandy clay, or sandy clay loam.
In many pedons the 2R horizon has solution holes
A-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) mucky silt several inches to several feet wide and as much as 3
loam; moderate medium granular structure; slightly feet deep.







69









Formation of the Soils


Soil forms through processes that act on deposited Ocean and Biscayne Bay. These bodies of water
or accumulated geologic material. The kind of soil that increase the humidity of the area. The average rainfall
forms depends on five major factors-the type of parent is about 58 inches per year. The climate aids in the
material; the climate under which the soil material has rapid decomposition of organic matter and hastens
existed since accumulation; the plant and animal life in chemical reactions in the soils. Few differences among
and on the soil; the relief, or lay of the land; and the the soils within the survey area are caused by local
length of time that the forces of soil formation have variations in climate.
acted on the soil material.
The five soil-forming factors are interdependent. Plants and Animals
Each modifies the effect of the others. Any one of the
five factors can have more influence than the others on Plants and anmas provide the parent material for
the formation of a soil and can account for most of its the organic soils and organic horizons. Periphyton in
properties. For example, if the parent material is quartz the form of blue-green algae precipitates calcium
sand, the soil generally has weakly expressed horizons, carbonate from fresh water and forms the parent
The effect of the parent material is significantly modified material of the soils that consist of marl.
in some areas by the effects of climate, relief, and Human activities have altered the soils in many
plants and animals in and on the soil. As a soil forms, it areas, creating new soils. Rock-plowing or scarifying in
is influenced by one or more of the five factors. A preparation for cultivation completely alters the natural
modification or variation in any of the factors results in a soils and changes the soil classification. Krome and
different kind of soil. Chekika soils formed through human activities.

Parent Material Relief
The soils in this survey area formed in different kinds Relief has affected the formation of soils in this
of parent material. The soils on the Atlantic Coastal survey area mainly through its influence on soil-water
Ridge formed in sandy marine sediments. Examples are relationships. Other factors of soil formation generally
Canaveral, Dade, Margate, and Opalocka soils, associated with relief, such as erosion and temperature,
Some of the soils formed in varying amounts of are of minor importance.
recently accumulated organic material. Examples are Some of the differences among the soils in the
Dania, Lauderhill, and Pahokee soils, which are in low, survey area are directly related to relief. The survey
wet areas (6, 16). area is a nearly level plain that has an elevation of 0 to
Some of the soils formed in accumulations of marl 20 feet. The shallow, mineral soils on flatwoods in the
(calcium carbonate). The marl formed through Everglades have a water table within the underlying
precipitation of periphyton from fresh water. Biscayne, limestone. Unless a drainage system has been
Pennsuco, and Perrine soils formed in recent installed, the soils in the swamps and marshes in the
accumulations of marl. Everglades are covered with water for long periods.
The soils in the survey area are underlain by the In many areas they have a high content of organic
Miami Oolite Formation, a hard, porous limestone matter.
formed from small spherules of calcium carbonate. This
formation crops out in many areas. Time

Climate Time is an important factor of soil formation. The
physical and chemical changes brought about by
This survey area has a humid, subtropical climate, climate, living organisms, and relief occur slowly. The
Extreme temperatures are moderated by the Atlantic length of time needed to convert raw geological material







70


into a soil varies, depending on the nature of the which the soils in the survey area formed was laid down
geological material and the interaction of the other soil- or emerged from the sea.
forming factors. Some of the basic minerals in soils In this survey area the dominant kinds of geological
weather fairly rapidly. Others are chemically inert and material vary considerably in their resistance to
show little evidence of change over long periods. The weathering. The sandy material is almost pure quartz
translocation of fine particles, which results in the and is highly resistant to weathering. The limestone and
formation of various horizons within the soil, always marl are much less resistant. The finer textured silt and
takes a relatively long time. In terms of geological time, clay are products of the earlier weathering of these
relatively little time has elapsed since the material in materials.







71









References


(1) American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
1986. Standard specifications for highway materials and methods of
sampling and testing. Ed. 14, 2 vols.

(2) American Society for Testing and Materials. 1993. Standard
classification of soils for engineering purposes. ASTM Stand. D 2487.

(3) Applin, P.L., and E.R. Applin. 1965. The Comanche Series and
associated rocks in the subsurface in central and south Florida. U.S.
Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 447.

(4) Blackman, E.V. 1921. Miami and Dade County, Florida-its settlement,
progress, and achievement.

(5) Campbell, K.M. 1986. The industrial minerals of Florida. Florida Geol.
Surv. Inf. Circ. 102.

(6) Davis, John H. 1946. The peat deposits of Florida. Florida Geol. Surv.
Bull. 30.

(7) Doolittle, J.A. 1982. Characterizing soil map units with the ground-
penetrating radar. Soil Surv. Horizons 23 (No. 4): 3-10.

(8) Doolittle, J.A. 1983. Investigating Histosols with the ground-penetrating
radar. Soil Surv. Horizons 24 (No. 3): 23-28.

(9) Fairbanks, Charles H. 1974. Florida Indians: Ethnohistorical report on
the Florida Indians.

(10) Hull, J.E., and F.W. Meyer. 1973. Salinity studies in East Glades
agricultural area, southeastern Dade County, Florida. Florida Bur. of
Geol., Rep. of Invest. 66.

(11) Johnson, R.W., R. Glaccum, and R. Wojtasinski. 1980. Application of
ground-penetrating radar to soil survey. Proc. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of
Florida, vol. 39 [reprinted in Soil Surv. Horizons 23 (No. 3): 17-25].

(12) Puri, H.S., and R.O. Vernon. 1964. Summary of the geology of Florida
and a guidebook to the classic exposures. Florida Geol. Surv. Spec.
Pub. 5 (revised).







72


(13) Schroeder, M.C., H. Klein, and N.D. Hoy. 1958. Biscayne aquifer of
Dade and Broward Counties, Florida. Florida Geol. Surv. Rep. of Invest.
17.

(14) Scott, T.M. 1988. The lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn Group
(Miocene) of Florida. Florida Geol. Surv. Bull. 59.

(15) Shih, S.F., and J.A. Doolittle. 1984. Using radar to investigate organic
soil thickness in the Florida Everglades. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Jour. 48:
651-656.

(16) Soil Science Society of America. 1974. Histosols: Their characteristics,
classification, and use. Spec. Pub. 6.

(17) Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy.
1966. Soil surveys and land use planning.

(18) United States Department of Agriculture. 1958. Soil survey (detailed-
reconnaissance) of Dade County, Florida. Soil Conserv. Serv.

(19) United States Department of Agriculture. 1975. Soil taxonomy: A basic
system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. Soil
Conserv. Serv., U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 436.

(20) United States Department of Agriculture. 1987 (rev.). Twenty-six
ecological communities of Florida. Soil Conserv. Serv.

(21) United States Department of Agriculture. 1993. Soil survey manual. U.S.
Dep. Agric. Handb. 18.

(22) United States Department of Commerce. 1962. Means and extremes for
period 1910-1961. Climatography of the United States, No. 20-8.

(23) United States Department of Commerce. 1983. Monthly normals of
temperature, precipitation, and heating and cooling degree days 1951
through 1980, Florida. Climatography of the United States, No. 81.






73









Glossary


ABC soil. A soil having an A, a B, and a C horizon, exchangeable bases (sum of Ca, Mg, Na, K),
AC soil. A soil having only an A and a C horizon, expressed as a percentage of the total cation-
Commonly, such soil formed in recent alluvium or exchange capacity.
on steep, rocky slopes. Bedding. Controlling excess water in cropped areas
Aeration, soil. The exchange of air in soil with air from through the use of regularly spaced, shallow
the atmosphere. The air in a well aerated soil is ditches and beds.
similar to that in the atmosphere; the air in a Bedding planes. Fine stratifications, less than 5
poorly aerated soil is considerably higher in carbon millimeters thick, in unconsolidated alluvial, eolian,
dioxide and lower in oxygen. lacustrine, or marine sediments.
Aggregate, soil. Many fine particles held in a single Bedrock. The solid rock that underlies the soil and
mass or cluster. Natural soil aggregates, such as other unconsolidated material or that is exposed at
granules, blocks, or prisms, are called peds. Clods the surface.
are aggregates produced by tillage or logging. Bisequum. Two sequences of soil horizons, each of
Alkali (sodic) soil. Soil having so high a degree of which consists of an illuvial horizon and the
alkalinity (pH 8.5 or higher) or so high a overlying eluvial horizons.
percentage of exchangeable sodium (15 percent Bottom land. The normal flood plain of a stream,
or more of the total exchangeable bases), or both, subject to flooding.
that plant growth is restricted. Boulders. Rock fragments larger than 2 feet (60
Alluvium. Material, such as sand, silt, or clay, centimeters) in diameter.
deposited on land by streams. Calcareous soil. A soil containing enough calcium
Area reclaim (in tables). An area difficult to reclaim carbonate (commonly combined with magnesium
after the removal of soil for construction and other carbonate) to effervesce visibly when treated with
uses. Revegetation and erosion control are cold, dilute hydrochloric acid.
extremely difficult. California bearing ratio (CBR). The load-supporting
Association, soil. A group of soils geographically capacity of a soil as compared to that of standard
associated in a characteristic repeating pattern crushed limestone, expressed as a ratio. First
and defined and delineated as a single map unit. standardized in California. A soil having a CBR of
Available water capacity (available moisture 16 supports 16 percent of the load that would be
capacity). The capacity of soils to hold water supported by standard crushed limestone, per unit
available for use by most plants. It is commonly area, with the same degree of distortion.
defined as the difference between the amount of Capillary water. Water held as a film around soil
soil water at field moisture capacity and the particles and in tiny spaces between particles.
amount at wilting point. It is commonly expressed Surface tension is the adhesive force that holds
as inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity, in capillary water in the soil.
inches, in a 60-inch profile or to a limiting layer is Cation. An ion carrying a positive charge of electricity.
expressed as: The common soil cations are calcium, potassium,
very low ........................... to 3 magnesium, sodium, and hydrogen.
Low................... ............... 3 to 6 Cation-exchange capacity. The total amount of
Moderate................. ......... 6 to 9 exchangeable cations that can be held by the soil,
High ................................ 9 to 12 expressed in terms of milliequivalents per 100
Very high........................ more than 12 g r iy 7r
grams of soil at neutrality (pH 7.0) or at some
Base saturation. The degree to which material having other stated pH value. The term, as applied to
cation-exchange properties is saturated with soils, is synonymous with base-exchange capacity







74 Soil Survey


but is more precise in meaning. Friable.-When moist, crushes easily under gentle
Cement rock. Shaly limestone used in the manufacture pressure between thumb and forefinger and can
of cement. be pressed together into a lump.
Channery soil. A soil that is, by volume, more than 15 Firm.-When moist, crushes under moderate
percent thin, flat fragments of sandstone, shale, pressure between thumb and forefinger, but
slate, limestone, or schist as much as 6 inches resistance is distinctly noticeable.
along the longest axis. A single piece is called a Plastic.-When wet, readily deformed by moderate
fragment, pressure but can be pressed into a lump; will form
Chiseling. Tillage with an implement having one or a "wire" when rolled between thumb and
more soil-penetrating points that shatter or loosen forefinger.
hard, compacted layers to a depth below normal Sticky.-When wet, adheres to other material and
plow depth, tends to stretch somewhat and pull apart rather
Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less than to pull free from other material.
than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural Hard.-When dry, moderately resistant to
class, soil material that is 40 percent or more clay, pressure; can be broken with difficulty between
less than 45 percent sand, and less than 40 thumb and forefinger.
percent silt. Soft.-When dry, breaks into powder or individual
Clay film. A thin coating of oriented clay on the surface grains under very slight pressure.
of a soil aggregate or lining pores or root Cemented.-Hard; little affected by moistening.
channels. Synonyms: clay coating, clay skin. Control section. The part of the soil on which
Climax vegetation. The stabilized plant community on a classification is based. The thickness varies
particular site. The plant cover reproduces itself among different kinds of soil, but for many it is that
and does not change so long as the environment part of the soil profile between depths of 10 inches
remains the same. and 40 or 80 inches.
Coarse fragments. If round, mineral or rock particles 2 Coprogenous earth (sedimentary peat). Fecal material
millimeters to 25 centimeters (10 inches) in deposited in water by aquatic organisms.
diameter; if flat, mineral or rock particles Cover crop. A close-growing crop grown primarily to
(flagstone) 15 to 38 centimeters (6 to 15 inches) improve and protect the soil between periods of
long. regular crop production, or a crop grown between
Coarse textured soil. Sand or loamy sand. trees and vines in orchards and vineyards.
Cobblestone (or cobble). A rounded or partly rounded Cutbanks cave (in tables). The walls of excavations
fragment of rock 3 to 10 inches (7.6 to 25 tend to cave in or slough.
centimeters) in diameter. Depth to rock (in tables). Bedrock is too near the
Complex, soil. A map unit of two or more kinds of soil surface for the specified use.
in such an intricate pattern or so small in area that Drainage class (natural). Refers to the frequency and
it is not practical to map them separately at the duration of periods of saturation or partial
selected scale of mapping. The pattern and saturation during soil formation, as opposed to
proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in all altered drainage, which is commonly the result of
areas. artificial drainage or irrigation but may be caused
Concretions. Grains, pellets, or nodules of various by the sudden deepening of channels or the
sizes, shapes, and colors consisting of blocking of drainage outlets. Seven classes of
concentrated compounds or cemented soil grains, natural soil drainage are recognized:
The composition of most concretions is unlike that Excessively drained.-Water is removed from the
of the surrounding soil. Calcium carbonate and soil very rapidly. Excessively drained soils are
iron oxide are common compounds in concretions. commonly very coarse textured, rocky, or shallow.
Conservation tillage. A tillage system that does not Some are steep. All are free of the mottling related
invert the soil and that leaves a protective amount to wetness.
of crop residue on the surface throughout the year. Somewhat excessively drained.-Water is removed
Consistence, soil. The feel of the soil and the ease from the soil rapidly. Many somewhat excessively
with which a lump can be crushed by the fingers. drained soils are sandy and rapidly pervious.
Terms commonly used to describe consistence Some are shallow. Some are so steep that much
are: of the water they receive is lost as runoff. All are
Loose.-Noncoherent when dry or moist; does not free of the mottling related to wetness.
hold together in a mass. Well drained.-Water is removed from the soil








Dade County Area, Florida 75


readily, but not rapidly. It is available to plants Freshwater Marsh.-This community occurs as an
throughout most of the growing season, and open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and
wetness does not inhibit growth of roots for other herbaceous plants. The dominant vegetation
significant periods during most growing seasons. is sawgrass, cattail, cordgrass, and buttonbush.
Well drained soils are commonly medium textured. The water table is at or above the surface for 2 or
They are mainly free of mottling, more months during the year.
Moderately well drained.-Water is removed from Mangrove Swamp.-This community is on
the soil somewhat slowly during some periods, saltwater shorelines south of Pasco County on the
Moderately well drained soils are wet for only a gulf coast and south of Volusia County on the
short time during the growing season, but Atlantic coast. The Ten Thousand Islands area of
periodically they are wet long enough that most Monroe and Collier Counties is the largest area of
mesophytic crops are affected. They commonly this community in Florida and perhaps in the
have a slowly pervious layer within or directly world. The community is in areas of very poorly
below the solum or periodically receive high drained, organic and marly, level soils that support
rainfall, or both. a mangrove monoculture. The community is
Somewhat poorly drained.-Water is removed dominated by hydric soils.
slowly enough that the soil is wet for significant Sand Pine Scrub.-This community is throughout
periods during the growing season. Wetness Florida. It is most common inland from the coast
markedly restricts the growth of mesophytic crops and in the central part of the State. The largest
unless artificial drainage is provided. Somewhat areas are in the Ocala National Forest, in and
poorly drained soils commonly have a slowly around Marion County. The community is in areas
pervious layer, a high water table, additional water of very drought, rolling soils that support even-
from seepage, nearly continuous rainfall, or a height stands of sand pine or dense stands of
combination of these, scrub oak. These areas do not have hydric soils.
Poorly drained.-Water is removed so slowly that Sawgrass Marsh.-This community is in the
the soil is saturated periodically during the growing Everglades. It occurs as an open expanse of
season or remains wet for long periods. Free sawgrass in areas where the soil is saturated or
water is commonly at or near the surface for long covered with water during part of the year.
enough during the growing season that most Sawgrass, gulf muhly, plumegrass, and
mesophytic crops cannot be grown unless the soil pickerelweed are the dominant plants.
is artificially drained. The soil is not continuously Slough.-This community is throughout peninsular
saturated in layers directly below plow depth. Poor Florida. The largest areas are in Charlotte, Lee,
drainage results from a high water table, a slowly and Collier Counties. The community occurs as
pervious layer within the profile, seepage, nearly nearly open areas of grasses, sedges, and rushes
continuous rainfall, or a combination of these, and scattered pine. The percentage of woody
Very poorly drained.-Water is removed from the cover increases from the northern part of Florida
soil so slowly that free water remains at or on the to the southern part. This community is in areas of
surface during most of the growing season. Unless poorly drained, level soils that are covered with a
the soil is artificially drained, most mesophytic few inches of slowly moving water during wet
crops cannot be grown. Very poorly drained soils periods and do not support shrubs. Some areas in
are commonly level or depressed and are the northern part of Florida are dominated by
frequently ponded. Yet, where rainfall is high and trees. The community is dominated by hydric soils.
nearly continuous, they can have moderate or high South Florida Coastal Strand.-This community is
slope gradients, on nearly level to sloping soils adjacent to the
Drainage, surface. Runoff, or surface flow of water, Atlantic Ocean. The dominant vegetation is saw
from an area. palmetto, seagrape, and seaoats.
Ecological plant communities. The ecological plant Tropical Hammocks.-This community is
communities in this survey area are as follows: interspersed throughout the Everglades Flatwoods
Everglades Flatwoods.-This community is in community. Jamaica dogwood, mastic, poisontree,
nearly level areas only in the Everglades region of strangler fig, live oak, cabbage-palm, and wild
south Florida. South Florida slash pine is the coffee are the most common plants.
dominant tree species. Marlberry, saw palmetto, Effervescence. As used in this survey, the bubbling of
waxmyrtle, chalky bluestem, and creeping carbon dioxide when dilute hydrochloric acid is
bluestem also grow in these areas. applied to calcium carbonates.







76 Soil Survey


Eluviation. The movement of material in true solution or normal moisture capacity, or capillary capacity.
colloidal suspension from one place to another Fill. Material used to raise the surface of the land to a
within the soil. Soil horizons that have lost material desired level.
through eluviation are eluvial; those that have Fine textured soil. Sandy clay, silty clay, or clay.
received material are illuvial. Flagstone. A thin fragment of sandstone, limestone,
Eolian soil material. Earthy parent material slate, shale, or (rarely) schist, 6 to 15 inches (15
accumulated through wind action; commonly refers to 37.5 centimeters) long.
to sandy material in dunes or to loess in blankets Flatwoods. Broad, nearly level, low ridges
on the surface. characterized by an open pine forest and an
Erosion. The wearing away of the land surface by understory of saw palmetto and pineland threeawn
water, wind, ice, or other geologic agents and by and by poorly drained soils that are dominantly
such processes as gravitational creep, sandy.
Erosion (geologic). Erosion caused by geologic Flood plain. A nearly level alluvial plain that borders a
processes acting over long geologic periods and stream and is subject to flooding unless protected
resulting in the wearing away of mountains and artificially.
the building up of such landscape features as Forb. Any herbaceous plant that is not a grass or a
flood plains and coastal plains. Synonym: natural sedge.
erosion. Genesis, soil. The mode of origin of the soil. Refers
Erosion (accelerated). Erosion much more rapid especially to the processes or soil-forming factors
than geologic erosion, mainly as a result of human responsible for the formation of the solum, or true
or animal activities or of a catastrophe in nature, soil, from the unconsolidated parent material.
such as fire, that exposes the surface. Gleyed soil. Soil that formed under poor drainage,
Erosion pavement. A layer of gravel or stones that resulting in the reduction of iron and other
remains on the surface after fine particles are elements in the profile and in gray colors and
removed by sheet or rill erosion. mottles.
Excess fines (in tables). Excess silt and clay in the soil. Gravel. Rounded or angular fragments of rock up to 3
The soil is not a source of gravel or sand for inches (2 millimeters to 7.6 centimeters) in
construction purposes, diameter. An individual piece is a pebble.
Excess salt (in tables). Excess water-soluble salts in Gravelly soil material. Material that is 15 to 50 percent,
the soil that restrict the growth of most plants. by volume, rounded or angular rock fragments, not
Fallow. Cropland left idle in order to restore productivity prominently flattened, up to 3 inches (7.6
through accumulation of moisture. Summer fallow centimeters) in diameter.
is common in regions of limited rainfall where Green manure crop (agronomy). A soil-improving crop
cereal grains are grown. The soil is tilled for at grown to be plowed under in an early stage of
least one growing season for weed control and maturity or soon after maturity.
decomposition of plant residue. Ground water (geology). Water filling all the unblocked
Fast intake (in tables). The movement of water into the pores of the material below the water table.
soil is rapid. Hammock. A densely wooded area that is slightly
Fertility, soil. The quality that enables a soil to provide elevated above the adjacent areas and has
plant nutrients, in adequate amounts and in proper characteristic natural vegetation of cabbage-palm,
balance, for the growth of specified plants when oak, and pine and an understory of saw palmetto,
light, moisture, temperature, tilth, and other growth shrubs, and grasses.
factors are favorable. Hardpan. A hardened or cemented soil horizon, or
Fibric soil material (peat). The least decomposed of all layer. The soil material is sandy, loamy, or clayey
organic soil material. Peat contains a large amount and is cemented by iron oxide, silica, calcium

of well preserved fiber that is readily identifiable carbonate, or other substance.
according to botanical origin. Peat has the lowest Hemic soil material (mucky peat). Organic soil
bulk density and the highest water content at material intermediate in degree of decomposition
saturation of all organic soil material, between the less decomposed fibric and the more
Field moisture capacity. The moisture content of a soil, decomposed sapric material.
expressed as a percentage of the ovendry weight, Horizon, soil. A layer of soil, approximately parallel to
after the gravitational, or free, water has drained the surface, having distinct characteristics
away; the field moisture content 2 or 3 days after produced by soil-forming processes. In the
a soaking rain; also called normal field capacity, identification of soil horizons, an uppercase letter




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs