• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Gilchrist County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026082/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Gilchrist County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 150 p., 3, 22 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: Soil Conservation Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1992]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Gilchrist County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Gilchrist County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 87-88).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations ; and Soil Science Department ; and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 93-0060-P.
General Note: "Issued September 1992"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026082
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001798587
notis - AJM2326
oclc - 27372923

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    How this survey was made
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Map unit composition
            Page 9
            Page 10
    General soil map units
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 45
        Crops and pasture
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
        Grazeable woodland
            Page 51
        Recreation
            Page 51
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Engineering
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
    Soil properties
        Page 59
        Engineering index properties
            Page 59
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 60
        Soil and water features
            Page 61
            Page 62
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 63
            Page 64
        Engineering index test data
            Page 65
            Page 66
    Classification of the soils
        Page 67
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 67
        Albany series
            Page 67
        Allanton series
            Page 68
        Alpin series
            Page 69
        Blanton series
            Page 69
        Bonneau series
            Page 70
        Dorovan series
            Page 70
        Elloree series
            Page 71
        Eunola series
            Page 72
        Garcon series
            Page 72
        Hurricane series
            Page 73
        Kershaw series
            Page 74
        Leon series
            Page 74
        Lynn Haven series
            Page 75
        Mandarin series
            Page 75
        Meggett series
            Page 76
        Ortega series
            Page 77
        Osier series
            Page 77
        Otela series
            Page 78
        Pamlico series
            Page 78
        Penney series
            Page 79
        Pottsburg series
            Page 79
        Resota series
            Page 80
        Ridgewood series
            Page 81
        Sapelo series
            Page 81
        Shadeville series
            Page 82
        Surrency series
            Page 83
        Wadley series
            Page 83
        Wesconnett series
            Page 84
    Formation of the soils
        Page 85
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 85
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 86
    Reference
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Glossary
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Tables
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    General soil map
        Page 151
    Index to map sheets
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
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        Page 14
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        Page 22
Full Text

United States In cooperation with the Sly of
Department of University of Florida, oil S survey of
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, G ilchrist C o u nty
Soil Agricultural Experiment G ilct y,
Conservation Stations, and Soil
Service Science Department, and Flo rida
the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services









?^ \^^ .^.







Gilchrist Soil and Water Conservation District
625 Hathaway Ave. P. O. Box 37
Bronson, Florida 32621
Phone: 352-486-2672 .3




How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas. -

Kolk mo
To find information about N ---- -
your area of interest, 1
locate that area on the __ .
Index to Map Sheets, MAP SHEET
which precedes the soil ___
maps. Note the number of iu... 1 is 1
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet. INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
that sheet.


Locate your area of \ Ba
interest on the map BC AsB
sheet. Note the map unit B ac /
symbols that are in that / I Ia
area. Turn to the Index ARA OF
AREA OF INTEREST
to Map Units (see Con- OTE Map uni symbols in a coil
tents), which lists the map survey may consist only of numbers or
units by symbol and lelers. or they may be a combination
name and shows the of numbers and letters.
page where each map MAP SHEET
unit is described.

The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.






















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal part
of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1988. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1988. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1988. This survey was
made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the University of Florida,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance furnished by the
Gilchrist County Soil and Water Conservation District. Additional assistance was
provided by the Florida Department of Transportation. The Gilchrist County
Board of County Commissioners contributed office space.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: Pasture and pecan trees in an area of Otela-Penney fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes.




The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all
its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex,
religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, or marital or
family status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons
with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of
program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact
USDA's TARGET Center at (202)-720-2600 (voice and TDD).
To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil
Rights, Room 326W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue,
SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD).
USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.






ii

















Contents


Index to map units ............................... iv Dorovan series ................. .............. 70
Summary of tables ............................... v Elloree series .............. ................ 71
Forew ord .................. ..... ............ vii Eunola series .................................. 72
General nature of the county ....................... 1 Garcon series .............................. 72
How this survey was made ......................... 7 Hurricane series ............................ 73
Map unit composition ............. ............ 9 Kershaw series ................................ 74
General soil map units .......................... 11 Leon series........... ........................ 74
Detailed soil map units ........................ 19 Lynn Haven series ............................ 75
Use and management of the soils ............... 45 Mandarin series.............................. 75
Crops and pasture ............................. 45 Meggett series ................................. 76
Woodland management and productivity ......... 48 Ortega series .............................. 77
Grazeable woodland ............ ............ 51 Osier series ................................... 77
Recreation .................................... 51 O tela series ................................... 78
Wildlife habitat ................................. 52 Pamlico series ............................. 78
Engineering ................................... 54 Penney series ................................ 79
Soil properties .................................. 59 Pottsburg series .............................. 79
Engineering index properties .................... 59 Resota series.................................. 80
Physical and chemical properties ................ 60 Ridgewood series ................ .............. 81
Soil and water features ........................ 61 Sapelo series .................................. 81
Physical, chemical, and mineratogical analyses Shadeville series ............. ............. 82
of selected soils .......................... 63 Surrency series ............................... 83
Engineering index test data ..................... 65 W adley series ................................. 83
Classification of the soils ....................... 67 Wesconnett series ............................ 84
Soil series and their morphology .................. 67 Formation of the soils ........................... 85
Albany series ............. ...... ............ 67 Factors of soil formation ........................ 85
Allanton series ................................. 68 Processes of soil formation ..................... 86
Alpin series.................................... 69 References .................... ............. 87
Blanton series ................................. 69 Glossary................................ 89
Bonneau series ............................... 70 Tables ................................. 97

Issued September 1992












iii

















Index to Map Units


2-Penney fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 19 18-Kershaw fine sand, gently rolling .............. 32
3-Penney fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes......... 20 19-Sapelo fine sand ............................ 33
4-Otela-Penney fine sands, 0 to 5 percent 20-Pamlico-Dorovan mucks, frequently
slopes .............. ...... .............. 21 flooded ......................... ...... 34
5-Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, 21-Bonneau fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
occasionally flooded ......................... 22 slopes. ................. ... .............. 34
6-Ridgewood fine sand, 0 to 5 percent 22-Mandarin fine sand .......................... 35
slopes .................................. 23 24-Quartzipsamments, excavated ................ 36
7-Leon fine sand ............................... 24 25-Wesconnett mucky fine sand,
8-Lynn Haven and Allanton mucky fine depressional ................................ 36
sands, depressional ........................ 25 26-Surrency mucky fine sand,
9-Hurricane fine sand, 0 to 5 percent depressional ................................ 37
slopes ...................................... 25 27-Leon fine sand, frequently flooded ............. 37
10-Garcon fine sand, 0 to 5 percent 29-Shadeville-Otela fine sands, 0 to 5
slopes, occasionally flooded.................. 26 percent slopes .............................. 38
11-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ....... 27 30-Fluvaquents, frequently flooded ............. 39
12-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ....... 28 32-Meggett fine sand, frequently flooded......... 40
13-Wadley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ....... 29 33-Eunola-Bonneau fine sands, 0 to 5
14-Pottsburg fine sand ............ .......... 30 percent slopes .............. ........... 40
15-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent 34-Bonneau-Blanton fine sands, 0 to 5
slopes ..................................... 30 percent slopes ........................... 41
16-Elloree-Osier-Fluvaquents complex, 35-Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......... 42
frequently flooded ...................... 31




















iv

















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) ................................... 98

Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2) ................................... 98
Probability. Temperature.

Ratings of general soil map units for specified uses (table 3)............... 99
Extent of area. Limitations for-Crops, Pasture. Potential
productivity for planted pines. Limitations for-Sanitary
facilities, Building site development, Recreational areas.

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) ................... 101
Acres. Percent.

Land capability and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 5) .......... 102
Land capability. Tobacco. Corn. Soybeans. Watermelons.
Peanuts. Bahiagrass.

Woodland management and productivity (table 6)........................ 104
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.

Grazeable woodland productivity (table 7)................................ 109
Site name. Average annual forage production of a site in
excellent condition. Desirable native forage.

Recreational development (table 8)...................................... 110
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.

W wildlife habitat (table 9) ................... ............................. 113
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.

Building site development (table 10) ..................................... 115
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.

Sanitary facilities (table 11) ................... .......................... 118
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.

v





















Construction materials (table 12) .............. .................... 121
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.

Water management (table 13)............................................ 124
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.

Engineering index properties (table 14) .................................. 128
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15).................. 133
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Shrink-swell potential.
Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.

Soil and water features (table 16) ....................................... 136
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.

Physical analysis of selected soils (table 17) .............................. 138
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.

Chemical analysis of selected soils (table 18) ............................ 142
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate-dithionite extractable.

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 19) ............................. 146
Depth. Horizon. Clay minerals.

Engineering index test data (table 20) .................................. 148
Classification-AASHTO, Unified. Grain-size distribution.
Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Moisture density.

Classification of the soils (table 21) ............ .................. 150
Family or higher taxonomic class.

vi

















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Gilchrist County, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters, and
agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan
land use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to
ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists
in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use
the survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey
or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high
water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service








vii














Soil Survey of

Gilchrist County, Florida

By Robert L. Weatherspoon, Eddie Cummings, and William H. Wittstruck,
Soil Conservation Service

Fieldwork by Robert L. Weatherspoon, Eddie Cummings, William H. Wittstruck,
David J. Trochlell, and David A. Vyain, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department, and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services



GILCHRIST COUNTY is in north-central Florida (fig. 1).
It extends south more than 23 miles from the Santa Fe
River to the Levy County line. Its maximum width,
between the Suwannee River and Alachua County, is
about 18 miles. Gilchrist County is bounded on the east Talla
by Alachua County and on the south by Levy County.
The Santa Fe River separates it from Columbia County
and Suwannee County to the north and Lafayette
County to the northwest, and the Suwannee River
separates it from Dixie County to the west.
The total area of Gilchrist County is 226,413 acres,
or 340 square miles. Trenton, the county seat, is in the
south-central part of the county.
In 1985, the county's population was about 7,008, an
increase of 50 percent since 1970. The population of
Trenton was about 1,401, an increase of 27 percent in
5 years. Newcomers are attracted to housing
developments and apartments located within the city t
limits (7).

General Nature of the County
This section gives general information about the
county. It describes history and development, climate,
geomorphology, stratigraphy, ground water, mineral Figure 1.-Location of Gilchrist County in Florida.
resources, farming, and transportation facilities.

History and Development Alachua County. The population of Gilchrist County at
Gilchrist County was established on December 4, that time was slightly more than 4,000.
1925, by the Florida Legislature from a part of western The earliest known kinds of wildlife in the county







2 Soil Survey


included the saber-toothed tiger, mastodons, camels, Climate
and raccoons the size of bears. The Raeford Thomas
Farm, in the northern part of the county, has provided Charles L. Jordon, state climatologist, Department of Meteorology,
scientists with a rich store of fossilized bones. This Florida State university, prepared this section.
geological site has become nationally known. Gilchrist County has a moderate climate. Summers
The earliest European visitors to the county were the are long, hot, and humid. Winters, although punctuated
Spanish soldiers accompanying the explorer Panfilo de by periodic invasions of cool or cold air from the north,
Narvaez. In 1528, Narvaez crossed the Suwannee are mild because the county is in the southern latitudes
River near Fanning Springs en route from Tampa to St. and is a short distance from the relatively warm ocean
Marks on Apalachee Bay. Hernando de Soto, another waters.
Spanish explorer, led a group of soldiersthrough the Mean annual precipitation in Gilchrist County is 52.84
survey area on his way from the Tampa Bay area to inches. October and November are the driest months.
Tallahassee. About 52 percent of the annual rainfall occurs in the
Florida was claimed by Spain until 1763, when it was summer. The remaining 48 percent is evenly distributed
traded to England. The British ruled from 1763 until throughout the rest of the year. About once in 10 years,
1783, when England returned Florida to Spain. During however, an excessive rainfall occurs in the spring.
these early years, Indians also inhabited and claimed Spring storms have caused rivers to overflow their
the area. Spain ceded Florida to the United States in banks. Heavy summer thundershowers can produce 2
1821 without the consent of the Indians. In 1823, a or 3 inches of rainfall in 1 or 2 hours. Daylong rains in
peace treaty was signed between the Indians and the the summer are rare. They generally occur in
United States. conjunction with tropical storms. The average relative
The resistance of the Seminole Indians to being humidity is about 75 percent.
removed from northern Florida led to the Seminole Hail falls occasionally during thundershowers, but the
Indian Wars. In 1842, after the wars ended, Congress hailstones generally are small and seldom cause much
passed a homestead act, which encouraged settlers to damage. Snow is very rare and usually melts as it
move into Gilchrist County (9). reaches the ground.
Early established towns included Fanning Springs, Tropical storms can affect the survey area at anytime
Yular, Wannee, Willeford, Bell, and Trenton. Other from early June through November. Because it is
settlements in the county were Blitchville, Frankland, inland, Gilchrist County is influenced only by the fringe
Lottieville, and Tyler. Trenton was named by effects of tropical storms. These effects include
a Confederate soldier, Ben Boyd, to honor his moderately high wind velocities, several days of
Tennessee home. Many of these towns had their own overcast skies, and some rainfall.
schools. Today, there are schools only at Bell and Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation
Trenton. for the survey area as recorded at Gainesville, Florida,
Railroads played a large role in developing the in the period 1951 to 1974. Table 2 shows probable
communities in the county. The train "Peggy" ran daily dates of the first freeze in fall and the last freeze in
between Starke and Wannee. This railroad line was spring.
built through Bell in 1903. Railroads were the main
means of transporting farm products, lumber, lime rock, Geomorphology
and passengers.
The development of the automobile influenced the Frank R. Rupert, geologist, Florida Department of Natural
improvement of roads and the construction of new Resources, Florida Geological Survey, prepared this section and the
highways. The need for railroads diminished as a result sections on stratigraphy, ground water, and mineral resources.
of this development. Most of the tracks within the Gilchrist County lies along the northern edge of the
county have been removed, and most of the small Midpeninsular Zone. This zone spans the Florida
towns and settlements adjoining the railroads have peninsula from the lower edge of the topographically
disappeared. higher Northern Highlands southward to the
The main economic enterprises in the county are the Caloosahatchee River. The Midpeninsular Zone
production of field crops, specialty crops, and timber; consists of a series of elevationally differentiated
cattle ranching; horse breeding; and recreational geomorphic subzones (25). The two subzones that
facilities. The Lancaster Correctional Institute also is a occur within Gilchrist County are the Gulf Coastal
source of employment. Lowlands and the Central Highlands (fig. 2).








Gilchrist County, Florida 3



SUWANNEE
COUNTY COLUMBIA 0 1 2 3 4 5 MILES
SCALE ----'-L--I IT1
S _ouNTY N 0 2 4 6 8 KILOMETERS

"7 -' EXPLANATION
LAFAYETTE q, A, |
CO Y AS- 34 TOWN
COUNTY j17T
ii 0 STATE ROAD
-W-1819 '1 WELL OR AUGER SAMPLE LOCATION
S1 00 CROSS SECTION LOCATION
0 -13127
S-314 AS' 355 117 GEOMORPHIC ZONES
w-10o88~~ BL CENTRAL HIGHLANDS
SBROOKSVILLE RIDGE

I 41 HIGH SPRINGS GAP
GULF COASTAL LOWLANDS
S, II WACCASASSA FLATS

S -58 55 70 BELL RIDGE
I I I -W-3740
SiA 6 CHIEFLAND LIMESTONE PLAIN
-1860 R'
sWANNEE RIER T SANTA FE RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS
__ __ SUWANNEE RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS
L E V Y C U N T Y

Figure 2.-The geomorphic zones in Gilchrist County.



Gulf Coastal Lowlands subdivisions based on topography. The subdivisions
The Gulf Coastal Lowlands parallel the Gulf Coast of include the Waccasassa Flats, the Bell Ridge, the
Florida northward from Ft. Myers and westward to the Chiefland Limestone Plain, the Santa Fe River Valley
Alabama line. In the vicinity of Gilchrist County, this Lowlands, and the Suwannee River Valley Lowlands
geomorphic province extends from the shoreline of the (12).
Gulf of Mexico to some 50 miles inland and terminates Waccasassa Flats.-This geomorphic province is a
at the western edge of the Brooksville Ridge and High low, swampy area about 5 miles wide and 25 miles
Springs Gap. The Gulf Coastal Lowlands are long. It originates at the south bank of the Santa Fe
characterized by broad, flat marine plains underlain by River and extends southward through central Gilchrist
Eocene limestones and blanketed by thin layers of County and southeastward into Levy County. Elevations
sandy material of Pleistocene age (1 million to 10 average about 60 feet above m.s.l. throughout most of
thousand years before the present). The sandy material the flats. Isolated sandhills, however, that are possibly
was deposited by the regressing Gulf of Mexico. associated with the Bell and Brooksville Ridges, reach
Elevations within the province range from approximately an elevation of 90 to 100 feet above m.s.l. A structural
20 feet above mean sea level (m.s.l.) in westernmost low that is filled with siliciclastics of Miocene age (5 to
Gilchrist County to more than 100 feet above m.s.l. in 25 million years before the present) and Pleistocene
the eastern part of the county. The Gulf Coastal age underlies the Waccasassa Flats. Although no
Lowlands in Gilchrist County have several geomorphic apparent relationship exists between the low and the







4 Soil Survey


origin of the flats, the siliciclastics filling the depression within the valley are between 10 and 20 feet above
may retard the downward percolation of ground water m.s.l., and much of the valley is swampy. The
and result in the swampy conditions that are generally Ichetucknee River, which flows southward out of
throughout this province (12). The flats could be a Suwannee County, joins the Santa Fe River at the
remnant stream valley, possibly of the ancestral northern tip of Gilchrist County. From the Ichetucknee
Suwannee River, or they could be of erosional marine River westward to its confluence with the Suwannee
origin (24). The predominance of relict marine features River, the Santa Fe River flows in a /4-mile-wide,
throughout the flats supports the theory of marine origin swampy valley that ranges in elevation from 8 to 20 feet
(12). above m.s.l.
The Bell Ridge.-This geomorphic province is a 20- The Suwannee River forms the western boundary of
mile-long series of irregularly shaped sand ridges that Gilchrist County. Its broadly meandering valley ranges
border the eastern edge of the Chiefland Limestone in width from less than /4 mile to nearly 11/ miles.
Plain (24). The crests of the ridges range in elevation Throughout the river's course along western Gilchrist
from 80 to 100 feet above m.s.l. Although their origin is County, the elevations of the valley floor average 15
uncertain, the ridges are most likely part of a barrier feet above m.s.l. In northwestern Gilchrist County, a
island system from a relict Wicomico Sea of Pleistocene contour at an elevation of 20 feet above m.s.l.
age (14). The Bell Ridge may be an outlier of the delineates the extent of the Suwannee River Valley
Brooksville Ridge, to which it is roughly parallel (25). Lowlands. Southwestward, near the town of Suwannee
The sand ridges of the Bell Ridge directly overlie karstic River, a contour at an elevation of 10 feet above m.s.l.
limestone of Eocene age (37 to 54 million years before delineates the valley. The Suwannee River flows
the present). The former extent of the contiguous ridge southward. It is entrenched in a limestone channel. The
system may be obscured by solution and collapse in the valley floor sediments are predominantly reworked
underlying limestone (12). Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial sands and muds and
The Chiefland Limestone Plain.-This geomorphic include some outcrops of the Ocala Group limestone of
province consists of a flat, sandy terrain overlying Eocene age.
eroded and highly karstic Eocene limestone (12, 24) Hian
and is in the western third of Gilchrist County. It is
bordered on the west by the Suwannee River Valley The Central Highlands province includes a series of
Lowlands and on the east by the Bell Ridge and local highlands and ridges and intervening lowland
Waccasassa Flats. The surface is generally flat to valleys, which generally run parallel to the coast along
gently rolling, and elevations range from 25 to 65 feet the central peninsula. The Brooksville Ridge and the
above m.s.l. The surficial sediments are primarily well High Springs Gap, situated at the eastern edge of
drained, sandy material of Pleistocene age and average Gilchrist County, are two subdivisions of the Central
less than 20 feet thick. Highlands.
The River Valley Lowlands.-This geomorphic The Brooksville Ridge.-This geomorphic province
province includes the topographically low, broad valleys has its northern terminus along the eastern edge of
of the Santa Fe and Suwannee Rivers (12). The valleys Gilchrist County (12). This ridge is a topographic
are floored with a thin veneer of siliciclastics of highland. It extends southeastward into Pasco County a
Holocene age (10,000 years before the present to the distance of 110 miles. In Gilchrist County the ridge
present) over limestone, sediments rest on karstic Eocene limestone. The core
The Santa Fe River flows westward from its source in of the ridge consists largely of Pleistocene siliciclastics
Alachua County and forms the northern boundary of and is capped by a rolling plain of marine terrace sand
Gilchrist County. In northeastern Gilchrist County, the of Pleistocene age. The plain has many depressions. A
river is partially entrenched in a limestone channel and well defined marine escarpment borders the western
meanders through a 1/2-mile-wide valley. Elevations in edge of the ridge at an elevation of 70 to 75 feet above
the valley range from 20 to 30 feet above m.s.l. The m.s.l. and is probably associated with the level of the
Santa Fe River is fed by several sluggish creeks that Wicomico Sea of Pleistocene age (12). Surface
flow from the surrounding highly solutional terrain and elevations are 100 feet above m.s.l. on crests along the
by the runs from numerous springs. As the river enters eastern edge of Gilchrist County.
the Chiefland Limestone Plain, northwestward from Cow High Springs Gap.-This geomorphic lowland is
Creek, the valley narrows considerably. Cow Creek, situated in northeastern Gilchrist County, at the northern
which flows northward out of Gilchrist County, and terminus of the Brooksville Ridge (13). It provides a
numerous smaller creeks that drain the Chiefland drainage egress, via the Santa Fe River, between the
Limestone Plain are the primary tributaries. Elevations northernmost limit of the Western Valley geomorphic








Gilchrist County, Florida 5


zone of the central peninsula and the Gulf Coastal portions of the county, the Williston Formation is the
Lowlands zone to the west. uppermost Ocala Group unit encountered in some
wells. A series of faults in western Gilchrist County and
Stratigraphy a large graben trending north-south under the
Waccasassa Flats may have further modified the
The oldest rock penetrated by wells in Gilchrist surface of the karstic Ocala Group (12).
County is limestone of the Avon Park Formation of Because of their permeable and cavernous nature,
Eocene age. Undifferentiated surficial sands and clayey the Ocala Group limestones are important freshwater-
sands of Pleistocene to Holocene age are the youngest bearing units of the Floridan aquifer system. Many wells
sediments. The Avon Park Formation and the younger in Gilchrist County draw drinking water from the upper
limestone overlying it are important freshwater aquifers. units of this group.
The paragraphs that follow describe the sediments of
Eocene age and younger. Miocene Series
SAlachua Formation.-This formation is a complex
Eocene es unit. It was originally defined as only the sand and clay
Avon Park Formation.-This formation is a infillings in the older karst depressions or stream
lithologically variable carbonate unit of Middle Eocene channels (6). The formation was later considered to be
age that underlies all of Gilchrist County (11). The a mixture of discontinuous, interbedded clay, sand, and
formation is typically a tan to brown dolomite that is sandy clay, including commercially important phosphatic
commonly interbedded with white to yellowish gray sand and gravel deposits (13, 24). In Gilchrist County
limestones and dolomitic limestones of varying the Alachua Formation sediments vary greatly in
hardness (13). Mollusks and foraminifera are the lithology. Typically, this unit consists of gray, poorly
dominant fossils. The Avon Park Formation is a indurated, fine quartz sands in a matrix of phosphatic
component of the Floridan aquifer system. According to clay. The sands are interbedded with or underlain by
Florida Geological Survey in-house well data, the top of pebbles of waterworn flint; erratic limestone boulders;
this formation underlies Gilchrist County at a depth of silicified limestone and chert; light blue and green, waxy
115 to 145 feet. Well number W-1003, which is 4 miles montmorillonite clay lenses; pebbles and boulders of
southeast of Bell, is the only well to penetrate the entire phosphate rock conglomerate; colloidal phosphate; and
section of the Avon Park Formation. The core data from some concentrations of vertebrate fossils (12).
this well indicate that the formation is 850 feet thick in The phosphate rock is a minor constituent of the
this part of the county. Alachua Formation. Mining this rock was economically
Ocala Group.-This group consists of marine feasible for many years. The rock occurs in various
limestones that unconformably overlie the Avon Park modes, including clay to boulder-size clasts and
Formation in all of Gilchrist County (12). In ascending replacements of limestone and laminated phosphate
order, the Ocala Group consists of the Inglis Formation, (plate rock). Because the Alachua Formation was
the Williston Formation, and the Crystal River deposited on the eroded, highly karstic, and possibly
Formation. These formations are differentiated on the faulted surface of the Ocala Group limestones, its
basis of lithology and fossil content. Typically, the thickness varies considerably over relatively short
lithology of the Ocala Group grades from the alternating distances. With the exception of some fill deposits in
hard and soft, white to gray, fossiliferous and dolomitic deep sinkholes, the formation does not occur in
limestones of the Inglis Formation and the lower westernmost Gilchrist County. A sequence of Alachua
Williston Formation to the white to cream, abundantly Formation sediments, approximately 80 to 100 feet
fossiliferous, chalky limestones of the upper Williston thick, is in the structural low in central Gilchrist County.
Formation and the Crystal River Formation. To the east of this, a discontinuous series of sediments
Foraminifera, mollusks, bryozoans, and echinoids are 10 to 20 feet thick underlies the High Springs Gap and
the dominant fossils in sediments of the Ocala Group. the Brooksville Ridge.
The thickness of the Ocala Group sediments in The origin and age of the Alachua Formation are
Gilchrist County averages about 100 feet. According to uncertain. According to one theory, the formation is an
Florida Geological Survey in-house lithologic files, depth in situ accumulation of weathered Hawthorn Group
to the irregular, karstic surface of the unit ranges from 5 sediments of Miocene age (5). According to another
feet in the Chiefland Limestone Plain province in theory, the formation originated as a largely terrestrial
western Gilchrist County to more than 80 feet in the deposit consisting of lacustrine and fluviatile
structural low under the Waccasassa Flats. Because components (13). One suggestion is that it was
erosion has removed the Crystal River Formation in deposited in an estuarine environment (3). According to







6 Soil Survey


a more recent theory, the Alachua Formation is underlying Floridan aquifer system (17).
weathered and possibly reworked Hawthorn Group Surficial aquifer system.-This aquifer system is the
sediments but is not part of the Hawthorn Group (15). highest freshwater aquifer in Gilchrist County. It is
An age range of Miocene to Pleistocene, based nonartesian and is contained within the interbedded
primarily on vertebrate fossils, has been postulated for sands and clays of the Alachua Formation and the
the Alachua Formation. This wide range tends to overlying Pleistocene siliciclastics and marine terrace
support the concept that the Alachua Formation sands in the central and southeastern parts of the
consists of time-transgressive, reworked sediments in county. In the western part of the county, where the
which younger vertebrate fauna were incorporated Alachua Formation does not occur, the surficial aquifer
during each successive deposition. system may be perched in locally thick Pleistocene
sands that directly overlie the Ocala Group limestone.
Pleistocene Series In these areas the surficial aquifer system is separated
Much of the core of the Brooksville Ridge in Gilchrist from the underlying Floridan aquifer system by zones of
County consists of reddish, clayey coarse sands. The unsaturated lime rock (10).
sands are lithologically similar to those of the Citronelle Generally, the surficial aquifer system ranges from 10
Formation of the Panhandle and the Cypresshead to 80 feet in thickness. The thicker portions are located
Formation of peninsular Florida, which are both under the higher geomorphic sand ridges of central and
considered to be of the lower Pleistocene age. For the eastern Gilchrist County and in the structural low under
purposes of this survey, these variably colored red, the Waccasassa Flats. The surficial aquifer system is
orange, and pink siliciclastics, some of which-contain unconfined, and its upper surface is the water table.
fossil burrows, are considered undifferentiated Generally, the elevation of the water table fluctuates
Pleistocene sediments. with the precipitation rate and conforms to the
Undifferentiated Pleistocene marine quartz sands and topography of the land surface. The surficial aquifer
clayey sands form a thin veneer over all of Gilchrist system is largely recharged through rainfall that
County. In the western part of the county, these sands percolates downward through the loose surficial plastic
are generally less than 20 feet thick and directly overlie sediments and, to a lesser extent, through upward
the Ocala Group limestone. In central and eastern seepage from the underlying Floridan aquifer system.
Gilchrist County, they cap reddish coarse clastics and Water naturally discharges from the aquifer through
the Alachua Formation. Many of the larger and higher evaporation, transpiration, spring flow, and downward
sand bodies in the county are relict dunes, bars, and seepage into the Floridan aquifer system. The surficial
barrier islands associated with various Pleistocene aquifer system may yield quantities of water suitable for
stands at sea level. The higher crests on the Brooksville consumption, but in some areas concentrations of iron
Ridge, more than 100 feet above m.s.l., are associated and tannic acid can impart a poor taste and color to the
with the Sunderland and Okefenokee terraces (8). With water (10).
the exception of the Suwannee River Valley Lowlands, Floridan aquifer system.-This aquifer system is
which is part of the Pamlico Terrace, the surficial made up of several hundred feet of Eocene-age marine
siliciclastic sediments that occur throughout the rest of limestone, including the Avon Park Formation and the
Gilchrist County are Wicomico terrace deposits (8). Ocala Group. It is the principal source of drinking water
in Gilchrist County. It occurs as an unconfined,
Holocene Series nonartesian aquifer in portions of western, northern, and
A white to gray, fossiliferous, freshwater marl northeastern Gilchrist County, where porous
commonly occurs along the banks and in the valleys of Pleistocene quartz sand directly overlies the limestone.
the Santa Fe and Suwannee Rivers. This marl generally In areas of central and southeastern Gilchrist County,
contains an abundant freshwater mollusk fauna of where clay beds in the Alachua Formation form
Holocene age and can range to 4 feet in thickness (12). confining units that are slowly permeable, the Floridan
may function as an artesian aquifer. Depth to the top of
Ground Water the Floridan aquifer generally corresponds to the depth
to limestone. It ranges from less than 5 feet in the
Ground water fills the pore spaces in subsurface valleys of the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers to nearly
rocks and sediments. In Gilchrist County and adjoining 80 feet under the Waccasassa Flats. The piezometric
counties, it is derived mainly from precipitation. Most of gradient is generally west-southwestward.
the water consumed in Gilchrist County is drawn from The Floridan aquifer system in Gilchrist County is
ground-water aquifers. The main aquifer systems in recharged by the percolation of rainfall through the
Gilchrist County are the surficial aquifer system and the permeable surficial sands in the western and








Gilchrist County, Florida 7


northeastern portions of the county. The thick sequence off State Road 49, north of Bell. The rock is
of slowly permeable clastics under the Waccasassa mechanically extracted, crushed, and used as roadbase
Flats retards downward percolation and results in only material by the county.
low or moderate recharge in this area (18). Water
leaves the Floridan aquifer through natural Farming
downgradient movement and subsequent discharge
through springs and seeps along the river valley The land in Gilchrist County is generally used as
lowlands. cropland or woodland. The main crops are corn,
tobacco, soybeans (fig. 3), peanuts, watermelon, small
Mineral Resources grain, and a few vegetables. Most of the cropland is in
the western and eastern parts of the county.
At present, no mineral commodities are being mined Most of the soils in Gilchrist County that are used for
on a commercial basis in Gilchrist County. Hard rock, crops are deep, drought sands that are subject to soil
colloidal phosphate, and high-purity limestone, however, blowing and water erosion. Historically, deep plowing
have been mined in the past. The following discussion and clean cultivation have been used in the county.
of the major mineral commodities is intended to provide Gully-control structures, grassed waterways,
an overview of the mining potential of each mineral, windbreaks, and a permanent vegetative cover are
needed to control erosion.
Sand The only soil in Gilchrist County that meets all of the
A number of shallow private pits in Gilchrist County requirements for prime farmland as defined by the U.S.
are mined for fill sand. These sand deposits are Department of Agriculture is the Eunola soil in the map
concentrated in the unconsolidated Pleistocene-age unit Eunola-Bonneau fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
surficial sands covering most of the county. Since the The other soils in the county are too wet because of a
local demand for sand products is insufficient, the seasonal high water table or flooding or are too
potential for commercial mining is low at this time. drought during the growing season.
The enactment of legislation in 1937 to create soil
Phosphate conservation districts stirred the interest of many
Phosphatic sands, clays, and limestones of the landowners in Gilchrist County. The Gilchrist County
Alachua Formation have been mined in eastern Gilchrist Soil and Water Conservation District promotes farming,
County since the 1900's. Hard rock phosphate, a tree planting, and other agricultural practices. Its goal is
calcium phosphate-fluorapatite mixture, occurs as a to assist farmers, public agencies, and other land users
replacement of limestone float contained in basal with problems related to soil and water conservation.
Alachua Formation sediments and on the top of the This soil survey is part of that assistance.
Ocala Group. The clays within the Alachua Formation
contain colloidal phosphate and phosphorite and make Transportation Facilities
up what is termed soft rock phosphate.
No commercial phosphate mines are in operation in In Gilchrist County many county, state, and federal
Gilchrist County today. A company mined soft rock highways facilitate the transport of goods from farm to
phosphate as late as 1973 in an area directly south of market. U.S. 19 crosses the Suwannee River in the
Mona. A large area of eastern Gilchrist County, along southwestern part of the county at Fanning Springs.
the Gilchrist-Alachua County line and corresponding to U.S. 129 runs north and south through Bell and
the Brooksville Ridge, has commercial mining potential. Trenton. Large tractor-trailers carry timber and other
Future exploitation of these remaining deposits will products. Rail service also is available within the
depend largely on the market prices of phosphate and county.
the economic stability of the phosphate industry.

Limestone How This Survey Was Made
Ocala Group limestones are near the surface in This survey was made to provide information about
western Gilchrist County. These high-purity limestones the soils in the survey area. The information includes a
approach 95 percent calcium carbonate. Commercially description of the soils and their location and a
mineable deposits are extensive, but no commercial discussion of the suitability, limitations, and
limestone quarries are in operation in the county. The management of the soils for specified uses. Soil
Gilchrist County Road Department, however, is scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of
currently operating an open-pit lime rock mine located slopes; the general pattern of drainage: the kinds of








8 Soil Survey






























Figure 3.-Soybeans in an area of Otela-Penney fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes.



crops and native plants growing on the soils; and the the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify
down into the unconsolidated material in which the soil predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
formed. The unconsolidated material has few or no determine the boundaries.
roots or other living organisms and has been changed Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
very little by other biological activity, profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
pattern that is related to the geology, landforms, relief, rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, reaction, and
climate, and natural vegetation of the area. Each kind of other features that enable them to identify soils. After
soil is associated with a particular kind of landscape or describing the soils in the survey area and determining
with a segment of the landscape. By observing the soils their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
in the survey area and relating their position to specific taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
segments of the landscape, a soil scientist develops a concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
concept, or model, of how the soils were formed. Thus, characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
during mapping, this model enables the soil scientist to are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
predict with a considerable degree of accuracy the kind systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
of soil at a specific location on the landscape, used in the United States is based mainly on the kind
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
into one another as their characteristics gradually horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between compared the individual soils with similar soils in the







Gilchrist County, Florida 9


same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could identified and named according to the taxonomic
confirm data and assemble additional data based on classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
experience and research. taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
of the soils in the area generally are collected for the soils are natural objects. In common with other
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
scientists interpret the data from these analyses and their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
the soil properties to determine the expected behavior taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
the soils are field tested through observation of the soils areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
in different uses under different levels of management. Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to
and some new interpretations are developed to meet other taxonomic classes. These latter soils are called
local needs. Data are assembled from other sources, inclusions or included soils.
such as research information, production records, and Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
field experience of specialists. For example, data on patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
crop yields under defined levels of management are the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
assembled from farm records and from field or plot management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
experiments on the same kinds of soil. inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
soil properties but also on such variables as climate properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable or require different management. These are contrasting
over long periods of time, but they are not predictable (dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
soil will have a high water table within certain depths in of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
most years, but they cannot assure that a high water descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a observed and consequently are not mentioned in the
specific date. descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
After soil scientists located and identified the complex that it was impractical to make enough
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they observations to identify all of the kinds of soil on the
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial landscape.
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit. The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
accurately, taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
Map Unit Composition management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an information for the development of resource plans, but
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is in small areas.


















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication 1. Alpin-Wadley
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general Nearly level and gently sloping, excessively drained and
soil map unit is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it well drained soils that are sandy throughout or have a
consists of one or more major soils and some minor sandy surface layer and subsurface layer and a loamy
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making subsoil
up one unit can occur in another but in a different This map unit is on broad uplands. Most areas are in
pattern, the eastern part of the county, adjacent to the Alachua
The general soil map can be used to compare the County line. The unit makes up about 13,600 acres, or
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of 6 percent of the county. It is about 70 percent Alpin
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, soils, 10 percent Wadley soils, and 20 percent soils of
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. minor extent.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for The landscape is interspersed with sharp-breaking,
planning the management of a farm or field or for long and narrow steeper slopes and with sinkholes. The
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. natural vegetation is turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak,
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place live oak, laurel oak, laurelcherry, and scattered pine.
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that The understory consists mainly of pineland threeawn,
affect management, indiangrass, chalky bluestem, greenbriar, and panicum.
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
suitability for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent surface layer is dark gray fine sand. The underlying
of the map units shown on the general soil map. It also material to a depth of 80 inches or more is fine sand.
shows the soil properties that limit major land uses. The upper part is light yellowish brown and very pale
Each map unit is rated for crops, pasture, planted pines, brown. The lower part is very pale brown and has thin
sanitary facilities, building site development, and layers of yellowish brown loamy fine sand.
recreational areas. Cultivated crops are those grown Wadley soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
extensively in the county. Pasture refers to areas of the layer is dark grayish brown fine sand. The subsurface
tame pasture grasses commonly grown in the county. layer is fine sand. The upper part is pale brown, the
Recreational areas include campsites, picnic areas, next part is brownish yellow, and the lower part is very
playgrounds, and other areas that are subject to heavy pale brown. The upper part of the subsoil is strong
foot traffic. brown sandy clay loam. The lower part to a depth of 80
inches or more is light yellowish brown sandy loam.
Soils in Sandy Areas on Uplands Minor in this map unit are Albany, Blanton, Bonneau,
These are excessively drained and well drained, Ortega, Otela, Penney, and Ridgewood soils. Blanton,
nearly level to moderately sloping soils on uplands. Bonneau, Ortega, Otela, and Penney soils are at the
Most are sandy throughout. Some have loamy material higher elevations. Albany and Ridgewood soils are in
between depths of 40 and 80 inches. The soils are in the slightly lower, wetter areas.
the eastern part of the county, adjoining Alachua Most of the acreage is used as woodland or pasture.
County, and in the northwestern part, between the A few areas are used for urban development. In most
Waccasassa Flats and the flood plain along the areas this map unit is poorly suited to crops, moderately
Suwannee River. well suited to pasture, and well suited to pine trees.







12 Soil Survey


Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are the southwestern part of the county, between the
the main limitations affecting plant growth. The unit is Waccasassa Flats and the Suwannee River.
well suited to urban development.
3. Bonneau-Blanton-Eunola
2. Penney-Kershaw
Nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained
Nearly level to moderately sloping, excessively drained soils that have a sandy surface layer and subsurface
soils that have thin lamellae of loamy fine sand in the layer and a loamy subsoil
lower part of the underlying material or are sandy This map unit is on uplands. It is in the south-central
throughout part of the county. It makes up about 9,000 acres, or 4
This map unit is on broad uplands. Most areas are in percent of the county. It is about 36 percent Bonneau
the eastern part of the county, adjacent to the Alachua soils, 30 percent Blanton soils, 20 percent Eunola soils,
County line, but one area is in the northwestern part. and 14 percent soils of minor extent.
The unit makes up about 86,000 acres, or 38 percent of This map unit is in upland areas interspersed with
the county. It is about 70 percent Penney soils, 11 sinkholes. The depth to limestone bedrock varies. The
percent Kershaw soils, and 19 percent soils of minor natural vegetation is live oak, laurel oak, post oak,
extent. water oak, hickory, laurelcherry, slash pine, loblolly
The landscape is interspersed with sharp-breaking, pine, and longleaf pine. The understory consists mainly
long and narrow steeper slopes and with sinkholes. The of lopsided indiangrass, panicum, greenbriar, hawthorn,
natural vegetation is turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak, persimmon, fringeleaf paspalum, hairy tickclover, dwarf
sand live oak, and a few longleaf pine trees. The huckleberry, bluestems, and pineland threeawn.
understory consists mainly of pineland threeawn, Typically, the surface layer of the Bonneau soils is
indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and panicum. very dark grayish brown fine sand. The subsurface layer
Typically, the surface layer of the Penney soils is is fine sand. The upper part is light yellowish brown,
dark grayish brown fine sand. The underlying material and the lower part is very pale brown. The subsoil to a
to a depth of 80 inches or more is fine sand. The upper depth of 80 inches or more is sandy clay loam. The
part is pale brown. The lower part is very pale brown upper part is yellowish brown and light yellowish brown,
and has thin lamellae of yellowish brown loamy fine and the lower part is mottled gray, yellowish brown, and
sand. strong brown.
Typically, the surface layer of the Kershaw soils is Typically, the surface layer of the Blanton soils is
very dark grayish brown fine sand. The underlying very dark grayish brown fine sand. The subsurface layer
layers to a depth of 80 inches or more are pale brown is fine sand. The upper part is light yellowish brown,
and very pale brown fine sand. and the lower part is very pale brown. The upper part of
Minor in this map unit are Albany, Blanton, Ortega, the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy loam, and the
Otela, Shadeville, and Wadley soils. Blanton, Ortega, lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is yellowish
and Wadley soils are at the higher elevations. Albany brown sandy clay loam that has mottles in shades of
soils are in the slightly lower, wetter areas. Shadeville gray and red.
and Otela soils are in areas where the underlying Typically, the surface layer of the Eunola soils is very
bedrock is limestone, dark grayish brown fine sand. The subsurface layer is
Most of the acreage is used as woodland. Some pale brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil is
areas are used as pasture. A few areas are used for yellowish brown fine sandy loam, the next part is
urban development. In most areas this map unit is yellowish brown sandy clay loam, and the lower part is
poorly suited to crops and moderately well suited to mottled fine sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of
pasture and to pine trees. Droughtiness and rapid 80 inches or more is light gray fine sandy loam.
leaching of plant nutrients are the main limitations Minor in this map unit are Albany, Shadeville, Ortega,
affecting plant growth. The unit is well suited to urban and Wadley soils. These soils generally occur as small
development, areas mixed with the major soils.
This map unit is used for agricultural purposes and
Soils on Slight Knolls and Uplands urban development. In most areas it is moderately well
These are excessively drained, well drained, and suited to crops and well suited to pasture and pine
moderately well drained, nearly level and gently sloping trees. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
soils. Most are sandy in the upper part and loamy in the are the main limitations affecting plant growth. The unit
lower part. Some are sandy throughout. The soils are in is well suited to urban development.







Gilchrist County, Florida 13


4. Penney-Otela in the southeastern part. The unit makes up about
6,800 acres, or 3 percent of the county. It is about 40
Nearly level and gently sloping, excessively drained and percent Wadley soils, 35 percent Blanton soils, and 25
moderately well drained soils that are sandy and have percent soils of minor extent.
thin lamellae of loamy fine sand in the lower part of the The landscape is interspersed with sinkholes
underlying material or have a sandy surface layer and throughout. The natural vegetation is live oak, laurel
subsurface layer and a loamy subsoil oak, post oak, water oak, laurelcherry, sweetgum, slash
This map unit is on uplands. Most areas are on the pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. The understory
highly complex limestone plain in the southwestern part consists mainly of a sparse cover of pineland threeawn,
of the county. The unit makes up about 34,000 acres, indiangrass, chalky bluestem, greenbriar, hairy
or 15 percent of the county. It is about 48 percent panicum, hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf paspalum,
Penney soils, 22 percent Otela soils, and 30 percent hairy tickclover, and dwarf huckleberry.
soils of minor extent. Wadley soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
The landscape is interspersed with sinkholes layer is dark grayish brown fine sand. The subsurface
throughout. The depth to limestone bedrock varies. The layer is fine sand. The upper part is pale brown and
natural vegetation is laurel oak, live oak, turkey oak, brownish yellow, and the lower part is very pale brown.
bluejack oak, slash pine, longleaf pine, and scattered The upper part of the subsoil is strong brown sandy
palmettos. The understory consists mainly of pineland clay loam. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or
threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, panicum, and chalky more is light yellowish brown sandy loam.
bluestem. Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
Penney soils are excessively drained. Typically, the the surface layer is dark gray fine sand. The subsurface
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand. The layer is fine sand. The upper part is light yellowish
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is brown, and the lower part is very pale brown. The upper
fine sand. The upper part is pale brown and very pale part of the subsoil is brownish yellow sandy clay loam.
brown. The lower part is very pale brown and has thin The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray
lamellae of yellowish brown loamy fine sand. sandy clay loam that has mottles in shades of red and
Otela soils are moderately well drained. Typically, the yellow.
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand. The Minor in this map unit are Albany, Bonneau, Penney,
upper part of the subsurface layer is light yellowish and Ridgewood soils. Penney soils are on high sandy
brown fine sand. The lower part is very pale brown fine ridges. Bonneau soils are on slight knolls. Albany and
sand that has thin lamellae of sandy loam. The subsoil Ridgewood soils are on the lower broad flats.
to a depth of 80 inches or more is light yellowish brown Most of the acreage is used as cropland or pasture.
and light gray sandy clay loam. A small acreage is wooded. A few areas are used for
Minor in this map unit are Blanton, Bonneau, Ortega, urban development. In most areas this map unit is
Shadeville, and Wadley soils. These soils occur as poorly suited to crops, moderately well suited to pasture
small areas mixed with the major soils. (fig. 4), and well suited to pine trees. Droughtiness and
Most of the acreage is used as cropland. Some rapid leaching of plant nutrients are the main limitations
areas are used as pasture. A small acreage is used as affecting plant growth. The unit is moderately well
woodland. In most areas this map unit is poorly suited suited to urban development.
to crops and moderately well suited to pasture and to
pine trees. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant Soils in Depressions, on Flatwoods, on Slight Knolls,
nutrients are the main limitations affecting plant growth. and in Transitional Areas Between the Uplands and
The unit is well suited to urban development. Flatwoods
These are moderately well drained to poorly drained,
5. Wadley-Blanton nearly level and gently sloping soils. Some are sandy
y ll ad gy s g, wl d d a throughout. Some have a sandy subsoil in which the
Nearly level and gently sloping, well drained and sand grains are coated with organic matter. Some are
moderately well drained soils that have a sandy surface loamy below the layers that have coatings on the sand
layer and subsurface layer and a loamy subsoil grains. The soils border the Waccasassa Flats and are
This map unit is in the uplands. Most areas are in the on the flats.
southwestern part of the county, but one small area is







14 Soil Survey




























Figure 4.-Pasture of bahiagrass in an area of the Wadley-Blanton general soil map unit.


6. Lynn Haven-Ridgewood subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is black and
dark brown fine sand.
Nearly level, very poorly drained and somewhat poorly d wood sois are soewa oor drained
Ridgewood soils are somewhat poorly drained.
drained soils that have a sandy surface layer and ay
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand. The
sandy uo ot underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
sandy throughout fine sand. The upper part is light yellowish brown and
This map unit is in depressions and in the broad has light brownish gray mottles, the next part is light
flatwoods. It is on the Waccasassa Flats, which are in brownish gray, and the lower part is light gray.
the central part of the county. The unit makes up about Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Allanton.
23,000 acres, or about 10 percent of the county. It is Dorovan, Hurricane, Ortega, Osier, Pamlico, Pottsburg.
about 40 percent Lynn Haven and similar soils, 35 Sapelo, and Surrency soils. Also of minor extent are
percent Ridgewood soils, and 25 percent soils of minor Leon soils that are not subject to flooding and Leon
extent, soils that are frequently flooded. Albany, Hurricane, and
The landscape is interspersed with cypress ponds, Ortega soils are on knolls in the flatwoods. Pottsburg
swamps, small depressions that are grassy and wet, and Sapelo soils and the Leon soils that are not subject
and slight knolls that support pines, oaks, and scattered to flooding are in nearly level areas in the flatwoods.
palmettos. The natural vegetation is cypress, blackgum, The frequently flooded Leon soils are in drainageways.
sweetbay, red maple, and swamp tupelo in the Allanton, Dorovan, Osier, Pamlico, and Surrency soils
depressions and water oak, laurel oak, live oak, slash are in depressions.
pine, longleaf pine, waxmyrtle, sumac, blackberry Most of the acreage is used as woodland. In most
gallberry, saw palmetto, carpetgrass, and pineland areas this map unit is poorly suited to crops and
threeawn in the flatwoods. moderately well suited to pasture and pine trees.
Lynn Haven soils are very poorly drained. Typically, Wetness, flooding, and ponding are the main limitations
the upper part of the surface layer is black mucky fine affecting plant growth. The unit is poorly suited to urban
sand, and the lower part is very dark gray fine sand. development.
The subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand. The








Gilchrist County, Florida 15


7. Ortega-Ridgewood about 16,000 acres, or 7 percent of the county. It is
Nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained about 30 percent Wesconnett soils, 25 percent Lynn
and somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy Haven and similar soils, 20 percent Ridgewood soils,
throughout and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
The landscape is interspersed with cypress ponds,
This map unit is in transitional areas between the swamps, small depressions that are grassy and wet,
uplands and the flatwood areas of the Waccasassa and slight knolls that support pines, oaks, and scattered
Flats, in the central part of the county. The unit makes palmettos. The natural vegetation is cypress, blackgum,
up about 18,000 acres, or 8 percent of the county. It is sweetbay, red maple, and swamp tupelo in the
about 45 percent Ortega soils, 30 percent Ridgewood depressions and water oak, laurel oak, live oak, slash
soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent, pine, and longleaf pine on the slight knolls. The
The landscape is interspersed with a few cypress understory consists mainly of waxmyrtle, sumac,
ponds, swamps, and small depressions that are grassy blackberry, gallberry, saw palmetto, carpetgrass, and
and wet. Some of the depressional areas are connected pineland threeawn.
by narrow drainageways. The natural vegetation is live Westconnett soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
oak, laurel oak, post oak, turkey oak, water oak, the surface layer is black mucky fine sand. The subsoil
laurelcherry, slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. to a depth of more than 80 inches is fine sand. The
The understory consists mainly of lopsided indiangrass, upper part is very dark brown, the next part is dark
hairy panicum, low panicum, greenbriar, hawthorn, brown and brown, and the lower part is black. The sand
persimmon, fringeleaf paspalum, hairy tickclover, dwarf grains in the upper and lower parts are coated with
huckleberry, chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, and organic matter.
pineland threeawn. Lynn Haven soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
Ortega soils are moderately well drained. Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is black mucky fine
the surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand. sand, and the lower part is very dark gray fine sand.
The underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more The subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand. The
is fine sand. The upper part is brown, the next part is subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is black and
pale brown, and the lower part is light gray. dark brown fine sand.
Ridgewood soils are somewhat poorly drained. Ridgewood soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand. The Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand. The
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
fine sand. The upper part is light yellowish brown and fine sand. The upper 19 inches is light yellowish brown
has light brownish gray mottles, the next part is light and has light brownish gray mottles, the next 15 inches
brownish gray, and the lower part is light gray. is light brownish gray, and the lower 40 inches is light
Minor in this map unit are Albany, Blanton, gray.
Hurricane, and Penney soils. Albany and Hurricane Minor in this map unit are Albany, Hurricane, Leon,
soils are on slight knolls. Blanton and Penney soils are Ortega, Pottsburg, and Sapelo soils. Albany, Hurricane,
on the higher sandy ridges in the uplands, and Ortega soils are on slight knolls. Leon, Pottsburg,
Most of the acreage is used as pasture. A small and Sapelo soils are on broad flats.
acreage is wooded. A few areas are used for urban Most of the acreage is used as woodland. Some
development. In most areas this map unit is poorly small areas have been cleared and are used as
suited to crops, well suited to pasture, and moderately pasture. In most areas this map unit is poorly suited to
well suited to pine trees. Droughtiness and rapid crops, pasture, and planted pine trees. Seasonal
leaching of plant nutrients are the main limitations wetness and droughtiness are the limitations affecting
affecting plant growth. The unit is poorly suited to urban plant growth. The unit is poorly suited to urban
development, development.

8. Wesconnett-Lynn Haven-Ridgewood 9. Leon-Wesconnett-Sapelo
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
Nearly level and gently sloping, very poorly drained and that are sandy throughout and have a subsoil coated
somewhat poorly drained soils that have a sandy surface with organic material or that have a sandy surface layer
layer and a sandy subsoil coated with organic material or and subsurface layer, a sandy subsoil, and a loamy
that are sandy throughout substratum
This map unit is in the flatwoods. Most areas are in This map unit is in the flatwoods. Most areas are in
the southeastern part of the county. The unit makes up the south-central part of the county. The unit makes up








16 Soil Survey


about 11,000 acres, or 5 percent of the county. It is are mainly in the western and northern parts of the
about 60 percent Leon soils, 20 percent Wesconnett county.
soils, 10 percent Sapelo soils, and 10 percent soils of
minor extent. 10. Garcon-Elloree-Osier-Fluvaquents
The landscape is interspersed with a few slight
knolls, cypress ponds, swamps, and small depressions Nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
that are grassy and wet. Some of the depressional to very poorly drained soils that have a sandy surface
areas are connected by narrow drainageways. The layer and subsurface layer and a loamy subsoil, are
natural vegetation in the flatwoods is mainly slash pine sandy throughout, or have loamy and sandy strata
and longleaf pine. The understory consists mainly of ,
saw palmetto, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, Ths map unt is on the long, narrow flood plain along
huckleberry, greenbrier, pineland threeawn, bluestems, the Suwannee River, on the western edge of the
and sedge. The vegetation in the ponds, swamps, and county. The unit makes up about 7,000 acres, or about
drainageways is chiefly cypress, sweetbay, blackgum, 3 percent of the county. It is about 30 percent Garcon
and water-tolerant grasses, such as maidencane. soils, 22 percent Elloree soils, 19 percent Osier soils,
Leon soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface 11 percent Fluvaquents, and 18 percent soils of minor
layer is very dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer extent.
is grayish brown and light brownish gray fine sand. The The natural vegetation is live oak, laurel oak, water
subsoil is black, dark reddish brown, and grayish brown oak, slash pine, longleaf pine, saw palmetto, pineland
fine sand. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or threeawn, and gallberry in the higher positions and
more is very pale brown fine sand. baldcypress, sweetgum, sweetbay, red maple, and
Wesconnett soils are very poorly drained. Typically, loblolly pine in the lower drainageways.
the surface layer is black mucky fine sand. The subsoil Garcon soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
to a depth of more than 80 inches is fine sand. The the surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand.
to a depth of more than 80 inches is fine sand. The The subsurface layer is fine sand. The upper part is
upper part is very dark brown, the next part is dark The subsurface layer is fine sand. The upper part is
brown and brown, and the lower part is black. The sand brown, and the power part is pale brown. The upper part
grains in the upper and lower parts are coated with of the subsoi is pale brown fine sandy loam The lower
organic matter. part is gray sandy clay loam. The substratum to a depth
Sapelo soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface of 80 inches or more is light gray fine sand.
layer is black fine sand. The subsurface layer is light Elloree soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil is dark brown and layer is very dark grayish brown loamy fine sand. The
dark yellowish brown fine sand. The sand grains in the subsurface layer is light brownish gray and light gray
subsoil are coated with organic matter. Below the loamy fine sand. The subsoil is gray and light gray
subsoil is a layer of light yellowish brown and pale sandy clay loam. The substratum to a depth of 80
brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is white sand.
inches or more is gray and grayish brown sandy clay Osier soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
loam. layer is very dark gray fine sand. The underlying
Minor in this map unit are Albany, Hurricane, Ortega, material to a depth of 80 inches or more is fine sand.
and Ridgewood soils on slight knolls. The upper part is gray, the next part is light gray, and
Most of the acreage is used as woodland. Some the lower part is white.
small areas have been cleared and are used as Fluvaquents are poorly drained and very poorly
pasture. In most areas this map unit is poorly suited to drained. Typically, the surface layer is black mucky fine
crops, well suited to pasture, and moderately well suited sand. The underlying strata extend to a depth of 80
to pine trees. Wetness is the main limitation. The unit is inches or more. In sequence downward, these strata
poorly suited to urban development, commonly are dark gray sandy clay loam, pale brown
silt loam that has many fine and medium white shell
Soils on Stream Terraces and Flood Plains fragments, very dark gray silt loam that has few white
shell fragments, very pale brown sandy loam that has
These are somewhat poorly drained to very poorly many fine and medium white shell fragments, light
drained, nearly level and gently sloping soils. Some are yellowish brown sandy loam that has pockets of white
sandy throughout, and some are sandy to a depth of 20 sand, and white sand that has many white shell
to 80 inches and loamy in the lower part. Some have fragments.
strata of sandy, loamy, and clayey material. The soils Minor in this map unit are Albany, Blanton, Ortega,








Gilchrist County, Florida 17


Penney, Resota, and Ridgewood soils at the higher Fluvaquents are poorly drained and very poorly
elevations and Surrency soils in depressions, drained. Typically, the surface layer is black mucky fine
Most of the acreage supports native vegetation, sand. The underlying strata extend to a depth of 80
Some areas are used as woodland. A small acreage is inches or more. In sequence downward, these strata
used for urban development. In most areas this map commonly are dark gray sandy clay loam, pale brown
unit is poorly suited to crops, pasture, and planted pine silt loam that has many fine and medium white shell
trees. Flooding and prolonged wetness are the main fragments, very dark gray silt loam that has few white
limitations affecting plant growth. The unit is poorly shell fragments, very pale brown sandy loam that has
suited to urban development, many fine and medium white shell fragments, light
yellowish brown sandy loam that has pockets of white
11. Fluvaquents-Elloree sand, and white sand that has many white shell
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils fragments.
t he ly a s s o a s Elloree soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
that have loamy and sandy strata or are sandy
throghout layer is very dark grayish brown loamy fine sand. The
throughout
subsurface layer is light brownish gray and light gray
This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plains loamy fine sand. The subsoil is gray and light gray
along the Santa Fe River and along Cow Creek, on the sandy clay loam. The substratum to a depth of 80
northern edge of the county and on the northeastern inches or more is white sand.
edge of the Waccasassa Flats. The unit makes up Minor in this map unit are Albany, Meggett, Osier,
about 2,000 acres, or about 1 percent of the county. It and Ridgewood soils. Albany and Ridgewood soils are
is about 55 percent Fluvaquents, 25 percent Elloree at the higher elevations.
soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent. Most of the acreage supports native vegetation. In
The landscape consists of flood plains and narrow or most areas this map unit is poorly suited to crops,
broad, elongated drainageways. The natural vegetation pasture, and planted pine trees. Flooding and prolonged
is baldcypress, sweetgum, sweetbay, red maple, and wetness are the major limitations affecting plant growth.
water oak. The unit is poorly suited to urban development.










19









Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area. for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the the soils in the mapped areas are not uniform. An area
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and can be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be be made up of all of them. Lynn Haven and Allanton
used to plan the management needed for those uses. mucky fine sands, depressional, is an undifferentiated
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given group in this survey area.
under "Use and Management of the Soils." Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents other than those for which the map unit is named.
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more Some of these included soils have properties that differ
soils for which the unit is named. substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit differences could significantly affect use and
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes management of the soils in the map unit. The included
general facts about the soil and gives the principal soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
specific uses. a special symbol on the soil maps.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
of a series have major horizons that are similar in capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The
composition, thickness, and arrangement. "Glossary" defines many of the terms used in
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface describing the soils.
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, 2-Penney fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the soil is nearly level and gently sloping and is excessively
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into drained. It is on uplands. Individual areas are irregular
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed in shape and range from about 15 to more than 500
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth or convex.
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
management. For example, Penney fine sand, 0 to 5 sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying material to a
percent slopes, is a phase of the Penney series, depth of about 80 inches is fine sand. The upper 10
Some map units are made up of two or more major inches is pale brown. The next 39 inches is very pale
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or brown. The lower 24 inches is very pale brown and has
undifferentiated groups. thin layers of yellowish brown loamy fine sand.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils, or one On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Penney
or more soils and a miscellaneous area, in such an fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Penney and similar
intricate pattern or in such small areas that they cannot soils make up 80 to 95 percent of the mapped areas.
be shown separately on the soil maps. The pattern and Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the
proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in all areas, areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar
Elloree-Osier-Fluvaquents complex, frequently flooded, soils make up either less than 5 percent or more than
is an example. 20 percent of the areas.
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped some small areas of Albany, Otela, and Wadley soils.








20 Soil Survey


Other included soils are similar to Penney fine sand but roads and streets are slight. In areas that have a
do not have lamellae. Individual areas of included soils concentration of homes, the contamination of ground
are smaller than 5 acres. water is a hazard because of poor filtration in septic
Permeability is rapid in the Penney soil. The tank absorption fields.
available water capacity is very low. Runoff is very This soil has severe limitations as a site for
slow. The water table is at a depth of more than 6 feet. recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation, severely limits trafficability in unpaved areas. Soil
mainly turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak, scrub live blowing is a hazard. A good plant cover or windbreak is
oak, blackjack oak, and longleaf pine. The understory is necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of
mainly a sparse cover of pineland threeawn, stabilizing the surface is needed.
indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and panicum. This soil is in capability subclass IVs and is assigned
This soil has very severe limitations if it is used for the woodland ordination symbol 8S.
cultivated crops. Because of the sandy texture, it does
not retain sufficient moisture during dry periods. Plant 3-Penney fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
nutrients are leached rapidly. Corn, peanuts, soybeans, soil is moderately sloping and excessively drained. It is
tobacco, and watermelons can be grown but require in small areas on sharp-breaking slopes and on
intensive management measures and conservation relatively long slopes on broad uplands. Individual areas
practices, such as including cover crops in the crop are irregular in shape and range from about 5 to more
rotation, returning crop residue to the soil, and applying than 80 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or convex.
fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is needed during drought Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5
periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the surface inches thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80
layer is exposed. inches or more is fine sand. The upper 13 inches is
This soil is moderately well suited to tame pasture. light yellowish brown. The next 33 inches is very pale
Deep-rooted grasses, such as bahiagrass and improved brown. The lower 29 inches is very pale brown and has
bermudagrass, are suitable, but yields are generally thin layers of yellowish brown loamy fine sand.
reduced by periodic drought. Careful management is On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Penney
required to keep the pasture in good condition. This fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Penney and similar
management includes establishment of a proper plant soils make up 80 to 95 percent of the mapped areas.
population, applications of fertilizer and lime, and Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the
controlled grazing. Irrigation can improve the quality of areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar
the pasture and of hay. It may be economical if soils make up either less than 5 percent or more than
irrigation water is available during extended dry periods. 20 percent of the areas.
The soil is not suited to shallow-rooted pasture plants The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
because it does not retain sufficient moisture in the root small areas of Albany, Blanton, Ortega, and Wadley
zone. soils. Other included soils are similar to Penney fine
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is sand but do not have lamellae. Individual areas of
moderate. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and sand pine are included soils are smaller than 5 acres.
suitable for planting. The sandy texture restricts the use Permeability is rapid in the Penney soil. The
of wheeled equipment unless the trees are harvested available water capacity is very low. Runoff is slow. The
when the soil is moist. Because droughtiness can result water table is below a depth of 6 feet.
in seedling mortality, the number of trees that are Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation,
planted and the planting depth should be increased and mainly turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak, scrub live
the site should be mulched with the biomass that oak, and longleaf pine. The understory is mainly a
remains after harvesting. Plant competition can be sparse cover of pineland threeawn, lopsided
controlled by site preparation activities, such as indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and panicum.
chopping with a drum chopper. A harvesting system This soil has very severe limitations if it is used for
that leaves most of the biomass on the surface is cultivated crops because of droughtiness, the slope,
preferred, and the hazard or erosion.
The potential of this soil for openland and woodland This soil is moderately well suited to tame pasture.
wildlife habitat is poor, and the potential for wetland Deep-rooted grasses, such as bahiagrass and improved
wildlife habitat is very poor. Water areas and a suitable bermudagrass, are suitable, but yields are generally
source of food for wetland wildlife are not available, reduced by periodic drought. Careful management is
The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site required to keep the pasture in good condition. This
for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and local management includes establishment of a proper plant








Gilchrist County, Florida 21


population, applications of fertilizer and lime, and the lower 9 inches is light gray and has a few fine
controlled grazing. Irrigation can improve the quality of limestone pebbles.
the pasture and of hay. It may be economical if Typically, the surface layer of the Penney soil is dark
irrigation water is available during extended dry periods, grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
The soil is not suited to shallow-rooted pasture plants underlying material to a depth of about 80 inches is fine
because it does not retain sufficient moisture in the root sand. The upper 10 inches is pale brown. The next 31
zone. inches is very pale brown. The lower 34 inches is very
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is pale brown and has thin layers of yellowish brown
moderate. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and sand pine are loamy fine sand.
suitable for planting. The sandy texture restricts the use On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Otela-
of wheeled equipment unless the trees are harvested Penney fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Otela,
when the soil is moist. Because droughtiness can result Penney, and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of
in seedling mortality, the number of trees that are the mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas are
planted and the planting depth should be increased and about 55 percent Otela and similar soils and 43 percent
the site should be mulched with the biomass that Penney and similar soils. The components of this map
remains after harvesting. Plant competition can be unit occur as areas so intricately intermingled that
controlled by site preparation activities, such as mapping them separately is not practical. The
chopping with a drum chopper. A harvesting system proportions and patterns of the Otela, Penney, and
that leaves most of the biomass on the surface is similar soils, however, are relatively consistent in most
preferred, of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 0
The potential of this soil for openland and woodland to 20 percent of the areas. On 0 to 20 percent of the
wildlife habitat is poor, and the potential for wetland acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
wildlife habitat is very poor. Water areas and a suitable percent of the areas.
source of food for wetland wildlife are not available. The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site small areas of Blanton, Shadeville, and Wadley soils
for dwellings and local roads and streets are slight. In and soils that consist of sandy material over bedrock.
areas that have a concentration of homes, the Individual areas of included soils are smaller than 5
contamination of ground water is a hazard because of acres.
poor filtration in septic tank absorption fields. The slope Permeability is slow or moderately slow in the Otela
is a limitation on sites for small commercial buildings. soil and rapid in the Penney soil. The available water
This soil has severe limitations as a site for capacity is low in the Otela soil and very low in the
recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer Penney soil. Runoff is slow on both soils. The seasonal
severely limits trafficability in unpaved areas. Soil high water table is at a depth of 48 to 72 inches for 1 to
blowing is a hazard. A good plant cover or windbreak is 5 months during most years in the Otela soil and is
necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of below a depth of 72 inches in the Penney soil.
stabilizing the surface is needed. The slope is a Some areas of these soils support natural vegetation,
limitation affecting some uses. mainly laurel oak, live oak, turkey oak, slash pine,
This soil is in capability subclass VIs and is assigned loblolly pine, longleaf pine, and scattered palmettoes.
the woodland ordination symbol 8S. The understory is mainly a sparse cover of pineland
threeawn, indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and panicum.
4-Otela-Penney fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes. These soils have severe limitations if they are used
These nearly level and gently sloping soils are on for cultivated crops. Because of the sandy texture, they
uplands. The Otela soil is moderately well drained, and do not retain sufficient moisture during dry periods.
the Penney soil is excessively drained. Individual areas Plant nutrients are leached rapidly. Corn, peanuts,
are irregular in shape and range from 15 to more than soybeans, tobacco, and watermelons can be grown but
500 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth or convex, require intensive management measures and
Typically, the surface layer of the Otela soil is dark conservation practices, such as including cover crops in
grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. The the crop rotation, returning crop residue to the soils,
subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 60 inches, and applying fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is needed
It is fine sand. The upper 24 inches is light yellowish during drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe
brown, and the lower 36 inches is very pale brown. The hazard if the surface layer is exposed.
subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is sandy clay These soils are moderately well suited to tame
loam. The upper 11 inches is light yellowish brown, and pasture. Deep-rooted grasses, such as bahiagrass and







22 Soil Survey


improved bermudagrass, are suitable, but yields are about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
generally reduced by periodic drought. Careful fine sand. It extends to a depth of about 12 inches. The
management is required to keep the pasture in good subsoil is fine sand. It extends to a depth of about 55
condition. This management includes establishment of a inches. The upper 4 inches is brown and dark yellowish
proper plant population, applications of fertilizer and brown, the next 10 inches is brownish yellow, and the
lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation can improve the lower 29 inches is yellow. The substratum to a depth of
quality of the pasture and of hay. It may be economical about 80 inches is very pale brown fine sand.
if irrigation water is available during extended dry On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Resota fine
periods. These soils are not suited to shallow-rooted sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally flooded,
pasture plants because they do not retain sufficient Resota and similar soils make up 80 to 95 percent of
moisture in the root zone. the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees 20 percent of the areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the
is moderately high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf acreage, the dissimilar soils make up either less than 5
pine, and sand pine are suitable for planting. The sandy percent or more than 20 percent of the areas.
texture restricts the use of wheeled equipment unless The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
the trees are harvested when the soils are moist, some small areas of Albany, Garcon, and Wadley soils.
Because droughtiness can result in seedling mortality, Other included soils are similar to Resota fine sand but
the number of trees that are planted and the planting do not have a spodic horizon. Individual areas of
depth should be increased and the site should be included soils are smaller than 5 acres.
mulched with the biomass that remains after harvesting. Permeability is very rapid in the Resota soil. The
Plant competition can be controlled by site preparation available water capacity is very low. Runoff is very
activities, such as chopping with a drum chopper. A slow. The water table is at a depth of 48 to 60 inches
harvesting system that leaves most of the biomass on for 6 months or more in most years. It is at a depth of
the surface is preferred. 60 inches or more during dry periods.
The potential of these soils for openland and Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation,
woodland wildlife habitat is fair or poor, and the mainly slash pine, sand pine, longleaf pine, sand live
potential for wetland wildlife habitat is very poor. Water oak, and turkey oak. The understory is chiefly
areas and a suitable source of food for wetland wildlife palmettoes, shrubs, rosemary, bluestems, and pineland
are not available. threeawn.
The limitations affecting the use of these soils as This soil has very severe limitations if it is used for
sites for dwellings without basements, for small cultivated crops. Because of the sandy texture, it does
commercial buildings, and for local roads and streets not retain sufficient moisture during dry periods. Plant
are slight. In areas that have a concentration of homes, nutrients are leached rapidly.
the contamination of ground water is a hazard because This soil is poorly suited to tame pasture. Deep-
of poor filtration in septic tank absorption fields, rooted grasses, such as bahiagrass and improved
These soils have severe limitations as sites for bermudagrass, are suitable, but yields are generally
recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer reduced by periodic drought and the occasional
severely limits trafficability in unpaved areas. Soil flooding. Careful management is required to keep the
blowing is a hazard. A good plant cover or windbreak is pasture in good condition. This management includes
necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of establishment of a proper plant population, applications
stabilizing the surface is needed, of fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation
The Otela soil is in capability subclass Ills and is can improve the quality of the pasture and of hay. It
assigned the woodland ordination symbol 10S. The may be economical if irrigation water is available during
Penney soil is in capability subclass IVs and is extended dry periods. The soil is not suited to shallow-
assigned the woodland ordination symbol 8S. rooted pasture plants because it does not retain
sufficient moisture in the root zone.
5-Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
occasionally flooded. This soil is nearly level and moderate. Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable for
gently sloping and is moderately well drained. It is in planting. The sandy texture restricts the use of wheeled
the higher areas on flood plains. Individual areas are equipment unless the trees are harvested when the soil
irregularly shaped or elongated and range from about 5 is moist. Because droughtiness can result in seedling
to more than 150 acres in size. Slopes are nearly mortality, the number of trees that are planted and the
smooth or convex, planting depth should be increased and the site should
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand be mulched with the biomass that remains after








Gilchrist County, Florida 23


harvesting. Plant competition can be controlled by site Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation,
preparation activities, such as chopping with a drum mainly water oak, laurel oak, live oak, slash pine, and
chopper. A harvesting system that leaves most of the longleaf pine. The understory is mainly a sparse cover
biomass on the surface is preferred, of waxmyrtle, sumac, blackberry, gallberry, saw
The potential of this soil for openland and woodland palmetto, broomsedge bluestem, pineland threeawn,
wildlife habitat is poor, and the potential for wetland and other native weeds and grasses.
wildlife habitat is very poor. Water areas and a suitable This soil has severe limitations if it is used for
source of food for wetland wildlife are not available, cultivated crops. The high water table can retard root
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings, growth during wet periods. Because of the sandy
small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and texture, plant nutrients are leached rapidly. Corn,
septic tank absorption fields because of the occasional soybeans, peanuts, and watermelons can be grown but
flooding, require intensive management measures and
This soil has severe limitations as a site for conservation practices, such as including cover crops in
recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer the crop rotation, returning crop residue to the soil, and
severely limits trafficability in unpaved areas. Soil applying fertilizer and lime. A good water-control system
blowing is a hazard. A good plant cover or windbreak is is needed to remove excess water during wet periods
necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of and provide irrigation water during drought periods.
stabilizing the surface is needed. Flooding is a hazard This soil is moderately well suited to tame pasture.
in camp areas. Improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are
This soil is in capability subclass Vis and is assigned suitable, but yields are generally reduced by periodic
the woodland ordination symbol 8S. wetness. Careful management is required to keep the
pasture in good condition. This management includes
6-Ridgewood fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, establishment of a proper plant population, applications
This soil is nearly level and gently sloping and is of fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing. A water-
somewhat poorly drained. It is in the broad flatwoods control system is needed to remove excess surface
and along transitional areas in the uplands. Individual water during periods of heavy rainfall and provide
areas are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to irrigation water during drought periods.
more than 200 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
or convex. moderately high. Slash pine and longleaf pine are
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand suitable for planting. Proper site preparation activities,
about 6 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth such as harrowing and bedding, help to establish
of 80 inches or more is fine sand. The upper 19 inches seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality rate, and
is light yellowish brown, the next 15 inches is pale increase the early growth rate. Chopping and bedding
brown and light brownish gray, and the lower 40 inches remove debris, control competing vegetation, and
is light gray. facilitate planting. Logging with machinery equipped
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Ridgewood with large tires or tracks facilitates the use of equipment
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Ridgewood and similar and minimizes compaction and root damage during
soils make up 80 to 90 percent of the mapped areas, thinning activities. Logging systems that leave the
Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the residual biomass well distributed throughout the site
areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar increase the organic matter content and improve the
soils make up either less than 5 percent or more than fertility of the soil. The trees respond well to
20 percent of the areas. applications of fertilizer.
The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are The potential of this soil for woodland wildlife habitat
some small areas of Albany and Hurricane soils. Other is fair, and the potential for openland and wetland
included soils are similar to Ridgewood fine sand but wildlife habitat is poor. Water areas and a suitable
have a spodic horizon or lamellae. Individual areas of source of food for wetland wildlife are not available.
included soils are smaller than 5 acres. The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site
Permeability is rapid in the Ridgewood soil. The for dwellings without basements, small commercial
available water capacity is low. Runoff is very slow. The buildings, and local roads and streets are moderate,
water table is at a depth of 24 to 42 inches for 2 to 6 and those affecting septic tank absorption fields are
months during most years. During extremely wet severe. Wetness, poor filtration, and the sandy texture
periods it rises to a depth of 15 to 24 inches for less are the major limitations. A deep drainage system is
than 3 weeks. During dry periods it is at a depth of needed. Mounding may be needed on sites for septic
more than 40 inches. tank absorption fields. If the density of housing is







24 Soil Survey


moderate or high, community sewage systems may be control system is needed to remove excess surface
needed to prevent the contamination of ground water by water during wet periods and to provide water for
seepage. subsurface irrigation during drought periods. Row
This soil has severe limitations as a site for crops should be grown in rotation with close-growing,
recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer soil-improving cover crops. The cover crops and the
severely limits trafficability. A good plant cover or residue from other crops should be used to maintain the
windbreak is necessary. Suitable fill material or some content of organic matter and to control erosion.
other means of stabilizing the surface is needed. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the
This soil is in capability subclass IVs and is assigned rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to
the woodland ordination symbol 10W. the needs of the crops.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture. Improved
7-Leon fine sand. This soil is nearly level and bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well if the
poorly drained. It is in the broad flatwoods. Individual pasture is well managed. A water-control system is
areas are irregularly shaped or elongated and generally needed to remove excess surface water during periods
range from 10 to more than 100 acres in size. Slopes of heavy rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer are
are smooth or concave and are 0 to 2 percent, needed to increase yields. Controlled grazing helps to
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine maintain plant vigor.
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
sand about 15 inches thick. The upper 9 inches is high. Slash pine is suitable for planting. Timely site
grayish brown, and the lower 6 inches is light brownish preparation activities, such as harrowing and bedding,
gray. The subsoil is fine sand that is coated-with help to establish seedlings, reduce the seedling
organic matter. It extends to a depth of about 60 inches. mortality rate, and increase the early growth rate.
It is black in the upper 7 inches, dark reddish brown in Chopping and bedding remove debris, control
the next 12 inches, and grayish brown in the lower 20 competing vegetation, and facilitate planting. Logging
inches. The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is with machinery equipped with large tires or tracks
very pale brown fine sand. facilitates the use of equipment and minimizes
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Leon fine compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
sand, Leon and similar soils make up 80 to 95 percent Logging systems that leave the residual biomass well
of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 5 distributed throughout the site can help to maintain the
to 20 percent of the areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the content of organic matter and improve the fertility of the
acreage, the dissimilar soils make up either less than 5 soil. The trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
percent or more than 20 percent of the areas. The potential of this soil for openland and woodland
The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are wildlife habitat is fair, and the potential for wetland
some small areas of Sapelo and soils that have an wildlife habitat is poor. Water areas and a suitable
organic surface layer. Other included soils are similar to source of food for wetland wildlife are not available.
Leon fine sand but are deeper to a spodic layer. The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site
Individual areas of included soils are smaller than 5 for dwellings without basements and for small
acres, commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and
Permeability is rapid in the Leon soil. The available septic tank absorption fields are severe. The seasonal
water capacity is low. Runoff is slow. The seasonal high high water table and poor filtration are the main
water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches for 1 to 6 limitations. A deep drainage system is needed.
months during most years. Mounding may be needed on sites for septic tank
Most areas support natural vegetation, mainly absorption fields. If the density of housing is moderate
longleaf pine and slash pine and an understory of saw or high, community sewage systems may be needed to
palmetto, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, prevent the contamination of ground water by seepage.
huckleberry, pineland threeawn, bluestems, briers, and This soil has severe limitations as a site for
brackenfern. recreational uses. The seasonal high water table and
Wetness and low natural fertility are very severe the loose, sandy surface layer severely limit
limitations if this soil is used for cultivated crops. The trafficability. A good plant cover or windbreak is
number of suitable crops is limited unless intensive necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of
management is applied. If a good water-control system stabilizing the surface is needed.
is installed and soil-improving measures are applied, This soil is in capability subclass IVw and is assigned
however, the soil is suited to many crops. A water- the woodland ordination symbol 11W.








Gilchrist County, Florida 25


8-Lynn Haven and Allanton mucky fine sands, crops, tame grasses, and planted pine trees because of
depressional. These soils are nearly level and very ponding and prolonged wetness.
poorly drained. They are in depressions in the The potential of these soils for openland and
flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape and woodland wildlife habitat is very poor. The ponded
range from about 5 to 300 acres in size. areas do not provide desirable habitat for these kinds of
Typically, the surface layer of the Lynn Haven soil is wildlife, and attempts to improve the openland or
about 18 inches thick. The upper 10 inches is black woodland habitat would be unsatisfactory. The potential
mucky fine sand, and the lower 8 inches is very dark for wetland wildlife habitat is good.
gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is grayish brown The limitations affecting the development of these
fine sand. It extends to a depth of about 25 inches. The soils for recreational and urban uses, including septic
subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is fine sand. The tank absorption fields, dwellings, small commercial
upper 21 inches is black, the next 5 inches is dark buildings, and local roads and streets, are severe.
brown, and the lower 29 inches is black. Ponding and wetness are the major limitations.
Typically, the surface layer of the Allanton soil is Overcoming these limitations is difficult without major
about 18 inches thick. The upper 10 inches is very dark drainage systems and additions of fill material. The high
gray mucky fine sand, and the lower 8 inches is very water table can prevent adequate filtration of the
dark grayish brown fine sand. The subsurface layer is effluent in septic tank absorption fields. Inadequate
fine sand. It extends to a depth of about 52 inches. The filtration can result in the contamination of ground
upper 6 inches is dark gray, and the lower 28 inches is water.
grayish brown. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 These soils are in capability subclass Vllw and are
inches or more. The upper 10 inches is very dark assigned the woodland ordination symbol 2W.
grayish brown, and the lower part is very dark gray. The
sand grains are well coated with organic matter. 9-Hurricane fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Lynn soil is nearly level and gently sloping and is somewhat
Haven and Allanton mucky fine sands, depressional, poorly drained. It is on slight rises in the flatwoods.
Lynn Haven, Allanton, and similar soils make up 80 to Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from
100 percent of the mapped areas. Generally, the about 15 to more than 80 acres in size. Slopes are
mapped areas are about 55 percent Lynn Haven and nearly smooth or convex.
similar soils and 43 percent Allanton and similar soils. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
The components of this map unit occur as areas so sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
intricately intermingled that mapping them separately is extends to a depth of about 72 inches. The upper 59
not practical. The proportions and patterns of the Lynn inches is light yellowish brown, pale brown, and light
Haven, Allanton, and similar soils, however, are gray fine sand, and the lower 7 inches is pinkish gray
relatively consistent in most of the mapped areas. sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is dark
Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the reddish brown fine sand.
areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Hurricane
soils make up either less than 5 percent or more than fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Hurricane and similar
20 percent of the areas. soils make up 80 to 95 percent of the mapped areas.
The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the
small areas of Pamlico and Surrency soils. Individual areas. On 5 to 20 percent of acreage, the dissimilar
areas of included soils are smaller than 5 acres. soils make up either less than 5 percent or more than
Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the 20 percent of the areas.
Lynn Haven and Allanton soils. Internal drainage is The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
slow, however, because it is impeded by a high water some small areas of Albany, Blanton, Leon, Mandarin,
table. The water table is above the surface during wet and Ortega soils. Other included soils are similar to
periods. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches Hurricane fine sand but have a water table below a
during very dry periods. The available water capacity is depth of 42 inches. Individual areas of included soils
low. are smaller than 5 acres.
Most areas support natural vegetation, mainly Permeability is moderately rapid in the Hurricane soil.
pondcypress, baldcypress, blackgum, sweetbay, red The available water capacity is low. The seasonal high
maple, and swamp tupelo. A few areas support water- water table is at a depth of 24 to 42 inches for 3 to 6
tolerant grasses. Unless major water-control systems months during most years.
are installed, these soils are unsuited to cultivated Most areas of this soil are forested with planted slash








26 Soil Survey


pine and longleaf pine and with a natural vegetation of prevent the contamination of ground water by seepage.
water oak, bluejack oak, post oak, and live oak. The This soil is in capability subclass Illw and is assigned
understory is waxmyrtle, sumac, gallberry, saw the woodland ordination symbol 11W.
palmetto, pineland threeawn, bluestems, carpetgrass,
and panicum. 10-Garcon fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
This soil has severe limitations if it is used for occasionally flooded. This soil is nearly level and
cultivated crops. The high water table can retard root gently sloping and is somewhat poorly drained. It is in
growth during wet periods. Because of the sandy the higher positions on flood plains. Individual areas are
texture, plant nutrients are leached rapidly. Corn, irregular in shape and range from 10 to more than 250
soybeans, peanuts, and watermelons can be grown but acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth or convex.
require intensive management measures and Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
conservation practices, such as including cover crops in brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
the crop rotation, returning crop residue to the soil, and layer is fine sand. It extends to a depth of about 29
applying fertilizer and lime. A good water-control system inches. The upper 10 inches is brown, and the lower 12
is needed to remove excess water during wet periods inches is pale brown. The subsoil extends to a depth of
and provide irrigation water during drought periods, about 58 inches. The upper 11 inches is pale brown
This soil is moderately well suited to tame pasture, sandy loam, and the lower 18 inches is gray sandy clay
Improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches is light
suitable, but yields are generally reduced by periodic gray fine sand.
wetness. Careful management is required to keep the On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Garcon
pasture in good condition. This management includes fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally flooded,
establishment of a proper plant population, applications Garcon and similar soils make up 80 to 95 percent of
of fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing. A water- the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to
control system is needed to remove excess surface 20 percent of the areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the
water during periods of heavy rainfall and provide acreage, the dissimilar soils make up either less than 5
irrigation water during drought periods, percent or more than 20 percent of the areas.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
high. Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable for some small areas of Osier and Penney soils and soils
planting. Proper site preparation activities, such as that are underlain by soft limestone bedrock. Other
harrowing and bedding, help to establish seedlings, included soils are similar to Garcon fine sand but have
reduce the seedling mortality rate, and increase the a surface layer and subsurface layer that, combined,
early growth rate. Chopping and bedding remove are less than 20 inches thick. Individual areas of
debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate included soils are smaller than 5 acres.
planting. Logging with machinery equipped with large Permeability is moderate in the Garcon soil. The
tires or tracks facilitates the use of equipment and available water capacity also is moderate. Runoff is
minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning slow. The water table is at a depth of 18 to 36 inches
activities. Logging systems that leave the residual for 1 to 6 months during most years.
biomass well distributed throughout the site increase Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation,
the organic matter content and improve the fertility of mainly live oak, laurel oak, water oak, slash pine,
the soil. The trees respond well to applications of longleaf pine, and sweetgum and an understory of
fertilizer. pineland threeawn, gallberry, saw palmetto, and
The potential of this soil for openland wildlife habitat grassleaf goldaster.
is poor, the potential for woodland wildlife habitat is fair, This soil has severe limitations if it is used for
and the potential for wetland wildlife habitat is very cultivated crops. The major management concerns are
poor. flooding and wetness. Under natural conditions, the
The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site best suited crops are those that are tolerant of slightly
for dwellings without basements, small commercial wet conditions. Irrigation may be needed. It is feasible
buildings, and local roads and streets are moderate, in areas of some high-value crops during prolonged
and those affecting septic tank absorption fields are drought periods. The crop rotations should include
severe. Wetness and poor filtration are the major close-growing crops at least half of the time. Soil-
limitations. A deep drainage system is needed. improving cover crops and all crop residue should be
Mounding may be needed on sites for septic tank left on the soil. The best yields require good seedbed
absorption fields. If the density of housing is moderate preparation and. applications of fertilizer and lime.
or high, community sewage systems may be needed to This soil is well suited to tame pasture. Such grasses








Gilchrist County, Florida 27


as improved bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Ortega fine
produce high-quality forage if the pasture is well sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Ortega and similar soils
managed. The best yields require applications of make up 80 to 95 percent of the mapped areas.
fertilizer and lime and controlled grazing. Shallow-rooted Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the
pasture plants generally do not grow well. Unless the areas. On 5 to 20 percent of acreage, the dissimilar
pasture is irrigated, they cannot produce high-quality soils make up either less than 5 percent or more than
forage during dry periods, when the soil is drought. 20 percent of the areas.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
moderately high. Slash pine is suitable for planting. some small areas of Albany and Blanton soils and soils
Proper site preparation activities, such as harrowing that are underlain by spodic material. Other included
and bedding, help to establish seedlings, reduce the soils are similar to Ortega fine sand but have a water
seedling mortality rate, and increase the early growth table closer to the surface. Individual areas of included
rate. Chopping and bedding remove debris, control soils are smaller than 5 acres.
competing vegetation, and facilitate planting. Logging Permeability is rapid in the Ortega soil. The available
with machinery equipped with large tires or tracks water capacity is low. The water table is at a depth of
facilitates the use of equipment and minimizes 48 to 60 inches for 1 to 5 months during most years. It
compaction and root damage during thinning activities, is at a depth of more than 60 inches during drought
Logging systems that leave the residual biomass well periods.
distributed throughout the site increase the organic Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation,
matter content and improve the fertility of the soil. The mainly live oak, laurel oak, post oak, turkey oak, water
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer. oak, laurelcherry, slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf
The potential of this soil for openland and woodland pine. The understory is mainly lopsided indiangrass,
wildlife habitat is fair, and the potential for wetland hairy panicum, low panicum, greenbrier, hawthorn,
wildlife habitat is poor. persimmon, fringeleaf paspalum, hairy tickclover, dwarf
The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site huckleberry, chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, and
for dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads pineland threeawn.
and streets, and septic tank absorption fields are This soil has severe limitations if it is used for
severe. These limitations are flooding, wetness, and cultivated crops. Because of the sandy texture, it does
seepage. They can be overcome by flood control and a not retain sufficient moisture during dry periods. Plant
drainage system that lowers the seasonal high water nutrients are leached rapidly. Corn, peanuts, soybeans,
table. Mounding may be needed on sites for septic tank tobacco, and watermelons can be grown but require
absorption fields. intensive management measures and conservation
This soil has severe limitations as a site for practices, such as including cover crops in the crop
recreational uses. The flooding, the wetness, and the rotation, returning crop residue to the soil, and applying
loose, sandy surface layer are the major problems fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is needed during drought
affecting trafficability. The flooding and the wetness can periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the surface
be overcome by a good flood- and water-control layer is exposed.
system. A good plant cover or windbreak is necessary. This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Deep-
Suitable fill material or some other means of stabilizing rooted grasses, such as bahiagrass and improved
the surface is needed. bermudagrass, are suitable, but yields are generally
This soil is in capability subclass Illw and is assigned reduced by periodic drought. Careful management is
the woodland ordination symbol 10W. required to keep the pasture in good condition. This
management includes establishment of a proper plant
11-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This population, applications of fertilizer and lime, and
soil is nearly level and gently sloping and is moderately controlled grazing. Irrigation can improve the quality of
well drained. It is on slight knolls in the flatwoods and the pasture and of hay. It may be economical if
on ridges in the uplands. Individual areas are irregular irrigation water is available during extended dry periods.
in shape and generally range from 10 to more than 65 The soil is not suited to shallow-rooted pasture plants
acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth or convex, because it does not retain sufficient moisture in the root
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish zone.
brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
material to a depth of about 80 inches is fine sand. The moderately high. Slash pine and longleaf pine are
upper part is brown and pale brown, and the part below suitable for planting. The sandy texture restricts the use
a depth of 60 inches is light gray. of wheeled equipment unless the trees are harvested








28 Soil Survey


when the soil is moist. Because droughtiness can result Ridgewood soils. Individual areas of included soils are
in seedling mortality, the number of trees that are smaller than 5 acres.
planted and the planting depth should be increased and Permeability is moderate in the Albany soil. The
the site should be mulched with the biomass that available water capacity is low. The water table is at a
remains after harvesting. Plant competition can be depth of 12 to 30 inches for 1 to 6 months during most
controlled by site preparation activities, such as years.
chopping with a drum chopper. A harvesting system Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation,
that leaves most of the biomass on the surface is mainly slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, water
preferred. oak, live oak, laurel oak, and sweetgum. The understory
The potential of this soil for openland and woodland is chiefly waxmyrtle, greenbrier, devils walkingstick,
wildlife habitat is fair, and the potential for wetland bluestems, panicum, pineland threeawn,
wildlife habitat is very poor. toothachegrass, inkberry, and switchgrass.
The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site This soil has severe limitations if it is used for
for dwellings without basements, small commercial cultivated crops. Because of the sandy texture, it does
buildings, and local roads and streets are slight. The not retain sufficient moisture during dry periods. Plant
water table is a moderate limitation on sites for septic nutrients are leached rapidly. The water table can
tank absorption fields. During wet periods it can hinder restrict root development during wet periods. Corn,
the downward movement of effluent and can become peanuts, soybeans, tobacco, and watermelons can be
contaminated. In areas that have a concentration of grown but require intensive management measures and
homes, the contamination of ground water is a hazard conservation practices, such as including cover crops in
because of poor filtration in the absorption fields. the crop rotation, returning crop residue to the soil, and
This soil has severe limitations as a site for applying fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is needed during
recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the
severely limits trafficability. A good plant cover or surface layer is exposed.
windbreak is necessary. Suitable fill material or some This soil is well suited to tame pasture. Deep-rooted
other means of stabilizing the surface is needed, grasses, such as bahiagrass and improved
This soil is in capability subclass Ills and is assigned bermudagrass, are suitable, but yields are generally
the woodland ordination symbol 10S. reduced by periodic drought and seasonal wetness.
Careful management is required to keep the pasture in
12-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This good condition. This management includes
soil is nearly level and gently sloping and is somewhat establishment of a proper plant population, applications
poorly drained. It is on the lower parts of broad, low of fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation
ridges and on slight knolls in the flatwoods. Individual can improve the quality of the pasture and of hay. It
areas are irregularly shaped or elongated and range may be economical if irrigation water is available during
from about 25 to more than 200 acres in size. Slopes extended dry periods. The soil is not suited to shallow-
are nearly smooth or convex. rooted pasture plants because it does not retain
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sufficient moisture in the root zone.
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
sand. It extends to a depth of about 41 inches. The high. Loblolly pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine are
upper 17 inches is pale brown, and the lower 17 inches suitable for planting. Proper site preparation activities,
is very pale brown. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches such as harrowing and bedding, help to establish
or more is fine sandy loam. It is light gray in the upper seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality rate, and
part and mottled yellowish brown, pale brown, and light increase the early growth rate. Chopping and bedding
gray in the lower part. remove debris, control competing vegetation, and
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Albany fine facilitate planting. Logging with machinery equipped
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Albany and similar soils with large tires or tracks facilitates the use of equipment
make up 80 to 95 percent of the mapped areas. and minimizes compaction and root damage during
Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the thinning activities. Logging systems that leave the
areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar residual biomass well distributed throughout the site
soils make up either less than 5 percent or more than increase the organic matter content and improve the
20 percent of the areas. fertility of the soil. The trees respond well to
The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are applications of fertilizer.
some small areas of Blanton, Hurricane, and The potential of this soil for openland and woodland








Gilchrist County, Florida 29


wildlife habitat is fair, and the potential for wetland cultivated crops. Because of the sandy texture, it does
wildlife habitat is poor. Water areas and a suitable not retain sufficient moisture during dry periods. Plant
source of food for wetland wildlife are not available, nutrients are leached rapidly. Corn, peanuts, soybeans,
The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site tobacco, and watermelons can be grown but require
for dwellings without basements and for small intensive management measures and conservation
commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and practices, such as including cover crops in the crop
septic tank absorption fields are severe. Wetness is the rotation, returning crop residue to the soil, and applying
major limitation. A good drainage system is needed. It fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is needed during drought
should be able to remove excess water rapidly and periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the surface
should control the water table, layer is exposed.
This soil has severe limitations as a site for This soil is moderately well suited to tame pasture.
recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer Deep-rooted grasses, such as bahiagrass and improved
severely limits trafficability. A good plant cover or bermudagrass, are suitable, but yields are generally
windbreak is necessary. Suitable fill material or some reduced by periodic drought. Careful management is
other means of stabilizing the surface is needed, required to keep the pasture in good condition. This
This soil is in capability subclass Ille and is assigned management includes establishment of a proper plant
the woodland ordination symbol 11W. population, applications of fertilizer and lime, and
controlled grazing. Irrigation can improve the quality of
13-Wadley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This the pasture and of hay. It may be economical if
soil is nearly level and gently sloping and is well irrigation water is available during extended dry periods.
drained. It is on uplands. Individual areas are irregular The soil is not suited to shallow-rooted pasture plants
in shape and range from about 5 to more than 60 acres because it does not retain sufficient moisture in the root
in size. Slopes are nearly smooth or convex, zone.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine high. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine are
sand. It extends to a depth of about 43 inches. The suitable for planting. The sandy texture restricts the use
upper 11 inches is pale brown, the next 16 inches is of wheeled equipment unless the trees are harvested
brownish yellow, and the lower 8 inches is very pale when the soil is moist. Because droughtiness can result
brown. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 80 in seedling mortality, the number of trees that are
inches. The upper 29 inches is strong brown sandy clay planted and the planting depth should be increased and
loam, and the lower 8 inches is light yellowish brown the site should be mulched with the biomass that
sandy loam. remains after harvesting. Plant competition can be
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Wadley controlled by site preparation activities, such as
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Wadley and similar chopping with a drum chopper. A harvesting system
soils make up 80 to 95 percent of the mapped areas. that leaves most of the biomass on the surface is
Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the preferred.
areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar The potential of this soil for openland wildlife habitat
soils make up either less than 5 percent or more than is fair, the potential for woodland wildlife habitat is poor,
20 percent of the areas, and the potential for wetland wildlife habitat is very
The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are poor. Water areas and a suitable source of food for
some small areas of Albany, Blanton, and Penney soils wetland wildlife are not available.
and soils that are underlined by soft limestone bedrock. The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site
Individual areas of included soils are smaller than 5 for dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads
acres. and streets, and septic tank absorption fields are slight.
Permeability is moderate in the Wadley soil. The This soil has severe limitations as a site for
available water capacity is low. Runoff is slow. The recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer
water table is below a depth of 6 feet. severely limits trafficability in unpaved areas. Soil
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation, blowing is a hazard. A good plant cover or windbreak is
mainly live oak, laurel oak, post oak, laurelcherry, and necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of
scattered pine. The understory is mainly a sparse cover stabilizing the surface is needed.
of pineland threeawn, indiangrass, chalky bluestem, This soil is in capability subclass Ills and is assigned
greenbrier, and panicum. the woodland ordination symbol 11S.
This soil has severe limitations if it is used for







30 Soil Survey


14-Pottsburg fine sand. This soil is nearly level needed to increase yields. Controlled grazing helps to
and poorly drained. It is in narrow areas between maintain plant vigor.
depressions in the flatwoods. Individual areas are The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
irregularly shaped or elongated and range from about 5 moderate. Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable for
to more than 50 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or planting. Timely site preparation activities, such as
concave and are 0 to 2 percent. harrowing and bedding, help to establish seedlings,
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine reduce the seedling mortality rate, and increase the
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine early growth rate. Chopping and bedding remove
sand. It extends to a depth of about 63 inches. The debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate
upper 23 inches is gray, and the lower 35 inches is planting. Logging with machinery equipped with large
grayish brown. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or tires or tracks facilitates the use of equipment and
more is fine sand that is coated with organic matter. It minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning
is very dark gray to a depth of 67 inches and black activities. Logging systems that leave the residual
below that depth, biomass well distributed throughout the site can help to
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Pottsburg maintain the content of organic matter and improve the
fine sand, Pottsburg and similar soils make up 80 to 95 fertility of the soil. The trees respond well to
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up applications of fertilizer.
about 5 to 20 percent of the areas. On 5 to 20 percent The potential of this soil for openland, woodland, and
of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up either less wetland wildlife habitat is poor. Water areas and a
than 5 percent or more than 20 percent of the areas. suitable source of food for wetland wildlife are not
The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are available.
some small areas of Allanton, Lynn Haven, and Sapelo The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site
soils. Individual areas of included soils are smaller than for dwellings without basements, small commercial
5 acres, buildings, local roads and streets, and septic tank
Permeability is moderate in the Pottsburg soil. The absorption fields are severe. The seasonal high water
available water capacity is low. Runoff is slow. The table and poor filtration are the main limitations. A deep
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 drainage system is needed. Mounding may be needed
inches for 1 to 6 months during most years. on sites for septic tank absorption fields. If the density
Most areas support natural vegetation, mainly of housing is moderate or high, community sewage
longleaf pine and slash pine and an understory of saw systems may be needed to prevent the contamination of
palmetto, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, ground water by seepage.
huckleberry, pineland threeawn, bluestems, briers, and This soil has severe limitations as a site for
brackenfern. recreational uses. The seasonal high water table and
Wetness and low natural fertility are very severe the loose, sandy surface layer severely limit
limitations if this soil is used for cultivated crops. The trafficability. A good plant cover or windbreak is
number of suitable crops is limited unless intensive necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of
management is applied. If a good water-control system stabilizing the surface is needed.
is installed and soil-improving measures are applied, This soil is in capability subclass IVw and is assigned
however, the soil is suited to many crops. A water- the woodland ordination symbol 8W.
control system is needed to remove surface excess
water during wet periods and to provide water for 15-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
subsurface irrigation during drought periods. Row soil is nearly level and gently sloping and is moderately
crops should be grown in rotation with close-growing, well drained. It is on slight knolls and ridges in the
soil-improving cover crops. The cover crops and the uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
residue from other crops should be used to maintain the generally range from 10 to more than 800 acres in size.
content of organic matter and to control erosion. Slopes are nearly smooth or convex.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand.
the needs of the crops and the expected level of yields. It extends to a depth of about 44 inches. The upper 23
This soil is well suited to tame pasture. Improved inches is light yellowish brown, and the lower 15 inches
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well if the is very pale brown. The subsoil extends to a depth of
pasture is well managed. A water-control system is about 80 inches. The upper 16 inches is brownish
needed to remove excess surface water during periods yellow sandy clay loam, and the lower 20 inches is gray
of heavy rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer are sandy clay loam.








Gilchrist County, Florida 31


On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Blanton Lack of available water in the root zone during dry
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Blanton and similar periods can cause excessive seedling mortality and can
soils make up 80 to 95 percent of the mapped areas. reduce the growth rate. Plant competition from
Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the hardwoods, mainly oaks, can be controlled by good site
areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar preparation, which should include chopping and
soils make up either less than 5 percent or more than applications of herbicide. Selection of special planting
20 percent of the areas, stock that is larger than is typical or that is
The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are containerized reduces the seedling mortality rate.
some small areas of Ridgewood and Penney soils and Planting during periods when rainfall is heavier and
soils that are underlain by spodic material. Other more frequent increases the seedling survival and
included soils are similar to Blanton fine sand but have growth rates. All plant debris should be left on the site.
higher base saturation. Individual areas of included soils The trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
are smaller than 5 acres. The potential of this soil for openland and woodland
Permeability is moderate in the Blanton soil. The wildlife habitat is fair, and the potential for wetland
available water capacity is low. Runoff is slow. The wildlife habitat is very poor. Water areas and a suitable
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 48 to 72 source of food for wetland wildlife are not available.
inches for 1 to 5 months during most years. The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation, for dwellings without basements, for small commercial
mainly live oak, laurel oak, post oak, water oak, buildings, and for local roads and streets are slight.
sweetgum, laurelcherry, slash pine, loblolly pine, and Wetness is a moderate limitation on sites for septic tank
longleaf pine. The understory is mainly lopsided absorption fields.
indiangrass, hairy panicum, low panicum, greenbrier, This soil has severe limitations as a site for
hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf paspalum, hairy recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer
tickclover, dwarf huckleberry, chalky bluestem, creeping severely limits trafficability in unpaved areas. Soil
bluestem, and pineland threeawn. blowing is a hazard. A good plant cover or windbreak is
This soil has severe limitations if it is used for necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of
cultivated crops. Because of the sandy texture, it does stabilizing the surface is needed.
not retain sufficient moisture during dry periods. Plant This soil is in capability subclass Ills and is assigned
nutrients are leached rapidly. Corn, peanuts, soybeans, the woodland ordination symbol 11S.
tobacco, and watermelons can be grown but require
intensive management measures and conservation 16-Elloree-Osier-Fluvaquents complex, frequently
practices, such as including cover crops in the crop flooded. These soils are nearly level and are poorly
rotation, returning crop residue to the soil, and applying drained or very poorly drained. They are on flood plains
fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is needed during drought and in narrow or broad, elongated drainageways.
periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the surface Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from
layer is exposed, about 100 to more than 300 acres in size. Slopes are
This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Deep- nearly smooth and are 0 to 2 percent.
rooted grasses, such as bahiagrass and improved Typically, the surface layer of the Elloree soil is very
bermudagrass, are suitable, but yields are generally dark grayish brown loamy fine sand about 4 inches
reduced by periodic drought. Careful management is thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray and
required to keep the pasture in good condition. This light gray loamy fine sand. It extends to a depth of
management includes establishment of a proper plant about 25 inches. The subsoil is gray and light gray
population, applications of fertilizer and lime, and sandy clay loam, which extends to a depth of about 62
controlled grazing. Irrigation can improve the quality of inches. Below this to a depth of about 80 inches is
the pasture and of hay. It may be economical if white sand.
irrigation water is available during extended dry periods. Typically, the surface layer of the Osier soil is very
The soil is not suited to shallow-rooted pasture plants dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying
because it does not retain sufficient moisture in the root material to a depth of about 80 inches is fine sand. The
zone. upper 4 inches is gray, the next 8 inches is light
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is brownish gray, the next 41 inches is light gray, and the
high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are lower 20 inches is white.
suitable for planting. Using equipment that has large Typically, the surface layer of the Fluvaquents is
tires or tracks can help to overcome the equipment black mucky fine sand about 2 inches thick. The
limitation caused by the loose, sandy surface layer, underlying strata extend to a depth of 80 inches or







32 Soil Survey


more. In sequence downward, they commonly are dark filtration can result in the contamination of ground
gray sandy clay loam, pale brown silt loam that has water.
many fine and medium white shell fragments, very dark These soils are in capability subclass VIw. The
gray silt loam that has few white shell fragments, very Elloree and Osier soils are assigned the woodland
pale brown sandy loam that has many fine and medium ordination symbol 11W, and the Fluvaquents are not
white shell fragments, light yellowish brown sandy loam assigned a woodland ordination symbol.
that has pockets of white sand, and white sand that has
many white shell fragments. 18-Kershaw fine sand, gently rolling. This soil is
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Elloree- nearly level and gently sloping and is excessively
Osier-Fluvaquents complex, frequently flooded, Elloree drained. It is on uplands. Individual areas are irregular
and Osier soils, Fluvaquents, and similar soils make up in shape and range from about 15 to more than 1,500
92 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Generally, the acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth or convex.
mapped areas are about 40 percent Elloree and similar Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
soils, 35 percent Osier and similar soils, and 20 percent brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying
Fluvaquents and similar soils. Dissimilar soils make up material to a depth of about 80 inches is fine sand. The
about 1 to 8 percent of the areas. On 5 percent of the upper 40 inches is pale brown, and the lower 35 inches
acreage, the dissimilar soils make up either less than 1 is very pale brown.
percent or more than 8 percent of the areas. On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Kershaw
The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are fine sand, gently rolling, Kershaw and similar soils make
some small areas of Garcon and Ridgewood soils and up 80 to 95 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar
soils that are better drained than the Elloree and Osier soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the areas. On 5
soils and the Fluvaquents and are flooded for shorter to 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make
periods. Other included soils are similar to the Elloree up either less than 5 percent or more than 20 percent of
soil but are somewhat poorly drained. These soils are the areas.
on some of the higher parts of the landscape. Also The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
included are soils that are similar to the Osier soil but some small areas of Albany and Wadley soils and
have a control section in which the combined content of various soils that are underlain by soft limestone
silt and clay is 0 to 5 percent. Individual areas of bedrock. Other included soils are similar to Kershaw
included soils are smaller than 5 acres. fine sand but have lamellae. Individual areas of
Permeability is moderately rapid or rapid in the included soils are smaller than 5 acres.
Elloree and Osier soils and in the Fluvaquents. The Permeability is very rapid in the Kershaw soil. The
available water capacity is low or moderate. The available water capacity is very low. Surface runoff is
seasonal high water table is within a depth of 12 inches slow. The water table is below a depth of 6 feet.
for long periods during most years. Runoff is slow. Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation,
Flooding occurs during most years, mainly turkey oak, bluejack oak, sand live oak,
Most areas support natural vegetation, mainly blackjack oak, and a few longleaf pines. The understory
baldcypress, sweetgum, sweetbay, red maple, water is mainly a sparse cover of pineland threeawn,
oak, loblolly pine, and slash pine. Unless major water- indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and panicum.
control systems are installed, these soils are unsuited to This soil has very severe limitations if it is used for
cultivated crops, tame pasture, and planted pine trees cultivated crops. Because of the sandy texture, it does
because of flooding and prolonged wetness, not retain sufficient moisture during dry periods. Plant
The potential of these soils for openland and nutrients are leached rapidly. Corn, peanuts, and
woodland wildlife habitat is fair or poor, and the watermelons can be grown but require intensive
potential for wetland wildlife habitat is fair or good. management measures and conservation practices,
The limitations affecting the development of these such as including cover crops in the crop rotation,
soils for recreational and urban uses, including septic returning crop residue to the soil, and applying fertilizer
tank absorption fields, dwellings, small commercial and lime. Irrigation is needed during drought periods.
buildings, and local roads and streets, are severe. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the surface layer is
Flooding and wetness are the major limitations. A good exposed.
drainage system is needed. It should be able to remove This soil is poorly suited to tame pasture. Deep-
excess water rapidly during periods of flooding and rooted grasses, such as bahiagrass and bermudagrass,
wetness and should adequately control the water table, are suitable, but yields are generally reduced by
The high water table can prevent adequate filtration of periodic drought. Careful management is required to
the effluent in septic tank absorption fields. Inadequate keep the pasture in good condition. This management








Gilchrist County, Florida 33


includes establishment of a proper plant population, inches is gray and grayish brown fine sandy loam.
applications of fertilizer and lime, and controlled On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Sapelo fine
grazing. Irrigation can improve the quality of the pasture sand, Sapelo and similar soils make up 80 to 95
and of hay. It may be economical if irrigation water is percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
available during extended dry periods. The soil is not about 5 to 20 percent of the areas. On 5 to 20 percent
suited to shallow-rooted pasture plants because it does of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up either less
not retain sufficient moisture in the root zone. than 5 percent or more than 20 percent of the areas.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
moderate. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and sand pine are small areas of Albany and Mandarin soils. Other
suitable for planting. The sandy texture restricts the use included soils are similar to the Sapelo soil but are
of wheeled equipment unless the trees are harvested somewhat poorly drained. Individual areas of included
when the soil is moist. Because droughtiness can result soils are smaller than 5 acres.
in seedling mortality, the number of trees that are Permeability is moderate in the Sapelo soil. The
planted and the planting depth should be increased and available water capacity is low. Runoff is slow. The
the site should be mulched with the biomass that seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
remains after harvesting. Plant competition can be inches for 1 to 6 months during most years.
controlled by site preparation activities, such as Some areas of this soil support natural vegetation,
chopping with a drum chopper. A harvesting system mainly slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak, and water oak
that leaves most of the biomass on the surface is and an understory of saw palmetto, running oak,
preferred. gallberry, waxmyrtle, fetterbush, huckleberry, pineland
The potential of this soil for openland wildlife habitat threeawn, bluestems, briers, and brackenfern.
is poor, and the potential for woodland and wetland Wetness and low natural fertility are very severe
wildlife habitat is very poor. Water areas and a suitable limitations if this soil is used for cultivated crops. The
source of food for wetland wildlife are not available, number of suitable crops is limited unless intensive
The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site management is applied. If a good water-control system
for dwellings and local roads and streets and septic is installed and soil-improving measures are applied,
tank absorption fields are slight. The slope is a however, the soil is suited to many crops. A water-
moderate limitation on sites for small commercial control system is needed to remove surface excess
buildings. In areas that have a concentration of homes, water during wet periods and to provide water for
the contamination of ground water is a hazard because subsurface irrigation during drought periods. Row
of poor filtration in septic tank absorption fields. crops should be grown in rotation with close-growing,
This soil has severe limitations as a site for soil-improving cover crops. The cover crops and the
recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer residue from other crops should be used to maintain the
severely limits trafficability in unpaved areas. Soil content of organic matter and to control erosion.
blowing is a hazard. A good plant cover or windbreak is Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the
necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to
stabilizing the surface is needed. the needs of the crops and the expected level of yields.
This soil is in capability subclass Vlls and is assigned This soil is well suited to tame pasture. Improved
the woodland ordination symbol 8S. bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well if the
pasture is well managed. A water-control system is
19-Sapelo fine sand. This soil is nearly level and needed to remove excess surface water during periods
poorly drained. It is in the broad flatwoods. Individual of heavy rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer are
areas are irregularly shaped or elongated and range needed to increase yields. Controlled grazing helps to
from about 10 to more than 100 acres in size. Slopes maintain plant vigor.
are smooth or concave and are 0 to 2 percent. The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5 moderately high. Slash pine and loblolly pine are
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray suitable for planting. Timely site preparation activities,
fine sand about 15 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand such as harrowing and bedding, help to establish
that is coated with organic matter. It extends to a depth seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality rate, and
of about 29 inches. It is dark brown in the upper 5 increase the early growth rate. Chopping and bedding
inches and dark yellowish brown in the lower 4 inches. remove debris, control competing vegetation, and
Below this is about 6 inches of light yellowish brown facilitate planting. Logging with machinery equipped
fine sand and 6 inches of pale brown loamy fine sand. with large tires or tracks facilitates the use of equipment
The lower part of the profile to a depth of about 80 and minimizes compaction and root damage during








34 Soil Survey


thinning activities. Logging systems that leave the proportions and patterns of the Pamlico, Dorovan, and
residual biomass well distributed throughout the site can similar soils, however, are relatively consistent in most
help to maintain the content of organic matter and of the mapped areas.
improve the fertility of the soil. The trees respond well The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
to applications of fertilizer, small areas of Allanton, Lynn Haven, and Surrency
The potential of this soil for openland, woodland, and soils. Individual areas of included soils are smaller than
wetland wildlife habitat is fair. 5 acres.
The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site Permeability is moderately rapid or rapid in the
for dwellings without basements, small commercial Pamlico and Dorovan soils. Internal drainage is slow,
buildings, local roads and streets, and septic tank however, because it is impeded by a high water table.
absorption fields are severe. The seasonal high water The water table is above the surface during wet
table and poor filtration are the main limitations. A deep periods. It recedes to a depth of more than 20 inches
drainage system is needed. Mounding may be needed during dry periods. The available water capacity is very
on sites for septic tank absorption fields. If the density high.
of housing is moderate or high, community sewage Most areas support natural vegetation, mainly
systems may be needed to prevent the contamination of pondcypress, baldcypress, blackgum, sweetbay, red
ground water by seepage. maple, and swamp tupelo. The understory is dominantly
This soil has severe limitations as a site for cordgrass, bullrush, buttonbush, elderberry, water
recreational uses. The seasonal high water table and hyacinth, arrowhead, and dollarwort. Unless major
the loose, sandy surface layer severely limit water-control systems are installed, these soils are
trafficability. A good plant cover or windbreak is unsuited to cultivated crops, tame pasture, and planted
necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of pine trees because of flooding and prolonged wetness.
stabilizing the surface is needed. The potential of these soils for openland and
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and is assigned woodland wildlife habitat is poor or very poor. The
the woodland ordination symbol 10W. flooded areas do not provide desirable habitat for these
kinds of wildlife, and attempts to improve the openland
20-Pamlico-Dorovan mucks, frequently flooded, or woodland habitat would be unsatisfactory. The
These soils are nearly level and are very poorly potential for wetland wildlife habitat is good.
drained. They are in swamps on low flood plains in the The limitations affecting the development of these
flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape and soils for recreational and urban uses, including septic
range from about 5 to more than 60 acres in size. tank absorption fields, dwellings, small commercial
Slopes are 0 to 1 percent and are nearly smooth, buildings, and local roads and streets, are severe.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is dark Flooding and excess humus are the major limitations.
brown muck about 18 inches thick. The next layer is Overcoming these limitations is very difficult.
very dark gray muck. It extends to a depth of about 38 These soils are in capability subclass Vllw and are
inches. The underlying material to a depth of about 80 assigned the woodland ordination symbol 2W.
inches is grayish brown fine sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Dorovan soil is 21-Bonneau fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
black muck about 6 inches thick. Below this is about 28 soil is nearly level and gently sloping and is moderately
inches of dark reddish brown muck and 31 inches of well drained. It is on slight knolls. Individual areas are
very dark grayish brown muck. The underlying material irregular in shape and range from about 10 to more
to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray fine sand. than 800 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth or
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pamlico convex.
and Dorovan mucks, frequently flooded, Pamlico, Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
Dorovan, and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine
the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 0 to sand. It extends to a depth of about 35 inches. The
20 percent of the areas. On 0 to 20 percent of the upper 10 inches is light yellowish brown, and the lower
acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20 19 inches is very pale brown. The subsoil to a depth of
percent of the areas. Generally, the mapped areas are about 80 inches is sandy clay loam. The upper 9 inches
about 55 percent Pamlico and similar soils and 45 is yellowish brown, the next 25 inches is light yellowish
percent Dorovan and similar soils. The components of brown, and the lower 11 inches is mottled gray,
this map unit occur as areas so intricately intermingled yellowish brown, and strong brown.
that mapping them separately is not practical. The On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Bonneau








Gilchrist County, Florida 35


fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Bonneau and similar stock that is larger than is typical or that is
soils make up 80 to 95 percent of the mapped areas. containerized reduces the seedling mortality rate.
Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the Planting during periods when rainfall is heavier and
areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar more frequent increases the seedling survival and
soils make up either less than 5 percent or more than growth rates. All plant debris should be left on the site.
20 percent of the areas. The trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are The potential of this soil for openland and woodland
some small areas of Meggett and Ortega soils and soils wildlife habitat is good, and the potential for wetland
that are underlain by limestone bedrock. Other included wildlife habitat is poor. Water areas and a suitable
soils are similar to Bonneau fine sand but have higher source of food for wetland wildlife are not available.
base saturation. Individual areas of included soils are The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site
smaller than 5 acres, for dwellings without basements, for small commercial
Permeability is moderate in the Bonneau soil. The buildings, and for local roads and streets are slight.
available water capacity is low. Runoff is slow. The Wetness is a moderate limitation on sites for septic tank
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 48 to 60 absorption fields.
inches for 1 to 5 months during most years. This soil has moderate limitations as a site for
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation, recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer
mainly live oak, laurel oak, post oak, water oak, hickory, severely limits trafficability in unpaved areas. Soil
laurelcherry, slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. blowing is a hazard. A good plant cover or windbreak is
The understory is mainly lopsided indiangrass, hairy necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of
panicum, low panicum, greenbrier, hawthorn, stabilizing the surface is needed.
persimmon, fringeleaf paspalum, hairy tickclover, dwarf This soil is in capability subclass IIs and is assigned
huckleberry, chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, and the woodland ordination symbol 11S.
pineland threeawn.
This soil has moderate limitations if it is used for 22-Mandarin fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
cultivated crops. Because of the sandy texture, it does somewhat poorly drained. It is on slight rises in the
not retain sufficient moisture during dry periods. Plant flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
nutrients are leached rapidly. Corn, peanuts, soybeans, range from about 5 to more than 100 acres in size.
tobacco, and watermelons can be grown but require Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
intensive management measures and conservation Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
practices, such as including cover crops in the crop about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
rotation, returning crop residue to the soil, and applying fine sand. It extends to a depth of about 20 inches. The
fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is needed during drought upper part of the subsoil is black and dark reddish
periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the surface brown fine sand in which the sand grains are well
layer is exposed, coated with organic matter. The next part is pale brown
This soil is well suited to tame pasture. It is and brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of about
moderately well suited to improved bermudagrass and 80 inches is black fine sand in which the sand grains
bahiagrass if the pasture is well managed. Productive are coated with organic matter.
pastures of grass alone or of grass-legume mixtures On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Mandarin
can be established if good management is applied. The fine sand, Mandarin and similar soils make up 80 to 95
best yields require applications of fertilizer and lime and percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
carefully controlled grazing, about 5 to 20 percent of the areas. On 5 to 20 percent
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up either less
high. Loblolly pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine are than 5 percent or more than 20 percent of the areas.
suitable for planting. Using equipment that has large The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
tires or tracks can help to overcome the equipment some small areas of Ortega and Ridgewood soils.
limitation caused by the loose, sandy surface layer. Individual areas of included soils are smaller than 5
Lack of available water in the root zone during dry acres.
periods can cause excessive seedling mortality and can Permeability is moderate in the Mandarin soil. The
reduce the growth rate. Plant competition from available water capacity is low. The seasonal high
hardwoods, mainly oaks, can be controlled by good site water table is at a depth of 18 to 42 inches for 1 to 6
preparation, which should include chopping and months during most years.
applications of herbicide. Selection of special planting Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation,







36 Soil Survey


mainly slash pine, longleaf pine, post oak, live oak, and 24-Quartzipsamments, excavated. These soils are
water oak. The understory is mainly greenbrier, saw in excavated areas where soil material has been
palmetto, running oak, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, removed for use in road construction and for use as fill
bluestems, dwarf huckleberry, carpetgrass, and material in the preparation of building sites. The
panicum. excavations are known locally as borrow pits. Individual
This soil has very severe limitations if it is used for areas are irregular in shape. They range from about 5
cultivated crops. Because of the sandy texture, it does to more than 40 acres in size and are about 5 to 12 feet
not retain sufficient moisture during dry periods. The deep. Excavations that are too small to be delineated
water table may restrict root development during wet are identified by the standard pick-and-shovel symbol
periods. on the soil maps.
This soil is moderately well suited to tame pasture. Included in mapping are wet spots, eroded areas,
Bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass can produce areas where siltation and deposition have recently
high-quality forage if a high level of management is occurred, and a sanitary landfill.
applied. This management includes establishment of a In most areas of the Quartzipsamments, the water
proper plant population, applications of fertilizer and table is below a depth of 60 inches. In some areas it is
lime, and controlled grazing, at a depth of about 24 to 96 inches during wet periods.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is Under present conditions, these soils are not suited
moderate. Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable for to crops, tame pasture, urban uses, or most
planting. Proper site preparation activities, such as recreational uses. If the landscape were reshaped and
harrowing and bedding, help to establish seedlings, vegetated, the potential for these uses would vary,
reduce the seedling mortality rate, and increase the depending on the location of the site. The potential for
early growth rate. Chopping and bedding remove wildlife habitat generally is poor or fair. The potential for
debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate commercial woodland varies.
planting. Logging with machinery equipped with large These soils are not assigned a capability subclass or
tires or tracks facilitates the use of equipment and woodland ordination symbol.
minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Logging systems that leave the residual 25-Wesconnett mucky fine sand, depressional.
biomass well distributed throughout the site increase This soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in
the organic matter content and improve the fertility of shallow depressions and poorly defined drainageways
the soil. The trees respond well to applications of in the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape
fertilizer, and range from about 5 to more than 400 acres in size.
The potential of this soil for openland and woodland Typically, the surface layer is black mucky fine sand
wildlife habitat is poor, and the potential for wetland about 8 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of about 80
wildlife habitat is very poor. inches is fine sand. The upper 20 inches is very dark
The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site brown and has sand grains that are well coated with
for dwellings without basements, small commercial organic matter, the next 13 inches is dark brown, the
buildings, and local roads and streets are moderate, next 11 inches is brown, and the lower 28 inches is
The limitations on sites for septic tank absorption fields black and has sand grains that are coated with organic
are severe. The seasonal high water table hinders the matter.
downward movement of effluent and prevents adequate On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as
filtration. A deep drainage system is needed. Mounding Wesconnett mucky fine sand, depressional, Wesconnett
of the absorption fields may be needed. If the density of and similar soils make up 80 to 95 percent of the
housing is moderate or high, community sewage mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 20
systems may be needed to prevent the contamination of percent of the areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the acreage,
ground water by seepage, the dissimilar soils make up either less than 5 percent
This soil has severe limitations as a site for or more than 20 percent of the areas.
recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
severely limits trafficability in unpaved areas. During the some small areas of Hurricane, Leon, Pamlico, and
drier periods, soil blowing is a hazard. A good plant Pottsburg soils. Individual areas of included soils are
cover or windbreak is necessary. Suitable fill material or smaller than 5 acres.
some other means of stabilizing the surface is needed. Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the
This soil is in capability subclass Vis and is assigned Wesconnett soil. Internal drainage is slow, however,
the woodland ordination symbol 8S. because it is impeded by a high water table. The water








Gilchrist County, Florida 37


table is above the surface during wet periods. It mucky fine sand but are more than 40 inches deep to a
recedes to a depth of more than 20 inches during dry Btg horizon. Individual areas of included soils are
periods. The available water capacity is low. smaller than 5 acres.
Most areas support natural vegetation, mainly Permeability is moderate in the Surrency soil. Internal
cypress. Sweetbay, blackgum, and red maple grow in drainage is slow, however, because it is impeded by a
some areas. A few areas support water-tolerant high water table. The water table is above the surface
grasses. Unless major water-control systems are during wet periods. It recedes to a depth of more than
installed, this soil is unsuited to cultivated crops, tame 20 inches during dry periods. The available water
pasture, and planted pine trees because of ponding and capacity is low.
prolonged wetness. Most areas support natural vegetation, mainly
The potential of this soil for openland and woodland cypress. Swamp tupelo, loblolly pine, slash pine, pond
wildlife habitat is very poor. The ponded areas do not pine, sweetbay, and other water-tolerant hardwoods
provide desirable habitat for these kinds of wildlife, and grow in some areas. A few areas support water-tolerant
attempts to improve the openland or woodland habitat grasses. Unless major water-control systems are
would be unsatisfactory. The potential for wetland installed, this soil is unsuited to cultivated crops, tame
wildlife habitat is good. pasture, and planted pine trees because of ponding and
The limitations affecting the development of this soil prolonged wetness.
for recreational and urban uses, including septic tank The potential of this soil for openland and woodland
absorption fields, dwellings, small commercial buildings, wildlife habitat is poor. The ponded areas do not
and local roads and streets, are severe. Ponding and provide desirable habitat for these kinds of wildlife, and
wetness are the major limitations. A major drainage attempts to improve the openland or woodland habitat
system and fill material are needed. The drainage would be unsatisfactory. The potential for wetland
system should be able to remove excess water rapidly wildlife habitat is fair.
during periods of flooding and wetness and should The limitations affecting the development of this soil
adequately control the water table. The high water table for recreational and urban uses, including septic tank
can prevent adequate filtration of the effluent in septic absorption fields, dwellings, small commercial buildings,
tank absorption fields. Inadequate filtration can result in and local roads and streets, are severe. Ponding and
the contamination of ground water, wetness are the major limitations. A major drainage
This soil is in capability subclass Vllw and is system and fill material are needed. The drainage
assigned the woodland ordination symbol 2W. system should be able to remove excess water rapidly
during periods of flooding and wetness and should
26-Surrency mucky fine sand, depressional. This adequately control the water table. The high water table
soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in can prevent adequate filtration of the effluent in septic
shallow depressions and poorly defined drainageways. tank absorption fields. Inadequate filtration can result in
Individual areas generally are circular and range from the contamination of ground water.
about 20 to more than 40 acres in size. Slopes are less This soil is in capability subclass VIw and is assigned
than 2 percent, the woodland ordination symbol 2W.
Typically, the upper 12 inches of the surface layer is
very dark brown mucky fine sand, and the lower 4 27-Leon fine sand, frequently flooded. This soil is
inches is very dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer nearly level and poorly drained. It is on flood plains and
is grayish brown fine sand. It extends to a depth of adjacent to drainageways. Individual areas are irregular
about 34 inches. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or in shape and range from about 50 to more than 200
more is gray sandy clay loam. acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth and are 0 to 2
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Surrency percent. Small areas where slopes are slightly convex
mucky fine sand, depressional, Surrency and similar are within short distances.
soils make up 80 to 95 percent of the mapped areas. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar grayish brown and light brownish gray fine sand about
soils make up either less than 5 percent or more than 15 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand that is coated
20 percent of the areas, with organic matter. It extends to a depth of about 60
The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are inches. It is black in the upper 7 inches, dark reddish
some small areas of Leon and Pamlico soils and brown in the next 12 inches, and grayish brown in the
various soils that have a thick surface layer of organic lower 20 inches. The substratum to a depth of about 80
material. Other included soils are similar to Surrency inches is very pale brown fine sand.








38 Soil Survey


On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Leon fine 29-Shadeville-Otela fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
sand, frequently flooded, Leon and similar soils make slopes. These soils are nearly level and gently sloping
up 80 to 95 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar and are moderately well drained. They are on uplands.
soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the areas. On 5 Sinkholes are common in some areas. Individual areas
to 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to more
up either less than 5 percent or more than 20 percent of than 1,000 acres in size. Slopes are convex or concave.
the areas. Typically, the surface layer of the Shadeville soil is
The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are very dark gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
some small areas of Allanton, Lynn Haven, Sapelo, and subsurface layer is grayish brown and pale brown fine
Surrency soils and soils that have an organic surface sand. It extends to a depth of about 32 inches. The
layer. Individual areas of included soils are smaller than subsoil is very pale brown sandy clay loam about 6
5 acres. inches thick and light brownish gray sandy clay loam
Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the about 4 inches thick. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of
Leon soil. The available water capacity is low. Runoff is about 42 inches. It varies considerably over short
slow. The water table is above the surface during wet distances.
periods. It recedes to a depth of more than 20 inches Typically, the surface layer of the Otela soil is dark
during dry periods. Flooding occurs during most years, grayish brown fine sand about 10 inches thick. The
Most areas support natural vegetation, mainly subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 51 inches.
longleaf pine, slash pine, a few scattered live oaks and The upper part is light yellowish brown fine sand, and
water oaks, and an understory of saw palmetto, running the lower part is very pale brown fine sand that has thin
oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland bands of sandy loam. The upper 11 inches of the
threeawn, bluestems, briers, brackenfern, and other subsoil is light yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The
native forbs and grasses. Unless major water-control lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray
systems are installed, this soil is unsuited to cultivated sandy clay loam.
crops and improved pasture because of flooding and On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Shadeville-
prolonged wetness. Otela fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Shadeville,
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is Otela, and similar soils make up 80 to 95 percent of the
moderate. Slash pine is suitable for planting. Seasonal mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas are about
flooding and wetness restrict the use of wheeled 55 percent Shadeville and similar soils and 35 percent
equipment. The trees should be harvested during the Otela and similar soils. The components of this map
drier periods. Seedling mortality can result from the unit occur as areas so intricately intermingled that
flooding. Good site preparation and bedding can reduce mapping them separately is not practical. The
the seedling mortality rate. Plant competition can be proportions and patterns of the Shadeville, Otela, and
controlled by site preparation activities, such as similar soils, however, are relatively consistent in most
chopping with a drum chopper. A harvesting system of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 5
that leaves most of the biomass on the surface is to 20 percent of the areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the
preferred, acreage, the dissimilar soils make up either less than 5
The potential of this soil for openland and woodland percent or more than 20 percent of the areas.
wildlife habitat is fair. The potential for wetland wildlife The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
habitat is poor. small areas of Blanton, Bonneau, Penney, and Wadley
The limitations affecting the development of this soil soils; somewhat poorly drained soils; and soils that
for recreational and urban uses, including septic tank consist of sandy material over bedrock. Individual areas
absorption fields, dwellings, small commercial buildings, of included soils are smaller than 5 acres.
and local roads and streets, are severe. Flooding, Permeability is slow in the Shadeville soil and
wetness, and poor filtration are the major limitations, moderately slow or slow in the Otela soil. The available
Measures that protect the site from flooding and water capacity is moderate in the Shadeville soil and
adequately control the water table are needed. The high low in the Otela soil. During wet periods the seasonal
water table can prevent adequate filtration of the high water table is perched above the layers of sandy
effluent in septic tank absorption fields. Inadequate clay loam in both soils for brief periods. Depth to the
filtration can result in the contamination of ground water table ranges from 48 to more than 72 inches.
water. Some areas of these soils support natural vegetation,
This soil is in capability subclass VIw and is assigned mainly laurel oak, live oak, turkey oak, slash pine,
the woodland ordination symbol 8W. longleaf pine, hickory, and scattered saw palmettoes.
These soils are moderately well suited to cultivated








Gilchrist County, Florida 39


crops. Because of the sandy texture, they do not retain The Shadeville soil is in capability subclass Ils and is
sufficient moisture during dry periods. Corn, peanuts, assigned the woodland ordination symbol 11S. The
soybeans, tobacco, and watermelons can be grown but Otela soil is in capability subclass Ills and is assigned
require good management measures and conservation the woodland ordination symbol 10S.
practices, such as including cover crops in the crop
rotation, returning crop residue to the soils, and 30-Fluvaquents, frequently flooded. These soils
applying fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is desirable during are nearly level and are poorly drained or very poorly
drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the drained. They are on flood plains. They consist mainly
surface layer is exposed, of sandy, loamy, and clayey strata. In some areas,
These soils are well suited to tame pasture. Fertilizer however, they have organic layers. The texture varies
and lime are needed for the optimum growth of grasses widely within short distances. Individual areas are
and legumes. The low available water capacity limits elongated and range from about 50 to more than 300
forage production during extended dry periods. Deep- acres in size. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass and Typically, the surface layer is black mucky fine sand
bahiagrass, are more tolerant of drought if fertilizer and about 2 inches thick. The underlying strata extend to a
lime are applied. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, depth of about 80 inches. In sequence downward, they
and other measures that prevent overgrazing help to commonly are dark gray sandy clay loam, pale brown
keep the pasture in good condition, silt loam that has many fine and medium white shell
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees fragments, very dark gray silt loam that has few white
is moderately high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf shell fragments, very pale brown sandy loam that has
pine, and sand pine are suitable for planting. The sandy many fine and medium white shell fragments, light
texture restricts the use of wheeled equipment unless yellowish brown sandy loam that has pockets of white
the trees are harvested when the soils are moist, sand, and white sand that has many white shell
Because droughtiness can result in seedling mortality, fragments.
the number of trees that are planted and the planting On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as
depth should be increased and the site should be Fluvaquents, frequently flooded, Fluvaquents make up
mulched with the biomass that remains after harvesting. 80 to 95 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils
Proper site preparation activities, such as applying make up about 5 to 20 percent of the areas. On 5 to 20
herbicide and chopping, help to control competing percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up
vegetation and facilitate mechanical planting. The extent either less than 5 or more than 20 percent of the areas.
of the hardwood understory can be reduced by The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
controlled burning, applications of herbicide, girdling, or some small areas of Elloree and Osier soils. Other
cutting. Harvesting systems that leave most of the included soils are similar to the Fluvaquents but are
biomass on the surface are preferred. The trees better drained and are flooded for shorter periods.
respond well to applications of fertilizer. Individual areas of included soils are smaller than 5
The potential of these soils for openland and acres.
woodland wildlife habitat is fair, and the potential for Permeability is moderate in the Fluvaquents. The
wetland wildlife habitat is very poor. Water areas and a available water capacity is low. The water table is at the
suitable source of food for wetland wildlife are not surface during wet periods. It recedes to a depth of
available, more than 20 inches during dry periods. Flooding
The limitations affecting the use of these soils as occurs during most years.
sites for dwellings without basements, small commercial Most areas support natural vegetation, mainly
buildings, and local roads and streets are slight. The baldcypress, sweetgum, sweetbay, red maple, and
limitations on sites for septic tank absorption fields are water oak. Unless major water-control systems are
moderate. The contamination of ground water is a installed, these soils are unsuited to cultivated crops,
hazard in areas where limestone bedrock is close to the tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of
surface and in areas that have a concentration of flooding and prolonged wetness.
homes. The potential of these soils for openland, woodland,
These soils have severe limitations as sites for and wetland wildlife habitat is fair.
recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer The limitations affecting the development of these
severely limits trafficability in unpaved areas. Soil soils for recreational and urban uses, including septic
blowing is a hazard. A good plant cover or windbreak is tank absorption fields, dwellings, small commercial
necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of buildings, and local roads and streets, are severe.
stabilizing the surface is needed. Flooding and wetness are the major limitations. A major








40 Soil Survey


drainage system and fill material are needed. The by wetland wildlife. The potential for openland wildlife
drainage system should be able to remove excess habitat is fair.
water rapidly during periods of flooding and wetness The limitations affecting the development of this soil
and should adequately control the water table. The high for recreational and urban uses, including septic tank
water table can prevent adequate filtration of the absorption fields, dwellings, small commercial buildings,
effluent in septic tank absorption fields. Inadequate and local roads and streets, are severe. Flooding and
filtration can result in the contamination of ground wetness are the major limitations. A major drainage
water, system and fill material are needed. The drainage
These soils are in capability subclass Vllw. They are system should be able to remove excess water rapidly
not assigned a woodland ordination symbol, during periods of flooding and wetness and should
adequately control the water table. The high water table
32-Meggett fine sand, frequently flooded. This soil can prevent adequate filtration of the effluent in septic
is nearly level and poorly drained. It is on flood plains tank absorption fields. Inadequate filtration can result in
and adjacent to drainageways. Individual areas are the contamination of ground water.
irregular in shape and range from about 15 to 150 acres This soil is in capability subclass VIw and is assigned
in size. Slopes are nearly smooth and are 0 to 2 the woodland ordination symbol 13W.
percent. Small areas where slopes are slightly convex
are within short distances. 33-Eunola-Bonneau fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown fine slopes. These soils are nearly level and gently sloping
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light and are moderately well drained. They are on uplands.
brownish gray fine sand. It extends to a depth of about Sinkholes are common in some areas. Individual areas
11 inches. The subsoil is sandy clay about 29 inches are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to more
thick. The upper part is light brownish gray. The lower than 1,000 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth or
part is mottled gray and yellowish brown and has convex.
concretions of calcium carbonate. The substratum to a Typically, the surface layer of the Eunola soil is very
depth of about 80 inches is white sandy clay loam that dark grayish brown fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
has many concretions of calcium carbonate, subsurface layer is pale brown fine sand. It extends to a
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Meggett depth of about 19 inches. The subsoil extends to a
fine sand, frequently flooded, Meggett and similar soils depth of about 63 inches. The upper 7 inches is
make up 80 to 95 percent of the mapped areas, yellowish brown fine sandy loam, the next 9 inches is
Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the yellowish brown sandy clay loam, and the lower 28
areas. On 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils inches is mottled fine sandy loam. The substratum to a
make up either less than 5 percent or more than 20 depth of about 80 inches is light gray fine sandy loam.
percent of the areas. Typically, the surface layer of the Bonneau soil is
The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are very dark grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick.
some small areas of Albany, Elloree, and Shadeville The subsurface layer is fine sand. It extends to a depth
soils and soils that are underlain by soft limestone of about 35 inches. The upper 10 inches is light
bedrock. Individual areas of included soils are smaller yellowish brown, and the lower 19 inches is very pale
than 5 acres, brown. The subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is
Permeability is slow in the Meggett soil. The sandy clay loam. The upper 9 inches is yellowish
available water capacity is moderate. Runoff is very brown, the next 25 inches is light yellowish brown, and
slow. The seasonal high water table is within a depth of the lower 11 inches is mottled gray, yellowish brown,
12 inches for long periods during most years. Flooding and strong brown.
occurs during most years. On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Eunola-
Most areas support natural vegetation, mainly Bonneau fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Eunola,
scattered slash pine, loblolly pine, water oak, Bonneau, and similar soils make up 80 to 95 percent of
sweetgum, blackgum, maple, waxmyrtle, saw palmetto, the mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas are
and gallberry. Unless major water-control systems are about 55 percent Eunola and similar soils and 30
installed, this soil is unsuited to cultivated crops, tame percent Bonneau and similar soils. The components of
pasture, and planted pine trees because of flooding and this map unit occur as areas so intricately intermingled
prolonged wetness. that mapping them separately is not practical. The
The potential of this soil for wetland and woodland proportions and patterns of the Eunola, Bonneau, and
wildlife habitat is good. The soil is suitable for the similar soils, however, are relatively consistent in most
development of shallow water areas that can be used of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 5







Gilchrist County, Florida 41


to 20 percent of the areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the growth rates. All plant debris should be left on the site.
acreage, the dissimilar soils make up either less than 5 The trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
percent or more than 20 percent of the areas. The potential of these soils for openland and
The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are woodland wildlife habitat is good, and the potential for
small areas of Albany, Penney, and Wadley soils; wetland wildlife habitat is poor. Water areas and a
somewhat poorly drained soils; and soils that consist of suitable source of food for wetland wildlife are not
sandy material over bedrock. Individual areas of available.
included soils are smaller than 5 acres. Because of the wetness, these soils are limited as
Permeability is moderate in the Eunola and Bonneau sites for dwellings, small commercial buildings, local
soils. The available water capacity also is moderate. roads and streets, and septic tank absorption fields.
Runoff is slow. The water table is perched above the Adding suitable fill material helps to overcome the
layers of sandy clay loam during wet periods. Depth to wetness.
the water table ranges from less than 20 inches to 60 These soils have severe limitations as sites for
inches. recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer
Some areas of these soils support natural vegetation, severely limits trafficability in unpaved areas. Soil
mainly live oak, laurel oak, post oak, water oak, hickory, blowing is a hazard. A good plant cover or windbreak is
laurelcherry, slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of
The understory is mainly lopsided indiangrass, hairy stabilizing the surface is needed.
panicum, low panicum, greenbrier, hawthorn, The Eunola soil is in capability subclass llw. The
persimmon, fringeleaf paspalum, hairy tickclover, dwarf Bonneau soil is in capability subclass Ils. Both soils are
huckleberry, chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, and assigned the woodland ordination symbol 11W.
pineland threeawn.
These soils have moderate limitations if they are 34-Bonneau-Blanton fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
used for cultivated crops. The seasonal high water table slopes. These soils are nearly level and gently sloping
and the sandy surface layer limit the number of suitable and are moderately well drained. They are on uplands.
crops. Row crops should be grown in rotation with cover Sinkholes are common in some areas. Individual areas
crops at least half the time. The cover crops and the are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to more
residue of all crops should be used to maintain the than 1,000 acres in size. Slopes are concave or convex.
organic matter content. The best yields require good Typically, the surface layer of the Bonneau soil is
seedbed preparation and applications of fertilizer and very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
lime. subsurface layer is fine sand. It extends to a depth of
These soils are moderately well suited to tame about 35 inches. The upper 10 inches is light yellowish
pasture. They are moderately well suited to improved brown, and the lower 19 inches is very pale brown. The
bermudagrass and bahiagrass if the pasture is well subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is sandy clay
managed. Productive pastures of grass alone or of loam. The upper 9 inches is yellowish brown, the next
grass-legume mixtures can be established if good 25 inches is light yellowish brown, and the lower 11
management is applied. The best yields require inches is mottled gray, yellowish brown, and strong
applications of fertilizer and lime and carefully controlled brown.
grazing. Typically, the surface layer of the Blanton soil is very
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
is high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are subsurface layer is fine sand. It extends to a depth of
suitable for planting. Using equipment that has large about 44 inches. The upper 23 inches is light yellowish
tires or tracks can help to overcome the equipment brown, and the lower 15 inches is very pale brown. The
limitation caused by the loose, sandy surface layer, subsoil extends to a depth of about 80 inches. The
Lack of available water in the root zone during dry upper 16 inches is brownish yellow sandy clay loam,
periods can cause excessive seedling mortality and can and the lower 20 inches is gray sandy clay loam.
reduce the growth rate. Plant competition from On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Bonneau-
hardwoods, mainly oaks, can be controlled by good site Blanton fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Bonneau,
preparation, which should include chopping and Blanton, and similar soils make up 80 to 95 percent of
applications of herbicide. Selection of special planting the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to
stock that is larger than is typical or that is 20 percent of the areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the
containerized reduces the seedling mortality rate. acreage, the dissimilar soils make up either less than 5
Planting during periods when rainfall is heavier and percent or more than 20 percent of the areas.
more frequent increases the seedling survival and Generally, the mapped areas are about 55 percent







42 Soil Survey


Bonneau and similar soils and 30 percent Blanton and containerized reduces the seedling mortality rate.
similar soils. The components of this map unit occur as Planting during periods when rainfall is heavier and
areas so intricately intermingled that mapping them more frequent increases the seedling survival and
separately is not practical. The proportions and patterns growth rates. All plant debris should be left on the site.
of the Bonneau, Blanton, and similar soils, however, are The trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
relatively consistent in most of the mapped areas. The potential of these soils for openland and
The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are woodland wildlife habitat is good or fair, and the
small areas of Albany, Penney, and Wadley soils; potential for wetland wildlife habitat is poor or very poor.
somewhat poorly drained soils; and soils that consist of Water areas and a suitable source of food for wetland
sandy material over bedrock. Individual areas of wildlife are not available.
included soils are smaller than 5 acres. The limitations affecting the use of these soils as
Permeability is moderate in the Bonneau and Blanton sites for dwellings without basements, for small
soils. The available water capacity is low. Runoff is commercial buildings, and for local roads and streets
slow. The water table is perched above the layers of are slight. Wetness is a moderate or severe limitation
sandy clay loam during wet periods. Depth to the water on sites for septic tank absorption fields.
table ranges from 48 to more than 72 inches. These soils have severe limitations as sites for
Some areas support natural vegetation, mainly live recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer
oak, laurel oak, post oak, water oak, hickory, severely limits trafficability in unpaved areas. Soil
laurelcherry, slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. blowing is a hazard. A good plant cover or windbreak is
The understory is mainly lopsided indiangrass, hairy necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of
panicum, low panicum, greenbrier, hawthorn, stabilizing the surface is needed.
persimmon, fringeleaf paspalum, hairy tickclover, dwarf The Bonneau soil is in capability subclass IIs. The
huckleberry, chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, and Blanton soil is in capability subclass Ills. Both soils are
pineland threeawn. assigned the woodland ordination symbol 11S.
These soils have severe limitations if they are used
for cultivated crops. Because of the sandy texture, they 35-Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil
do not retain sufficient moisture during dry periods, is nearly level and gently sloping and is excessively
Plant nutrients are leached rapidly. Corn, peanuts, and drained. It is on uplands. Individual areas are irregular
watermelons can be grown but require intensive in shape and range from about 15 to more than 300
management measures and conservation practices, acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth or convex.
such as including cover crops in the crop rotation, Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
returning crop residue to the soils, and applying fertilizer about 6 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth
and lime. Irrigation is needed during drought periods, of about 80 inches is fine sand. The upper 12 inches is
Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the surface layer is light yellowish brown. The next 33 inches is very pale
exposed, brown. The lower 29 inches is very pale brown and has
These soils are well suited to tame pasture. They are thin layers of yellowish brown loamy fine sand.
moderately well suited to improved bermudagrass and On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Alpin fine
bahiagrass if the pasture is well managed. Productive sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Alpin and similar soils
pastures of grass alone or of grass-legume mixtures make up 80 to 95 percent of the mapped areas.
can be established if good management is applied. The Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the
best yields require applications of fertilizer and lime and areas. On 5 to 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar
carefully controlled grazing. soils make up either less than 5 percent or more than
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees 20 percent of the areas.
is high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are The dissimilar soils included in this map unit are
suitable for planting. Using equipment that has large some small areas of Albany and Wadley soils and
tires or tracks can help to overcome the equipment various soils that are underlain by soft limestone
limitation caused by the loose, sandy surface layer. bedrock. Other included soils are similar to Alpin fine
Lack of available water in the root zone during dry sand but do not have lamellae. Individual areas of
periods can cause excessive seedling mortality and can included soils are smaller than 5 acres.
reduce the growth rate. Plant competition from Permeability is rapid in the Alpin soil. The available
hardwoods, mainly oaks, can be controlled by good site water capacity is low. Runoff is very slow. The water
preparation, which should include chopping and table is below a depth of 6 feet.
applications of herbicide. Selection of special planting Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation,
stock that is larger than is typical or that is mainly turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak, blackjack








Gilchrist County, Florida 43


oak, and longleaf pine. The understory is mainly a high. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine are
sparse cover of pineland threeawn, indiangrass, chalky suitable for planting. The sandy texture restricts the use
bluestem, and panicum. of wheeled equipment unless the trees are harvested
This soil has very severe limitations if it is used for when the soil is moist. Because droughtiness can result
cultivated crops. Because of the sandy texture, it does in seedling mortality, the number of trees that are
not retain sufficient moisture during dry periods. Plant planted and the planting depth should be increased and
nutrients are leached rapidly. Corn, peanuts, and the site should be mulched with the biomass that
watermelons can be grown but require intensive remains after harvesting. A harvesting system that
management measures and conservation practices, leaves most of the biomass on the surface is preferred.
such as including cover crops in the crop rotation, The potential of this soil for openland and woodland
returning crop residue to the soil, and applying fertilizer wildlife habitat is fair, and the potential for wetland
and lime. Irrigation is needed during drought periods, wildlife habitat is very poor. Water areas and a suitable
Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the surface layer is source of food for wetland wildlife are not available.
exposed. The limitations affecting the use of this soil as a site
This soil is moderately well suited to tame pasture. for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and local
Deep-rooted grasses, such as bahiagrass and improved roads and streets are slight. In areas that have a
bermudagrass, are suitable, but yields are generally concentration of homes, the contamination of ground
reduced by periodic drought. Careful management is water is a hazard because of poor filtration in septic
required to keep the pasture in good condition. This tank absorption fields.
management includes establishment of a proper plant This soil has severe limitations as a site for
population, applications of fertilizer and lime, and recreational uses. The loose, sandy surface layer
controlled grazing. Irrigation can improve the quality of severely limits trafficability in unpaved areas. Soil
the pasture and of hay. It may be economical if blowing is a hazard. A good plant cover or windbreak is
irrigation water is available during extended dry periods, necessary. Suitable fill material or some other means of
The soil is not suited to shallow-rooted pasture plants stabilizing the surface is needed.
because it does not retain sufficient moisture in the root This soil is in capability subclass IVs and is assigned
zone. the woodland ordination symbol 11S.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is









45









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land land capability classification used by the Soil
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soil-related failures in land uses. listed for each soil.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Planners of management systems for individual fields
conservationists, engineers, and others collect or farms should consider the detailed information given
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
various soil uses and management. Field experience Cooperative Extension Service.
and collected data on soil properties and performance In 1985, approximately 142,000 acres in Gilchrist
are used as a basis in predicting soil behavior. County was used for crops and pasture (4). This
Information in this section can be used to plan the acreage includes improved pasture; field crops, mainly
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as corn, peanuts, tobacco, and soybeans; specialty crops,
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, such as watermelons, sweet corn, and field peas; and a
highways and other transportation systems, and parks few acres of grapes and pecans.
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It The potential of the soils in Gilchrist County for
can be used to identify the potentials and limitations of increased food production is fair. About 10,000 acres of
each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent potentially good cropland is now used as woodland and
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil about 7,000 acres as pasture. These areas could be
properties. used as cropland if measures that control soil blowing
Planners and others using soil survey information on sandy soils and measures that control a fluctuating
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on water table were applied. In addition to the reserve
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the capacity represented by these areas, food production
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain could be considerably increased by applying the latest
or create a land use pattern in harmony with the natural technology to all cropland in the county. The acreage of
soil. crops, pasture, and woodland has gradually decreased
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of as more land is used for urban development.
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to Water erosion is a problem on about three-fourths of
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil the cropland and pasture in Gilchrist County. If the
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, slope is more than 2 percent, erosion is a hazard,
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and especially in areas of the well drained and moderately
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can well drained Blanton, Bonneau, Otela, Shadeville, and
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate Wadley soils and the somewhat poorly drained Albany
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, and Ridgewood soils.
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. Loss of the surface layer through erosion is
damaging for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced
Crops and Pasture as the surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is
incorporated into the plow layer. Second, soil erosion
General management needed for crops and pasture on farmland results in the sedimentation of streams.
is suggested in this section. The crops or'pasture plants Control of erosion minimizes this pollution and improves
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly






45









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land land capability classification used by the Soil
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soil-related failures in land uses. listed for each soil.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Planners of management systems for individual fields
conservationists, engineers, and others collect or farms should consider the detailed information given
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
various soil uses and management. Field experience Cooperative Extension Service.
and collected data on soil properties and performance In 1985, approximately 142,000 acres in Gilchrist
are used as a basis in predicting soil behavior. County was used for crops and pasture (4). This
Information in this section can be used to plan the acreage includes improved pasture; field crops, mainly
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as corn, peanuts, tobacco, and soybeans; specialty crops,
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, such as watermelons, sweet corn, and field peas; and a
highways and other transportation systems, and parks few acres of grapes and pecans.
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It The potential of the soils in Gilchrist County for
can be used to identify the potentials and limitations of increased food production is fair. About 10,000 acres of
each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent potentially good cropland is now used as woodland and
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil about 7,000 acres as pasture. These areas could be
properties. used as cropland if measures that control soil blowing
Planners and others using soil survey information on sandy soils and measures that control a fluctuating
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on water table were applied. In addition to the reserve
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the capacity represented by these areas, food production
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain could be considerably increased by applying the latest
or create a land use pattern in harmony with the natural technology to all cropland in the county. The acreage of
soil. crops, pasture, and woodland has gradually decreased
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of as more land is used for urban development.
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to Water erosion is a problem on about three-fourths of
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil the cropland and pasture in Gilchrist County. If the
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, slope is more than 2 percent, erosion is a hazard,
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and especially in areas of the well drained and moderately
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can well drained Blanton, Bonneau, Otela, Shadeville, and
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate Wadley soils and the somewhat poorly drained Albany
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, and Ridgewood soils.
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. Loss of the surface layer through erosion is
damaging for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced
Crops and Pasture as the surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is
incorporated into the plow layer. Second, soil erosion
General management needed for crops and pasture on farmland results in the sedimentation of streams.
is suggested in this section. The crops or'pasture plants Control of erosion minimizes this pollution and improves
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly







46 Soil Survey


the quality of water for municipal use, for recreational screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
use, and for fish and wildlife, can be obtained from the local offices of the Soil
Erosion-control practices help to maintain a Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
protective cover, reduce the runoff rate, and increase Service or from a commercial nursery. Information
the rate of water infiltration. A cropping system that about erosion-control measures for each kind of soil is
keeps a vegetative cover on the surface for extended available in a handbook on erosion control in Florida,
periods can keep soil losses to amounts that do not which is available at the local office of the Soil
reduce the productive capacity of the soils. In sloping Conservation Service.
areas on livestock farms, which require pasture and Soil drainage is a major management concern on
hay, including grasses and legumes in the cropping about 30 percent of the acreage used for crops and
system not only helps to control erosion but also pasture in the county. Some soils are naturally so wet
provides nitrogen and improves tilth for the following that production of the crops commonly grown in the
crop. No-till farming is effective in controlling erosion in county is generally not practical. Examples are the
sloping areas used for corn or soybeans. poorly drained Leon, Pottsburg, and Sapelo soils and
Most of the soils in the survey area have slopes that the very poorly drained Dorovan, Pamlico, and Surrency
are so short and irregular that farming on the contour or soils. These soils make up about 42,000 acres.
terracing is not practical. Field stripcropping can help to Unless a drainage system is installed, the wetness in
control erosion on these soils. Diversions reduce the the root zone of some of the somewhat poorly drained
length of slopes and thus help to control runoff and soils can cause damage to most crops during most
erosion. They are most practical on deep, well drained years. Examples are Albany, Hurricane, and Ridgewood
soils that have regular slopes. Sod waterways can help soils, which make up about 29,000 acres of the survey
to control runoff and erosion on most of the soils in the area.
survey area. In some undrained areas of the poorly drained
Soil blowing is damaging for several reasons. It Pottsburg, Leon, and Sapelo soils, wetness can cause
reduces soil fertility by removing the finer soil particles damage to pasture plants. These soils also have a low
and organic matter; damages or destroys crops by available water capacity and are drought during dry
sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and weed periods. They require subsurface irrigation for adequate
seeds; and creates health hazards and cleanliness forage production.
problems. Reducing the hazard of soil blowing The very poorly drained Dorovan, Pamlico, Surrency,
minimizes duststorms and improves the quality of the and Wesconnett soils are very wet during rainy periods
air. and have water standing on the surface in most areas.
Soil blowing is a major hazard on the sandy soils in The production of good-quality pasture on these soils is
the survey area. Strong winds can damage the soils not possible without artificial drainage. A combination of
and tender crops in a few hours in open, unprotected surface drains and irrigation is needed for intensive
areas where the soils are dry and the surface is bare. forage production on these soils.
Maintaining a vegetative cover and surface mulch Information about drainage and irrigation for each
reduces the hazard of soil blowing, kind of soil in the county is available at the local office
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such of the Soil Conservation Service.
as laurelcherry, sand pine, slash pine, southern Soil fertility is naturally low in most of the soils in the
redcedar, and Japanese privet, and strip crops of small survey area. Most of the soils have a sandy surface
grain are effective in controlling soil blowing and crop layer and are light colored. Many of the soils have a
damage. Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow loamy subsoil. Examples are the Albany, Blanton,
plantings made at right angles to the prevailing wind. Bonneau, Eunola, and Wadley soils. Otela and
They reduce the erodibility of the soil and the Shadeville soils have an acid surface layer and are
susceptibility of the crop to damage from sandblasting. underlain by calcareous limestone that is mildly alkaline
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen or moderately alkaline. Most of the soils have a surface
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The layer that is strongly acid or very strongly acid and
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely require applications of ground limestone to sufficiently
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting raise the pH level for good crop growth. Levels of
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on nitrogen, potassium, and available phosphorus are
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition, naturally low in most of these soils. Additions of lime
Irrigation may be needed. and fertilizer should be based on the results of soil
Additional information about planning windbreaks and tests, the needs of the crop, and the expected level of








Gilchrist County, Florida 47


yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can help in Extension Service and the Soil Conservation Service.
determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime Pasture is grazed by beef and dairy cattle.
to be applied. Bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass are the major
Soil tilth is an important factor affecting the pasture plants grown in the county. Seeds can be
germination of seeds and the infiltration of water into harvested from bahiagrass for improved pasture
the soil. Soils with good tilth have a greater moisture- plantings as well as for commercial purposes. Many
and nutrient-holding capacity than other soils and cattlemen seed small grain on cropland and overseed
provide a good seedbed. rye in pastures in the fall for winter and spring grazing.
Most of the soils in the survey area have a sandy In bermudagrass pastures, excess grass is harvested
surface layer that is light in color and low to moderate during the summer as hay for winter feed. Also, hay for
in content of organic matter. Exceptions are Dorovan, winter feed is made from peanut vines after harvest.
Pamlico, and Wesconnett soils. These are organic soils The well drained and moderately well drained Alpin,
or have an organic surface layer. The structure of the Blanton, Bonneau, Otela, Shadeville, and Wadley soils
surface layer of most soils in the survey area is weak. are well suited to bahiagrass and improved
When soils that are dry and low in content of organic bermudagrass. If good management is applied, hairy
matter receive intense rainfall, the colloidal matter indigo and alyce clover can be grown during the
cements and forms a slight crust, particularly if the soils summer and fall.
have a plowpan. The crust is slightly hard when dry, The somewhat poorly drained Albany and Hurricane
and it is slightly impervious to water. It reduces the rate soils are well suited to bahiagrass and to improved
of water infiltration and increases the runoff rate. bermudagrass if grown with legumes, such as sweet
Regular additions of crop residue, manure, and other clover, and if adequate amounts of lime and fertilizer
organic material improve soil structure and minimize are applied.
crusting. If drained, Hurricane, Leon, Mandarin, Pottsburg, and
Fall plowing generally is not advisable. If sloping Sapelo soils are well suited to bahiagrass and
soils, which make up about one-fourth of the cropland in limpograss. Subsurface irrigation increases the length of
the survey area, are plowed in the fall, they are subject the growing season and total forage production. If
to damaging erosion. Gullies caused by erosion are adequate amounts of lime and fertilizer are applied, the
common on unprotected soils. About three-fourths of soils are well suited to legumes, such as white clover.
the cropland in the county is sandy and is subject to soil In many parts of the county, pastures are greatly
blowing. Tons of soil are lost each year as a result of depleted by continuous excessive grazing. Pasture
soil blowing during the spring plowing season, yields can be increased by applying proper grazing
The field crops grown in the county include corn, methods, by irrigating, by applying fertilizer and lime,
soybeans, peanuts, and tobacco. The acreage of grain and by growing legumes.
sorghum and sugarcane could be increased if economic Differences in the amount and kind of pasture yields
conditions were favorable. Rye and wheat are common are closely related to the kind of soil. Pasture
close-growing crops. Oats and triticale also can be management is based on the interrelationship of soils,
grown. plants, lime, fertilizer, and moisture. Information about
The major specialty crops grown commercially in the pasture management can be obtained at the local
survey area are watermelons. Other specialty crops offices of the Cooperative Extension Service and the
include squash, blueberries, grapes, pecans, and field Soil Conservation Service.
peas. If economic conditions are favorable, the acreage
of blueberries, apples, pears, strawberries, grapes, Yields Per Acre
blackberries, nursery sod, cabbage, turnips, collards, The average yields per acre that can be expected of
and mustard greens can be increased, the principal crops under a high level of management
Deep soils that have good natural drainage are are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be
especially well suited to many vegetables and small higher or lower than those indicated in the table
fruits. If irrigated, about 24,000 acres of Bonneau, because of variations in rainfall and other climatic
Eunola, Otela, Shadeville, and Wadley soils that have factors. The land capability classification of each map
slopes of less than 8 percent are very well suited to unit also is shown in the table.
vegetables and small fruits. If adequately drained, about The yields are based mainly on the experience and
28,000 acres of Albany, Hurricane, and Ridgewood soils records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
are well suited to vegetables and small fruits, agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
Information about growing specialty crops can be results of field trials and demonstrations are also
obtained from the local offices of the Cooperative considered.








48 Soil Survey


The management needed to obtain the indicated choice of plants or that require special conservation
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil practices, or both.
and the crop. Management can include drainage, Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop management, or both.
varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen, Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each generally unsuitable for cultivation.
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure, Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures them unsuitable for cultivation.
the smallest possible loss. Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are crop production.
likely to increase as new production technology is Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change. w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed erosion unless close-growing plant cover is maintained;
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local w shows that water in or on the soil interferes with plant
offices of the Soil Conservation Service and the growth or cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information partly corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the
about the management and productivity of the soils for soil is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or
those crops. stony; and c, used in only some parts of the United
States, shows that the chief limitation is climate that is
Land Capability Classification very cold or very dry.
Land capability classification shows, in a general There are no subclasses in class I because the soils
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops, of this class have few limitations. The soils of class V
Crops that require special management are excluded, are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other
The soils are grouped according to their limitations for limitations that restrict their use to pasture, woodland,
field crops, the risk of damage if they are used for wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V contains only the
crops, and the way they respond to management. The subclasses indicated by w, s, or c.
criteria used in grouping the soils do not include major The capability classification of each map unit is given
and generally expensive landforming that would change in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" and in the
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do yields table.
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for Woodland Management and Productivity
interpretations designed to show suitability and
limitations of groups of soils for woodland or for Approximately 31,000 acres in Gilchrist County, or
engineering purposes. nearly 14 percent of the land area, is used as woodland
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped (4). The acreage of commercial woodland in the county
at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only is decreasing because of the conversion of woodland to
class and subclass are used in this survey, urban and agricultural uses.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are The soils and climate of Gilchrist County are suitable
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The for timber production. Most of the woodland is in areas
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and of Hurricane, Leon, Pottsburg, Ridgewood (fig. 5), and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are Sapelo soils. Leon soils produce most of the timber in
defined as follows: the flatwoods.
Class I soils have slight limitations that restrict their Most of the woodland is managed for needle-leaved
use. trees, including slash pine, longleaf pine, loblolly pine,
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce and southern baldcypress. Common broad-leaved trees
the choice of plants or that require moderate include water oak, laurel oak, live oak, sweetgum, and
conservation practices, blackgum.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the Maintaining the habitat for deer, quail, and the red-







Gilchrist County, Florida 49






































Figure 5.-A plantation of slash pine in an area of Ridgewood fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.



cockaded woodpecker is a major objective in managing blackgum, water oak, laurel oak, sweetbay, redbay, and
woodland. Most of the woodland is leased for cattle loblollybay gordonia.
grazing. Grazing plans are coordinated with timber Markets for forest products are plentiful in Gilchrist
production. New forest stands are regenerated naturally County. The major market is for pulpwood. The demand
or are planted to genetically improved seedlings, is increasing for trees large enough for the chipping-
Most areas of woodland in the county are corporate saw and sawlog mills. A wide variety of wood-
owned and managed. They are primarily areas of processing mills within 70 miles of Trenton creates a
intensive pulpwood production. Slash pine is the great demand for wood.
dominant tree. Timber management consists of Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Available
pulpwood rotations followed by clearcutting, intensive water capacity and depth of the root zone have major
site preparation, and tree planting. affects on tree growth. Fertility and texture also
Small, privately owned forest stands are in scattered influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate
areas throughout the county. Many of the stands are determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site.
plantations that provide wood for the pulpwood and This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
sawlog markets. Slash pine is the dominant tree in planning ways to increase the productivity of forest
these plantations. Trees in the natural stands include land. Some soils respond better to applications of
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, baldcypress, sweetgum, fertilizer than others, some are more susceptible to







50 Soil Survey


landslides and erosion after roads are built and timber water or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil
is harvested, and some require special reforestation for seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer,
efforts. In the section "Detailed Soil Map Units," the depth to a seasonal high water table and the length of
description of each map unit in the county suitable for the period when the water table is high, rock fragments
timber includes information about productivity, in the surface layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of
limitations in harvesting timber, and management the slope. The mortality rate generally is highest on
concerns in producing timber. In addition, the common soils that have a sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk
forest understory plants are listed. Table 6 summarizes is slight if, after site preparation, expected mortality is
this forestry information and rates the soils for a number less than 25 percent; moderate if expected mortality is
of factors to be considered in management. Slight, between 25 and 50 percent; and severe if expected
moderate, and severe are used to indicate the degree of mortality exceeds 50 percent. Ratings of moderate or
the major soil limitations to be considered in forest severe indicate that it may be necessary to use
management, containerized or larger than usual planting stock or to
Table 6 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The make special site preparations, such as bedding,
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates furrowing, installing a surface drainage system, and
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator providing artificial shade for seedlings. Reinforcement
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the planting is often needed if the risk is moderate or
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential severe.
productivity is based on the site index and the point Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
where mean annual increment is the greatest. the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
The second part of the symbol, a letter, indicates the competition is more severe on the more productive
major kind of soil limitation affecting use and soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils that have a
management. The letter W indicates a soil in which restricted root zone that holds moisture. The risk is
excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes slight if competition from undesirable plants hinders
a significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry, natural or artificial reforestation but does not
sandy soil. The letter A indicates a soil having no necessitate intensive site preparation and maintenance.
significant limitations that affect forest use and The risk is moderate if competition from undesirable
management. If a soil has more than one limitation, the plants hinders natural or artificial reforestation to the
priority is W and then S. extent that intensive site preparation and maintenance
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the are needed. The risk is severe if competition from
use of the forest management equipment, year-round or undesirable plants prevents adequate natural or artificial
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope, reforestation unless the site is intensely prepared and
wetness, stoniness, or susceptibility of the surface layer maintained. A moderate or severe rating indicates the
to compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it need for site preparation to ensure the development of
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. The an adequately stocked stand. Managers must plan site
rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by wetness preparation measures to ensure reforestation without
for less than 2 months and if special equipment is not delays.
needed. The rating is moderate if wetness restricts The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is
equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, if stoniness expressed as a site index and a volume number.
restricts the use of ground-based equipment, or if Common trees are listed in the order of their observed
special equipment is needed to prevent or minimize general occurrence. Generally, only two or three tree
compaction. The rating is severe if wetness restricts species dominate. The first tree listed for each soil is
equipment use for more than 6 months per year, if the indicator species for that soil. An indicator species
stoniness restricts the use of ground-based equipment, is a tree that is common in the area and that is
or if special equipment is needed to prevent or minimize generally the most productive on a given soil.
compaction. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate a The site index is determined by taking height
need to choose the most suitable equipment and to measurements and determining the age of selected
carefully plan the timing of harvesting and other trees within stands of a given species. This index is the
management activities. average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of specified number of years. This index applies to fully
the death of naturally occurring or properly planted stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. The site index
seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall, as values given in table 6 are based on standard
influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features, procedures and techniques (16, 19, 23).
Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much The volume is the yield likely to be produced by the








Gilchrist County, Florida 51


most important trees, expressed in cubic feet per acre time and intensity of grazing, the method of site
per year, calculated at the age of culmination of mean preparation for tree planting, and the number, size, and
annual increment. spacing of planted seedlings affect the potential grazing
Trees to plant are those that are used for capacity. On the soils of the North Florida Flatwoods,
reforestation or, under suitable conditions, natural such as Albany, Hurricane, Leon, and Pottsburg soils,
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and can stocking rates typically range from 10 to 30 acres per
produce a small commercial wood crop. The desired animal unit. On the soils of the Longleaf Pine-Turkey
product, topographic position (such as a low, wet area), Oak Hills, such as Kershaw, Ortega, and Penney soils,
and personal preference are three factors among many stocking rates typically range from 15 to 40 acres per
that can influence the choice of trees for use in animal unit. On the soils of the Upland Hardwood
reforestation. Hammocks, such as Blanton, Bonneau, and Ridgewood
soils, stocking rates typically range from 15 to 60 acres
Grazeable Woodland per animal unit.
Table 7 shows, for each soil used as grazeable
R. Gregory Hendricks, range conservationist, Soil Conservation woodland in the county, the grazeable woodland site
Service, helped prepare this section.
name, the average annual forage production of a site in
Gilchrist County has approximately 31,000 acres of excellent condition, and the desirable native forage.
woodland, much of which is moderately suited or well Newly planted pine stands can be grazed during the
suited to livestock grazing. Most of the woodland that second growing season following planting. Maximum
has potential for livestock grazing is within a region of forage yields can be expected on sites in excellent
the county known as the Waccasassa Flats. This region condition through the 12th year of the pine stand.
is interspersed with upland ridges, flatwoods, and Annual forage production decreases as the forest
forested wetlands. It can be used for low-cost, low- canopy begins to close in areas where traditional
maintenance forage production, planting methods are used. Innovative pine spacing
Grazeable woodland has an understory of native techniques, such as double rows of trees separated by
grasses, legumes, forbs, and shrubs. The understory is 30- to 60-foot spaces managed for grazing, have
an integral part of the forest plant community. The allowed landowners to achieve an acceptable level of
native plants can be grazed without significantly pulp production while maintaining their native grazing
impairing forest values. Grazing is compatible with resources throughout the rotation of the timber.
timber management if it is controlled or managed in
such a manner that timber and forage resources are Recreation
maintained or enhanced. The native forage in wooded
areas is readily available to livestock and is an Natural springs and the Santa Fe and Suwannee
economic resource. Integrating woodland and grazing Rivers provide many opportunities for recreational
management offers opportunities for landowners to activities in Gilchrist County, including swimming,
obtain income from the woodland during the life of the boating, and fishing. Opportunities for hunting are
timber stand, available on the Waccasassa Flats.
The three major grazeable woodland sites in Gilchrist Ginnie Spring Park is the most popular recreational
County are the North Florida Flatwoods, the Longleaf site in the county. The spring that surfaces within the
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills, and the Upland Hardwood park and flows southward attracts thousands of
Hammocks. The North Florida Flatwoods are well suited swimmers, divers, canoers, and other visitors each
to grazing. The native forage plants on this site include year. Hart Spring County Park offers opportunities for
creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, indiangrass, blue water activities along the Suwannee River. Camping,
maidencane, and various panicum grasses. The hiking, picnicking, and observing wildlife are other
Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills are moderately suited to popular activities.
grazing. The native forage plants on this site include The county's rivers provide opportunities for
beaked panicum, indiangrass, creeping bluestem, and canoeing, kayaking, diving, and sightseeing. The Great
other bluestems. The Upland Hardwood Hammocks are Suwannee River Canoeing and Kayaking Competition is
poorly suited to grazing. The native forage plants on held on a part of the Suwannee River that borders
this site include switchgrass, longleaf uniola, and Gilchrist County.
various bluestem grasses. Areas in or near Trenton provide opportunities for
Forage production on grazeable woodland varies, baseball, tennis, racquetball, basketball, and other
depending on site conditions. The amount of shade cast games. Civic clubs and church groups sponsor many of
by the canopy, the accumulation of fallen needles, the these activities.








Gilchrist County, Florida 51


most important trees, expressed in cubic feet per acre time and intensity of grazing, the method of site
per year, calculated at the age of culmination of mean preparation for tree planting, and the number, size, and
annual increment. spacing of planted seedlings affect the potential grazing
Trees to plant are those that are used for capacity. On the soils of the North Florida Flatwoods,
reforestation or, under suitable conditions, natural such as Albany, Hurricane, Leon, and Pottsburg soils,
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and can stocking rates typically range from 10 to 30 acres per
produce a small commercial wood crop. The desired animal unit. On the soils of the Longleaf Pine-Turkey
product, topographic position (such as a low, wet area), Oak Hills, such as Kershaw, Ortega, and Penney soils,
and personal preference are three factors among many stocking rates typically range from 15 to 40 acres per
that can influence the choice of trees for use in animal unit. On the soils of the Upland Hardwood
reforestation. Hammocks, such as Blanton, Bonneau, and Ridgewood
soils, stocking rates typically range from 15 to 60 acres
Grazeable Woodland per animal unit.
Table 7 shows, for each soil used as grazeable
R. Gregory Hendricks, range conservationist, Soil Conservation woodland in the county, the grazeable woodland site
Service, helped prepare this section.
name, the average annual forage production of a site in
Gilchrist County has approximately 31,000 acres of excellent condition, and the desirable native forage.
woodland, much of which is moderately suited or well Newly planted pine stands can be grazed during the
suited to livestock grazing. Most of the woodland that second growing season following planting. Maximum
has potential for livestock grazing is within a region of forage yields can be expected on sites in excellent
the county known as the Waccasassa Flats. This region condition through the 12th year of the pine stand.
is interspersed with upland ridges, flatwoods, and Annual forage production decreases as the forest
forested wetlands. It can be used for low-cost, low- canopy begins to close in areas where traditional
maintenance forage production, planting methods are used. Innovative pine spacing
Grazeable woodland has an understory of native techniques, such as double rows of trees separated by
grasses, legumes, forbs, and shrubs. The understory is 30- to 60-foot spaces managed for grazing, have
an integral part of the forest plant community. The allowed landowners to achieve an acceptable level of
native plants can be grazed without significantly pulp production while maintaining their native grazing
impairing forest values. Grazing is compatible with resources throughout the rotation of the timber.
timber management if it is controlled or managed in
such a manner that timber and forage resources are Recreation
maintained or enhanced. The native forage in wooded
areas is readily available to livestock and is an Natural springs and the Santa Fe and Suwannee
economic resource. Integrating woodland and grazing Rivers provide many opportunities for recreational
management offers opportunities for landowners to activities in Gilchrist County, including swimming,
obtain income from the woodland during the life of the boating, and fishing. Opportunities for hunting are
timber stand, available on the Waccasassa Flats.
The three major grazeable woodland sites in Gilchrist Ginnie Spring Park is the most popular recreational
County are the North Florida Flatwoods, the Longleaf site in the county. The spring that surfaces within the
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills, and the Upland Hardwood park and flows southward attracts thousands of
Hammocks. The North Florida Flatwoods are well suited swimmers, divers, canoers, and other visitors each
to grazing. The native forage plants on this site include year. Hart Spring County Park offers opportunities for
creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, indiangrass, blue water activities along the Suwannee River. Camping,
maidencane, and various panicum grasses. The hiking, picnicking, and observing wildlife are other
Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills are moderately suited to popular activities.
grazing. The native forage plants on this site include The county's rivers provide opportunities for
beaked panicum, indiangrass, creeping bluestem, and canoeing, kayaking, diving, and sightseeing. The Great
other bluestems. The Upland Hardwood Hammocks are Suwannee River Canoeing and Kayaking Competition is
poorly suited to grazing. The native forage plants on held on a part of the Suwannee River that borders
this site include switchgrass, longleaf uniola, and Gilchrist County.
various bluestem grasses. Areas in or near Trenton provide opportunities for
Forage production on grazeable woodland varies, baseball, tennis, racquetball, basketball, and other
depending on site conditions. The amount of shade cast games. Civic clubs and church groups sponsor many of
by the canopy, the accumulation of fallen needles, the these activities.








52 Soil Survey


The soils of the survey area are rated in table 8 wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
according to limitations that affect their suitability for surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil rains, and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed,
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the the depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. be considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines, once a year during the period of use. They have
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also the surface.
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
recreational uses by the duration and intensity of some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of the when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
height, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They
essential. have moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil not considered in rating the soils.
properties are generally favorable and that limitations, if
any, are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means Wildlife Habitat
that limitations can be overcome or alleviated by
planning, design, or special maintenance. Severe John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
means that soil properties are unfavorable and that prepare this section.
limitations may be offset by soil reclamation, special Gilchrist County has extensive areas of good wildlife
design, intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a habitat. The large areas of flatwoods and swamps and
combination of these measures. the areas of hardwoods along the rivers provide better
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by habitat than other areas in the county. Important areas
other information in this survey, for example, include the 33,000-acre Waccasassa Flats and the
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table areas along the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers.
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements The main game species in the county include white-
and for local roads and streets in table 10. tailed deer, squirrels, turkey, bobwhite quail, mourning
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping dove, feral hogs, and waterfowl. Nongame species
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing include raccoon, rabbit, armadillo, opossum, skunks,
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary bobcat, gray fox, red fox, otter, and a variety of
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to songbirds, wading birds, woodpeckers, predatory birds,
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best reptiles, and amphibians.
soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to The headwaters of the Waccasassa River are in
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few Gilchrist County, and the Santa Fe and Suwannee
or no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but Rivers form the northern and western boundaries. There
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes are 10 lakes in the county. The largest of these are
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of Four Mile Lake and Shirley Lake, each of which is
constructing campsites. about 100 acres in size. The lakes, the rivers, and the
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most larger tributaries of the rivers provide good opportunities
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking for fishing. Game and nongame fish species include
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, largemouth bass, channel catfish, bullhead catfish,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding bluegill, redear, spotted sunfish, warmouth, black
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or crappie, chain pickerel, gar, bowfin, and suckers.
stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping Several endangered and threatened species inhabit
sites or of building access roads and parking areas. Gilchrist County. Examples are the rare red-cockaded
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive woodpecker and the more common southeastern
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not kestrel. A detailed list of these species and information







Gilchrist County, Florida 53


about their range and habitat are available at the local are also considerations. Examples of grasses and
office of the Soil Conservation Service. legumes are bahiagrass, lovegrass, Florida
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is beggarweed, clover, and sesbania.
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and properties and features that affect the growth of these
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
can be created or improved by planting appropriate layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
plants. herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod,
In table 9, the soils in the survey area are rated beggarweed, partridge pea, and bristlegrass.
according to their potential for providing habitat for Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining these plants are oak, palmetto, cherry, sweetgum, wild
the intensity of management needed for each element grape, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and blueberry.
of the habitat. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or planting on soils rated good are firethorn, wild plum,
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or and American beautyberry.
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, properties and features that affect the growth of
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
established, improved, or maintained in most places. Examples of coniferous plants are pine, spruce, fir,
Moderately intensive management is required for cedar, and juniper.
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
limitations are severe for the designated element or herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
maintained in most places, but management is difficult properties and features affecting wetland plants are
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be plants are smartweed, wild millet, wildrice, maidencane,
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
impractical or impossible. Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
following paragraphs, created by dams, levees, or other water-control
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface ponds.
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain in the following paragraphs.
and seed crops are corn, soybeans, wheat, browntop Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
millet, and grain sorghum. pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available areas include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood sparrow, cottontail, and red fox.
hazard, and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of







54 Soil Survey


deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and This information can be used to evaluate the
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild and recreation uses; make preliminary estimates of
turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
gray fox, raccoon, deer, and bobcat. roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
attracted to such areas are ducks, herons, shore birds, detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
otter, mink, and alligator, locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
Engineering ponds, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and predict performance of proposed
This section provides information for planning land small structures and pavements by comparing the
uses related to urban development and to water performance of existing similar structures on the same
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the or similar soils.
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are The information in the tables, along with the soil
given in the following tables: Building site development, maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water this survey, can be used to make additional
management. The ratings are based on observed interpretations.
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
test data in the "Soil Properties" section. special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Information in this section is intended for land use "Glossary."
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and Building Site Development
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. limitations that affect shallow excavations, dwellings
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils with and without basements, small commercial
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific buildings, local roads and streets, and lawns and
soil. landscaping. The limitations are considered slight if soil
The information is not site specific and does not properties and site features are generally favorable for
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or the indicated use and limitations, if any, are minor and
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site
design and construction of engineering works, features are not favorable for the indicated use and
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
not considered in preparing the information in this properties or site features are so unfavorable or so
section. Local ordinances and regulations should be difficult to overcome that special design, significant
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design. increases in construction costs, and possibly increased
Soil properties, site features, and observed maintenance are required. Special feasibility studies
performance were considered in determining the ratings may be required where the soil limitations are severe.
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
determinations were made about grain-size distribution, maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 or 6 feet of the ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to
aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer:
kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the
fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates year that excavations can be made is affected by the
were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, depth to a seasonal high water table and the
shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, and susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of
other behavioral characteristics affecting engineering the excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is
uses. affected by soil texture and depth to the water table.







Gilchrist County, Florida 55


Dwellings and small commercial buildings are construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed are required.
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are use as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good
made for small commercial buildings without indicates that soil properties and site features are
basements, for dwellings with basements, and for favorable for the use and good performance and low
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on maintenance can be expected; fair indicates that soil
soil properties, site features, and observed performance properties and site features are moderately favorable
of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrink-swell for the use and one or more soil properties or site
potential, and organic layers can cause the movement features make the soil less desirable than the soils
of footings. A high water table, depth to bedrock or to a rated good; and poor indicates that one or more soil
cemented pan, large stones, slope, and flooding affect properties or site features are unfavorable for the use
the ease of excavation and construction. Landscaping and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires
and grading that require cuts and fills of more than 5 or special design, extra maintenance, or costly alteration.
6 feet are not considered. Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material; and a evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally features, and observed performance of the soils.
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to
properties, site features, and observed performance of a cemented pan, and flooding affect absorption of the
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a effluent. Large stones and bedrock or a cemented pan
high water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect interfere with installation.
the ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil), fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high water table surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
affect the traffic-supporting capacity, public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
properties, site features, and observed performance of surface. There must be unsaturated soil material
the soils. Soil reaction, a high water table, depth to beneath the absorption field to filter the effluent
bedrock or to a cemented pan, the available water effectively. Many local ordinances require that this
capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the content of material be of a certain thickness.
salts, sodium, and sulfidic materials affect plant growth. Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
Flooding, wetness, slope, stoniness, and the amount of hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the
sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface layer affect solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly
trafficability after vegetation is established, level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
Sanitary Facilities the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
Table 11 shows the degree and kind of soil required to minimize seepage and contamination of
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields, ground water.
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
are considered slight if soil properties and site features up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
are generally favorable for the indicated use and or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
limitations, if any, are minor and easily overcome; excavated to provide material for the embankments.
moderate if soil properties or site features are not The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
favorable for the indicated use and special planning, and observed performance of the soils. Considered in
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or the ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table,
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to stones, and content of organic matter.
overcome that special design, significant increases in Excessive seepage resulting from rapid permeability







56 Soil Survey


in the soil or a water table that is high enough to raise Construction Materials
the level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to Table 12 gives information about the soils as a
function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is source of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils
excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high are rated good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and
content of organic matter is detrimental to proper topsoil. They are rated as a probable or improbable
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic source of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on
activity. Slope, bedrock, and cemented pans can cause soil properties and site features that affect the removal
construction problems, and large stones can hinder of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
compaction of the lagoon floor, compaction, minor processing, and other standard
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and and used in road embankments in another place. In this
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste exacting in design than higher embankments.
is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
layer of soil from a source away from the site. layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground- Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation their profile. The table showing engineering index
should be considered, properties provides detailed information about each soil
The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties, layer. This information can help to determine the
site features, and observed performance of the soils. suitability of each layer for use as roadfill. The
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or
high water table, slope, and flooding affect both types of cement is not considered in the ratings.
landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly organic The ratings are based on soil properties, site
layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and sodium features, and observed performance of the soils. The
affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the thickness of suitable material is a major consideration.
ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth The ease of excavation is affected by large stones, a
of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated high water table, and slope. How well the soil performs
slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite in place after it has been compacted and drained is
investigation is needed. determined by its strength (as inferred from the
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used engineering classification of the soil) and shrink-swell
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary potential.
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
to the landfill, and spread over the waste, or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope material, a low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the

during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are plasticity index of less than 10. They have a moderate
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
blowing, many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
After soil material has been removed, the soil Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
material remaining in the borrow area must be thick a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
enough over bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water more than 25 percent. They are wet, and depth to the
table to permit revegetation. The soil material used as water table is less than 1 foot. These soils may have
final cover for a landfill should be suitable for plants. layers of suitable material, but the material is less than
The surface layer generally has the best workability, 3 feet thick.
more organic matter, and the best potential for plants. Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
Material from the surface layer should be stockpiled for commercial use with a minimum of processing. They
use as the final cover, are used in many kinds of construction. Specifications








Gilchrist County, Florida 57


for each use vary widely. In table 12, only the retention of moisture and releases a variety of plant
probability of finding material in suitable quantity is nutrients as it decomposes.
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affectateement
excavation of the material. Table 13 gives information on the soil properties and
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source site features that affect water management. The degree
of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
indicated by the engineering classification of the soil), areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
the thickness of suitable material, and the content of excavated ponds. The limitations, if any, are considered
rock fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification slight if soil properties and site features are generally
are given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of favorable for the indicated use and limitations are minor
grain sizes is given in the table on engineering index and are easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or
properties. site features are not favorable for the indicated use and
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
up to 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at properties or site features are so unfavorable or so
least 3 feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, difficult to overcome that special design, significant
large stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable increase in construction costs, and possibly increased
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as maintenance are required.
shale and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and This table also gives for each soil the restrictive
gravel, features that affect drainage, irrigation, terraces and
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation diversions, and grassed waterways.
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
area. potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and material. Excessive slope can affect the storage
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading capacity of the reservoir area.
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, constructed to impound water or to protect land against
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material, overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of 5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly
less than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble mixed and compacted during construction.
salts, are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
and are not so wet that excavation is difficult. soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have depth even greater than the height of the embankment
a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 can affect performance and safety of the embankment.
to 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, determine these properties.
or soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
are not so wet that excavation is difficult. seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high
amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes content of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts
of more than 15 percent, or have a seasonal high water or sodium. A high water table affects the amount of
table at or near the surface. usable material. It also affects trafficability.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed







58


only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
impound water 3 feet or more above the original permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a construction of a system is affected by large stones and
permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan. The
quality of the water as inferred from the salinity of the performance of a system is affected by the depth of the
soil. Depth to bedrock and the content of large stones root zone, the amount of salts or sodium, and soil
affect the ease of excavation, reaction.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and combination of channels and ridges constructed across
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to a slope to control erosion and conserve moisture by
bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the
to a high water table or depth of standing water if the construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
soil is subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to rooting depth, a severe hazard of soil blowing or water
flooding; subsidence of organic layers; and potential erosion, an excessively coarse texture, and restricted
frost action. Excavating and grading and the stability of permeability adversely affect maintenance.
ditchbanks are affected by depth to bedrock or to a Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
cemented pan, large stones, slope, and the hazard of channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
cutbanks caving. The productivity of the soil after surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
drainage is adversely affected by extreme acidity or by stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
toxic substances in the root zone, such as salts, cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is not waterways. A hazard of soil blowing, a low available
considered in the ratings. water capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to substances such as salts or sodium, and restricted
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The permeability adversely affect the growth and
design and management of an irrigation system are maintenance of the grass after construction.
affected by depth to the water table, the need for







59









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
the course of the soil survey. The data and the percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are sand is as much as about 15 percent, an appropriate
explained on the following pages, modifier is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural
Soil properties are determined by field examination of terms are defined in the "Glossary."
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some Classification of the soils is determined according to
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are adopted by the American Association of State Highway
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and Transportation Officials (1).
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are The Unified system classifies soils according to
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the properties that affect their use as construction material.
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
and compaction characteristics. These results are of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
reported in table 20. according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
Estimates of soil properties are based on field matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
accurately by field observation, and help characterize for example, CL-ML.
key soils. The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables those properties that affect roadway construction and
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
Engineering Index Properties content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
classification and of the range of index properties for inspection.
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
upper 5 or 6 feet. A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the for soils tested, with group index numbers in
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are parentheses, is given in table 20.
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 weight basis. The percentages are estimates







59









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
the course of the soil survey. The data and the percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are sand is as much as about 15 percent, an appropriate
explained on the following pages, modifier is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural
Soil properties are determined by field examination of terms are defined in the "Glossary."
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some Classification of the soils is determined according to
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are adopted by the American Association of State Highway
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and Transportation Officials (1).
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are The Unified system classifies soils according to
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the properties that affect their use as construction material.
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
and compaction characteristics. These results are of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
reported in table 20. according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
Estimates of soil properties are based on field matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
accurately by field observation, and help characterize for example, CL-ML.
key soils. The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables those properties that affect roadway construction and
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
Engineering Index Properties content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
classification and of the range of index properties for inspection.
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
upper 5 or 6 feet. A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the for soils tested, with group index numbers in
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are parentheses, is given in table 20.
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 weight basis. The percentages are estimates








60 Soil Survey


determined mainly by converting volume percentage in root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by
the field to weight percentage, texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated structure.
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3 Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard downward movement of water when the soil is
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074 saturated. They are based on soil characteristics
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field. drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) construction where the rate of water movement under
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The saturated conditions affects behavior.
estimates are based on test data from the survey area Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
or from nearby areas and on field examination, water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, plants. The capacity for water storage is given in inches
and plasticity index generally are rounded to the of water per inch of soil for each major soil layer. The
nearest 5 percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect
Atterberg limits extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
percentage points) across classification boundaries, the The most important properties are the content of
classification in the marginal zone is omitted in the organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
table. structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
Physical and Chemical Properties design and management of irrigation systems. Available
water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics water actually available to plants at any given time.
and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
area. The estimates are based on field observations of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
and on test data for these and similar soils. many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter, and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the corrosion.
soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain minerals with water and varies with the amount and
moisture. They influence the shrink-swell potential, type of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, the soil and the magnitude of the change in soil
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay moisture content influence the amount of swelling of
in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving operations. soils in place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at others, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at and amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
1/3 bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after measurements of similar soils.
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk often needed.
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
available water capacity, total pore space, and other change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change








Gilchrist County, Florida 61


of less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
high, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used.
percent, is sometimes used. 8. Soils that are not subject to soil blowing because
Erosion factor Kindicates the susceptibility of a soil of coarse fragments on the surface or because of
to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six surface wetness.
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet soil at various stages of decomposition. In table 15, the
and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates estimated content of organic matter is expressed as a
are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less
organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure than 2 millimeters in diameter.
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69. The content of organic matter in a soil can be
The higher the value, the more susceptible the soil is to maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
sheet and rill erosion by water, soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water other nutrients for crops.
that can occur without affecting crop productivity over a
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year. Soil and Water Features
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to soil Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water
blowing in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the features. The estimates are used in land use planning
susceptibility to soil blowing. Soils are grouped that involves engineering considerations.
according to the following distinctions: Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
1. Coarse sands, sands, fine sands, and very fine from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
sands. These soils are extremely erodible, and assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
vegetation is difficult to establish, according to the infiltration of water when the soils are
2. Loamy coarse sands, loamy sands, loamy fine thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
sands, loamy very fine sands, and sapric soil material, duration storms.
These soils are very highly erodible. Crops can be The four hydrologic soil groups are:
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
used. runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
3. Coarse sandy loams, sandy loams, fine sandy mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of
highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive water transmission.
measures to control soil blowing are used. Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate
4L. Calcareous loams, silt loams, clay loams, and when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
silty clay loams. These soils are erodible. Crops can be moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to
used. moderately coarse texture. These soils have a
4. Clays, silty clays, noncalcareous clay loams, and moderate rate of water transmission.
silty clay loams that are more than 35 percent clay. Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
These soils are moderately erodible. Crops can be thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
grown if measures to control soil blowing are used. layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
5. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are less soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
than 20 percent clay and sandy clay loams, sandy soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
clays, and hemic soil material. These soils are slightly Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate
erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to control soil (high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These
blowing are used. consist chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell
6. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are potential, soils that have a permanent high water table,
more than 20 percent clay and noncalcareous clay soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the
loams that are less than 35 percent clay. These soils surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly
are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate
ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used. of water transmission.
7. Silts, noncalcareous silty clay loams that are less If a soil is assigned to two hydrologic groups in table
than 35 percent clay, and fibric soil material. These








62 Soil Survey


16, the first letter is for drained areas and the second is An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
for undrained areas. in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
by flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A
runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high perched water table is water standing above an
tides. Shallow water standing or flowing for short unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water
periods after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
flooding. Standing water in swamps and marshes or in Two numbers in the column showing depth to the
a closed depression is considered ponding. water table indicate the normal range in depth to a
Table 16 gives the frequency and duration of flooding saturated zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot.
and the time of year when flooding is most likely to The first numeral in the range indicates the highest
occur. water level. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
Frequency, duration, and probable period of indicates that the water table is above the surface of
occurrence are estimated. Frequency generally is the soil. "More than 6.0" indicates that the water table
expressed as none, rare, occasional, or frequent. None is below a depth of 6 feet or that it is within a depth of 6
means that flooding is not probable. Rare means that feet for less than a month.
flooding is unlikely but possible under unusual weather Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
conditions (the chance of flooding is nearly 0 percent to saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
5 percent in any year). Occasional means that flooding results from either desiccation and shrinkage or
occurs infrequently under normal weather conditions oxidation of organic material, or both, following
(the chance of flooding is 5 to 50 percent in any year), drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually
Frequent means that flooding occurs often under normal over a period of several years. Table 16 shows the
weather conditions (the chance of flooding is more than expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of
50 percent in any year). Duration is expressed as very drainage, and total subsidence, which usually is a result
brief (less than 2 days), brief (2 to 7 days), long (7 days of oxidation.
to 1 month), and very long (more than 1 month). The Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
time of year that floods are most likely to occur is imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
expressed in months. About two-thirds to three-fourths water throughout an extensive area as a result of
of all flooding occurs during the stated period, lowering the water table.
The information on flooding is based on evidence in Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
the soil profile, namely, thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
or clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
organic matter content with increasing depth; and corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
absence of distinctive horizons characteristic of soils soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
that are not subject to flooding, electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion
Also considered are local information about the of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
extent and levels of flooding and the relation of each content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the
soil on the landscape to historic floods. Information on soil. Special site examination and design may be
the extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific needed if the combination of factors creates a severe
than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that corrosion environment. The steel in installations that
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency intersect soil boundaries or soil layers is more
levels. susceptible to corrosion than steel in installations that
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a are entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a layer.
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed
The estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage
saturated zone, namely, grayish colors or mottles in the class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field
soil. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to the seasonal capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation
high water table; the kind of water table, that is, perched extract.
or apparent; and the months of the year that the water For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
table commonly is highest. A water table that is as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated in acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.
table 16.








Gilchrist County, Florida 63


Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Analyses of Selected Soils Aluminum, carbon, and iron were extracted from
probable spodic horizons with 0.1 molar sodium
Dr. Victor W. Carlisle, professor, University of Florida, Soil pyrophosphate. Determinations of aluminum and iron
Science Department, Agricultural Experiment Station, prepared this were made by atomic absorption, and determinations of
section.
extracted carbon were made by the Walkley-Black wet
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical combustion method.
properties of representative pedons sampled in Gilchrist Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 2 microns
County are presented in tables 17, 18, and 19. The was ascertained by x-ray diffraction. Peak heights at
analyses were conducted and coordinated by the Soil 18-angstrom, 14-angstrom, 7.2-angstrom, and 4.31-
Characterization Laboratory at the University of Florida. angstrom positions represent montmorillonite,
Detailed descriptions of the analyzed soils are given in interstratified expandable vermiculite or 14-angstrom
the section "Soil Series and Their Morphology." intergrades, kaolinite, and quartz, respectively. Peaks
Laboratory data and profile information for additional were measured, added, and normalized to give the
soils in Gilchrist County and for soils in other counties percentage of soil minerals identified in the x-ray
in Florida are on file at the University of Florida, Soil diffractograms. These percentage values do not indicate
Science Department. absolute determined quantities of soil minerals but do
Typical pedons were sampled from pits at carefully imply a relative distribution of minerals in a particular
selected locations. Samples were air dried, crushed, mineral suite. Absolute percentages would require
and sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most additional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, unit
analytical methods used are outlined in a soil survey structure substitution, and matrix problems.
investigations report (21). The soils sampled for laboratory analyses in Gilchrist
Particle-size distribution was determined using a County are inherently very sandy (see table 17). Many
modified pipette method with sodium pedons, however, have an argillic horizon in the lower
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity part of the solum. All soils have two or more horizons in
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil which the total sand content exceeds 90 percent.
cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from Kershaw, Leon, Ortega, Penney, and Ridgewood soils
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe contain more than 95 percent total sand to a depth of 2
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at meters or more. Hurricane, Mandarin, and Resota soils
100-centimeters water (1/io bar) and 345-centimeters contain more than 90 percent total sand to a depth of 2
water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water meters or more. The content of clay in these soils rarely
percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were exceeds 2 percent. The content of clay in the deeper
ovendried and ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and argillic horizons in Albany, Blanton, Eunola, Garcon,
the 15-bar water retention was determined. Organic Meggett, Otela, Sapelo, and Shadeville soils ranges
carbon was determined by a modification of the from 15.1 to 38.6 percent. The content of silt ranges
Walkley-Black wet combustion method. from 0.1 percent in Kershaw fine sand to 19.9 percent
Data on extractable bases were obtained by leaching in Meggett soils. All horizons sampled in the Blanton
soils with normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. and Meggett soils contain more than 5 percent silt.
Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined Fine sand dominates the sand fractions of all soils in
by flame emission. Calcium and magnesium were the survey area. All horizons in Albany, Eunola,
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Kershaw, Leon, Mandarin, Penney, Resota, and
Extractable acidity was determined by the barium Ridgewood soils contain more than 50 percent fine
chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. Cation- sand. The other soils sampled have one or more
exchange capacity was calculated by summation of horizons in which the content of fine sand is more than
extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base 50 percent. Generally, medium sand is the second most
saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation- common sand fraction, but higher amounts of very fine
exchange capacity expressed as a percent. The pH sand, as compared to medium sand, occur in Blanton,
measurements were made with a glass electrode using Garcon, Resota, and Shadeville soils. In the other soils
a soil-water ratio of 1:1, a 0.01 molar calcium chloride the content of very fine sand is generally less than 10
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio, and a normal percent. The content of coarse sand is less than 2
potassium-chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio. percent in Albany, Eunola, Garcon, Kershaw, Mandarin,
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with Ortega, Ridgewood, and Sapelo soils and ranges from
a conductivity bridge in 1:1 soil-water mixtures. Iron and 0.4 to 6.2 percent in the other soils. Very coarse sand is
aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate were not detectable in Albany, Hurricane, Kershaw, Leon,








64 Soil Survey


Mandarin, Ortega, and Ridgewood soils. In most of the Penney, Resota, and Ridgewood soils is 0.60 or less
other soils, the content of very coarse sand is less than milliequivalent per 100 grams.
0.5 percent. The content of extractable magnesium exceeds 1
The sandy soils in this county rapidly become very milliequivalent per 100 grams in only one horizon of
drought during periods of low precipitation, and they Shadeville fine sand and two horizons of Eunola fine
are rapidly saturated during periods of heavy rainfall, sand. The combined amounts of extractable calcium
Poorly drained soils, such as Leon and Meggett soils, and magnesium rarely exceed 1 milliequivalent per 100
may remain saturated with ground water near the grams in the surface layer. The content of sodium
surface for extended periods. generally is less than 0.10 milliequivalent per 100
Hydraulic conductivity values exceed 22 centimeters grams. In one or more horizons in Meggett, Sapelo, and
per hour throughout Kershaw, Ortega, and Penney Shadeville soils, however, it slightly exceeds this
soils. Similarly, values are 22 centimeters per hour or amount.
more to a depth of slightly more than 1 meter in Albany, All of the soils have horizons in which the content of
Hurricane, and Resota soils. Values in the argillic extractable potassium is 0.05 milliequivalent or less per
horizon of Albany, Eunola, Garcon, Otela, Sapelo, and 100 grams. Albany, Blanton, Garcon, Hurricane,
Shadeville soils rarely exceed 2.0 centimeters per hour. Kershaw, Leon, Mandarin, Ortega, Otela, Penney,
Hydraulic conductivity is not detectable in the argillic Resota, and Ridgewood soils have no detectable
horizon in Meggett fine sand. Hydraulic conductivity potassium in one or more horizons.
values in the Bhl horizon of Leon fine sand are low. Values for cation-exchange capacity, an indicator of
Those in the Bh horizon of Hurricane, Mandarin, and the nutrient-holding capacity, exceed 10 milliequivalents
Sapelo soils are higher than those in most spodic per 100 grams in the surface layer of Meggett and
horizons in the soils of Florida. Sapelo soils. An enhanced cation-exchange capacity
The amount of water available to plants can be parallels a higher content of clay in the lower horizons
estimated from data on bulk density and water content. of Albany, Eunola, Garcon, Blanton, Meggett, Otela,
The amount is very low in excessively sandy soils, such Sapelo, and Shadeville soils. Soils that have a low
as Hurricane, Kershaw, Ortega, Penney, and cation-exchange capacity in the surface layer, such as
Ridgewood soils. It is much higher in soils that have Mandarin and Penney soils, require only small amounts
higher amounts of fine textured material, such as of lime or sulfur to significantly alter their base status
Meggett soils. and reaction. An inherently low level of fertility generally
Most soils in Gilchrist County contain low amounts of is associated with a low content of extractable bases
extractable bases (see table 18). With the exception of and a low cation-exchange capacity, and a higher level
Meggett fine sand, the soils have one or more horizons of fertility is associated with a high content of
in which extractable bases are less than 1 extractable bases, high base saturation, and a high
milliequivalent per 100 grams. Meggett fine sand cation-exchange capacity.
contains the highest amount of extractable bases, The content of organic carbon is less than 1 percent
ranging from 1.58 to 43.27 milliequivalents per 100 in all horizons of Eunola, Garcon, Hurricane, Kershaw,
grams. Albany, Garcon, Hurricane, Kershaw, Leon, Meggett, Ortega, Otela, Penney, Resota, Ridgewood,
Mandarin, Ortega, Penney, Resota, and Ridgewood and Shadeville soils. The surface layer of Albany and
soils contain less than 1 milliequivalent per 100 grams Blanton soils contains 1.00 and 1.02 percent organic
throughout. One or more horizons in Blanton, Eunola, carbon, respectively. The other horizons in these soils
Otela, Sapelo, and Shadeville soils exceed 1 contain less than 0.50 percent organic carbon. Only
milliequivalent per 100 grams. The relatively mild, Leon and Mandarin soils have horizons with more than
humid climate of Gilchrist County results in a rapid 2 percent organic carbon. These values are recorded
depletion of basic cations, including calcium, for the Bh horizon. In most soils the content of organic
magnesium, potassium, and sodium, from the surface carbon decreases rapidly as depth increases. The
layer through leaching, content increases, however, in the Bh horizon of
Calcium is the dominant base in all of the soils. Only Hurricane, Leon, Mandarin, and Sapelo soils. Because
the Bt horizon in Blanton and Eunola soils contains the organic carbon in the surface layer is directly
slightly more magnesium than calcium. Higher amounts related to the nutrient- and water-holding capacities of
of calcium in the lower horizons of Meggett and sandy soils, management practices that conserve and
Shadeville soils reflect a close proximity to limestone, maintain the amounts of organic carbon are highly
The content of extractable calcium throughout Albany, desirable.
Garcon, Hurricane, Kershaw, Leon, Mandarin, Ortega, Electrical conductivity values are low in nearly all of








Gilchrist County, Florida 65


the soils, generally ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 millimhos the Bh horizon of Hurricane fine sand, and the Cg
per centimeter. Eunola fine sand is the exception. It has horizon of Eunola fine sand. Kaolinite occurs in nearly
values ranging from 0.06 to 0.10 millimhos per all horizons of all the soils. Exceptions are the A
centimeter. Slightly higher electrical conductivity values horizon of Sapelo fine sand and the Bh horizon of
occur in one or two horizons in Meggett, Sapelo, and Hurricane fine sand. Quartz occurs in varying amounts
Shadeville soils. These data indicate that the content of throughout all the sampled pedons. The amounts of
soluble salts in the soils of Gilchrist County is mica and gibbsite are insufficient for the assignment of
insufficient to determinately affect the growth of salt- numerical values.
sensitive plants. Montmorillonite in the soils of Gilchrist County
Soil reaction in water generally ranges from pH 4.0 to apparently was inherited from the sediments in which
5.5 in the soils of the county. Values beyond this range the soils formed. It is most abundant in poorly drained
occur in the lower horizons of Meggett and Shadeville areas where the alkaline elements have not been
soils and in the surface layer of Eunola fine sand. leached by percolating rainwater. It may occur,
Generally, reaction is approximately 0.2 to 0.5 pH units however, in moderate amounts regardless of present
lower in calcium chloride and potassium chloride drainage or chemical conditions. Montmorillonite is a
solutions than in water. The maximum availability of major constituent of the clay minerals occurring in the
plant nutrients is generally attained when reaction is Btg2 horizon of Sapelo fine sand and in all horizons of
between pH 6.5 and 7.5. Maintaining reaction above pH Meggett fine sand.
6.0, however, is not economically feasible in most The 14-angstrom intergrade is a mineral of uncertain
agricultural areas in Florida. origin that is widespread in Florida soils. It tends to be
The ratio of sodium pyrophosphate carbon and most prevalent under moderately acidic, relatively well
aluminum to clay in the Bh horizon of Hurricane, Leon, drained conditions, although it occurs in a wide variety
Mandarin, and Sapelo soils is sufficient to meet the of soil environments. This mineral is a major constitute
chemical criteria established for spodic horizons. The of sand grain coatings in Hurricane, Kershaw, Ortega,
ratio of pyrosphosphate extractable iron and aluminum Penney, and Ridgewood soils. The number of coatings,
to citrate-dithionite extractable iron and aluminum also however, is not sufficient to meet the taxonomic criteria
is sufficient to meet these criteria. In the Bh horizon of established for coated soil classes.
these soils, the content of sodium pyrophosphate Kaolinite was most likely inherited from the parent
extractable iron ranges from 0.00 to 0.02 percent and material. It may also have formed through the
the content of citrate-dithionite extractable iron ranges weathering of other material. Kaolinite is relatively
from 0.03 to 0.14 percent, stable in the acidic environments that prevail throughout
The content of citrate-dithionite extractable iron in the most of Gilchrist County. Weathering becomes less
Bt horizon of Albany, Blanton, Eunola, Garcon, Meggett, severe as depth increases. Therefore, the amount of
Otela, and Shadeville soils ranges from 0.06 to 1.75 kaolinite is commonly higher in the lower part of the
percent and is generally less than 0.75 percent. The solum. Clay-sized quartz is primarily the result of
content is much higher in the Bt horizon of Albany, decrements in the silt fraction.
Blanton, Eunola, Garcon, Meggett, and Otela soils than Clay mineralogy can have a significant impact on soil
in the Bh horizon of Hurricane, Leon, Mandarin, and properties, particularly in soils that have a high content
Sapelo soils. The amount of extractable iron and of clay. Soils that contain significant amounts of
aluminum in the soils of Gilchrist County is not sufficient montmorillonite have a higher capacity for the retention
to determinately affect the availability of phosphorus. of plant nutrients than soils that dominantly contain
Quartz is overwhelmingly dominant in the sand kaolinite, 14-angstrom intergrade minerals, and quartz.
fraction in all of the soils. Varying amounts of heavy The large amount of montmormillonitic clay in Meggett
minerals occur in all horizons. The greatest soils is a problem affecting most types of construction
concentrations are in the very fine sand fraction. No because it results in a high shrink-swell potential.
weatherable minerals are evident. Crystalline mineral
components of the clay fraction are reported in table 19 Engineering Index Test Data
for the major horizons of the sampled pedons. The clay
mineral suite consists mainly of montmorillonite, a 14- Table 20 shows engineering test data for several
angstrom intergrade, kaolinite, and quartz. pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey
Montmorillonite occurs only in Garcon, Meggett, area. The pedons are representative of the series
Resota, Sapelo, and Shadeville soils. The 14-angstrom described in the section "Soil Series and Their
intergrade mineral occurs in nearly all horizons of all the Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the
soils. Exceptions are the A horizon of Sapelo fine sand, Florida Department of Transportation, Soils Laboratory,








66


Bureau of Materials and Research. The testing methods changes from plastic to liquid. The plastic limit is the
are those of the American Association of State Highway moisture content at which the soil material changes
and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) or the American from a semisolid state to a plastic state, and liquid limit
Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The results is the moisture content at which the soil material
of these tests are useful in evaluating the soils for changes from a plastic state to a liquid state. The
engineering purposes. The classifications given are plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
based on data obtained by mechanical analysis and by liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of
tests to determine liquid limits and plastic limits, moisture content within which soil material is plastic.
The mechanical analyses were made by the The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in table 20
combined sieve and hydrometer method. When this are based on laboratory tests of soil samples.
method is applied, the various grain-sized fractions are Compaction, or moisture-density, data are important
calculated on the basis of all the material in the soil in earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a
sample, including that coarser than 2 millimeters in successively higher moisture content, assuming that the
diameter. The results of this method should not be used compactive effort remains constant, the density of the
in naming textural classes of soils. compacted material increases until the optimum
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of moisture content is reached. After that, density
water on the strength and consistence of the soil decreases with an increase in moisture content. The
material. As the moisture content of a dry, clayey soil is highest dry density obtained in the compactive test is
increased, the material changes from a dry state to a termed maximum dry density. As a rule, maximum
semisolid state and then to a plastic state. If the strength of earthwork is obtained if the soil is
moisture content is further increased, the material compacted to the maximum dry density.






67









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (22). other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and where there is much biological activity. Among the
series. Classification is based on soil properties properties and characteristics considered are particle-
observed in the field or inferred from those observations size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
or from laboratory measurements. Table 21 shows the of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
classification of the soils in the survey area. The slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
categories are defined in the following paragraphs, the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The soil properties. An example is thermic, uncoated Typic
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- Quartzipsamments.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
example is Entisol. in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil the profile. The texture of the surface layer or of the
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties substratum can differ within a series.
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Psamment (Psamm, Soil Series and Their Morphology
meaning sandy horizons, plus ent, from Entisol). In this section, each soil series recognized in the
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, in alphabetic order.
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and formed are identified for each series. The soil is
base status. Each great group is identified by the name compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of the soil. An example is Quartzipsamments (Quartz, of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
meaning dominated by quartz, plus psamment, the described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
sandy suborder of the Entisols). follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (20).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (22). Unless otherwise
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are Following the pedon description is the range of
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. important characteristics of the soils in the series.
Extragrades have some properties that are not The map units of each soil series are described in
representative of the great group but do not indicate the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives Albany Series
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great The Albany series consists of nearly level and gently
group. An example is Typic Quartzipsamments. sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup thick beds of loamy marine sediments. These soils are






67









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (22). other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and where there is much biological activity. Among the
series. Classification is based on soil properties properties and characteristics considered are particle-
observed in the field or inferred from those observations size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
or from laboratory measurements. Table 21 shows the of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
classification of the soils in the survey area. The slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
categories are defined in the following paragraphs, the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The soil properties. An example is thermic, uncoated Typic
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- Quartzipsamments.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
example is Entisol. in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil the profile. The texture of the surface layer or of the
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties substratum can differ within a series.
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Psamment (Psamm, Soil Series and Their Morphology
meaning sandy horizons, plus ent, from Entisol). In this section, each soil series recognized in the
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, in alphabetic order.
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and formed are identified for each series. The soil is
base status. Each great group is identified by the name compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of the soil. An example is Quartzipsamments (Quartz, of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
meaning dominated by quartz, plus psamment, the described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
sandy suborder of the Entisols). follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (20).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (22). Unless otherwise
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are Following the pedon description is the range of
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. important characteristics of the soils in the series.
Extragrades have some properties that are not The map units of each soil series are described in
representative of the great group but do not indicate the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives Albany Series
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great The Albany series consists of nearly level and gently
group. An example is Typic Quartzipsamments. sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup thick beds of loamy marine sediments. These soils are






67









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (22). other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and where there is much biological activity. Among the
series. Classification is based on soil properties properties and characteristics considered are particle-
observed in the field or inferred from those observations size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
or from laboratory measurements. Table 21 shows the of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
classification of the soils in the survey area. The slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
categories are defined in the following paragraphs, the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The soil properties. An example is thermic, uncoated Typic
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- Quartzipsamments.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
example is Entisol. in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil the profile. The texture of the surface layer or of the
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties substratum can differ within a series.
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Psamment (Psamm, Soil Series and Their Morphology
meaning sandy horizons, plus ent, from Entisol). In this section, each soil series recognized in the
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, in alphabetic order.
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and formed are identified for each series. The soil is
base status. Each great group is identified by the name compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of the soil. An example is Quartzipsamments (Quartz, of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
meaning dominated by quartz, plus psamment, the described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
sandy suborder of the Entisols). follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (20).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (22). Unless otherwise
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are Following the pedon description is the range of
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. important characteristics of the soils in the series.
Extragrades have some properties that are not The map units of each soil series are described in
representative of the great group but do not indicate the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives Albany Series
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great The Albany series consists of nearly level and gently
group. An example is Typic Quartzipsamments. sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup thick beds of loamy marine sediments. These soils are







68 Soil Survey


sandy to a depth of 40 inches or more and have a has a mixture of these colors. This horizon is sandy
loamy subsoil. They are along the lower slopes in broad loam or sandy clay loam.
areas on uplands and on slight knolls in the flatwoods.
The soils are loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Allanton Series
Paleudults.
Paeuduts. The Allanton series consists of nearly level, very
Albany soils are associated with Blanton, Hurricane,
poorly drained soils in depressions in the flatwoods.
and Ridgewood soils. Blanton soils are moderately well ese soils are sa than 8
These soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80
drained. Hurricane soils have a Bh horizon. Ridgewood inches. They formed in thick beds of sandy marine
soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typical pedon of Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent deposits Thesos are sandy, sceoustherm
slopes; 2,338 feet south of County Road 232 and 167 Grossarenic Haplaquods.
feet east of graded road; 1,002 feet south and 1,169 Allanton soils are associated with Leon, Lynn Haven,
feet east of graded road; 1,002 feet south and 1,169
Mandarin, Ortega, Osier, and Ridgewood soils. Leon,
feet west of the northeast corner of sec. 8, T. 9 S., R. Lynn Havn, and ri dgewoo soi ion
15 E. Lynn Haven, and Mandarin soils have a Bh horizon
within a depth of 30 inches. Ortega, Osier, and
Ap-0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; Ridgewood soils do not have a Bh horizon. Leon,
weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine Mandarin, Ortega, Osier, and Ridgewood soils are
roots; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary. better drained than the Allanton soils.
E1-7 to 24 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; Typical pedon of Allanton mucky fine sand, in an
few medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) area of Lynn Haven and Allanton mucky fine sands,
mottles; single grained; loose; common medium depressional; about 1,333 feet north of County Road
distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) root 232 and 2,500 feet east of trail road; 2,000 feet north
stains; few charcoal fragments; extremely acid; and 167 feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 5, T.
gradual wavy boundary. 9 S., R. 15 E.
E2-24 to 41 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine A1-0 to 10 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) mucky
sand; few fine faint yellowish brown mottles; single fine sand; weak fine granular structure; friable;
grained; loose; extremely acid; abrupt wavy many fine and medium roots; many uncoated sand
boundary, grains; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg1-41 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sandy A2-10 to 18 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
loam; common medium prominent yellowish brown 3/2) fine sand; weak fine granular structure; friable;
(10YR 5/6, 5/8) mottles; weak medium subangular common fine and medium roots; very strongly acid;
blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual gradual wavy boundary.
wavy boundary. E1-18 to 24 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
Btg2-60 to 80 inches; mottled yellowish brown (10YR single grained; loose; very strongly acid; abrupt
5/8), pale brown (10YR 6/3), and light gray (10YR wavy boundary.
7/2) fine sandy loam; moderate medium subangular E2-24 to 52 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
blocky structure; firm; very strongly acid. sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid;
abrupt wavy boundary.
The solum is 80 or more inches thick. Reaction abrupt wavy boundary.
The solum is 80 or more inches thick. Reaction Bhl-52 to 65 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid in the A and 3/2) fine sand; single grained; loose; coatings on
E horizons and from very strongly acid to moderately approximately 50 percent of sand grains; very
acid in the Bt horizon, strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and Bh2-65 to 80 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 6 to 8 inches thick.
The upper part of the E horizon has hue of 10YR,

value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 6. It is mottled in The solum generally is fine sand or sand to a depth
some pedons. The lower part has chroma of 1 or 2 in of 80 inches or more, but the surface layer is mucky
some pedons. This horizon is sand or fine sand. It is 32 fine sand. Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid
to 70 inches thick, in the A and E horizons and extremely acid to strongly
The Btg horizon generally has hue of 10YR, value of acid in the Bh horizon. Depth to the Bh horizon is 50 to
5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2 and is mottled. In some 80 inches.
pedons, however, the upper part of this horizon has hue The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 6 and is chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has value of
mottled in various shades of gray, yellow, or brown or 2 or 3. It is 10 to 20 inches thick.








Gilchrist County, Florida 69


The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and to 8, or value of 8 and chroma of 3. In some pedons it
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 34 to 42 inches thick. has few or common fine and medium streaks that have
The Bhl horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. The
2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 3 to 15 inches thick, color of the streaks is that of the uncoated sand grains
The Bh2 horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR, and is not indicative of wetness. This horizon is sand or
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. fine sand. It is 47 to 72 inches thick.
The E part of the E&Bt horizon has hue of 10YR,
Alpin Series value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 to 6. It is sand or fine
sand. It is 2 to 8 inches thick between the lamellae. In
The Alpin series consists of nearly level and gently some pedons it has few or common small pockets of
sloping, excessively drained soils in the uplands. These light gray or white, clean sand grains. The Bt part of
soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches. They this horizon occurs as lamellae that have hue of 7.5YR,
formed in thick beds of sandy marine deposits. The value of 5, and chroma of 6 to 8; hue of 10YR, value of
soils are thermic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments. 5, and chroma of 4 to 8; or hue of 10YR, value of 6,
Alpin soils are associated with Albany, Blanton, and chroma of 6 to 8. The lamellae are loamy fine sand
Ortega, and Wadley soils. Albany, Blanton, and Wadley or sandy loam. They are 1/32 to 1/4 inch thick and 1/2 inch
soils have sandy A and E horizons that, combined, are to 24 inches long. They are at a depth of 50 to 80
40 to 79 inches thick. These horizons are underlain by inches and extend to a depth of more than 80 inches,
a loamy Bt horizon. Albany soils are somewhat poorly generally increasing in thickness with increasing depth.
drained, Blanton and Ortega soils are moderately well
drained, and Wadley soils are well drained. Blanton Series
Typical pedon of Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes; about 0.5 mile east of County Road 337 and 0.3 The Blanton series consists of nearly level and gently
mile north of railroad track; 2,500 feet east and 167 feet sloping, moderately well drained soils on slight knolls
south of the northwest corner of sec. 1, T. 10 S., R. 16 and broad, gently rolling uplands. These soils are sandy
E. to a depth of 40 inches or more and are loamy in the
lower part. They formed in thick beds of sandy and
A-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single loamy marine deposits. The soils are loamy, siliceous,
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; very thermic Grossarenic Paleudults.
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Blanton soils are associated with Albany, Bonneau,
E1-6 to 18 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) Ortega, Otela, Penney, Ridgewood, and Wadley soils.
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; Albany and Ridgewood soils are somewhat poorly
common black charcoal fragments; very strongly drained. Bonneau soils have sandy A and E horizons
acid; gradual wavy boundary. that, combined, are 20 to 40 inches thick. Otela soils
E2-18 to 51 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine have limestone bedrock below a depth of 70 inches.
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium Ortega, Penney, and Ridgewood soils are sandy to a
roots; common clean sand grains; very strongly depth of more than 80 inches. Penney soils have
acid; gradual wavy boundary. lamellae below a depth of 50 inches. They are
E&Bt-51 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) fine excessively drained. Wadley soils are well drained.
sand (E); single grained; loose; common clean sand Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
grains; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) lamellae of slopes; 2,672 feet south of graded road and 4,843 feet
loamy fine sand (B) about 3 to 6 inches long and /8 east of the Suwannee River; 2,672 feet south and 835
to 1/4 inch thick; well coated sand grains; strongly feet east of the northwest corner of sec. 32, T. 9 S., R.
acid. 14 E.

The solum is 80 or more inches thick. The combined Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
content of silt and clay is 5 to 10 percent between weak medium granular structure; very friable;
depths of 10 and 40 inches. Thin lamellae are at a strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
depth of 50 to 80 inches. Reaction is very strongly acid E1-6 to 29 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
to slightly acid throughout the profile, fine sand; single grained; loose; many clean, white
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and (10YR 8/2) sand grains; few charcoal fragments;
chroma of 1 to 3. It is 3 to 7 inches thick. strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR. It has value of 5 E2-29 to 44 inches; very pale brown (10YR7/3) fine
and chroma of 7 or 8, value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 3 sand; few medium prominent brownish yellow








Gilchrist County, Florida 69


The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and to 8, or value of 8 and chroma of 3. In some pedons it
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 34 to 42 inches thick. has few or common fine and medium streaks that have
The Bhl horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. The
2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 3 to 15 inches thick, color of the streaks is that of the uncoated sand grains
The Bh2 horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR, and is not indicative of wetness. This horizon is sand or
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. fine sand. It is 47 to 72 inches thick.
The E part of the E&Bt horizon has hue of 10YR,
Alpin Series value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 to 6. It is sand or fine
sand. It is 2 to 8 inches thick between the lamellae. In
The Alpin series consists of nearly level and gently some pedons it has few or common small pockets of
sloping, excessively drained soils in the uplands. These light gray or white, clean sand grains. The Bt part of
soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches. They this horizon occurs as lamellae that have hue of 7.5YR,
formed in thick beds of sandy marine deposits. The value of 5, and chroma of 6 to 8; hue of 10YR, value of
soils are thermic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments. 5, and chroma of 4 to 8; or hue of 10YR, value of 6,
Alpin soils are associated with Albany, Blanton, and chroma of 6 to 8. The lamellae are loamy fine sand
Ortega, and Wadley soils. Albany, Blanton, and Wadley or sandy loam. They are 1/32 to 1/4 inch thick and 1/2 inch
soils have sandy A and E horizons that, combined, are to 24 inches long. They are at a depth of 50 to 80
40 to 79 inches thick. These horizons are underlain by inches and extend to a depth of more than 80 inches,
a loamy Bt horizon. Albany soils are somewhat poorly generally increasing in thickness with increasing depth.
drained, Blanton and Ortega soils are moderately well
drained, and Wadley soils are well drained. Blanton Series
Typical pedon of Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes; about 0.5 mile east of County Road 337 and 0.3 The Blanton series consists of nearly level and gently
mile north of railroad track; 2,500 feet east and 167 feet sloping, moderately well drained soils on slight knolls
south of the northwest corner of sec. 1, T. 10 S., R. 16 and broad, gently rolling uplands. These soils are sandy
E. to a depth of 40 inches or more and are loamy in the
lower part. They formed in thick beds of sandy and
A-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single loamy marine deposits. The soils are loamy, siliceous,
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; very thermic Grossarenic Paleudults.
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Blanton soils are associated with Albany, Bonneau,
E1-6 to 18 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) Ortega, Otela, Penney, Ridgewood, and Wadley soils.
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; Albany and Ridgewood soils are somewhat poorly
common black charcoal fragments; very strongly drained. Bonneau soils have sandy A and E horizons
acid; gradual wavy boundary. that, combined, are 20 to 40 inches thick. Otela soils
E2-18 to 51 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine have limestone bedrock below a depth of 70 inches.
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium Ortega, Penney, and Ridgewood soils are sandy to a
roots; common clean sand grains; very strongly depth of more than 80 inches. Penney soils have
acid; gradual wavy boundary. lamellae below a depth of 50 inches. They are
E&Bt-51 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) fine excessively drained. Wadley soils are well drained.
sand (E); single grained; loose; common clean sand Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
grains; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) lamellae of slopes; 2,672 feet south of graded road and 4,843 feet
loamy fine sand (B) about 3 to 6 inches long and /8 east of the Suwannee River; 2,672 feet south and 835
to 1/4 inch thick; well coated sand grains; strongly feet east of the northwest corner of sec. 32, T. 9 S., R.
acid. 14 E.

The solum is 80 or more inches thick. The combined Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
content of silt and clay is 5 to 10 percent between weak medium granular structure; very friable;
depths of 10 and 40 inches. Thin lamellae are at a strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
depth of 50 to 80 inches. Reaction is very strongly acid E1-6 to 29 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
to slightly acid throughout the profile, fine sand; single grained; loose; many clean, white
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and (10YR 8/2) sand grains; few charcoal fragments;
chroma of 1 to 3. It is 3 to 7 inches thick. strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR. It has value of 5 E2-29 to 44 inches; very pale brown (10YR7/3) fine
and chroma of 7 or 8, value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 3 sand; few medium prominent brownish yellow







70 Soil Survey


(10YR 6/6) mottles; single grained; loose; strongly south of graded road; 800 feet west and 100 feet south
acid; abrupt wavy boundary. of the northeast corner of sec. 32, T. 9 S., R. 15 E.
Bt-44 to 60 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy
clay loam; few medium distinct yellowish red (5YR A-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/2) fine sand;
5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
structure; very friable; very strongly acid; gradual and medium roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy
wavy boundary, boundary.
Btg-60 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; E1-6 to 16 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
many coarse prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), fine sand; single grained; loose; many fine and
common coarse prominent red (10YR 5/8), and few medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
medium prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; boundary.
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; E2-16 to 35 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
strongly acid. sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
The thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to more boundary.
than 80 inches. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid Bt1-35 to 44 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 6/6)
to moderately acid throughout the profile unless the sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular
surface has been limed, blocky structure; friable; few fine and medium roots;
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 6 to 10 inches thick. Bt2-44 to 69 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
The E horizon has hue of 10YR and has value of 5 sandy clay loam; common medium distinct light
and chroma of 4 or value of 6 to 8 and chroma of 3 or brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and few fine distinct
4. It is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, or brown in strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate
some pedons. In some pedons is has few to many fine medium subangular blocky structure; very strongly
and medium pockets of clean sand grains. This horizon acid; gradual wavy boundary.
is 33 to 65 inches thick. Bt3-69 to 80 inches; mottled gray (10YR 6/1, 7/2),
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR and has value of 5 yellowish brown (10YR 5/8), and strong brown
or 6 and chroma of 3 to 6 or value of 7 and chroma of 2 (7.5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; moderate medium
to 6. In some pedons it has gray, yellow, brown, or red subangular blocky structure; sand grains coated and
mottles. Gray mottles indicative of wetness are within bridged with clay; very strongly acid.
the upper 10 inches of this horizon.
the upper 10 inches of this horizon. The thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to more
than 80 inches. Reaction is very strongly acid or
Bonneau Series strongly acid throughout the profile unless the surface
has been limed.
The Bonneau series consists of nearly level and The A horizon has hue of 10YR. value of 3 to 5, and
gently sloping, moderately well drained soils on slight chroma of 1 or 2. It is 2 to 9 inches thick.
knolls in the flatwoods and on broad uplands. These The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5YR, value of 5
soils are sandy to a depth of 20 inches or more and are to 7, and chroma of 2 to 6. In some pedons it has few
loamy in the lower part. They formed in thick beds of to many fine and medium pockets of clean sand grains.
sandy and loamy marine deposits. The soils are loamy, This horizon is 11 to 30 inches thick.
siliceous, thermic Arenic Paleudults. The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 5
Bonneau soils are associated with Albany, Blanton, to 7, and chroma of 3 to 8. It is mottled in shades of
Eunola, Meggett, Ortega, and Shadeville soils. Albany gray, brown, red, or yellow in the lower part. Gray
and Blanton soils have sandy A and E horizons that, mottles indicative of wetness are within a depth of 60
combined, are more than 40 inches thick. Shadeville inches. This horizon is dominantly fine sandy loam.
inches. This horizon is dominantly fine sandy loam,
soils have high base saturation. Meggett soils have sandy loam, or sandy clay loam, but in some pedons
sandy A and E horizons that, combined, are less than the lower art is sand clay.
20 inches thick. They are poorly drained. Ortega soils
are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches. Eunola Dorovan Series
soils have a Bt horizon within a depth of 20 inches and
a C horizon below a depth of 60 inches. The Dorovan series consists of nearly level, very
Typical pedon of Bonneau fine sand, 0 to 5 percent poorly drained, organic soils in swamps on flood plains
slopes; about 1.5 miles east of U.S. 129 and 100 feet and in the flatwoods. These soils are organic to a depth







70 Soil Survey


(10YR 6/6) mottles; single grained; loose; strongly south of graded road; 800 feet west and 100 feet south
acid; abrupt wavy boundary. of the northeast corner of sec. 32, T. 9 S., R. 15 E.
Bt-44 to 60 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy
clay loam; few medium distinct yellowish red (5YR A-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/2) fine sand;
5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
structure; very friable; very strongly acid; gradual and medium roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy
wavy boundary, boundary.
Btg-60 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; E1-6 to 16 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
many coarse prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), fine sand; single grained; loose; many fine and
common coarse prominent red (10YR 5/8), and few medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
medium prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; boundary.
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; E2-16 to 35 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
strongly acid. sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
The thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to more boundary.
than 80 inches. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid Bt1-35 to 44 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 6/6)
to moderately acid throughout the profile unless the sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular
surface has been limed, blocky structure; friable; few fine and medium roots;
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 6 to 10 inches thick. Bt2-44 to 69 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
The E horizon has hue of 10YR and has value of 5 sandy clay loam; common medium distinct light
and chroma of 4 or value of 6 to 8 and chroma of 3 or brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and few fine distinct
4. It is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, or brown in strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate
some pedons. In some pedons is has few to many fine medium subangular blocky structure; very strongly
and medium pockets of clean sand grains. This horizon acid; gradual wavy boundary.
is 33 to 65 inches thick. Bt3-69 to 80 inches; mottled gray (10YR 6/1, 7/2),
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR and has value of 5 yellowish brown (10YR 5/8), and strong brown
or 6 and chroma of 3 to 6 or value of 7 and chroma of 2 (7.5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; moderate medium
to 6. In some pedons it has gray, yellow, brown, or red subangular blocky structure; sand grains coated and
mottles. Gray mottles indicative of wetness are within bridged with clay; very strongly acid.
the upper 10 inches of this horizon.
the upper 10 inches of this horizon. The thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to more
than 80 inches. Reaction is very strongly acid or
Bonneau Series strongly acid throughout the profile unless the surface
has been limed.
The Bonneau series consists of nearly level and The A horizon has hue of 10YR. value of 3 to 5, and
gently sloping, moderately well drained soils on slight chroma of 1 or 2. It is 2 to 9 inches thick.
knolls in the flatwoods and on broad uplands. These The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5YR, value of 5
soils are sandy to a depth of 20 inches or more and are to 7, and chroma of 2 to 6. In some pedons it has few
loamy in the lower part. They formed in thick beds of to many fine and medium pockets of clean sand grains.
sandy and loamy marine deposits. The soils are loamy, This horizon is 11 to 30 inches thick.
siliceous, thermic Arenic Paleudults. The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 5
Bonneau soils are associated with Albany, Blanton, to 7, and chroma of 3 to 8. It is mottled in shades of
Eunola, Meggett, Ortega, and Shadeville soils. Albany gray, brown, red, or yellow in the lower part. Gray
and Blanton soils have sandy A and E horizons that, mottles indicative of wetness are within a depth of 60
combined, are more than 40 inches thick. Shadeville inches. This horizon is dominantly fine sandy loam.
inches. This horizon is dominantly fine sandy loam,
soils have high base saturation. Meggett soils have sandy loam, or sandy clay loam, but in some pedons
sandy A and E horizons that, combined, are less than the lower art is sand clay.
20 inches thick. They are poorly drained. Ortega soils
are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches. Eunola Dorovan Series
soils have a Bt horizon within a depth of 20 inches and
a C horizon below a depth of 60 inches. The Dorovan series consists of nearly level, very
Typical pedon of Bonneau fine sand, 0 to 5 percent poorly drained, organic soils in swamps on flood plains
slopes; about 1.5 miles east of U.S. 129 and 100 feet and in the flatwoods. These soils are organic to a depth







Gilchrist County, Florida 71


of more than 51 inches. They formed from herbaceous material. This material is below a depth of 51 inches. It
plant material mixed with woody plant material. The has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2.
soils are dysic, thermic Typic Medisaprists.
Dorovan soils are associated with Osier, Pamlico, Elloree Series
and Surrency soils. Osier and Surrency soils are of
mineral origin. Osier soils have a high water table within The Elloree series consists of nearly level, poorly
12 inches of the surface. They are sandy to a depth of drained soils on flood plains. These soils are sandy to a
80 inches or more. Surrency soils have a Btg horizon at depth of 20 to 40 inches and are loamy in the lower
a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Pamlico soils formed in part. They formed in sandy and loamy sediments. The
sapric material less than 50 inches deep over sandy soils are loamy, siliceous, thermic Arenic Ochraqualfs.
material. Elloree soils are associated with Albany soils,
Typical pedon of Dorovan muck, in an area of Fluvaquents, and Garcon, Leon, Osier, and Ridgewood
Pamlico-Dorovan mucks, frequently flooded; about 1.4 soils. Albany soils have a Bt horizon at a depth of 40 to
miles north of County Road 340 and 0.7 mile west of 80 inches. Albany, Garcon, and Ridgewood soils are
trail road; 167 feet south and 1,670 feet east of the somewhat poorly drained. Garcon soils have a Bt
northwest corner of sec. 10, T. 8 S., R. 15 E. horizon within a depth of 40 inches. Osier and
Ridgewood soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80
Oal-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 33 inches. Fluvaquents are stratified and have gravel in the
percent fiber before rubbing, less than 10 percent lower part. Leon soils have a Bh horizon within a depth
after rubbing; massive; very friable; many medium of 30 inches.
and few coarse roots; extremely acid; gradual wavy Typical pedon of Elloree loamy fine sand, in an area
boundary. of Elloree-Osier-Fluvaquents complex, frequently
Oa2-6 to 34 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) flooded; about 2,500 feet north and 833 feet west of the
muck; about 50 percent fiber before rubbing, less southeast corner of sec. 30, T. 8 S., R. 14 E.
than 10 percent after rubbing; massive; very friable;
many fine and common coarse roots; extremely A-0 to 4 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
acid; gradual wavy boundary. loamy fine sand; weak fine granular structure;
Oa3-34 to 65 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR friable; few fine, medium, and large roots; neutral;
3/2) muck; about 30 percent fiber before rubbing, clear wavy boundary.
less than 10 percent after rubbing; massive; Eg1-4 to 22 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
nonsticky; many fine roots; less than 10 percent loamy fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine
mineral material; extremely acid; clear wavy roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
boundary. Eg2-22 to 25 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) loamy fine
Cg-65 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single sand; weak medium granular structure; friable;
grained; nonsticky; strongly acid. neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg1-25 to 37 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay
The organic material is 51 to more than 80 inches loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
thick. It is extremely acid (as measured by the 0.01 structure; friable; many fine roots along faces of
molar calcium chloride procedure). The mineral horizon peds; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
is very strongly acid or strongly acid. Btg2-37 to 62 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay
The surface tier has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2 loam; few fine faint dark grayish brown mottles;
to 4, and chroma of 1 to 3. The content of fibers is moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
about 40 to 60 percent before rubbing and 20 percent friable; neutral; abrupt wavy boundary.
after rubbing. Cg-62 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/2) sand; single
The subsurface tier has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value grained; loose; mildly alkaline.
of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The content of fibers is
about 40 percent before rubbing and less than 10 The solum is more than 40 inches thick. Reaction is
percent after rubbing, strongly acid to slightly acid in the A horizon,
The bottom tier has the same hue, value, and moderately acid to neutral in the E horizon, and neutral
chroma as the subsurface tier. The content of fibers is to moderately alkaline throughout the rest of the profile.
about 30 percent before rubbing, and fibers make up The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y or is neutral
less than 1/6 of the volume after rubbing, in hue. It has value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 0 to 3. It is
The Cg horizon, if it occurs, is sandy or loamy 3 to 7 inches thick.







72 Soil Survey


The E horizon has hue of 10YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to grayish brown (10YR 5/2), dark brown (7.5YR 4/4),
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is loamy sand, sand, or fine and brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) fine sandy loam
sand. It is 14 to 30 inches thick. and pockets of sandy clay loam; weak medium
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to subangular blocky structure; friable; very strongly
7, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has acid; gradual wavy boundary.
value of 4 to 7. It is 15 to 30 inches thick. Cg-63 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sandy
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to loam; many coarse prominent brownish yellow
8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sandy clay loam, sandy (10YR 6/6), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), and reddish
loam, loamy sand, or sand. yellow (7.5YR 6/6) mottles; pockets of sandy clay
loam; massive; friable; very strongly acid.
Eunola Series
The thickness of the solum ranges from 40 to more
The Eunola series consists of nearly level and gently than 60 inches. Reaction is very strongly acid to slightly
sloping, moderately well drained soils in the uplands, acid in the A horizon and very strongly acid to
These soils formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy moderately acid throughout the rest of the profile.
marine deposits. They are fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
Aquic Hapludults. chroma of 1 or 2. It is 4 to 10 inches thick.
Eunola soils are associated with Albany, Blanton, The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
Bonneau, Meggett, Ortega, and Shadeville soils. Albany chroma of 3 or 4. It is fine sand, loamy fine sand, or
and Blanton soils have sandy A and E horizons that, sandy loam. It is 0 to 12 inches thick.
combined, are more than 40 inches thick. Bonneau and The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4
Shadeville soils have sandy A and E horizons that, or 5, and chroma of 4 to 6. It is mottled in shades of
combined, are more than 20 inches thick. Shadeville red, brown, yellow, or gray. This horizon is sandy clay
soils have high base saturation. Meggett soils are loam, clay loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy loam. It is
poorly drained. Ortega soils are sandy to a depth of 15 to more than 40 inches thick.
more than 80 inches. The BC horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR or is
Typical pedon of Eunola fine sand, in an area of neutral in hue. It has value of 4 to 7 and chroma of 0 to
Eunola-Bonneau fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes; 6. In some pedons it is mottled in shades of red, brown,
about 2,200 feet north of Florida Highway 47 and 300 yellow, or gray. This horizon is sandy loam, fine sandy
feet east of U.S. 129; about 1,500 feet north and 1,300 loam, or sandy clay loam. It is 4 to 20 inches thick.
feet east of the southwest corner of sec. 9, T. 10 S., R. The C horizon has colors similar to those of the BC
15 E. horizon. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loamy sand,
loamy fine sand, fine sand, or sand.
Ap-0 to 9 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; Garcon Series
few fine roots; moderately alkaline; clear wavy
boundary. The Garcon series consists of nearly level and gently
E-9 to 19 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils in the slightly
many very dark grayish brown splotches; few higher positions on flood plains. These soils are sandy
charcoal fragments; weak fine granular structure; to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and are loamy in the
very friable; few fine roots; moderately acid; abrupt lower part. They formed in sandy and loamy marine
wavy boundary. sediments. The soils are loamy, siliceous, thermic
Bt1-19 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine Arenic Hapludults.
sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky Garcon soils are associated with Albany and Elloree
structure; friable; few very dark grayish brown root soils, Fluvaquents, and Osier and Penney soils. Albany
stains; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, soils have sandy A and E horizons that, combined, are
Bt2-26 to 35 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) 40 to 79 inches thick. Elloree soils are poorly drained.
sandy clay loam; common medium distinct light Fluvaquents are stratified and are alkaline. Osier and
brownish gray (10YR 6/2), dark brown (10YR 4/3), Penney soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80
and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; moderate inches. Osier soils are poorly drained. Penney soils are
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; very excessively drained.
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Typical pedon of Garcon fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
BC-35 to 63 inches; mottled light gray (10YR 7/2), slopes, occasionally flooded; about 0.4 mile north of







72 Soil Survey


The E horizon has hue of 10YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to grayish brown (10YR 5/2), dark brown (7.5YR 4/4),
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is loamy sand, sand, or fine and brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) fine sandy loam
sand. It is 14 to 30 inches thick. and pockets of sandy clay loam; weak medium
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to subangular blocky structure; friable; very strongly
7, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has acid; gradual wavy boundary.
value of 4 to 7. It is 15 to 30 inches thick. Cg-63 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sandy
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to loam; many coarse prominent brownish yellow
8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sandy clay loam, sandy (10YR 6/6), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), and reddish
loam, loamy sand, or sand. yellow (7.5YR 6/6) mottles; pockets of sandy clay
loam; massive; friable; very strongly acid.
Eunola Series
The thickness of the solum ranges from 40 to more
The Eunola series consists of nearly level and gently than 60 inches. Reaction is very strongly acid to slightly
sloping, moderately well drained soils in the uplands, acid in the A horizon and very strongly acid to
These soils formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy moderately acid throughout the rest of the profile.
marine deposits. They are fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
Aquic Hapludults. chroma of 1 or 2. It is 4 to 10 inches thick.
Eunola soils are associated with Albany, Blanton, The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
Bonneau, Meggett, Ortega, and Shadeville soils. Albany chroma of 3 or 4. It is fine sand, loamy fine sand, or
and Blanton soils have sandy A and E horizons that, sandy loam. It is 0 to 12 inches thick.
combined, are more than 40 inches thick. Bonneau and The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4
Shadeville soils have sandy A and E horizons that, or 5, and chroma of 4 to 6. It is mottled in shades of
combined, are more than 20 inches thick. Shadeville red, brown, yellow, or gray. This horizon is sandy clay
soils have high base saturation. Meggett soils are loam, clay loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy loam. It is
poorly drained. Ortega soils are sandy to a depth of 15 to more than 40 inches thick.
more than 80 inches. The BC horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR or is
Typical pedon of Eunola fine sand, in an area of neutral in hue. It has value of 4 to 7 and chroma of 0 to
Eunola-Bonneau fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes; 6. In some pedons it is mottled in shades of red, brown,
about 2,200 feet north of Florida Highway 47 and 300 yellow, or gray. This horizon is sandy loam, fine sandy
feet east of U.S. 129; about 1,500 feet north and 1,300 loam, or sandy clay loam. It is 4 to 20 inches thick.
feet east of the southwest corner of sec. 9, T. 10 S., R. The C horizon has colors similar to those of the BC
15 E. horizon. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loamy sand,
loamy fine sand, fine sand, or sand.
Ap-0 to 9 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; Garcon Series
few fine roots; moderately alkaline; clear wavy
boundary. The Garcon series consists of nearly level and gently
E-9 to 19 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils in the slightly
many very dark grayish brown splotches; few higher positions on flood plains. These soils are sandy
charcoal fragments; weak fine granular structure; to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and are loamy in the
very friable; few fine roots; moderately acid; abrupt lower part. They formed in sandy and loamy marine
wavy boundary. sediments. The soils are loamy, siliceous, thermic
Bt1-19 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine Arenic Hapludults.
sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky Garcon soils are associated with Albany and Elloree
structure; friable; few very dark grayish brown root soils, Fluvaquents, and Osier and Penney soils. Albany
stains; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, soils have sandy A and E horizons that, combined, are
Bt2-26 to 35 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) 40 to 79 inches thick. Elloree soils are poorly drained.
sandy clay loam; common medium distinct light Fluvaquents are stratified and are alkaline. Osier and
brownish gray (10YR 6/2), dark brown (10YR 4/3), Penney soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80
and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; moderate inches. Osier soils are poorly drained. Penney soils are
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; very excessively drained.
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Typical pedon of Garcon fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
BC-35 to 63 inches; mottled light gray (10YR 7/2), slopes, occasionally flooded; about 0.4 mile north of








Gilchrist County, Florida 73


graded road and 0.75 mile east of the Suwannee River; lower part of the Bt2 horizon ranges to 21 percent clay.
2,171 feet north and 2,171 feet east of the southwest This horizon is 0 to 15 inches thick.
corner of sec. 4, T. 8 S., R. 14 E. The C horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value of
6 or 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is mottled in shades of
A-0 to 7 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) red, brown, yellow, or gray. This horizon is sand or fine
fine sand; single grained; loose; many fine roots; sand.
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E1-7 to 17 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single Hurricane Series
grained; loose; many fine roots; very strongly acid; The Hurricane series consists of nearly level and
gradual wavy boundary. gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils on slight
E2-17 to 29 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; rises in the flatwoods. These soils are sandy to a depth
common medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR of more than 80 inches. They formed in thick beds of
6/6, 6/8) mottles; single grained; loose; very marine deposits. The soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. Grossarenic Entic Haplohumods.
Bt1-29 to 40 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sandy Hurricane soils are associated with Albany, Blanton,
loam; many coarse prominent yellowish brown Leon, Mandarin, Ortega, and Ridgewood soils. Albany
(10YR 5/6) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6, 6/8) and Blanton soils have a loamy Bt horizon. Blanton
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; soils are moderately well drained. Leon and Mandarin
very friable; few medium roots; extremely acid; soils have a Bh horizon within a depth of 30 inches.
gradual wavy boundary. Leon soils are poorly drained. Ortega and Ridgewood
Bt2-40 to 58 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam; soils do not have a Bh horizon. Ortega soils are
many coarse prominent red (2.5YR 4/8) and light moderately well drained.
red (2.5YR 6/6) and common medium prominent Typical pedon of Hurricane fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and brownish yellow slopes; 1.1 miles south of County Road 340 and 4.2
(10YR 6/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular miles east of U.S. 129; about 2,400 feet south and
blocky structure; firm; few large roots; extremely 1,850 feet west of the northeast corner of sec. 22, T. 8
acid; gradual wavy boundary. S., R. 15 E.
C-58 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
common medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
6/6, 6/8) mottles; weak fine granular structure; very sand; single grained; loose; very friable; many fine,
friable; extremely acid. medium, and large roots; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
The thickness of the solum ranges from 45 to 60 E1-6 to 20 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
inches. Reaction is extremely acid to strongly acid fine sand; single grained; loose; many fine medium
throughout the profile, and large roots; common medium distinct black
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and (10YR 2/1) charcoal fragments; white (10YR 8/2)
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 5 to 8 inches thick. streaks and splotches; very strongly acid; gradual
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and wavy boundary.
chroma of 3 to 6. It is mottled in shades of brown, E2-20 to 29 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
yellow, or gray in the lower part. This horizon is loamy common medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR
fine sand, loamy sand, fine sand, or sand. It is 13 to 35 6/8) and light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles;
inches thick, single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy
The Btl horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, boundary.
and chroma of 3 to 6. It is mottled in shades of gray, E3-29 to 65 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
yellow, or brown. This horizon is sandy loam or fine common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
sandy loam. It is 5 to 20 inches thick. 5/6, 5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; few medium
The Bt2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and large roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is mottled in shades of gray, boundary.
brown, yellow, or red. The content of silt is less than 20 E4-65 to 72 inches; pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2) sand;
percent. This horizon is dominantly sandy loam, fine single grained; loose; extremely acid; clear wavy
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam, but some pedons have boundary.
pockets of sandy clay. By weighted average, the Bh-72 to 80 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fine
content of clay in the upper 20 inches of the argillic sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
horizon is less than 18 percent. In some pedons the extremely acid.







74 Soil Survey


The solum is 80 or more inches thick. The combined is very strongly acid or strongly acid throughout the
content of silt and clay is less than 5 percent between profile.
depths of 10 and 40 inches. Depth to the spodic horizon The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
is 51 to 79 inches. Reaction is extremely acid to chroma of 1 or 2. It is 2 to 6 inches thick. The C horizon
moderately acid throughout the profile, has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 3 to 8.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 to 3. It is 3 to 8 inches thick. Leon Series
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to
7, and chroma of 1 to 4. In some pedons it is mottled in The Leon series consists of nearly level, poorly
shades of brown, gray, or yellow. It is sand or fine sand. drained soils in broad areas in the flatwoods. These
Many of the sand grains are uncoated. This horizon is soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches. They
46 to 65 inches thick, formed in thick beds of sandy marine deposits. The
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR, soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Aeric Haplaquods.
value of 2 to 5, and chroma of 1 to 4. It is sand or fine Leon soils are associated with Allanton, Mandarin,
sand. The sand grains are well coated with organic Pottsburg, Sapelo, and Wesconnett soils. Allanton soils
matter, have a dark A horizon that is thicker than that of the
Leon soils. They also have a thicker E horizon. They
Kershaw Series are very poorly drained. Mandarin soils are somewhat
poorly drained. Pottsburg soils have an E horizon that is
The Kershaw series consists of nearly level to thicker than that of the Leon soils. Sapelo soils have a
moderately sloping, excessively drained soils in the Btg horizon below the Bh horizon. Wesconnett soils
uplands. These soils are sandy to a depth of more than have a dark A horizon that is thicker than that of the
80 inches. They formed in thick beds of sandy marine Leon soils and that is directly above a Bh horizon. They
deposits. The soils are thermic, uncoated Typic are very poorly drained.
Quartzipsamments. Typical pedon of Leon fine sand; 0.3 mile south of
Kershaw soils are associated with Alpin, Ortega, County Road 340 and 3.35 miles east of U.S. 129;
Penney, Ridgewood, and Wadley soils. Alpin soils have about 1,900 feet north and 1,000 feet west of the
a coated sandy texture to a depth of 80 inches and southeast corner of sec. 16, T. 8 S., R. 15 E.
have lamellae below a depth of 50 inches. Ortega soils
are moderately well drained. Penney soils have Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
lamellae below a depth of 60 inches. Ridgewood soils single grained; very friable; many fine and medium
are somewhat poorly drained. Wadley soils have sandy roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A and E horizons that, combined, are 40 to 79 inches E1-6 to 15 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
thick and have a loamy Bt horizon. They are well sand; common medium distinct very dark gray
drained. (1 YR 3/1) mottles along root channels; single
Typical pedon of Kershaw fine sand, gently rolling; grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; very
about 1,837 feet south of trail road and 6,012 feet west strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
of Florida Highway 47; about 1,667 feet south and 500 E2-15 to 21 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
feet west of the northeast corner of sec. 36, T. 8 S., R. fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine and
15 E. medium roots; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy

A-0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) boundary.
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine and Bhl-21 to 28 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy medium subangular blocky structure; friable; weak
boundary. cementation in parts of the horizon; sand grains
C1-5 to 45 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; coated with organic matter; few fine roots; very
single grained; loose; common fine black charcoal strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
fragments; few medium roots; strongly acid; gradual Bh2-28 to 40 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
wavy boundary. fine sand; few medium distinct black (10YR 2/1)
C2-45 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid. friable; weak cementation in parts of the horizon;
sand grains coated with organic matter; few fine
The sandy material extends to a depth of 80 inches, roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
The combined content of silt and clay is less than 5 BC-40 to 60 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
percent between depths of 10 and 40 inches. Reaction sand; single grained; loose; many uncoated sand







74 Soil Survey


The solum is 80 or more inches thick. The combined is very strongly acid or strongly acid throughout the
content of silt and clay is less than 5 percent between profile.
depths of 10 and 40 inches. Depth to the spodic horizon The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
is 51 to 79 inches. Reaction is extremely acid to chroma of 1 or 2. It is 2 to 6 inches thick. The C horizon
moderately acid throughout the profile, has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 3 to 8.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 to 3. It is 3 to 8 inches thick. Leon Series
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to
7, and chroma of 1 to 4. In some pedons it is mottled in The Leon series consists of nearly level, poorly
shades of brown, gray, or yellow. It is sand or fine sand. drained soils in broad areas in the flatwoods. These
Many of the sand grains are uncoated. This horizon is soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches. They
46 to 65 inches thick, formed in thick beds of sandy marine deposits. The
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR, soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Aeric Haplaquods.
value of 2 to 5, and chroma of 1 to 4. It is sand or fine Leon soils are associated with Allanton, Mandarin,
sand. The sand grains are well coated with organic Pottsburg, Sapelo, and Wesconnett soils. Allanton soils
matter, have a dark A horizon that is thicker than that of the
Leon soils. They also have a thicker E horizon. They
Kershaw Series are very poorly drained. Mandarin soils are somewhat
poorly drained. Pottsburg soils have an E horizon that is
The Kershaw series consists of nearly level to thicker than that of the Leon soils. Sapelo soils have a
moderately sloping, excessively drained soils in the Btg horizon below the Bh horizon. Wesconnett soils
uplands. These soils are sandy to a depth of more than have a dark A horizon that is thicker than that of the
80 inches. They formed in thick beds of sandy marine Leon soils and that is directly above a Bh horizon. They
deposits. The soils are thermic, uncoated Typic are very poorly drained.
Quartzipsamments. Typical pedon of Leon fine sand; 0.3 mile south of
Kershaw soils are associated with Alpin, Ortega, County Road 340 and 3.35 miles east of U.S. 129;
Penney, Ridgewood, and Wadley soils. Alpin soils have about 1,900 feet north and 1,000 feet west of the
a coated sandy texture to a depth of 80 inches and southeast corner of sec. 16, T. 8 S., R. 15 E.
have lamellae below a depth of 50 inches. Ortega soils
are moderately well drained. Penney soils have Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
lamellae below a depth of 60 inches. Ridgewood soils single grained; very friable; many fine and medium
are somewhat poorly drained. Wadley soils have sandy roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A and E horizons that, combined, are 40 to 79 inches E1-6 to 15 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
thick and have a loamy Bt horizon. They are well sand; common medium distinct very dark gray
drained. (1 YR 3/1) mottles along root channels; single
Typical pedon of Kershaw fine sand, gently rolling; grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; very
about 1,837 feet south of trail road and 6,012 feet west strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
of Florida Highway 47; about 1,667 feet south and 500 E2-15 to 21 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
feet west of the northeast corner of sec. 36, T. 8 S., R. fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine and
15 E. medium roots; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy

A-0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) boundary.
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine and Bhl-21 to 28 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy medium subangular blocky structure; friable; weak
boundary. cementation in parts of the horizon; sand grains
C1-5 to 45 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; coated with organic matter; few fine roots; very
single grained; loose; common fine black charcoal strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
fragments; few medium roots; strongly acid; gradual Bh2-28 to 40 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
wavy boundary. fine sand; few medium distinct black (10YR 2/1)
C2-45 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid. friable; weak cementation in parts of the horizon;
sand grains coated with organic matter; few fine
The sandy material extends to a depth of 80 inches, roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
The combined content of silt and clay is less than 5 BC-40 to 60 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
percent between depths of 10 and 40 inches. Reaction sand; single grained; loose; many uncoated sand








Gilchrist County, Florida 75


grains; few fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy A2-10 to 18 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
boundary, sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
C-60 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
sand; few fine faint pale brown streaks; single boundary.
grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains; very E-18 to 25 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
strongly acid. sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
The thickness of the solum ranges from 30 to more Bhl-25 to 46 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
than 80 inches. The texture is sand or fine sand to a fine granular structure; friable; sand grains coated
depth of at least 80 inches. Reaction ranges from with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual
extremely acid to strongly acid throughout the profile wavy boundary.
unless the surface has been limed. Bh2-46 to 51 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) fine sand;
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and weak fine granular structure; friable; sand grains
chroma of 1, or it is neutral in hue and has value of 2 to coated with organic matter; very strongly acid;
4. It is 2 to 8 inches thick, gradual wavy boundary.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 6 to Bh3-51 to 80 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
8, and chroma of 2, or it is neutral in hue and has value fine granular structure; loose; sand grains coated
of 5 to 8. In some pedons it has mottles with higher with organic matter; very strongly acid.
chroma and vertical black or very dark gray streaks.
This horizon is 4 to 22 inches thick. The texture generally is fine sand or sand to a depth
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR, of 80 inches or more, but the surface layer is mucky
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The sand grains fine sand. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to
are well coated with organic matter. This horizon is 6 to strongly acid throughout the profile.
35 inches thick. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
The BC horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR or chroma of 1, or it is neutral in hue and has value of 2 or
2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is 0 to 5 3. It is 8 to 20 inches thick.
inches thick. The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4 chroma of 1 or 2. It is 2 to 18 inches thick.
to 8, and chroma of 3 or 4. Some pedons have a The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2
bisequum of E' and B'h horizons below the Bh horizon, or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The sand grains are well
coated with organic matter.
Lynn Haven Series
Mandarin Series
The Lynn Haven series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils in depressions. These soils are The Mandarin series consists of nearly level,
sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches. They formed somewhat poorly drained, acid soils in the flatwoods.
in thick beds of sandy marine deposits. The soils are These soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80
sandy, siliceous, thermic Typic Haplaquods. inches. They formed in thick beds of sandy marine
Lynn Haven soils are associated with Allanton, Leon, deposits. The soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Typic
Mandarin, and Osier soils. Leon, Mandarin, and Osier Haplohumods.
soils do not have an umbric epipedon. Mandarin soils Mandarin soils are associated with Hurricane, Leon,
are somewhat poorly drained. Osier soils do not have a and Ortega soils. Hurricane soils have a Bh horizon
spodic horizon. Allanton soils have a spodic horizon below a depth of 50 inches. Leon soils are poorly
below a depth of 50 inches. drained. Ortega soils do not have a Bh horizon. They
Typical pedon of Lynn Haven mucky fine sand, in an are moderately well drained.
area of Lynn Haven and Allanton mucky fine sands, Typical pedon of Mandarin fine sand; 0.5 mile south
depressional; about 0.6 mile north of County Road 232 of County Road 340 and 3.7 miles east of U.S. 129;
and 0.5 mile east of trail road; 1,500 feet south and 166 about 1,000 feet north and 700 feet east of the
feet east of the northwest corner of sec. 4, T. 9 S., R. southwest corner of sec. 15, T. 8 S., R. 15 E.
15 E.
Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
A1-0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand; single grained; weak fine granular structure; many
single grained; loose; many fine medium roots; very fine roots; few fine charcoal fragments; extremely
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. acid; clear wavy boundary.








Gilchrist County, Florida 75


grains; few fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy A2-10 to 18 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
boundary, sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
C-60 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
sand; few fine faint pale brown streaks; single boundary.
grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains; very E-18 to 25 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
strongly acid. sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
The thickness of the solum ranges from 30 to more Bhl-25 to 46 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
than 80 inches. The texture is sand or fine sand to a fine granular structure; friable; sand grains coated
depth of at least 80 inches. Reaction ranges from with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual
extremely acid to strongly acid throughout the profile wavy boundary.
unless the surface has been limed. Bh2-46 to 51 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) fine sand;
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and weak fine granular structure; friable; sand grains
chroma of 1, or it is neutral in hue and has value of 2 to coated with organic matter; very strongly acid;
4. It is 2 to 8 inches thick, gradual wavy boundary.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 6 to Bh3-51 to 80 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
8, and chroma of 2, or it is neutral in hue and has value fine granular structure; loose; sand grains coated
of 5 to 8. In some pedons it has mottles with higher with organic matter; very strongly acid.
chroma and vertical black or very dark gray streaks.
This horizon is 4 to 22 inches thick. The texture generally is fine sand or sand to a depth
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR, of 80 inches or more, but the surface layer is mucky
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The sand grains fine sand. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to
are well coated with organic matter. This horizon is 6 to strongly acid throughout the profile.
35 inches thick. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
The BC horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR or chroma of 1, or it is neutral in hue and has value of 2 or
2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is 0 to 5 3. It is 8 to 20 inches thick.
inches thick. The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4 chroma of 1 or 2. It is 2 to 18 inches thick.
to 8, and chroma of 3 or 4. Some pedons have a The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2
bisequum of E' and B'h horizons below the Bh horizon, or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The sand grains are well
coated with organic matter.
Lynn Haven Series
Mandarin Series
The Lynn Haven series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils in depressions. These soils are The Mandarin series consists of nearly level,
sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches. They formed somewhat poorly drained, acid soils in the flatwoods.
in thick beds of sandy marine deposits. The soils are These soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80
sandy, siliceous, thermic Typic Haplaquods. inches. They formed in thick beds of sandy marine
Lynn Haven soils are associated with Allanton, Leon, deposits. The soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Typic
Mandarin, and Osier soils. Leon, Mandarin, and Osier Haplohumods.
soils do not have an umbric epipedon. Mandarin soils Mandarin soils are associated with Hurricane, Leon,
are somewhat poorly drained. Osier soils do not have a and Ortega soils. Hurricane soils have a Bh horizon
spodic horizon. Allanton soils have a spodic horizon below a depth of 50 inches. Leon soils are poorly
below a depth of 50 inches. drained. Ortega soils do not have a Bh horizon. They
Typical pedon of Lynn Haven mucky fine sand, in an are moderately well drained.
area of Lynn Haven and Allanton mucky fine sands, Typical pedon of Mandarin fine sand; 0.5 mile south
depressional; about 0.6 mile north of County Road 232 of County Road 340 and 3.7 miles east of U.S. 129;
and 0.5 mile east of trail road; 1,500 feet south and 166 about 1,000 feet north and 700 feet east of the
feet east of the northwest corner of sec. 4, T. 9 S., R. southwest corner of sec. 15, T. 8 S., R. 15 E.
15 E.
Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
A1-0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand; single grained; weak fine granular structure; many
single grained; loose; many fine medium roots; very fine roots; few fine charcoal fragments; extremely
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. acid; clear wavy boundary.








76 Soil Survey


E-6 to 20 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; deposits. The soils are fine, mixed, thermic Typic
common medium distinct pinkish gray (7.5YR 7/2) Albaqualfs.
mottles; single grained; loose; common fine and The Meggett soils in this survey area are taxadjuncts
medium roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. to the series because they have a higher content of
Bhl-20 to 24 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; single montmorillonitic clay than is defined as the range for the
grained; weak medium granular structure; extremely series. This difference, however, does not alter the use
acid; clear wavy boundary, and management of the soils.
Bh2-24 to 29 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) Meggett soils are associated with Bonneau, Eunola,
fine sand; single grained; weak fine granular Garcon, and Surrency soils. Bonneau, Garcon, and
structure; extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary. Surrency soils have a Bt horizon below a depth of 20
E'1-29 to 59 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; inches. Bonneau and Eunola soils are moderately well
single grained; loose; extremely acid; gradual wavy drained. Garcon and Surrency soils have low base
boundary, saturation. Garcon soils are somewhat poorly drained.
E'2-59 to 71 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/2) fine sand; Typical pedon of Meggett fine sand, frequently
single grained; loose; extremely acid; gradual wavy flooded; approximately 2.2 miles south of County Road
boundary. 344 and 500 feet east of U.S. 129; about 250 feet north
B'h-71 to 80 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; single and 1,400 feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 5,
grained; loose; extremely acid. T. 10 S., R. 15 E.

The solum is more than 35 inches thick. Reaction is A-0 to 4 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine sand;
extremely acid to moderately acid throughout the weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine
profile, roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 6, and E-4 to 11 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
chroma of 1, or it is neutral in hue and has value of 3 to sand; common fine faint brown (10YR 5/3) and pale
5. It is 2 to 7 inches thick, brown (10YR 6/3) and common fine distinct grayish
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; weak fine granular
chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand or fine sand. It is 10 to 22 structure; very friable; few fine roots; strongly acid;
inches thick. abrupt wavy boundary.
The Bh horizon has hue of 2.5YR, value of 2 or 3, Btgl-11 to 31 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
and chroma of 2 to 4; hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and sandy clay; many coarse prominent red (2.5YR 4/8)
chroma of 1 to 4; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma and many medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR
of 2; or hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
to 3. It is sand or fine sand. It is 8 to 25 inches thick, structure; sticky; few medium roots; strongly acid;
This horizon is weakly cemented in places. The sand gradual wavy boundary.
grains are well coated with organic matter. Btg2-31 to 40 inches; mottled gray (10YR 6/1) and
The BE horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy clay; moderate
of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 4; hue of 7.5YR, value of medium subangular blocky structure; sticky; many
4, and chroma of 2 to 4; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, concretions of calcium carbonate; strongly acid;
and chroma of 4. It is sand or fine sand. It is 0 to 17 gradual wavy boundary.
inches thick. Cg-40 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sandy clay loam;
The E' horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and many medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR
chroma of 1 to 3. It is sand or fine sand. It is 10 to 45 6/6) mottles; massive; friable; pockets of sandy
inches thick. clay; many 1/4-inch concretions of calcium
The B'h horizon has the same color range as the Bh carbonate; moderately alkaline.
horizon. It extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. It

is sand or fine sand. This horizon is weakly cemented in The solum is 40 to more than 80 inches thick.
places. The sand grains are coated with organic matter. Reaction is very strongly acid to slightly acid in the A
and E horizons, strongly acid to moderately alkaline in
Meggett Series the B horizon, and slightly acid to moderately alkaline in
the Cg horizon.
The Meggett series consists of nearly level, poorly The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
drained soils adjacent to drainageways. These soils are chroma of 1 or 2. It is 3 to 6 inches thick.
sandy to a depth of less than 20 inches and have a The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6. and
clayey subsoil. They formed in clayey and sandy marine chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand or fine sand. It is 0 to 7








Gilchrist County, Florida 77


inches thick. In pedons that do not have this horizon, less than 5 percent between depths of 10 and 40
the texture changes abruptly between the A and Btg inches. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
horizons. slightly acid throughout the profile unless the surface
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to has been limed.
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It has few to many mottles in The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
shades of gray, yellow, brown, or red. It is sandy clay or chroma of 1 or 2. It is 3 to 6 inches thick.
sandy clay loam. It is 29 to 65 inches thick. The number The upper part of the C horizon has hue of 10YR,
of fine or medium concretions of soft or hard calcium value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 8. White or light
carbonate ranges from none to many. gray mottles in this part of the horizon are the result of
Some pedons have a BCg horizon. This horizon has uncoated sand grains and are not indicative of wetness.
hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or The lower part has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and
2. It is sandy clay or sandy clay loam. The number of chroma of 1 or 2.
fine or medium concretions of soft or hard calcium
carbonate ranges from none to many. The Cg horizon Osier Series
ranges from sand to clay. Q
ranges from sand to clay. The Osier series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils on flood plains. These soils are sandy to a
Ortega Series depth of more than 80 inches. They formed in thick
The Ortega series consists of nearly level and gently beds of sandy marine deposits. The soils are siliceous,
sloping, moderately well drained soils on low ridges in thermic Typic Psammaquents.
the flatwoods and in transitional areas between the Osier soils are associated with Albany and Elloree
uplands and the flatwoods. These soils are sandy to a soils, Fluvaquents, and Garcon, Leon, and Ridgewood
depth of 80 inches or more. They formed in thick beds soils. Albany and Elloree soils have a Bt horizon at a
of sandy marine deposits. The soils are thermic, depth of 40 to 80 inches. Albany, Garcon, and
uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments. Ridgewood soils are somewhat poorly drained. Garcon
Ortega soils are associated with Albany, Blanton, soils have a Bt horizon within a depth of 40 inches.
Hurricane, Penney, and Ridgewood soils. Albany and Fluvaquents are stratified and have gravel in the lower
Blanton soils have a Bt horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 part. Leon soils have a Bh horizon within a depth of 30
inches. Albany, Hurricane, and Ridgewood soils are inches.
somewhat poorly drained. Hurricane soils have a Bh Typical pedon of Osier fine sand, in an area of
horizon. Penney soils are excessively drained. Elloree-Osier-Fluvaquents complex, frequently flooded;
Typical pedon of Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent 500 feet south of graded road and approximately 167
slopes; 167 feet north of County Road 232 and 2,171 feet west of trail road; 2,500 feet south and 1,300 feet
feet west of trail road; 3,173 feet south and 334 feet east of the northwest corner of sec. 32, T. 8 S., R. 14
west of the northeast corner of sec. 4, T. 9 S., R. 15 E. E.

Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) A-0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
many fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary. boundary.
C1-6 to 52 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single Cgl-7 to 11 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few clean, white (10YR 8/1) sand grained; loose; common fine roots; very strongly
grains; few charcoal fragments; few fine roots; very acid; gradual wavy boundary.
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Cg2-11 to 19 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
C2-52 to 60 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; fine sand; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
common medium distinct dark yellowish brown 5/4) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
(10YR 4/6), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), and very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; single grained; Cg3-19 to 45 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. common medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR
C3-60 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; 6/8) mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly
few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; acid; gradual wavy boundary.
single grained; loose; strongly acid. Cg4-45 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
common medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR
The texture is fine sand or sand to a depth of 80 5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly
inches or more. The combined content of silt and clay is acid; gradual wavy boundary.








Gilchrist County, Florida 77


inches thick. In pedons that do not have this horizon, less than 5 percent between depths of 10 and 40
the texture changes abruptly between the A and Btg inches. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
horizons. slightly acid throughout the profile unless the surface
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to has been limed.
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It has few to many mottles in The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
shades of gray, yellow, brown, or red. It is sandy clay or chroma of 1 or 2. It is 3 to 6 inches thick.
sandy clay loam. It is 29 to 65 inches thick. The number The upper part of the C horizon has hue of 10YR,
of fine or medium concretions of soft or hard calcium value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 8. White or light
carbonate ranges from none to many. gray mottles in this part of the horizon are the result of
Some pedons have a BCg horizon. This horizon has uncoated sand grains and are not indicative of wetness.
hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or The lower part has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and
2. It is sandy clay or sandy clay loam. The number of chroma of 1 or 2.
fine or medium concretions of soft or hard calcium
carbonate ranges from none to many. The Cg horizon Osier Series
ranges from sand to clay. Q
ranges from sand to clay. The Osier series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils on flood plains. These soils are sandy to a
Ortega Series depth of more than 80 inches. They formed in thick
The Ortega series consists of nearly level and gently beds of sandy marine deposits. The soils are siliceous,
sloping, moderately well drained soils on low ridges in thermic Typic Psammaquents.
the flatwoods and in transitional areas between the Osier soils are associated with Albany and Elloree
uplands and the flatwoods. These soils are sandy to a soils, Fluvaquents, and Garcon, Leon, and Ridgewood
depth of 80 inches or more. They formed in thick beds soils. Albany and Elloree soils have a Bt horizon at a
of sandy marine deposits. The soils are thermic, depth of 40 to 80 inches. Albany, Garcon, and
uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments. Ridgewood soils are somewhat poorly drained. Garcon
Ortega soils are associated with Albany, Blanton, soils have a Bt horizon within a depth of 40 inches.
Hurricane, Penney, and Ridgewood soils. Albany and Fluvaquents are stratified and have gravel in the lower
Blanton soils have a Bt horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 part. Leon soils have a Bh horizon within a depth of 30
inches. Albany, Hurricane, and Ridgewood soils are inches.
somewhat poorly drained. Hurricane soils have a Bh Typical pedon of Osier fine sand, in an area of
horizon. Penney soils are excessively drained. Elloree-Osier-Fluvaquents complex, frequently flooded;
Typical pedon of Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent 500 feet south of graded road and approximately 167
slopes; 167 feet north of County Road 232 and 2,171 feet west of trail road; 2,500 feet south and 1,300 feet
feet west of trail road; 3,173 feet south and 334 feet east of the northwest corner of sec. 32, T. 8 S., R. 14
west of the northeast corner of sec. 4, T. 9 S., R. 15 E. E.

Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) A-0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
many fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary. boundary.
C1-6 to 52 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single Cgl-7 to 11 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few clean, white (10YR 8/1) sand grained; loose; common fine roots; very strongly
grains; few charcoal fragments; few fine roots; very acid; gradual wavy boundary.
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Cg2-11 to 19 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
C2-52 to 60 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; fine sand; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
common medium distinct dark yellowish brown 5/4) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
(10YR 4/6), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), and very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; single grained; Cg3-19 to 45 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. common medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR
C3-60 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; 6/8) mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly
few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; acid; gradual wavy boundary.
single grained; loose; strongly acid. Cg4-45 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
common medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR
The texture is fine sand or sand to a depth of 80 5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly
inches or more. The combined content of silt and clay is acid; gradual wavy boundary.







78 Soil Survey


Cg5-60 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; Btg-62 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay
single grained; loose; very strongly acid. loam; common medium prominent very pale brown
(10YR 7/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular
The combined content of silt and clay is 5 to 10 blocky structure; friable; few fine limestone pebbles;
percent between depths of 10 and 40 inches. Reaction pockets of sandy loam; extremely acid.
ranges from very strongly acid to moderately acid
throughout the profile. The thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to more
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and than 80 inches. The depth to limestone ranges from 70
chroma of 1 or 3 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 5, and chroma to more than 80 inches. Reaction ranges from very
of 2. It is 3 to 7 inches thick. strongly acid to neutral in the A and E horizons and
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 8, from extremely acid to moderately alkaline in the B
and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has horizon.
value of 4 to 8. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 2 or 3. It is fine sand or sand. It is 6 to 10
Otela Series inches thick.
The AE horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value
The Otela series consists of nearly level and gently of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is 8 to 18 inches
sloping, moderately well drained soils on broad uplands. thick.
These soils are sandy to a depth of 40 inches or more The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and
and are loamy in the lower part. They formed in marine chroma of 1 to 6. It has chroma of 3 or more in some
sediments deposited on karst topography. The soils are parts. In some pedons it is mottled in shades of brown
loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleudalfs. or yellow. The combined content of silt and clay is less
Otela soils are associated with Blanton, Shadeville, than 5 percent. This horizon is 27 to 50 inches thick.
Penney, and Wadley soils. Blanton soils have base Some pedons have an E&Bt horizon of fine sand and
saturation of less than 35 percent. Shadeville soils have lamellae of loamy fine sand or sandy loam.
hard limestone bedrock below a depth of 48 inches. The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
Penney soils do not have an argillic horizon. Wadley chroma of 3 to 8. In some pedons it is mottled in
soils are well drained. They have base saturation of shades of brown, yellow, or gray. This horizon is sandy
less than 35 percent, loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. It is 11 to 27
Typical pedon of Otela fine sand, in an area of inches thick.
Shadeville-Otela fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes; 200 The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8,
feet north of graded road and 170 feet west of County and chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons it is mottled in
Road 340; approximately 1,200 feet south and 170 feet shades of yellow or brown. This horizon is sandy clay
west of the northeast corner of sec. 4, T. 9 S., R. 14 E. loam, sandy clay, or clay. It is 0 to 15 inches thick.

Ap-0 to 10 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine Pamlico Series
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
many fine and few medium roots; very strongly acid; The Pamlico series consists of nearly level, very
clear wavy boundary. poorly drained, organic soils in swamps on flood plains
E1-10 to 32 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) in the flatwoods. These soils are organic to a depth of
fine sand; single grained; looser few fine and 16 to 51 inches. They formed from herbaceous plant
medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy material mixed with woody plant material. The soils are
boundary, sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, dysic, thermic Terric
E2-32 to 42 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine Medisaprists.
sand; few medium distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3) Pamlico soils are associated with Dorovan, Leon,
mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly acid; Osier, and Surrency soils. Dorovan soils have more
gradual wavy boundary. than 51 inches of muck. Leon, Osier, and Surrency soils
E3-42 to 51 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) fine are of mineral origin. Leon and Osier soils are poorly
sand; single grained; loose; thin bands of sandy drained. Leon soils have a Bh horizon within a depth of
loam; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. 30 inches. Osier soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches
Bt-51 to 62 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) or more. Surrency soils have a Btg horizon at a depth
sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky of 20 to 40 inches.
structure; friable; extremely acid; gradual wavy Typical pedon of Pamlico muck, in an area of
boundary. Pamlico-Dorovan mucks, frequently flooded;







78 Soil Survey


Cg5-60 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; Btg-62 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay
single grained; loose; very strongly acid. loam; common medium prominent very pale brown
(10YR 7/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular
The combined content of silt and clay is 5 to 10 blocky structure; friable; few fine limestone pebbles;
percent between depths of 10 and 40 inches. Reaction pockets of sandy loam; extremely acid.
ranges from very strongly acid to moderately acid
throughout the profile. The thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to more
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and than 80 inches. The depth to limestone ranges from 70
chroma of 1 or 3 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 5, and chroma to more than 80 inches. Reaction ranges from very
of 2. It is 3 to 7 inches thick. strongly acid to neutral in the A and E horizons and
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 8, from extremely acid to moderately alkaline in the B
and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has horizon.
value of 4 to 8. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 2 or 3. It is fine sand or sand. It is 6 to 10
Otela Series inches thick.
The AE horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value
The Otela series consists of nearly level and gently of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is 8 to 18 inches
sloping, moderately well drained soils on broad uplands. thick.
These soils are sandy to a depth of 40 inches or more The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and
and are loamy in the lower part. They formed in marine chroma of 1 to 6. It has chroma of 3 or more in some
sediments deposited on karst topography. The soils are parts. In some pedons it is mottled in shades of brown
loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleudalfs. or yellow. The combined content of silt and clay is less
Otela soils are associated with Blanton, Shadeville, than 5 percent. This horizon is 27 to 50 inches thick.
Penney, and Wadley soils. Blanton soils have base Some pedons have an E&Bt horizon of fine sand and
saturation of less than 35 percent. Shadeville soils have lamellae of loamy fine sand or sandy loam.
hard limestone bedrock below a depth of 48 inches. The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
Penney soils do not have an argillic horizon. Wadley chroma of 3 to 8. In some pedons it is mottled in
soils are well drained. They have base saturation of shades of brown, yellow, or gray. This horizon is sandy
less than 35 percent, loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. It is 11 to 27
Typical pedon of Otela fine sand, in an area of inches thick.
Shadeville-Otela fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes; 200 The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8,
feet north of graded road and 170 feet west of County and chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons it is mottled in
Road 340; approximately 1,200 feet south and 170 feet shades of yellow or brown. This horizon is sandy clay
west of the northeast corner of sec. 4, T. 9 S., R. 14 E. loam, sandy clay, or clay. It is 0 to 15 inches thick.

Ap-0 to 10 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine Pamlico Series
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
many fine and few medium roots; very strongly acid; The Pamlico series consists of nearly level, very
clear wavy boundary. poorly drained, organic soils in swamps on flood plains
E1-10 to 32 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) in the flatwoods. These soils are organic to a depth of
fine sand; single grained; looser few fine and 16 to 51 inches. They formed from herbaceous plant
medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy material mixed with woody plant material. The soils are
boundary, sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, dysic, thermic Terric
E2-32 to 42 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine Medisaprists.
sand; few medium distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3) Pamlico soils are associated with Dorovan, Leon,
mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly acid; Osier, and Surrency soils. Dorovan soils have more
gradual wavy boundary. than 51 inches of muck. Leon, Osier, and Surrency soils
E3-42 to 51 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) fine are of mineral origin. Leon and Osier soils are poorly
sand; single grained; loose; thin bands of sandy drained. Leon soils have a Bh horizon within a depth of
loam; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. 30 inches. Osier soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches
Bt-51 to 62 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) or more. Surrency soils have a Btg horizon at a depth
sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky of 20 to 40 inches.
structure; friable; extremely acid; gradual wavy Typical pedon of Pamlico muck, in an area of
boundary. Pamlico-Dorovan mucks, frequently flooded;








Gilchrist County, Florida 79


approximately 0.1 mile west of Florida Highway 47 and and 2,000 feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 35,
0.02 mile north of trail road; 1,940 feet north and 500 T. 8 S., R. 14 E.
feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 26, T. 9 S., R.
15 E. A-0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few
Oal-0 to 18 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) muck; fine and medium roots; many uncoated sand grains;
about 30 percent fiber before rubbing, 10 percent very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
after rubbing; massive; very friable; fibers from E1-7 to 17 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
leaves, twigs, and roots; sodium pyrophosphate brown (10YR 5/3) streaks and splotches; single
color of light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4); very grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. wavy boundary.
Oa2-18 to 38 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) muck; E2-17 to 56 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
less than 5 percent fiber after rubbing; massive; sand; few medium distinct brown (10YR 5/3)
friable; sodium pyrophosphate color of dark splotches and white (10YR 8/2) sand strippings;
yellowish brown (10YR 4/4); very strongly acid; single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary, gradual wavy boundary.
Cg-38 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine E&Bt-56 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) fine
sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid. sand (E); single grained; loose; many clean sand
grains; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) lamellae of
As measured by the 0.01 molar calcium chloride loamy fine sand (B) about 3 to 6 inches long and 1/8
procedure, reaction in the organic material is less than to 1/4 inch thick; well coated sand grains; strongly
4.5. As measured by the Hellige-Truog method, it is acid.
less than 5.5. The mineral horizon is extremely acid to The solum is 80 or more inches thick. The combined
strongly acid.
strongly accontent of silt and clay is less than 5 percent between
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of
2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and depth of 0 0 inches. n re a
has value of 2 or 3. The content of fibers is 30 percent derately acid throughout the profile.
or less before rubbing and less than 10 percent after he horio ha hue o leo
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract has hue of chroma of 1 or 2. It is 3 to 7 inches thick.
10YR, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. ThisR, value of 5 to 8, and
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
horizon is 16 to 51 inches thick, chroma of 3 to 8. It generally has few or common fine
The Cg horizon has hue of 1YR value of 3 to 6, and medium streaks that have hue of 10YR, value of 7
and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has
or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. The color of the streaks is
value of 3 to 6. It is sand or fine sand. .
that of the uncoated sand grains and is not indicative of
wetness. This horizon is sand or fine sand. It is 47 to 72
Penney Series inches thick.
The E part of the E&B horizon has hue of 10YR,
The Penney series consists of nearly level to value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 3 to 8. It is sand or fine
moderately sloping, excessively drained soils in the sand. It is 2 to 8 inches thick between the lamellae. In
uplands. These soils are sandy to a depth of more than some pedons it has few or common small pockets of
80 inches. They formed in thick beds of sandy marine light gray or white, clean sand grains. The B part occurs
deposits. The soils are thermic, uncoated Typic as lamellae that have hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5
Quartzipsamments. or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. The lamellae are loamy
Penney soils are associated with Albany, Blanton, sand, loamy fine sand, or sandy loam. They are /32 to
Kershaw, Ortega, and Wadley soils. Albany, Blanton, 1/4 inch thick and 1/2 inch to 24 inches long. They are at
and Wadley soils have sandy A and E horizons that, a depth of 50 to 80 inches and extend to a depth of
combined, are 40 to 79 inches thick. These horizons more than 80 inches, generally increasing in thickness
are underlain by a loamy Bt horizon. Kershaw soils do with increasing depth.
not have lamellae. Albany soils are somewhat poorly
drained, Blanton and Ortega soils are moderately well Pottsburg Series
drained, and Wadley soils are well drained.
Typical pedon of Penney fine sand, 0 to 5 percent The Pottsburg series consists of nearly level, poorly
slopes; about 12 miles south of extension of State Road drained soils in narrow areas between depressions in
341 and 800 feet east of graded road; 2,200 feet north the flatwoods. These soils are sandy to a depth of more








Gilchrist County, Florida 79


approximately 0.1 mile west of Florida Highway 47 and and 2,000 feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 35,
0.02 mile north of trail road; 1,940 feet north and 500 T. 8 S., R. 14 E.
feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 26, T. 9 S., R.
15 E. A-0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few
Oal-0 to 18 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) muck; fine and medium roots; many uncoated sand grains;
about 30 percent fiber before rubbing, 10 percent very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
after rubbing; massive; very friable; fibers from E1-7 to 17 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
leaves, twigs, and roots; sodium pyrophosphate brown (10YR 5/3) streaks and splotches; single
color of light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4); very grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. wavy boundary.
Oa2-18 to 38 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) muck; E2-17 to 56 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
less than 5 percent fiber after rubbing; massive; sand; few medium distinct brown (10YR 5/3)
friable; sodium pyrophosphate color of dark splotches and white (10YR 8/2) sand strippings;
yellowish brown (10YR 4/4); very strongly acid; single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary, gradual wavy boundary.
Cg-38 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine E&Bt-56 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) fine
sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid. sand (E); single grained; loose; many clean sand
grains; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) lamellae of
As measured by the 0.01 molar calcium chloride loamy fine sand (B) about 3 to 6 inches long and 1/8
procedure, reaction in the organic material is less than to 1/4 inch thick; well coated sand grains; strongly
4.5. As measured by the Hellige-Truog method, it is acid.
less than 5.5. The mineral horizon is extremely acid to The solum is 80 or more inches thick. The combined
strongly acid.
strongly accontent of silt and clay is less than 5 percent between
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of
2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and depth of 0 0 inches. n re a
has value of 2 or 3. The content of fibers is 30 percent derately acid throughout the profile.
or less before rubbing and less than 10 percent after he horio ha hue o leo
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract has hue of chroma of 1 or 2. It is 3 to 7 inches thick.
10YR, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. ThisR, value of 5 to 8, and
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
horizon is 16 to 51 inches thick, chroma of 3 to 8. It generally has few or common fine
The Cg horizon has hue of 1YR value of 3 to 6, and medium streaks that have hue of 10YR, value of 7
and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has
or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. The color of the streaks is
value of 3 to 6. It is sand or fine sand. .
that of the uncoated sand grains and is not indicative of
wetness. This horizon is sand or fine sand. It is 47 to 72
Penney Series inches thick.
The E part of the E&B horizon has hue of 10YR,
The Penney series consists of nearly level to value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 3 to 8. It is sand or fine
moderately sloping, excessively drained soils in the sand. It is 2 to 8 inches thick between the lamellae. In
uplands. These soils are sandy to a depth of more than some pedons it has few or common small pockets of
80 inches. They formed in thick beds of sandy marine light gray or white, clean sand grains. The B part occurs
deposits. The soils are thermic, uncoated Typic as lamellae that have hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5
Quartzipsamments. or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. The lamellae are loamy
Penney soils are associated with Albany, Blanton, sand, loamy fine sand, or sandy loam. They are /32 to
Kershaw, Ortega, and Wadley soils. Albany, Blanton, 1/4 inch thick and 1/2 inch to 24 inches long. They are at
and Wadley soils have sandy A and E horizons that, a depth of 50 to 80 inches and extend to a depth of
combined, are 40 to 79 inches thick. These horizons more than 80 inches, generally increasing in thickness
are underlain by a loamy Bt horizon. Kershaw soils do with increasing depth.
not have lamellae. Albany soils are somewhat poorly
drained, Blanton and Ortega soils are moderately well Pottsburg Series
drained, and Wadley soils are well drained.
Typical pedon of Penney fine sand, 0 to 5 percent The Pottsburg series consists of nearly level, poorly
slopes; about 12 miles south of extension of State Road drained soils in narrow areas between depressions in
341 and 800 feet east of graded road; 2,200 feet north the flatwoods. These soils are sandy to a depth of more




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