• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Citrus County...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Prime farmland
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 Index to map sheets
 General soil map
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Citrus County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026083/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Citrus County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 192 p., 3, 57 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1988]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Citrus County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Citrus County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 111-112).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 88-754-P.
General Note: "Issued October 1988"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
General Note: Item 102-B-9.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026083
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001349137
notis - AGL0284
oclc - 18928367
lccn - 88603403

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ia
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Citrus County in Florida
        page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    How this survey was made
        Page 7
        Map unit composition
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
    General soil map units
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Prime farmland
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 59
        Crops and pasture
            Page 59
            Page 60
        Rangeland and grazeable woodlands
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 64
            Page 65
        Recreation
            Page 66
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 66
            Page 67
        Engineering
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
    Soil properties
        Page 73
        Engineering index properties
            Page 73
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 74
        Soil and water features
            Page 75
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
        Engineering index test data
            Page 79
            Page 80
    Classification of the soils
        Page 81
        Soil series and their morphology
            Page 81
            Adamsville series
                Page 81
            Anclote series
                Page 82
            Apopka series
                Page 82
            Arredondo series
                Page 83
            Astatula series
                Page 84
            Basinger series
                Page 84
            Boca series
                Page 85
            Broward series
                Page 86
            Candler series
                Page 86
            Citronelle series
                Page 87
            Durbin series
                Page 87
            EauGallie series
                Page 88
            Fort Meade series
                Page 89
            Hallandale series
                Page 89
            Homosassa series
                Page 90
            Immokalee series
                Page 91
            Kanapaha series
                Page 91
            Kendrick series
                Page 92
            Lacoochee series
                Page 93
            Lake series
                Page 93
            Lauderhill series
                Page 94
            Lochloosa series
                Page 94
            Malabar series
                Page 95
            Matlacha series
                Page 96
            Micanopy series
                Page 96
            Myakka series
                Page 97
            Okeelanta series
                Page 98
            Ona series
                Page 99
            Orsino series
                Page 99
            Paisley series
                Page 100
            Paola series
                Page 100
            Pedro series
                Page 101
            Pineda series
                Page 102
            Pomello series
                Page 102
            Pompano series
                Page 103
            Redieval series
                Page 103
            Sparr series
                Page 104
            Tavares series
                Page 105
            Terra Ceia series
                Page 105
            Weekiwachee series
                Page 106
            Williston series
                Page 106
                Page 107
                Page 108
    Formation of the soils
        Page 109
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 109
        Processes of the horizon differentiation
            Page 110
    Reference
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Glossary
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Tables
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Index to map sheets
        Page 193
    General soil map
        Page 194
        Page 195
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
Full Text

United States In cooperation with
Department of University of Florida, l rv
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, C itrus C
Soil Agricultural Experiment Stations t U C ounty
Conservation and Soil Science Department,
Service and Florida Department of
Agriculture and F I lo da
Consumer Services




GULi L Wi-iLR
CONSLRV-1' 1 ; UN UISIRICT
608 West Broad Street, Suite #2
Brooksville, FL 34601
904-754-4035














'Oki- -






HOW TO US


Locate your area of interest on
Sthe "Index to Map Sheets.'



3 4 5 4
I i
13 4I
,2 Note the number of the map
._.._ -j---- ---.--.----- 2. sheet and turn to that sheet.





Locate your area of interest
S on the map sheet.

...4











List the map unit symbols
4* that are in your area.
_. I -/ Symbols

S151C 27C

134A 56B
c27C 131B
568 1 B -i
S148B
134A 4151C







rHIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5 which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. -







------- ------











See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6, Contents) for location of additional data -- -.
on a specific soil use.
















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1984. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1985. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1985. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations and Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the
Gulf Soil and Water Conservation District. The Citrus County Board of
Commissioners contributed financially to the acceleration of the survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover. Aerial view of the Tsala Apopka Lake region. The soils adjacent to the lake are In
the Tavares-Adamsville general soil map unit. (Photo courtesy of Seaburn and Robertson
Inc., water resource consultants, Tampa, Florida.)



















ii
















Contents


Index to map units.............................. ............ iv Engineering .................................................................. 68
Summary of tables ............... ...................................... v Soil properties ............................................................... 73
Foreword ............. .............................................. vii Engineering index properties...................................... 73
General nature of the county......................................... 1 Physical and chemical properties.............................. 74
How this survey was made.......................................... 7 Soil and water features............................................ 75
Map unit composition.................................................. 8 Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
selected soils................................... 76
General soil map units ............................................... 11 e e tess .................. 7
Engineering index test data............................ 79
Detailed soil map units................................................ 17 Classification of the soils............................................ 81
Prime farmland ............................................................ 57 Soil series and their morphology................................... 81
Use and management of the soils.......................... 59 Formation of the soils............................................. 109
Crops and pasture.................................................. 59 Factors of soil formation........................................... 109
Rangeland and grazeable woodlands..................... 61 Processes of horizon differentiation........................ 110
Woodland management and productivity................. 64 References................................................................... 111
Recreation.......................... .......................................... 66 Glossary .......................................................................... 113
Wildlife habitat............................................................. 66 Tables ....................................................................... 121


Soil Series

Adamsville series........................................................ 81 Lochloosa series ............................................................. 94
Anclote series.................................................................. 82 Malabar series ................................................................. 95
Apopka series ................................................................. 82 Matlacha series ............................................................... 96
Arredondo series........................................................... 83 Micanopy series............................................................... 96
Astatula series ...................... .......................................... 84 Myakka series .................................................................. 97
Basinger series........................................................ 84 Okeelanta series.............................................................. 98
Boca series ........................................................................... 85 Ona series ........................................................................ 99
Broward series................................................................. 86 Orsino series.................................. .................................. 99
Candler series........................................................... 86 Paisley series............................................. ............... 100
Citronelle series......87 Paola series......................................................... 87100
Durbin series... ....................................................................... 10
EauGallie series.................................. ......................... 88 Pineda series ................................ .......................... 102
Fort Meadeed series ................................................................... 189
EauGallnie series.................................. 88
Hallandale series ........................................................... 89 Pomelldao series ................................................................. 102
Homosassa series ........................................ ... 90 Pompano series ........................................... 103
Homokalee series..................................................... 90 PompanoRedlevel series......................................................... 103
Immoka leenapaha series....................................................... 91 Redevel series............................................................... 10
Kanapaha series.............................. 91 Sparr series ..................................... 104
Kendrick series.............................................................. 92 Tavares series ................................................................. 105
Lacoochee series ......................................................... 93 Terra Ceia series...................................................... 105
Lake series................................................................ 93 Weekiwachee series ....................................................... 106
Lauderhill series........................................................ 94 Williston series........................................................ 106
Issued October 1988







iii
















Index to Map Units


2-Adamsville fine sand............................................. 17 33-Micanopy loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
3-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 18 slopes........................................................... 38
4-Candler fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............ 19 35-Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................. 39
5-Basinger fine sand ................................................. 20 36-EauGallie fine sand ........................................ 39
6-Basinger fine sand, depressional........................ 21 37-Matlacha, limestone substratum-Urban land
7- Myakka fine sand ............................................. 21 complex................................ ................................. 40
8-Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 22 38-Rock outcrop-Homosassa-Lacoochee complex.. 41
9-Pompano fine sand................................................ 22 39-Hallandale-Rock outcrop complex, rarely
10-Pompano fine sand, depressional....................... 23 flooded ............................................................. 41
11 -Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 24 40-Homosassa mucky fine sandy loam..................... 43
12-- mmokalee fine sand ...................................... .. 24 41-Candler fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes........... 43
13 Okeelanta muck ........................................ 25 46-EauGallie fine sand, depressional......................... 44
14-Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.................. 26 47-Fort Meade loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
15-Lake fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.................. 26 slopes................................................................. 44
16-Arredondo fine sand, to 5 percent slopes........ 27 48-Arents, 45 to 65 percent slopes............................ 45
17 Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes........ 28 49-Terra Ceia-Okeelanta association, frequently
17-Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes........ 28 flooded ........................................ 45
i k50-Kanapaha fine sand,:0 to 5 percent slopes ......... 46
18-Kendrick fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 28 50-Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......... 46
19 Kendrick fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes........... 29 51-Boca-Pineda, limestone substratum complex...... 46
20-Pits ............................................... 30 52-Anclote fine sand, depressional ............................ 47
22-Quartzipsamments, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 30 53-Boca fine sand .............................. ..... 48
23-Weekiwachee-Durbin mucks.................................. 31 54-Apopka fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............. 48
24-Okeelanta-Lauderhill-Terra Ceia mucks ............. 31 55-Udorthents, 0 to 5 percent slopes....................... 50
25-Lochloosa fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 32 56-Lake, clayey surface, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 50
26-Williston-Pedro-Rock outcrop complex, 2 to 5 57-Ona fine sand .......................................................... 51
percent slopes ....................................................... 34 58-Myakka, limestone substratum-EauGallie,
27-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 35 limestone substratum complex............................ 52
28-Redlevel fine sand ........................................... 35 59-Boca fine sand, depressional ................................ 53
29-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 36 60-Broward fine sand.............................................. 53
30-Astatula fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes........... 36 61-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............... 54
31-Sparr fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes................. 37 62-Malabar sand.................................................... 55
32-Candler-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent 63-Paisley fine sand................................. ......... 55
slopes........................................................................ 38 64- C itronelle fine sand ................................................. 56
















iv
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)......................................................... 122
Freeze data (table 2) ........................................................................................ 122
Freeze threshold temperature. Fall probabilities. Spring
probabilities.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3).............................. 123
Acres. Percent.
Land capability and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 4).......... 124
Land capability. Oranges. Grapefruit. Watermelons. Corn.
Soybeans. Improved bermudagrass. Bahiagrass.
Rangeland productivity (table 5) ..................................................................... 128
Range site. Potential annual production.
Woodland management and productivity (table 6)........................................ 131
Ordination symbol Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 7)................................................................ 136
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 8) ..................................................................................... 141
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 9) ................................................................ 145
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements. Small
commercial buildings. Local roads and streets. Lawns and
landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 10)................................................................................ 150
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 11).................................................................... 155
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
Water management (table 12)............................................................... .. 159
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions.
Engineering index properties (table 13)....................................... 164
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.



v




















Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 14) ............................. 171
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.
Soil and water features (table 15)..................................... ..... 176
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bedrock.
Subsidence. Risk of corrosion.
Physical analyses of selected soils (table 16)........................................ 181
Depth. Horzon. Particle size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.
Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 17)............................................... 184
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate-dithionite extractable.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 18)..................................... 188
Depth. Horizon. Clay minerals.
Engineering index test data (table 19) ........................................................... 190
Classification. Grain-size distribution. Liquid limit. Plasticity
index.
Classification of the soils (table 20)..................................... ....... 192
Family or higher taxonomic class.



















vi















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Citrus County, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service












vii



































































Location of Citrus County in Florida.













Soil Survey of


Citrus County, Florida


By Paul E. Pilny, Charles T. Grantham, Joseph N. Schuster,
and Daniel L. Stankey, Soil Conservation Service


United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department,
and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




CITRUS COUNTY is in the west-central part of Florida. Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge is along the
It is bordered on the north by Levy and Marion Counties, southern coast. These three areas offer a wide variety of
on the east by Sumter County, on the south by recreational opportunities.
Hernando County, and on the west by the Gulf of
Mexico.
The county has a land area of 402,330 acres, or about General Nature of the County
629 square miles. The city of Inverness is the county
seat. In 1980, the population of the county was about In this section, the environmental and cultural factors
62,000 (8). Inverness had a population of 5,700; Crystal that affect the use and management of soils in Citrus
River, the other incorporated municipality, had 3,400; County are described. These factors are climate, history
and Beverly Hills, an unincorporated area, had a and development, physiography, economic geology,
population of about 7,000. Other developments, such as water resources, farming, transportation, and recreation.
Sugarmill Woods, Citrus Springs, Pine Ridge, and Citrus
Hills, are planning for thousands of future residents. Climate
The main industry of the area is the retirement industry
because of the many pensioners who reside in the area Long, relatively humid summers and mild, dry winters
and contribute steady income to the economy. Tourists, characterize the climate of Citrus County. The climate is
who visit the rivers of the Gulf Coast and the lakes and controlled by factors such as latitude, proximity of the
rivers of the east part of the county, often become gulf, and numerous inland lakes. Weather conditions vary
residents, considerably from year to year, but the differences
Scattered throughout the county (24) were 19,029 disappear when a comparison is made on the basis of
acres of cropland and 28,841 acres of pastureland in long-period averages. Temperature and precipitation
1982. Watermelons are one of the main cultivated crops, data collected in the period 1941 to 1970 at Inverness
Other crops grown include soybeans, corn, and grasses, are summarized in table 1 (22, 23).
Citrus, mainly for a fresh fruit market, is grown in a few The usual rainy season is from June through
areas in the eastern part of the county. Several large September when about 60 percent of the annual rainfall
cattle operations that utilize native and improved pasture occurs. The driest period is November through February
are in the northwestern, south-central, and eastern parts when about 10 percent of the annual rainfall is expected.
of the county (fig. 1). During the period 1941 to 1970, the average rainfall was
The Withlacoochee State Forest and the Citrus Wildlife 56.29 inches per year. In that period, it ranged from a
Management Area occupy about 41,000 acres in the low of 36.50 inches in 1956 to a high of 87.27 inches in
south-central part of the county. The 23,000 acre 1960. The greatest monthly precipitation of record at





2 Soil Survey



2 '

































Figure 1.-Aerial view of the eastern part of the county, which Includes woodland, water areas, citrus groves, pasture, and cropland, on a
typical landscape of the Basnger-Immokalee-EuGa general soil map unit.



Inverness was 22.62 inches during July 1909. In July tables can be rapidly elevated to above normal, and
1964, the Chassahowitzka Wildlife Refuge recorded ponding and localized flooding can occur in some areas
22.62 inches of rain. Records also indicate that the that are poorly drained.
average annual rainfall at the refuge is about 1 inch less Most summer precipitation is from localized afternoon
than at Inverness. or early evening thundershowers. Thundershowers occur
The records indicate that there were a few years in on about 100 days each year, and about one-half of
which no measurable precipitation was recorded for these days are during the summer. These showers are
periods of 30 days or more. Such prolonged periods of generally heavy and last for only 1 hour or 2 hours. The
deficient rainfall generally occur during the expected dry more severe thundershowers can be attended by locally
season but can occasionally occur even during the strong winds. Daylong summer rains are infrequent and
expected rainy season. Several such dry periods in the are generally associated with a tropical storm. A 2-day
course of 1 year or 2 years can lead to significantly rainfall total of 14.1 inches was recorded at Inverness on
lowered water tables and lake levels. In some years, September 6 and 7, 1950, during a tropical storm. The
rainfall can be unusually concentrated, and one-third to most severe tropical disturbances are hurricanes. The
one-half as much rain falls in a single month as during chance of hurricane force winds hitting the area in any
an entire average year. During these periods, water given year is about 1 in 20.







Citrus County, Florida 3


Summer temperatures are fairly uniform from year to early in the spring. These fogs generally dissipate soon
year and show little variation. Afternoon temperatures after sunrise. Wind direction is influenced by
frequently reach 90 degrees during June through convectional forces inland and the land- and sea-breeze
September. Temperatures above 95 degrees seldom effect near the coast. The prevailing wind directions are
occur. Temperatures over 100 degrees have been somewhat erratic. Winds are generally from the north in
recorded 13 times in Inverness since 1899. The highest winter and from the south in summer. Windspeed during
recorded temperature, which occurred on September 7, the day generally is between 8 and 15 miles per hour
1955, is 105 degrees. Winter temperatures display and drops below 8 miles per hour at night. High local
considerable daily and yearly variation. Much of the winds of short duration occasionally occur in association
variation comes from unpredictable, generalized with thunderstorms and with cold fronts moving across
invasions of cold air masses from the north. These the county.
invasions can occur any time between mid-November
and mid-March and generally last for at least 3 days. History and Development
When the cold air masses drop temperatures to 32
degrees or lower, they are called freezes. Some winters, Miriam Cohen, Citrus County Historical Society, prepared this
occasionally several in succession, pass with few cold section.
air invasions; other years may bring several severe Fossils from a rhinoceros-like animal that 8 to 10
freezes. A single freeze can cause crop damage, but the million years ago roamed the area of what is now Citrus
most severe damage occurs when multiple freezes are County have been uncovered at the foundation site of
separated by brief periods of relative warmth. In the the nuclear power plant near Crystal River. Artifacts of
intervening warm periods, the freeze damaged plants human habitation, which date back to about 12,000
can recover and produce tender new growth. Such years ago, can be seen in the Crystal River
rapidly growing plants are very susceptible to cold and Archaeological Museum (5).
freeze damage. This sequence occurred during the "big Indian tribes prospered in the central Florida Gulf area
freeze" of 1894-95. Before this date, a rapid expansion from 200 B.C. to about A.D. 1400, at which time they
of acreage was planted to citrus. A freeze occurred in gradually dispersed.
December 1894. The citrus trees were damaged but The Crystal River Archaeological Museum site was a
rapidly put on new growth during the warm period that ceremonial burial ground for some of the people from
followed. A second freeze occurred in February 1895 these early tribes.
and killed most of the tender, rapidly growing trees. The The Spanish exploration of Florida in the early 1500's
big freeze and the later freezes caused growers to included the expeditions of Ponce de Leon, of Panfilo de
restrict citrus plantings to areas offering some protection Narvaez, and of Hernando de Soto (4) into what is now
from freezes. One such area is around Floral City where Citrus County. De Soto's expedition landed in Tampa
the many lakes have a moderating influence on Bay in May 1539. By July 1539, his party had worked its
temperature. During a freeze on February 13, 1899, a way north to the Withlacoochee River area by traveling
temperature of 14 degrees was recorded in Inverness. through what they called "the Big Swamp"-the
The probabilities for freeze dates in the spring and the marshes and lakes of the Tsala Apopka chain just east
fall are summarized in table 2. of the river. Passing through the Floral City area, de Soto
Frost is due to local low temperature occurrences traveled north along the banks of the lake and arrived in
rather than generalized freeze conditions. Local the Inverness area on July 23. Along the way, they were
temperatures are influenced by a combination of variable attacked by the Timucuan Indians. In honor of de Soto, a
factors, such as elevation, air channels, and bodies of community in the area was named Hernando.
water and vegetation, soil types, and cultivation After the extinction of the Timucuan Indians, probably
practices. At least one frost can be expected every year from exposure to the white men's diseases to which they
in Citrus County. The probability that the first frost will had no immunity, Creek and Hitchiti Indians from Georgia
occur over most of the county about December 10 and and Alabama came to Florida to hunt and fish the many
the last frost will occur about February 10 is about 50 rivers, lakes, and forests. They became known as the
percent; the probability that a frost will occur by January Seminoles. In the 1800's, the Seminoles fought three
5 is about 90 percent; and the probability that the wars against the United States because the United
temperature will be 20 degrees or lower sometime during States Government pursued a policy of removing them
the potential frost period is about 10 percent. to Arkansas and other midwestern territories.
The average relative humidity at midafternoon is about During the second of the Seminole wars, from 1835 to
50 to 65 percent. Humidity averages about 85 to 90 1842, skirmishes took place in Citrus County (10). The
percent at night. The sun shines more than 70 percent movements of the United States Army troops through
of the time possible in summer and more than 60 the Citrus County area were documented in the diary of
percent in winter. Heavy fogs are usually confined to the a young lieutenant, Henry Prince, who was on his first
night and early morning hours late in fall, in winter, and assignment with the Army after his graduation from West







4 Soil Survey



Point. The camp of the Indian chief, Osceola, the most Citrus groves have been active for as long as 100 years.
famous and tragic figure of the Seminole warriors, is Before the railroad was constructed, fruit was shipped
believed to have been just east of the Withlacoochee from the county through the Orange State Canal. Cattle,
River, west of Fort Cooper. From this camp, Osceola led poultry, watermelons, and seafood are also exported
many of the attacks against Fort Cooper. Fort Cooper, from the county. The preservation of an endangered
the site of a hastily-constructed stockade that withstood species, the West Indian manatee, which is maintaining
Indian attack for 16 days, is now a State park. Every a stable population in its protected Crystal River
April, the park rangers present a living history of the sanctuary, is a major tourist attraction in Citrus County.
encampment.
Many Citrus County landmarks bear such Indian Physiography
names as Tsala Apopka, Chassahowitzka, Homosassa,
Istachatta, and Withlacoochee. Steven M. Spencer, geologist, Florida Geological Survey,
The first white settlers came into the area just prior to Tallahassee, Florida, prepared this section.
the second Seminole War. David Levee Yulee, one of This discussion of the physiography of Citrus County is
Florida's most colorful political figures and its first United based on William A. White's classification (26). The
States senator, started a large plantation near the major physiographic features of Citrus County include the
Homosassa River. He raised sugarcane and developed a Gulf Coastal Lowlands, the Brooksville Ridge, and the
large mill which was burned by Union troops during the Tsala Apopka Plain.
Civil War. Its remains, considered to be the oldest The western part of Citrus County is a poorly drained,
structure in the county, are now protected in a small low relief region. Notable features include extensive
State park where many visitors come to rest and picnic. swamps, marshes, and terraces that formed by ancient
The Armed Occupation Act of 1842, which gave 160 sea-level stands. The central part of the county is
acres of land to homesteaders, brought settlers to Red characterized by the Brooksville Ridge. The southern
Level, Cedar Grove, Homosassa, and Crystal River. By extent of this ridge is higher and really larger than that
the 1880's, small settlements were established around in the north. The eastern part of Citrus County is lower
the county, and the discovery of phosphate brought and flatter and encompasses a substantial wetland area.
rapid development to the Hernando and Floral City
areas. The construction of the railroad hastened this
development, and the southernmost point of the newoastal Lowlands
railroad on the Gulf side of Florida was Homosassa. The Gulf Coastal Lowlands extend the entire length of
Floral City, according to the 1885 census, had a Citrus County. The lowlands range in elevation from sea
population of 300, twice as many as Miami with 150. In level to 100 feet above sea level. In the coastal lowlands
1887, an act of the Florida Legislature divided Hernando are the coastal swamps and marine terraces of
County, and Citrus and Pasco Counties were created. Pleistocene age (10,000 to 1.6 million years ago).
The working of the phosphate mines was by hand The westernmost region delineated on W.A. White's
labor. Some of the families of the workers are among physiographic map is the Coastal Swamps (26). W.S.
the earliest pioneers, and some of their descendants are Puri and R.O Vernon (11, 25) and W.A. White (26)
still living in the county. With the advent of World War I, defined this region as an area that included all
the United States lost its best customer for phosphate- continuous freshwater swamps and saltwater marshes
Germany-and the industry declined, adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico. The region is a low
Development of Citrus County ground to a standstill energy, saltwater or freshwater environment with
during the depression years that followed, even though a insufficient sand to build beaches. Sediment, which
few hardy settlers and some farseeing entrepreneurs accumulated on Eocene limestone, has in many places
bought land in the county. After World War II, inhabitants been conducive to the establishment of vegetation.
of the larger cities to the south, notably Tampa and St. Elevations in the swamp area are generally less than 10
Petersburg, considered Citrus County a perfect weekend feet above mean sea level.
retreat where they could enjoy superb fishing and The marine terraces are gently sloping features with
hunting throughout the year. It wasn't long before seaward-facing escarpments. These features formed
weekend cabins were being remodeled into year-round when sedimentary materials were alternately deposited,
homes, and new construction began for northerners and they eroded as sea level rose and fell. R.O. Vernon
looking for a balmy climate and peaceful surroundings distinguished the Pamlico Terrace at an elevation of
for their retirement years, about 25 feet and the Wicomico Terrace at an elevation
Citrus County's growth in the 1970's was the most of about 100 feet as the main terrace features in Citrus
rapid in the state-a huge increase of 185 percent- and County (25). Also associated with the coastal lowlands
despite the recession of the early 1980's, the county's are ancient dune features. The lowlands are composed
growth has continued at a steady pace (8). Agriculture of sand and clayey sand of variable thickness underlain
and tourism contribute to the economy of the county, by Eocene and Oligocene limestone and dolomite.







Citrus County, Florida
5


Brooksville Ridge conditioner, for riprap, and as a concrete and asphalt
The Brooksville Ridge trends north to south and aggregate.
occupies the central part of Citrus County. Elevations Sand
along the ridge range from about 70 to 200 feet. The
southern part of the ridge is wider and has higher In Citrus County, the Brooksville Ridge contains sand
elevations than the northern part. The ridge has an deposits of primary importance. The sands of the ridge
irregular surface that resulted from karst activity, range in age from Miocene to Recent. These clastics are
Elevations can vary over 100 feet in short distances. predominantly poorly sorted, fine to medium grain-size
The ridge is composed of a core of limestone that is quartz sands. Except for surface sand, the sand can
overlain by clayey sand, sandy clay, and clay, which in contain a clay matrix (14).
turn are overlain by Pleistocene sand. The clay and the Recent dune and alluvial sand deposits are in Citrus
clayey sediment have protected the underlying limestone County but are of variable quality and volume. These
from dissolution by limiting downward percolation of deposits are economically valuable only on a local scale.
ground water in contrast to the Gulf Coastal Lowlands to Sand deposits of the Pleistocene terraces in the Gulf
the west and the Tsala Apopka Plain to the east. The Coastal Lowlands are considered too fine grained for
Gulf Coastal Lowlands and the Tsala Apopka Plain have construction uses.
experienced substantial dissolution of limestone resulting Once mined, sand can be graded by size, coarse to
in lower elevations, fine, by using a series of shaker screens. Sand is almost
exclusively transported by truck. Construction sand and
Tsala Apopka Plain gravel are mainly used as a concrete aggregate, base
The Tsala Apopka Plain, which is part of W.A. White's material for roads and streets, construction fill material,
Western Valley, occupies the entire eastern part of Citrus and an asphalt aggregate.
County (26). The Tsala Apopka Plain is bounded on the Phosphate
east by the Withlacoochee River and on the west by the
Brooksville Ridge. This region has many interconnected Hardrock phosphate was mined in Citrus County for
lakes partly separated by peninsulas and islands. Alluvial many years until about 1966 when it became
deposits of variable thickness cover the limestone economically unfeasible to continue operations (7). The
surface. Elevations of the land surface range from 60 to origin of the hardrock phosphate has been discussed for
80 feet above mean sea level, and elevations of the many years. Phosphoric acid in solution in water can,
water surface vary from 35 to 45 feet. under favorable conditions, replace the carbonate of
limestone thus forming calcium phosphate, or hardrock
Economic Geology phosphate. E.H. Sellards states that the matrix material
in the hardrock phosphate deposits is the residue of
Stone previously eroded limestone (15).
Limestone is mined predominantly in the northern part During mining and beneficiation of the hardrock
Limestone is mined predominantly in the northern part the phosphatic clay was slurred and
phosphate, the phosphatic clay was slurried and
of Citrus County near Red Level and in the southeast discarded as waste in previously mined-out pits or was
ner m discarded as waste in previously mined-out pits or was
part near Lecanto. Formational units from which mining simply allowed to flow on to the natural ground surface.
is occurring are the late Middle Eocene age Avon Park The content of phosphate in this waste material is high.
Limestone, the late Eocene age Ocala Group, and the Several companies are processing the clay waste
Oligocene age Suwannee Limestone (12). material of former hardrock operations mainly for use as
All limestone and dolomite is mined from open-pit an ingredient in animal feed and as a direct application
quarries. Generally, overburden must be removed using fertilizer.
bulldozers or draglines. If soft rock conditions are
encountered after the overburden is removed, bulldozers Clay
equipped with a claw can rip the rock loose. Blasting is
necessary to fracture harder rock. If pits are flooded, Clay of an unclassified nature is being mined east of
draglines are needed to mine the limestone. After the Lecanto area in Citrus County.
mining, the rock is transported by truck to a processing Ground Water
plant to be crushed and stockpiled.
Size reduction and grinding are common processing In Citrus County, the main source of water is the
procedures. These involve crushing and screening to Floridan Aquifer. The aquifer is composed of the Eocene
produce material of a desired size. The procedures used to Oligocene age limestone and dolomite of the Lake
to remove impurities and to add desirable materials are City Limestone, Avon Park Limestone, and Ocala Group,
washing, screening, drying, and blending. After and also of the Suwannee Limestone if present. The
processing is completed, the material can be used as a base of the aquifer is approximately at the point where
base material for roads and streets, as fertilizer and soil evaporites consistently fill limestone and dolomite pore







6 Soil Survey


spaces. Generally, these evaporite fillings are in the farmed was around Homosassa where the soils were
lower Lake City Limestone (9). The top of the aquifer is more fertile and large yields could be obtained without
at sea level or is submerged just along the coast line. the use of manure. Among the crops grown were
Inland, the top of the aquifer is covered by a veneer of sugarcane, cotton, potatoes, pineapples, figs, and dates.
sand, clayey sand, or sandy clay. The Floridan Aquifer is Crops, such as hemp and agave, were planted in the
described as unconfined for much of Citrus County upland areas. In the 1880's and 1890's, considerable
because of the absence of well developed, slowly acreage was planted to citrus during the "citrus boom."
permeable or very slowly permeable sediment between The climate, however, proved unfavorable because of
the ground surface and the top of the aquifer. In some periodic freezes. Much of the citrus was killed by the
areas in the Brooksville Ridge, the aquifer is overlain by "big freeze" of 1894 and 1895. A more recent freeze, in
several feet of slowly permeable or very slowly 1985, produced additional damage and, as a result,
permeable sand, clayey sand, and clay. The aquifer can citrus production in the area has been restricted to
be described as semiconfined. In these areas, the local locations adjacent to water, which has a moderating
ground water table can be developed in the surficial locations ace water, whichhasa moderating
sand that is underlain by clayey sediment. effect on temperature extremes. Such locations include
The Floridan Aquifer is recharged by precipitation and areas along county road 581 and around the Tsala
ground water flow. Direction of ground water flow is Apopka Lake and the Withlacoochee River. The weather
toward the Gulf of Mexico. Natural artesian discharge greatly affects yields even in these more favorable
occurs in springs and marshes. On the basis of locations. Florida Citrus Mutual reports that a yield
discharge, the Homosassa and Crystal River Springs reduction of about 40 percent occurred between the
have been labeled first-order magnitude springs, that is, 1979-80 harvest and the 1981-82 harvest. This was
they discharge water at a rate of more than 100 cubic mainly because of the unfavorable years of low
feet per second. temperatures and low rainfall. Some of the less
In Citrus County, the Floridan Aquifer is considered to productive citrus plantings are undergoing conversion to
be a potable water source. The exception to this is in the residential development.
coastal region where saltwater encroachment has Cattle production is also an important economic factor
occurred. As demand for water increases so will the in the area. Grasses on improved pasture and native
problems associated with water quality. Citrus County vegetation on the rangeland are used for grazing.
has shown a population increase of 185 percent Bahiagrasses are the main plants on improved pasture.
according to the census taken between 1970 and 1980 Some fields of Coastal bermudagrass are alternately
(8). Presently, the major demand on the aquifer comes used for hay production or for grazing. Where favorable,
from the agricultural and industrial communities as well the planting of winter rye, ryegrass, alyce clover, and
as from domestic and rural users. perennial peanuts will be increased in the future. These
Water Res es plants are grown to provide hay to be used for grazing
Water Resources and to be used as soil-improving crops.
Water is an important resource in Citrus County. The Other crops grown are corn, sorghum, oats, wheat,
Withlacoochee River, the Tsala Apopka Lake on the soybeans, and watermelons (fig. 2). Yields are erratic
east, and the Gulf of Mexico on the west provide superb because of fluctuating weather conditions. To maintain
fishing and water sports. or increase crop yields during dry periods, an irrigation
The major rivers in the county are the Homosassa, system should be installed.
Halls, Chassahowitzka, Crystal, and Withlacoochee Additional agricultural industries in Citrus County
Rivers. The Withlacoochee River is one of the few rivers include those in the production of poultry products and
in the northern hemisphere that flows in a northerly nursery and greenhouse plants.
direction. The Halls, Homosassa, Chassahowitzka, and
Crystal Rivers originate from springs in Citrus County and
are a major source of freshwater. Other sources of Transportation
freshwater come from shallow ground water and deep In Citrus County good transportation facilities are
aquifer wells. Most of the rainfall, which is about 56 In Cius Count good transportation facilities are
inches in the county, infiltrates into the soil. Saltwater available, including many county, State, and Federal
intrusion into the aquifer on the Gulf side of the county highways. Several interstate trucking firms serve the
has been a problem during times of heavy water usage. county.
Rail and bus services are available throughout the
Farming area. Scheduled airlines serve the county at the Tampa
International Airport. Small public airports are near
Farming has always been an important economic Inverness and Crystal River. Several private airstrips
factor in Citrus County. One of the first areas to be have been established in the county.






Citrus County, Florida 7






























Figure 2.-These watermelon are being harvested on Lake fine and, 0 to 5 percent slopes. (Photo courtesy of Citrus County Chronicle,
Tim Hes, photographer).



Recreation How This Survey Was Made
A variety of recreational facilities are available in Citrus This survey was made to provide information about the
County. The rivers and lakes and the Gulf provide for soils in the survey area. The information includes a
excellent fishing, boating, sailing, water skiing, and scuba description of the soils and their location and a
diving. The waters are plentiful with black bass, speckled discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management
perch, bluegill, shellcracker, grouper, spotted sea trout, of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed
catfish, and many other species. Tarpon are caught from the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general
April to October. Many kinds of wildlife can be seen in pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants
the Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge and in the growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug
Citrus Wildlife Management Area in the Withlacoochee many holes to study the soil profile, which is the
State Forest. Recreational activity is available at several sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The
parks, such as Whispering Pines Park in Inverness and profile extends from the surface down into the
Fort Cooper State Park south of Inverness. Also, in the unconsolidated material from which the soil formed. The
Withlacoochee State Forest are riding paths and unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other
camping and recreational areas. In the Citrus County living organisms and has not been changed by other
area are various private and municipal golf courses and biological activity.
several historical sites, such as the Yulee Sugar Mill in The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern
Homosassa and the Crystal River State Archaeological that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief,
Site north of Crystal River. climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each
kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of







8 Soil Survey



landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil a high water table within certain depths in most years,
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils but they cannot assure that a high water table will
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy date.
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape. After soil scientists located and identified the
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
into one another as their characteristics gradually drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
scientists must determine the boundaries between the Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented accurately.
by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in Map Unit Composition
an area and to determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture, area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and identified and named according to the taxonomic
other features that enable them to identify soils. After classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
describing the soils in the survey area and determining taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil objects, they have a characteristic variability in their
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes. In
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the the detailed soil map units, these latter soils are called
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could inclusions or included soils. In the general soil map units,
confirm data and assemble additional data based on they are called soils of minor extent.
experience and research. Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the soils in the area are generally collected for laboratory the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils or require different management. These are contrasting
were field tested through observation of the soils in (dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas
different uses under different levels of management. and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
sources, such as research information, production observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
records, and field experience of specialists. For example, descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
data on crop yields under defined levels of management complex that it was impractical to make enough
were assembled from farm records and from field or plot observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
experiments on the same kinds of soil. landscape.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the








Citrus County, Florida 9



landscape into segments that have similar use and information for the development of resource plans, but
management requirements. The delineation of such onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient in small areas.




















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication Lake soils have a surface layer of dark brown fine sand.
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of The underlying material is fine sand in shades of yellow
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general and brown.
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map Astatula soils are on upland ridges. They are in slightly
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor higher positions on the landscape than Candler soils.
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up Astatula soils have a surface layer of light brownish gray
one unit can occur in other units but in a different fine sand. The underlying material is fine sand in shades
pattern. of yellow.
The general soil map can be used to compare the The soils of minor extent in this map unit are
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of Adamsville, Apopka, Arredondo, Basinger, Fort Meade,
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, Kendrick, and Tavares soils. Adamsville and Tavares
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified, soils are in low positions on the landscape on the upland
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for ridges. Adamsville soils are somewhat poorly drained,
planning the management of a farm or field or for and Tavares soils are well drained. Apopka, Arredondo,
selecting a site for a road or a building or other structure. Fort Meade, and Kendrick soils are on nearly level to
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place moderately sloping ridges. These soils are well drained.
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that Basinger soils are in low positions on the landscape in
affect management. sloughs. These soils are poorly drained. In addition,
Mineral Soils of te U Rid areas of Udorthents and Quartzipsamments soils are
Mineral Soils of the Upland Ridge throughout this map unit.
The three map units in this group are in the central In most areas, the soils in this map unit are in native
part of Citrus County. They are in the Brooksville Ridge vegetation of turkey oak, sand pine, live oak, and
physiographic region. longleaf pine trees. Large acreages are used as sites for
residential development. In some areas, the soils are
1. Candler-Lake-Astatula used as improved pasture; and in other areas, they are
Nearly level to moderately sloping, excessively drained used for watermelons and citrus crops.
soils that are sandy throughout The soils in this map unit are well suited to urban use
The soils in this map unit are on upland ridges in the and are moderately well suited to recreational uses.
central part of the county. The landscape consists of They are fairly well suited to use as improved pasture
broad rolling ridges, knolls, and hillsides. The slopes are and are poorly suited to commercial woodland.
smooth and dissected by very few drainageways. The Droughtiness is the main limitation.
ridges are in a north-south orientation. The slopes range 2. Arredondo-Kendrick-Sparr
from 0 to 12 percent.
This map unit makes up about 46 percent of Citrus Nearly level to moderately sloping, well drained and
County. It is about 42 percent Candler soils, 18 percent somewhat poorly drained soils that are underlain by
Lake soils, 18 percent Astatula soils, and 22 percent loamy material; some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40
soils of minor extent. inches, and some are sandy to a depth of more than 40
Candler soils are on upland ridges. They are in inches
intermediate positions on the landscape. These soils The soils in this map unit are on upland ridges in the
have a surface layer of dark grayish brown fine sand. vicinity of Lecanto. The landscape consists of rolling
The subsurface layer is fine sand in shades of brown. hillsides and narrow ridges. Sinkholes are common and
The next layer is a mixture of very pale brown fine sand provide most drainage outlets for the soils in this map
subsurface and subsoil material. Yellowish brown loamy unit. The slopes range from 0 to 12 percent.
fine sand lamellae are in the lower part of this mixed This map unit makes up about 5 percent of Citrus
layer. County. It is about 57 percent Arredondo soils, 24
Lake soils are on upland ridges. They are in slightly percent Kendrick soils, 8 percent Sparr soils, and 11
lower positions on the landscape than Candler soils. percent soils of minor extent.







12 Soil Survey



Arredondo soils are on the higher hillsides and ridges. The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Astatula,
They are well drained. These soils have a surface layer Apopka, Sparr, Lochloosa, EauGallie, Immokalee, and
of grayish brown fine sand. The subsurface layer is Pompano soils. Astatula and Apopka soils are in higher
yellowish brown fine sand. The subsoil is strong brown positions on the landscape than Tavares and Adamsville
loamy fine sand and sandy clay loam. soils. Astatula soils are excessively drained, and Apopka
Kendrick soils are in similar positions on the landscape soils are well drained. Sparr and Lochloosa soils are in
as Arredondo soils. They are well drained. These soils similar positions as Adamsville soils. These soils are
have a surface layer of grayish brown fine sand. The somewhat poorly drained. EauGallie, Immokalee, and
subsurface layer is fine sand in shades of brown and Pompano soils are on flats. These soils are poorly
yellow. The subsoil is sandy clay loam and sandy clay in drained.
shades of brown. In most areas, the soils in this map unit are in native
Sparr soils are on hillsides. These soils are in lower vegetation of turkey oak, live oak, water oak, longleaf
positions on the landscape than Arredondo and Kendrick pine, and slash pine trees that have an understory of
soils. They are somewhat poorly drained. Sparr soils grasses, forbs, and scattered saw palmetto. In some
have a surface layer of grayish brown fine sand. The areas, these soils are used as improved pasture, and in
subsurface layer is fine sand in shades of brown. The some areas, they are used as sites for residential
subsoil is fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam in development.
shades of brown and gray. The soils in this map unit are moderately well suited to
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Lake, urban and recreational uses and commercial woodland.
Candler, Kanapaha, and Micanopy soils. Lake, Candler, They are fairly well suited to use as improved pasture.
and Kanapaha soils are in similar or higher positions on Wetness and droughtiness are the main limitations.
the landscape than Arredondo, Kendrick, and Sparr soils.
Lake and Candler soils are excessively drained, and Mineral Soils of the Flatwoods
Kanapaha soils are well drained. Micanopy soils are on
low, gently sloping ridges. These soils are somewhat The two map units in this group are in the western part
poorly drained, of Citrus County. They are in the Gulf Coastal Lowlands
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are used as physiographic region.
improved pasture. In most other areas, they are in native
vegetation of longleaf pine, slash pine, live oak, water 4. Boca-Broward-Redlevel
oak, hickory, dogwood, and magnolia trees.
The soils in this map unit are well suited to urban and Nearly level, poorly drained and somewhat poorly
recreational uses. They are moderately well suited to use drained, sandy soils that are underlain by limestone
as improved pasture and as commercial woodland. bedrock; some are sandy, and some are sandy and
Droughtiness is the main limitation, loamy
3. Tavae The soils in this map unit are on the flatwoods in the
avares-Aamsvie northwestern part of the county. The landscape consists
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained of broad flats that have depressions. A few sinkholes are
and somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy common. During wet periods, the depressions are
throughout ponded. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
The soils in this map unit are on upland ridges This map unit makes up about 7 percent of Citrus
adjacent to the flatwoods in the western part of the County. It is about 47 percent Boca soils, 13 percent
county and to the river valley lowlands in the eastern Broward soils, 10 percent Redlevel soils, and 30 percent
part. The slopes range from 0 to 8 percent. soils of minor extent.
This map unit makes up about 14 percent of Citrus Boca soils are on flats and in depressions. They are
County. It is about 50 percent Tavares soils, 21 percent poorly drained. These soils have a surface layer of dark
Adamsville soils, and 29 percent soils of minor extent. grayish brown fine sand. The subsurface layer is gray
Tavares soils are nearly level to gently sloping and are and yellow fine sand. The subsoil is grayish brown sandy
moderately well drained. These soils are in higher clay loam underlain by limestone bedrock.
positions on the landscape than Adamsville soils. Broward soils are in higher positions on the flats than
Tavares soils have a surface layer of dark grayish brown Boca soils. Broward soils have a surface layer of very
fine sand. The underlying material is brown and white dark gray fine sand. The underlying material is gray and
fine sand. yellow fine sand underlain by limestone bedrock.
Adamsville soils are nearly level and are somewhat Redlevel soils are in similar positions on the landscape
poorly drained. These soils are in lower positions on the as Broward soils. They are somewhat poorly drained.
landscape than Tavares soils. Adamsville soils have a These soils have a surface layer of dark brown and dark
surface layer of dark grayish brown fine sand. The grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil is brown fine sand
underlying material is brown fine sand. underlain by bedrock.







Citrus County, Florida 13



The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Myakka soils. Anclote soils and some Pompano soils are
Adamsville, Basinger, Pineda, Hallandale, Myakka, Ona, in similar positions as Basinger soils. The soils of minor
and Anclote soils. Adamsville soils are in similar extent are poorly drained except Anclote soils, which are
positions on the landscape as Broward and Redlevel very poorly drained.
soils. These soils are somewhat poorly drained. About 50 percent of the soils on the flatwoods in this
Basinger, Pineda, Hallandale, Myakka, and Ona soils are map unit are in native vegetation of slash pine trees that
on the flatwoods. These soils are poorly drained. Anclote have an understory of saw palmetto, grasses, and forbs.
soils are in depressions. These soils are very poorly Cypress and hardwoods are in the depressions and
drained. sloughs. The remaining acreage is used as sites for
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are in native residential development or as improved pasture.
vegetation of cabbage palm and slash pine trees that The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to urban
have an understory of saw palmetto, grasses, and forbs. and recreational uses. They are moderately well suited
Cypress trees are dominant in the depressions. The soils to use as improved pasture and as commercial
in a few areas are used as improved pasture and as woodland. Wetness is the main limitation.
commercial woodland. In some areas, they are used as
sites for residential development. Mineral and Organic Soils of the Coastal Swamps,
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to urban Tidal and Freshwater Marshes, and Coastal Islands
and recreational uses. They are well suited to use as The three map units in this group are in the western
The three map units in this group are in the western
improved pasture and are moderately well suited to
commercial woodland. Wetness and depth to bedrock part of Citrus County adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico.
commercial woodland. Wetness and depthh to bedrock
are the main limitations. They are in the Gulf Coastal Lowlands physiographic
region.
5. Basinger-EauGallie-Myakka
5. Basinger-EauGalle-Myakka 6. Homosassa-Weekiwachee-Durbin
Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils; some are sandy
throughout, and some have a loamy subsoil at a depth Nearly level, very poorly drained, sandy and mucky soils;
of about 40 inches or more. in tidal marshes
The soils in this map unit are on the flatwoods south The soils in this map unit are in the tidal marshes
of Crystal River and northwest of Red Level. The adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico. The landscape consists
landscape consists of broad flats that have depressions of broad, tidal flats. These soils are flooded daily. The
and sloughs. During wet periods, the depressions are slopes are less than 1 percent.
ponded, and the sloughs are covered with shallow, slow This map unit makes up about 5 percent of Citrus
flowing water. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. County. It is about 46 percent Homosassa soils, 20
This map unit makes up about 5 percent of Citrus percent Weekiwachee soils, 18 percent Durbin soils, and
County. It is about 29 percent Basinger soils, 20 percent 16 percent soils of minor extent.
EauGallie soils, 14 percent Myakka soils, and 37 percent Homosassa soils are inland from the tidal marshes.
soils of minor extent. These soils have a surface layer of very dark gray mucky
Basinger soils are in the sloughs and depressions. fine sandy loam and brown loamy fine sand. The
These soils have a surface layer of black fine sand. The underlying material is brown loamy fine sand underlain
subsurface layer is light gray fine sand. The next layer is by limestone bedrock.
a mixture of gray fine sand subsurface material and Weekiwachee soils are in broad, tidal marsh areas.
brown fine sand subsoil material. The substratum is gray These soils have a surface layer of black muck. The
and white fine sand. underlying material is dark gray fine sand underlain by
EauGallie soils are on the flats. These soils are in limestone bedrock.
slightly higher positions on the landscape than Basinger Durbin soils are in positions on the landscape that are
soils. EauGallie soils have a surface layer of very dark exposed to open water. These soils have a surface layer
gray and dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is of black muck more than 80 inches thick.
gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil is brown The soils of minor extent in this map unit are
fine sand, and the lower part is olive and gray fine sandy Lauderhill, Okeelanta, Terra Ceia, and Matlacha soils
loam. and rock outcrop. Lauderhill, Okeelanta, and Terra Ceia
Myakka soils are in similar positions on the landscape soils are more inland than the major soils of this map
as EauGallie soils. Myakka soils have a surface layer of unit. These soils are very poorly drained. Matlacha soils
black fine sand. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand. are adjacent to dredged areas of this map unit. These
The subsoil is brown fine sand. soils are somewhat poorly drained. Areas of rock
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are outcrop are throughout the map unit.
Immokalee, Malabar, Pompano, and Anclote soils. In most areas, the soils in this map unit are in native
Immokalee, Malabar, and some Pompano soils are in vegetation of needlegrass rush, seashore saltgrass,
similar positions on the landscape as EauGallie and marshhay, cordgrass, and red mangrove. A few areas of







14 Soil Survey



these soils have been dredged and filled for use as sites coastal islands are rarely flooded except for flooding as
for residential development, a result of hurricanes.
The soils in this map unit are not suited to urban use This map unit makes up about 3 percent of Citrus
or to use as improved pasture or commercial woodland. County. It is 38 percent Rock outcrop, 30 percent
They are poorly suited to recreational uses. Wetness, Hallandale soils, 17 percent Homosassa soils, and 15
depth to bedrock, and salinity are the major limitations. percent soils of minor extent.
Flooding is a hazard. The areas of Rock outcrop are on coastal islands and
in marshes. They are exposed areas of limestone
7. Okeelanta-Lauderhill-Terra Ceia bedrock.
Hallandale soils are on coastal islands. They are
Nearly level, very poorly drained, mucky soils; in coastal poorly drained. These soils have a surface layer of black
swamps fine sand. The subsurface layer and subsoil are brown
The soils in this map unit are in freshwater hardwood fine sand. The subsoil is underlain by limestone bedrock.
and cypress swamps. These swamps parallel the coast Homosassa soils are in the coastal marshes. They are
and are inland from the tidal marshes. The landscape very poorly drained. These soils have a surface layer of
consists of broad, freshwater flats. These soils are very dark gray mucky fine sandy loam and brown loamy
pounded for most of the year. The slopes are less than 1 fine sand. The underlying material is brown loamy fine
percent. sand underlain by limestone bedrock.
This map unit makes up about 2 percent of the county. The soils of minor extent in this map unit are
It is about 32 percent Okeelanta soils, 24 percent Lacoochee, Citronelle, Okeelanta, and Weekiwachee
Lauderhill soils, 22 percent Terra Ceia soils, and 22 soils. Lacoochee soils are in coastal marshes. They are
percent soils of minor extent, very poorly drained. Citronelle soils are on the coastal
Okeelanta soils have a surface layer of black and dark islands. They are in higher positions on the landscape
brown muck. The underlying material is light gray fine than Hallandale and Homosassa soils. Citronelle soils
sand. are somewhat poorly drained. Okeelanta and
Lauderhill soils have a surface layer of black and dark Weekiwachee soils are in freshwater marshes. These
brown muck underlain by limestone bedrock, soils are very poorly drained.
Terra Ceia soils are mainly adjacent to the uplands. In most areas, the soils in this map unit are in native
These soils have a surface layer of black and very dark vegetation of seashore saltgrass, needlegrass rush,
brown muck that extends to a depth of 80 inches or cordgrass, and sawgrass. Red cedar, pine, cabbage
more. palm, live oak, water oak, and basswood trees are
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are dominant on the coastal islands.
Hallandale and Citronelle soils. These soils are in higher The soils in this map unit are not suited to urban use.
positions on the landscape than the major soils. In They are poorly suited to recreational uses and to use as
addition, areas of rock outcrop are throughout the map improved pasture and commercial woodland. Depth to
unit, and some areas of soils that are shallow and mucky bedrock, salinity, and wetness are the main limitations.
are adjacent to tidal marshes. Flooding is a hazard.
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are in native
vegetation of sweetgum, cypress, sweetbay, hickory, Mineral and Organic Soils of the River Valley
water oak, willow oak, laurel oak, and magnolia trees. In Lowlands
a few areas, they are used as improved pasture.
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to urban The two map units in this group are in the eastern part
and recreational uses and to use as commercial of Citrus County between the Withlacoochee River and
woodland. They are fairly well suited to use as improved the upland ridges. They are in the Tsala Apopka Plain
pasture. Wetness and ponding are the main limitations. physiographic region.
8. Rock outcrop-Hallandale-Homosassa 9. Basinger-lmmokalee-EauGallie
Areas of exposed limestone bedrock; and nearly level, Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils; some are sandy
poorly drained and very poorly drained, sandy and loamy throughout, and some have a loamy subsoil at a depth
soils; in tidal and freshwater marshes and on coastal of about 40 inches or more
islands The soils in this map unit are on dissected uplands
The soils in this map unit are in tidal and freshwater and lowlands adjacent to the Tsala Apopka chain of
marshes and on the coastal islands adjacent to the Gulf lakes. The landscape consists of hammocks,
of Mexico. The landscape consists of broad, tidal flats, depressions, ridges, sloughs, and flatwoods. The slopes
freshwater marshes, and coastal islands. The tidal flats range from 0 to 2 percent.
are flooded daily by saltwater. The freshwater marshes This map unit makes up about 10 percent of Citrus
are flooded daily by freshwater and brackish water. The County. It is about 24 percent Basinger soils, 19 percent







Citrus County, Florida 15



Immokalee soils, 11 percent EauGallie soils, and 46 these soils are used for citrus production. Some acreage
percent soils of minor extent. has been used for residential development.
Basinger soils are in low-lying sloughs and The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to urban
depressions. These soils have a surface layer of black and recreational uses. They are moderately well suited
fine sand. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand. to use as commercial woodland and are well suited to
The next layer is mixed gray fine sand of subsurface use as improved pasture.
material and brown fine sand of subsoil material. The 1 Trr n
substratum is gray and white fine sand. 10. Terra Ceia-Okeelanta
Immokalee soils are on flats. They are in slightly Nearly level, very poorly drained, mucky soils
higher positions on the landscape than Basinger soils. The soils in this map unit are on the flood plains of the
Immokalee soils have a surface layer of black fine sand. Withlacoochee River and the Tsala Apopka chain of
The subsurface layer is fine sand in shades of gray. The lakes. The landscape consists of flats that have many
subsoil is brown fine sand. The substratum is gray and small drainageways. Most areas of these soils are
white fine sand. subject to frequent flooding.
EauGallie soils are in similar positions on the This map unit makes up about 3 percent of Citrus
landscape as Immokalee and Basinger soils. EauGallie County. It is about 53 percent Terra Ceia soils, 22
soils have a surface layer of very dark gray and dark percent Okeelanta soils, and 25 percent soils of minor
gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand. extent.
The upper part of the subsoil is brown fine sand, and the Terra Ceia soils are adjacent to open water. These
lower part is olive and gray fine sandy loam. soils have a surface layer of black and very dark brown
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are muck that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Pompano, Anclote, Malabar, Myakka, Paisley, Orsino, Okeelanta soils are between the Terra Ceia soils and
Pomello, Tavares, and Paola soils. Pompano and the uplands. These soils have a surface layer of black
Anclote soils are in depressions. Pompano soils are and dark reddish brown muck. The underlying material is
poorly drained, and Anclote soils are very poorly drained, dark gray fine sand.
Malabar, Myakka, and Paisley soils are on flats. These The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Basinger
soils are poorly drained. Orsino, Pomello, and Tavares and Lauderhill soils. Basinger soils are adjacent to the
soils are on hammocks and ridges. These soils are uplands. These soils are poorly drained. Lauderhill soils
moderately well drained. Paola soils are on higher ridges are very poorly drained. Also throughout the map unit
than the major soils. These soils are excessively drained, are areas of rock outcrop that are adjacent to water.
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are in native In most areas, the soils in this map unit are in native
vegetation of longleaf and slash pines, live and water vegetation of water-tolerant hardwood and cypress trees.
oaks, hickory, magnolia, and cabbage palm trees that The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to urban
have an understory of saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, and recreational uses. They are also poorly suited to use
grasses, and forbs. Cypress and hardwood trees and as improved pasture and as commercial woodland.
maidencane are in the depressions. In some areas, Wetness is the main limitation. Flooding is a hazard.










17








Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of Terra Ceia-Okeelanta association, frequently flooded, is
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The an example.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
maps, can be used to determine the suitability of a soil other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
for specific uses. They also can be used to plan the of these included soils have properties that differ
management needed for those uses. More information substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
on each map unit, or soil, is given under "Use and differences could significantly affect use and
Management of the Soils." management of the soils in the map unit. The included
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
for which the unit is named. a special symbol on the soil maps.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes have little or no soil material and support little or no
general facts about the soil and gives the principal vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
specific uses. shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up maps.
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
a series have major horizons that are similar in give properties of the soils and the limitations,
composition, thickness, and arrangement, capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, 2-Adamsville fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the somewhat poorly drained. It is on low ridges in the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil coastal swamps and on the flatwoods and is at the base
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil of the lower slopes on the uplands. This soil is in a
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil transitional position in the drainage pattern. It gradually
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or releases water to more poorly drained soil in natural
management. For example, Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 drainageways, swamps, ponds, and marshes. The
percent slopes, is one of several phases in the mapped areas are irregular in shape or somewhat
Arredondo series, circular and range from about 5 to 150 acres. The slopes
Some map units are made up of two or more major are 2 percent or less.
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
associations, or undifferentiated groups. sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying material to a
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such depth of 80 inches is light yellowish brown and very pale
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they brown fine sand.
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar Basinger, Myakka, Pompano, and Tavares soils. Also
in all areas. Williston-Pedro-Rock outrop complex, 2 to 5 included are small areas of soils that are similar to
percent slopes, is an example. Adamsville soil and have limestone boulders or bedrock
A soil association is made up of two or more in the profile. The included soils make up less than 20
geographically associated soils that are shown as one percent of the map unit.
unit on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil The water table is between depths of 20 and 40
uses in the survey area, it was not considered practical inches for 2 to 6 months. It may rise to a depth of less
or necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern than 20 inches for 2 weeks during very wet weather.
and relative proportion of the soils are somewhat similar. During dry seasons, the water table generally recedes to







18 Soil Survey



a depth of more than 40 inches. Internal drainage is ridgetops on the uplands. The mapped areas range from
slow. Permeability is rapid. The available water capacity 4 to about 2,000 acres
is very low. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
mildly alkaline. Natural fertility is low. Plant response to sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
fertilizer is good, but nutrients from fertilizer are rapidly depth of 72 inches, is very pale brown or light yellowish
leached, brown fine sand. The next layer to a depth of 80 inches
Typically, this Adamsville soil is in the South Florida or more is very pale brown fine sand that has yellowish
Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by brown loamy fine sand lamellae.
scattered pine trees that have an understory of saw Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
palmetto and grasses. If grazing is controlled, this range Adamsville, Apopka, Arredondo, Astatula, Lake, and
site has the potential to produce significant amounts of Tavares soils. The included soils make up less than 20
creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky percent of the map unit.
bluestem, and various panicum species. If the range The water table is more than 80 inches below the
deteriorates as a result of poor grazing management, surface throughout the year. Permeability is rapid. The
saw palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) will available water capacity is very low or low. The soil is
dominate the site. very drought during periods of low rainfall. If the surface
This soil is well suited to vegetable and other crops if is protected by a vegetative cover, rain is rapidly
a water control system, such as surface ditches and a absorbed and runoff is slow. If the vegetative cover is
subsurface drainage system, can be installed. Irrigation weakened or disturbed, wind and water erosion is a
should also be considered because of the low available hazard on the more sloping areas. Natural fertility is low
water capacity of the soil. A crop rotation system is or very low. Plant response to fertilizer is low to
needed that keeps the soil covered with soil-improving, moderate, but nutrients from fertilizer are rapidly leached.
close-growing cover crops at least two-thirds of the time. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid
Soil-improving crops and crop residue left on the soil except where lime has been applied.
increase the content of organic matter in the soil. Typically, this Candler soil is in the Longleaf Pine-
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the Turkey Oak Hills range site. This site is on rolling land
need of the crop. that is nearly level to strongly sloping. It is easily
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture, recognized by the landform and dominant vegetation of
Pangolagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted to this longleaf pine and turkey oak. The natural fertility of this
Pangolagrass ad bahiagrass are well adapted to this site is very low as a result of the rapid movement of
soil. The more acid areas respond well to liming, plant nutrients and water through the soil. The forage
maximum yields. Controlled grazing is especially production and quality are poor, and cattle do not readily
maximporm yields. nts paroled ging osed to fost use this range site if other sites are available. Desirable
drought. forage on this site includes creeping bluestem, lopsided
Th o. p indiangrass, and low panicum.
This soil has a moderately high potential for the This soil is very poorly suited to cultivated crops
production of pine trees. Equipment use, seedling because of droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant
mortality, and undesirable plant competition are the main nutrients. As a result of these conditions, crop selection
concerns in management. Slash pine is the most suitable is restricted and the potential yield of selected crops is
tree to plant for commercial wood production, low. Intensive management practices are needed for
This soil has severe limitations for many urban uses. cultivated crops. Row crops planted on the contour and
The poor filtering capacity and seepage are limitations to in alternate strips with close-growing cover crops help
use of this soil for sanitary facilities. If the soil is used for control erosion in sloping areas. A crop rotation system
sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills, the facilities is needed that keeps the soil covered with soil-
should be sealed to help prevent seepage. In addition, improving, close-growing crops at least three-fourths of
wetness is a severe limitation to use of this soil for most the time. Soil-improving crops and crop residue left on
sanitary facilities and is a moderate limitation for most the soil help increase or maintain the content of organic
building site development. Proper management must be matter in the soil. Irrigation is feasible if the value of the
used to overcome the low natural fertility limitation and crop warrants. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
periodic droughtiness of this soil if it is used for according to the need of the crop.
landscaping and lawn development. This soil is moderately suited to pasture.
This Adamsville soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The Pangolagrass, bermudagrass, and bahiagrass are well
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. adapted to this soil (fig. 3). Periodic droughts can reduce
yields. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
3-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant vigor,
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and excessively to obtain high yields, and to keep a good ground cover
drained. It is on uneven side slopes and convex on the surface.






Citrus County, Florida 19



This soil has a moderate potential for production of This Candler soil is in capability subclass IVs. The
pine trees. The limitations of the soil to use of equipment woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S.
and seedling mortality are the main concerns in
management. Sand and slash pines are the most 4-Candler fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
suitable trees to plant for commercial wood production, soil is moderately sloping and excessively drained. It is
Poor filtering capacity and seepage are limitations to on uneven side slopes on the upland ridges. The
use of this soil for sanitary facilities. The limitations are mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from
slight for septic tank absorption fields; however, a high about 3 to 75 acres.
density of installations can contaminate the ground Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
water. If the soil is used for sewage lagoons and sanitary about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
landfills, the facilities should be sealed to help prevent 60 inches, is brown, brownish yellow, and light yellowish
seepage. The limitations for building site development brown fine sand. The next layer to a depth of 80 inches
are slight, but cutbanks may cave. This soil has severe or more is very pale brown fine sand that has brown
limitations for landscaping. If used for landscaping, loamy fine sand lamellae.
species adapted to drought conditions should be Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Apopka,
planted or an irrigation system should be installed to Arredondo, Astatula, Lake, and Tavares soils. Also
supply water during dry periods. Fertilizer should be included are small areas of Candler soils that have
regularly applied, slopes of less than 5 percent and small areas of Candler


































Figure 3.-Ths well managed field of pangoagrass is on Candler fin sand, 0 to 5 percent lopes.








20 Soil Survey



soils that have slopes of up to 12 percent. The included 5-Basinger fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
soils are less than 20 percent of the map unit. poorly drained. It is in poorly defined drainageways and
The water table is more than 80 inches below the sloughs throughout the county. The mapped areas are
surface throughout the year. Permeability is rapid. The irregular in shape, following the local drainage patterns.
available water capacity is low or very low. The soil is These areas range from 5 to about 100 acres. The
very drought during periods of low rainfall. Runoff is slopes are less than 2 percent.
slow in vegetated areas, and evaporation is minimal. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand 3 inches
Unprotected areas are subject to moderate wind and thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 8 inches, is
water erosion. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid light gray fine sand. The next layer, to a depth of 24
to medium acid except where lime has been applied. inches, is a mixture of light brownish gray subsurface
Natural fertility is very low. Plant response to fertilizer is material and dark reddish brown and dark brown subsoil
poor because nutrients are rapidly leached. material. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or
Typically, this Candler soil is in the Longleaf Pine- more is light gray and white fine sand.
Turkey Oak Hills range site. This site is on rolling land Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
that is nearly level to strongly sloping. It is easily EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, and Pompano soils. Also
recognized by the landform and dominant vegetation of included are small areas of soils that are similar to
longleaf pine and turkey oak. The natural fertility of this Basinger soil but have limestone bedrock at a depth of
site is very low as a result of the rapid movement of 65 inches or more. These similar soils mainly are in the
plant nutrients and water through the soil. The forage coastal and extreme eastern parts of the county. The
production and quality are poor, and cattle do not readily included soils make up about 25 percent of the map unit.
use this range site if other sites are available. Desirable The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
forage on this site includes creeping bluestem, lopsided for 2 to 6 months. During dry seasons, it recedes to a
indiangrass, and low panicum. depth of 30 inches or more. Internal drainage is slow.
Permeability is rapid. The available water capacity is low.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. The low or Reaction ranges from extremely acid to neutral. Natural
very low available water capacity, low natural fertility, fti is lo an response to fertilizer is moderate.
fertility is low. Plant response to fertilizer is moderate.
and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are severe
l imitations. These limitations are difficult to over e Typically, this Basinger soil is in the Slough range site.
limitations. These limitations are difficult to overcome. T b o
Erosion is a severe hazard. This site can be identified by an open expanse of
Erosion is a severe hazard.
l is erae e o are en grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area that is saturated
This soil is moderately suited to pasture when deep- during the rainy season. If grazing is controlled, the
during the rainy season. If grazing is controlled, the
rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and potential of this site for forage production is almost as
bahiagrasses, are grown. Periodic droughts can reduce high as it is in the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range
yields. A well planned management program includes site. Desirable forage plants on this site include blue
regular applications of fertilizer and lime and controlled maidencane, maidencane, chalky bluestem,
grazing to help maintain plant vigor for maximum yields toothachegrass, and South Florida bluestem.
and to help keep a good ground cover on the surface. Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to dominate the
This soil has a moderate potential for the production site if it is excessively grazed.
of pine trees. The major concern in management is This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
equipment use, and seedling mortality is a moderate wetness, low natural fertility, and low available water
concern. Sand and slash pines are the most suitable capacity. Few crops are adapted to these conditions.
trees to plant for commercial wood production. With the installation of a water control system, such as
Poor filtering capacity, seepage, and slope are surface ditches or a subsurface drainage system, and
limitations to use of this soil for sanitary facilities. The using well planned management practices for soil
limitations are slight for septic tank absorption fields, but improvement, this soil can be used for many crops.
a high density of installations can contaminate the Excess water must be rapidly removed during wet
ground water. If the soil is used for sewage lagoons and periods, and irrigation water should be available during
sanitary landfills, the facilities must be properly dry periods. Row crops planted on the contour in
constructed and sealed to help prevent seepage. Slope alternate strips with close-growing cover crops help
is a moderate limitation for most building site control erosion. A cropping system is needed that keeps
development. In addition, cutbanks may cave. Limitations the soil covered with close-growing, soil-improving crops
for landscaping, lawns, and golf fairways are severe, three-fourths of the time. Bedding in rows during
Species adapted to drought, very low fertility conditions seedbed preparation helps to lower the depth of the
should be planted or an irrigation system should be water table. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
installed to supply water during dry periods. Fertilizer according to the need of the crop.
should be regularly applied. This soil is well suited to improved pasture.
This Candler soil is in capability subclass Vis. The Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S. grow well with proper management. Water control







Citrus County, Florida 21


measures are needed to remove excess surface water maidencane dominate the dry parts of the site, while
after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and maidencane is the dominant plant in the wet parts. Other
lime are needed. Controlled grazing prevents overgrazing desirable forage on this site includes cutgrass, bluejoint
and helps to maintain plant vigor for maximum yields. panicum, sloughgrass, and low panicums. Periodic high
With adequate drainage, this soil has a moderate water levels provide natural deferment from cattle
potential for the production of pine trees. The main grazing if grazing is not properly controlled. Carpetgrass,
concerns in management are equipment use, seedling an introduced plant, tends to dominate the dry parts of
mortality, and undesirable plant competition. With the site if it is excessively grazed.
adequate surface drainage, slash pine is the most This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or improved
suitable tree to plant for commercial wood production. pasture. Although needed for crop production, water
Wetness, poor filtering capacity, and seepage are control systems are difficult to establish because suitable
severe limitations to use of this sandy soil for sanitary outlets are not available.
facilities. The installation of a water control system plus If water can be adequately controlled, this soil has a
other construction measures may reduce these moderate potential for the production of pine trees. The
limitations to a more acceptable level. Wetness also is a main concerns in management are equipment use,
severe limitation to use of the soil for most recreational seedling mortality, and undesirable plant competition.
uses, building site development, and landscaping and Ponding severely limits the use of this soil for urban
lawns. An adequate system of water control is needed to development.
reduce this limitation. Cutbanks may cave.
e this limitation. Banks may ca. Te This Basinger soil is in capability subclass Vllw. The
This Basinger soil is in capability subclass IVw. The woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2W.
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2W.
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W.

6-Basinger fine sand, depressional. This soil is 7-Myakka fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
nearly level and poorly drained. It is in depressions and poorly drained. It is in broad, flatwood areas and also
is adjacent to some bodies of water. The mapped areas occurs as a narrow band around some slightly
are irregular in shape, long and narrow, or nearly circular depressional, poorly drained soils. The mapped areas
and range from 3 to 50 acres. The slopes are less than are irregular in shape and range from 3 to about 100
2 percent. acres. The slopes are smooth and less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand 5 inches Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand 4 inches
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 24 inches, is thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 27 inches, is
light gray fine sand. The next layer, to a depth of 36 dark gray and gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to a
inches, is a mixture of gray subsurface material and dark depth of 80 inches. It is black and dark reddish brown
brown and light brown subsoil material. The substratum fine sand in the upper part and dark brown fine sand in
to a depth of 80 inches is light gray sand. the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Adamsville, EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, and Tavares Basinger, EauGallie, and Pompano soils. Also included
soils. Also included are a few small areas of soils that are a few areas of soils that are similar to Myakka soil in
are similar to Basinger soil but have scattered limestone the western part of the county that have limestone
boulders at a depth of 60 inches or more and also a few bedrock within 60 inches of the surface. The included
depressional areas of soils on the upland ridges that are soils make up about 20 percent of the map unit.
ponded about once in 6 years. The included soils make The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
up less than 20 percent of the map unit. for 1 month to 4 months. It gradually recedes to a depth
This soil is ponded for periods of 3 to 9 months. In of 40 inches or more. Internal drainage is slow.
slightly elevated positions around the margins of the Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the
ponded areas, the water table is within 10 inches of the subsoil and rapid in the other layers. The available water
surface, and these areas are ponded in years of heavy capacity is moderate in the subsoil and low or very low
rainfall. In dry periods, the water table recedes to a in the other layers. Reaction ranges from extremely acid
depth of 10 inches or more. Permeability is very rapid, to slightly acid. Natural fertility is low. Plant response to
The available water capacity is low. Reaction ranges fertilizer is moderate.
from extremely acid to mildly alkaline. Natural fertility is Typically, this Myakka soil is in the South Florida
low. Plant response to fertilizer is moderate. Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by
Typically, this Basinger soil is in the Freshwater scattered pine trees that have an understory of saw
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be palmetto and grasses. If grazing is controlled, this range
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges, site has the potential to produce significant amounts of
rushes, and other herbaceous plants in an area that is creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky
generally saturated or covered by surface water during bluestem, and various panicum species. If the range
most of the growing season. Chalky bluestem and blue deteriorates as a result of poor grazing management,







22 Soil Survey



saw palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) will white fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 64
dominate the site. inches, is brownish yellow fine sand. The substratum to
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops if a depth of 80 inches is very pale brown fine sand.
water control systems are properly installed and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
maintained. This generally involves the installation of Astatula, Candler, Orsino, and Pomello soils that are
ditches or a subsurface drainage system to remove similar to Paola soil. Also included are small areas of
excess surface water during wet periods and to provide Paola soils that have slopes of between 5 and 8 percent.
water through irrigation during dry periods. A crop The included soils make up less than 15 percent of the
rotation system is needed that keeps the soil covered map unit.
with close-growing, soil-improving crops three-fourths of The water table is more than 72 inches below the
the time. Crop residue left on the surface helps to surface throughout the year. Rain is rapidly absorbed if
maintain the organic matter in the soil. For some crops, the surface is protected by a vegetative cover.
bedding in rows is sometimes necessary to lower the Permeability is very rapid. The available water capacity is
depth of the water table. Fertilizer and lime should be very low. Natural fertility is very low. Plant response to
applied according to the need of the crop. fertilizer is poor.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Typically, this Paola soil is characterized by the
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. This site is on
grow well when managed properly. Water control rolling land that is nearly level to strongly sloping. It is
measures, such as the installation of surface or easily recognized by the landform and dominant
subsurface drains, are needed to remove excess surface easily recognized by the landform and dominant
subsurface drains, are needed to remove excess surface vegetation of longleaf pine and turkey oak. The natural
water. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are fertility of this site is very low as a result of the rapid
needed. Controlled grazing prevents overgrazing and movement of plant nutrients and water through the soil.
helps to maintain plant vigor for maximum yields. The forage production and quality are poor, and cattle
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees is do not readily use this range site if other sites are
moderate. The main concerns in management are the available. Desirable forage on this site includes creeping
limitations of the soil to use of equipment during wet bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and low panicum.
periods, seedling mortality, and undesirable plant This soil is not suited to cultivated crops because of
competition. Slash pine is the most suitable tree to plant droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients. It
for commercial wood production. For maximum droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients. It
for commercial wood production. For maximum
productivity, a drainage system is needed to remove is fairly suited to improved pasture. Grasses, such as
excess surface water. pangolagrass and bahiagrass, must be well managed
s sa .and fertilized.
Wetness and the poor filtering capacity of this soil are and fertilized.
severe limitations to use for sanitary facilities. If the soil The potential of this soil for production of pine trees is
is used for sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills, the low. The main concerns in management are equipment
facilities should be sealed to help prevent seepage and use and seedling mortality. Sand pine is the most
possible contamination of ground water. Wetness also suitable tree to plant for commercial wood production.
limits the use of this soil for building site development. Seepage and the poor filtering capacity of this soil are
Cutbanks may cave. Wetness and low fertility limit its slight limitations to use as septic tank absorption fields.
use for lawns, landscaping, and golf course Special measures, such as sealing lagoons and
development. Species adapted to these conditions regulating the density of septic tank absorption fields,
should be planted or a water control system should be are needed to control possible contamination of the
installed. Plant nutrients should be regularly applied. The ground water. This soil has few limitations for building
installation on an irrigation system should be considered site development, but cutbanks may cave. The drought
so that water is available during dry periods. Fertilizer nature of this soil places severe limitations on its use for
should be regularly applied, lawns, landscaping, and golf fairways. Species adapted
This Myakka soil is in capability subclass IVw. The to such conditions should be planted or an irrigation
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W. system should be installed to supply water during dry
periods. Fertilizer should be applied as needed.
8-Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil This Paola soils is in capability subclass Vis. The
is nearly level to gently sloping and excessively drained, woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2S.
It is on uneven side slopes and convex ridgetops on the
uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and 9-Pompano fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
range from 5 to 40 acres. The slopes are mainly 3 poorly drained. It is adjacent to poorly defined
percent or more. drainageways and is in broad, flat, low areas throughout
Typically, the surface layer is a mixture of white fine the county. The mapped areas are irregular in shape,
sand and finely divided organic material about 3 inches long and narrow, or nearly circular and range from 5 to
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 26 inches, is about 200 acres. The slopes are less than 2 percent.







Citrus County, Florida 23



Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5 most suitable tree to plant for commercial wood
inches thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80 production.
inches is light brownish gray and light gray fine sand. Wetness and the poor filtering capacity of this soil are
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of severe limitations to use for sanitary facilities. Seepage
Adamsville and Basinger soils. Also included are soils and possible contamination of ground water require that
that are similar to Pompano soil but have an organic sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills be sealed.
layer 2 to 6 inches thick; soils that have a surface layer Wetness also is a severe limitation for building site
more than 20 inches thick; and soils that have a sandy development. An adequate water control system should
loam subsoil layer at a depth of more than 40 inches. be installed. Cutbanks may cave. Wetness and drought
The included soils make up less than 20 percent of the conditions during dry periods severely limit the use of
map unit. this soil for lawns, landscaping, and golf fairways.
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface layer Species adapted to these conditions should be planted,
for 2 to 6 months. It is more than 30 inches below the or a water control system to remove excess water or to
surface during extended dry periods. This soil has slow provide irrigation during the dry periods should be
internal drainage. Permeability is rapid, and runoff is installed. Fertilizer and lime should be regularly applied.
slow. The available water capacity is very low. Reaction This Pompano soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
ranges from very strongly acid to mildly alkaline. Natural woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W.
fertility is low. Plant response to fertilizer is moderate.
Typically, this Pompano soil is in the Slough range 10-Pompano fine sand, depressional. This soil is
site. This site can be identified by an open expanse of nearly level and poorly drained. It is in depressions on
grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area that is saturated the flatwood and in the river valley lowland parts of the
during the rainy season. If grazing is controlled, the county. The mapped areas are irregular in shape or
potential of this site for forage production is almost as somewhat circular and range from about 5 to 150 acres.
high as it is in the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range The slopes are 2 percent or less.
site. Desirable forage plants on this site include blue Typically, the surface layer is a dark gray fine sand
maidencane, maidencane, chalky bluestem, about 9 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth
toothachegrass, and South Florida bluestem. of 80 inches or more is light brownish gray, gray, and
Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to dominate the light gray fine sand.
site if it is excessively grazed. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. A water Adamsville, Basinger, EauGallie, Kanapaha, and Tavares
control system that includes surface or subsurface drains soils. The included soils make up less than 20 percent of
is needed to remove excess water during wet seasons, the map unit.
In dry seasons, an irrigation system is needed because This soil is ponded for 3 to 9 months. In slightly
of the low available water capacity of the soil. Row crops elevated positions around the margins of the ponded
on the contour in alternate strips with close-growing areas, the water table is within 10 inches of the surface,
cover crops help control erosion. A crop rotation system and these areas are ponded in years of heavy rainfall.
is needed that keeps the soil covered with close- The water table is rarely at a depth of more than 10
growing, soil-improving crops three-fourths of the time. inches. Permeability is rapid. The available water
Bedding in rows is sometimes necessary to lower the capacity is very low. Reaction ranges from very strongly
depth of the water table. Fertilizer and lime should be acid to mildly alkaline. Natural fertility is low or very low.
applied according to the need of the crop. Plant response to fertilizer is moderate.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture if the Typically, this Pompano soil is in the Freshwater
surface water can be controlled. Pangolagrass, improved Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
bahiagrasses, and white clover will grow well if managed identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
properly. Surface ditches or a subsurface drainage rushes, and other herbaceous plants in an area that is
system is needed to remove excess surface water. generally saturated or covered by surface water for 2 or
Regular applications of fertilizer should be applied as more months during the year. If grazing is controlled, this
needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant vigor range site has the potential to produce more forage than
for maximum yields. any of the other range sites in the county. Chalky
This soil has a moderate potential for production of bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the dry parts of
pine trees if a water control system, such as surface the site, white maidencane is the dominant plant in the
ditches, is installed to remove excess surface water. The wet parts. Other desirable forage on this site includes
major concerns in management are the severe cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
limitations of this soil to use of equipment and the panicums. Periodic high water levels provide neutral
severe seedling mortality rate. If adequately drained, the deferment from cattle grazing if grazing is not properly
seedling mortality rate can be reduced. Slash pine is the controlled. Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to







24 Soil Survey



dominate the dry parts of the site if it is excessively Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
grazed. severely limit the use of this soil for cultivated crops.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or improved Few crops are adapted to these conditions, and potential
pasture because of ponding. Water control systems are yields are low. Row crops planted on the contour in
difficult to establish because suitable outlets are not alternate strips with close-growing cover crops help
available and because of the position of the soil on the control erosion. A crop rotation system is needed that
landscape. keeps the soil covered with close-growing crops at least
This soil has a moderate potential for the production two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving crops and crop
of pine trees if a surface or subsurface drainage system residue left on the soil help maintain or increase the
can be installed to remove excess surface water. content of organic matter in the soil. Regular applications
Limitations to use of equipment on this soil are severe, of fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
The seedling mortality rate and competition from need of the crop. Irrigation should be provided if crop
undesirable plants are also severe. These limitations are value warrants.
the main concerns in management. This soil is well suited to improved pasture.
Ponding of this soil and the difficulty of controlling Pangolagrass, Coastal bermudagrass, and bahiagrasses
wetness severely limit the use of this soil for urban are well adapted. Regular applications of fertilizer are
development, needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant vigor
This Pompano soil is in capability subclass VIIw. The for maximum yields.
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2W. This soil has a moderately high potential for the
production of pine trees. The main concerns in
11-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This management are moderate limitations of the soil to use
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well of equipment and the moderate seedling mortality rate.
drained. It is on knolls and ridges throughout the county Slash pine is the most suitable tree to plant for
and on lower ridges on the uplands. The mapped areas commercial wood production.
are long and narrow or somewhat circular and range Wetness is a moderate limitation to use of this soil as
from about 5 to 200 acres. The slopes are 5 percent or septic tank absorption fields. If the soil is used for
less. sanitary landfills or sewage lagoons, the facilities should
Typically, this soil is fine sand throughout. The surface be sealed to help prevent seepage and contamination of
layer is dark grayish brown about 3 inches thick. The the ground water. The limitations for most building site
upper part of underlying material, to a depth of 63 development are slight to moderate, however, cutbanks
inches, is very pale brown. The lower part to a depth of may cave. Droughtiness and low fertility are severe
80 inches is white. limitations to use of this soil for landscaping. Species
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of adapted to these conditions should be planted or an
Adamsville, Candler, and Lake soils. Also included are irrigation system should be installed to supply water
small areas of soils that are similar to Tavares soil but during dry periods. Fertilizers should be applied as
have a few limestone boulders at a depth of about 60 needed.
inches or more. The included soils make up about 20 This Tavares soil is in capability subclass Ills. The
percent of the map unit. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10S.
The water table is between depths of 40 and 72
inches for up to 6 months. Permeability is rapid or very 12-Immokalee fine sand. This soil is nearly level
rapid. The available water capacity is very low. The soil and poorly drained. It is in broad flatwood areas and also
becomes drought during periods of low rainfall, occurs as scattered, transitional areas between the
Reaction ranges from extremely acid to medium acid in elevated, better drained soils and the more poorly
the surface layer and from very strongly acid to medium drained, ponded soils throughout the county. The
acid in the other layers. Natural fertility is low. Plant mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 5 to
response to fertilizer is moderate. 50 acres. The slopes are 2 percent or less.
Typically, this Tavares soil is in the Longleaf Pine- Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
Turkey Oak Hills range site. This site is on rolling land inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 33
that is nearly level to strongly sloping. It is easily inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil
recognized by the landform and dominant vegetation of extends to a depth of 52 inches. It is very dark grayish
longleaf pine and turkey oak. The natural fertility of this brown and dark reddish brown fine sand. The sand
site is low as a result of the rapid movement of plant grains in the subsoil are coated with finely divided
nutrients and water through the soil. The forage organic material. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches
production and quality are poor, and cattle do not readily is light brownish gray and light gray fine sand.'
use this range site if other sites are available. Desirable Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
forage on this site includes creeping bluestem, lopsided Basinger, EauGallie, Myakka, and Pompano soils. Also
indiangrass, and low panicum. included are small areas of soils that are similar to







Citrus County, Florida 25



Immokalee soil but have limestone bedrock at a depth of 13-Okeelanta muck. This soil is nearly level and
more than 60 inches. The included soils make up about very poorly drained. It is in depressions and freshwater
20 percent of the map unit. coastal swamps. It receives drainage from other soils
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches and retains the water for long periods. The mapped
for 2 months. It recedes between depths of 10 and 40 areas are irregular in shape and range from about 5 to
inches for 8 months or more and is at a depth of more 150 acres. The slopes are less than 2 percent.
than 40 inches during dry periods. Internal drainage is Typically, the surface layer is well decomposed, black
slow. Permeability is moderate in the subsoil and rapid in muck about 8 inches thick. Below that layer, very dark
the other layers. The available water capacity is gray muck extends to a depth of 35 inches, and very
moderate in the subsoil and low or very low in the other dark grayish muck extends to a depth of 38 inches. The
layers. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
medium acid. Natural fertility is low. Plant response to light grayish brown and light gray fine sand.
fertilizer is moderate. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Typically, this Immokalee soil is in the South Florida depressional phases of Basinger, EauGallie, and
Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by Pompano soils and some small areas of Lauderhill and
scattered pine trees that have an understory of saw Terra Ceia soils. The included soils make up about 25
palmetto and grasses. If grazing is controlled, this range percent of the map unit.
site has the potential to produce significant amount of This soil is ponded for 6 to 12 months. The water
creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky table recedes to a depth of less than 10 inches during
bluestem, and various panicum species. If the range dry periods. Internal drainage is slow. The organic
deteriorates as a result of poor grazing management, material is exposed to oxidation by the removal of the
saw palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) will water, and subsidence occurs. With continued artificial
dominate the site. drainage for an extended period, only a small part of the
This soil is fairly suited to cultivated crops. The original organic surface layer may remain, and the
installation of surface ditches or a subsurface drainage mineral layer may be near the surface or exposed.
system to remove excess water during wet periods and Permeability is rapid. The organic material is highly
provide water through irrigation during dry periods can absorbent and has a very high available water capacity.
increase the suitability of this soil for crops commonly The underlying sands have a low or very low available
grown in this county. Row crops planted on the contour water capacity. Natural fertility is moderate. Plant
in alternate strips with close-growing crops help control response to fertilizer is very good.
erosion. A cropping system is needed that keeps the soil Typically, this Okeelanta soil is in the Freshwater
covered with close-growing, soil-improving crops three- Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
fourths of the time. Crop residue left on the surface identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
increases or helps to maintain the content of organic rushes, and other herbaceous plants in an area that is
matter in the soil. For some crops, bedding in rows is generally saturated or covered by surface water for 2 or
sometimes necessary to lower the depth of the water more months during the year. If grazing is controlled, this
table. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime should range site has the potential to produce more forage than
be applied according to the need of the crop. any of the other range sites in the county. Chalky
This soil is well suited to improved pasture. bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the dry parts of
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover the site, while maidencane is the dominant plant in the
grow well if properly fertilized and limed and if grazing is wet parts. Other desirable forage on this site includes
controlled. Overgrazing results in weak plants. cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
This soil has a moderate potential for the production panicums. Periodic high water levels provide natural
of pine trees. The moderate limitations of this soil to use deferment from cattle grazing if grazing is not properly
of equipment and the seedling mortality rate are controlled. Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to
moderate concerns in management. Slash pine is the dominate the dry parts of the site if it is excessively
most suitable tree to plant for commercial wood grazed.
production. The vegetation on this soil provides excellent habitat
This soil is poorly suited to urban and recreational for many wildlife species. Many birds and waterfowl
uses. Wetness and seepage are severe limitations to winter in the county, and some inhabit the area year-
use of this soil for sanitary facilities. Wetness also is a round. Large animals periodically also come into the
severe limitation to use for building site development, area to feed.
Cutbanks may cave. Wetness must be controlled if the If adequately drained, this soil is well suited to the
soil is used for landscaping and lawns. An irrigation production of vegetables and other crops. In some
system is needed during the drought periods, locations, the installation of a drainage system is
This Immokalee soil is in capability subclass IVw. The impractical or very costly because suitable outlets are
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W. not available. If a water control system can be installed,







26 Soil Survey



it should include surface ditches or a subsurface Typically, this Lake soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey
drainage system to remove excess water and to help Oak Hills range site. This site is on rolling land that is
prevent ponding; it should not remove so much water nearly level to strongly sloping. It is easily recognized by
that the soil will decompose and cause excessive the landform and dominant vegetation of longleaf pine
subsidence; it should allow for the regulation of the and turkey oak. The natural fertility of this site is low as a
water table depth so that it is slightly below the root result of the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water
zone of the crop grown on the soil; and it should also through the soil. The forage production and quality are
keep the soil saturated when crops are not being grown poor, and cattle do not readily use this range site if other
to limit subsidence and to control some plant diseases. sites are available. Desirable forage on this site includes
Water-tolerant cover crops should be planted if row creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and low
crops are not on the soil. Crop residue and soil- panicum.
improving cover crops left on the soil increase the Droughtiness and low fertility severely limit the use of
content of organic matter in the soil. Lime and fertilizer this soil for cultivated crops. Intensive management is
that contain phosphates and potash should be applied necessary for the production of adapted crops. Yields
according to the need of the crop. are reduced by periodic droughts. Row crops planted on
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture. the contour in alternate strips with close-growing crops
Most improved grasses and clover that are adapted to help control erosion. A crop rotation system is needed
the area grow well on this soil if the water is properly that keeps the soil covered with soil-improved, close-
controlled. Surface ditches or subsurface drains can help growing crops at least three-fourths of the time. Soil-
control ponding and can also help keep the water table improving crops and crop residue left on the soil help
near the surface to prevent excessive oxidation of the maintain the content of organic matter and the available
soil. Fertilizer that contains potash, phosphorous, and water capacity of the soil. An irrigation system, if
other minor elements should be applied as needed, feasible, should be considered if the value of the crop
This soil is not suited to commercial production of pine warrants.
trees. This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture if
This soil has severe limitations for all urban uses. deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
Ponding is a major limitation. In addition, seepage and bahiagrasses, are grown. Regular application of fertilizer
the poor filtering capacity of the underlying sandy and lime is needed. Controlled grazing protects the soil
material severely limit the use of this soil for most surface and helps to maintain plant vigor for maximum
sanitary facilities. Subsidence of the organic material yields.
prohibits most building site development. If the soil is This soil has a moderately high potential for the
artificially drained and fill material is placed over the production of pine trees. Moderate concerns in
organic material, buildings can crack and distort as the management are equipment use and seedling mortality.
organic material subsides. Slash pine is the most suitable to plant for commercial
This Okeelanta soil is in capability subclass Vllw. The wood production.
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2W. This soil has slight limitations to use as septic tank
absorption fields. Seepage is a severe limitation to use
14-Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil for sewage lagoons or sanitary landfills. A dense
is nearly level to gently sloping and excessively drained, concentration of septic tank absorption fields can
It is on the upland ridges. The mapped areas are contaminate ground water. If the soil is used for sewage
irregular in shape or somewhat circular and range from lagoons or sanitary landfills, the facilities should be
about 5 to 500 acres. sealed to help prevent seepage. Limitations for most
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand building site development are slight; however, cutbanks
about 7 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth may cave. If the soil is used for landscaping, species
of 80 inches or more is yellowish brown and brownish adapted to drought, low fertility conditions should be
yellow fine sand. planted or an irrigation system should be installed to
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of supply water during dry periods. Fertilizer should be
Arredondo, Astatula, Candler, and Tavares soils. Also applied as needed.
included are small areas of Lake soils that have slopes This Lake soil is in capability subclass IVs. The
of 5 to 9 percent. The included soils make up less than woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10S.
20 percent of the map unit.
The water table is more than 80 inches below the 15-Lake fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil
surface throughout the year. Internal drainage is rapid, is moderately sloping and excessively drained. It is on
The available water capacity is low or very low. Reaction side slopes on the uplands. The mapped areas are
is very strongly acid or strongly acid except where lime irregular in shape and range from 5 to 50 acres.
has been applied. Natural fertility is low. Plant response Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand 8
to fertilizer is poor. inches thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80







Citrus County, Florida 27



inches or more is yellowish brown, strong brown, and This Lake soil is in capability subclass VIs. The
reddish yellow fine sand. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10S.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Arredondo, Astatula, Candler, and Tavares soils. Also 16-Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
included are small areas of Lake soils that have slopes This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and well
of less than 5 percent and small areas of Lake soils that drained. It is on upland ridges. The mapped areas are
have slopes of up to 12 percent. The included soils mainly oblong and range from 5 to 200 acres.
make up less than 20 percent of the map unit. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
The water table is more than 80 inches below the fine sand 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
surface throughout the year. Internal drainage is rapid. depth of 41 inches, is dark yellowish brown and
The available water capacity is low or very low. Reaction yellowish brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil,
is very strongly acid or strongly acid except where lime to a depth of 65 inches, is strong brown loamy fine sand.
has been applied. Natural fertility is low. Plant response The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is strong brown
to fertilizer is moderate. sandy clay loam.
Typically, this Lake soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Oak Hills range site. This site is on rolling land that is Apopka, Candler, Kendrick, Lake, and Sparr soils. Also
nearly level to strongly sloping. It is easily recognized by included are small areas of Arredondo soils that have
the landform and dominant vegetation of longleaf pine slopes of up to 9 percent. The included soils make up
and turkey oak. The natural fertility of this site is low as a less than 20 percent of the map unit.
result of the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water The water table is more than 6 feet below the surface
through the soil. The forage production and quality are in most years. A perched water table is on the top of the
poor, and cattle do not readily use this range site if other subsoil for 2 days or less following heavy rains. Rain is
sites are available. Desirable forage includes creeping rapidly absorbed, and runoff is slow if the surface layer is
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and low panicum. vegetated. Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, moderate to slow in the loamy layers. The available
Droughtiness, low fertility, and slope severely limit the water capacity is low to moderate in the sandy layers
use of this soil for crop production. Erosion is a severe and moderate in the loamy layers. The soil is drought
hazard. during periods of low rainfall. Reaction ranges from very
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture if strongly acid to medium acid except where lime has
adapted, deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal been applied. Natural fertility is moderate to low. Plant
bermudagrass and bahiagrasses, are grown. Yields are response to fertilizer is good.
low during periodic droughts. Controlled grazing helps to Typically, this Arredondo soil is in the Longleaf Pine-
maintain plant vigor for maximum yields and protects the Turkey Oak Hills range site. This site is on rolling land
soil by keeping vegetation on the surface. Regular that is nearly level to strongly sloping. It is easily
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled recognized by the landform and dominant vegetation of
grazing helps to maintain plant vigor for maximum yields longleaf pine and turkey oak. The natural fertility of this
and protects the soil by keeping vegetation on the site is low as a result of the rapid movement of plant
surface. nutrients and water through the soil. The forage
This soil has a moderately high potential for the production and quality are poor, and cattle do not readily
production of pine trees. Moderate concerns in use this range site if other sites are available. Desirable
management are equipment use and seedling mortality, forage on this site includes creeping bluestem, lopsided
Slash pine is the most suitable tree to plant for indiangrass, and low panicum.
commercial wood production. This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The soil is
This soil has slight limitations to use as septic tank drought, and plant nutrients are rapidly leached. A well
absorption fields. Seepage is a severe limitation to use designed program of soil-improving practices will give the
for sewage lagoons or sanitary landfills. A dense best results. Row crops planted in alternate strips with
concentration of septic tank absorption fields can close-growing crops help control erosion. A crop rotation
contaminate the ground water. If the soil is used for system is needed that keeps the soil covered with soil-
sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills, the facilities improving, close-growing cover crops at least two-thirds
should be sealed to help prevent seepage. Limitations to of the time. Soil-improving crops and crop residue left on
use for most building site development are slight. Slope the surface improve soil quality and increase the content
is a moderate limitation for small commercial buildings. of organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer and lime should be
Cutbanks may cave. If the soil is used for landscaping, applied according to the need of the crop. Crop value
species adapted to drought, low fertility conditions may make irrigation feasible if water is readily available.
should be planted or an irrigation system should be This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops if
installed to supply water during dry periods. Fertilizer deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
should be applied as needed, bahiagrasses are grown. They must be properly fertilized







28 Soil Survey



and limed. Controlled grazing protects the soil surface Typically, this Arredondo soil is in the Longleaf Pine-
and helps to maintain plant vigor for maximum yields. Turkey Oak Hills range site. This site is on rolling land
Overgrazing can greatly reduce yields, especially, if the that is nearly level to strongly sloping. It is easily
plants have been exposed to drought or severe frost. recognized by the landform and dominant vegetation of
This soil has a moderately high potential for the longleaf pine and turkey oak. The natural fertility of this
production of pine trees. The primary concerns in site is low as a result of the rapid movement of plant
management include equipment use and plant nutrients and water through the soil. The forage
competition. Slash pine is the most suitable tree to plant production and quality are poor, and cattle do not readily
for commercial wood production. use this range site if other sites are available. Desirable
This soil has slight limitations to use as septic tank forage on this site includes creeping bluestem, lopsided
absorption fields. The sandy nature of the soil allows for indiangrass, and low panicums.
seepage from sewage lagoon and sanitary landfill This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
facilities that are not lined or sealed. Limitations for Droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients
dwellings and commercial buildings are slight, but are limitations. Erosion is a moderate hazard. Row crops
cutbacks may cave. The unfavorable sandy features of planted on the contour in alternate strips with close-
this soil severely limit its use for landscaping, lawn, and growing crops help control erosion. A crop rotation
golf course development. For these uses, an irrigation system is needed that keeps the soil covered with close-
system is generally needed, and fertilizer and lime growing, soil-improving crops at least three-fourths of the
should be frequently applied. time. Crop residue and soil-improving crops left on the
should be f l p d soil improve soil quality and maintain or increase the
This Arredondo soil is in capability subclass Ills. The soil improve soil quality and maintain or increase the
this soil is content of organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer and lime
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10S. should be applied according to the need of the crop.
red o fine sa, 5 to 8 percent slop. This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay
17-Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. ropif pie ts h a os
This soil is moderately sloping and well drained. It is on rs demageras and bahiagasses, a gon T st
sThe mapped areas bermudagrass and bahiagrasses, are grown. They must
the side slopes of the upland ridges. The mapped areas be properly fertilized and limed. Drought and frost
are irregular in shape and are generally less than 50 periodically reduce plant growth. Controlled grazing
acres.periodically reduce plant growth. Controlled grazing
acres hes is eay fine sand protects the soil surface and helps to maintain plant
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand vigor. Overgrazing can result in low yields, and
3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 54 vegetation on the soil surface is reduced.
inches, is light yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and This soil has a moderately high potential for the
very pale brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, production of pine trees. The primary concerns in
to a depth of 57 inches, is strong brown loamy fine sand. management include equipment use and plant
The middle part, to a depth of 77 inches, is strong brown competition. Slash pine is the most suitable tree to plant
sandy clay loam and sandy clay. The lower part to a for commercial wood production.
depth of 97 inches is reddish yellow loamy fine sand. This soil has slight limitations to use as septic tank
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of absorption fields. The sandy nature of the soil allows for
Apopka, Candler, Kendrick, Lake, and Sparr soils. Also seepage from sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills
included are small areas of Arredondo soils that have facilities that are not lined or sealed. Limitations for
slopes of less than 5 percent and small areas of dwellings are slight. Slope is a moderate limitation for
Arredondo soils that have slopes of up to 12 percent. commercial buildings. In addition, cutbacks may cave.
The included soils make up about 20 percent of the map This soil has severe limitations to use for landscaping,
unit. lawns, and golf course development. For these uses, an
The water table is more than 72 inches below the irrigation system is generally needed, and fertilizer and
surface throughout the year. In a few areas, a perched lime should be frequently applied.
water table is on the top of the subsoil for less than 2 This Arredondo soil is in capability subclass IVs. The
days following intense rains. Rain is rapidly absorbed if woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10S.
the surface layer is protected by vegetation. A moderate
erosion hazard exists on unprotected areas as a result of 18-Kendrick fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
runoff during heavy rains. Permeability is rapid in the soil is nearly level to gently sloping and well drained. It is
sandy layers and moderate to slow in the loamy layers. on upland ridges. The mapped areas are irregular in
The available water capacity is low to moderate in the shape and range from 5 to 200 acres. The slopes are
sandy layers and moderate in the loamy layers. The soil smooth to concave.
is drought during periods of low rainfall. Reaction Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid except sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
where lime has been applied. Natural fertility is moderate depth of 28 inches, is yellowish brown and brownish
to low. Plant response to fertilizer is good. yellow fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a






Citrus County, Florida 29



depth of 34 inches, is yellowish brown fine sandy loam. planted. The installation of an irrigation system is often
The middle part, to a depth of 63 inches, is yellowish necessary, and fertilizer should be applied as needed.
brown and strong brown sandy clay. The lower part to a This Kendrick soil is in capability subclass lie. The
depth of 80 inches is mottled strong brown, dark red, woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11S.
and light gray sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 19-Kendrick fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
Arredondo, Lochloosa, Micanopy, and Williston soils, soil is moderately sloping and well drained. It is on
Also included are small areas of Kendrick soils that have upland ridges. The mapped areas are irregular in shape
slopes of 5 to 8 percent. The included soils make up and range from 5 to about 100 acres. The slopes are
about 20 percent of the map unit. smooth to concave.
In most years, the water table is more than 6 feet Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown fine
below the surface throughout the year. Permeability is sand 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
rapid in the sandy layers and moderately slow or slow in 26 inches, is brown and yellowish brown fine sand. The
the subsoil. The available water capacity is low to upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 30 inches, is
moderate in the sandy layers and high in the subsoil. yellowish brown sandy loam. The middle part, to a depth
of 56 inches, is dark yellowish brown sandy clay loam.
Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid except T he lower part to a deph of 80 inches is motled strong
where lime has been applied. Natural fertility is low. Plant The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is mottled strong
where lime has been applied. Natural fertility is low. Plant brown, dark red, and light gray sandy clay loam.
response to fertilizer is good n t U H. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Typically, this Kendrick soil is in the Upland Hardwood Arredondo, Lochloosa, Sparr, and Williston soils. Also
Hammock range site. This site is readily identified by the included are small areas of Kendrick soils that have
dense canopy of oaks, magnolias, and hickories. Cattle slopes of 0 to 5 percent and small areas of Kendrick
use the areas where the canopy is dense for shade and soils that have slopes of up to 10 percent. The included
resting. Desirable forage on this site includes soils make up about 20 percent of the map unit.
indiangrass, switchgrass, longleaf uniola, and chalky In most years, the water table is more than 6 feet
bluestem. below the surface throughout the year. Permeability is
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The rapid in the sandy layers and moderately slow to slow in
main limitation is periodic droughtiness. Erosion is a the subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the
hazard. Row crops planted on the contour and in sandy layers and moderate in the subsoil. The erosion
alternate strips with close-growing cover crops help hazard is severe. Runoff during rainfall is rapid in
control erosion. A crop rotation system is needed that unprotected areas. Reaction is very strongly acid or
keeps the soil covered with soil-improving, close-growing strongly acid except where lime has been applied.
cover crops at least half the time. Crop residue and soil- Natural fertility is low. Plant response to fertilizer is good.
improving crops left on the soil increase the content of Typically, this Kendrick soil is in the Upland Hardwood
organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer and lime should be Hammock range site. This site is readily identified by the
applied according to the need of the crop. If crop value dense canopy of oaks, magnolias, and hickories. Cattle
warrants, irrigation will ensure maximum yields. use the areas where the canopy is dense for shade and
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture. resting. Desirable forage on this site includes
Pangolagrass and bahiagrass grow well if properly indiangrass, switchgrass, longleaf uniola, and chalky
fertilized and limed. Controlled grazing will help obtain bluestem.
maximum yields and maintain a good ground cover to This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The
protect the soil surface. main concern in management is the erosion hazard. This
This soil has high potential for the production of pine hazard can be reduced by planting row crops on the
trees. Moderate concerns in management are equipment contour and in alternate strips with close-growing cover
use, seedling mortality, and undesirable plant crops. A crop rotation system is needed that keeps the
competition. Slash pine is the most suitable tree to plant soil covered with soil-improving, close-growing cover
for commercial wood production. crops at least half the time. Crop residue and soil-
The permeability of the subsoil is a moderate limitation improving crops left on the soil increase the content of
to use of this soil as a septic tank absorption fields. This organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer and lime should be
soil has slight limitations to use for trench sanitary applied according to the need of the crop.
landfills. If used for area sanitary landfills or sewage This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Coastal
lagoons, the facilities should be sealed to help prevent bermudagrass and improved bahiagrasses are well
seepage. The limitations for most building site adapted and provide good cover to the soil if well
developments are slight; but cutbacks may cave. managed. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according
Droughtiness is a moderate limitation to use of this soil to the need of the crop. Controlled grazing helps to
for lawns, landscaping, and golf fairways. Species maintain plant vigor for maximum yields and to keep a
adapted to low fertility and drought conditions should be good ground cover on the surface.







30 Soil Survey



This soil has a high potential for the production of pine are not sealed before using them as a dump for
trees. Moderate concerns in management are equipment hazardous materials, or ground water contamination can
use, seedling mortality, and undesirable plant occur if the Pits receive contaminated runoff water.
competition. Slash pine is the most suitable tree to plant Vegetated Pits are generally an excellent habitat for
for commercial wood production, wildlife; and if surrounded by urbanized areas, they act
The permeability of the subsoil is a moderate limitation as a buffer zone for wildlife.
to use of this soil as septic tank absorption fields. This Pits were not assigned to a capability subclass or to a
soil has slight limitations to use for trench sanitary woodland group.
landfills. If used for area sanitary landfills or sewage
lagoons, the facilities should be sealed to help prevent 22-Quartzipsamments, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
seepage. Slope is a moderate limitation to use of this soil is nearly level to gently sloping. It has been
soil for commercial buildings; but limitations are slight for reworked and shaped by earthmoving equipment. This
other building site development. Cutbanks may cave. If map unit commonly is adjacent to urban lands but can
the soil is used for development of lawns, landscaping, occur throughout the county. Many areas of this soil
or golf courses, periodic droughtiness is a moderate were formerly sloughs, marshes, shallow ponds, or other
limitation. Species adapted to low fertility and drought areas of standing water. These areas have been filled
conditions should be planted. The installation of an with sandy soil material to the level of the surrounding
irrigation system may be necessary, and fertilizer should landscape, or higher. In a few areas, this soil originally
be applied as needed, was on the high ridges that were excavated to below
This Kendrick soil is in capability subclass Ille. The natural ground level. Smoothing and shaping have made
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11S. the soil better suited to use as sites for buildings, roads
and streets, recreation areas, and other related uses.
20-Pits. This map unit consists of irregularly-shaped, The color and thickness of the various layers of this
open Pits from which the soil and other materials have soil are variable. One of the more common profiles has a
been mined or excavated. The mined material was surface layer of mottled brownish yellow and pale brown
mainly limestone and phosphate; but in some areas, fine sand 54 inches thick. The upper part of the
sand and other soil material were removed. These underlying material, to a depth of 59 inches, is dark gray
excavations are 5 to 50 feet below the surrounding fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is
natural ground level. The walls are strongly sloping to brownish yellow fine sand.
nearly vertical and consist of exposed layers of sand and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
other soil material and, frequently, bedrock. Basinger and Immokalee soils that have not been
In most areas, the bottoms of the Pits consist of a disturbed. Also included are small areas that have less
highly variable mixture of smooth to strongly sloping than 20 inches of fill material on the surface, and areas
sand and geologic materials. These materials may where small amounts of soil material, such as sandy
contain scattered limestone boulders or limestone loam, sandy clay loam, and sandy clay, are mixed with
bedrock, or both. In areas where the Pits have been the sand. Scattered fragments of hard limestone are in
excavated to near ground water level, they retain water some places. The included soils generally make up less
for variable periods and have a seasonal high water than 20 percent of the map unit.
table. Some Pits are permanent bodies of water and, if The depth to the water table is variable, but it ranges
large enough, are shown on the soil maps as water. In from about 20 inches to more than 72 inches depending
these areas, fish and other wildlife have become on the thickness of the fill material and drainage of the
established. Other Pits have exposed bedrock. underlying soil. In most excavated areas, the water table
Where excavation operations are active or recent, the is at a depth of more than 72 inches. Permeability is
Pits are not vegetated. A succession of vegetation by variable, but generally it is very rapid. The available
various plant species native to the area are in water capacity is also variable, but generally it is very
abandoned Pits. Initial vegetation generally consists of low. Natural fertility is very low.
scattered annual weed species and grasses. Over time, In most parts of the county, the soil has slight
a population of trees and shrubs develops. The plants in limitations to use as septic tank absorption fields if
the drier Pits are similar to plants on well drained to sufficient fill material has been added to lower the water
excessively drained landscapes. Wetter Pits have a table to a suitable depth. If the fill layer is too thin and
vegetation of more water-tolerant species. the area was formerly a ponded site, this soil has severe
The variability of the material in the Pits does not to moderate limitations to use as septic tank absorption
permit the establishing of suitabilities for various uses. fields if a drainage system has not been installed to
The walls of the Pits may need reworking and remove the excess water. Seepage is a severe limitation
stabilization to prevent erosion and caving. If the Pits if this sandy soil is used for sanitary landfills or sewage
were excavated to near ground water level, ground water lagoons unless the facilities are sealed to help prevent
contamination can be a hazard. This can occur if they ground water contamination. In most areas, the







Citrus County, Florida
31


limitations of this soil for dwellings and commercial Typically, Weekiwachee and Durbin soils are in the
buildings are slight, but cutbacks may cave. In areas Salt Marsh range site. This site can be identified by level,
where the water table is too shallow, this soil has severe tidal marsh areas that have the potential to produce
limitations for structures with basements. Droughtiness significant amounts of smooth cordgrass, haymarsh
and the very low natural fertility severely limit the use of cordgrass, seashore saltgrass, and many other forage
this soil for lawns, landscaping, and golf course grasses and forbs.
development. Species adapted to very low fertility and Tidal action causes saltwater saturation of the soil and
drought conditions should be planted. An irrigation inundates the soils to a few inches above the surface
system to supply water during dry periods is needed. layef. In some areas, these soils are soft and will not
Fertilizer should be applied as needed, support the weight of a large animal. In areas that are
This soil has not been assigned to a capability suitable for grazing, the potential to produce desirable
subclass or to a woodland group. forage is almost as high as it is on a freshwater marsh.
Poorly managed salt marshes are generally dominated
23-Weekiwachee-Durbin mucks. This complex by rushes and sawgrass.
consists of very poorly drained, well decomposed y g
organic soils that contain sulfur. These soils are along The soils in this map unit support a wide variety of
organic soils that contain sulfur. These soils are along wildlife. They provide suitable habitat for many
the coast at about sea level. They are in broad, flat, tidal invertebrate species. These rove tablespecies in turnhabfor many
marshes. The soil area is a transition zone between verteasa t seciThese f nvertebrate speciesn turn
freshwater and marine water. serve as a foot source for many marine species.
eek i t i o t m Freshwater fish and marine fish often share areas where
Weekiwachee soil mainly is in the interior of the map the salinity of the water is diluted by incoming
unit and in those parts that are adjacent to mineral soils the saty of the waer is diluted bit ncomrng
or rock outcrop. Durbin soil mainly is exposed to open freshwater These areas also provide habitat for the
water and along tidal flood channels and streams. The migratory bird and wading birds.
mapped areas range from small, isolated islands of Wetness, organic matter content, sulfur content,
about 4 acres to broad, extensive areas of several salinity, and depth to bedrock limitations of these soils
hundred acres. The individual areas of the soils in this must be considered for any intended use. Flooding is a
map unit are too mixed or too small to map separately at hazard.
the scale used for the maps in the back of this The soils in this map unit are not suited to urban
publication, development, cultivated crops, improved pasture,
Weekiwachee soil makes up about 45 percent of the rangeland, or commercial tree production. For any of
map unit but ranges from 20 to 80 percent in individual these uses, flooding and wetness must be overcome.
delineations. Small, isolated delineations generally have Extensive dikes would be needed to control tidal
a higher percentage of this soil. Durbin soil makes up flooding. Because of the position of these soils on the
about 40 percent of the map unit but ranges from 10 to landscape, suitable outlets for artificial drainage are not
50 percent in individual delineations. The included soils available, and a drainage system, such as pumps, is
make up about 15 percent of the map unit. needed to control wetness. Even if a water control
Typically, Weekiwachee soil has a surface layer of system could be developed, salinity of the soil and air
black muck that extends to a depth of 34 inches. The would restrict plantings to salt-tolerant species. Drainage
underlying material, to a depth of 38 inches, is gray fine of these soils causes extreme acidity because of the
sand. The next layer, to a depth of 41 inches, is white, oxidation of the contained sulfur.
soft limestone bedrock that is easily broken with hand The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass
tools. The soft limestone bedrock is underlain by hard Vlllw, but they have not been assigned to a woodland
limestone bedrock. group.
Durbin soil has a surface layer that is very dark gray
muck about 7 inches thick. Below the surface layer, 24-Okeelanta-Lauderhill-Terra Ceia mucks. This
black muck extends to a depth of 80 inches, complex consists of nearly level, very poorly drained,
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of well decomposed organic soils. These soils are in broad,
Lauderhill, Okeelanta, and Terra Ceia soils. Also included freshwater swamps that parallel the coast. Most of the
are some small areas of rock outcrop and a soil near the area is less than 5 feet above sea level, and limestone
inland areas that is similar to Weekiwachee soil. This soil bedrock is frequently within 80 inches of the surface
has a sandy substratum up to 30 inches thick between layer. Mineral soils on small, slightly elevated islands are
the organic layers and the bedrock. adjacent to these organic soils. Poorly defined, small
Most soils in this map unit are flooded daily at normal ponds and streams are common during dry periods.
high tide. All soils in this map unit are flooded during Water covers most of the area during wet periods. A few
storm tides. The organic soils remain nearly saturated freshwater springs are present. The mapped areas range
between high tides. These soils are moderately rapidly from 1 acre or less to about 10 acres. The individual
permeable. The available water capacity is very high. areas of soils in this map unit are too mixed or too small







32 Soil Survey



to map separately at the scale used for the maps in the should be designed to retain sufficient water to prevent
back of this publication, excessive oxidation of the organic material. Most
Okeelanta soil makes up about 28 percent of the map improved grasses and clover that are adapted to the
unit. Lauderhill soil makes up about 25 percent. Terra area grow well. Grazing should be controlled. Fertilizers
Ceia soil makes up about 23 percent. The included soils should be applied according to the needs of the soils.
make up about 24 percent of the map unit. The soils in this map unit are not suited to use as
Typically, Okeelanta soil has a surface layer that is rangeland because water stands on the soils for long
black muck about 8 inches thick. Below the surface periods and because forage production is low. These
layer, dark reddish brown muck extends to a depth of 32 soils are also not suited to commercial pine tree
inches. The underlying material to a depth of 80 inches production because of wetness.
is dark gray fine sand. The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for
Typically, Lauderhill soil has a surface layer that is urban development. The water problem is difficult to
black muck about 9 inches thick. Below the surface overcome. In addition, the excess humus content and
layer, dark brown muck extends to a depth of 26 inches the depth to bedrock indicate that very costly measures
and is underlain by hard, white limestone bedrock. would be needed to develop the area. The organic
Typically, Terra Ceia soil has a surface layer that is matter needs to be removed to eliminate possible
black muck about 8 inches thick. Below the surface subsidence and damage to buildings.
layer, very dark brown muck extends to a depth of 80 e ss in i ma ut in
inches. The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass
included with these soils in mapping are soils that VIw. The woodland ordination symbol for these soils is
have sandy, loamy, or mucky layers underlain by hard
limestone bedrock at a depth of 3 to 20 inches. Also 25Lochloosa fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
included are soils that are similar to Okeelanta and Terra 25-LThis soil is nearly level to gently 5 percent slopmewhat
Ceia soils that have limestone bedrock at a depth of Thorl y drane el to gently sloping and somewhat
more than 50 inches. poorly drained. It is in gently undulating areas on the
The soils in this complex are pounded for 6 to 12 upland ridges. The mapped areas mainly range from
months. The water recedes to a depth of less than 10 small areas of as much as about 15 acres to a few
inches during dry periods and to a depth of more than extensive areas of 200 acres or more.
10 inches during extended periods of drought. Internal Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
drainage is slow. Surface outlets are limited. Permeability about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
is rapid in the organic layers and is very rapidly 27 inches, is brown and light yellowish brown fine sand.
permeable in pedons that have sandy mineral layers. A few faint grayish brown mottles are in the lower 10
The available water capacity is very high in the organic inches in the subsurface layer. The upper part of the
layers and is low in the sandy mineral layers. Natural subsoil, to a depth of 37 inches, is light yellowish brown
fertility is high. Vegetation is restricted to water-tolerant fine sandy loam. The middle part, to a depth of 48
plants, inches, is light brownish gray sandy clay loam. The lower
Most of the soils in this map unit remain in a dense, part, to a depth of 63 inches, is gray clay. The
native forest vegetation of sweetgum, cypress, sweetbay, substratum to a depth of 80 inches is light gray sandy
water-tolerant oaks, hickory, magnolia, paspalum and clay loam.
panicum grasses, cattails, and sawgrass (fig. 4). Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The soils in this map unit are well suited to vegetables Broward, Kendrick, and Sparr soils. Also included are
and certain other crops if water control can be small areas of soils that are similar to Lochloosa soil but
established. Because of low elevations, the unavailability are more poorly drained. The included soils make up
of suitable outlets, and the depth to bedrock, it is difficult less than 20 percent of the map unit.
to establish an adequate water control system. If The water table is between depths of 30 and 60
practical, a water control system that includes surface inches for 1 month to 4 months. It may rise above 30
ditches or subsurface drainage to remove excess water inches for periods of less than 3 weeks during periods of
is needed to increase and maintain the root zone. When heavy rainfall. The water table is at a depth of more than
a crop is not on the soils, the drainage system should 60 inches during dry periods. In some areas, side slopes
allow for the retention of water to inhibit subsidence. are wet for longer periods because of seepage.
Water-tolerant cover crops should be grown and left on Permeability is rapid or moderately rapid in the surface
the surface to replace organic matter. Lime and fertilizer and subsurface layers and ranges from moderate to slow
should be applied as needed. in the subsoil. The available water capacity is very low or
If water can be properly controlled, the soils in this low in the surface and subsurface layers and medium to
map unit are suited to improved pasture. Surface ditches high in the subsoil. Reaction is strongly acid to extremely
and a subsurface drainage system are needed to acid except where lime has been applied. Natural fertility
remove standing water, but these drainage systems is low. Plant response to fertilizer is moderate.







Citrus County, Florida 33

































Figure 4.-The natural vegetation on Okeelanta-Lauderhill-Terra Cela mucks protects wetlands from erosion and provides an excellent
habitat for wildlife.



Typically, this Lochloosa soil is in the Upland This soil is moderately well suited to pastures of
Hardwood Hammock range site. This site is readily pangolagrass and bahiagrass. The installation of a well
identified by the dense canopy of oaks, magnolias, and designed water control system, such as surface ditches,
hickories. Cattle use the areas where the canopy is is needed to remove excess surface water and to control
dense for shade and resting. Desirable forage on this erosion on the more sloping areas. Crops respond well
site includes indiangrass, switchgrass, longleaf uniola, to periodic applications of fertilizer and lime and to the
and chalky bluestem. nutrients from the fertilizer. Controlled grazing helps to
This soil is moderately suited to a variety of crops if maintain plant vigor for maximum yields and protects the
managed properly. A drainage system, such as surface soil by keeping a vegetative cover on the surface.
ditches, is needed to reduce wetness and divert seepage Grazing control is especially important if the plants have
from wet spots. Such a system is needed to control been exposed to frost or drought.
possible water erosion in the more sloping areas. Row The dense canopy cover in the uncleared areas of this
crops planted on the contour help control erosion. A soil generally results in low production of grazing plants
crop rotation system is needed that keeps the soil and limited use of the soil as native rangeland.
covered with soil-improving, close-growing cover crops at This soil has a high potential for the production of pine
least two-thirds of the time. Crop residue left on the soil trees. Concerns in management are slight. Slash pine is
helps to control erosion and increases the content of the most suitable tree to plant for commercial wood
organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer and lime should be production.
applied according to the need of the crop.







34 Soil Survey



This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses. is rapid in the surface layer of Williston and Pedro soils.
Wetness and seepage are major problems if this soil is It is moderately slow in the subsoil of Williston soil and
used for sanitary facilities. A water control system, such moderately rapid in the subsoil of Pedro soil. Rainfall is
as surface drainage ditches, is needed to remove excess rapidly absorbed on protected area and retained by the
water. All sanitary facilities should be designed to soil. Runoff during rains is moderate on unprotected
prevent environmental contamination. Sanitary landfills areas. The available water capacity of these soils is low
should be sealed to help prevent seepage. This soil has to very low in the surface layer and moderate to high in
only slight limitations to use for most building site the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Erosion is a moderate
development if soil wetness can be overcome; however, hazard. The erosion hazard is greatest on the more
cutbanks may cave. sloping areas. In Williston soil, reaction ranges from
This Lochloosa soil is in capability subclass IIw. The strongly acid to neutral in the surface layer and from
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11A. slightly acid to mildly alkaline in the subsoil. In Pedro
soil, it ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid in the
26-Williston-Pedro-Rock outcrop complex, 2 to 5 surface and subsurface layers and from slightly acid to
percent slopes. This complex consists of well drained mildly alkaline in the subsoil.
Williston and Pedro soils and limestone Rock outcrop. Typically, the Williston and Pedro soils are in the
These soils are on upland ridges. They are underlain by Upland Hardwood Hammock range site. This site is
limestone bedrock. Williston soil is near the outer edges readily identified by the dense canopy of oaks,
of each mapped area. Pedro soil generally is on slightly magnolias, and hickories. Cattle use the areas where the
higher elevations near the center of the mapped areas. canopy is dense for shade and resting. Desirable forage
Rock outcrop is throughout the map unit. The mapped on this site includes indiangrass, switchgrass, longleaf
areas are small and irregular in shape. They range from uniola, and chalky bluestem.
about 5 to 50 acres. The individual areas of the soils and The soils in this complex are poorly suited to cultivated
Rock outcrop in this map unit are too mixed or too small crops. Rock outcrop and depth to bedrock are severe
to map separately at the scale used for the maps in the limitations. Erosion is a hazard. These limitations are
back of the publication, difficult to overcome. Row crops planted on the contour
Williston soil makes up about 40 percent of the map in alternate strips with close-growing cover crops help
unit but ranges from about 35 to 60 percent in individual control erosion. A crop rotation system is needed that
delineations. Pedro soil makes up about 30 percent. keeps the soil covered with close-growing cover crops at
Rock outcrop makes up about 15 percent. Rock outcrop least half of the time. Crop residue left on the surface
makes up about 15 percent. The included soils make up will help control erosion. Fertilizer and lime should be
about 15 percent of the map unit. applied according to the need of the crop.
Typically, Williston soil has a surface layer that is very These soils are moderately suited to pasture. Coastal
dark gray loamy fine sand about 4 inches thick. Below bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass do well if
that, dark brown loamy fine sand extends to a depth of properly managed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain
14 inches. The subsoil, to a depth of 24 inches, is strong plant vigor for maximum yields and helps keep ground
brown sandy clay. The substratum to a depth of 60 cover on the surface. Fertilizer and lime should be
inches is soft, white limestone bedrock. applied as needed.
Typically, Pedro soil has a surface layer that is dark Williston soil has a high potential for the production of
gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface pine trees, and Pedro soil has a moderately high
layer, to a depth of 15 inches, is very pale brown fine potential. Undesirable plant competition is the main
sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 18 inches, is brownish concern in management. Rock outcrop interferes with
yellow sandy clay loam. Below the subsoil, soft planting operations and limits the use of equipment.
limestone bedrock extends to a depth of 35 inches and Depth to bedrock is a severe limitation to use of
is underlain by limestone bedrock. Williston and Pedro soils as septic tank absorption fields.
Rock outcrop in this map unit is exposed bedrock that Williston soil has a moderately slow permeability. Depth
ranges from 1 foot or less across to more than one- to bedrock and seepage are severe limitations to use of
fourth of an acre. the soils in this complex for sewage lagoons or sanitary
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of landfills. Depth to bedrock also is a limitation for building
Kendrick, Micanopy, and Lochloosa soils. Also included site development. Enlarged and strengthened footings
are small areas of Williston and Pedro soils that have and foundations may also be needed for buildings.
slopes less than 2 percent or more than 5 percent and Williston soil is in capability subclass lie. The
small areas of soils that are similar to Williston soil but woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11A. Pedro
have limestone bedrock between depths of 40 and 60 soil is in capability subclass IVs. The woodland
inches. ordination symbol for this soil is 10S. Rock outcrop is in
The soils in this complex have a water table at a depth capability subclass Vllls but has not been assigned to a
of more than 72 inches throughout the year. Permeability woodland group.






Citrus County, Florida 35



27-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This or sewage lagoons, the facilities should be sealed to
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well help prevent seepage and possible contamination of the
drained. It is on low ridges and knolls on the flatwoods ground water. Cutbanks may cave. Wetness is a
and also occurs in areas adjacent to some streams and moderate limitation to use of this soil for most building
water areas. The mapped areas are mainly oval to site development. Low fertility and periodic droughts are
oblong and range from 5 to 20 acres. severe limitations for landscaping, lawn, and golf course
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray and light development. Adapted species should be planted or an
brownish gray fine sand 5 inches thick. The subsurface irrigation system should be installed to supply water
layer, to a depth of 31 inches, is white fine sand. The during dry periods. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 52 inches, is as needed.
black and dark brown fine sand. The lower part to a This Pomello soil is in capability subclass Vis. The
depth of 80 inches is brown fine sand. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, Orsino, and 28-Redlevel fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
Paola soils. Also included are small areas of soils that somewhat poorly drained. It is on the flatwoods in the
have limestone cobbles and boulders at a depth of more western part of the county between the coastal marshes
than 60 inches. These buried rocks and boulders are and the upland ridges. Depth to limestone bedrock
mainly in areas adjacent to soils that are underlain by typically ranges from 40 to 60 inches. Stones and
bedrock within 80 inches of the surface layer or adjacent boulders are scattered on the surface and throughout
to rock outcrop areas. The included soils make up less the subsoil in some horizons. The mapped areas vary in
than 20 percent of the map unit. shape and range from 10 to 200 acres.
The water table is at a depth of 2 to 3.5 feet for 1 Typically, the surface layer is dark brown and dark
month to 4 months and between depths of 3.5 and 5 grayish brown fine sand 7 inches thick. The subsoil to a
feet for 8 months. Permeability is very rapid in the depth of 55 inches is yellowish brown and strong brown
surface and subsurface layers. It is moderate in the fine sand underlain by limestone bedrock.
upper part of the subsoil and moderately rapid in the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
lower part. The available water capacity is moderate in Adamsville, Boca, Broward, Hallandale, and Pompano
the subsoil and very low in the other layers. Reaction soils. Also included are areas of rock outcrop. The
ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid. Natural included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map
fertility is very low. Plant response to fertilizer is poor. unit.
The soil rapidly becomes drought as the water table is The water is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 4
lowered, months. It may rise above 20 inches during very wet
Typically, this Pomello soil is in the Upland Hardwood periods in some years. Permeability is rapid. The
Hammock range site. This site is readily identified by the available water capacity is low. Reaction ranges from
dense canopy of oaks, magnolias, and hickories. Cattle strongly acid to moderately alkaline. The soil becomes
use the areas where the canopy is dense for shade and more acid during extended dry periods or when it is
resting. Desirable forage on this site includes artificially drained. Natural fertility is low.
indiangrass, switchgrass, longleaf uniola, and chalky Typically, this Redlevel soil is in the Cabbage Palm
bluestem. Flatwoods range site. This site is readily identified by
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. Low fertility, scattered pines and cabbage palms that have an
rapid leaching of fertilizer, and periodic droughtiness understory of saw palmetto and grasses. This range site
reduce the economic feasibility for such use. is similar to the South Florida Flatwoods range site, but it
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture. has a higher percentage of herbaceous plants and
Yields of adapted grasses, such as pangolagrass and cabbage palms. If grazing is controlled, this range site
bahiagrass, are only fair even if properly managed, has the potential to produce significant amounts of
Periodic applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, creeping bluestem, switchgrass, and various panicum
Controlled grazing is necessary if a good stand of grass species. If the range deteriorates as a result of poor
is to be maintained. Periodic droughts greatly reduce grazing management, saw palmetto and pineland
yields. threeawn (wiregrass) will dominate the site.
This soil has a moderate potential for the production This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops.
of pine trees. Seedling mortality, plant competition, and Scattered rock outcrop can pose problems in land
equipment use are the main concerns in management. preparation. Most crops grow well if water control
Sand and slash pines are the most suitable trees to practices are implemented to overcome the wetness
plant for commercial wood production. limitation. During very dry periods in some years,
Wetness and the poor filtering capacity of this sandy irrigation is needed if the crop value warrants. A crop
soil are severe limitations to use as septic tank rotation system is needed that keeps the soil covered
absorption fields. If the soil is used for sanitary landfills with soil-improving, close-growing cover crops at least







36 Soil Survey



three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving crops and crop Typically, this Astatula soil is in the Longleaf Pine-
residue left on the soil increase the content of organic Turkey Oak Hills range site. This site is on rolling land
matter in the soil. Fertilizer and lime should be applied that is nearly level to strongly sloping. It is easily
according to the need of the crop. recognized by the landform and dominant vegetation of
This soil is mostly used for pasture and is well suited longleaf pine and turkey oak. The natural fertility of this
to improved pasture. Plants, such as Coastal site is low as a result of the rapid movement of plant
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, grow well if lime and nutrients and water through the soil. The forage
fertilizer are applied periodically. Controlled grazing helps production and quality are poor, and cattle do not readily
to maintain plant vigor for maximum yields. use this range site if other sites are available. Desirable
This soil has a moderately high potential for the forage on this site includes creeping bluestem, lopsided
production of pine trees. Wetness and rock outcrops indiangrass, and low panicum.
cause problems for equipment operation in some areas. This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. The very low
For maximum yields, corrective measures are needed to available water capacity, very low natural fertility, and
increase the rate of seedling survival and to reduce rapid leaching of nutrients are severe limitations. These
undesirable plant competition. Slash pine is the most limitations are difficult to overcome.
suitable tree to plant for commercial wood production. This soil is fairly suited to improved pasture. Even the
Wetness, depth to bedrock, and poor filtering capacity better adapted grasses, such as pangolagrass and
are severe limitations of this soil for most urban uses. bahiagrass, grow only fairly well on this soil. Established
For use as septic tank absorption fields, mounding may plantings must be carefully managed. If not properly
overcome the wetness problems. If sewage lagoons and grazed and fertilized, plant vigor and yields will rapidly
sanitary landfills are installed, they should be sealed to decrease. Drought reduces yields and is very harmful to
control seepage and possible contamination of ground plants in a weakened condition.
water. Wetness is the main limitation to use for most This soil has a low potential for the production of pine
building site development. Cutbanks may cave. A water trees. It has severe to moderate limitations to use of
control system can help to improve soil conditions for equipment. The seedling mortality rate is high. Sand pine
many uses, including landscaping, lawns, and golf course is the most suitable tree to plant for commercial wood
development. Fertilizer and lime should be applied as production.
needed. Seepage and the poor filtering capacity of this soil are
This Redlevel soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The limitations to use as septic tank absorption fields and for
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 7W. sanitary landfills or sewage lagoons. The limitations to
use of this soil as septic tank absorption fields are slight
29-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This if these installations are not excessively concentrated in
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and excessively an area. If the soil is used for sanitary landfills or sewage
drained. It is in a few level areas and on uneven side lagoons, the facilities must be properly constructed and
slopes and convex ridgetops on the uplands. The sealed. This soil has slight limitations to use for building
mapped areas are nearly oval and range from about 10 site development. Cutbanks may cave. The soil has
to more than 500 acres, and some areas on elevated severe limitations if used for landscaping, lawns, and golf
landscapes on the flatwoods are irregular in shape and course development. Species adapted to very low fertility
range from about 4 to 10 acres. and drought conditions should be planted. It is often
Typically, the surface layer is light brownish gray fine necessary to install an irrigation system, and fertilizer
sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying material to a should be applied as needed.
depth of 80 inches is yellow and reddish yellow fine This Astatula soil is in capability subclass Vis. The
sand. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 3S.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Candler,
Lake, Paola, and Tavares soils. Also included are small 30-Astatula fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
areas of Astatula soils that have slopes of more than 5 soil is moderately sloping and excessively drained. It is
percent. The included soils make up about 20 percent of on uneven side slopes on the upland ridges. The
the map unit mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 5 to
The water table is more than 80 inches below the about 100 acres.
surface throughout the year. Permeability is very rapid. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand 2 inches
The available water capacity is very low. If the surface thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80 inches is
layer is protected by vegetation, rain is rapidly absorbed brownish yellow and yellow fine sand.
into the soil and runoff is slow. Reaction ranges from Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
very strongly acid to slightly acid. Natural fertility is very Candler, Lake, Paola, and Tavares soils. Also included
low. Crop response to fertilizer is low to moderate, but are small areas of Astatula soils that have slopes of less
nutrients from fertilizer are rapidly leached, than 5 percent and small areas of Astatula soils that






Citrus County, Florida 37



have slopes of more than 8 percent. The included soils This Astatula soil is in capability subclass Vis. The
make up about 20 percent of the map unit. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 3S.
The water table is more than 80 inches below the
surface throughout the year. Permeability is very rapid. 31-Sparr fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil
The available water capacity is very low. The soil rapidly is moderately sloping and somewhat poorly drained. It is
becomes drought during periods of low rainfall. If the on side slopes on the upland ridges. The mapped areas
surface is protected by a vegetative cover, rain is rapidly are irregular in shape and range from 5 to about 50
absorbed into the soil, and runoff is slow. Unprotected acres. The slopes are smooth to concave.
areas have an increased erosion hazard. Natural fertility Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
is very low. Crop response to fertilizer is low to about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
moderate, but nutrients from fertilizer are rapidly leached. 45 inches, is pale brown and light yellowish brown fine
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid. sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 51
Typically, this Astatula soil is in the Longleaf Pine- inches, is light yellowish brown fine sandy loam. The
Turkey Oak Hills range site. This site is on rolling land lower part to a depth of 80 inches is pale brown and
that is nearly level to strongly sloping. It is easily light gray sandy clay loam.
recognized by the landform and dominant vegetation of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
longleaf pine and turkey oak. The natural fertility of this Arredondo, Kendrick, and Lochloosa soils. Also included
site is low as a result of the rapid movement of plant are small areas of Sparr soils that have slopes of less
nutrients and water through the soil. The forage than 5 percent and small areas of soils that are similar
production and quality are poor, and cattle do not readily to Sparr soil but have hard and soft limestone boulders
use this range site if other sites are available. Desirable in the subsoil. These areas mainly are adjacent to soils
forage on this site includes creeping bluestem, lopsided that have limestone bedrock or boulders in their profiles.
indiangrass, and low panicum. The included soils make up less than 25 percent of the
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. The very low map unit.
available water capacity, very low natural fertility, and The water table is at a depth of 1.5 to 3.5 feet for
rapid leaching of nutrients are severe limitations. These periods of 1 month to 4 months. Permeability is rapid in
limitations are difficult to overcome. Erosion is a severe the sandy surface and subsurface layers and slow in the
hazard. subsoil. Runoff is medium.
This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture. Even the Typically, this Sparr soil is in the Upland Hardwood
better adapted grasses, such as pangolagrass and Hammock range site. This site is readily identified by the
bahiagrass, grow only fairly well on this soil. A severe dense canopy of oaks, magnolias, and hickories. Cattle
erosion hazard exists if vegetation is not maintained to use the areas where the canopy is dense for shade and
protect the soil surface. If not properly grazed, yields and resting. Desirable forage on this site includes
plant vigor will rapidly decrease. Erosion will increase if indiangrass, switchgrass, longleaf uniola, and chalky
the soil surface is not protected. Fertilizer and lime are bluestem.
needed. Prolonged drought reduces yields and is This soil is fairly suited to cultivated crops. Limitations
especially severe if the plants are in a weakened include wetness, droughtiness during dry periods, rapid
condition from overgrazing, leaching of nutrients, and slope. Row crops planted on
This soil has a low potential for the production of pine the contour in alternate strips with close-growing cover
trees. It has severe to moderate limitations to use of crops help control erosion. A crop rotation system is
equipment. The rate of seedling mortality is high. Sand needed that keeps the soil covered with close-growing,
pine is the most suitable tree to plant for commercial soil-improving crops at least three-fourths of the time.
wood production. Soil-improving crops and crop residue left on the soil
The poor filtering capacity of this soil and seepage are increase the content of organic matter in the soil.
limitations to use as septic tank absorption fields and for Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
sanitary landfills or sewage lagoons. The limitation for need of the crop. If slope permits, irrigating during dry
septic tank absorption fields is slight if the installations periods will help to obtain the maximum yields.
are not excessively concentrated in an area. If the soil is This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture.
used for sanitary landfills or sewage lagoons, the Deep-rooted grasses, such as bermudagrass and
facilities should be designed to overcome slope bahiagrass, are well adapted to this soil. Fertilizer and
problems and should be sealed. This soil has slight lime should be applied as needed. Controlled grazing
limitations to use for building site development. Cutbanks helps to maintain plant vigor for high yields and controls
may cave. The soil has severe limitations if used for erosion by keeping a vegetative cover on the soil to
landscaping, lawns, and golf course fairways. Species protect the surface.
adapted to low fertility and drought conditions should be This soil has a moderately high potential for the
planted. It is often necessary to install an irrigation production of pine trees. Moderate concerns in
system, and fertilizer should be applied as needed. management are use of equipment, seedling mortality,







38 Soil Survey


and undesirable plant competition. Slash pine is the are slight for most building site development, but
most suitable tree to plant for commercial wood cutbanks may cave. Limitations are severe for
production. landscaping, lawns, and golf course development.
The high water table is a severe limitation to use of Species adapted to very low fertility and drought
this soil as septic tank absorption fields and for sanitary conditions should be planted or an irrigation system
landfills and sewage lagoons. Measures to reduce or should be installed to supply water during dry periods.
overcome soil wetness is needed. If the soil is used for Fertilizer should be applied as needed.
sanitary landfills or sewage lagoons, the facilities should The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
be sealed to help prevent seepage. Wetness is a capability subclass or to a woodland group.
moderate limitation for building site development, for
dwellings without basements, and for commercial 33-Micanopy loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
buildings. This soil has severe limitations to use for slopes. This soil is gently sloping and somewhat poorly
structures with basements. Cutbanks may cave. This soil drained. It is on upland ridges. The mapped areas
has moderate limitations if used for lawns, landscaping, generally are irregular in shape and are less than 50
and golf course development. Species adapted to low acres in size. The slopes are smooth to concave.
fertility and drought conditions should be planted. An Typically, the surface layer is black and very dark gray
irrigation system is often needed, and fertilizer should be loamy fine sand 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
regularly applied. a depth of 15 inches, is brown loamy fine sand. The
This Sparr soil is in capability subclass IVs. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 25 inches, is
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. yellowish brown sandy clay. The middle part, to a depth
of 55 inches, is gray sandy clay. The lower part to a
32-Candler-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent depth of 63 inches is mottled gray, yellowish brown,
slopes. This complex consists of nearly level to strong brown, and yellowish red sandy clay.
moderately sloping Candler soils and areas of Urban Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
land. Candler soils are mainly on lawns, vacant lots, and Lochloosa soils. Also included are small areas of
playgrounds. The Urban land part of the map unit is Micanopy soils that have slopes of less than 2 percent,
areas covered by buildings, streets, and parking lots. The small areas of Micanopy soils that have slopes of more
individual areas of Candler soil and Urban land in this than 5 percent, and small areas of soils that have more
map unit are too mixed or too small to map separately at than 5 percent plinthite in the subsoil. The included soils
the scale used for the maps in the back of the make up less than 25 percent of the map unit.
publication. A perched water table is between depths of 1.5 and
Candler soil makes up about 55 percent of the map 2.5 feet for 1 month to 3 months and is more than 60
unit. Urban land generally makes up about 35 percent. inches below the surface during dry periods. Permeability
The included soils make up about 10 percent. is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and slow in
Typically, Candler soil has a surface layer that is gray the subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the
fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to surface and subsurface layers and ranges from
a depth of 60 inches, is pale brown and light yellowish moderate to high in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
brown fine sand. Below the subsurface layer to a depth Plant response to fertilizers is good.
of about 80 inches is very pale brown fine sand that has Typically, this Micanopy soil is in the Upland Hardwood
scattered lamellae of dark yellowish brown sandy loam. Hammock range site. This site is readily identified by the
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of dense canopy of oaks, magnolias, and hickories. Cattle
Arredondo, Astatula, Lake, Paola, and Tavares soils. use the areas where the canopy is dense for shade and
Also included are some areas of Urban land that makes resting. Desirable forage on this site includes
up more than 50 percent of the map unit. indiangrass, switchgrass, longleaf uniola, and chalky
Candler soil has a water table at a depth of more than bluestem.
80 inches throughout the year. Permeability is rapid. The This soil is well suited to cultivated crops. Tile drains
available water capacity is low to very low. This soil is or open ditches are needed to improve soil drainage
very drought during periods of low rainfall. Natural during wet periods. A crop rotation system is needed
fertility is very low. If sloping areas are not protected by that keeps the soil covered with close-growing, soil-
vegetation, runoff and the hazard of erosion is increased, improving crops at least one-half the time. Crop residue
Present use precludes use of the soils in this complex and soil-improving crops left on the soil increase the
for uses other than urban. Soil interpretations can be content of organic matter in the soil. Proper seedbed
made only for the Candler soil. The poor filtering preparation includes bedding in rows. Fertilizer and lime
capacity and seepage are limitations to use of this soil should be applied according to the need of the crop.
for sanitary facilities. Limitations are slight to use of the This soil is well suited to improved pasture.
soil as septic tank absorption fields; but high density Bahiagrasses and white clover grow well if managed
installations can contaminate ground water. Limitations properly. Water control measures are needed to remove







Citrus County, Florida 39



excess water after heavy rains. Regular applications of use the areas where the canopy is dense for shade and
fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps resting. Desirable forage on this site includes
to maintain plant vigor for maximum yields. indiangrass, switchgrass, longleaf uniola, and chalky
This soil has a high potential for the production of pine bluestem.
trees. The concerns in management are slight. Slash This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops but
pine is the most suitable tree to plant for commercial wetness and periodic droughtiness are limitations.
wood production. Surface ditches and mounded seedbeds can effectively
Wetness and slow permeability of this soil are severe lower the depth of the water table. Row crops planted
limitations to use as septic tank absorption fields. on the contour in alternate strips with close-growing
Wetness and seepage are severe limitations to use for cover crops help control erosion. A crop rotation system
sewage lagoons or sanitary landfills. It may be difficult to is needed that keeps the soil covered with close-
dig the clayey subsoil. The high shrink-swell potential is growing, soil-improving crops at least two-thirds of the
a severe limitation to use for building site development time. Soil-improving crops and crop residue left on the
and for local roads and streets. Special design and soil increase the content of organic matter in the soil.
proper construction are necessary to overcome the Irrigation is generally needed during dry periods to obtain
shrink-swell potential of this soil. Wetness also is a maximum yields. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
severe limitation to use for buildings with basements, according to the need of the crop.
and it is a moderate limitation if the soil is used for This soil is well suited to improved pasture.
lawns, landscaping, and golf course development. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if
This Micanopy soil is in capability subclass IIw. The properly managed. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11A. as needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant

35-Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil vigorfor maximum yields.
is nearly level to gently sloping and somewhat poorly This soil has a moderately high potential for the
drained. It is in seasonally wet areas on the upland production of pine trees. The use of equipment on the
ridges, at the base of some sloping areas, and near soil, seedling mortality, and undesirable plant competition
some poorly drained areas. The mapped areas are are moderate concerns in management. Slash pine is
nearly circular to very irregular in shape and range from the most suitable tree to plant for commercial wood
5 to about 100 acres. The slopes are smooth and slightly production.
concave. The natural wetness is a severe limitation to use of
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand this soil as septic tank absorption fields and to use for
8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 50 sanitary landfills or sewage lagoons. Measures to reduce
inches, is brown, pale brown, and very pale brown fine or overcome soil wetness are needed. If the soil is used
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 59 for sanitary landfills or sewage lagoons, the facilities
inches, is light yellowish brown fine sandy loam. The should be sealed to help prevent seepage. Wetness is a
middle part, to a depth of 70 inches, is light yellowish moderate limitation to use for building site development,
brown sandy clay loam. The lower part to a depth of 80 dwelling without basements, and commercial buildings.
inches is light brownish gray sandy clay loam. Mottles of Cutbanks may cave. This soil has moderate limitations if
brown, red, yellow, and gray occur from a depth of about used for lawns, landscaping, and golf course
20 to 80 inches. development. Species adapted to low fertility and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of drought conditions should be planted. An irrigation
Arredondo, Kendrick, and Lochloosa soils. Also included system should be installed to supply water during dry
are small areas of Sparr soils that have slopes of more periods. Fertilizer should be applied as needed.
than 5 percent and a few small areas of soils that are This Sparr soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
similar to Sparr soils but have limestone boulders in the woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W.
subsoil. These areas are mainly adjacent to soils that
contain bedrock or boulders in their profiles. The 36-EauGallie fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
included soils make up less than 25 percent of the map poorly drained. It is on the flatwoods. The mapped areas
unit. are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 50 acres." The
The water table is at a depth of 2.5 to 3.5 feet for slopes are gradual and less than 2 percent.
periods of 1 month to 4 months. Permeability is rapid in Typically, the surface layer is very dark and dark gray
the sandy surface and subsurface layers and slow in the fine sand 10 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
subsoil. Runoff is slow. The available water capacity is depth of 22 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The
low to moderate. Natural fertility is low. subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches. The upper part
Typically, this Sparr soil is in the Upland Hardwood is dark brown fine sand. The middle part is dark reddish
Hammock range site. This site is readily identified by the brown fine sand. The lower part is pale olive and light
dense canopy of oaks, magnolias, and hickories. Cattle gray fine sandy loam.






40 Soil Survey



Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of the contamination of ground water. Cutbanks may cave.
Basinger, Immokalee, and Myakka soils. Also included Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this soil for most
are small areas of soils that are similar to EauGallie soil building site development. Wetness and drought are
but have scattered limestone boulders in the subsoil. severe limitations to use of this soil for lawns,
The included soils make up less than 20 percent of the landscaping, and golf fairways. Plant species adapted to
map unit. these conditions should be planted, if possible. The
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 application of fertilizer and lime is often necessary.
month to 4 months. It recedes during dry periods but is This EauGallie soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
generally within 40 inches of the surface layer for 6 woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W.
months. Runoff is slow. The available water capacity is
low to very low in the surface and subsurface layers and 37-Matlacha, limestone substratum-Urban land
is moderate to high in the subsoil. Reaction is very complex. This complex consists of nearly level,
strongly acid to medium acid in the surface layer. It is somewhat poorly drained Matlacha soil and areas of
extremely acid to slightly acid in the upper part of the Urban land. Matlacha soil was formed by fill material
subsoil and very strongly acid to mildly alkaline in the from earth-moving operations. This map unit is in the
lower part. Natural fertility is very low. Crop response to western part of the county near the Gulf Coast. The
fertilizer is moderate. Urban land part of this map unit is areas covered by
Typically, this EauGallie soil is in the South Florida houses, streets, parking lots, and other urban structures.
Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by The mapped areas are rectangular and range from about
scattered pine trees that have an understory of saw 5 to 50 acres. The individual areas of Matlacha soil and
palmetto and grasses. If grazing is controlled, the site Urban land in this map unit are too mixed or too small to
has the potential to produce significant amounts of map separately at the scale used for the maps in the
creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky back of this publication.
bluestem, and various panicum species. If the range Matlacha soil makes up about 50 percent of the map
deteriorates as a result of poor grazing management, unit. Urban land makes up about 25 percent. The
saw palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) will included soils make up about 25 percent.
dominate the site.
dominate the site. Typically, Matlacha soil has a surface layer that is very
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of dark grayish brown gravelly fine sand about 6 inches
wetness, very low fertility, and low or very low available dark grayish brown gravelly fine sand about 6 inches
water capacity. A water control system is needed to thick. The lower part, to a depth of about 23 inches, is
remove excess water during wet seasons. Row crops mottled white, brown, and yellow fine sand mixed with 25
planted in alternate strips with close-growing cover crops percent limestone fragments and scattered pockets of
help control erosion. A crop rotation system is needed fine-textured clay material. Below the layers of fill
that keeps the soil covered with close-growing, soil- material is the original buried soil. The upper part of the
improving crops at least three-fourths of the time. Soil- buried soil, to a depth of about 44 inches, is very dark
improving crops and crop residue left on the soil grayish brown and light gray fine sand. The next layer, to
increase the content of organic matter. Fertilizer and a depth of 48 inches, is light brownish gray fine sandy
lime should be applied according to the need of the loam. Below the fine sandy loam is a thin layer of soft
crop. Irrigation is generally needed during dry periods to limestone bedrock underlain by hard, white, fractured
obtain maximum yields. limestone bedrock.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover Basinger, EauGallie, Hallandale, Homosassa, Lauderhill,
grow well if excess surface water is removed. Regular Lacoochee, Myakka, Okeelanta, Pompano, and
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled Weekiwachee soils. These soils have not been covered
grazing helps to maintain plant vigor for maximum yields, by fill material.
allows for plant recovery, and protects the soil by Matlacha soil has a water table between depths of 2
keeping a vegetative cover on the surface. and 3 feet for 1 month to 3 months annually.
This soil has a moderately high potential for the Present use precludes the use of the soils in this
production of pine trees. Moderate concerns in complex for uses other than urban development. In most
management are equipment use, seedling mortality, and parts of the map unit, the high water table and depth to
undesirable plant competition. Slash pine is the most bedrock are moderate to severe limitations to use of
suitable tree to plant for commercial wood production, these soils for most sanitary facilities and for building site
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses development. These soils have slight to severe
because of wetness. Measures to control wetness are limitations for lawns, landscaping, and golf course
needed if sanitary facilities are installed. If the soil is development. Soils should be tested to determine the
used for sanitary landfills or sewage lagoons, the need for fertilizers and lime. In some areas, adding
facilities should be sealed to help prevent seepage and several inches of good topsoil may be necessary.







Citrus County, Florida 41



The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a suitable for grazing, the potential to produce desirable
capability subclass or to a woodland group. forage is almost as high as it is on a freshwater marsh.
Poorly-managed salt marshes are generally dominated
38-Rock outcrop-Homosassa-Lacoochee by rushes and sawgrass.
complex. This complex consists of limestone Rock The soils in this map unit are not suited to cultivated
outcrop and Homosassa and Lacoochee soils that are in crops, pasture grasses, or woodland. Rock outcrop and
tidal saltwater marshes and on some offshore islands the high content of salt and sulfur in the soils are severe
along the Gulf Coast. The soils in this complex are limitations. These limitations are difficult to overcome.
flooded daily by high tides. The mapped areas are Flooding is a hazard.
irregular in shape and range from 50 to 100 acres. The The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for
individual areas of Rock outcrop and soils in this map urban use. The flood hazard is a continuing problem.
unit are too mixed or too small to map separately at the Rock outcrop hinders making excavations. Special
scale used for the maps in the back of this publication, sanitary systems, such as mounded septic tank
Rock outcrop makes up about 40 percent of the map absorption fields, are generally needed. Enlarged
unit but ranges from about 10 to 90 percent in individual foundations are needed for buildings. The addition of
delineations. Homosassa soil makes up about 35 topsoil is needed for lawns, landscaping, and golf course
percent. Lacoochee soil makes up about 15 percent. development.
The included soils make up about 10 percent. The Rock outcrop in this map unit is in capability
Rock outcrop in some areas of this map unit is subclass Vllls. Homosassa and Lacoochee soils are in
exposed large, flat surfaces pitted with solution holes. In capability subclass Vlllw. The soils in this map unit have
other areas, such as areas near Ozello, it is highly not been assigned to a woodland group.
fractured and pitted and is partly dissolved along
fractures. 39-Hallandale-Rock outcrop complex, rarely
Typically, Homosassa soil has a surface layer that is flooded. This complex consists of a nearly level, poorly
black mucky fine sandy loam about 8 inches thick. Below drained, mineral soil and Rock outcrop. Hallandale soil is
that, dark grayish brown fine sand extends to a depth of along the coast adjacent to freshwater and saltwater
21 inches and is underlain by hard limestone bedrock. marshes and also on some offshore islands. This soil is
Typically, Lacoochee soil has a surface layer that is underlain by bedrock at a depth of 20 inches or less.
light gray fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The The mapped areas are long and narrow and range from
subsurface layer, to a depth of 8 inches, is grayish brown 5 to about 100 acres. The individual areas of Hallandale
loamy fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 13 inches, is soil and Rock outcrop in this map unit are too mixed or
yellowish brown loamy fine sand. Below that, white soft too small to map separately at the scale used for the
limestone bedrock extends to a depth of 21 inches and maps in the back of this publication.
is underlain by hard, white limestone bedrock. Hallandale soil makes up about 55 percent of the map
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of unit. Rock outcrop makes up about 25 percent. The
Weekiwachee soils. Also included are some areas of included soils make up about 20 percent.
soils that are similar to Homosassa and Lacoochee soils Typically, Hallandale soil has a surface layer that is
but are less than 10 inches to bedrock. black fine sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface
The soils in this map unit are flooded daily by high layer, to a depth of 6 inches, is grayish brown fine sand.
tides. Some of the included soils on the elevated parts The subsoil, to a depth of 10 inches, is yellowish brown
of this map unit are periodically flooded by exceptional fine sand. Below the subsoil is hard limestone bedrock.
high tides and storm tides. The available water capacity Rock outcrop in the map unit is randomly scattered,
of Homosassa and Lacoochee soils is very high in the and individual exposures are mostly less than 2 square
surface layer and moderate in the deeper layers. Soil feet. In some areas, Rock outcrop occurs as narrow
reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline in bands less than 1 foot wide and up to 50 feet or more in
the surface layer and from slightly acid to moderately length. In a few cultivated areas, machinery has broken
alkaline in the other layers. off some of the exposed bedrock, and the surface layer
Typically, the Homosassa and Lacoochee soils are in is cobbly fine sand.
the Salt Marsh range site. This site can be identified by Included with these soils in mapping are Basinger,
level, tidal marsh areas that have the potential to Citronelle, Lauderhill, and Redlevel soils.
produce significant amounts of smooth cordgrass, In most years, the soils in this map unit have a high
marshhay cordgrass, seashore saltgrass, and many water table within 10 inches of the surface for up to 6
other forage grasses and forbs. months. In some areas, the surface may be covered by
Tidal action causes saltwater saturation of the soil and shallow water for up to a month after very heavy rains. In
inundates the soils to a few inches above the surface drained areas, the water level fluctuates as the water
layer. In some areas, these soils are soft and will not level in the drainage ditches and solution holes in the
support the weight of a large animal. In areas that are limestone bedrock fluctuates. These soils are rarely






42 Soil Survey



flooded by severe coastal storms. Local flood-hazard soil reduce economic feasibility. Rock outcrop interferes
studies can be consulted to determine the extent of with the use of equipment
flooding. Permeability is moderate to moderately slow. These soils are moderately suited to improved pasture
Runoff is slow. Natural fertility is low, and response to in areas where Rock outcrop does not pose too great a
applied fertilizers is moderate. Soil reaction ranges from problem in land preparation. Pangolagrass, improved
strongly acid to slightly acid in the surface layer and from bahiagrasses, and clover grow well with proper
medium acid to moderately alkaline in the lower layers. management A water control system that includes
Typically, the Hallandale soil is in the Cabbage Palm shallow ditches should be installed to remove excessive
Hammock range site. This site is readily identified by surface water. Regular applications of fertilizers and lime
thick stands of cabbage palms and a few scattered oak. are needed. Controlled grazing prevents overgrazing and
The hammocks also occur in slightly elevated areas in helps to maintain plant vigor for maximum yields.
the Slough and South Florida Flatwoods communities. In areas where Rock outcrop is not extensive, these
Cattle use the areas where the canopy is dense for soils have a moderate potential for the production of
shade and resting. Desirable forage on this site includes pine trees. The limitations to use of equipment are
chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, hairy panicum, low moderate. Seedling mortality is moderate. Slash pine is a
panicum, and South Florida bluestem. suitable tree to plant (fig. 5) for commercial wood
The soils in this map unit are not suited to most production.
cultivated crops. The many unfavorable features of the The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for
urban use. Depth to bedrock and wetness are the main


































Figure 5.-Slash pine Is a suitable tree for planting on Halandale-Rock outcrop complex, rarely flooded.







Citrus County, Florida
43


limitations. Flooding is a hazard. If the flooding hazard This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, pasture, or
can not be eliminated, consideration should be given to woodland because of the daily hazard of flooding and
the elevation of buildings and roads. If permitted, the high content of salt and sulfur.
elevated and mounded septic tank absorption fields can This soil has severe limitations for urban use. The
be used to provide functional, nonpolluting sanitary flood hazard is difficult to overcome, and depth to
systems. Depth to bedrock severely limits excavations; bedrock hampers excavations. Excess salt and sulfur are
therefore, these soils are poorly suited to use for sanitary severe limitations to use of this soil for lawns,
landfills and sewage lagoons. If sanitary landfills and landscaping, or golf courses even if flooding is
sewage lagoons are installed, these facilities should be controlled.
sealed to prevent contamination of the ground water. This Homosassa soil is in capability subclass VllIw but
Landscaping and other plantings generally require the has not been assigned to a woodland group.
reworking of available soil material and the adding of fill
materials to provide an increased rooting depth. 41-Candler fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. This
Hallandale soil is in capability subclass IVw. The soil is strongly sloping and excessively drained. It is on
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W. Rock rolling side slopes on the upland ridges. The mapped
outcrop is in capability subclass VIlls but has not been areas are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 20
assigned to a woodland group. acres.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
40-Homosassa mucky fine sandy loam. This soil is 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 67
nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in coastal tidal inches, is brown and brownish yellow fine sand. The next
marshes. Elevations are mainly less than 3 feet above layer to a depth of 80 inches is light yellowish brown fine
sea level. The landscape is dissected by narrow to broad sand that has bands of strong brown loamy sand
flood channels, and common on the landscape are large, lamellae randomly distributed throughout.
nearly circular solution hole ponds. The mapped areas Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
generally are irregular in shape and range from 50 to Apopka, Arredondo, Astatula, and Lake soils. Also
500 acres. The slopes are less than 1 percent, included are small areas of Candler soils that have
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray mucky slopes of less than 8 percent. The included soils make
fine sandy loam about 10 inches thick. The next layer, to up about 25 percent of the map unit.
a depth of 18 inches, is very dark grayish brown loamy The water table is more than 80 inches below the
fine sand. The upper part of underlying layer, to a depth surface throughout the year. Permeability is rapid. The
of 31 inches, is grayish brown loamy fine sand. The available water capacity is very low. If the surface layer
lower part to a depth of 35 inches is soft limestone is protected by a vegetative cover, rain is rapidly
bedrock underlain by hard limestone bedrock. absorbed into the soil. Runoff from unprotected areas
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of soils during heavy rains is rapid. On such areas, erosion is a
that have a fine sandy loam or mucky sandy clay loam severe hazard. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid
surface texture. Also included are areas of soils that to slightly acid. Natural fertility is very low. Nutrients from
have bedrock at a depth of 40 inches or more. The fertilizer are rapidly leached.
included soils make up about 20 percent of the map unit. Typically, this Candler soil is in the Longleaf Pine-
This soil is flooded daily by tides. The available water Turkey Oak Hills range site. This site is on rolling land
capacity is very high in the surface layer and is medium that is nearly level to strongly sloping. It is easily
in the other layers. Reaction is neutral or mildly alkaline recognized by the landform and dominant vegetation of
in the surface layer and slightly acid to mildly alkaline in longleaf pine and turkey oak. The natural fertility of this
the other layers. site is low as a result of the rapid movement of plant
Typically, this Homosassa soil is in the Salt Marsh nutrients and water through the soil. The forage
range site. This site can be identified by level, tidal production and quality are poor, and cattle do not readily
marsh areas that have the potential to produce use this range site if other sites are available. Desirable
significant amounts of smooth cordgrass, marshhay forage on this site includes creeping bluestem, lopsided
cordgrass, seashore saltgrass, and many other forage indiangrass, and low panicum.
grasses and forbs. This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or improved
Tidal action causes saltwater saturation of the soil and pasture. The very low available water capacity, very low
inundates the soil to a few inches above the surface fertility, and rapid leaching of nutrients are severe
layer. In some areas, the soil is soft and will not support limitations. These limitations are difficult to overcome.
the weight of a large animal. In areas that are suitable Erosion is a severe hazard.
for grazing, the potential to produce desirable forage is This soil has a moderate potential for the production
almost as high as it is on a freshwater marsh. Poorly of pine trees. The primary concerns in management
managed salt marshes are generally dominated by include equipment use, seedling mortality, and
rushes and sawgrass. undesirable plant competition. If seedlings are planted,







44Soil Survey



disturbance of vegetative cover should be kept to a Typically, this EauGallie soil is in the Freshwater
minimum to control or reduce the hazard of erosion. Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
Sand pine is the most suitable tree to plant for identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
commercial wood production. rushes, and other herbaceous plants or by a wooded
The poor filtering capacity of this soil and seepage are area dominated by bay, cypress, sweetgum, and water
limitations to use for sanitary facilities. Slope is a oak. These areas are generally saturated or covered by
moderate limitation to use of this soil as septic tank surface water for 2 or more months during the year. If
absorption fields; but a high density of septic tank grazing is controlled, this range site has the potential to
absorption fields can contaminate ground water. Slope is produce more forage than any of the other range sites in
a severe limitation to use for sewage lagoons or sanitary the county. For maximum production, wooded areas
landfills. If the soil is used for sanitary landfills or sewage need to be cleared. Chalky bluestem and blue
lagoons, the facilities should be sealed to help prevent maidencane dominate the dry parts of the site.
seepage. Special design and proper installation can help Maidencane is the dominant plant in the wet parts. Other
overcome the slope limitation. Slope is also a moderate desirable forage on this site includes cutgrass, bluejoint
limitation to use of this soil for most building site panicum, sloughgrass, and low panicums. Periodic high
development. This soil has severe limitations if used for water levels provide natural deferment from cattle
landscaping, lawns, and golf fairways. Species adapted grazing if grazing is not properly controlled. Carpetgrass,
to low fertility and drought conditions should be planted, an introduced plant, tends to dominate the dry parts of
An irrigation system to supply water during dry periods is the site if it is excessively grazed.
often necessary. Fertilizer should be applied as needed. This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, improved
This Candler soil is in capability subclass VIs. The pasture, or commercial pine tree production. Ponding
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S. and wetness and low natural fertility are problems that
e fe dl. Ts sl is need to be overcome.
46-EauGallie fine sand, depressional. This soil is This soil is severely limited for urban use. Ponding and
nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressions wetness are limitations that are difficult to overcome.
and is adjacent to drainageways on the flatwoods. This The poor filtering capacity of the sand is a pollution
soil is also along the outer edges of some swamps and hazard if this soil is used for sanitary facilities. If used for
marshes. Depressions are small and nearly circular. aard i s or santa facilities I used fo
Delineations at the edges of swamps and marshes are sanitary landfills or sewage lagoons, the facilities should
narrow and elongated. The mapped areas range from 5 be sealed to prevent contamination of the ground water.
to about 50 acres. The slopes are smooth to concave This EauGallie soil is in capability subclass Vllw. The
and less than 2 percent. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2W.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 3
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 26 47-Fort Meade loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
inches, is light brownish gray and gray fine sand. The slopes. This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and well
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 46 inches, is dark drained. It is on the upland ridges. This soil is
brown, pale brown, and grayish brown fine sand. The surrounded by soils on higher elevations and receives
middle part, to a depth of 54 inches, is grayish brown runoff from them. The mapped areas are irregular in
fine sandy loam. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches shape or nearly circular and range from 5 to about 100
is gray sandy clay. acres. Vegetation on this soil is more dense than on
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of adjacent soils.
Basinger, Immokalee, Myakka, and Pompano soils. Also Typically, the surface layer is black loamy fine sand 13
included are small areas of soils that are similar to inches thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80
EauGallie soil but have scattered boulders and cobbles inches is very dark yellowish brown, dark brown, and
in the subsoil and soils that have up to 10 inches of litter strong brown loamy fine sand.
and organic matter on the surface. The included soils Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
make up about 20 percent of the map unit. Arredondo, Candler, and Lake soils. Also included are
In most years, this soil is ponded for 3 to 9 months. In soils that are similar to Fort Meade soil but have a dark
slightly elevated positions around the margins of the surface layer less than 10 inches thick.
ponded areas, the water table is within 10 inches of the The water table is more than 6 feet below the surface
surface, and these areas are ponded during periods of throughout the year. Permeability is rapid. The available
heavy rains. During dry periods, the water table recedes water capacity ranges from low to medium in the surface
to a depth of 10 inches or more. Permeability is rapid in layer and is low in the underlying layers. Runoff is slow
the surface and subsurface layers and is moderate in the to medium. Natural fertility is low. Crop response to
subsoil. The available water capacity is low or very low in fertilizer is moderate, but nutrients from fertilizer are
the surface and subsurface layers and is moderate in the rapidly leached. The soil is drought during dry periods.
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral in the







Citrus County, Florida 45



surface layer and from very strongly acid to medium acid and with limestone fragments ranging from sand-size to
in the underlying layers. large boulders. In some locations, parts of former
Typically, this Fort Meade soil is in the Upland organic soil horizons are also intermixed. This soil does
Hardwood Hammock range site. This site is readily not have an orderly sequence of soil layers but is a
identified by the dense canopy of oaks, magnolias, and highly variable mixture of lenses, streaks, and pockets of
hickories. Cattle use the area where the canopy is dense soil material and limestone fragments. The thickness of
for shade and resting. Desirable forage on this site the Arents ranges from about 2 feet to 30 feet or more.
includes indiangrass, switchgrass, longleaf uniola, and The water table is more than 6 feet below the surface
chalky bluestem. throughout the year. Permeability is variable, but it is
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, rapid in most areas. Rain runs off rapidly with minimal
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are absorption except where the surface is protected by
limitations. Row crops planted on the contour in vegetation. The hazard of wind and water erosion is
alternate strips with close-growing cover crops help severe. Runoff generally contains considerable
control erosion. A crop rotation system is needed that suspended material which is deposited on the adjacent
keeps the soil covered with close-growing, soil-improving land and in the water areas. The available water capacity
crops at least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving crops varies but is mostly low to very low. Reaction ranges
and crop residue left on the surface increase the content from slightly acid to moderately alkaline.
of organic matter in the the soil. Irrigation is generally Included with this soil in mapping are other areas of
needed during dry periods to obtain maximum yields. Arents that have slopes ranging from 12 to 45 percent.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Deep- Also included are small areas of natural soils and Arents
rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and that have slopes of 5 percent or less. The included soils
bahiagrass normally grow well when they are properly make up less than 10 percent of the map unit.
grazed and fertilized. If not properly grazed and fertilized, Most areas of this soil are not in vegetation. In some
plant vigor and yields will rapidly decrease. Drought areas, highway embankments have been vegetated.
reduces yields and is very harmful to plants in a Possible agricultural and urban usage is precluded by
weakened condition. present use or is impractical because of slope and
This soil has a moderately high potential for the inaccessibility to these areas. The soil in this map unit
production of pine trees; however, plant competition is a could serve as a source of fill material.
moderate limitation. Slash pine is the most suitable tree Arents has not been assigned to a capability subclass
to plant for commercial wood production. or to a woodland group.
This soil has slight limitations to use as septic tank
absorption fields if they are properly installed and are not 49-Terra Ceia-Okeelanta association, frequently
excessively concentrated in an area. The filtering flooded. This association consists of nearly level, very
capacity of this soil is poor and seepage can occur. If poorly drained, organic soils. These soils are along the
this soil is used for a sanitary landfill or sewage lagoon, edges of freshwater rivers and lakes. Terra Ceia soil is
the facilities must be properly constructed and sealed adjacent to open water and are bounded on the inland
against seepage. The limitations are slight for building side by Okeelanta soil. Okeelanta soil is adjacent to the
site development and for roads and streets, but cutbanks upland areas. The mapped areas are mainly long and
may cave. This soil has moderate limitations for narrow and range from 20 to 50 acres.
landscaping, lawns, and golf fairways. Species adapted Terra Ceia soil makes up about 65 percent of the map
to low fertility and drought conditions should be planted. unit. Okeelanta soil makes up about 20 percent. The
An irrigation system is needed to supply water during the included soils make up about 15 percent.
dry periods. Fertilizer should be applied as needed. Typically, Terra Ceia soil has a surface layer of black
This Fort Meade soil is in capability subclass Ills. The muck about 10 inches thick. Below that layer, black and
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10S. dark reddish brown muck extends to a depth of 80
inches or more.
48-Arents, 45 to 65 percent slopes. This soil Typically, Okeelanta soil has a surface layer of black
consists of soil material and limestone dug from canals. muck about 10 inches thick. Below that layer, dark
This soil is piled along the side of the canals or used to brown muck extends to a depth of about 27 inches. The
form embankments for highway overpasses. Most of this underlying material to a depth of 65 inches is light gray
map unit is along the excavations that were dug as part fine sand.
of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. The mapped areas Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of
mostly are long and narrow and range from 5 to 50 Basinger and Lauderhill soils. Also included are small
areas of rock outcrop.
The soil in this map unit is made up of sandy mineral During low tide, the soils in this association are
material mixed with varying amounts of loamy and finer covered by shallow water from the adjacent freshwater
textured material from the former subsoil and substratum rivers. The floodwaters are not saline as they come from







46 Soil Survey


the freshwater streams and rivers. Flood waters are rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
generally 2 to 3 feet above the surface at high tide. The needed. Controlled grazing prevents overgrazing and
flooding recedes as the tide recedes and allows helps to maintain plant vigor for maximum yields.
discharge of the river. Flooding fluctuates daily. This soil has a moderately high potential for the
The native vegetation of this map unit is dominated by production of pine trees. The primary concerns in
cypress, sweetbay, blackgum, large gallberry, management include equipment use and undesirable
summersweet clethra, titi, and scattered pine. plant competition. Slash pine is a suitable tree to plant
Flooding precluded agricultural or urban use of these for commercial wood production.
soils. This map unit serves as a feeding area for several This soil has severe limitations to use as septic tank
varieties of fish and aquatic birds, absorption fields even if proper water control measures
The soils in this map unit are in capability subgroup are used and areas are mounded. The limitations for
VIllw. The woodland ordination symbol for these soils is dwellings and commercial buildings are severe because
6W. of wetness and seepage. Wetness and droughtiness
during periods of low rainfall are severe limitations to use
50-Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, of this soil for landscaping, lawns, and golf course
This soil is a nearly level to gently sloping and poorly development. For these uses, proper drainage, an
drained. It is in low positions on the upland ridges. The irrigation system to supply water during dry periods, and
mapped areas are mainly oblong and range from 5 to
100 ares.g applications of fertilizer and lime are needed to improve
100the soil
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand the soil.
6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 45 Ths Kanapaha soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
inches, is light brownish gray and light gray fine sand. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W.
The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches is light brownish c n n r
gray fine sandy loam. 51-TBoca-Pieda, limestone substratum complex.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This complex consist of nearly evel, poorly drained soils
Adamsville, Arredondo, Basinger, and Sparr soils. The that are undelain by limestone bedrock. These soils are
included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map adjacent to freshwater swamp areas that parallel the
unit. coast. The mapped areas range from 1 acre to 5 acres.
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The individual
for 1 month to 3 months each year and is at a depth of areas of the soils in this map unit are too mixed or too
10 to 30 inches for about 4 months in most years. The small to conform to the scale used for the maps in the
available water capacity is very low in the sandy surface back of this publication.
layer and is moderate in the subsoil. Reaction ranges Boca soil makes up about 55 percent of the map unit.
from very strongly acid to medium acid. Natural fertility is Pineda soil makes up about 30 percent. The included
low. Plant response to fertilizer is moderate. soils make up about 15 percent.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops. Typically, Boca soil has a surface layer that is very
However, a well designed water control program and dark brown fine sand 3 inches thick. The upper part of
soil-improving measures make it suitable for a number of the subsurface layer, to a depth of 8 inches, is very pale
vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 22 inches,
remove excess water in wet seasons and provide water is yellow fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 32 inches,
through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. For some is light olive gray sandy clay loam. Below the subsoil is
crops, bedding in rows is sometimes necessary to lower hard limestone bedrock.
the depth of the water table. Crop residue and soil- Typically, Pineda soil has a surface layer that is dark
improving crops left in the soil increase organic matter grayish brown fine sand 2 inches thick. The subsurface
content. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according layer, to a depth of 5 inches, is grayish brown fine sand.
to the need of the crop. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 25 inches, is
Typically, this Kanapaha soil is in the Upland brownish yellow and strong brown fine sand. The lower
Hardwood Hammock range site. This site is readily part, to a depth of 42 inches, is light brownish gray
identified by the dense canopy of oaks, magnolias, and sandy clay loam. Below the subsoil is hard limestone
hickories. Cattle use the areas where the canopy is bedrock.
dense for shade and resting. Desirable forage on this The soils in this complex have a high water table at a
site includes indiangrass, switchgrass, longleaf uniola, depth of less than 10 inches for 1 month to 6 months in
and chalky bluestem. most years. The water table recedes into the underlying
This soil is well suited to improved pasture. limestone during the drier periods. During very wet
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover periods, some small areas are pounded.
grow well if properly managed. Water control measures Included with these soils in mapping are soils that
are needed to remove excess surface water after heavy have limestone bedrock at a depth of less than 24







Citrus County, Florida
47

inches. Small areas of rock outcrops are common in provide functional, nonpolluting septic tank absorption
these shallow soils. field systems. Wetness and depth to bedrock severely
Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and slow to limit the use of these soils for sewage lagoons and
moderate in the finer textured layers. The available water sanitary landfills. If sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills
capacity is low to very low in the sandy layer and are installed, these facilities should be sealed to prevent
moderate in the finer textured layers. Boca soil ranges seepage. Soil wetness severely limits the use of these
from strongly acid to moderately alkaline. Pineda soil soils for most building site development. For landscaping
ranges from very strongly acid to neutral in the sandy and other plantings, adapted species should be used or
layers and from strongly acid to moderately alkaline in a water control system installed and plant nutrients
the finer textured layers. Natural fertility is low. Solution applied regularly. An irrigation system may be needed to
pits and fractures occur in the limestone bedrock provide water during dry periods.
throughout the map unit. The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass
Typically, the Boca and Pineda soils are in the South IVw. The woodland ordination symbol for these soils is
Florida Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified 8W.
by scattered pine trees that have an understory of saw
palmetto and grasses. If grazing is controlled, this range 52-Anclote fine sand, depressional. This soil is
site has the potential to produce significant amounts of nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in oval
creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky depressions and in other poorly defined drainageways.
bluestem, and various panicum grasses. If the range The mapped areas are irregular in shape or nearly oval
deteriorates as a result of poor grazing management, and range from 5 to 20 acres. The slopes are concave
saw palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) will and less than 2 percent.
dominate the site. Typically, the surface layer is black and very dark gray
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to fine sand 14 inches thick. The underlying material to a
cultivated crops because of wetness and the depth to depth of 80 inches is grayish brown, light brownish gray,
bedrock. Soils in areas that have bedrock at a uniform and gray fine sand.
depth can be used for some crops if a water control Included with this soil in mapping are some small,
system is installed to remove excess water during the nondepressional areas of Anclote fine sand and small
wet periods. If adequate outlets for artificial drainage are areas of Basinger, Myakka, and Pompano soils. Also
not available, this can be a problem. Row crops planted included are a few small areas of soils along the
in alternate strip with close-growing cover crops help Withlacoochee River where randomly distributed
control erosion. A crop rotation system is needed that limestone boulders are at a depth of 60 inches or more
keeps the soil covered with close-growing, soil-improving and some areas of soils adjacent to mined areas that
crops two-thirds of the time. Crop residue and soil- have a thin clayey surface layer. The included soils make
improving crops that remain on the surface increase the up about 15 percent of the map unit.
content organic matter in the soil. Bedding in rows will This soil is ponded for 9 to 12 months in most years.
increase the rooting depth. Fertilizer and lime should be During dry periods, the water table may recede but it is
applied according to the need of the crop. generally within 10 inches of the surface. The high water
The soils in this map unit are well suited to improved table and ponding restrict the rooting depth of all plants
pasture. With proper management, pangolagrass, except water-tolerant plants. Internal drainage is
improved bahiagrasses, and white clovers grow well. impeded by ponding or because of the shallow water
Water control systems are needed to remove excess table. When the soil is not saturated, permeability is
surface water after heavy rains. Regular applications of rapid throughout. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to
fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps moderately alkaline. Natural fertility is high.
to maintain plant vigor for maximum yields. Typically, this Anclote soil is in the Freshwater
The soils in this map unit have a moderately high to Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
high potential for the production of pine trees. The major identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
concerns in management are use of equipment, seedling rushes, and other herbaceous plants or by a wooded
mortality, and plant competition. Water control systems area dominated by bay, cypress, sweetgum, and water
are needed to remove excess surface water during wet oak. These areas are generally saturated or covered by
periods. Rock outcrops can be a problem in land surface water for 2 or more months during the year. If
preparation. Slash pine is the preferred tree to plant. grazing is controlled, this range site has the potential to
The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for produce more forage than any of the other range sites in
urban use. Depth to bedrock and wetness are the main the county. For maximum production, wooded areas
limitations. Installation of an effective water control need to be cleared. Chalky bluestem and blue
system should be considered, but obtaining adequate maidencane dominate the dry parts of the site.
outlets can be a problem. If permitted, elevated and Maidencane is the dominant plant in the wet parts. Other
mounded septic tank absorption fields can be used to desirable forage on this site includes cutgrass, bluejoint







48 Soil Survey


panicum, sloughgrass, and low panicums. Periodic high cabbage palms. If grazing is controlled, this range site
water levels provide natural deferment from cattle has the potential to produce significant amounts of
grazing if grazing is not properly controlled. Carpetgrass, creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky
an introduced plant, tends to dominate the dry parts of bluestem, switchgrass, and various panicum species. If
the site if it is excessively grazed. the range deteriorates as a result of poor grazing
This soil is not suited to agricultural or urban uses management, saw palmetto and pineland threeawn
because of ponding. Drainage is not feasible in most (wiregrass) will dominate the site.
areas because of the relatively small areas of this soil This soil is well suited to improved pasture (fig. 6).
and its low, generally isolated, position on the landscape. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover
This Anclote soil is in capability subclass Vllw. The grow well if properly managed. Water control measures
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2W. are needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
53-Boca fine sand. This soil is nearly level and needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant vigor
poorly drained. It is on low, broad flats and in poorly for maximum yields.
defined drainageways on the flatwoods. The mapped This soil has a high potential for the production of pine
areas range from broad to narrow and are somewhat This soil has a high potential for the production of pine
elongated. These areas range from broad to narrow and are somewhat trees. Moderate concerns in management are equipment
elongated. These areas range from 4 to 100 acres. The use and seedling mortality. Slash pine is the most
slopes are less than 2 percent. use and seedling mortality. Slash pine is the most
slopes are less than 2 percent. suitable tree to plant for commercial wood production.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sutable tree to plant for commercial wood reduction.
sand 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of Wetness and depth to bedrock are severe limitations
19 inches, is light gray fine sand. The next layer, to a to use of this soil for urban development. If permitted,
depth of 21 inches, is yellow fine sand. The subsoil to a structures, such as elevated and mounded septic tank
depth of 38 inches is grayish brown sandy clay loam absorption fields, are needed to provide functional,
underlain by limestone bedrock. nonpolluting sanitary facilities. Excavations are difficult
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of because of the bedrock, and wetness is a severe
Basinger, EauGallie, Hallandale, Redlevel, and Myakka limitation to use of this soil for sanitary landfills or
soils. Also included are some areas of soils near the sewage lagoons. If the soil is used for sanitary landfill or
Cross Florida Barge Canal that have been drained. The sewage lagoons, the facilities should be sealed to help
included soils make up about 25 percent of the map unit. prevent seepage and the contamination of ground water.
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 Landscaping and other plantings require the use of
to 4 months in most years. It recedes into the limestone adapted species or a water control system should be
during dry periods. Permeability is rapid in the sandy installed. An irrigation system may be needed to supply
layers and moderate in the finer textured layers. The water during dry periods.
available water capacity is low to very low in the surface This Boca soil is in capability subclass Illw. The
and subsurface layers. It is moderate in the subsoil. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W.
Reaction ranges from strongly acid to moderately
alkaline. Natural fertility is low. 54-Apopka fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of soil is nearly level to gently sloping and well drained. It is
wetness and depth to bedrock. In many areas, rock on upland ridges. The mapped areas are irregular in
outcrop interferes with land preparation. Some areas can shape and range from 20 to about 200 acres.
be made suitable for some crops if a water control Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
system is installed to remove excess water during the fine sand 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
wet seasons. Row crops planted in alternate strip with depth of 50 inches, is yellowish brown and light yellowish
close-growing, soil-improving crops help control erosion. brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
A crop rotation system is needed that keeps the soil depth of 67 inches, is strong brown sandy clay loam.
covered with close-growing, soil-improving crops at least The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is red sandy clay
two-thirds of the time. Crop residue and soil-improving loam.
crops left on the soil increase the content of organic Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
material in the soil. Bedding in rows can increase the Arredondo, Astatula, Candler, and Sparr soils. Also
rooting depth. Fertilizer and lime should be applied included are small areas of Apopka soils that have
according to the need of the crop. slopes of up to 8 percent. The included soils make up
Typically, this Boca soil is in the Cabbage Palm less than 20 percent of the map unit.
Flatwoods range site. This site is readily identified by The water table is more than 6 feet below the surface
scattered pines and cabbage palms that have an in most years. The subsoil is moderately permeable.
understory of saw palmetto and grasses. This range site Rain is rapidly absorbed, and runoff is slow. Erosion is a
is similar to the South Florida Flatwoods range site, but it slight hazard. Natural fertility is low. Plant response to
has a higher percentage of herbaceous plants and fertilizer is moderate.






Citrus County, Florida
49




































Figure 6.--Boca fine sand Is well suited to Improved pasture.



This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because it recognized by the landform and dominant vegetation of
is drought during periods of low rainfall, and plant longleaf pine and turkey oak. The natural fertility of this
nutrients are rapidly leached. If cultivated, special soil- site is low as a result of the rapid movement of plant
improving methods should be used. Row crops planted nutrients and water through the soil. The forage
on the contour in alternate strips with close-growing production and quality are poor, and cattle do not readily
cover crops help control erosion. A cropping system is use this range site if other sites are available. Desirable
needed that keeps the soil covered with close-growing, forage on this site includes creeping bluestem, lopsided
soil-improving crops at least two-thirds of the time. Soil- indiangrass, and low panicum.
improving crops and crop residue left on the soil This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. Deep-
increase the content of organic matter in the soil. rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrasses and
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the bahiagrasses, normally grow well if well fertilized and
need of the crop. If feasible, irrigation should be provided limed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant vigor for
during drought periods. maximum yields.
Typically, this Apopka soil is in the Longleaf Pine- This soil has a moderately high potential for the
Turkey Oak Hills range site. This site is on rolling land production of pine trees. Moderate concerns in
that is nearly level to strongly sloping. It is easily management are equipment use and seedling mortality.







50Soil Survey



Slash pine is the most suitable tree to plant for few areas, hard or soft bedrock is at a depth of 60 to 80
commercial wood production, inches.
This soil has slight limitations to use as septic tank Soil drainage is variable and ranges from excessively
absorption fields. However, the sandy nature of the soil drained to well drained in sandy areas and is poorly
allows for seepage of sewage lagoons and sanitary drained in areas that have a high content of clay. A
landfills that are not lined or sealed. This soil has slight perched water table is on the clayey layers. Permeability
limitations to use for dwellings and commercial buildings; ranges from rapid in the sandy areas to slow in areas of
however, cutbank may cave. The droughtiness and low high clay content. The available water capacity ranges
fertility severely limit the use of this soil for landscaping, from very low to medium.
lawns, and golf course development. For these uses, Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of
irrigation is generally needed to supply water during the Arredondo, Astatula, Candler, Ft. Meade, Kendrick, Lake,
dry periods. Fertilizer and lime should be applied Sparr, and Tavares soils. Also included are slime ponds
frequently. (areas upon which colloidal suspensions of clayey
This Apopka soil is in capability subclass Ills. The material were pumped) and areas of Candler soils and

woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10S. Udorthents which have had a thin layer of clayey
material spread on the surface to improve the
55-Udorthents, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This map agricultural properties of the soils. In addition, areas
unit consists of nearly level to gently sloping manmade used as sanitary landfills are included in this map unit.
soils. These soils are mainly in the central part of the These areas contain up to 50 percent or more soil waste
county and generally are adjacent to pits. Most of these material and are named "sanitary landfill" on the maps
soils are in areas that have been mined and in a few in the back of this publication.
areas where the mines are still active. In some areas, Udorthents, if abandoned, have been vegetated by a
pits have been partly filled with the Udorthents. The succession of plant species adapted to the soil
individual areas of these e soils range from 5 to 100 acres properties of a particular area. Species adapted to soils
The sindividualopes are dominantly 5 percent or less. Into 100 areas. that are better drained have become established in the
The slopes are dominantly 5 percent or less. In a few ^ ^ ^^ ^
areas, these soils have a somewhat undulating surface better drained areas. More poorly drained areas have
araconsisting of these sois have a short, moderately steep surface species adapted to wetter conditions. In most areas, the
consisting of a series of short, moderately steep slopes dense vegetation provides an excellent habitat for many
that range from 12 to 20 percent, wildlife species.
wildlife species.
These soils are a highly variable mixture of sandy and The differences between each area and within each
loamy overburden material (removed to obtain the area of Udorthents does not permit establishment of
phosphate or limestone deposits), geologic material from interpretations for various uses of the soils. Onsite
mining operations, and colloidal clay material. Each area investigations are needed to establish feasibility for any
and parts of each area of these soils differ. They reflect intended use.
the differences in individual mined deposits and Udorthents have not been assigned to a capability
differences in mining methods used. Three very subclass or to a woodland group.
generalized kinds of pedons make up the Udorthents.
One kind consists chiefly of loamy material to a depth of 56-Lake, clayey surface, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
80 inches or more. A second kind consists of thick to This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and excessively
thin layers of sands alternating with finer textured drained. It is on upland ridges, mainly, around areas
material, mainly colloidal clays. The third kind consists of which were mined for phosphate. This soil has a surface
a sandy to loamy matrix that contains few to common layer of clayey fill material ranging from 2 to 20 inches
bands, strips, and pockets of clayey material mixed thick. This spreading of clayey fill material occurred as a
throughout. All of these generalized pedons are in most result of mining operations (overwash of slime ponds), or
areas and are intermixed. In most areas, few to common the fill material was added to improve the soil. The
broken fragments of limestone, chert, and low-grade mapped areas range from 5 to 30 acres.
phosphate rock are throughout the soils. Boulders of Typically, the surface layer is mottled yellow, brownish
these materials are in a few areas. In most areas, the gray, light gray, and white clay that has scattered
surface is sandy; but in a few areas, it is a thin to thick pockets of very dark gray fine sand 11 inches thick. The
layer of clayey material. The sand grains mainly are well next layer, to a depth of 13 inches, is very dark gray fine
coated with colloidal clay material, but areas of uncoated sand. The underlying material to a depth of 80 inches is
sand are common. Soil color is variable and ranges from light brownish yellow and pale brown fine sand.
white and gray to shades of yellow, brown, and red. In Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
vegetated areas, a dark layer has formed on the surface. Adamsville, Candler, Okeelanta, and Tavares soils that
Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral. The have a clay fill material up to 20 inches thick covering
thickness of the Udorthents is commonly 80 inches or the surface layer. Also included are areas of soils that
more but ranges from 20 to more than 80 inches. In a have clay fill material about 30 inches thick covering the






Citrus County, Florida
51


surface layer. The included soils make up less than 25 Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
percent of the map unit. Adamsville, Basinger, EauGallie, Immokalee, and Myakka
The water table is more than 72 inches below the soils. Also included are small areas of soils, adjacent to
surface throughout the year. Permeability is slow in the U.S. Highway 19, that are similar to Ona soil but have
clayey material and is rapid or very rapid in the sandy boulders in the profile and some areas of soils near the
layers. The available water capacity is high in the clayey Cross Florida Barge Canal that have been drained. In
material and low in the sandy layers. Reaction ranges these soils, the water table is deeper than is typical, and
from very strongly acid to mildly alkaline in the clayey the duration of the high water table is less than that
material and is very strongly acid or strongly acid in the described as typical. The included soils make up about
sandy layers. Natural fertility is low. 25 percent of the map unit.
In most areas, the vegetation on this soil mainly is live The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
oak, water oak, slash pine, and longleaf pine that have for periods of 1 month to 2 months, and it is at a depth
an understory of sedges, briars, and native grasses. of 10 to 40 inches for periods of 4 to 6 months. During
Droughtiness and low fertility severely limit the use of very dry years, the water table may recede to a depth of
this soil for production of cultivated crops. Intensive more than 40 inches. Permeability is moderate in the
management must be used for the production of adapted subsoil and is rapid in the other layers. The available
crops. Yields are limited by periodic droughts. Row crops water capacity is moderate in the subsurface layer and
planted on the contour in alternate strips with close- subsoil and is very low in the substratum. Reaction
growing crops help control erosion. A crop rotation ranges from extremely acid to medium acid. Natural
system is needed that keeps the soil covered with soil- fertility is low. Plant response to fertilizer is good.
improving, close-growing cover crops at least three- Typically, this Ona soil is in the South Florida
fourths of the time. Soil-improving crops and crop Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by the
residue left on the soil increase or maintain the content scattered pine trees that have an understory of saw
of organic matter content and the available water palmetto and grasses. If grazing is controlled, this range
capacity of the soil. Irrigation, if available, should be site has the potential to produce significant amounts of
considered if crop value warrants. creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky
This Lake soil is moderately suited to improved bluestem, and various panicum species. If the range
pasture if deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal deteriorates as a result of poor grazing management,
bermudagrass and bahiagrasses, are grown. Regular saw palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) will
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled dominate the site.
grazing helps to maintain plant vigor for maximum yields. This soil is suited to many cultivated crops if water
This soil has a moderate potential for the production control systems are properly installed and maintained.
of pine trees. Moderate concerns in management are This generally involves the installation of ditches or a
equipment use and seedling mortality. Slash pine is the subsurface drainage system to remove excess surface
most suitable tree to plant for commercial wood water during wet periods and to provide water through
production, irrigation in dry periods. Row crops planted in alternate
This soil has slight limitations to use as septic tank strips with close-growing cover crops help control
absorption fields; however, care must be taken to assure erosion. A cropping system is needed that keeps the soil
that tile lines are placed below the clayey surface layer. covered with close-growing, soil-improving crops at least
In addition, a dense concentration of sanitary facilities two-thirds of the time. Crop residue left on the surface
can contaminate ground water because of the poor helps to control erosion. For some crops, bedding in
filtering capacity of the substratum. Seepage is a severe rows is sometimes necessary to lower the depth of the
limitation to use of this soil for sanitary landfills or water table. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
sewage lagoons. This soil has slight limitations for according to the need of the crop.
building site development; however, cutbanks may cave. This soil is well suited to improved pasture.
This Lake soil is in capability subclass IVs. The Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover grow
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S. well if properly managed. Water control measures, such
as surface and subsurface drainage, are needed to
57-Ona fine sand. This soil is nearly level and poorly remove excess surface water after heavy rains and to
drained. It is in broad flatwood areas. The mapped areas help obtain maximum yields. Regular applications of
are irregular in shape and range from 3 to about 100 fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing
acres. The slopes are smooth and less than 2 percent. prevents overgrazing and helps to maintain plant vigor
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand for maximum yields.
8 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of 20 inches, is This soil has a moderately high potential for the
dark brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of 80 production of pine trees. The main concerns in
inches is light yellowish brown, very pale brown, and management are the limitations of this soil to use of
brown fine sand. equipment during wet periods, seedling mortality, and







52 Soil Survey



undesirable competition plant. Slash pine is the most of Myakka, EauGallie, and Immokalee soils; small areas
suitable tree to plant for commercial wood production, of Basinger and Hallandale soils; and some areas of
but for best results a water control system to remove rock outcrop. The included soils make up about 35
excess surface water should be installed, percent of this map unit.
Wetness, seepage, and the poor filtering capacity of The soils in this complex have a high water table at a
this soil are severe limitations to use for sanitary facilities depth of less than 10 inches for 1 month to 4 months in
and most other urban uses. This soil also has severe most years. It gradually recedes to a depth of 40 inches
limitations to use for sewage lagoons and sanitary or more during drier periods. Internal drainage is
landfills. If the soil is used for sewage lagoons and moderately slow. The available water capacity is medium
sanitary landfills, the facilities must be sealed to prevent in the subsoil and low to very low in the surface and
the possible contamination of ground water. Wetness subsurface layers. The reaction of Myakka soil ranges
severely limits the use of this soil for building site from strongly acid to mildly alkaline. The reaction of
development. Cutbanks may cave. Wetness and low EauGallie soil ranges from very strongly acid to medium
fertility limit the use of this soil for lawns, landscaping, acid in the surface and subsurface layers and from very
and golf course development. Plants adapted to these strongly acid to slightly acid in the subsoil. Natural
conditions should be planted or a water control system fertility of Myakka and EauGallie soils is low, and plant
should be installed. Plant nutrients should be regularly response to applied fertilizer is moderate.
applied. The installation of an irrigation system should be Typically, the Myakka and EauGallie soils are in the
considered to supply water during dry periods. Cabbage Palm Flatwoods range site. This site is in
This Ona soil is in capability subclass Illw. The native vegetation of scattered pines and cabbage palms
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. that have an understory of saw palmetto and grasses.
This range site is similar to the South Florida Flatwoods
58-Myakka, limestone substratum-EauGallie, range site, but it has a higher percentage of herbaceous
limestone substratum complex. This complex consists plants and cabbage palms. If grazing is controlled, this
of nearly level, poorly drained Myakka and EauGallie range site has the potential to produce significant
soils. These soils are on the coastal flatwoods and are amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
also on some islands adjacent to saltwater marshes in chalky bluestem, switchgrass, and various panicum
the northern part of Citrus County. Depth to the species. If range deteriorates as a result of poor grazing
limestone bedrock commonly is 50 to 80 inches but management, saw palmetto and pineland threeawn
averages about 60 inches. The mapped areas range (wiregrass) will dominate the site.
from broad to narrow and are somewhat elongated. In areas that are relatively free of rock outcrop, the
These areas range from 4 to 100 acres. The slopes are soils are suited to many cultivated crops if water control
less than 2 percent. The individual areas of the soils in systems are properly installed and maintained. This
this map unit are too mixed or too small to map generally involves the installation of ditches or a
separately at the scale used for the maps in the back of subsurface drainage system to remove excess water
this publication. during wet periods and to provide water through irrigation
Myakka soil makes up about 40 percent of the map during dry periods. A crop rotation system is needed that
unit. EauGallie soil makes up about 25 percent. The keeps the soil covered with close-growing, soil-improving
included soils make up about 35 percent. crops three-fourths of the time. Crop residue left on the
Typically, Myakka soil has a surface layer that is dark surface helps to control erosion. For some crops,
gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface bedding in rows is sometimes necessary to lower the
layer, to a depth of 23 inches, is light brownish gray fine depth of water table. Fertilizer and lime should be
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 34 applied according to the need of the crop.
inches, is very dark gray fine sand. The lower part, to a In most areas, the soils in this map unit are well suited
depth of about 62 inches, is brown and light brownish to improved pasture. Pangolagrass, improved
gray fine sand. Below the subsoil is hard limestone bahiagrass, and white clover grow well when properly
bedrock, managed. Water control measures, such as the
Typically, EauGallie soil has a surface layer that is installation of surface or subsurface drains, are needed
black fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface to remove excess surface water after heavy rains.
layer, to a depth of 25 inches, is light brownish gray fine Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 39 Controlling grazing prevents overgrazing and helps to
inches, is black fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of maintain plant vigor for maximum yields.
59 inches, is grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to These soils have a moderate to moderately high
a depth of 63 inches, is light olive gray sandy clay loam. potential for the production of pine trees. The main
Below the subsoil is hard limestone bedrock. concerns in management are the limitations for
Included with these soils in mapping are Immokalee equipment use during wet periods, seedling mortality,
soils. Also included are some small depressional areas and undesirable plant competition. Slash pine is the







Citrus County, Florida
53


most suitable tree to plant for commercial wood layer and is moderately alkaline in the other layers. The
production. For maximum production, a system to content of organic matter and natural fertility are low.
remove excess surface water should be installed. Typically, this Boca soil is in the Freshwater Marshes
Wetness is a severe limitation to use of these soils as and Ponds range site. This site can be identified by an
septic tank absorption fields. Myakka, limestone open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and other
substratum, soil has poor filtering capacity; therefore, herbaceous plants or by a wooded areas dominated by
effluent from septic tank absorption fields can bay, cypress, sweetgum, and water oak. These areas are
contaminate ground water. Sewage lagoons and sanitary generally saturated or covered by surface water for 2 or
landfills should be sealed to prevent seepage. Bedrock more months during the year. If grazing is controlled, this
at a depth of about 5 feet severely limits the use of range site has the potential to produce more forage than
these soils for sanitary landfills. These soils also have any of the other range sites in the county. For maximum
severe limitations for shallow excavations because of production, wooded areas need to be cleared. Chalky
wetness and the possible caving of cutbanks. Wetness is bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the dry parts of
a severe limitation for most building site development, the site. Maidencane is the dominant plant in the wet
Wetness and low fertility limit the use of these soils for parts. Other desirable forage on this site includes
lawns, landscaping, and golf course development. The cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
conditions are less limiting if species adapted to wetness panicums. Periodic high water levels provide natural
and low fertility are planted or if a water control system deferment from cattle grazing if grazing is not properly
is installed and plant nutrients are applied regularly. An controlled. Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to
irrigation system is needed to provide water during dry dominate the drier parts of the site if it is excessively
periods. grazed.
The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass This soil is not suited to cultivated crops and pasture
IVw. The woodland ordination symbol for Myakka soil is because of ponding and depth to bedrock. Since most
6W. The woodland ordination symbol for EauGallie soil is areas of this soil are so small, the installation of an
10W. artificial drainage system is not feasible unless it can be
incorporated into a larger system. Commercial pine tree
59-Boca fine sand, depressional. This soil is nearly production is restricted to trees such as pond pine. If a
level and poorly drained. It is in depressions and other good vegetative cover is maintained, this soil is well
poorly defined drainageways along the coast. This soil is suited to use as habitat for wetland and shallow water
underlain by limestone bedrock at a depth of 24 to 40 wildlife.
inches; however, solution pits extending to a depth of 60 Ponding and depth to bedrock are severe limitations to
inches or more are common. The mapped areas are use of this soil for urban development. For most uses,
mainly narrow and long or nearly round and are less an artificial drainage system is needed. Fill material
than 30 acres in size. The slopes are less than 2 should be added if permitted.
percent. This Boca soil is in capability subclass VIIw. The
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand 8 inches woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2W.
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 21 inches, is
light gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 25 inches, 60-Broward fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
is grayish brown sandy clay loam. The next layer to a somewhat poorly drained. It is on broad flatwoods near
depth of 27 inches is a mixture of white limestone the coast. This soil is underlain by limestone between
fragments, marl, and yellowish brown sandy clay loam depths of 20 and 40 inches. In some areas, scattered
underlain by limestone bedrock. boulders and rocks are at or near the surface, and some
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of previously cultivated areas have cobbles scattered
Hallandale soils. Also included are soils that have layers across the surface. Rock outcrop occurs in a few areas.
of marl, limestone fragments, and finer textured material The mapped areas are broad and rounded or irregular in
up to 20 inches thick on the surface of the bedrock and shape and range from 10 to 150 acres.
some small areas of rock outcrop. The included soils Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
make up less than 20 percent of the map unit. 5 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material,
This soil is ponded for periods of 2 to 6 months in to a depth of 15 inches, is gray fine sand. The lower part
most years. The water table recedes below the surface to a depth of 35 inches is brownish yellow fine sand
during dry periods. It is generally within 10 inches of the underlain by limestone bedrock.
surface. In very dry periods, the water table recedes into Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
the limestone. Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers Boca and Redlevel soils. Also included are some areas
and is moderate in the finer textured layers. The of soils near the Cross Florida Barge Canal that have
available water capacity is low to moderate. Reaction been drained. The included soils make up about 20
ranges from strongly acid to mildly alkaline in the surface percent of the map unit.







54 Soil Survey


The water table is at a depth of 20 to 30 inches for This Broward soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
periods of 2 to 6 months. In very wet years, it may rise woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W.
above 20 inches for brief periods. Permeability is rapid
throughout. The available water capacity is low to very 61-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
low. Natural fertility is low. Plant response to fertilizer is soil is nearly level and moderately well drained. It is on
low to moderate. Rain is rapidly absorbed, and runoff is knolls and ridges throughout the eastern part of the
slow. Reaction ranges from medium acid to moderately county. Most areas of this soil are surrounded by soils in
alkaline, lower areas that are more poorly drained. The mapped
Typically, this Broward soil is in the Cabbage Palm areas vary from long and narrow or somewhat circular
Hammock range site. This site is readily identified by and range from about 5 to 100 acres. The slopes are 5
thick stands of cabbage palms and a few scattered oak. percent or less.
The hammocks also occur in slightly elevated areas in Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
the Slough and South Florida Flatwoods communities. sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
Cattle use the areas where the canopy is dense for depth of 14 inches, is white fine sand. The subsoil, to a
shade and resting. Desirable forage on this site includes depth of 48 inches, is brownish yellow and very pale
chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, hairy panicum, low brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches
panicum, and South Florida bluestem. is white fine sand.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
wetness, depth to bedrock, and the rapid leaching of Basinger, Paola, Pomello, and Tavares soils. The
plant nutrients. Water control practices are needed to included soils make up about 20 percent of the map unit.
obtain maximum yields. A crop rotation system is needed The water table is between depths of 40 and 72
that keeps the soil covered with soil-improving, close- inches for 6 months. Permeability is rapid. The available
growing cover crops at least three-fourths of the time. water capacity is very low. Reaction ranges from
Soil-improving crops and crop residue left on the soil or extremely acid to medium acid. Natural fertility is low.
plowed under help maintain the content of organic Plant response to fertilizer is low.
matter and control erosion. Irrigation is generally needed Typically, this Orsino soil is in the Upland Hardwood
during dry periods for maximum yields and if crop value Hammock range site. This site is readily identified by the
warrants. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according dense canopy of oaks magnolias, and hickories. Cattle
to the need of the crop. use the areas where the canopy is dense for shade and
resting. Desirable forage on this site includes
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Plants, such indiangrass, switchgrass, ongleaf uniola, and c halky
as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are adapted ndabuerass, switchgrass, longleaf uniola, and chalky
to this soil. Regular applications of fertilizer and periodic This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops
applications of lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops
to maintain plant vigor for maximum yields. because of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
to ma n pn vir maximum yields, nutrients. Few crops are adapted to these conditions,
This soil has a moderately high potential for the and potential yields are low. Soil management should
production of pine trees. The main concerns in include row crops planted on the contour in alternate
management are the limitations of this soil to use of strips with close-growing cover crops to help control
equipment during wet periods, seedling mortality, and erosion. A crop rotation is needed that keeps the soil
undesirable plant competition. Slash pine is the most covered with close-growing, soil-improving crops at least
suitable tree to plant for commercial wood production. three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving crops and crop
Wetness, the depth to bedrock, and the poor filtering residue left on the soil increase or maintain the content
capacity of this sandy soil are severe limitations to use of organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer and lime should be
as septic tank absorption fields. Seepage, wetness, and applied according to the need of the crop. Irrigation is
depth to bedrock are severe limitations to use of this soil needed for maximum yields if crop value warrants.
for sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills. If the soil is This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture.
used for sewage lagoons or sanitary landfills, the Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
facilities should be sealed to help control seepage and bahiagrass, are well adapted to this soil but yields are
the contamination of ground water. Wetness is a low as a result of droughts. Regular applications of
moderate limitation to use for buildings without fertilizer are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain
basements and for local roads and streets. Cutbanks plant vigor for maximum yields.
may cave. Periodic droughtiness is a moderate limitation This soil has a moderate potential for the production
to use of this soil for lawns, landscaping, and golf course of pine trees. Seedling mortality is a severe concern in
development. Adapted species should be planted or an management, and undesirable plant competition and
irrigation system should be installed to supply water equipment use are moderate concerns. Slash pine is the
during the dry periods. Fertilizer and lime should be most suitable tree to plant for commercial wood
applied as needed. production.







Citrus County, Florida 55
55


Wetness is a moderate limitation to use of this soil as cabbage palms. If grazing is controlled, this range site
septic tank absorption fields. If the soil is used for has the potential to produce significant amounts of
sanitary landfills or sewage lagoons, the facilities should creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky
be sealed to help prevent seepage and contamination of bluestem, switchgrass, and various panicum species. If
ground water. Limitations of this soil for building site the range deteriorates as a result of poor grazing
development range from slight to severe. Cutbanks may management, saw palmetto and pineland threeawn
cave. Droughtiness and low fertility are severe limitations (wiregrass) will dominate the site.
if the soil is used for landscaping. Species adapted to This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
these conditions should be planted. An irrigation system improved bahiagrasses, and white clover grow well if
is needed to supply water during dry periods. Fertilizer managed properly. Water control measures are needed
should be applied as needed. to remove excess surface water after heavy rains.
This Orsino soil is in capability subclass IVs. The Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are needed.
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S. Controlled grazing prevents overgrazing and helps to
maintain plant vigor for maximum yields.
62-Malabar sand. This soil is nearly level and poorly This soil has a moderately high potential for the
drained. It is adjacent to depressional areas on the production of pine trees. Equipment use is a moderate
flatwoods. The mapped areas are mainly oblong and concern in management, seedling mortality is a severe
range from 5 to 40 acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2 concern. Slash pine is a recommended tree to plant for
percent. commercial wood production.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand This soil has severe limitations to use as septic tank
about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of absorption fields, even if proper water control measures
about 15 inches, is brown fine sand. The upper part of are used and areas are mounded. Seepage and wetness
the subsoil, to a depth of 44 inches, is brownish yellow are severe limitations to use of this soil for most building
and light yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part to a site development, landscaping, and golf course
depth of 80 inches is gray and light gray sandy clay development. For these uses, proper drainage, an
loam. irrigation system to supply water during the dry periods,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of and applications of fertilizer and lime are needed to help
Basinger, Paisley, and Pineda soils. Also included are improve the soil.
areas of soils that are similar to Malabar soil except that This Malabar soil is in capability subclass of IVw. The
they are ponded for 1 week to 3 months in most years. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W.
The included soils make up about 15 percent of the map
unit. 63-Paisley fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches poorly drained. It is adjacent to depressional areas
for 2 to 6 months during most years. It is at a depth of throughout the county and along the Withlacoochee
10 to 30 inches during dry periods. The available water River. The mapped areas generally are oblong and
capacity is very low in the sandy layers and is moderate range from 5 to 70 acres.
to high in the subsoil. Reaction ranges from medium acid Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
to moderately alkaline. Natural fertility is low. Plant about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
response to fertilizer is moderate. 15 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of to a depth of 80 inches is dark gray, gray, and light gray
wetness and low fertility. If water control systems are sandy clay loam and sandy clay.
installed and soil-improving measures initiated, these Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
soils can be used for many vegetable crops. A water Boca, EauGallie, Immokalee, and Malabar soils. The
control system is needed to remove excess water in wet included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map
seasons and provide water through subsurface irrigation unit.
in dry seasons. For some crops, bedding in rows is The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
sometimes necessary to lower the depth of the water for 2 to 6 months during most years. It is at a depth of
table. Crop residue and soil-improving crops left on the 10 to 30 inches during dry periods. The available water
soil or plowed under help maintain the content of organic capacity is moderate to high. Reaction is medium acid or
matter in the soil. Fertilizer and lime should be applied slightly acid in the surface and subsurface layers and
according to the need of the crop. ranges from medium acid to moderately alkaline in the
Typically, this Malabar soil is in the Cabbage Palm subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Plant response to fertilizer
Flatwoods range site. This site is readily identified by is good.
scattered pines and cabbage palms that have an Typically, this Paisley soil is in the Cabbage Palm
understory of palmetto and grasses. This range site is Flatwoods range site. This site is readily identified by
similar to the South Florida Flatwoods range site, but it scattered pines and cabbage palms that have an
has a higher percentage of herbaceous plants and understory of palmetto and grasses. This range site is







56


similar to the South Florida Flatwoods range site, but it layer is cobbly fine sand. The included soils make up 25
has a higher percentage of herbaceous plants and percent of the map unit.
cabbage palms. If grazing is controlled, this range site The high water table is within 2 to 3 feet of the surface
has the potential to produce significant amounts of for periods of up to 4 months. In drained areas, the
creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky water level fluctuates with the water level in the drainage
bluestem, switchgrass, and various panicum species. If ditches. Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid.
the range deteriorates as a result of poor grazing Runoff is slow. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to
management, saw palmetto and pineland threeawn moderately alkaline. Natural fertility is low. Plant
(wiregrass) will dominate the site. response to fertilizer is moderate.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of Typically, this Citronelle soil is in the Cabbage Palm
wetness. With adequate drainage, this soil is suited to Flatwoods range site. This site is readily identified by
several important crops, including citrus trees. A water scattered pines and cabbage palms that have an
control system is needed and should be designed to understory of palmetto and grasses. This range site is
rapidly remove excess surface water and internal water, similar to the South Florida Flatwoods range site, but it
A crop rotation system is needed that keeps the soil has a higher percentage of herbaceous plants and
covered with close-growing, soil-improving crops at least cabbage palms. If grazing is controlled, this range site
two-thirds of the time. These crops and crop residue has the potential to produce significant amounts of
should be plowed under to help maintain or increase the creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky
content of organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer and lime bluestem, switchgrass, and various panicum species. If
should be applied according to the need of the crop. the range deteriorates as a result of poor grazing
should beapplied accord to the need of management, saw palmetto and pineland threeawn
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. (wiregrass) will dominate the site.
Bahiagrass, tall fescue grass, and clover are well This soil is not suite to most cultivated crops.
adapted to this soil. Management practices needed on Wetness, depth to bedrock, and low fertility are severe
this soil include water control, fertilizing, timing, and limitations. These limitations are difficult to overcome. In
controlled grazing. addition, included areas of rock outcrop limit the use of
This soil has a very high potential for the production of equipment on the soil.
pine trees. The primary concerns in management are This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture in
equipment use and high seedling mortality. Slash pine is areas without rock outcrop. Pangolagrass, improved
a recommended tree to plant for commercial wood bahiagrasses, and clover grow well if properly managed.
production. Water-control measures, such as shallow ditches, should
Careful planning is required to correct the wetness be installed to remove excessive surface water. Regular
limitation if this soil is used as septic tank absorption applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled
fields and for lawns, golf courses, and landscaping. grazing prevents overgrazing and helps to maintain plant
Wetness and the high shrink-swell potential of the vigor for maximum yields.
subsoil must be considered before planning for the In areas where rock outcrop is not extensive, this soil
construction of dwellings, commercial buildings, and has a moderate potential for the production of pine
local roads and streets. trees. Moderate concerns in management are equipment
This Paisley soil is in capability class IIIw. The use and seedling mortality. Slash pine is the most
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 13W. suitable tree to plant for commercial wood production.
This soil has severe limitations for urban usage. Depth
64-Citronelle fine sand. This soil is nearly level and to bedrock is the main problem. If permitted, structures,
somewhat poorly drained. It is on the flatwoods. such as elevated and mounded septic tank absorption
Limestone bedrock is at a depth of 20 inches or less. fields, can be used to provide functional, nonpolluting
The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from sanitary systems. Because of the depth to bedrock, the
10 to 100 acres. excavation of this soil is difficult. Depth to bedrock is
Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown fine also a limitation to use of this soil for sanitary landfills or
sand 2 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 9 inches sewage lagoons. If this soil is used for sanitary landfills
is yellowish red fine sand underlain by limestone or sewage lagoons, the facilities should be sealed to
bedrock. help prevent contamination of the ground water.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Boca, Landscaping and other plantings generally require the
Broward, and Hallandale soils. Within the map unit are reworking of available soil materials and adding fill
randomly scattered rock outcrops. Rock outcrops range material to increase the rooting depth.
from 2 square feet to about 10 square feet. In some This Citronelle soil is in capability subclass IVs. The
areas, the bedrock has been broken off and the surface woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W.







57








Prime Farmland


In this section, prime farmland is defined and permeable to water and air. They are not excessively
discussed, and the prime farmland soils in Citrus County erodible or saturated with water for long periods and are
are listed. not subject to frequent flooding during the growing
Prime farmland is one of several kinds of important season. The slope ranges mainly from 0 to 6 percent.
farmland defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The supply of high-quality farmland is limited. About
It is of major importance in meeting the nation's short- 1,000 acres in Citrus County, or less than 1 percent of
and long-range needs for food and fiber. The acreage of the county, is prime farmland. These areas are generally
high-quality farmland is limited, and the U.S. Department irregular in shape and less than 50 acres in size. They
of Agriculture recognizes that government at local, state, are located in the south-central section of Citrus County.
and federal levels, as well as individuals, must Currently this land is dominantly used for pastureland
encourage and facilitate the wise use of our nation's and forest land.
prime farmland. The following map unit, or soil, makes up prime
Prime farmland soils, as defined by the U.S. farmland in Citrus County. The location of each map unit
Department of Agriculture, are soils that are best suited is shown on the detailed soil maps at the back of this
to producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops. publication. The extent of each unit is given in table 3.
Such soils have properties that are favorable for the The soil qualities that affect use and management are
economic production of sustained high yields of crops. described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units." This
The soils need only to be treated and managed using list does not constitute a recommendation for a particular
acceptable farming methods. The moisture supply, of land use.
course, must be adequate, and the growing season has Soils that have a high water table, are subject to
to be sufficiently long. Prime farmland soils produce the flooding, or are drought may qualify as prime farmland if
highest yields with minimal inputs of energy and these limitations or hazards are overcome by such
economic resources. Farming these soils results in the measures as drainage, flood control, or irrigation. In the
measures as drainage, flood control, or irrigation. In the
least damage to the environment. following list, the measures needed to overcome the
Prime farmland soils may presently be in use as limitations or hazards of a map unit are shown in
cropland, pasture, or woodland, or they may be in other parentheses after the map unit name. Onsite evaluation
uses. They either are used for producing food or fiber or is necessary to determine the effectiveness of corrective
are available for these uses. Urban or built-up land, measures. More information on the criteria for prime
'^ measures. More information on the criteria for prime
public land, and water areas cannot be considered prime farmland soils can be obtained at the local office of the
farmland.
farmland. Soil Conservation Service.
Prime farmland soils usually get an adequate and
dependable supply of moisture from precipitation or The map unit that meets the requirements for prime
irrigation. The temperature and growing season are farmland is
favorable. The acidity or alkalinity level of the soils is 33 Micanopy loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
acceptable. The soils have few or no rocks and are (where drained)











59








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Pastures in the county produce forage for beef cattle,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses goats, and horses. Beef cattle cow-calf operations are
and management. Field experience and collected data the main livestock enterprise. Bahiagrass is the main
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis pasture plant. Many ranches use improved
for predicting soil behavior. bermudagrass and pangolagrass for hay crops. Harvest
Information in this section can be used to plan the use of grass seed and sod are important to some farms in
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as the county. Cool-season annuals, such as rye and oats,
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary are used for winter and spring forage. These small grains
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and can be seeded after a vegetable or row crop, used in a
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife pasture renovation program, or overseeded into a
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and perennial grass sod. Important summer annual legumes
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help are hairy indigo and alyceclover, which are seeded along
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil or overseeded into a sod. Perennial peanuts is a new
properties. perennial legume that shows promise and is well
Planners and others using soil survey information can adapted to the well drained soils in Citrus County, such
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity as Apopka and Arredondo soils. Differences in the
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. amount and kind of pasture yields are related closely to
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a the suitability of a soil for pasture use. Management of
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature. pasture is based on the relationship of soils, pasture
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of plants, lime, fertilizer, moisture, and grazing systems.
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to Pasture in many parts of the county is greatly depleted
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil by continuous, excessive grazing. Yields can be
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, increased by adding lime and fertilizer, by including
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and grass-legume mixtures in the cropping systems, and by
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can using other management practices such as proper
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate grazing.
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, Special crops grown in the county are citrus fruits,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. vegetables, deciduous fruits, and some ornamental
plants. Oranges are the most important citrus crop.
Crops and Pasture Small acreages are in grapefruit, tangerines, and lemons.
Most of the citrus is grown in the southeast section of
Mark Stephen Barrow, Animal and Plant Science specialist, Citrus the county around the lakes. All areas of the county are
County Cooperative Extension Service, helped to prepare this section. subject to freeze damage. The main vegetable crop is
General management needed for crops and pasture is watermelons. Many other vegetable crops, such as
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants sweet corn, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, and peas,
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly are grown on small acreages. Several small acreages of
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of deciduous fruit crops, such as blueberries, grapes,
land capability classification used by the Soil peaches, pears, and apples are grown in the county.
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated Blueberries and grapes are especially promising in the








59








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Pastures in the county produce forage for beef cattle,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses goats, and horses. Beef cattle cow-calf operations are
and management. Field experience and collected data the main livestock enterprise. Bahiagrass is the main
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis pasture plant. Many ranches use improved
for predicting soil behavior. bermudagrass and pangolagrass for hay crops. Harvest
Information in this section can be used to plan the use of grass seed and sod are important to some farms in
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as the county. Cool-season annuals, such as rye and oats,
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary are used for winter and spring forage. These small grains
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and can be seeded after a vegetable or row crop, used in a
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife pasture renovation program, or overseeded into a
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and perennial grass sod. Important summer annual legumes
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help are hairy indigo and alyceclover, which are seeded along
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil or overseeded into a sod. Perennial peanuts is a new
properties. perennial legume that shows promise and is well
Planners and others using soil survey information can adapted to the well drained soils in Citrus County, such
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity as Apopka and Arredondo soils. Differences in the
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. amount and kind of pasture yields are related closely to
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a the suitability of a soil for pasture use. Management of
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature. pasture is based on the relationship of soils, pasture
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of plants, lime, fertilizer, moisture, and grazing systems.
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to Pasture in many parts of the county is greatly depleted
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil by continuous, excessive grazing. Yields can be
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, increased by adding lime and fertilizer, by including
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and grass-legume mixtures in the cropping systems, and by
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can using other management practices such as proper
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate grazing.
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, Special crops grown in the county are citrus fruits,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. vegetables, deciduous fruits, and some ornamental
plants. Oranges are the most important citrus crop.
Crops and Pasture Small acreages are in grapefruit, tangerines, and lemons.
Most of the citrus is grown in the southeast section of
Mark Stephen Barrow, Animal and Plant Science specialist, Citrus the county around the lakes. All areas of the county are
County Cooperative Extension Service, helped to prepare this section. subject to freeze damage. The main vegetable crop is
General management needed for crops and pasture is watermelons. Many other vegetable crops, such as
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants sweet corn, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, and peas,
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly are grown on small acreages. Several small acreages of
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of deciduous fruit crops, such as blueberries, grapes,
land capability classification used by the Soil peaches, pears, and apples are grown in the county.
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated Blueberries and grapes are especially promising in the







60 Soil Survey



area. All fruit and vegetables crops should be irrigated to blowing. Stripcrops of small grains are also effective in
insure maximum yields, reducing wind erosion and crop damage.
Field crops that are suited to the soils and climate of Water control is a major management need on land
Citrus County include many that are not commonly used for crops and pasture. Many of the soils in the
grown. Only small acreages of field crops are grown. county are poorly drained or very poorly drained. In most
Corn, soybeans, peanuts, grain sorghum, and small years, they are too wet for crops commonly grown in the
grains can be grown if conditions are favorable, area. These soils that are sandy also have a low
Soil erosion is a concern on about two-thirds of the available water capacity and are drought during dry
cropland and pasture in Citrus County. It can be a periods. For intensive row cropping, a combination of
hazard on soils that have slopes of more than 2 percent. surface drainage and subsurface irrigation is needed on
Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging most of the poorly drained soils. The design of surface
for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the drainage and irrigation systems varies with the kind of
surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil or subsurface soil and the crop grown. More information about water
layer is incorporated into the plow layer. The loss of the control and practices to prevent wind erosion is available
surface layer is especially damaging on soils that have a at the local office of the Soil Conservation Service.
clayey subsoil, such as Micanopy and Williston soils. ot co o o the eeive ra
Also, erosion caused by loss of the surface layer Most crops grown on the excessively drained sandy
reduces productivity on soils that tend to be drought, soils in the center part of the county would reuire some
such as Astatula, Candler, and Fort Meade soils. formof sprinkler or drip irrigation system to insure
Second, soil erosion on farmland results in sediment satisfactory yields. Most of these soils are very drought
entering streams. Control of erosion minimizes the with very low available water capacity. Soil fertility is
pollution of streams by sediment and improves the naturally low in most of the sandy soils. Most soils in the
quality of water for municipal use, for recreation, and for county are very strongly acid. If they have never been
fish and wildlife. limed, applications of ground limestone are needed for
Erosion control practices provide protective surface ample growth of legumes and other crops. Nitrogen and
cover, reduce runoff, and increase water infiltration. A available phosphorus and potash levels are naturally low
cropping system that keeps vegetative cover on the soil in most of the mineral soils. Natural soil fertility, however,
for extended periods can hold soil erosion losses to changes as the soil is used. On all soils, additions of
amounts that will not reduce the productive capacity of lime and fertilizer should be based on the results of soil
the soils. On livestock farms that require pasture and tests, on the need of the crop, and on the expected level
hay, the including of legume and grass forage crops in of yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can help in
the cropping system reduces erosion on sloping lands, determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime
provides nitrogen, and improves soil tilth, to apply.
Slopes are so short and irregular that contour tillage or Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
terracing is not practical in some areas. In these areas, a seeds and in the infiltration rate of water into the soil.
cropping system that provides substantial vegetative Soils that have good tilth are granular and porous. Most
cover is needed to control erosion. Minimizing tillage and of the soils used for crops in Citrus County have a sandy
leaving crop residue on the surface increase infiltration surface texture and are low in organic matter. Regular
and reduce the hazards of runoff and erosion. These additions of crop residue, manure, and other organic
practices can be adapted to most soils in the county. matter improve soil structure and increase the available
Terraces and diversions reduce the length of slope water capacity of these soils.
and thus reduce runoff and erosion. These conservation The acreage in crops and pastures is gradually
practices are most practical on deep, well drained soils decreasing as more land is used for urban development.
that have regular slopes and are less suitable on other The total acreage in farms has decreased from
soils that have more irregular slopes. Soils that have a 118,175 acres in 1964, to 97,819 in 1978, and to 93,183
clayey subsoil that would be exposed in terrace in 1982 (24).
channels, soils that are too sandy, or soils that have
limestone at a depth of less than 40 inches are not Yi r A
suitable for terracing. Contour stripcropping is an erosion
control practice that is effectively used in the county. The average yields per acre that can be expected of
This practice is better adapted to soils that have smooth, the principal crops under a high level of management
uniform slopes. are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be
Soil blowing is a hazard in many areas of deep, sandy higher or lower than those indicated in the table because
soils, such as Candler, Lake, and Orsino soils. It can of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
damage these soils in a few hours if winds are strong The yields are based mainly on the experience and
and the soils are dry and bare of surface cover. In such records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
areas, maintaining a vegetative cover minimizes soil agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and






Citrus County, Florida 61



results of field trials and demonstrations are also Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
considered. choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
The management needed to obtain the indicated practices.
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion choice of plants or that require special conservation
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting practices, or both.
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant the choice of plants or that require very careful
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction management, or both.
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
residue, barnyard manure, and green manure crops; and use.
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss. Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the generally unsuitable for cultivation.
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops them unsuitable for cultivation.
grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum, limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of crop production.
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
to increase as new production technology is developed. They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e
other soils, however, is not likely to change, shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless a
Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
about the management and productivity of the soils for and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
those crops. shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold
or very dry.
Land Capability Classification There are no subclasses in class I because the soils
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V are
Land capability classification shows, in a general way, subject to little or no erosion, but they have other
the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops that limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland,
require special management are excluded. The soils are woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V contains
grouped according to their limitations for field crops, the only the subclasses indicated by w, s, or c.
risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the way The capability classification of each map unit is given
they respond to management. The criteria used in in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" and is shown in
grouping the soils do not include major, and generally table 4.
expensive, landforming that would change slope, depth,
or other characteristics of the soils, nor do they include Rangeland and Grazeable Woodlands
possible but unlikely major reclamation projects.
Capability classification is not a substitute for R. Gregory Hendricks, range conservationist, Soil Conservation
interpretations designed to show suitability and Service, helped to prepare this section.
limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for woodland, In areas that have similar climate and topography,
and for engineering purposes. differences in the kind and amount of vegetation
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at produced on rangeland and grazeable woodlands are
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only closely related to the kind of soil. Effective management
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels is based on the relationship between the soils,
are defined in the following paragraphs. vegetation, and water.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are Native grasses are an important part of the overall,
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The year-round supply of forage to livestock producers in
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and itrus County. This forage is readily available. It is
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are economical and provides important roughage needed by
defined as follows: cattle, which are the principal grazing livestock produced
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. in the area. About 175,000 acres throughout the county







62 Soil Survey


is available as native rangeland to cattle producers. Of conditions are well below average, generally because of
this acreage, 140,000 acres is used strictly as rangeland. low available soil moisture.
The remaining 35,000 acres is used by cattle interest in Dry weight is the total annual yield per acre of air-dry
association with pulp and timber operations as grazeable vegetation. Yields are adjusted to a common percent of
woodlands, air-dry moisture content. The relationship of green weight
to air-dry weight varies according to such factors as
Rangeland exposure, amount of shade, recent rains, and
The dominant native forage plants that naturally grow unseasonable dry periods.
on a soil generally are the most productive and the most Characteristic vegetation is the grasses, forbs, and
suitable for livestock. These plants will maintain shrubs that make up most of the climax plant community
themselves as long as the environment does not on each soil (fig. 7). The amount that can be used as
change. forage depends on the kinds of grazing animals and on
The native forage plants are grouped into three the grazing season.
categories according to their response to grazing- Range management requires a knowledge of the kinds
decreasers, increases, and invaders, of soil and of the climax plant community. It also requires
Decreasers generally are the most abundant and most an evaluation of the present range condition.
palatable plants on a given range site that is in good and Range condition is determined by comparing the
excellent condition. They decrease in abundance if the present plant community with the climax plant community
rangeland is under continuous heavy grazing. Increasers on a particular range site. The more closely the existing
are plants less palatable to livestock. They increase for a community resembles the climax community, the better
short time under continuous heavy grazing but eventually the range condition. Range condition is an ecological
decrease. Invaders are plants native to rangeland. Only rating only. It does not have a specific meaning that
small amounts of these plants are on the rangeland, and pertains to the present plant community in a given use.
they have very little forage value. Invaders tend to The four condition classes used to measure range
increase and become the new dominant plants as the condition are-
decreaser and increase plants are grazed out. Excellent condition-producing 76 to 100 percent
Table 5 shows, for each soil, the range site and the of the potential
total annual production of vegetation in favorable, Good condition-producing 51 to 75 percent of
average, and unfavorable years. Only those soils that are the potential
used as rangeland or are suited to use as rangeland are Fair condition-producing 26 to 50 percent of the
listed. Explanation of the column headings in table 5 potential
follows. Poor condition-producing 0 to 25 percent of the
A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that potential
produces a characteristic natural plant community that Approximately 15 percent of the rangeland in Citrus
differs from natural plant communities on other range County is in good and excellent condition. About 85
sites in kind, amount, or proportion of range plants. The percent is in poor and fair condition.
relationship between soils and vegetation was The productivity of soils is closely related to the
established during this survey; thus, range sites generally natural drainage of the soil. The wettest soils, such as
can be determined directly from the soil map. Soil those in freshwater and saltwater marshes, produce the
properties that affect moisture supply and plant nutrients most vegetation. The deep, drought, sandy soils
have the greatest influence on the productivity of range normally produce the least forage annually.
plants. Soil reaction, salt content, and a seasonal high Management of the soils for range should be planned
water table are also important, with potential productivity in mind. Soils with the highest
Potential annual production is the amount of production potential should be given highest priority if
vegetation that can be expected to grow annually on economic considerations are important.
well managed rangeland that is supporting the natural The objective in range management is to control
plant community. Potential annual production includes all grazing so that the native plants growing on a site are
vegetation, whether or not it is palatable to grazing about the same in kind and amount as the climax plant
animals. It includes the current year's growth of leaves, community for that site. Such management generally
twigs, and fruits of woody plants, but it does not include results in the optimum production of vegetation,
the increase in stem diameter of trees and shrubs. It is conservation of water, and control of erosion. The length
expressed in pounds per acre of air-dry vegetation for of time an area should be grazed, the season it should
favorable, average, and unfavorable years. In a favorable be used, how long and when the range should be rested,
year, the amount and distribution of precipitation and the the grazing pattern of livestock in a pasture that contains
temperatures make growing conditions substantially more than one soil, and the palatability of the dominant
better than average. In a normal year, growing conditions plants on the soil are basic considerations if the
are about average. In an unfavorable year, growing rangeland is to be improved or maintained.






Citrus County, Florida
63





































Figure 7.-Myakka fine sand Is In the South Florida Flatwoods range site. It Is Identified by scattered pine trees with an understory
dominated by saw palmetto.


Rangeland improvement practices, such as forest values. On such forest land, grazing is compatible
mechanical brush control, controlled burning, and with timber management if it is controlled or managed in
especially controlled livestock grazing, benefit Florida's such a manner that timber and forage resources are
rangelands. Predicting the effects of these practices is of maintained or enhanced.
utmost importance. Without exception, the proper Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs,
management of range will result in maximum sustained shrubs, and other plants within the reach of livestock or
production and conservation of the soil and water of grazing or browsing wildlife. A well managed
resources with improvement of the habitat for many woodland area can produce enough vegetation to
wildlife species. support optimum numbers of livestock or wildlife.
G e W d Forage production of grazeable woodland varies
Grazeable Woodland according to the different kinds of grazeable woodland;
Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory the amount of shade cast by the canopy and the
of native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory is accumulation of fallen needles; the influence of time and
an integral part of the forest plant community. The native intensity of grazing on grasses and forage production;
plants can be grazed without significantly impairing other








64 Soil Survey



the number, size, and spacing of tree plantings and One of the most important considerations that affects
method used for site preparation. productive capacity is the ability of the soil to provide
adequate moisture. Other factors include the thickness
Woodland Management and Productivity of the surface layer and its organic matter content; the
natural supply of plant nutrients; the texture and
Bruce Hill, Citrus County forester, Florida Division of Forestry, helped consistency of the soil material; the aeration; the internal
to prepare this section, drainage; and the depth to the water table. Detailed
This section provides information about the use of information on soils and forest management can be
soils for trees. It can help woodland owners and obtained from the local offices of the Soil Conservation
operators to better understand the capabilities of soils to Service and the Florida Division of Forestry.
produce trees and can assist them in planning maximum A well managed stand of trees prevents soil
productivity, deterioration and helps to conserve soil and water
Forestry has played an important role in the economic resources. The main function of good trees is to protect
development of the county. Prior to early settlement, the the soil. Trees slow the fall of rain and allow the soil to
land was covered by vast stands of virgin forest. The absorb more moisture. Erosion is not a problem on most
rolling uplands were dominated by longleaf pine. Slash forest land in the county, but the ability of tree cover to
pine was on the more moist flatwoods. Baldcypress and allow more moisture to enter the soil is important to
pondcypress, basswood, sweetgum, red maple, hickory, maintaining ground water supplies. Properly managed
ash, elm, and various oaks were the principal trees on forests are an important part of the economy of the
the river flood plains and in the swamps. county. Practices to be considered in achieving proper
Harvesting timber, collecting naval stores, and cutting management are discussed briefly in this section.
railroad crossties had provided many jobs to area Trees and ground cover are destroyed by uncontrolled
residents. However, in the past, timber cutting practices wildfires. Growth is slowed in trees that are not killed, or
failed to provide for adequate regeneration of they can be scarred. This allows the entry of insects and
commercially important tree species. Also, exclusion of diseases, particularly in stands of hardwoods. Fire
fire from the woods has allowed undesirable hardwoods lessens the ability of the soil to absorb water and
to invade, further inhibiting reestablishment of pine trees, consumes litter that contributes organic matter to the
As a result, the area has seen a decline in the soil.
availability of wood from private forest lands. The 1980 Countrywide fire protection is furnished by the State
United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Division of Forestry. Individual landowners, however,
Statistics for Central Florida indicated that approximately should observe all rules of fire protection. Firebreaks
236,000 acres of commercial forest land was in Citrus should be constructed and maintained around and
County. Of this, more than 75 percent of the land was through all woodlands. These firebreaks can slow or
supporting less than 60 percent of the timber that it was stop a fire under normal conditions. Prescribed burning
capable of supporting. should be practiced with the advice and assistance of
However, continuing timber sales from the 41,000 acre the State Division of Forestry or qualified consultant
Citrus Tract of the Withlacoochee State Forest has foresters.
helped maintain commercial interest in local forest Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth,
resources, and the opening of new pulpmills, sawmills, fertility, texture, and the available water capacity
and veneermills in South Georgia and Florida has influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate
increased the demand for and the value of local determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site.
woodland products. Available water capacity and depth of the root zone are
A strong demand for timber is expected to continue major influences of tree growth. Elevation and aspect
well into the next century. This anticipated market and are of particular importance in mountainous areas.
pressures to increase overall farm revenues prompted This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
many ranchers and landowners to incorporate forest planning ways to increase the productivity of forest land.
management in their production strategies. In addition, Some soils respond better to fertilization than others,
Federal cost-share programs, income tax credits, some are more susceptible to landslides and erosion
favorable capital gains treatment, and the qualification of after building roads and harvesting timber, and some
timberlands for agricultural real estate tax exemptions require special efforts to reforest. In the section
have recently increased the number of acres brought "Detailed Soil Map Units," each map unit in the survey
into timber production. area suitable for producing timber presents information
To profit most from an investment in timber growing, a about productivity, limitations for harvesting timber, and
decision must be made as to which trees to grow. This management concerns for producing timber. The
conclusion should be reached through the evaluation of common forest understory plants are also listed. Table 6
soil productivity as it relates to tree growth. This is summarizes this forestry information and rates the soils
determined mainly by the physical qualities of the soil. for a number of factors to be considered in






Citrus County, Florida 65


management. Slight, moderate, and severe are used to by kinds of soil or topographic features. Seedling
indicate the degree of the major soil limitations to be mortality is caused primarily by too much water or too
considered in forest management. little water. The factors used in rating a soil for seedling
The first tree listed for each soil under the column mortality are texture of the surface layer, depth and
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil. An duration of the water table, rock fragments in the surface
indicator species is a tree that is common in the area layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of the slope.
and that is generally the most productive on a given soil. Mortality generally is greatest on soils that have a sandy
Table 6 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The or clayey surface layer. The risk is slight if, after site
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates preparation, expected mortality is less than 25 percent;
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator moderate if expected mortality is between 25 and 50
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the percent; and severe if expected mortality exceeds 50
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential percent. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate that it
productivity is based on the site index and the point may be necessary to use containerized or larger than
where mean annual increment is the greatest. usual planting stock or to make special site preparations,
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter, such as bedding, furrowing, installing surface drainage,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and or providing artificial shade for seedings. Reinforcement
management. The letter W indicates a soil in which planting is often needed if the risk is moderate or severe.
excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes a Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry, sandy the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
soil. The letter A indicates a soil that has no significant completion becomes more severe on the more
restrictions or limitations for forest use and management. productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils
If a soil has more than one limitation, the priority is as having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The
follows: W and S. risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability reduces adequate natural or artificial reforestation but
that damage may occur if site preparation activities or does not necessitate intensive site preparation and
harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is slight if maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from
no particular preventive measures are needed under undesirable plants reduces natural or artificial
ordinary conditions. reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if
use of forest management equipment, year-round or competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope, natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is
wetness, stoniness, or susceptibility of the surface layer intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or
to compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On ensure the development of an adequately stocked stand.
the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be used. On Managers must plan site preparation measures to ensure
the steepest slopes, even tracked equipment cannot reforestation without delays.
operate; more sophisticated systems are needed. The The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is
rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by soil expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in
wetness for less than 2 months and if special equipment the order of their observed general occurrence.
is not needed. The rating is moderate if slopes are steep Generally, only two or three tree species dominate.
enough that wheeled equipment cannot be operated The soils that are commonly used to produce timber
safely across the slope, if soil wetness restricts have the yield predicted in cubic feet and board feet.
equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, if stoniness The yield is predicted at the point where mean annual
restricts ground-based equipment, or if special increment culminates. The productivity of the soils in this
equipment is needed to avoid or reduce soil compaction, survey is mainly based on 50 years for all species.
The rating is severe if slopes are steep enough that The site index is determined by taking height
tracked equipment cannot be operated safely across the measurements and determining the age of selected
slope, if soil wetness restricts equipment use for more trees within stands of a given species. This index is the
than 6 months per year, if stoniness restricts ground- average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a specified
based equipment, or if special equipment is needed to number of years. This index applies to fully stocked,
avoid or reduce soil compaction. Ratings of moderate or even-aged, unmanaged stands. The procedure and
severe indicate a need to choose the most suitable technique for doing this are given in the site index tables
equipment and to carefully plan the timing of harvesting used for the Citrus County soil survey (6, 13, 16, 18, 21).
and other management operations. The productivity class represents an expected volume
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of produced by the most important trees, expressed in
death of naturally occurring or properly planted seedlings cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per
of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as influenced hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by







66 Soil Survey



multiplying by 14.3. It can be converted to board feet by and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, a constructing campsites.
productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected to Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at the point vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
where mean annual increment culminates, or about 568 areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
board feet per acre per year. are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
Trees to plant are those that are used for reforestation during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
or, if suitable conditions exist, natural regeneration. They stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
are suited to the soils and will produce a commercial sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
wood crop. Desired product, topographic position (such Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
as a low, wet area), and personal preference are three foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
factors of many that can influence the choice of trees to wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
use for reforestation, surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
Recreation depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
considered.
In table 7, the soils of the survey area are rated Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the are not subject to flooding more than once a year during
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a or no stones or boulders on the surface.
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
vegetation, access to water, potential water required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding not considered in rating the soils.
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height, Wildlife Habitat
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
In table 7, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as John F. Vance, biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped to
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil prepare this section.
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning, the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design, be created or improved by planting appropriate
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
of these measures, promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
The information in table 7 can be supplemented by The soils in Citrus County support a wide diversity of
other information in this survey, for example, plants which are productive for a variety of wildlife
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table species. The habitat includes pine forests, hardwood
10 and interpretations for dwellings without basements forests, mixed hardwood and pine forests, marshes,
and for local roads and streets in table 9. improved pastures, cropland, and areas of natural
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping vegetation used as rangeland. The abundant freshwater
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads lakes, rivers, and coastal waters are also important to
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary the overall ecology of the wildlife in the county.
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to The main game species in the county include white-
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best tailed deer, wild turkey, quail, doves, and waterfowl.
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to Nongame species include squirrel, raccoon, rabbit,
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or armadillo, opossum, skunk, bobcat, gray fox, otter, mink,
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but and a variety of songbirds, woodpeckers, predatory
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes birds, wading birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Good







66 Soil Survey



multiplying by 14.3. It can be converted to board feet by and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, a constructing campsites.
productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected to Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at the point vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
where mean annual increment culminates, or about 568 areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
board feet per acre per year. are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
Trees to plant are those that are used for reforestation during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
or, if suitable conditions exist, natural regeneration. They stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
are suited to the soils and will produce a commercial sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
wood crop. Desired product, topographic position (such Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
as a low, wet area), and personal preference are three foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
factors of many that can influence the choice of trees to wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
use for reforestation, surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
Recreation depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
considered.
In table 7, the soils of the survey area are rated Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the are not subject to flooding more than once a year during
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a or no stones or boulders on the surface.
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
vegetation, access to water, potential water required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding not considered in rating the soils.
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height, Wildlife Habitat
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
In table 7, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as John F. Vance, biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped to
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil prepare this section.
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning, the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design, be created or improved by planting appropriate
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
of these measures, promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
The information in table 7 can be supplemented by The soils in Citrus County support a wide diversity of
other information in this survey, for example, plants which are productive for a variety of wildlife
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table species. The habitat includes pine forests, hardwood
10 and interpretations for dwellings without basements forests, mixed hardwood and pine forests, marshes,
and for local roads and streets in table 9. improved pastures, cropland, and areas of natural
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping vegetation used as rangeland. The abundant freshwater
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads lakes, rivers, and coastal waters are also important to
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary the overall ecology of the wildlife in the county.
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to The main game species in the county include white-
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best tailed deer, wild turkey, quail, doves, and waterfowl.
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to Nongame species include squirrel, raccoon, rabbit,
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or armadillo, opossum, skunk, bobcat, gray fox, otter, mink,
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but and a variety of songbirds, woodpeckers, predatory
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes birds, wading birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Good






Citrus County, Florida 67



habitat for wildlife is available in most areas of Citrus expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
County except where urban development has impractical or impossible.
encroached. A wide variety of fish, freshwater and The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
saltwater, provide for good fishing. following paragraphs.
Areas of important habitat for wildlife include the Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
41,000 acre Citrus Wildlife Management Area, the producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
23,730 acre Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge, features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
the swamps along the Withlacoochee River, and the are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
large coastal marsh areas. The large Tsala-Apopka lake available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
chain, the Withlacoochee River, and Lake Rousseau not stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
only provide excellent fishing for largemouth bass, moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and
sunfish, white crappie or black crappie, and catfish, but seed crops are corn, soybeans, wheat, browntop millet,
their swamp and marsh fringe areas also provide and grain sorghum.
valuable habitat for terrestrial wildlife species. The Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
Homasassa River and Crystal River provide good fishing and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
for both saltwater and freshwater species, and their that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
warm waters also provide critical wintering habitat for the of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
endangered manatee. The Nature Conservancy's Kings water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard,
Bay Sanctuary at Crystal River harbors the largest and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
wintering population of manatees in the United States. considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
The increasing rate of habitat for wildlife lost to urban bahiagrass, lovegrass, Florida beggarweed, clover, and
development, mainly in the coastal areas and in the sesbania.
north-central part of Citrus County, is a major concern in eilherbaces pans re nie or nur
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
wildlife management. properties and features that affect the growth of these
Many endangered and threatened species are in Citrus plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
County. They range from the seldom seen red-cockaded layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
woodpecker to the more commonly apparent species, stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
such as the alligator and the manatee. A more detailed moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
list of these species with information on range and herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod, partridge
habitat needs is available from the district pea and bristlegrass.
conservationist at the local office of the Soil Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
Conservation Service. or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
In table 8, the soils in the survey area are rated properties and features that affect the growth of
according to their potential for providing habitat for hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and these plants are oak, cherry, sweetgum, hawthorn,
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and blueberry. Examples
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining of fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for planting on
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining soils rated good are firethorn, wild plum, and crabapple.
the intensity of management needed for each element of Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
the habitat. properties and features that affect the growth of
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar,
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, and juniper.
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair Shrubs are bushy woody plants that produce fruit,
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be buds, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil properties and
established, improved, or maintained in most places. features that affect the growth of shrubs are depth of the
Moderately intensive management is required for root zone, available water capacity, salinity, and soil
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that moisture. Examples of shrubs are mountainmahogany,
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind bitterbrush, snowberry, and big sagebrush.
of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or Wetlandplants are annual and perennial, wild
maintained in most places, but management is difficult herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are properties and features affecting wetland plants are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,







68 Soil Survey



slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland not considered in preparing the information in this
plants are smartweed, wild millet, wildrice, saltgrass, section. Local ordinances and regulations must be
cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds. considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less Soil properties, site features, and observed
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are performance were considered in determining the ratings
created by dams, levees, or other water-control in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
ponds. table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
the following paragraphs, kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
Habitat for open/and wildlife consists of cropland, fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce swell potential, available water capacity, and other
grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses.
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas h or
include bobwhite quail, mourning dove, meadowlark, field This information can be used to: evaluate the potential
include bobwhite quail, mourning dove, meadowlark, field o
sparrow, cottontail, and red fox. of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and
sparrow, cottontail, and red fox.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
fox, raccoon, deer, and bear. detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil;
swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds,
attracted to such areas are ducks, geese, herons, shore terraces, and other structures for soil and water
birds, otter, mink, and alligator, conservation; and predict performance of proposed small
structures and pavements by comparing the performance
Engineering of existing similar structures on the same or similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
This section provides information for planning land the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
uses related to urban development and to water survey can be used to make additional interpretations.
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
given in the following tables: Building site development, Glossary.
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed Building Site Development
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
test data in the "Soil properties" section. Table 9 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
Information in this section is intended for land use that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for without basements, small commercial buildings, local
planning site investigations prior to design and roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
construction. The information, however, has limitations, limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
For example, estimates and other data generally apply features are generally favorable for the indicated use
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet, and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate
and because of the map scale, small areas of different if soil properties or site features are not as favorable for
soils may be included within the mapped areas of a the indicated use and special planning, design, or
specific soil. maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
The information is not site specific and does not limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or are unfavorable or difficult to overcome and require
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the special design, significant increases in construction
design and construction of engineering works. costs, and increased maintenance. Special feasibility
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict studies may be required where the soil limitations are
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were severe.







Citrus County, Florida
69


Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a are considered slight if soil properties and site features
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves, are generally favorable for the indicated use and
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and soil properties or site features are not as favorable for
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging, the indicated use and special planning, design, or
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer; limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the are unfavorable and require special design, significant
year that excavations can be made is affected by the increases in construction costs, reclamation, and
depth to a seasonal high water table and the increased maintenance.
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of the Table 10 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table, soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are and that good performance and low maintenance can be
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made more soil properties or site features make the soil less
for small commercial buildings without basements, and desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
for dwellings without basements. The ratings are based that one or more soil properties or site features are
on soil properties, site features, and observed unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
performance of the soils. A high water table, flooding, properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
shrink-swell potential, and organic layers can cause the costly alteration.
movement of footings. Depth to a high water table, Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large stones, effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
and flooding affect the ease of excavation and through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered. evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface features, and observed performance of the soils.
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They Permeability, depth to a high water table, depth to
have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of bedrock or to a cemented pan, and flooding affect
gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a absorption of the effluent. Large stones and bedrock or
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally a cemented pan interfere with installation.
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
properties, site features, and observed performance of fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, depth surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
to a high water table, flooding, large stones, and slope public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
affect the ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
(as inferred from the engineering classification of the than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
soil), shrink-swell potential, frost-action potential, and slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
depth to a high water table affect the traffic-supporting surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath
capacity. the absorption field to filter the effluent effectively. Many
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and local ordinances require that this material be of a certain
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and thickness.
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
reaction, depth to a high water table, depth to bedrock and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level
or to a cemented pan, the available water capacity in the floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
upper 40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
sulfidic materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
slope, stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
organic matter in the surface layer affect trafficability required to minimize seepage and contamination of
after vegetation is established. ground water.
Table 10 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
Sanitary Facilities up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
Table 10 shows the degree and the kind of soil or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields, excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and







70 Soil Survey


observed performance of the soils. Considered in the Construction Materials
ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high water T
table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, Table 11 gives information about the soils as a source
large stones, and content of organic matter. of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The sols are rated
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive properties and site features that affect the removal of
or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the compaction, minor processing, and other standard
lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope, construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
bedrock, and cemented pans can cause construction evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
the lagoon floor, and used in road embankments in another place. In this
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is exacting in design than higher embankments.
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted, Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source their profile. The table showing engineering index
away from the site. properties provides detailed information about each soil
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy layer. This information can help determine the suitability
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered
needs to be considered. in the ratings.
The ratings in table 10 are based on soil properties, The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
site features, and observed performance of the soils and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan performance of the soils. The thickness of
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of
depth to a water table, slope, and flooding affect both excavaon is affected by large stones, a high water
types of landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly table, and slope. How well the soil p performs in place
organic layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and table ad slope How weom the soan perform is d inedae
sodium affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise after it has been compacted and drained is determined
stated, the ratings apply only to that part of the soil by its strength (as inferred from the engineering
within a depth of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
limitation rated slight or moderate may not be valid. Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
Onsite investigation is needed. or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
to the landfill, and spread over the waste. than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing, more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to
After soil material has been removed, the soil material the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit thick.
revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
generally has the best workability, more organic matter, gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
and the best potential for plants. Material from the Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 11, only
surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
cover. evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific







Citrus County, Florida 71



purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect properties and site features are generally favorable for
excavation of the material, the indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated not as favorable for the indicated use and special
by the engineering classification of the soil), the planning, design, or maintenance is needed to overcome
thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties
fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are or site features are unfavorable or difficult to overcome
given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain and require special design, significant increase in
sizes is given in the table on engineering index construction costs, and increased maintenance.
properties. This table also gives the restrictive features that affect
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and diversions,
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to and grassed waterways.
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3 Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel, and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches of the reservoir area.
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
the reclamation potential of the borrow area. of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such constructed to impound water or to protect land against
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, and compacted during construction.
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material. The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and depth greater than the height of the embankment can
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less affect performance and safety of the embankment.
than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts, Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are determine these properties.
not so wet that excavation is difficult. Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include
40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium.
soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are A high water table affects the amount of usable material.
not so wet that excavation is difficult. It also affects trafficability.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
near the surface. impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic water table, permeability of the aquifer, and the salinity
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of of the soil. Depth to bedrock and the content of large
moisture and releases a variety of plant-available stones affect the ease of excavation.
nutrients as it decomposes. Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
Water Management effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
Table 12 gives information on the soil properties and bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
site features that affect water management. The degree affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth to
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding;
ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil subsidence of organic layers; and potential frost action.






72



Excavating and grading and the stability of ditchbanks is affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
are affected by depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
large stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving, by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or
The productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely sodium, and soil reaction.
affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in the Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
root zone, such as salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of combination of channels and ridges constructed across
drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings. a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the
and management of an irrigation system are affected by construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding, rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or water erosion,
available water capacity, intake rate, permeability, an excessively coarse texture, and restricted permeability
erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system adversely affect maintenance.






73








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
table 19. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the SM.
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field those properties that affect roadway construction and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
accurately by field observation, and help characterize that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
key soils. of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
The A-1, A-2, and A-7 groups can be further classified
Engineering Index Properties as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-
6. As an additional refinement, the suitability of a soil as
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering subgrade material can be indicated by a group index
classification and of the range of index properties for the number. Group index numbers range from 0 for the best
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils subgrade material to 20, or higher, for the poorest. The
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 AASHTO classification for soils tested, with group index
or 6 feet. AASHTO classification for soils tested, with group index
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer numbers in parentheses, is given in table 19.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.






73








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
table 19. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the SM.
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field those properties that affect roadway construction and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
accurately by field observation, and help characterize that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
key soils. of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
The A-1, A-2, and A-7 groups can be further classified
Engineering Index Properties as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-
6. As an additional refinement, the suitability of a soil as
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering subgrade material can be indicated by a group index
classification and of the range of index properties for the number. Group index numbers range from 0 for the best
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils subgrade material to 20, or higher, for the poorest. The
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 AASHTO classification for soils tested, with group index
or 6 feet. AASHTO classification for soils tested, with group index
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer numbers in parentheses, is given in table 19.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.







74 Soil Survey



Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) Available water capacity is an important factor in the
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the design
estimates are based on test data from the survey area, and management of irrigation systems. Available water
or from nearby areas, and on field examination, capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
actually available to plants at any given time.
Physical and Chemical Properties Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
Table 14 shows estimates of some characteristics and each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
The estimates are based on field observations and on and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
test data for these and similar soils, fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of corrosion.
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
in diameter, laboratory measurements at representative sites of
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink- frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
operations. construction material, and the potential of the soil to
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per corrode metal and concrete.
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field Shrink-swellpotential is the potential for volume
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root measurements of similar soils.
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of often needed.
movement of water through the soil when the soil is Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
construction where the rate of water movement under less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
saturated conditions affects behavior, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water is sometimes used.
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
capacity for water storage in each major soil layer is sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
varies, depending on soil properties that affect the to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
retention of water and the depth of the root zone. The and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre
most important properties are the content of organic per year. These estimates are based primarily on
matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4







Citrus County, Florida 75



percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values of gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the transmission.
more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
water. thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
can occur over a sustained period without affecting crop texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre per transmission.
year. Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
distinctions: runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine chiefly of clays that have high shrink-swell potential, soils
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. that have a permanent high water table, soils that have a
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and soils
establish. that are shallow over nearly impervious material. These
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops The two hydrologic soil groups, B/D, are given for
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind certain wet soils that can be adequately drained. The
erosion are used. first letter applies to the drained condition. The second
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy to the undrained condition.
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface by
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by
control wind erosion are used. runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high tides.
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams Shallow water standing or flowing for short periods after
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding. Standing
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to water in swamps and marshes or in a closed depression
control wind erosion are used. is considered ponding.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the Table 15 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
soil at various stages of decomposition. and the time of year when flooding is most likely to
soil at various stages of decomposition.
In table 14, the estimated content of organic matter is Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
expressedas a en weiht ofte s i Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil are estimated. Frequency generally is expressed as
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. esma. frequency generally is expressed as
e ctent o oanic matter sil n be none, rare, or frequent. None means that flooding is not
The content of organic matter of a soil can be probable. Rare means that flooding is unlikely but
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the possible under unusual weather conditions (there is a
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity, near 0 to 5 percent chance of flooding in any year).
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and Frequent means that flooding occurs often under normal
other nutrients for crops. weather conditions (there is more than a 50 percent
chance of flooding in any year). Duration is expressed as
Soil and Water Features long (7 days to 1 month) and very long (more than 1
month). The time of year that floods are most likely to
Table 15 gives estimates of various soil and water occur is expressed in months. November-May, for
features. The estimates are used in land use planning example, means that flooding can occur during the
that involves engineering considerations. period November through May. About two-thirds to three-
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff fourths of all flooding occurs during the stated period.
from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four The information on flooding is based on evidence in
groups. They are grouped according to the intake of the soil profile, namely, thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or
water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in
precipitation from long-duration storms. organic matter content with increasing depth; and
The four hydrologic soil groups are: absence of distinctive horizons, which are characteristic
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff of soils that are not subject to flooding.
potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of Also considered are local information about the extent
deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on







76 Soil Survey


the landscape to historic floods. Information on the electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil.
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency Special site examination and design may be needed if
levels. the combination of factors creates a severely corrosive
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a of soil or within one soil layer.
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
soil. Indicated in table 15 are the depth to the seasonal low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
high water table; the kind of water table, that is, perched total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
or apparent; and the months of the year that the water electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
table commonly is highest. A water table that is For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated in as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
table 15. acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water extract.
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A perched Analyses of Selected Soils
water table is water standing above an unsaturated
zone. In places an upper, or perched, water table is By Dr. Victor W. Carlisle and Dr. Mary E. Collins, professor and
separated from a lower one by a dry zone. assistant professor, respectively, University of Florida, Soil Science
The two numbers in the "High water table-Depth" Department, prepared this section.
column indicate the normal range in depth to a saturated Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical
zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot. The first analyses of representative pedons sampled in Citrus
numeral in the range indicates the highest water level. A County are presented in tables 16, 17, and 18. The
plus sign preceding the range in depth indicates that the analyses were conducted and coordinated by the Soil
water table is above the surface of the soil. "More than Characterization Laboratory at the University of Florida.
6.0" indicates that the water table is below a depth of 6 Detailed profile descriptions of soils analyzed are given
feet or that the water table exists for less than a month, in the section "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth Laboratory data and profile information for other soils in
of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and Citrus County, as well as for other counties in Florida,
on observations during soil mapping. The rock is are on file at the University of Florida, Soil Science
specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or Department.
fractured, excavations can be made with trenching Typifying pedons were sampled from pits at carefully
machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard selected locations. Samples were air-dried, crushed, and
or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is sieved through a 2 millimeter screen. Most analytical
needed for excavation. methods used are outlined in Soil Survey Investigations
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of Report No. 1 (20).

saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence Particle-size distribution was determined using a
results from either desiccation and shrinkage or oxidation modified pipette method with sodium
of organic material, or both, following drainage. hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity
Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil
of several years. Table 15 shows the expected initial cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from
subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage, and duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe
total subsidence, which results from a combination of pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at
factors. 100 centimeters water (1/10 bar) and 345 centimers
Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water
imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were
water throughout an extensive area as a result of oven-dried and ground to pass a 2 millimeter sieve, and
lowering the water table. the 15-bar water retention was determined. Organic
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced carbon was determined by a modification of the Walkley-
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or Black wet combustion method.
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils with
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and and potassium in the extract were determined by flame






Citrus County, Florida 77



emission. Calcium and magnesium in the extract were The content of silt in Adamsville, Arredondo, Astatula,
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Candler, EauGallie, Lake, Myakka, and Tavares soils was
Extractable acidity was determined by the barium less than 4.5 percent. The content of silt was more than
chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. Cation- 10 percent in one horizon or more of Fort Meade,
exchange capacity was calculated by summation of Lochloosa, and Micanopy soils.
extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base Fine sands are the dominant sand fractions in the soils
saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation- in Citrus County. These soils have one horizon or more
exchange capacity expressed in percent. The pH that contains more than 50 percent fine sand. Very
measurements were made with a glass electrode using a coarse sand was nondetectable in most soils, the
soil-water ratio of 1:1, 0.01 molar calcium chloride content of coarse sand generally was less than 2
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and normal potassium percent, and the content of medium sand and very fine
chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio. sand was less than 15 percent in all but a few of the
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with soils in the county.
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron Very low hydraulic conductivity values of less than 5
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate centimeters per hour were recorded throughout
were determined by atomic absorption Micanopy soil, in the Bt horizon of Arredondo,
spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were Hallandale, Kendrick, Lochloosa, and Sparr soils, and in
extracted from a probable spodic horizon with 0.1 molar the spodic horizons of EauGallie and Myakka soils. The
sodium pyrophosphate. The determination of aluminum high content of clay in the lower horizons of Kendrick,
and iron was by atomic absorption and extracted carbon Lochloosa, Micanopy, and Sparr soils resulted in some
by the Walkley-Black wet combustion method. hydraulic conductivity values of less than 1 centimeters
Mineralogyof the cay fraction less than 2 microns per hour. Design and function of septic tank absorption
Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 2 microns fields are affected by such low hydraulic conductivity
was ascertained by X-ray diffraction. Peak heights at 18 values. The available water capacity for plants can be
angstrom, 14 angstrom, 7.2 angstrom, 4.83 angstrom, estimated from bulk density and water content data.
4.31 angstrom, and 3.04 angstrom positions represent Relatively high content of organic carbon in the surface
montmorillonite, interstratified expandable vermiculite, or horizons of EauGallie, Fort Meade, Hallandale, and
14-angstrom intergrades, kaolinite, gibbsite, quartz, and Myakka soils resulted in correspondingly high available
calcite, respectively. Peaks were measured, summed, water capacity values. Excessively sandy soils, such as
and normalized to give the percent of the soil minerals Adamsville, Astatula, Candler, Lake, and Tavares soils,
identified in the X-ray diffractograms. These percentage generally have a low content of organic matter and low
values do not indicate absolute determined quantities of available water capacity for plants. Droughtiness is a
soil minerals but do imply a relative distribution of common characteristic of sandy soils, particularly those
minerals in a particular mineral suite. Absolute that are moderately well-drained, well-drained, and
percentages would require additional knowledge of excessively well-drained.
particle size, crystallinity, unit structure substitution, and According to the chemical soil analyses as presented
matrix problems. in table 17, a low amount of extractable bases is present
According to the physical soil analyses as presented in in most soils in Citrus County. Astatula, Candler, Lake,
table 16, sands are the dominant particle-size fractions and Tavares soils contained less than 1 milliequivalent
in nearly all horizons in most soils in Citrus County. per hundred grams extractable bases throughout.
Adamsville, Astatula, Candler, Lake, Myakka, and Similarly, Adamsville, Arredondo, Fort Meade, and Sparr
Tavares soils were more than 95 percent sand to a soils contained less than 2 milliequivalents per hundred
depth of more than 2 meters. The content of clay was grams extractable bases throughout, and Kendrick and
less than 3 percent in these soils. Arredondo, EauGallie, Redlevel soils contained less than 3 millequivalents per
and Sparr soils were more than 90 percent sand to a hundred grams extractable bases. Some horizons in
depth of slightly more than 1 meter. Fort Meade, Durbin, Hallandale, and Micanopy soils contained more
Hallandale, and Redlevel soils were more than 80 than 10 milliequivalents per hundred grams extractable
percent sand throughout. bases. The mild, humid climate of Citrus County results
A high content of clay, ranging from 30.2 percent to in depletion of basic soil cations (calcium, magnesium,
68.2 percent, was within 2 meters of the surface of sodium, and potassium) through leaching.
Kendrick, Lochloosa, and Micanoy soils. Clay, which Calcium was the dominant base in all soils in Citrus
ranged from 19.9 to 63.6 percent, was at a depth of County except Durbin muck. Magnesium occurred in
more than 1 meter in Arredondo, EauGallie, Kendrick, amounts exceeding 1 milliequivalent per hundred grams
Lochloosa, Micanopy, and Sparr soils. Clay generally in some horizons of Durbin, EauGallie, Hallandale,
tends to move downward with percolating water, Kendrick, Lochloosa, Micanopy, and Myakka soils. A
therefore, the amount of translocated clay often reveals much lower but detectable amount of magnesium
the state or degree of soil development, occurred throughout all other soils in the county. Sodium







78 Soil Survey



generally occurred in amounts of less than 0.1 maximum availability of nutrients for plants is generally
milliequivalent per hundred grams; however, sodium attained when soil reaction is between pH 6.5 and 7.5;
content exceeded 1 milliequivalent per hundred grams in however, under Florida conditions, maintaining soil
the Hallandale soil and 50 milliequivalents per hundred reaction above pH 6.5 is not economically feasible for
grams in the Hallandale soil and 50 milliequivalents per most agricultural production purposes.
hundred grams in the Durbin muck. Most soils in Citrus Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron was 0.02
County contained very low amounts of potassium. percent or less in the Bh horizon of EauGallie and
Potassium was nondetectable in some horizons of Myakka soils. The ratio of pyrophosphate extractable
Adamsville, Arredondo, Astatula, Candler, EauGallie, carbon and aluminum to clay in these soils was sufficient
Lake, Myakka, and Tavares soils. Only Durbin muck to meet the chemical criterial for a spodic horizon.
contained more than 1 milliequivalent per hundred grams Citrate-dithionite extractable iron ranged from 0.01
extractable potassium. Values for cation-exchange percent in the Bh2 horizon of Myakka soil to 1.41
capacity, an indication of the available nutrient capacity percent in the Bt2 horizon of Micanopy soil. Aluminum
of plants, exceeded 10 milliequivalents per hundred extracted by citrate-dithionite in a spodic horizon of
grams in the surface horizon and at least one horizon Spodosols and in an argillic horizon of Alfisols and
below the surface of Durbin, EauGallie, Fort Meade, Ultisols ranged from 0.03 to 0.49 percent. The content of
Hallandale, Lochloosa, Micanopy, and Myakka soils. In aluminum and iron in the soils in Citrus County is not
addition to these soils, Kendrick soil contained a Bt sufficient to detrimentally affect phosphorus availability.
horizon that exceeded 10 milliequivalents per hundred Sand fractions of 2 to 0.05 millimeters were siliceous
grams cation-exchange capacity. Soils that have low with quartz overwhelmingly dominant in all soils in the
cation-exchange capacity in the surface horizon, such as county. Small amounts of heavy minerals occurred in
in Adamsville, Astatula, Candler, and Tavares soils, most horizons that had the greatest concentration in the
require only small amounts of lime to significantly alter very fine sand fraction. No weatherable minerals were
the base status and soil reaction in the upper horizons, observed. Crystalline mineral components of the clay
Generally, soils of low inherent soil fertility are fraction of less than 0.002 millimeters are reported in
associated with low values for extractable bases and low table 18 for major horizons of the soils sampled. The
cation-exchange capacities, and fertile soils are clay mineralogical suite was composed of
associated with high values for extractable bases, high montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom intergrade, kaolinite,
base saturation values, and high cation-exchange gibbsite, quartz, and calcite.
capacities. Montmorillonite occurred in about one-half of the soils
The content of organic carbon was more than 3 sampled, but detectable amounts were not present in
percent throughout Durbin soil and in the surface Adamsville, Arredondo, Fort Meade, Lake, Lochloosa,
horizons of EauGallie, Fort Meade, Hallandale, and Redlevel, and Tavares soils. Detectable amounts were in
Myakka soils. The content of organic carbon was less all horizons for which determinations were made in
than 1.5 percent throughout Adamsville, Arredondo, Hallandale, Kendrick, Micanopy, and Sparr soils; but
Astatula, Candler, Kendrick, Lake, Lochloosa, Redlevel, montmorillonite was not detectable in some horizons of
Sparr, and Tavares soils. In mineral soils, the content of Astatula, Candler, EauGallie, and Myakka soils. Most
organic carbon decreased rapidly with increased depth soils sampled in Citrus County were dominately 14-
except in Myakka soil. This soil has a Bh horizon that angstrom intergrade minerals and kaolinite. The 14-
contains a high amount of organic carbon. Since organic angstrom intergrades occurred in all soils sampled;
carbon is directly related to soil nutrient and the water however, 14-angstrom intergrades were nondetectable in
retention capacity of sandy soils, management practices the Al and Bhl horizons of EauGallie soil and in the
that conserve and maintain organic carbon are highly Bhl horizon of Myakka soil. Kaolinite occurred
desirable. throughout the soils in the county. Gibbsite was detected
Electrical conductivity values generally were very low, only in the Candler soil. All soils contained varying
exceeding 0.1 millimhos per centimeter, in Durbin and amounts of quartz. Very small amounts of calcite were
Hallandale soils. These data indicate that soluble salt detected in EauGallie and Kendrick soils.
content of the soils in Citrus County are insufficient to Montmorillonite appears to have been inherited by
detrimentally affect the growth of salt-sensitive plants soils in Citrus County and is probably the least stable
except in the immediate coastal area. mineral component in the present weathering
Soil reaction in water generally ranged between pH 4.5 environment. Considerable volume changes can result
and 6.0; however, much higher reaction value was from the shrinkage when dry and swelling when wet of
recorded for the Bt horizon of the Hallandale soil, which the montmorillonitic subsoil of Micanopy soil. The
contained a large amount of extractable bases and a low occurrence of a relatively large amount of 14-angstrom
extractable acidity value. With few exceptions, soil intergrades and the general tendency for these minerals
reaction was 0.5 to 1.0 pH units lower in calcium to decrease as soil depth increases suggest that the 14-
chloride and potassium chloride than in water. The angstrom intergrade minerals are among the most stable






Citrus County, Florida 79


species in this weathering environment. The tendency of area. The pedons are typical of the series and are
14-angstrom minerals to decrease as soil depth described in the section "Soil Series and Their
increases is accompanied by a general, although Morphology." The soil samples were tested by Soils
inconsistent, tendency for kaolinite to increase indicates Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
a severe weathering environment near the soil surface. Bureau of Materials and Research, Gainesville, Florida.
Inconsistent occurrence of gibbsite and calcite is The testing methods generally are those of the
indicative of inherited properties. Clay-sized quartz has American Association of State Highway and
resulted from decrements of the silt fraction. Soils Transportation Officials (AASHTO) or the American
dominated by montmorillonite and 14-angstrom Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
intergrades have a much higher cation-exchange The tests and methods are: AASHTO classification-M
capacity and retain more plant nutrients than soils 145 (AASHTO), D 3282 (ASTM); Mechanical analysis-T
dominated by quartz and kaolinite. 88 (AASHTO), D 2217 (ASTM); Liquid limit-T 89
(AASHTO), D 423 (ASTM); Plasticity index-T 90
Engineering Index Test Data (AASHTO), D 424 (ASTM); Moisture density, Method A-
T 99 (AASHTO), D 698 (ASTM).
Table 19 shows laboratory test data for several
pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey










81








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (17). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthemic Typic
or on laboratory measurements. Table 20 shows the Psammaquents.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An layer or of the substratum within a series. An example is
example is Entisol. the Pompano series which is a member of the siliceous,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, hyperthemic family of Typic Psammaquents.
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the Soil Series and Their Morphology
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder In this section, each soil series recognized in the
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
water, plus ent, from Entisol). in alphabetic order.
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, formed are identified for each series. The soil is
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
base status. Each great group is identified by the name soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (19). Many
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime). defined in Soil Taxonomy (17). Unless otherwise stated,
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The pedon description is the range of important
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not characteristics of the soils in the series.
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are The map units of each soil series are described in the
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate Adamsville Series
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives The Adamsville series consists of deep, nearly level,
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective somewhat poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great formed in sandy marine deposits. These soils are on low
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. ridges of swamps and flatwoods and along the base of
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on some lower slopes on the upland ridges. The slopes are
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other 0 to 2 percent. Adamsville soils are hyperthermic,
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments.
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where Adamsville soils are associated with Basinger,
there is much biological activity. Among the properties Candler, Immokalee, Myakka, Pompano, and Tavares







81








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (17). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthemic Typic
or on laboratory measurements. Table 20 shows the Psammaquents.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An layer or of the substratum within a series. An example is
example is Entisol. the Pompano series which is a member of the siliceous,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, hyperthemic family of Typic Psammaquents.
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the Soil Series and Their Morphology
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder In this section, each soil series recognized in the
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
water, plus ent, from Entisol). in alphabetic order.
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, formed are identified for each series. The soil is
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
base status. Each great group is identified by the name soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (19). Many
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime). defined in Soil Taxonomy (17). Unless otherwise stated,
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The pedon description is the range of important
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not characteristics of the soils in the series.
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are The map units of each soil series are described in the
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate Adamsville Series
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives The Adamsville series consists of deep, nearly level,
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective somewhat poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great formed in sandy marine deposits. These soils are on low
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. ridges of swamps and flatwoods and along the base of
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on some lower slopes on the upland ridges. The slopes are
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other 0 to 2 percent. Adamsville soils are hyperthermic,
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments.
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where Adamsville soils are associated with Basinger,
there is much biological activity. Among the properties Candler, Immokalee, Myakka, Pompano, and Tavares







81








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (17). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthemic Typic
or on laboratory measurements. Table 20 shows the Psammaquents.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An layer or of the substratum within a series. An example is
example is Entisol. the Pompano series which is a member of the siliceous,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, hyperthemic family of Typic Psammaquents.
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the Soil Series and Their Morphology
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder In this section, each soil series recognized in the
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
water, plus ent, from Entisol). in alphabetic order.
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, formed are identified for each series. The soil is
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
base status. Each great group is identified by the name soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (19). Many
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime). defined in Soil Taxonomy (17). Unless otherwise stated,
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The pedon description is the range of important
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not characteristics of the soils in the series.
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are The map units of each soil series are described in the
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate Adamsville Series
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives The Adamsville series consists of deep, nearly level,
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective somewhat poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great formed in sandy marine deposits. These soils are on low
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. ridges of swamps and flatwoods and along the base of
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on some lower slopes on the upland ridges. The slopes are
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other 0 to 2 percent. Adamsville soils are hyperthermic,
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments.
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where Adamsville soils are associated with Basinger,
there is much biological activity. Among the properties Candler, Immokalee, Myakka, Pompano, and Tavares







82 Soil Survey



soils. Basinger and Pompano soils are poorly drained. Immokalee, Myakka, and Pomello soils have a spodic
Candler soils are excessively drained. These soils have horizon.
lamellae at a depth of more than 40 inches. Immokalee Typical pedon of Anclote fine sand, depressional; 1.7
and Myakka soils are poorly drained. These soils have a miles south of Florida State Highway 44, 0.5 of a mile
Bh horizon. Tavares soils are moderately well drained, west of the Withlacoochee River, NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 21,
Typical pedon of Adamsville fine sand; in a pasture, T. 19 S., R. 21 E.
0.6 of a mile west of U.S. Highway 19, 0.8 of a mile
north of junction of U.S. Highways 19 and 98, A1-0 to 7 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak
NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 24, T. 20 S., R. 17 E. medium granular structure; very friable, many fine
roots; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine A2-7 to 14 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
sand; weak medium granular structure; friable; few common medium distinct dark gray (N 4/0) mottles;
fine roots; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) along root weak medium granular structure; very friable; many
channels; medium acid; gradual irregular boundary, fine and medium roots; neutral; clear smooth
C1-7 to 20 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) boundary.
fine sand; few medium distinct brownish yellow Cg1-14 to 20 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
(10YR 6/6) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; neutral;
and medium roots; few light gray (10YR 7/2) vertical gradual irregular boundary.
streaks about 2 centimeters wide; medium acid; Cg2-20 to 32 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
gradual wavy boundary. fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
C2-20 to 39 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
sand; common medium distinct brownish yellow Cg3-32 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
(10YR 6/6) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine grained; loose; neutral.
medium and coarse roots; medium acid; gradual
wavy boundary. The content of silt and clay in the 10- to 40-inch
C3-39 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine control section is less than 15 percent. Reaction is
sand; single grained; loose; medium acid. strongly acid to moderately alkaline.
e c d t o t A a C h i 8 The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 or
The combined thickness of the A and C horizons is 80 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of
inches or more. The content of silt and clay in the 10- to 2 or 3. Few or common and fine or medium gray mottles
40-inch control section is less than 5 percent. Reaction or pockets of sand not coated with organic matter can
ranges from very strongly acid to mildly alkaline. occur in the lower part of the A horizon. The A horizon is
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and 10 to 20 inches thick. The content of organic matter in
chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of 2 to 5. the A horizon is 2 to 10 percent. Texture is dominantly
In many pedons, the undisturbed A horizon is a mixture fine sand
of light gray sand grains and finely divided organic The g horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or
material. Texture of the A horizon is fine sand. The A The Cg horizon extends to a de of 0 inc
horizon is 3 to 8 inches thick. more. It has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 2 to 7, and
The C horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches. It has chromaof 1 or 2. Texture is sand, fine sand or loamy
hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 4. fine sand.
Typically, chromas of lower value are dominant in the
lower part of the horizon. Some pedons have mottles of Apopka Series
gray, yellow, or brown at a depth of more than 20
inches. Matrix colors are the result of uncoated sand The Apopka series consist of deep, nearly level to
grains or thin coatings of colloidal organic material on gently-sloping, well drained, moderately permeable soils

the sand grains. Texture is fine sand or sand. that formed in sandy and loamy marine or eolian
deposits. These soils are on rolling landscapes on the
Anclote Series upland ridges. The slopes range from 0 to 5 percent.
Apopka soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic
The Anclote series consists of deep, nearly level, very Grossarenic Paleudults.
poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in Apopka soils are associated with Adamsville,
sandy marine deposits. These soils are in depressions Arredondo, Astatula, Candler, Immokalee, Kendrick,
and low, nearly flat, poorly defined drainageways. The Lake, Myakka, Sparr, and Tavares soils. Adamsville,
slopes are less than 2 percent. Anclote soils are sandy, Astatula, Candler, Lake, and Tavares soils do not have
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Haplaquolls. an argillic horizon. In addition, Adamsville soils are
Anclote soils are associated with Basinger, somewhat poorly drained, and Astatula, Chandler, and
Immokalee, Myakka, Pomello, and Pompano soils. These Lake soils are excessively drained. Arredondo soils have
soils do not have a mollic epipedon. In addition, 5 to 15 percent silt and clay in the E horizon. Immokalee







82 Soil Survey



soils. Basinger and Pompano soils are poorly drained. Immokalee, Myakka, and Pomello soils have a spodic
Candler soils are excessively drained. These soils have horizon.
lamellae at a depth of more than 40 inches. Immokalee Typical pedon of Anclote fine sand, depressional; 1.7
and Myakka soils are poorly drained. These soils have a miles south of Florida State Highway 44, 0.5 of a mile
Bh horizon. Tavares soils are moderately well drained, west of the Withlacoochee River, NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 21,
Typical pedon of Adamsville fine sand; in a pasture, T. 19 S., R. 21 E.
0.6 of a mile west of U.S. Highway 19, 0.8 of a mile
north of junction of U.S. Highways 19 and 98, A1-0 to 7 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak
NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 24, T. 20 S., R. 17 E. medium granular structure; very friable, many fine
roots; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine A2-7 to 14 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
sand; weak medium granular structure; friable; few common medium distinct dark gray (N 4/0) mottles;
fine roots; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) along root weak medium granular structure; very friable; many
channels; medium acid; gradual irregular boundary, fine and medium roots; neutral; clear smooth
C1-7 to 20 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) boundary.
fine sand; few medium distinct brownish yellow Cg1-14 to 20 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
(10YR 6/6) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; neutral;
and medium roots; few light gray (10YR 7/2) vertical gradual irregular boundary.
streaks about 2 centimeters wide; medium acid; Cg2-20 to 32 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
gradual wavy boundary. fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
C2-20 to 39 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
sand; common medium distinct brownish yellow Cg3-32 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
(10YR 6/6) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine grained; loose; neutral.
medium and coarse roots; medium acid; gradual
wavy boundary. The content of silt and clay in the 10- to 40-inch
C3-39 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine control section is less than 15 percent. Reaction is
sand; single grained; loose; medium acid. strongly acid to moderately alkaline.
e c d t o t A a C h i 8 The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 or
The combined thickness of the A and C horizons is 80 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of
inches or more. The content of silt and clay in the 10- to 2 or 3. Few or common and fine or medium gray mottles
40-inch control section is less than 5 percent. Reaction or pockets of sand not coated with organic matter can
ranges from very strongly acid to mildly alkaline. occur in the lower part of the A horizon. The A horizon is
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and 10 to 20 inches thick. The content of organic matter in
chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of 2 to 5. the A horizon is 2 to 10 percent. Texture is dominantly
In many pedons, the undisturbed A horizon is a mixture fine sand
of light gray sand grains and finely divided organic The g horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or
material. Texture of the A horizon is fine sand. The A The Cg horizon extends to a de of 0 inc
horizon is 3 to 8 inches thick. more. It has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 2 to 7, and
The C horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches. It has chromaof 1 or 2. Texture is sand, fine sand or loamy
hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 4. fine sand.
Typically, chromas of lower value are dominant in the
lower part of the horizon. Some pedons have mottles of Apopka Series
gray, yellow, or brown at a depth of more than 20
inches. Matrix colors are the result of uncoated sand The Apopka series consist of deep, nearly level to
grains or thin coatings of colloidal organic material on gently-sloping, well drained, moderately permeable soils

the sand grains. Texture is fine sand or sand. that formed in sandy and loamy marine or eolian
deposits. These soils are on rolling landscapes on the
Anclote Series upland ridges. The slopes range from 0 to 5 percent.
Apopka soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic
The Anclote series consists of deep, nearly level, very Grossarenic Paleudults.
poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in Apopka soils are associated with Adamsville,
sandy marine deposits. These soils are in depressions Arredondo, Astatula, Candler, Immokalee, Kendrick,
and low, nearly flat, poorly defined drainageways. The Lake, Myakka, Sparr, and Tavares soils. Adamsville,
slopes are less than 2 percent. Anclote soils are sandy, Astatula, Candler, Lake, and Tavares soils do not have
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Haplaquolls. an argillic horizon. In addition, Adamsville soils are
Anclote soils are associated with Basinger, somewhat poorly drained, and Astatula, Chandler, and
Immokalee, Myakka, Pomello, and Pompano soils. These Lake soils are excessively drained. Arredondo soils have
soils do not have a mollic epipedon. In addition, 5 to 15 percent silt and clay in the E horizon. Immokalee






Citrus County, Florida 83



and Myakka soils have a Bh horizon. These soils are Arredondo Series
poorly drained. Kendrick soils have an argillic horizon
between depths of 20 and 40 inches. Sparr soils are The Arredondo series consists of deep, nearly level to
similar to the Apopka soils but are somewhat poorly moderately sloping, well drained, moderately permeable
drained, soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine deposits.
Typical pedon of Apopka fine sand, 0 to 5 percent These soils are on upland ridges. The slopes range from
slopes; in a wooded area, 3.4 miles west of U.S. 0 to 8 percent. Arredondo soils are loamy, siliceous,
Highway 41, 4.5 miles north of Citrus County Road 491, hyperthermic Grossarenic Paleudults.
SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 29, T. 17 S., R. 18 E. Arredondo soils are associated with Apopka, Astatula,
Candler, Fort Meade, Kanapaha, Kendrick, Lake,
A-0 to 7 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) Micanopy, Sparr, and Williston soils. Apopka soils have
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; less than 5 percent silt and clay between depths of 10 to
many fine and medium roots; medium acid; gradual 40 inches. Astatula, Candler, Fort Meade, and Lake soils
wavy boundary. do not have a Bt horizon. In addition, Astatula, Chandler,
E1 -7 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine and Lake soils are excessively drained. Kanapaha and
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium Sparr soils are similar to Arredondo soils; but Kanapaha
Smium gacid; gradual way boundary. soils are poorly drained, and Sparr soils are somewhat
roots; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. poorly drained. Kendrick and Micanopy soils have a Bt
E2-26 to 50 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) horizon at a depth of less than 20 to 40 inches. In
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine and addition, Micanopy soils are somewhat poorly drained.
medium roots; many uncoated sand grains; medium Williston soils are underlain by limestone at a depth of
acid; abrupt wavy boundary. less than 40 inches.
Btl-50 to 67 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) sandy Typical pedon of Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky slopes; from an area of improved pasture, about 0.5 of a
structure; firm; few medium roots; sand grains mile west of Citrus County Road 491, 1,000 feet south of
coated and bridged with clay; medium acid; gradual a dirt road, NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 28, T. 19 S., R. 18 E.
wavy boundary.
Bt2-67 to 80 inches; red (2.5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; Ap-0 to 9 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; fine sand; weak medium granular structure; very
sand grains coated and bridged with clay; medium friable; many fine roots; very strongly acid; abrupt
acid. wavy boundary.
E1-9 to 26 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine and
ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid except in medium roots; few dark brown (10YR 3/3) vertical
the A horizon where lime has been applied. The krotovinas about 5 centimeters in diameter; strongly
combined thickness of the A and E horizons ranges from acid; gradual wavy boundary.
40 to 75 inches. E2-26 to 41 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) fine
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and sand; single grained; loose; few dark brown (10YR
chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is sand or fine sand. The A 3/3) vertical krotovinas about 5 centimeters in
horizon is 4 to 8 inches thick, diameter; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and Btl-41 to 65 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy
chroma of 3 to 8. Texture is sand or fine sand. The fine sand; weak medium granular structure; very
content of silt and clay is less than 5 percent. Some friable; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
pedons have gray or white mottles. These are the colors Bt2-65 to 80 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy
of the uncoated sand grains in the horizon, clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
The Bt horizon extends to a depth of more than 60 structure; friable; many sand grains coated with
colloidal clay; few scattered uncoated sand grains;
inches. It has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and colloidal clay; few scattered uncoated sand grains;
chroma of 4 to 8. Texture is sandy loam or sandy clay y sr y
loam. In some pedons, 1 to 5 percent plinthite is in the The solum is 80 inches or more thick. Reaction is very
Bt horizon, strongly acid to medium acid. In many pedons, few
Some pedons have BC horizon between depths of 60 small, weathered limestone nodules and fragments, 2 to
and 80 inches. This horizon has the same range in color 20 millimeters in size, make up less than 5 percent, by
as the Bt horizon, or it is commonly mottled in those volume, of the soils. The combined thickness of the A
colors. Gray and white striped sand grains are common and E horizons is more than 40 inches.
between peds. Texture in the BC horizon ranges from The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5,
sandy loam to sandy clay. and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is sand, fine sand, loamy







84 Soil Survey



sand, or loamy fine sand. The thickness of the A horizon by 4 centimeters) of uncoated white (10YR 8/1)
is 3 to 8 inches. sand grains in lower 10 inches; very strongly acid.
The E horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4
to 7, and chroma of 3 to 8. Texture is fine sand, sand, The solum is more than 80 inches thick. The content
loamy fine sand, or loamy sand. This horizon has 5 to 15 of silt and clay between depths of 10 and 40 inches is
percent silt and clay within 10 to 40 inches of the less than 5 percent. Reaction ranges from very strongly
surface. acid to slightly acid.
Some pedons have an E/B horizon that has hue of The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 6, and
7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. chroma of 1 or 2. Cultivated areas have an Ap horizon
Texture ranges from sand to loamy fine sand. A slight that has value of 4 or less. The A horizon is fine sand. It
increase of clay or some color change is in this horizon is 2 to 7 inches thick. In some sloping areas, the A
as compared to the E horizon, horizon has eroded away and the underlying C horizon is
The Bt horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or at the surface.
more. The Btl horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value Some pedons have an AC horizon between the A and
of 4 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Texture is loamy sand, C horizons. This horizon is as much as 4 inches thick. It
loamy fine sand, fine sandy loam, or sandy loam. The has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1; or
Bt2 horizon has the same matrix colors as the Btl hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 3 or 4.
horizon. Texture ranges from sandy loam to sandy clay. Texture is fine sand.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 3 to 8. Texture is sand or fine sand. Some
Astatula Series pedons have mottles or splotches of gray or white in the
The Astatula series consists of deep, nearly level to lower part of the C horizon. These are not indicative of
strongly sloping, excessively drained, very rapidly wetness but are pockets of uncoated sand grains.
permeable soils that formed in unconsolidated sandy
marine, eolian, and fluvial sediments. These soils are on Basinger Series
the upland ridges. The landscape is somewhat
undulating. The slopes are smooth to concave and range The Basinger series consists of deep, nearly level,
from 0 to about 8 percent. Astatula soils are poorly drained, very rapidly permeable soils that formed
hyperthermic uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments. in sandy marine deposits. These soils are in poorly
Astatula soils are associated with Arredondo, Candler, defined drainageways, depressions, and sloughs on the
Lake, Paola, and Tavares soils. Arredondo soils have a flatwoods. The slopes are 2 percent or less. Basinger
Bt horizon and are well drained. Candler soils have soils are siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents.
discontinuous lamellae at a depth of more than 40 Basinger soils are associated with EauGallie,
inches. Lake soils have more than 5 percent fines in the Immokalee, Myakka, and Pompano soils. EauGallie,
10- to 40-inch control section. Paola soils have an albic Immokalee, and Myakka soils have a continuous Bh
horizon underlain by a discontinuous Bh horizon. Tavares horizon. Pompano soils do not have a continuous or
soils are moderately well drained, discontinuous Bh horizon.
Typical pedon of Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand; in a wooded
slopes; in a forested area, 3 miles north of Florida State area, about 0.25 of a mile north of Citrus County Road
Highway 44, SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 12, T. 18 S., R. 17 E. 470, 2 miles east of Citrus County Road 581,
SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 3, T. 19 S., R. 20 E.
A-0 to 5 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand, single grained; loose; few fine roots; very dark A-0 to 3 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak medium
gray (10YR 3/1) along root channels; about 2 granular structure; very friable; many fine and
centimeters of mixed, partly decomposed organic medium roots; many uncoated light gray sand
litter on surface; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth grains; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
boundary. E-3 to 8 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; single
C1-5 to 18 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; few
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; very dark fine faint dark gray stains along root channels; very
gray (10YR 3/1) along root channels; very strongly strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
acid; diffuse wavy boundary. E/Bh-8 to 24 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
C2-18 to 47 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; single fine sand; common medium distinct discontinuous
grained; loose; few fine medium and coarse roots; lenses and streaks of dark brown (10YR 3/3) fine
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, sand, common medium distinct dark reddish brown
C3-47 to 80 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/8) fine (5YR 3/4) dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) weakly cemented
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium Bh fragments; single grained; loose; few fine and
roots; few scattered, vertical streaks (1 centimeter medium roots; many sand grains with thin coating of




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs