• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Introduction
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and the morphology
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Franklin County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026080/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Franklin County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 192 p., 3, 45 folded p. of plates : ill. (some col.), maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1994]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Franklin County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Franklin County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 113).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations i.e. Station, and Soil Science Department ; and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 94-0218-P.
General Note: "Issued February 1994"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026080
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 003481957
oclc - 30790175
notis - AKB6329

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    General nature of the county
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    How this survey was made
        Page 7
        Map unit composition
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
    General soil map units
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 59
        Crops and pasture
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
        Rangeland
            Page 62
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 63
            Page 64
        Environmental plantings
            Page 65
        Recreation
            Page 66
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 66
            Page 67
        Engineering
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
    Soil properties
        Page 73
        Engineering index properties
            Page 73
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 74
        Soil and water features
            Page 75
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
        Engineering index test data
            Page 80
    Classification of the soils
        Page 81
    Soil series and the morphology
        Page 81
        Albany series
            Page 81
        Bayvi series
            Page 82
        Blanton series
            Page 83
        Bohicket series
            Page 83
        Bonsai series
            Page 84
        Brickyard series
            Page 85
        Chaires series
            Page 85
        Chowan series
            Page 86
        Corolla series
            Page 87
        Dirego series
            Page 87
        Dorovan series
            Page 88
        Duckston series
            Page 88
        Harbeson series
            Page 89
        Hurricane series
            Page 89
        Kenner series
            Page 90
        Kershaw series
            Page 91
        Kureb series
            Page 91
        Leefield series
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
        Leon series
            Page 97
        Lynchburg series
            Page 97
        Lynn Haven series
            Page 98
        Mandarin series
            Page 98
        Maurepas series
            Page 99
        Medadowbrook series
            Page 99
        Meggett series
            Page 100
        Newhan series
            Page 101
        Ortega series
            Page 101
        Pamlico series
            Page 102
        Pelham series
            Page 102
        Pickney series
            Page 103
        Plummer series
            Page 103
        Resota series
            Page 104
        Ridgewood series
            Page 104
        Rutlege series
            Page 105
        Sapelo series
            Page 105
        Scranton series
            Page 106
        Stilson series
            Page 107
        Surrency series
            Page 107
        Tisonia series
            Page 108
        Tooles series
            Page 109
        Wehadkee series
            Page 109
            Page 110
    Formation of the soils
        Page 111
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 111
        Processes of horizon differentiation
            Page 112
    Reference
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Glossary
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Tables
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
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        Page 146
        Page 147
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        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
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        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
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        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    General soil map
        Page 193
    Index to map sheets
        Page 194
        Page 195
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
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        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
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        Page 24
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Full Text


; United States
Department of
S Agriculture
Soil
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with
the University of Florida,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil
Science Department; and
the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services


Soil Survey of

Franklin County,

Florida

















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps


The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas.


To find information about
your area of interest,
locate that area on the
Index to Map Sheets,
which precedes the soil
maps. Note the number of
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet.


Locate your area of
interest on the map
sheet. Note the map unit
symbols that are in that
area. Turn to the Index
to Map Units (see Con-
tents), which lists the map
units by symbol and
name and shows the
page where each map
unit is described.


MAP SHEET


AREA OF INTEREST
NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
survey may consist only of numbers or
letters, or they may be a combination
oi numbers and letters.


MAP SHEET


The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.


S113

S ; M18A. 19 S
INDEX TO MAP SHEETS





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal part
of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1988. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1990. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1988. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil
Conservation Service and Forest Service; the U.S. Department of the Interior;
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; the Florida Department of
Natural Resources; the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services; and the Florida Department of Transportation. The Franklin County
Board of Commissioners provided financial assistance. The survey is part of the
technical assistance furnished to the Franklin County Soil and Water
Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: Shrimp boats docked alongside the Apalachicola River. Bohicket and Tisonia soils
are in the delta marsh areas in the background. These soils, which are flooded daily by normal
high tides, are important to the natural productivity of the coastal marshes in Franklin County.



















Contents


Index to map units ............................... iv
Summary of tables .............. ............. v
Foreword ................. .......... .... vii
General nature of the county ....................... 2
How this survey was made ....................... 7
Map unit composition ............................ 8
General soil map units ......................... 11
Detailed soil map units ......................... 19
Use and management of the soils.............. 59
Crops and pasture ............ ............... 59
Rangeland ............ .................... 62
Woodland management and productivity ......... 63
Environmental plantings ....................... 65
Recreation ................................... 66
W wildlife habitat .................. .............. 66
Engineering ............................... 68
Soil properties ................ ... ............ 73
Engineering index properties .................... 73
Physical and chemical properties .............. 74
Soil and water features ........................ 75
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses
of selected soils .......................... 76
Engineering index test data .................... 80
Classification of the soils ....................... 81
Soil series and their morphology.................... 81
Albany series .............................. 81
Bayvi series .................... ........... 82
Blanton series ............................... 83
Bohicket series .................. ............. 83
Bonsai series ................. .... ........... 84
Brickyard series............ ...... ............ 85
Chaires series .................. .............. 85
Chowan series................................ 86
Corolla series.................................. 87
Dirego series ............................ 87
Dorovan series ............ ... ................ 88


Duckston series............................... 88
Harbeson series .............................. 89
Hurricane series .............................. 89
Kenner series................. ............. 90
Kershaw series .................. ............. 91
Kureb series .............. ... ............... 91
Leefield series ................... .............. 92
Leon series............. ...................... 97
Lynchburg series................. ............. 97
Lynn Haven series ............................. 98
Mandarin series................................ 98
Maurepas series ............................. 99
Meadowbrook series ............... ............ 99
Meggett series................................ 100
Newhan series ............................. 101
Ortega series ............... ............... 101
Pamlico series ............................. 102
Pelham series ............................. 102
Pickney series .................. ............. 103
Plummer series .................. ............ 103
Resota series. .... .......................... 104


Ridgewood series .................
Rutlege series ... ............
Sapelo series ....................
Scranton series ...................
Stilson series .....................
Surrency series ...................
Tisonia series ....................
Tooles series .....................
Wehadkee series ..............
Formation of the soils..............
Factors of soil formation ...........
Processes of horizon differentiation.
References ......................
Glossary. ...................
Tables............................


. 104


Issued February 1994


. .. .. .
. .. .. .
..........
. .. .. .
..........
.. .. . .

. .. .. .
. .. .. .
. .. .. .
. .. ..
..........

















Index to Map Units


2-Albany fine sand ...........................
3-Beaches ...................................
4-Dirego and Bayvi soils, tidal ................
5-Aquents, nearly level .................... .....
6-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.........
7-Bohicket and Tisonia soils, tidal ...............
8-Ridgewood sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .........
9-Chaires sand ...............................
10-Corolla sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes...........
1 1-Dorovan-Pamlico complex, depressional .......
12- Lynchburg loamy fine sand ...................
13-Hurricane sand ..............................
14-Harbeson mucky loamy sand, depressional.....
15-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .......
16-Bonsai mucky fine sand, frequently flooded.....
17-Kershaw sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ..........
18-Kershaw sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ........
19-Kureb fine sand, 3 to 8 percent slopes.........
20-Lynn Haven sand .................... ......
21-Leefield sand ............. ................
22- Leon sand ....................... ........
23-Maurepas muck, frequently flooded............
24-Mandarin fine sand .................. ........
25-Chowan, Brickyard, and Kenner soils,
frequently flooded ...........................
26-Duckston sand, occasionally flooded..........


27-Pelham fine sand ........................... 40
28-Plummer fine sand......................... 40
29-Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 41
30-Rutlege loamy fine sand, depressional ........ 42
31- Rutlege fine sand ................. .......... 43
32-Sapelo fine sand............................. 44
33- Scranton fine sand............................ 45
34- Surrency fine sand ........................... 45
35- Stilson fine sand ............................. 46
36-Pickney-Pamlico complex, depressional ........ 47
37-Tooles-Meadowbrook complex,
depressional................................ 48
38-Meadowbrook sand ........................ 48
39-Scranton sand, slough ..................... 49
40-Newhan-Corolla complex, rolling ............ 50
41--Pamlico-Pickney complex, frequently
flooded .................................... 51
42-Meadowbrook, Meggett, and Tooles soils,
frequently flooded ............................ 52
43-Meadowbrook sand, slough.................. 53
44-Tooles sand ............... ............... 54
45-Wehadkee-Meggett complex, frequently
flooded ..................................... 55
46-Duckston-Rutlege-Corolla complex ............ 56
47-Duckston-Bohicket-Corolla complex............ 56
48-Udorthents, nearly level ..................... 57

















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) ............ ................ 124

Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2) ............. ............... 125

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3) ................... 126

Land capability and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 4) .......... 127

Woodland management and productivity (table 5)........................ 130

Recreational development (table 6) ...................................... 136

W wildlife habitat (table 7) ................ ........... .................. 141

Building site development (table 8) ...................................... 145

Sanitary facilities (table 9) ............... .......................... 150

Construction materials (table 10) ..................................... .. 156

W ater management (table 11) .............. ... ...... ................ 161

Engineering index properties (table 12) .................................. 167

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 13) .................. 173

Soil and water features (table 14) ....................................... 177

Physical analyses of selected soils (table 15) ............................. 180

Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 16) ............................. 184

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 17) ........................... 188

Engineering index test data (table 18) .................... ............... 190

Classification of the soils (table 19) .................................... 192




















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Franklin County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected
land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters, and
agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan
land use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to
ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists
in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use
the survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey
or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high
water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationis
Soil Conservation Service














Soil Survey of

Franklin County, Florida


By Leland D. Sasser, Ken L. Monroe, and Joseph N. Schuster, Soil Conservation Service

Fieldwork by Robert E. Evon, Terry McCormick, Val Krawiecke, and Melvin Simmons,
Soil Conservation Service, and Bobby Scott, James Hart, and Earl Vanatta, Forest Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services


FRANKLIN COUNTY is on the gulf coast of the
panhandle of Florida (fig. 1). It is on the western edge
of the big bend area of Florida. It is bordered on the
north by Liberty and Wakulla Counties and on the west
by Gulf County. It is surrounded by the Gulf of Mexico
on the south and east. The Apalachicola, Brothers, and
Jackson Rivers form much of the western boundary
between Gulf and Franklin Counties. The Ochlockonee
River and Ochlockonee Bay form the northeastern
boundary between Wakulla and Franklin Counties.
The county is about 28 miles wide at its widest point,
from near Sumatra to Cape St. George, and about 54
miles long from Indian Pass to Bald Point. It has about
348,698 acres of land area, or about 545 square miles.
About 34,200 acres is federally owned land. This land is
in the Apalachicola National Forest, which is in the
northwest corner of the county, and in the St. Vincent
National Wildlife Refuge, which is mostly on St. Vincent
Island.
Apalachicola, the county seat, has a population of
about 2,600. It is located at the mouth of the
Apalachicola River in the southwestern part of the
county.
The population of Franklin County in 1986 was about
8,500, or 15.6 people per square mile. The population is
concentrated in the coastal communities, in a narrow
strip along the coast, and on St. George Island. The
commercial seafood industry, tourism, and forestry are
the major industries in the county. Large tracts of land


Figure 1.-Location of Franklin County in Florida.


are owned by paper companies, and timber production
is the major industry in these areas.







Soil Survey


General Nature of the County

This section provides general information about
environmental and cultural factors that affect the use
and management of the soils in Franklin County. It
describes climate, history and development,
geomorphology, stratigraphy, ground water, relief and
drainage, water resources, recreation, and
transportation facilities.

Climate

Franklin County has a moderate climate. Summers
are long, warm, and humid. Winters are mild. The Gulf
of Mexico moderates the temperatures. Table 1
provides data on temperature and precipitation for the
survey area as recorded at Apalachicola. Freeze data
are shown in table 2.
In winter, the average temperature is 56 degrees F
and the average daily minimum temperature is 48
degrees. The lowest temperature on record, which
occurred at Apalachicola on January 21, 1985, is 9
degrees. The average date of the first killing frost in
winter is December 21 in Apalachicola and December 5
in Carrabelle.
In summer, temperatures are moderated by breezes
from the Gulf of Mexico and by cumulus clouds, which
frequently shade the land without completely obscuring
the sun. The average temperature in June, July,
August, and September is about 80 degrees F.
Temperatures of 90 degrees or higher occur in May,
June, July, August, and September, but 100 degrees is
reached only rarely. In July and August, the warmest
months, the average maximum temperature is 88
degrees. The highest recorded temperature, which
occurred at Apalachicola on July 14, 1932, is 102
degrees.
The total annual precipitation is about 56 inches. Of
this, 29.5 inches, or about 53 percent, usually falls in
the summer rainy season, from June through
September. About 16 inches, or about 30 percent, falls
in the winter rainy season, from late December through
April. May, October, and November are generally the
driest months.
The average relative humidity in midafternoon is
about 60 to 70 percent. Humidity is higher at night, and
the average at dawn is about 85 percent. The sun
shines 65 percent of the time possible in summer and
60 percent in winter. The prevailing wind is from the
north in winter and from the south in summer. The
annual mean windspeed is 7.9 miles per hour. The
lowest monthly windspeed, 6.5 miles per hour, occurs in


July and August, and the highest, 9.0 miles per hour,
occurs in March.
In summer, because the air is moist and unstable,
thunderstorms occur frequently. They generally are of
short duration. Thunderstorms occur on about 70 days
each year. In summer they occur on an average of 2 to
4 days each week. Sometimes 2 or 3 inches of rain falls
within a period of only 1 or 2 hours. Rain that lasts all
day is rare in summer. Winter and spring rains generally
are not as intense as the summer thunderstorms.
Occasionally heavy rain and high winds accompany the
passage of a tropical disturbance or hurricane. The
heaviest 1-day rainfall during the period of record was
11.71 inches at Apalachicola in September 1932. The
highest windspeed on record at Apalachicola, 85 miles
per hour, occurred on November 21, 1985, during
Hurricane Kate.
In winter, cold continental air flowing from the north
across Franklin County and the Florida Panhandle is
appreciably modified. The coldest weather generally
occurs on the second night after the arrival of a cold
front, after heat is lost through radiation.
Fog occurs on an average of five mornings a month
in winter but almost never occurs in summer and fall.
Snowfall is extremely rare. The snowfall, usually of
short duration, is less than 0.5 inch. In 90 percent or
more of the winters, there is no measurable snowfall.
The heaviest 1-day snowfall on record was 1.2 inches,
which occurred in February 1958.

History and Development

Franklin County's earliest inhabitants were Indians of
the Lower Creek group. They harvested shellfish and
other seafood from the bountiful coastal waters and
used the extensive inland waterways of the
Apalachicola River for trade with other settlements to
the north. Use of the area by Europeans was restricted
to intermittent trading posts and temporary ports of
military importance during Spanish occupation of the
northern part of Florida. These strategic ports were also
used by French and English invaders.
Spanish influence in Florida declined, and Florida
was ceded to the United States in 1820. President
James Monroe established a customs district along
Florida's gulf coast in 1821, and the first shipment of
cotton arrived in Westpoint in 1822. Westpoint was
officially renamed Apalachicola in 1831; in 1832,
Apalachicola became the seat of newly formed Franklin
County. The small gulf port city was prosperous for
many years. By 1837, Apalachicola was the third largest
cotton port on the Gulf of Mexico and the largest port in







Franklin County, Florida


Florida. During this economic boom period, a Franklin
County resident, Dr. John Gorrie, invented artificial ice
while searching for a cure for yellow fever in
Apalachicola.
By 1860, Franklin County was slipping rapidly into
economic decline. Railroads had become the preferred
method of transporting cotton, and shipping blockades
during the Civil War brought river trade to a standstill.
At various times during the war, Apalachicola and
surrounding Franklin County were held by both Union
and Confederate troops, but there were no significant
military events in the area.
Late in the 19th century, a small resort spa and
logging town in central Franklin County became the city
of Carrabelle. The economy of this area was revitalized
by timber harvesting, milling, sales, and shipping in
Carrabelle and in Apalachicola. Also, the sponge
industry flourished in the area during this period. By
1907, railroads had connected both Carrabelle and
Apalachicola to major centers of commerce in the
South, supplementing the limited shipping facilities in
the port cities.
By 1920, most of the accessible timber in the county
had been harvested. The seafood industry soon
became Franklin County's major source of economic
growth. Salted and iced fish, canned oysters and
shrimp, and other gulf delicacies were shipped to ports
as far away as Boston. The sale of naval stores and
limited farming supplemented the area's economy, as it
had since the 1840's. In 1938, the east and west shores
of the geographically divided county were connected by
a 7-mile bridge crossing the Apalachicola River and the
eastern part of the bay.
During World War II, military bases were established
in Franklin County and soldiers came to the area for
training. The soldiers at Camp Gordon Johnson, which
was east of Carrabelle in the town of Lanark, were
trained in Franklin County swamps and coastal waters.
Apalachicola was the site of a large military air base.
The postwar depression affected most of the inhabitants
of Franklin County, and economic recovery was slow.
By 1960, the area's economy was dominated by
commercial fishing businesses and paper companies
that planted and harvested pine trees on massive tracts
of land. By the late 1980's, drought, severe hurricanes,
overharvesting, and other factors had greatly impacted
the seafood industry. In 1988, state and federal
assistance was committed for the establishment of
aquiculture in the coastal waters. By that time,
economic development in tourism, boat construction,
and other industries was creating diversified
employment opportunities for an increasing number of
Franklin County residents.


Geomorphology
Richard A. Johnson, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee,
Florida, prepared this section and the sections on stratigraphy,
ground water, and mineral resources.
Franklin County is a part of the Apalachicola delta
complex and lies within the Terraced Coastal Lowland
(5). This division consists of a series of marine terraces
composed of sand or clayey sand. The terraces are
plains formed at certain specific ranges of elevations by
wave action and ocean currents in the past when sea
level was higher. Three such terraces are located in
Franklin County (3). These are the Silver Bluff, which is
about 1 to 10 feet above mean sea level (MSL); the
Pamlico, which is 8 to 25 feet above MSL; and the
Talbot, which is 25 to 42 feet above MSL.
Specific geomorphic features of Franklin County
include the Gulf Barrier Chain (St. George Island and
Dog Island), a series of elongate islands composed of
quartz sand that formed on the Gulf of Mexico side of
the Gulf Coastal Lagoon (Apalachicola Bay and St.
George Sound) (5). Near the coastline of the Gulf
Coastal Lagoon and throughout Franklin County are
relict bars and spits, which formed at higher sea level
stands. Interlevee swamps and bays, which are related
to the Apalachicola delta, occupy most of the eastern
portion of Franklin County.
Much of Franklin County is swampy, mostly as a
result of two factors. First, as the Apalachicola River
deposits sediments where it enters Apalachicola Bay, a
delta forms that blocks the river channel. Another
channel is then formed elsewhere. This process results
in flat, swampy land. Second, the type of sediment
material in the area contributes to the formation of
swamps. Much of the material underlying the surficial
unconsolidated sand is clayey sand or clay, which does
not easily allow water to pass through. As a result,
swamps and ponds are perched atop the impermeable
clayey sand (6).

Stratigraphy
Most water wells in Franklin County only penetrate
rocks of Miocene age and younger, such as the St.
Marks Formation and Bruce Creek Limestone, the
Intracoastal Formation, and the Alum Bluff Group
(undifferentiated) sediments. Hence, deeper units will
not be considered in this section. Figure 2 shows a
stratigraphic cross section across Franklin County from
southwest to northeast.

Miocene Series
St. Marks Formation.-The St. Marks Formation
(early Miocene in age) is composed of tan to white,








Soil Survey


NE


W-14799


LAND SURFACE


ST. MARKS FORMATION


W-14844


0


-50 -



-100-



-150-



-200


-250



-300


TD 440' 0


W-14876

I


TD 182'


16 KILOMETERS


FGS 140888

Figure 2.-Stratigraphic cross section of Franklin County from southwest to northeast.


slightly sandy, molluskan moldic, very fine grained,
unrecrystallized to completely recrystallized limestone.
Occasional thin beds of brown quartz sand and green to
blue, relatively pure clay are interbedded with the
limestone to the north where the unit crops out in
Wakulla County, but beneath Franklin County the St.
Marks Formation is predominantly limestone.
The St. Marks Formation is typically exposed in
sinkholes and along streams and rivers in eastern
Wakulla County (northeast of Franklin County). In
western Franklin County, the St. Marks Formation is too
deep to be used as a water supply in most wells. In
eastern and central Franklin County, the top of the
formation is located at approximately 300 to 450 feet
below MSL. The formation dips to the south and
southwest (7). The St. Marks limestone unconformably


overlies the Suwannee Limestone and unconformably
underlies the Bruce Creek Limestone.
Bruce Creek Limestone.-The Bruce Creek
Limestone (early to middle Miocene in age) is
composed of tan to gray, sandy, slightly phosphatic,
molluskan moldic, coarse grained, fossiliferous
limestone (7). The type area of the formation is in the
bed of Bruce Creek, Walton County; this outcrop is the
only place where the formation can be seen at the
surface. In Franklin County, the top of the formation
ranges from 25 feet below MSL in the extreme eastern
portion of the county to almost 350 feet below MSL in
the extreme western portion of the county (7). The
Bruce Creek Limestone overlies the St. Marks
Formation and underlies the Intracoastal Formation.


W-7574


TD 200'





ST. MAggS FORMATION
ST. MARKS
TD 382"

0 5 10 MILES
I--------------9---


,BakC
^^5T~
CRpE0'







Franklin County, Florida


Miocene to Pliocene Series
Intracoastal Formation.-The Intracoastal Formation
(middle Miocene to late Pliocene in age) is composed of
very sandy, phosphatic, poorly cemented and crumbly,
fossiliferous, coarse grained limestone. Fossils include
foraminifera, mollusks, shark teeth, ostracods, sponge
spicules, and echinoids. One of the three known
occurrences of the formation at or near the surface is in
a road metal quarry located in central Franklin County.
Here, the Intracoastal Formation is composed of very
coarse grained, fossiliferous limestone. Fossils include
large mollusks, echinoids, and other material in a matrix
of finer fossil fragments. The limestone is moderately
well cemented and hard but somewhat crumbly. The top
of the Intracoastal Formation is at the surface in the
easternmost part of the county and ranges to 175 feet
below the surface at the western edge (7). The
Intracoastal Formation is underlain by the Bruce Creek
Limestone and is overlain by the Alum Bluff Group
sediments.

Pliocene Series
Alum Bluff Group (undifferentiated).-These
sediments (late Pliocene in age) consist of two general
lithologies. These include unconsolidated to poorly
indurated, shelly sand and hard, slightly phosphatic,
sandy, shelly limestone in a calcite or clay matrix. Some
sandy shell beds also occur within the formation.
Mollusks are the most common type of fossil. Forams,
ostracods, bryozoans, echinoids, and worm traces also
may occur (7). The Alum Bluff Group sediments are
overlain by undifferentiated surficial sediments and are
underlain by the Intracoastal Formation.
Pleistocene and Holocene Series
Undifferentiated Surficial Sediments.-These
sediments consist of alluvium and marine terrace
deposits. They are predominantly unconsolidated quartz
sand, sandy clay, and clayey sand, all of which are
unfossiliferous. They overlie the Alum Bluff Group
sediments throughout Franklin County.

Ground Water
An aquifer is a stratum of permeable material that is
full of water and that yields the water to wells
penetrating it. Two aquifers underlie Franklin County.
These are the surficial aquifer system and the Floridan
aquifer system. The surficial aquifer system is
composed of unconsolidated quartz sand. This aquifer
is very discontinuous because of clay and sandy clay
lithologies that are commonly interbedded with the
quartz sand. Also, the presence of clay between the
sand grains in some clayey sand lithologies prevents


water from percolating through the sand. Thus, wells
that penetrate clay, sandy clay, or clayey sand
generally do not provide a sufficient amount of water.
The surficial aquifer system is generally very thin and is
not often used in Franklin County.
The Floridan aquifer system is composed of the
Bruce Creek Limestone and the St. Marks Formation.
Other deeper limestone and dolostone formations are
considered part of the Floridan aquifer system, but in
Franklin County they frequently contain salty water and
are too deep to be used economically. The top of the
Bruce Creek Limestone represents the top of the
Floridan aquifer system in this area.
Water is derived from the Floridan aquifer system
from cavities and fractures, from interstitial pore space,
and from moldic porosity. Interconnected solution
cavities and fractures are typically a few inches to tens
of feet in size and can produce great quantities of
water. Pore space consists of open voids between
grains, such as between fossil grains. Pore space is
usually very small in individual pore volume. If the pores
are sufficiently interconnected, moderate quantities of
water can be obtained. Moldic porosity is the open
volume that results when fossils are removed by
dissolution, leaving a void in the rock. Both the Bruce
Creek Limestone and the St. Marks Formation typically
have low to high moldic porosity.
In some areas the Intracoastal Formation and the
Alum Bluff Group sediments are permeable enough to
provide small quantities of water to wells. The Floridan
aquifer system, however, remains the principal aquifer
and source of ground water in the county.

Mineral Resources
There are no commercially mined mineral
commodities in Franklin County. One semiactive
shallow limestone quarry is maintained for private use.
In this quarry, the crumbly and coarse grained
Intracoastal Formation is mined by dragline from below
water level. The material is used locally, primarily for
roadfill.
The unconsolidated sand that blankets the county is
mined from scattered shallow pits for local use. These
pits are usually small, and if they are abandoned or
infrequently used, they commonly appear to be shallow
lakes or ponds.

Relief and Drainage
Franklin County is characterized by moderate relief
near the coast and little or no visible relief in most of
the remaining areas. The relict dunes of the mainland
coastal ridge and recent dunes of the coastal islands
have the most prominent relief in the county. The







Soil Survey


highest elevation in the county, about 52 feet, occurs on
the mainland coastal ridge near Carrabelle.
The mainland coastal ridge widens abruptly several
miles east of Lanark Village and encompasses most of
the eastern two-thirds of St. James Island between
Ochlockonee Bay and the Gulf. This wide sand ridge is
pocketed with numerous closed depressions and small
lakes and ponds. West of St. James Island, a series of
interconnecting depressions and ponds lies directly
landward of the mainland coastal ridge. Most of these
depressions are drained in a northerly direction by small
streams. The small streams are intercepted by larger
streams and rivers, including Whisky George Creek,
Cash Creek, the Crooked River, the New River, and the
Jackson River. These larger streams drain to the south
into the Ochlockonee Bay and the Gulf.
From north of the area where the small streams are
intercepted to the county line, there is a gradual
increase in elevation of 1 to 2 feet per mile. The
resulting nearly level, swampy plain comprises the
central part of the county and includes Tates Hell
Swamp, Thousand Yard Bay, and Pickett Bay. Tates
Hell Swamp is separated from Pickett Bay and
Thousand Yard Bay by the New River and its wide, low
banks. North of these swamps there are no areas of
significant relief, except for a series of low uplands in
northwestern Franklin County near Sumatra. These
uplands are more typical of the inland Florida
Panhandle landscapes. They are dissected by small
streams that flow west into the Apalachicola River.
There are few clear geographic divides that can be
used to delineate local watersheds in Franklin County.
The Apalachicola River and its tributaries drain much of
western Franklin County. West of the river, the Jackson
River connects Lake Wimico and several small
tributaries to the Apalachicola River. Seaward of the
Jackson River, the Apalachicola River forms a large
delta plain traversed by numerous distributaries. East of
the river is a sequence of south-flowing drainageways
that become increasingly brackish as they near their
coastal water destinations. These include Whisky
George Creek and the New, Carrabelle, and
Ochlockonee Rivers. Whisky George Creek drains
central Tates Hell Swamp. The New River flows south
out of Liberty County and joins with the Crooked River
about 3 miles from the coast to form the Carrabelle
River. The Crooked River is affected by tides for most
of its length, from the Carrabelle River to the
Ochlockonee River. The Ochlockonee River and Bay
drain portions of eastern Franklin County.
Several prominent landscape features have formed
on the coastal islands. A well developed sequence of
narrow, parallel dune ridges and swales comprises a
major portion of the land area on St. Vincent Island.


This landscape pattern exerts substantial influence on
surface drainage of the 12,000-acre island. Dog Island,
Little St. George Island, and St. George Island all have
large areas of dunes and swales, but the parallel
distribution is not nearly as well developed as it is on
St. Vincent Island. The coastal islands all have low
coastal savannahs on recent overwash plains that are
flooded during storm tides. One such plain on Little St.
George Island was a dune field until the mid 1980's,
when a series of hurricanes altered the fragile coastal
landscape.

Water Resources

Most of Franklin County's natural and economic
resources are directly related to its water resources.
The Apalachicola River is formed near the Florida State
line by the confluence of the Flint and Chattahoochee
Rivers. This river system has a watershed of about
19,600 square miles, extending 541 miles from the
source of the Chattahoochee River in the Blue Ridge
Mountains of northern Georgia to the mouth of the
Apalachicola River at Apalachicola Bay. The
Apalachicola River and Bay system is used extensively
for commercial and recreational navigation, commercial
fishing and shellfish harvesting, sport fishing, and other
outdoor recreational activities.
Apalachicola Bay and adjacent estuarine systems
influenced by the freshwater flow of the Apalachicola
River total about 155,500 acres. About 10,600 acres, or
7 percent of this area, is used for oyster beds. These
beds produced 3.8 million pounds of harvested oysters
in 1985. In 1985, the total shellfish harvest in Franklin
County estuarine waters, including oysters, blue crabs,
and shrimp, was 9 million pounds. The commercial
finfish harvest in 1985 was slightly over 1 million
pounds. In 1988, approximately 1,310 commercial bay
and gulf vessels made Franklin County their home port.
Water resources also impact the rapidly growing
tourism industry in Franklin County. Nearly 100 miles of
sandy gulf and bay beaches attract visitors who engage
in swimming, fishing, boating, sunning, birdwatching,
shell collecting, and other activities. Approximately 55
miles of beach are on St. George Island, Little St.
George Island, St. Vincent Island, and Dog Island. Of
these coastal islands, only St. George Island is
accessible by bridge.
Other freshwater systems in Franklin County include
numerous tributaries of the Apalachicola River, the
Ochlockonee River at Franklin County's eastern border,
and the Carrabelle, New, and Crooked Rivers in central
Franklin County. The Ochlockonee River, which
originates in southern Georgia, forms a large bay at the
point where it empties into the Gulf of Mexico. It is used







Franklin County, Florida


primarily for recreation and commercial fishing. The
Carrabelle River is formed by the confluence of the New
and Crooked Rivers about 1 mile north of Carrabelle. It
provides deep-water portage for large fishing vessels.
The New River and the Crooked River are small local
systems used for freshwater fishing and boating. Many
small perennial and annual streams throughout the
county, especially in Tates Hell Swamp, empty directly
into the Gulf or into larger systems. Few freshwater
ponds of notable size are in Franklin County. The
largest of these ponds are located on St. Vincent Island
and near Alligator Point.
Water for household and commercial use is obtained
either from deep wells owned by municipal utility
organizations or from onsite shallow wells. Most water
systems in Franklin County require substantial aeration
to dissipate a high content of sulfides in the well water.
The quality of onsite shallow well water is highly
variable throughout the county. Increasing development
along the coast will require innovative management if
future water quality and quantity demands are to be
met.

Recreation
Franklin County's abundant natural and cultural
resources provide a wide variety of public recreational
opportunities. The largest public recreational area in the
county is the Apalachicola National Forest, located in
northwestern Franklin County. This area has 21,800
acres available for outdoor activities, including fishing,
hunting, boating, hiking, camping, and swimming. Large
tracts of commercial woodland adjacent to the
Apalachicola National Forest provide hunting, fishing,
and sightseeing opportunities. The State-owned Fort
Gadsden Historical Site, located within the Apalachicola
National Forest, features the ruins of a 19th-century
fort, a historic display and information kiosk, and picnic
areas along the scenic Apalachicola River.
The John Gorrie State Museum in Apalachicola is
Florida's smallest state park. It features a replica of Dr.
Gorrie's ice machine and other exhibits pertinent to the
19th-century cotton, timber, and sponge industries of
the area. The Dr. Julian G. Bruce St. George Island
State Park occupies about 2,000 acres of undeveloped
beaches and dunes and is easily accessible for
numerous outdoor activities. Many other public and
private beach areas also are available for sunning,
shelling, swimming, and saltwater fishing.
In southwestern Franklin County, Cape St. George
State Preserve and St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge
provide unique opportunities for wildlife observation,
photography, hiking, and shelling. These islands are
accessible only by boat, and the refuge permits only


day use, except during special educational programs.
The Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve
headquarters in Apalachicola regularly coordinates
combined educational, volunteer, and recreational trips
to these islands.
Numerous private businesses in Carrabelle,
Eastpoint, St. George Island, and Apalachicola offer
charter fishing, shelling, and sightseeing excursions to
points along the coastal islands and Apalachicola River.
A scenic route along U.S. Highway 98 from Carrabelle
to Apalachicola is a popular introduction to Franklin
County's coastal beauty. Along this route, public
beaches, many miles of coastline, parks, and other
lands offer access for fishing, boating, and picnicking.

Transportation Facilities
Franklin County is served by U.S. Highways 98 and
319. These highways enter northeastern Franklin
County from Wakulla County and provide access to
Tallahassee and other points to the north and east.
Highway 98 follows the scenic coastal route and
intersects Highway 319 east of St. James. These
combined routes continue a scenic route along the
coast of Franklin County and connect the coastal towns
and villages. U.S. Highway 98 continues west of
Apalachicola and connects Franklin County with points
to the north and west.
North-south highways in the county include State
Highway 65 from north of East Point through Sumatra
and County Highway 67 north of Carrabelle. The county
also is served by a system of state and county roads
that connect the coastal communities, St. George
Island, and the more rural areas. Dog Island, St.
Vincent Island, and Little St. George Island can be
accessed only by public or private vessels because no
bridges to these islands exist. Ferry service is available
to Dog Island from Carrabelle, and rail service is
available to the areas north and west of Apalachicola.
Regularly scheduled air transportation is available at
Panama City Airport, about 65 miles west of
Apalachicola, or at the Tallahassee Municipal Airport,
about 50 miles north of Carrabelle. Emergency medical
helicopter service is available to county residents. Small
airstrips are located on St. George Island and Dog
Island and at Carrabelle. The Apalachicola Municipal
Airport, which was formerly a military facility, can
accommodate larger aircraft.


How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about
the soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a







Soil Survey


discussion of the suitability, limitations, and
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of
slopes; the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of
crops and native plants growing on the soils; and the
kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil
profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or
horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface
down into the unconsolidated material from which the
soil formed. The unconsolidated material is devoid of
roots and other living organisms and has not been
changed by other biological activity.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly
pattern that is related to the geology, landforms, relief,
climate, and natural vegetation of the area. Each kind of
soil is associated with a particular kind of landscape or
with a segment of the landscape. By observing the soils
in the survey area and relating their position to specific
segments of the landscape, a soil scientist develops a
concept, or model, of how the soils were formed. Thus,
during mapping, this model enables the soil scientist to
predict with a considerable degree of accuracy the kind
of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, distribution of plant
roots, reaction, and other features that enable them to
identify soils. After describing the soils in the survey
area and determining their properties, the soil scientists
assigned the soils to taxonomic classes (units).
Taxonomic classes are concepts. Each taxonomic class
has a set of soil characteristics with precisely defined
limits. The classes are used as a basis for comparison
to classify soils systematically. The system of taxonomic
classification used in the United States is based mainly
on the kind and character of soil properties and the
arrangement of horizons within the profile. After the soil
scientists classified and named the soils in the survey
area, they compared the individual soils with similar
soils in the same taxonomic class in other areas so that
they could confirm data and assemble additional data
based on experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
of the soils in the area are generally collected for


laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
scientists interpret the data from these analyses and
tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
the soil properties to determine the expected behavior
of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of
the soils are field tested through observation of the soils
in different uses under different levels of management.
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
and some new interpretations are developed to meet
local needs. Data are assembled from other sources,
such as research information, production records, and
field experience of specialists. For example, data on
crop yields under defined levels of management are
assembled from farm records and from field or plot
experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can
predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given
soil will have a high water table within certain depths in
most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
specific date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.

Map Unit Composition

A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by two or three kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
the soils are natural objects. In common with other
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to
other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units,
these latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.








Franklin County, Florida


In the general soil map units, they are called soils of
minor extent.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been


observed and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.





















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it
consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making
up one unit can occur in another but in a different
pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or a building or other
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other
characteristics that affect management.

Soils of the Low Uplands and High Flatwoods
The soils in this group are somewhat poorly drained
and moderately well drained and are nearly level or
gently sloping. They are in the northwestern part of the
county, west of State Road 65 and east of the
Apalachicola River.

1. Albany-Blanton-Stilson
Nearly level or gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
and moderately well drained soils that are sandy and
loamy or are sandy and have a loamy subsoil that
contains plinthite
This map unit consists of soils on ridges of knolls in
the low uplands and in the flatwoods. It occurs as
several closely scattered areas in the northwestern part
of the county, dominantly west of State Road 65 and
east of the Apalachicola River. Individual areas are
blocky or irregular in shape.
The landscape is dominantly nearly level or gently
sloping. Scattered drainageways, swamps, and
flatwoods are common in most areas. The natural
vegetation is mostly slash pine, longleaf pine, and


mixed oak trees and an understory of saw palmetto,
woody shrubs, and grasses.
This map unit makes up about 5,800 acres, or about
2 percent of the total acreage. It is about 40 percent
Albany soils, 20 percent Blanton soils, 14 percent
Stilson soils, and 26 percent soils of minor extent.
Albany soils are nearly level and somewhat poorly
drained. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine
sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine
sand about 42 inches thick. The upper 14 inches is
grayish brown and pale brown. The lower 28 inches is
light gray. The upper 12 inches of the subsoil is light
brownish gray sandy loam. The lower part to a depth of
80 inches or more is light brownish gray sandy clay
loam.
Blanton soils are nearly level and gently sloping and
are moderately well drained. Typically, the surface layer
is gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand about 66 inches thick. The upper 25
inches is light yellowish brown. The next 30 inches is
very pale brown. The lower 11 inches is light gray. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is
light yellowish brown sandy loam that has many light
gray, strong brown, and yellowish red mottles.
Stilson soils are nearly level and moderately well
drained. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
about 25 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is light
yellowish brown. The lower 19 inches is very pale
brown and has a few brownish yellow mottles. The
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 43 inches,
is yellowish brown fine sandy loam that has a few very
pale brown mottles. The next 16 inches is yellowish
brown sandy clay loam that has very pale brown and
light brownish gray mottles and is 5 to 8 percent
plinthite. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more
is sandy clay loam that is mottled in shades of brown,
red, and gray.
Of minor extent in this unit are Leefield, Lynchburg,
Ortega, Pelham, Plummer, Ridgewood, and Sapelo
soils.
Most areas of this unit lie within the Apalachicola







Soil Survey


National Forest. They are managed for the production
of pine trees, as wildlife habitat, and for recreational
uses.

Soils of the Sand Ridges and Coastal Islands
The soils in this group are excessively drained,
moderately well drained, and poorly drained and are
nearly level to strongly sloping. They are mainly on
coastal ridges, on recent and remnant dunes, and in
narrow areas of flatwoods. They are on the coastal
islands, on the mainland coast, and in the eastern part
of the county on St. James Island, east of Highway 319.

2. Kershaw-Ortega-Ridgewood

Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained,
moderately well drained, and somewhat poorly drained
soils that are sandy throughout
This map unit consists of soils on high sandy ridges
and side slopes. It is in the extreme eastern part of the
county and occurs mainly as one large area extending
from east of U.S. Highway 319 to the county's north-
south segment of U.S. Highway 98. Several smaller
areas are along the Gulf Coast and near the
Ochlockonee River where it is crossed by U.S. Highway
319.
The landscape is nearly level to strongly sloping.
Some areas are interspersed with small depressions
and small areas of flatwoods. The natural vegetation
consists of longleaf pine, sand pine, slash pine, turkey
oak, and scrub live oak and an understory of wiregrass
and rosemary. Saw palmetto is scattered throughout the
unit but is more abundant in areas of the Ridgewood
soils.
This map unit makes up about 11,200 acres, or
about 3 percent of the total acreage. It is about 50
percent Kershaw soils, 25 percent Ortega soils, 22
percent Ridgewood soils, and 3 percent soils of minor
extent.
Kershaw soils are gently sloping to strongly sloping
and are excessively drained. Typically, the surface layer
is light gray sand about 5 inches thick. Below this, to a
depth of about 58 inches, is light yellowish brown fine
sand. The next layer to a depth of 80 inches or more is
very pale brown fine sand that has small patches of
white, clean sand grains.
Ortega soils are nearly level and gently sloping and
are moderately well drained. Typically, the surface layer
is grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. Below
this is fine sand. The upper 38 inches is brownish
yellow. The next 20 inches is very pale brown and has
light gray and strong brown mottles. The lower part to a
depth of 80 inches or more is light gray and has strong
brown and reddish yellow mottles.


Ridgewood soils are nearly level and gently sloping
and are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is gray sand about 5 inches thick. Below this is
sand. The upper 29 inches is brownish yellow and has
light gray mottles. The next 30 inches is very pale
brown and has strong brown and brownish yellow
mottles. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more
is light brownish gray and brown.
Of minor extent in this unit are Kureb, Leon,
Mandarin, Resota, Rutlege, and Scranton soils.
Most areas of this unit support natural vegetation or
are used for the commercial production of pine trees.

3. Mandarin-Resota-Leon

Nearly level or gently sloping, poorly drained to
moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout;
some are stained with organic matter between depths of
10 and 40 inches
This map unit consists of soils on the sandy ridge on
the mainland along the gulf and coastal bays. It occurs
as several narrow, nearly continuous areas broken by
rivers and coastal marshes.
The landscape consists of nearly level or gently
sloping ridges along the coastline. The natural
vegetation consists of sand pine, slash pine, Chapman
oak, myrtle oak, turkey oak, and scrub live oak and an
understory of woody shrubs, grasses, and saw
palmetto.
This map unit makes up about 15,800 acres, or
about 5 percent of the total acreage. It is about 30
percent Mandarin soils, 25 percent Resota soils, 20
percent Leon soils, and 25 percent soils of minor
extent.
Mandarin soils are nearly level and somewhat poorly
drained. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand
about 4 inches thick. Below this, to a depth of about 25
inches, is light gray fine sand. The subsoil is fine sand
about 9 inches thick. It is dark reddish brown grading to
dark brown. The substratum is fine sand. The upper 27
inches is brown. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches
or more is white and has light yellowish brown and
brownish yellow mottles.
Resota soils are nearly level and gently sloping and
are moderately well drained. Typically, the surface layer
is gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of about 22 inches, is white fine sand.
The subsoil is fine sand and has organic stains at its
upper boundary. The upper 22 inches is brownish
yellow. The lower 14 inches is yellow and has reddish
yellow mottles. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches
or more is very pale brown fine sand that has reddish
yellow mottles.
Leon soils are nearly level and poorly drained.








Franklin County, Florida


Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 8
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
22 inches, is white sand. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 72 inches. It is sand. The upper 18 inches is
very dark brown. The lower 32 inches is mixed very
dark brown and dark brown. Below this to a depth of 80
inches or more is light brownish gray and dark grayish
brown fine sand.
Of minor extent in this unit are Corolla, Dorovan,
Hurricane, Kureb, Lynn Haven, Ortega, Pamlico,
Pickney, Ridgewood, Rutlege, and Scranton soils.
Many areas of this unit are used for urban
development, including the cities and towns of
Apalachicola, Eastpoint, Carrabelle, and Lanark Village.
Some areas support natural vegetation or are used for
the production of pine trees.

4. Corolla-Duckston-Newhan

Nearly level to steep, somewhat poorly drained, poorly
drained, and excessively drained soils that are sandy
throughout
This map unit consists of soils on recent coastal
dunes and in sandy, flat swales on the coastal islands.
One small area is on the peninsula near Alligator Point
and extends from Lighthouse Point east to Peninsular
Point.
The landscape consists of terrain that ranges from
nearly level, low swales to high, rolling swales and
steep dunes. The natural vegetation on dunes and side
slopes and in high swales is sparse. It consists of slash
pine, myrtle oak, Chapman oak, and scrub live oak and
an understory of rosemary, woody shrubs, and grasses.
Slash pine, saw palmetto, woody shrubs, and grasses
are more abundant in the wetter low swales.
This map unit makes up about 16,200 acres, or
about 5 percent of the total acreage. It is about 35
percent Corolla soils, 35 percent Duckston soils, 10
percent Newhan soils, and 20 percent soils of minor
extent.
Corolla soils are nearly level and gently sloping and
are somewhat poorly drained to moderately well
drained. Typically, the surface layer is light gray sand
about 6 inches thick. Below this, to a depth of about 32
inches, is very pale brown and light gray sand. The next
2 inches is a buried surface layer of grayish brown
sand. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is light
gray sand.
Duckston soils are nearly level and poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4
inches thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more
is sand. In sequence downward, it is grayish brown,
light brownish gray, white, and light gray.
Newhan soils are gently undulating to steep and are


excessively drained. Typically, the surface layer is gray
sand about 1 inch thick. Below this to a depth of 80
inches or more is sand. In sequence downward, it is
light gray, white, mixed light gray and light brownish
gray, and light gray.
Of minor extent in this unit are Kershaw, Hurricane,
Mandarin, Resota, and Rutlege soils.
Large areas of this unit support natural vegetation.
Many areas are used for homesite development,
particularly on Saint George Island and near Alligator
Point.

Soils of the Flatwoods
The soils in this group are very poorly drained and
poorly drained and are nearly level. They are in the
flatwoods and in drainageways and slight depressions
throughout the county. Two areas of notable size occur
in the northwestern and southwestern parts of the
county.

5. Plummer-Surrency-Pelham
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
that have a loamy subsoil
This map unit consists of soils in the flatwoods and in
drainageways and depressions. Several small areas are
in the western part of the county, and one large area is
in the northwestern part extending southwest from the
New River at the Liberty County line to the Apalachicola
River flood plain near Gardner Landing. Individual areas
of this map unit are blocky or elongated.
The landscape is nearly level. The natural vegetation
consists of slash pine, water oak, cypress, sweetbay,
blackgum, titi, gallberry, fetterbush, waxmyrtle,
scattered saw palmetto, St Johnswort, pitcherplant, and
wiregrass.
This map unit makes up about 52,600 acres, or
about 15 percent of the total acreage. It is about 50
percent Plummer soils, 20 percent Surrency soils, 10
percent Pelham soils, and 20 percent soils of minor
extent.
Plummer soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is fine sand about 12 inches thick. The
upper 7 inches is very dark gray, and the lower 5
inches is dark gray. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
about 58 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of
the subsoil is gray fine sandy loam about 11 inches
thick. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is
light gray sandy loam.
Surrency soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black fine sand about 12 inches thick.
The subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 34
inches. It is fine sand. The upper 16 inches is dark
grayish brown, and the lower 6 inches is grayish brown.









Soil Survey


The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray
sandy loam grading to sandy clay loam.
Pelham soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand. The upper 12
inches is dark grayish brown and has light yellowish
brown mottles. The lower part, to a depth of about 37
inches, is light gray. The upper part of the subsoil is
light gray fine sandy loam about 9 inches thick. The
lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is light gray
sandy clay loam.
Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Leefield,
Leon, Rutlege, Sapelo, and Scranton soils.
Most areas of this unit are used for the commercial
production of pine trees, for recreational uses, or as
wildlife habitat.

6. Leon-Scranton-Lynn Haven

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy
throughout; some are stained with organic matter
between depths of 10 and 30 inches
This map unit consists of soils in the flatwoods. It
occurs as several areas scattered throughout the
county. The largest area extends from west of the city
of Apalachicola to the Gulf County line. Another large
area ranges from 1 to 5 miles in width and roughly
parallels the coast from Carrabelle to U.S. Highway
319. Individual areas of this unit are blocky or
elongated.
The landscape is nearly level. The natural vegetation
consists mostly of slash pine and an understory of saw
palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and various grasses and
herbaceous plants.
This map unit makes up about 58,600 acres, or
about 17 percent of the total acreage. It is about 35
percent Leon soils, 35 percent Scranton soils, 10
percent Lynn Haven soils, and 20 percent soils of minor
extent.
Leon soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is dark gray sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 22 inches, is white
sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 72
inches. It is sand. The upper 18 inches is very dark
brown, and the lower 32 inches is mixed very dark
brown and dark brown. Below this to a depth of 80
inches or more is light brownish gray fine sand.
Scranton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches
thick. Below this is fine sand. The upper 15 inches is
light gray and has patches of dark gray and very dark
gray. The next 24 inches is dark gray and has patches
of gray and light brownish gray. The lower part to a


depth of 80 inches or more is grayish brown and has
patches of light gray.
Lynn Haven soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is sand about 22 inches thick. The upper
8 inches is black, and the lower 14 inches is very dark
gray. The subsurface layer is gray sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsoil is sand. The upper 22 inches is very
dark brown and dark brown. The next 14 inches is
brown. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more
is very dark grayish brown.
Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Plummer,
Ridgewood, Rutlege, and Sapelo soils.
Most areas of this unit are used for the commercial
production of pine trees.

Soils of the Sloughs, Low Flatwoods, and
Depressions
The soils in this group are poorly drained and very
poorly drained and are nearly level. They occur
throughout the county.

7. Scranton-Rutlege

Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained soils
that are sandy throughout and have a dark surface layer
This map unit consists of soils in sloughs and
depressions. It occurs as several areas throughout the
county. The largest area includes most of Tates Hell
Swamp east of the Apalachicola River and west of the
New River. Individual areas of this unit are blocky.
The landscape is nearly level and includes scattered
areas of flatwoods. The natural vegetation consists
mostly of slash pine, scattered cypress, sweetbay, titi,
and other woody shrubs and grasses.
This map unit makes up about 92,300 acres, or
about 26 percent of the total acreage. It is about 55
percent Scranton soils, 30 percent Rutlege soils, and 15
percent soils of minor extent.
Scranton soils are poorly drained or very poorly
drained. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray
fine sand about 7 inches thick. Below this is fine sand.
The upper 15 inches is light gray and has patches of
dark gray and very dark gray. The next 24 inches is
dark gray and has patches of gray and light brownish
gray. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is
grayish brown and has patches of light gray.
Rutlege soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is fine sand about 13 inches thick. The
upper 6 inches is very dark brown, and the lower 7
inches is very dark gray. Below this is sand. The upper
21 inches is grayish brown. The next 24 inches is dark
gray. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is
gray.
Of minor extent in this unit are Leon, Pamlico,








Franklin County, Florida


Pelham, Pickney, Plummer, Sapelo, Surrency, and
Bonsai soils.
Most areas of this unit are used for the commercial
production of pine trees or support natural vegetation.

8. Meadowbrook-Tooles-Harbeson

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
that have a loamy subsoil; some have limestone bedrock
at a depth of 45 to 60 inches
This map unit consists of soils in depressions, low
flatwoods, and sloughs and on the flood plains along
the New River. It occurs as one small area along Cash
Creek and as one large area extending northeast from
2 miles west of Carrabelle to the Liberty County line.
Individual areas of this unit are elongated.
The landscape is nearly level. Slightly higher knolls
are common along the New River. The natural
vegetation consists mostly of Atlantic white-cedar, slash
pine, cypress, sweetbay, swamp cyrilla, black titi, and
various other woody shrubs.
This map unit makes up about 32,500 acres, or
about 9 percent of the total acreage. It is about 55
percent Meadowbrook soils, 10 percent Tooles soils, 10
percent Harbeson soils, and 25 percent soils of minor
extent.
Meadowbrook soils are poorly drained and very
poorly drained. Typically, the surface layer is dark
grayish brown sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 48 inches, is
sand. The upper 35 inches is mixed light brownish gray
and dark grayish brown, and the lower 9 inches is light
gray. The upper part of the subsoil is gray sandy loam
about 16 inches thick. The lower part to a depth of 80
inches or more is light greenish gray sandy clay loam.
Tooles soils are poorly drained and very poorly
drained. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer,
to a depth of about 27 inches, is dark grayish brown
and light gray sand. The subsoil is gray sandy clay
loam about 23 inches thick. Soft, white limestone
bedrock is at a depth of about 50 inches.
Harbeson soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark brown mucky loamy sand
about 11 inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface
layer is dark brown mucky sand about 28 inches thick.
The next 9 inches is dark grayish brown sand. The
lower part, to a depth of about 66 inches, is grayish
brown sand. The upper part of the subsoil is greenish
gray sandy loam about 9 inches thick. The lower part to
a depth of 80 inches or more is dark greenish gray
sandy clay loam.
Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Chaires,
Leon, Rutlege, Scranton, Surrency, and Bonsai soils.


Most areas of this unit are used for the commercial
production of pine trees or support natural vegetation.
9. Pickney-Pamlico-Dorovan
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some are sandy
throughout, some are organic and are underlain by sand,
and some are organic throughout
This map unit consists of soils in large depressions,
which generally occur just north of the coastal sand
ridge and in Pickett Bay. The largest area is in Pickett
Bay about 3 miles northwest of the Carrabelle city
limits. Individual areas of this unit are blocky or
elongated.
The landscape is nearly level. The natural vegetation
is mostly black titi and swamp cyrilla, but sweetbay,
pine, cypress, and other woody shrubs are scattered
throughout the unit.
This map unit makes up about 13,400 acres, or
about 4 percent of the total acreage. It is about 45
percent Pickney soils, 35 percent Pamlico soils, 12
percent Dorovan soils, and 8 percent soils of minor
extent.
Pickney soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is about 35 inches thick. It is black sand
and has pockets of gray sand. The subsurface layer, to
a depth of about 41 inches, is very dark brown sand.
Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is grayish
brown and light brownish gray sand.
Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark brown muck about 27 inches
thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more, in
sequence downward, is black mucky sand, very dark
grayish sand, and grayish brown sand.
Dorovan soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black muck about 68 inches thick. The
subsurface layer to a depth of 80 inches or more is very
dark gray muck.
Of minor extent in this unit are Lynn Haven,
Meadowbrook, Plummer, Rutlege, Scranton, and
Surrency soils.
Most areas of this unit support natural vegetation.
Soils of the River Flood Plains
The soils in this group are poorly drained and very
poorly drained, are frequently flooded, and are nearly
level. They lie entirely on the flood plains along the
Apalachicola, Crooked, and Ochlockonee Rivers.
10. Pamlico-Pickney-Maurepas
Nearly level, very poorly drained, frequently flooded soils;
some are organic and are underlain by sand, some are
sandy throughout, and some are organic throughout
This map unit consists of soils on the flood plains








Soil Survey


along small or medium-sized rivers. It occurs as three
areas that parallel the Crooked and Ochlockonee
Rivers. Individual areas are narrow and elongated.
The landscape is nearly level. Scattered small areas
of slightly higher knolls and flatwoods occur throughout
the unit. The natural vegetation is mostly cypress,
sweetgum, Ogeechee tupelo, and red maple and an
understory of grasses and herbaceous plants. Some
areas are freshwater marshes that support scattered
cypress.
This map unit makes up about 8,950 acres, or about
3 percent of the total acreage. It is about 40 percent
Pamlico soils, 35 percent Pickney soils, 15 percent
Maurepas soils, and 10 percent soils of minor extent.
Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark brown muck about 46 inches
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 68
inches, is very dark grayish brown mucky sand. Below
this to a depth of 80 inches or more is grayish brown
sand.
Pickney soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black fine sand about 13 inches thick.
The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 35 inches, is
very dark grayish brown sand. Below this to a depth of
80 inches or more is gray sand.
Maurepas soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark brown mucky peat about 6 inches
thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is very
dark grayish brown muck.
Of minor extent in this unit are Dorovan,
Meadowbrook, Plummer, Rutlege, and Scranton soils.
Most areas of this unit support natural vegetation and
are managed for recreational uses and as wildlife
habitat.

11. Chowan-Brickyard-Wehadkee

Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained,
frequently flooded soils that have clayey, loamy, and
sandy layers; some have a buried organic layer
This map unit is on the forested flood plain along the
Apalachicola River. The river separates the main flood
plain from Forbes Island. The unit extends south from
the Gulf and Liberty County lines to the farthest upriver
fingerings of the tidal marshes, about 3 to 6 miles north
of the city of Apalachicola. Individual areas are
elongated.
The landscape is nearly level. Narrow, gently sloping
or sloping, natural and dredge spoil levees lie along the
banks of the river and its larger distributaries. The
natural vegetation consists mainly of cypress and mixed
hardwoods, including water tupelo, Ogeechee tupelo,
black tupelo, cabbage palm, and Carolina water ash,


and a variable understory of grasses, shrubs, and
herbaceous plants.
This map unit makes up about 21,800 acres, or
about 6 percent of the total acreage. It is about 46
percent Chowan soils, 23 percent Brickyard soils, 6
percent Wehadkee soils, and 25 percent soils of minor
extent.
Chowan soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark grayish brown silty clay loam about
5 inches thick. Below this, to a depth of about 18
inches, is grayish brown silt loam. The next 19 inches is
black silty clay loam. Below this to a depth of 80 inches
or more is a very dark grayish brown, buried organic
layer.
Brickyard soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark grayish brown silty clay about 4
inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of about 28 inches,
is grayish brown silty clay that has yellowish brown
mottles. The next 17 inches is grayish brown silty clay
loam. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark
gray silty clay that contains 5 to 15 percent partially
decomposed wood debris.
Wehadkee soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is brown loam about 3 inches thick. The
subsoil extends to a depth of about 40 inches. The
upper 13 inches is gray clay loam that has strong brown
mottles. The lower 24 inches is gray sandy loam that
has yellowish brown mottles and thin strata of sandy
clay loam. The next 30 inches is light gray sand. Below
this to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray fine sandy
loam.
Of minor extent in this unit are Aquents and Kenner,
Maurepaus, Meggett, Pelham, and Surrency soils.
Nearly all of the acreage in this unit supports natural
vegetation and is managed for recreational uses and as
wildlife habitat.
Soils of the Tidal Marshes
The soils in this group are very poorly drained and
nearly level and are flooded by normal high tides. They
are in coastal marshes and the lower riverine marshes.
They have a high content of sulfur and may turn
extremely acid if drained. The soils are mainly in
coastal areas near Ochlockonee Bay, Alligator Harbor,
the Carrabelle River, Yent Bayou, and the Coastal
Islands. Other areas are along the lower reaches of the
Apalachicola River and along the New River, the
Crooked River, and the Jackson River.
12. Bohicket-Tisonia-Dirego
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are flooded by
normal high tides; some are clayey throughout, and
some have an organic layer over sand, clay, or loam
This map unit consists of soils in coastal and








Franklin County, Florida


estuarine marshes. The vegetation is dominantly black
needlerush, saltgrass, marshhay cordgrass, saltmarsh
cordgrass, and sawgrass.
This map unit makes up about 18,950 acres, or
about 5 percent of the total acreage. It is about 37
percent Bohicket soils, 30 percent Tisonia soils, 15
percent Dirego soils, and 18 percent soils of minor
extent.
Bohicket soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray silty clay about 23
inches thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more
is black silty clay.
Tisonia soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark grayish brown organic


material about 26 inches thick. The next layer, to a
depth of about 66 inches, is dark gray clay. Below this
to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray and dark gray
loamy sand and sandy clay loam.
Dirego soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark grayish brown muck about 35
inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer is
very dark brown mucky sand about 12 inches thick. The
lower part to a depth of 72 inches or more is very dark
grayish brown sand.
Of minor extent in this unit are Bayvi, Brickyard,
Chowan, Duckston, Kenner, Maurepas, and Rutlege
soils.
Most areas of this unit support natural vegetation.





















Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area.
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under the heading "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more
soils for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the substratum, all the soils of a
series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the substratum. They also can differ in slope,
stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, and
other characteristics that affect their use. On the basis
of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Kershaw sand, 2 to 5
percent slopes, is a phase of the Kershaw series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or
undifferentiated groups.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar
in all areas. Duckston-Bohicket-Corolla complex is an
example.
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made


for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
made up of all of them. Dirego and Bayvi soils, tidal, is
an undifferentiated group in this survey area.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named.
Some of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
areas have little or no soil material and support little or
no vegetation. The map unit "Beaches" is an example.
Miscellaneous areas are shown on the soil maps. Some
that are too small to be shown are identified by a
special symbol on the soil maps.
Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The
"Glossary" defines many of the terms used in
describing the soils.

2-Albany fine sand. This somewhat poorly drained,
nearly level soil is on low uplands and the higher ridges
in the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from 5
to 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a
depth of about 50 inches. It is fine sand. The upper 14
inches is grayish brown and pale brown, and the lower
28 inches is light gray. The upper part of the subsoil is
light brownish gray sandy loam about 12 inches thick.
The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is light
brownish gray sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton, Leefield, Pelham, Plummer, Ridgewood,
Sapelo, and Stilson soils and small areas of somewhat







Soil Survey


poorly drained soils that are similar to the Leefield soils
but do not have plinthite. The somewhat poorly drained
Ridgewood and Leefield soils and the soils that are
similar to the Leefield soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Albany soil. The poorly drained
Sapelo, Pelham, and Plummer soils are in slight
depressions and on low flats. The moderately well
drained Blanton and Stilson soils are on small ridges
and knolls. Also included are soils that are similar to the
Albany soil but have a thin layer that is stained with
brown or yellow. These soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Albany soil.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Albany fine
sand, Albany and similar soils make up 78 to 100
percent of the mapped areas.
The Albany soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 12 to 30 inches for 2 to 4 months in most
years. The available water capacity is very low in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
content of organic matter is moderately low, and natural
fertility is low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, longleaf
pine, live oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, and dogwood and
an understory of huckleberry, greenbrier, and wiregrass.
This soil is poorly suited to most crops because of
periodic wetness and seasonal droughtiness. If the soil
is cultivated, soil blowing is a hazard. Good
management practices combined with the use of a well
designed irrigation system can increase potential crop
yields. Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a
cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or
grass-legume mixtures help to maintain fertility and tilth.
Soil blowing can be controlled by maintaining a good
ground cover of close-growing plants, minimizing tillage,
establishing windbreaks, and wind stripcropping.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay.
Proper applications of fertilizer and lime help deep-
rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, to tolerate drought. Overgrazing results in
deterioration of the plant cover and increases the extent
of undesirable species. Proper stocking rates and
pasture rotation help to keep the pasture in good
condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.
If good management practices are applied, this site has
the potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates because of
poor management practices, the site is dominated by
saw palmetto and wiregrass.


This soil is well suited to the production of pine trees.
Potential productivity is high for slash pine. Slash pine
grows best with an adequate supply of phosphorus. The
major management concerns are the seasonal wetness
and seasonal droughtiness, which increase the seedling
mortality rate, restrict equipment use, and cause plant
competition. Careful site preparation, such as chopping
and bedding, removes debris, helps to control
competing vegetation, and facilitates hand and
mechanical planting. Using a logging system that leaves
plant debris distributed over the site improves soil
fertility. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is only moderately suited to homesite
development because of the seasonal wetness and the
occasional droughtiness. It is only moderately suited to
use as a site for small commercial buildings because of
the wetness. Adding suitable fill material can raise the
site to a level above the wetness. Because of the very
rapid permeability, areas for onsite waste disposal
should be carefully selected to prevent the
contamination of shallow ground water. Homes should
not be clustered together, and the disposal site should
not be located adjacent to any body of water. On sites
for septic tank absorption fields, mounding increases
the depth to the seasonal high water table and thus
helps to overcome the wetness. Mulching, applying
fertilizer, and using an irrigation system help to
establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded plants.
The soil is moderately suited to use as a site for local
roads and streets. Installing a drainage system and
adding suitable fill material help to overcome the
wetness.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
topsoil or other material helps to prevent excessive
erosion.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

3-Beaches. Beaches consist of narrow strips of
nearly level land areas along the Gulf of Mexico and
adjacent bays. They formed in deposits of mixed sand
and shell fragments. Individual areas range from less
than 100 to more than 300 feet in width. As much as
half of the beach can be flooded daily by high tides, and
all of the beach can be flooded by storm tides. The
most extensive areas of this unit are on St. Vincent
Island, St. George Island, and Dog Island..
Beaches typically consist of loose, fine sand ranging
from gray to white or sand that contains various
quantities of broken shells throughout. In most areas
the shell fragments are the size of sand grains, but in







Franklin County, Florida


some areas they are larger in some parts of the profile.
Layers differ primarily in color or in shell content. Some
profiles appear uniform throughout.
Included in mapping are small areas of Corolla,
Duckston, and Hurricane soils. These soils are on the
landward fringes of the map unit.
Beaches are covered daily with saltwater at high
tides. They are susceptible to movement by the wind
and tide. Many areas do not support vegetation, and the
remaining areas are sparsely vegetated by salt-tolerant
plants.
Beaches are not suitable for cultivation or for use as
woodland.
Beaches are used intensively for recreation. Homes
and commercial buildings have been built on the fringes
of beaches in many places. Beaches are not suitable
for homesite development, however, because of the
frequent tidal flooding.
No capability subclass or woodland ordination symbol
is assigned.

4-Dirego and Bayvi soils, tidal. These very poorly
drained, nearly level soils are in gulf coast tidal
marshes and in estuarine marshes along the lower
reaches of the Apalachicola River. Individual areas are
generally elongated along the gulf coast and are
irregularly shaped or elongated in other places. They
range from 3 to several thousand acres in size. They
are about 50 percent Dirego soil and 40 percent Bayvi
soil. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Dirego soil is very
dark grayish brown muck about 35 inches thick. The
upper part of the subsurface layer is very dark brown
mucky sand about 12 inches thick. The lower part to a
depth of 72 inches or more is very dark grayish brown
sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Bayvi soil is about
26 inches thick. The upper 8 inches is black mucky
sand, and the lower 18 inches is very dark gray sand.
The subsurface layer to a depth of 80 inches or more is
gray sand that has light gray streaks and mottles.
Included with these soils in mapping are areas of
very poorly drained soils that are similar to the Bayvi
soil but have a dark surface layer less than 24 inches
thick. Also included are areas of very poorly drained
soils that are similar to the Dirego soil but have a sulfur
content of less than 0.75 percent.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Dirego and
Bayvi soils, tidal, Bayvi, Dirego, and similar soils make
up 80 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Dirego and Bayvi soils have a water table at or
above the surface throughout the year and are flooded
daily by normal high tides. The available water capacity
is very low in both soils. Permeability is rapid. The


content of organic matter is high in the upper part of the
Dirego soil and medium in the lower part. It is medium
in the upper part of the Bayvi soil and low in the lower
part. Natural fertility is low in both soils. Salinity is high.
The Dirego soil contains more than 0.75 percent sulfur,
mostly in the form of sulfides, within a depth of 40
inches.
In most areas the natural vegetation consists of black
needlerush, marshhay cordgrass, and smooth
cordgrass.
These soils are unsuitable for cultivated crops,
pasture and hay, and the production of pine trees. They
are generally not used for range.
These soils are unsuitable for homesite development,
small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and
recreational uses because of the high salt content, the
daily flooding, the wetness, the high sulfide content, and
low strength. If drained, the Dirego soil is susceptible to
extreme acidification because of the oxidation of
sulfides.
The capability subclass is VllIw. No woodland
ordination symbol is assigned.

5-Aquents, nearly level. These poorly drained and
somewhat poorly drained soils are in low landscape
positions adjacent to rivers, coastal bays, and marshes
and in shallow excavated areas. Slopes range from 0 to
2 percent. Individual areas are generally elongated and
range from 3 to 30 acres in size.
These soils formed in recent fill of variable
composition. They generally contain fragments of brick,
oyster shells, woody material, and assorted recent
human artifacts. Underlying layers of natural soils range
in texture from sand to clay or are muck or mucky
analogs. In some areas these soils formed in the
subsoil and underlying layers where fill material has
been excavated.
No one pedon is typical of these soils, but commonly
they have a surface layer of dark brown sand about 22
inches thick that has many brick fragments and oyster
shells. Below this is 14 inches of pale brown sand. The
next 32 inches is a buried surface layer of light
brownish gray sand. Below this to a depth of 80 inches
or more is light gray sand.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of Bayvi, Bohicket, Corolla, Dirego, Duckston, Leon,
Rutlege, Scranton, and Tisonia soils. The very poorly
drained Bayvi, Bohicket, Dirego, and Tisonia soils are in
the lower landscape positions in tidal marshes. The
very poorly drained Rutlege soils are in the lower
upland depressions and in drainageways. The poorly
drained Duckston, Scranton, and Leon soils are in the
flatwoods. The somewhat poorly drained Corolla soils
are on low coastal ridges.








Soil Survey


Most areas of the Aquents have been filled in for use
as building sites. The vegetation consists of
landscaping varieties or weed species that typically
colonize abandoned sites in north Florida.
Present land use precludes the use of most areas of
these soils for agriculture. Onsite investigation is
needed to determine the suitability of the soils for most
land uses. Seasonal wetness is a management concern
affecting most land uses. A seasonal high water table is
generally within a depth of 20 inches throughout the
year, but it may be slightly above the surface during
periods of unseasonably high rainfall.
No capability subclass or woodland ordination symbol
is assigned.

6-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
moderately well drained, nearly level or gently sloping
soil is on upland ridges and knolls. Slopes range from 0
to 5 percent. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 3 to 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of
about 72 inches. It is fine sand. The upper 25 inches is
light yellowish brown, the next 30 inches is very pale
brown, and the lower 11 inches is light gray. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is
light yellowish brown sandy loam that has many light
gray, strong brown, and yellowish red mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Mandarin, Ortega, Ridgewood, and Stilson
soils. The moderately well drained Stilson and Ortega
soils are in landscape positions similar to those of the
Blanton soil. The somewhat poorly drained Albany,
Mandarin, and Ridgewood soils are on the lower side
slopes and in slight depressions. Also included are
deep, sandy soils that have thin loamy bands below a
depth of 40 inches and soils that have a thin layer
above the subsoil that is stained with dark brown.
These soils are in landscape positions similar to those
of the Blanton soil or are on the slightly higher ridges.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Blanton
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Blanton and similar
soils make up 75 to 93 percent of the mapped areas.
The Blanton soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 48 to 72 inches for 5 months in most years.
The water table can be perched above the subsoil for
short periods after heavy rains during any part of the
year. The available water capacity is moderate in the
subsoil and low or very low in the rest of the profile.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil.
The content of organic matter and natural fertility are
low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.


The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine and live
oak and an understory of wiregrass, ferns, huckleberry,
and scattered saw palmetto.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops
because of droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant
nutrients. If the soil is cultivated, soil blowing is a
hazard. Good management practices combined with the
use of a well designed irrigation system can increase
crop yields. Returning all crop residue to the soil and
using a cropping system that includes grasses,
legumes, or grass-legume mixtures help to maintain
fertility and tilth. Soil blowing can be controlled by
maintaining a good ground cover of close-growing
plants, minimizing tillage, establishing windbreaks, and
wind stripcropping.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay.
The major management concerns are droughtiness and
the rapid leaching of plant nutrients. Proper applications
of fertilizer and lime help deep-rooted plants, such as
coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, to tolerate
drought. Overgrazing results in deterioration of the plant
cover and increases the extent of undesirable species.
Proper stocking rates and pasture rotation help to keep
the pasture in good condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
range site. The natural fertility of this site is low
because of the rapid movement of plant nutrients and
water through the soil. Forage production is low. The
desirable forage includes creeping bluestem, chalky
bluestem, indiangrass, and other varieties of bluestem.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of
pine trees. The main management concern is the
droughtiness, which increases the seedling mortality
rate. Potential productivity is medium for slash pine and
longleaf pine. Site preparation, such as chopping and
applying herbicide, helps to control competing
vegetation and facilitates mechanical planting. Using a
harvesting system that leaves plant debris distributed
over the site helps to maintain the content of organic
matter. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
Onsite waste disposal systems should be established
on the contour. Reducing the slope by cutting and filling
minimizes water erosion on homesites and in areas
adjacent to roads. Mulching, applying fertilizer, and
using an irrigation system help to establish lawn
grasses and other small-seeded plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding







Franklin County, Florida


suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10S.

7-Bohicket and Tisonia soils, tidal. These very
poorly drained, nearly level soils are in gulf coast tidal
marshes and in estuarine marshes along the lower
reaches of the Apalachicola River and along other
estuarine creeks, streams, and rivers. Slopes are less
than 1 percent. Individual areas of these soils are
generally elongated along the gulf coast and are
elongated or irregularly shaped in other places. They
range from 3 to several thousand acres in size. They
are about 45 percent Bohicket soil and 40 percent
Tisonia soil.
Typically, the surface layer of the Bohicket soil is
very dark gray silty clay about 23 inches thick. Below
this to a depth of 80 inches or more is black silty clay.
Typically, the surface layer of the Tisonia soil is very
dark grayish brown mucky peat about 4 inches thick
over 22 inches of dark grayish brown muck. The next
layer, to a depth of about 66 inches, is dark gray clay.
Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray
loamy sand stratified with dark gray sandy clay loam.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of the very poorly drained Brickyard, Chowan, Dirego,
and Maurepas soils. Dirego and Maurepas soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Bohicket and
Tisonia soils. Brickyard and Chowan soils are on
narrow, natural levees. Also included are very poorly
drained soils that are similar to the Tisonia soil but have
organic soil material more than 51 inches thick. These
soils are in landscape positions similar to those of the
Tisonia soil.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Bohicket
and Tisonia soils, tidal, Bohicket, Tisonia, and similar
soils make up 77 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Bohicket and Tisonia soils have a water table at
or above the surface throughout the year, and they are
flooded daily by normal high tides. The available water
capacity is high. Permeability is very slow. The content
of organic matter, natural fertility, and salinity are high.
The soils contain more than 0.75 percent sulfur, mostly
in the form of sulfides, within a depth of 40 inches.
In most areas the natural vegetation consists of black
needlerush, marshhay cordgrass, and smooth
cordgrass.
These soils are unsuitable for cultivated crops,
pasture and hay, and the production of pine trees. They
are generally not used for range.
These soils are unsuitable for homesite development,
small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and
recreational uses because of the high salt content, the


flooding, the wetness, the high sulfide content, and low
strength. If drained, the soils are susceptible to extreme
acidification because of the oxidation of sulfides.
The capability subclass is VIIIw. No woodland
ordination symbol is assigned.

8-Ridgewood sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level or gently sloping
soil is on slightly convex knolls in the uplands and in
the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from 5
to 150 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 5
inches thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more
is sand. The upper 29 inches is brownish yellow and
has light gray mottles in the lower part. The next 30
inches is very pale brown and has strong brown and
brownish yellow mottles. The lower 16 inches or more is
light brownish gray and brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Hurricane, Ortega, and Scranton soils. The
somewhat poorly drained Albany and Hurricane soils
are in landscape positions similar to those of the
Ridgewood soil. The moderately well drained Ortega
soils are on the slightly higher convex knolls or ridges.
The poorly drained Scranton soils are in low flats or
slight depressions.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Ridgewood
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Ridgewood and similar
soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
The Ridgewood soil has a seasonal high water table
at a depth of 24 to 42 inches for 2 to 4 months in most
years. The water table is at a depth of 15 to 24 inches
for less than 3 weeks in some years. The available
water capacity is low in the surface layer and very low
or low in the rest of the profile. Permeability is rapid.
The content of organic matter and natural fertility are
low.
Most areas are used for commercial production of
pine trees. The natural vegetation consists of slash
pine, longleaf pine, and scattered oak and an
understory of wiregrass and scattered saw palmetto.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops
because of droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant
nutrients. If the soil is cultivated, soil blowing is a
hazard. Good management practices combined with the
use of a well designed irrigation system can increase
crop yields. Returning all crop residue to the soil and
using a cropping system that includes grasses,
legumes, or grass-legume mixtures help to maintain
fertility and tilth. Soil blowing can be controlled by
maintaining a good ground cover of close-growing
plants, minimizing tillage, establishing windbreaks, and
wind stripcropping.







Soil Survey


This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay.
Proper applications of fertilizer and lime help deep-
rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, to tolerate drought. Overgrazing results in
deterioration of the plant cover and increases the extent
of undesirable species. Proper stocking rates and
pasture rotation help to keep the pasture in good
condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.
If good grazing management practices are applied, this
site has the potential to produce significant amounts of
creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, and Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates
because of poor management practices, the site is
dominated by saw palmetto and wiregrass.
This soil is well suited to the production of pine trees.
Potential productivity is medium or high for slash pine
and longleaf pine. Slash pine grows best with an
adequate supply of phosphorus. The major
management concerns are the seasonal wetness and
seasonal droughtiness, which increase the seedling
mortality rate, restrict equipment use, and cause plant
competition. Careful site preparation, such as chopping
and bedding, removes debris, helps to control
competing vegetation, and facilitates hand and
mechanical planting. Using a logging system that leaves
plant debris distributed over the site improves soil
fertility. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is only moderately suited to homesite
development because of the seasonal wetness and the
occasional droughtiness. It is only moderately suited to
use as a site for small commercial buildings because of
the wetness. Adding suitable fill material can raise the
site to a level above the wetness. Because of the rapid
permeability, areas for onsite waste disposal should be
carefully selected to prevent the contamination of
ground water. Homes should not be clustered together,
and the disposal site should not be located adjacent to
any body of water. On sites for septic tank absorption
fields, mounding increases the depth to the seasonal
high water table and thus helps to overcome the
wetness. Mulching, applying fertilizer, and using an
irrigation system help to establish lawn grasses and
other small-seeded plants. The soil is moderately suited
to local roads and streets. Installing a drainage system
and adding suitable fill material help to overcome the
wetness.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.


The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9S.

9-Chaires sand. This poorly drained, nearly level
soil is on low knolls in the flatwoods. Slopes range from
0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are irregular in shape
and range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
14 inches, is light brownish gray sand. The upper part
of the subsoil is very dark brown and dark brown sand
about 10 inches thick. The next part is light brownish
gray sand about 9 inches thick. The next 23 inches is
gray sandy loam and sandy clay loam. The lower part
of the subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is
greenish gray and bluish gray sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Leon, Meadowbrook, Rutlege, Scranton, and Tooles
soils. The poorly drained Leon, Meadowbrook,
Scranton, and Tooles soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Chaires soil. The very poorly
drained Scranton and Meadowbrook soils are in
sloughs. The very poorly drained Rutlege soils are in
drainageways and on low flats.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Chaires
sand, Chaires and similar soils make up 74 to 92
percent of the mapped areas.
The Chaires soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 6 to 12 inches for 1 to 3 months in most years.
The water table recedes to a depth of 10 to 40 inches
during dry periods. The available water capacity is very
low in the surface and subsurface layers, low in the
upper part of the subsoil, and moderate in the lower
part of the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderately slow or slow in
the subsoil. The content of organic matter is moderately
low, and natural fertility is low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine, slash
pine, saw palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, wiregrass,
running oak, black titi, and fetterbush lyonia.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops
because of the wetness and the low fertility. The
number of adapted crops that can be grown is limited
unless intensive management practices are applied. A
water-control system removes excess water during wet
periods and provides for surface irrigation during dry
periods. Row crops can be rotated with close-growing,
soil-improving crops. Incorporating crop residue,
including that of soil-improving crops, into the soil
increases the content of organic matter. Seedbed
preparation, including bedding of rows, reduces the rate
of seedling mortality caused by wetness.. Applications of
fertilizer and lime can increase crop yields.







Franklin County, Florida


This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Water-
control measures reduce surface wetness. Applications
of fertilizer and the proper selection of adapted grasses
and legumes help to maximize yields. Proper stocking
rates, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during wet
periods help to keep the pasture in good condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.
If good management practices are applied, this site has
the potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates because of
poor management practices, the site is dominated by
saw palmetto and wiregrass.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of
pine trees. It is limited mainly by the seasonal wetness
and seasonal droughtiness, which can increase the
seedling mortality rate, restrict the use of equipment,
and cause plant competition. Potential productivity is
medium for slash pine and longleaf pine. Site
preparation, such as chopping, burning, and bedding,
removes debris, minimizes plant competition, facilitates
planting, and reduces the seedling mortality rate. Using
special equipment, such as rubber-tired or crawler
machinery, and harvesting only during dry periods
minimize soil compaction and root damage during
thinning activities. Using a harvesting system that
leaves plant debris distributed over the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter. The trees
respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,
local roads and streets, and small commercial buildings
because of the wetness. On sites for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding increases the depth to the
seasonal high water table and thus helps to overcome
the wetness. If adequate outlets are available, a
drainage system can be installed. Installing a drainage
system and adding suitable fill material help to
overcome the wetness. Landscaping can be improved
by installing a drainage system, using an irrigation
system, and selecting plant species that tolerate both
seasonal wetness and droughtiness.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion and helps to overcome the wetness.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.

10-Corolla sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level or gently sloping
soil is on flats and small dunes and in swales on large
dunes along the gulf coast beaches. Slopes range from


0 to 5 percent but are generally less than 3 percent.
Individual areas are narrow and elongated and range
from 5 to 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is light gray sand about 6
inches thick. The next layer is sand. The upper 18
inches is very pale brown, and the lower 8 inches is
light gray. The next 2 inches is a buried surface layer of
grayish brown sand. Below this to a depth of 80 inches
or more is light gray sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Beaches and small areas of Duckston, Hurricane,
Mandarin, and Newhan soils. The somewhat poorly
drained Hurricane and Mandarin soils are on relict
coastal dunes and ridges that are more stable than
those on which the Corolla soil occurs. Beaches are
poorly drained and are near the coastal margin. The
poorly drained Duckston soils are on low flats and in
swales. The excessively drained Newhan soils are on
high coastal dunes and ridges.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Corolla
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Corolla and similar soils
make up 77 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Corolla soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 18 to 36 inches for 3 to 6 months in most
years. Flooding can occur during severe coastal storms.
The available water capacity is low. Permeability is very
rapid. Natural fertility and the content of organic matter
are low.
Many areas are used for homesite development. In
most areas the natural vegetation consists of slash
pine, longleaf pine, and live oak and an understory of
waxmyrtle and scattered saw palmetto. Many of the
areas nearest to the gulf coast do not have trees and
are sparsely vegetated with sea oats and other beach
grasses and scattered shrubs.
This soil is generally unsuited to cultivated crops,
pasture, and the production of timber because of the
low level of fertility and the proximity to the coast.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, sewage lagoons, and
sanitary landfills. It is moderately suited to use as a site
for local roads and streets. The major limitations are
seasonal droughtiness and wetness, the hazard of
flooding, and the very rapid permeability. On sites for
septic tank absorption fields, the depth to the high water
table can be increased by constructing a mound of
suitable fill material. On homesites, adding suitable fill
material helps to overcome the wetness. Because of the
very rapid permeability and the proximity to the coast,
the effluent from septic systems can pollute ground
water. Only low-density development is recommended.
Mulching, applying fertilizer, and using an irrigation
system help to establish lawn grasses and other small-
seeded plants. For any kind of development, care







Soil Survey


should be taken to protect the natural vegetation, which
helps to control erosion caused by coastal winds. Plants
that tolerate salt and drought should be selected for use
in landscaping.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion. Access walkways should be used to
limit foot traffic in areas where the natural vegetation
stabilizes the surface.
The capability subclass is Vlls. No woodland
ordination symbol is assigned.

11-Dorovan-Pamlico complex, depressional.
These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions and poorly defined drainageways. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas of these
soils are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 500
acres in size. They are about 55 percent Dorovan soil
and 30 percent Pamlico soil.
Typically, the surface layer of the Dorovan soil is
black muck about 68 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of 80 inches or more is very dark gray muck.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is very
dark brown muck about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is dark brown muck about 31 inches thick. Below
this to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark grayish
brown and grayish brown fine sand.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of Lynn Haven, Pickney, Rutlege, and Scranton soils.
Also included are soils that are similar to the Pamlico
soil but have a loamy substratum. The very poorly
drained Pickney, Rutlege, and Scranton soils are in the
slightly higher landscape positions. The poorly drained
Lynn Haven and Scranton soils are on slight knolls and
ridges and in areas near the edges of the map unit.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Dorovan-
Pamlico complex, depressional, Dorovan, Pamlico, and
similar soils make up 79 to 100 percent of the mapped
areas.
The Dorovan and Pamlico soils have a seasonal high
water table ponded on the surface or within a depth of
24 inches for 3 to 6 months in most years. The
available water capacity and the content of organic
matter are very high in both soils. Permeability ranges
from moderate to rapid. Natural fertility is high.
In most areas the natural vegetation consists of
blackgum, cypress, sweetbay, swamp tupelo, black titi,
and scattered slash pine.
These soils are unsuitable for crops, pasture and
hay, and the production of pine trees. They also are
unsuited to use as sites for homes, small commercial
buildings, and local roads and streets. The ponded


seasonal high water table, a lack of suitable drainage
outlets, and low strength are limitations. The soils are
generally not used for range. They are unsuitable for
recreational uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas,
and paths or trails, because of the ponded seasonal
high water table and the lack of suitable outlets.
The capability subclass is VIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W for the Dorovan soil and 4W for
the Pamlico soil.

12-Lynchburg loamy fine sand. This somewhat
poorly drained, nearly level soil is on low ridges
between streams and along stream banks. Slopes
range from 0 to 3 percent. Individual areas are
irregularly shaped or elongated and range from 3 to 30
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 7
inches of pale brown loamy fine sand. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. In sequence
downward, it is 15 inches of light yellowish brown sandy
clay loam and sandy clay that has reddish yellow,
brownish yellow, and light brownish gray mottles; 22
inches of grayish brown sandy clay that has brownish
yellow, yellowish red, and strong brown mottles; 19
inches of olive gray sandy clay loam that has many light
gray, olive yellow, yellowish brown, strong brown,
yellowish red, and red mottles; and 11 inches or more
of light gray clay that has yellowish red and red mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Leefield, Pelham, and Stilson soils and soils that are
similar to the Lynchburg soil but have less than 35
percent clay in the upper 20 inches of the subsoil. The
moderately well drained Stilson soils are on the slightly
higher ridges. The somewhat poorly drained Leefield
soils are in landscape positions similar to those of the
Lynchburg soil. The poorly drained Pelham soils are in
swales, nearer to the stream channels than the
Lynchburg soil.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Lynchburg
loamy fine sand, Lynchburg and similar soils make up
75 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Lynchburg soil has a seasonal high water table
at a depth of 12 to 30 inches for 3 to 6 months each
year. The available water capacity is low in the surface
layer and moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid
in the surface layer and moderately slow in the
subsurface layer and the subsoil. The content of
organic matter is moderate or moderately low, and
natural fertility is medium.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, longleaf
pine, live oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, and dogwood and







Franklin County, Florida


an understory of saw palmetto, blackberry, and
wiregrass.
This soil is well suited to most cultivated crops,
although periodic wetness occurs in most years. Good
management practices help to maintain fertility and tilth
and increase crop yields. Good management practices
include returning all crop residue to the soil and using a
cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or
grass-legume mixtures.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture plants and
hay crops, such as coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass,
and legumes. Controlled grazing maintains the vigor of
the plants. Proper stocking rates and pasture rotation
help to keep the pasture in good condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.
If good management practices are applied, this site has
the potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates, the site is
dominated by saw palmetto and wiregrass.
This soil is well suited to the production of pine trees.
Potential productivity is medium or high for slash pine
and loblolly pine and low or medium for longleaf pine.
Loblolly pine and slash pine grow best with an adequate
supply of phosphorus. The major management
concerns are the seasonal wetness, restricted
equipment use, and plant competition. Careful site
preparation, such as chopping and bedding, removes
debris, helps to control competing vegetation, and
facilitates hand and mechanical planting. Using a
logging system that leaves plant debris distributed over
the site improves soil fertility. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,
sanitary facilities, and small commercial buildings
because of the wetness. It is moderately suited to use
as a site for local roads and streets. Installing a
drainage system and adding suitable fill material to
elevate roadbeds help to overcome the wetness.
Properly designing sewage lagoons and landfills helps
to prevent the contamination of ground water and
surrounding streams. Mounding the septic tank
absorption field helps to maintain the system above the
seasonal high water table. Enlarging the absorption field
helps to compensate for the slow permeability of the
soil. The soil is moderately suited to lawns and
landscaping. Applications of fertilizer help to establish
lawn grasses and other small-seeded plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, installing a drainage system or adding suitable fill
material can minimize the wetness.


The capability subclass is IIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 12W.

13-Hurricane sand. This somewhat poorly drained,
nearly level soil is on low coastal ridges and slight
knolls in the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 3
percent. Individual areas are elongated or irregularly
shaped and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is sand about 7 inches
thick. The upper 3 inches is gray, and the lower 4
inches is brown. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
about 55 inches, is sand. The upper 17 inches is
brownish yellow, the next 10 inches is light yellowish
brown, and the lower 21 inches is white. The subsoil, to
a depth of about 76 inches, is sand. The upper 13
inches is brown, and the lower 8 inches is dark brown.
Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is pinkish
gray sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Corolla, Leon, Mandarin, Resota, and Ridgewood soils.
The poorly drained Leon soils are in low swales and on
flats. The somewhat poorly drained Ridgewood,
Mandarin, and Corolla soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Hurricane soil. The moderately
well drained Resota soils are on the higher ridges.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Hurricane
sand, Hurricane and similar soils make up 82 to 100

percent of the mapped areas.
The Hurricane soil has a seasonal high water table at
a depth of 24 to 42 inches for 2 to 4 months in most
years. The water table can rise to a depth of 15 to 24
inches for brief periods after heavy rains. The available
water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid or very
rapid. The content of organic matter and natural fertility
are low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, longleaf
pine, and scattered oak and an understory of saw
palmetto, gallberry, and wiregrass.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops
because of droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant
nutrients. If the soil is cultivated, soil blowing is a
hazard. Good management practices combined with the
use of a well designed irrigation system can increase
crop yields. Returning crop residue to the soil and using
a cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or
grass-legume mixtures help to maintain fertility and tilth.
Soil blowing can be controlled by maintaining a good
ground cover of close-growing plants, minimizing tillage,
establishing windbreaks, and wind stripcropping.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay.
Proper applications of fertilizer and lime help deep-
rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, to tolerate drought. Overgrazing results in







Soil Survey


deterioration of the plant cover and increases the extent
of undesirable species. Proper stocking rates and
pasture rotation help to keep the pasture in good
condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.
If good management practices are applied, this site has
the potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates because of
poor management practices, the site is dominated by
saw palmetto and wiregrass.
This soil is well suited to the production of pine trees.
Potential productivity is medium for slash pine and
longleaf pine. Slash pine grows best with an adequate
supply of phosphorus. The major management
concerns are the seasonal wetness and seasonal
droughtiness, which increase the seedling mortality rate,
restrict equipment use, and cause plant competition.
Careful site preparation, such as chopping and bedding,
removes debris, helps to control competing vegetation,
and facilitates hand and mechanical planting. Using a
logging system that leaves plant debris distributed over
the site improves soil fertility. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is only moderately suited to homesite
development because of the seasonal wetness and the
occasional droughtiness. It is only moderately suited to
use as a site for small commercial buildings and local
roads and streets because of the wetness. Adding
suitable fill material can raise the site to a level above
the wetness. Installing a drainage system and adding
suitable fill material to elevate roadbeds help to
overcome the wetness on sites for local roads and
streets. Because of the rapid or very rapid permeability,
areas for onsite waste disposal should be carefully
selected to prevent the contamination of ground water.
Homes should not be clustered together, and the
disposal site should not be located adjacent to any body
of water. Properly designing sewage lagoons and
landfills helps to prevent seepage and the
contamination of ground water. On sites for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding increases the depth to the
seasonal high water table. Mulching, applying fertilizer,
and using an irrigation system help to establish lawn
grasses and other small-seeded plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.


14-Harbeson mucky loamy sand, depressional.
This very poorly drained, nearly level soil is in broad,
poorly defined drainageways and in depressions.
Individual areas are rounded or elongated and range
from 50 to 300 acres in size. Slopes are generally less
than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown mucky
loamy sand about 11 inches thick. The subsurface layer
extends to a depth of about 66 inches. The upper 28
inches is dark brown mucky sand, the next 9 inches is
dark grayish brown sand, and the lower 18 inches is
grayish brown sand. The upper part of the subsoil is
greenish gray sandy loam about 9 inches thick. The
lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark
greenish gray sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bonsai, Meadowbrook, Pickney, Pamlico, and Rutlege
soils and soils that are similar to the Harbeson soil but
have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 40 inches.
These included soils are very poorly drained. They are
in landscape positions similar to those of the Harbeson
soil.
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Harbeson
mucky loamy sand, depressional, Harbeson and similar
soils make up 76 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Harbeson soil has a seasonal high water table at
or above the surface for 4 months or more during most
years. The available water capacity is very high in the
surface layer, low in the subsurface layer, and
moderate or high in the subsoil. Permeability is
moderately rapid or rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and moderate in the subsoil. The content of
organic matter is high in the surface layer, moderate in
the subsurface layer, and low in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is high.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of Atlantic white-cedar, cypress, sweetbay,
sweetgum, slash pine, red maple, and Carolina water
ash and an understory of St Johnswort, sedges,
greenbrier, and pitcherplant.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the wetness. The number of adapted crops that can
be grown is limited unless intensive management
practices are applied. A water-control system removes
excess water during wet periods. Incorporating crop
residue, including that of soil-improving crops, into the
soil helps to maintain the content of organic matter.
Seedbed preparation, including bedding of rows, helps
to overcome the wetness. Applications of fertilizer and
lime can increase crop yields.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay. A
drainage system can remove excess water during wet
periods. Applications of fertilizer and the proper
selection of adapted grasses and legumes help to








Franklin County, Florida


maximize yields. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation,
and restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep
the pasture in good condition. The soil is generally not
used for range or the production of pine trees.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the wetness. On sites for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding increases the depth to the
seasonal high water table and thus helps to overcome
the wetness. If adequate outlets are available, a
drainage system can be installed. Installing a drainage
system and adding suitable fill material to elevate
roadbeds and building sites can help to overcome the
wetness. Landscaping can be improved by installing a
drainage system and selecting plants that tolerate
wetness.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, additions of suitable topsoil can help to overcome
the wetness.
The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 6W.

15-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
moderately well drained, nearly level or gently sloping
soil is on side slopes or in concave areas in the sandy
uplands. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. Individual
areas are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 500
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine
sand about 5 inches thick. Below this to a depth of 80
inches or more is fine sand. The upper 38 inches is
brownish yellow. The next 20 inches is very pale brown
and has light gray and strong brown mottles. The lower
17 inches or more is light gray and has strong brown
and reddish yellow mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Hurricane, Kershaw, Resota, and Ridgewood soils. The
moderately well drained Resota soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Ortega soil. The
excessively drained Kershaw soils are on high ridges.
The somewhat poorly drained Ridgewood and
Hurricane soils are in slight depressions and low
swales.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Ortega fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Ortega and similar soils
make up 75 to 89 percent of the mapped areas.
The Ortega soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 60 to 72 inches for as long as 6 months in
most years. The water table is at a depth of 42 to 60
inches for 1 to 3 months in most years during periods of
heavy rainfall. The available water capacity is low in the
surface layer and very low in the underlying material.


Permeability is rapid. The content of organic matter and
natural fertility are low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of sand pine, longleaf
pine, and turkey oak and an understory of wiregrass
and scattered saw palmetto.
This soil is poorly suited to most crops because of
droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients. If
the soil is cultivated, soil blowing is a hazard. Applying
fertilizer and using a well designed irrigation system can
increase crop yields. Returning all crop residue to the
soil and using a cropping system that includes grasses,
legumes, or grass-legume mixtures help to maintain
fertility and tilth. Soil blowing can be controlled by
maintaining a good ground cover of close-growing
plants, minimizing tillage, establishing windbreaks, and
wind stripcropping.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay.
The restricted available water capacity is a limitation.
Proper applications of fertilizer and lime help deep-
rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, to tolerate drought. Overgrazing results in
deterioration of the plant cover and increases the extent
of undesirable species. Proper stocking rates and
pasture rotation help to keep the pasture in good
condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
range site. The natural fertility of this site is low
because of the rapid movement of plant nutrients and
water through the soil. Forage production is low. The
desirable forage includes creeping bluestem, chalky
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and other varieties of
bluestem.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of
pine trees. It is limited mainly by the droughtiness,
which increases the seedling mortality rate and retards
growth. Potential productivity is medium for longleaf
pine and slash pine. Using special nursery stock that is
larger than usual or that is containerized reduces the
seedling mortality rate. Using a harvesting system that
leaves plant debris distributed over the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter.
This soil is well suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
It is poorly suited to sewage lagoons and landfills
because of seepage. If the soil is used for these
purposes, sidewalls should be sealed. Because of the
rapid permeability, areas for onsite waste disposal
should be carefully selected to prevent the
contamination of ground water. Homes should not be
clustered together, and the disposal site should not be
located adjacent to any body of water. Disposal fields
should be established on the contour. Reducing the








Soil Survey


slope by cutting and filling minimizes erosion on
homesites and in areas adjacent to roads. Mulching,
applying fertilizer, and using an irrigation system help to
establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8S.

16-Bonsai mucky fine sand, frequently flooded.
This very poorly drained, nearly level soil is on low,
broad flood plains along shallow perennial and
intermittent streams. Slopes generally are less than 1
percent. Individual areas are elongated and range from
75 to 500 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown mucky fine sand about 3 inches thick. The next
layer extends to a depth of about 65 inches. The upper
33 inches is brown fine sand, the next 10 inches is light
brownish gray loamy fine sand, and the lower 19 inches
is gray fine sand. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or
more is dark gray sandy loam that has strata of organic
matter and fragments of soft, white mollusk shells.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
the very poorly drained Harbeson soils. These soils are
in landscape positions similar to those of the Bonsai
soil. Also included are small areas of soils that are
similar to the Bonsai soil but have loamy strata within a
depth of 40 inches.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Bonsai
mucky fine sand, frequently flooded, Bonsai and similar
soils make up 78 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Bonsai soil has a seasonal high water table at or
slightly above the surface for 2 to 4 months in most
years. The water table is within a depth of 20 inches
during the rest of most years. Flooding occurs primarily
from December to March but can occur anytime during
the year after periods of heavy rainfall. The available
water capacity is very high in the surface layer and low
to high in the stratified underlying material. Permeability
is moderately rapid in the surface layer, rapid in the
underlying material to a depth of 46 inches, and
moderate in the rest of the profile. The content of
organic matter is very high in the surface layer and high
in the underlying layers. Natural fertility is low.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists primarily of dwarf baldcypress (fig. 3) but can
include scattered slash pine, Carolina water ash, and
sweetbay. The sparse understory is variable but
commonly includes pitcherplant, corkwood, St
Johnswort, swamp cyrilla, black titi, and waxmyrtle.


This soil is generally not used for cultivated crops,
pasture, or the production of timber because of the
seasonal high water table and the frequent flooding.
This soil is generally not used as a site for homes,
commercial buildings, local roads and streets, or
sanitary facilities because of the seasonal high water
table and the frequent flooding. It is poorly suited to
recreational development. Elevated boardwalks can be
used for trails.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W.

17-Kershaw sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This
excessively drained, nearly level or gently sloping soil is
on side slopes and hilltops of high sandy ridges. Slopes
generally range from 2 to 5 percent but are more than 5
percent in some areas. Individual areas are elongated
or irregularly shaped and range from 50 to 2,000 acres
in size.
Typically, the surface layer is light brownish gray
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
brown sand about 5 inches thick. Below this to a depth
of 80 inches or more is sand. The upper 39 inches is
yellowish brown, the next 24 inches is brownish yellow,
and the lower 8 inches or more is very pale brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Kureb, Ortega, Resota, and Ridgewood soils. The
excessively drained Kureb soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Kershaw soil. The
moderately well drained Ortega and Resota soils are on
low side slopes. The somewhat poorly drained
Ridgewood soils are in low swales and slight
depressions.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Kershaw
sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Kershaw and similar soils
make up 81 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Kershaw soil does not have a seasonal high
water table within a depth of 80 inches. The available
water capacity is very low. Permeability is very rapid.
The content of organic matter and natural fertility are
low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of sand pine, scrub oak,
longleaf pine, and turkey oak and an understory of
wiregrass, rosemary, and scattered saw palmetto.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant
nutrients.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture. The restricted
available water capacity is a limitation. Proper
applications of fertilizer and lime help deep-rooted
plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass,
to tolerate drought. Overgrazing results in deterioration
of the plant cover and increases the extent of








Franklin County, Florida


Figure 3.-Dwarf baldcypress in an area of Bonsai mucky fine sand, frequently flooded. Many of these trees are more than 300 years old.
The auger is 72 inches long.


undesirable species. Proper stocking rates and pasture
rotation help to keep the pasture in good condition.
This soil is poorly suited to the production of pine
trees. It is limited mainly by the droughtiness, which
increases the seedling mortality rate and retards
growth. Potential productivity is low for longleaf pine
and slash pine. Using special nursery stock that is
larger than usual or that is containerized reduces the


seedling mortality rate. Using a harvesting system that
leaves plant debris distributed over the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
range site. The natural fertility of this site is low
because of the rapid movement of plant nutrients and
water through the soil. Forage production is low. The


ict --.tZ~
b
-4i~f5~~zo-
E








Soil Survey


desirable forage includes creeping bluestem, chalky
bluestem, indiangrass, and other varieties of bluestem.
This soil is well suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
Because of the very rapid permeability, however, sites
for waste disposal systems should be carefully selected
to prevent the contamination of ground water. Homes
should not be clustered together, and the disposal site
should not be located adjacent to any body of water.
Mulching, applying fertilizer, using an irrigation system,
and selecting drought-tolerant species help to establish
lawn grasses and landscaping plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is Vlls. The woodland
ordination symbol is 6S.

18-Kershaw sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This
excessively drained, sloping or strongly sloping soil is
on side slopes and tops of high sandy ridges. Slopes
generally range from 5 to 12 percent but range from 2
to 5 percent in some areas. Individual areas are
elongated or irregularly shaped and range from 50 to
200 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 5
inches thick. The next layer is 53 inches of light
yellowish brown sand. Below this to a depth of 80
inches or more is very pale brown fine sand that has
small patches of white, clean sand grains.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Kureb, Ortega, Resota, and Ridgewood soils. The
excessively drained Kureb soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Kershaw soil. The
moderately well drained Ortega and Resota soils are on
low side slopes. The somewhat poorly drained
Ridgewood soils are in low swales and slight
depressions.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Kershaw
sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes, Kershaw and similar soils
make up 76 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Kershaw soil does not have a seasonal high
water table within a depth of 80 inches. The available
water capacity is very low. Permeability is very rapid.
The content of organic matter and natural fertility are
low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of sand pine, scrub oak,
longleaf pine, and turkey oak and an understory of
wiregrass, rosemary, and scattered saw palmetto.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops


because of droughtiness. the slope, and the rapid
leaching of plant nutrients.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture. The low
available water capacity is a limitation. Proper
applications of fertilizer and lime help deep-rooted
plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass.
to tolerate drought. Overgrazing results in deterioration
of the plant cover and increases the extent of
undesirable species. Proper stocking rates and pasture
rotation help to keep the pasture in good condition.
Establishing cattle gaps and watering troughs in the
less sloping areas helps to control erosion where cattle
traffic has killed vegetation.
This soil is poorly suited to the production of pine
trees. It is limited mainly by the droughtiness, which
increases the seedling mortality rate and retards
growth. Potential productivity is low for longleaf pine
and slash pine. Using special nursery stock that is
larger than usual or that is containerized reduces the
seedling mortality rate. Using a harvesting system that
leaves plant debris distributed over the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
range site. The natural fertility of this site is low
because of the rapid movement of plant nutrients and
water through the soil. Forage production is low. The
desirable forage includes creeping bluestem. chalky
bluestem, indiangrass. and other varieties of bluestem.
This soil is well suited to homesite development. It is
poorly suited to use as a site for small commercial
buildings because of the slope. Because of the very
rapid permeability, sites for waste disposal systems
should be carefully selected to prevent the
contamination of ground water. Homes should not be
clustered together, and the disposal site should not be
located adjacent to any body of water. Mulching,
applying fertilizer, using an irrigation system, and
selecting drought-tolerant species help to establish lawn
grasses and landscaping plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds. picnic areas. and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion. Avoiding development in the steeper
areas or using stepped walkways reduces erosion.
The capability subclass is Vlls. The woodland
ordination symbol is 6S.

19-Kureb fine sand, 3 to 8 percent slopes. This
excessively drained, gently sloping or sloping soil is on
convex coastal ridges and remnant dunes. Slopes
range from 3 to 8 percent. Individual areas are narrow








Franklin County, Florida


and elongated or elliptical and range from 10 to 75
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
26 inches, is fine sand. The upper 6 inches is light gray,
and the lower 16 inches is white. The subsoil extends to
a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 22 inches is
yellow fine sand interspersed with narrow, vertical
tongues of white sand from the subsurface layer. Thin,
dark brown splotches and streaks occur intermittently at
the boundary between the white and yellow layers. The
lower part of the subsoil is very pale brown sand that
has dark yellowish brown bands.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Hurricane, Kershaw, Mandarin, Ortega, and Resota
soils. The excessively drained Kershaw soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Kureb soil.
The moderately well drained Ortega and Resota soils
are on low side slopes. The somewhat poorly drained
Hurricane and Mandarin soils are in low swales and
slight depressions. Also included are Kureb soils that
have slopes of more than 8 percent.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Kureb fine
sand, 3 to 8 percent slopes, Kureb and similar soils
make up 79 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Kureb soil does not have a seasonal high water
table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water
capacity is very low. Permeability is very rapid. The
content of organic matter and natural fertility are low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of sand pine, scrub oak,
longleaf pine, and turkey oak and an understory of
wiregrass, rosemary, and scattered saw palmetto.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops
because of droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant
nutrients.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay. The
restricted available water capacity is a limitation. Proper
applications of fertilizer and lime help deep-rooted
plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass,
to tolerate drought. Overgrazing results in deterioration
of the plant cover and increases the extent of
undesirable species. Proper stocking rates and pasture
rotation help to keep the pasture in good condition.
This soil supports vegetation that is characteristic of
the Sand Pine Scrub range site. The desirable forage
on this site includes creeping bluestem, purple
bluestem, indiangrass, and beaked panicum. Because
of the droughtiness, forage production is low.
This soil is poorly suited to the production of pine
trees. It is limited mainly by the droughtiness, which
increases the seedling mortality rate and retards
growth. Potential productivity is low for slash pine.
Using special nursery stock that is larger than usual or


that is containerized reduces the seedling mortality rate.
Using a harvesting system that leaves plant debris
distributed over the site helps to maintain the content of
organic matter.
This soil is well suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
It is poorly suited to sewage lagoons and landfills
because of seepage. If it is used for these purposes,
sidewalls should be sealed. Because of the very rapid
permeability, areas for onsite waste disposal should be
carefully selected to prevent the contamination of
ground water. Homes should not be clustered together,
and the disposal site should not be located adjacent to
any body of water. Disposal fields can be established
on the contour, or the slope can be reduced by cutting
and filling. Reducing the slope by cutting and filling
minimizes water erosion on homesites and in areas
adjacent to roads. Landscaping can be improved by
mulching, applying fertilizer, using an irrigation system,
and planting species that are tolerant of drought.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding

suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is Vlls. The woodland
ordination symbol is 3S.

20-Lynn Haven sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is in broad, very slightly depressional areas in
the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from 5
to 200 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is 22 inches of sand. The
upper 8 inches is black, and the lower 14 inches is very
dark gray. The subsurface layer is gray sand about 6
inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
more is sand. The upper 22 inches is very dark brown
and dark brown, the next 14 inches is brown, and the
lower 16 inches or more is very dark grayish brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Leon and Rutlege soils. The poorly drained Leon soils
are in the slightly higher landscape positions. The very
poorly drained Rutlege soils are in depressions and on
low, broad flats. Also included are poorly drained soils
that have a spodic horizon below a depth of 30 inches.
These soils are in landscape positions similar to those
of the Lynn Haven soil.
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Lynn
Haven sand, Lynn Haven and similar soils make up 78
to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Lynn Haven soil has a seasonal high water table
within a depth of 12 inches for 4 to 6 months each year
and within a depth of 30 inches for the rest of the year.








Soil Survey


The available water capacity is low in the surface layer,
moderate or high in the subsoil, and very low in the
substratum. Permeability is moderate or moderately
rapid in the subsoil and rapid or very rapid in the rest of
the profile. The content of organic matter and natural
fertility are low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine and an
understory of saw palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, black
titi, and fetterbush lyonia.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the wetness and the low fertility. The number of
adapted crops that can be grown is limited unless
intensive management practices are applied. A water-
control system removes excess water during wet
periods and provides for surface irrigation during dry
periods. Row crops should be rotated with close-
growing, soil-improving crops. Incorporating crop
residue, including that of soil-improving crops, into the
soil increases the content of organic matter. Seedbed
preparation, including bedding of rows, reduces the rate
of seedling mortality caused by wetness. Applications of
fertilizer can increase crop yields.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay. A
surface water management system reduces the
wetness. Applications of fertilizer and the proper
selection of adapted grasses and legumes help to
maximize yields. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation,
and restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep
the pasture in good condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.
If good management practices are applied, this site has
the potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates because of
poor management practices, the site is dominated by
saw palmetto and wiregrass.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of
pine trees. It is limited mainly by the seasonal wetness,
which can increase the seedling mortality rate, restrict
the use of equipment, and cause plant competition.
Potential productivity is high for slash pine. Site
preparation, such as chopping, burning, and bedding,
removes debris, minimizes plant competition, facilitates
planting, and reduces the seedling mortality rate. Using
special equipment, such as rubber-tired or crawler
machinery, and harvesting only during dry periods
minimize soil compaction and root damage during
thinning activities. Using a harvesting system that
leaves plant debris distributed over the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter. The trees
respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,


small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the wetness. On sites for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding increases the depth to the
seasonal high water table and thus helps to overcome
the wetness. If adequate outlets are available, a
drainage system can be installed. Installing a drainage
system and adding suitable fill material to elevate
roadbeds and building sites help to overcome the
wetness. Installing a drainage system and selecting
adapted species help to establish lawn grasses and
landscaping plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

21-Leefield sand. This somewhat poorly drained,
nearly level soil is on low uplands and the higher ridges
in the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 3 percent.
Individual areas are elongated or irregularly shaped and
range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 7
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. The upper
18 inches is very pale brown and pale brown and has
white and brownish yellow mottles. The lower 6 inches
is light yellowish brown and has gray and brownish
yellow mottles. The upper part of the subsoil is about 19
inches of yellowish brown fine sandy loam that has gray
and brown mottles, contains 5 percent plinthite, and is 5
to 10 percent hardened ironstone pebbles. The lower
part to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray sandy clay
loam that has olive, strong brown, brown, and yellow
mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Lynchburg, Pelham, and Stilson soils. The
somewhat poorly drained Albany and Lynchburg soils
are in landscape positions similar to those of the
Leefield soil or are on the slightly lower flats. The
moderately well drained Stilson soils are on the slightly
higher ridgetops and knolls. The poorly drained Pelham
soils are on low flatwood ridges. Also included are soils
that are similar to the Leefield soil but have a loamy
subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. These soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Leefield soil.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Leefield
sand, Leefield and similar soils make up 78 to 100
percent of the mapped areas.
The Leefield soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 18 to 30 inches for 3 to 6 months in most
years. The available water capacity is low in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.








Franklin County, Florida


Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and moderate in the subsoil. The content of
organic matter is low. Natural fertility is medium.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, longleaf
pine, live oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, and dogwood and
an understory of saw palmetto, greenbrier, and
wiregrass.
This soil is only moderately suited to most cultivated
crops because of the periodic wetness and occasional
droughtiness. Applying fertilizer and using a well
designed irrigation system can increase crop yields.
Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a
cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or
grass-legume mixtures help to maintain fertility and tilth.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Proper
applications of fertilizer and lime help deep-rooted
plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass,
to tolerate drought. Overgrazing results in deterioration
of the plant cover and increases the extent of
undesirable species. Proper stocking rates and pasture
rotation help to keep the pasture in good condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.
If good management practices are applied, this site has
the potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates because of
poor management practices, the site is dominated by
saw palmetto and wiregrass.
This soil is well suited to the production of pine trees.
Potential productivity is high for slash pine and longleaf
pine. Slash pine grows best with an adequate supply of
phosphorus. The major management concerns are the
seasonal wetness and occasional droughtiness, which
increase the seedling mortality rate, restrict the use of
equipment, and cause plant competition. Careful site
preparation, such as chopping and bedding, removes
debris, helps to control competing vegetation, and
facilitates hand and mechanical planting. Using a
logging system that leaves plant debris distributed over
the site improves soil fertility. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is only moderately suited to use as a site for
homes, small commercial buildings, and local roads and
streets because of the seasonal wetness and
occasional droughtiness. Adding suitable fill material to
elevate roadbeds and building sites and installing a
drainage system help to overcome the wetness. On
sites for septic tank absorption fields, mounding
increases the depth to the seasonal high water table
and thus helps to overcome the wetness. Mulching,
applying fertilizer, and using an irrigation system help to
establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded plants.


If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is IIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

22-Leon sand. This poorly drained, nearly level soil
is in broad areas in the flatwoods and on knolls or low
ridges in titi bogs. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from 5
to 200 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 8
inches thick. The subsurface layer is white sand about
14 inches thick. The subsoil is sand. The upper 18
inches is very dark brown, and the lower 32 inches is
very dark brownish gray and dark brown. Below this to
a depth of 80 inches or more is light brownish gray and
dark grayish brown fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Lynn Haven, Mandarin, Sapelo, and Scranton soils. The
poorly drained Sapelo soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Leon soil. The poorly drained
Lynn Haven and Scranton soils are in the slightly lower
areas in the flatwoods. The somewhat poorly drained
Mandarin soils are on slightly elevated flats and low
knolls. Also included are soils that are similar to the
Leon soil but have either a weakly developed spodic
horizon or a spodic horizon below a depth of 30 inches.
These soils are in landscape positions similar to those
of the Leon soil.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Leon sand,
Leon and similar soils make up 95 to 100 percent of the
mapped areas.
The Leon soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 6 to 12 inches for 1 to 4 months in most years.
The water table recedes to a depth of more than 40
inches during dry periods. The available water capacity
is very low in the surface and subsurface layers and low
in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate or moderately rapid in
the subsoil and underlying material. The content of
organic matter is low or moderate. Natural fertility is
low.
Most areas are wooded. The natural vegetation
consists of longleaf pine, slash pine, saw palmetto,
gallberry, waxmyrtle, wiregrass, running oak, black titi,
and fetterbush lyonia.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the wetness and the low fertility. The number of
adapted crops that can be grown is limited unless
intensive management practices are applied. A water-
control system removes excess water during wet








Soil Survey


Figure 4.-Saw palmetto and slash pine in an area of Leon sand. These species are characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.


periods and provides for surface irrigation during dry
periods. Row crops can be rotated with close-growing,
soil-improving crops. Incorporating crop residue,
including that of soil-improving crops, into the soil helps
to maintain the content of organic matter. Seedbed
preparation, including bedding of rows, reduces the rate
of seedling mortality caused by wetness. Applications of
fertilizer can increase crop yields.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Water-
control measures reduce surface wetness. Applications
of fertilizer and the proper selection of adapted grasses
and legumes help to maximize yields. Proper stocking
rates, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during wet
periods help to keep the pasture in good condition.


Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site
(fig. 4). If good management practices are applied, this
site has the potential to produce significant amounts of
creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, and Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates
because of poor management practices, the site is
dominated by saw palmetto and wiregrass.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of
pine trees. It is limited mainly by the seasonal wetness
and occasional droughtiness, which increase the
seedling mortality rate, restrict the use of equipment,
and cause plant competition. Potential productivity is
medium for slash pine. Site preparation, such as







Franklin County, Florida


chopping, burning, and bedding, removes debris,
minimizes plant competition, facilitates planting, and
reduces the seedling mortality rate. Using special
equipment, such as rubber-tired or crawler machinery,
and harvesting during dry periods minimize soil
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Using a harvesting system that leaves plant debris
distributed over the site helps to maintain the content of
organic matter. The trees respond well to applications
of fertilizer.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the wetness. On sites for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding helps to maintain the
system above the seasonal high water table. Adding
suitable fill material to elevate roadbeds and building
sites helps to overcome the wetness. If adequate
outlets are available, a drainage system can lower the
water table. Using an irrigation system, installing a
drainage system, and selecting species that tolerate
both seasonal wetness and droughtiness can help to
establish lawn grasses and landscaping plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9W.

23-Maurepas muck, frequently flooded. This very
poorly drained, nearly level, organic soil is in slightly
brackish swamps and marshes. Slopes are generally
less than 1 percent. Individual areas are elongated or
irregularly shaped and range from 25 to 2,000 acres in
size.
Typically, the surface layer is brown mucky peat
about 6 inches thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches
or more is very dark grayish brown muck.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
Pamlico, Dorovan, and Dirego soils. These soils are
poorly drained and are in landscape positions similar to
those of the Maurepas soil. Also included are small
areas of very poorly drained soils that have mineral soil
material within a depth of 16 inches. These soils are in
the slightly higher landscape positions.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Maurepas
muck, frequently flooded, Maurepas and similar soils
make up 89 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Maurepas soil has a high water table 12 inches
above the surface to a depth of 6 inches throughout the
year. The water table fluctuates with the rising and
falling tide. The available water capacity is very high.
Permeability is rapid. The content of organic matter and


natural fertility are high. The soil is frequently flooded
during coastal storms and periods of high river and
stream flow.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists primarily of sawgrass, big cordgrass, and black
needlerush. Some small areas support scattered
cypress, bay, and gum trees.
This soil is generally unsuitable for crops, pasture
and hay, the production of pine trees, recreational
development, and urban development because of the
high water table, a lack of drainage outlets, and the low
strength of the organic soil material. It is generally not
used for range.
The capability subclass is VIIIw. No woodland
ordination symbol is assigned.

24-Mandarin fine sand. This somewhat poorly
drained, nearly level soil is on low coastal ridges and
knolls in the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 3
percent. Individual areas are narrow and elongated and
range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4
inches thick. Below this, to a depth of about 25 inches,
is light gray fine sand. The subsoil is about 9 inches of
fine sand. It is dark reddish brown that grades to dark
brown. The next 27 inches is brown fine sand. Below
this to a depth of 80 inches or more is white fine sand
that has brown and yellow mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Corolla, Hurricane, Leon, Resota, and Ridgewood soils.
The somewhat poorly drained Ridgewood, Corolla, and
Hurricane soils are in landscape positions similar to
those of the Mandarin soil. The poorly drained Leon
soils are on low flats and in slight depressions. The
moderately well drained Resota soils are on the higher
ridges. Also included are soils that have a weakly
developed, stained subsoil. These soils are poorly
drained and are on low flats.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Mandarin
fine sand, Mandarin and similar soils make up 78 to 100
percent of the mapped areas.
The Mandarin soil has a seasonal high water table at
a depth of 18 to 36 inches for 3 to 6 months in most
years. The available water capacity is very low in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
content of organic matter and natural fertility are low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees
or support natural vegetation. Some areas have been
used for homesite development. The natural vegetation
consists of sand pine, slash pine, longleaf pine, and
turkey oak and an understory of wiregrass, pennyroyal,
and scattered saw palmetto.







Soil Survey


This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops
because of droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant
nutrients. If the soil is cultivated, soil blowing is a
hazard. Applying fertilizer and using a well designed
irrigation system can increase crop yields. Returning all
crop residue to the soil and using a cropping system
that includes grasses, legumes, or grass-legume
mixtures help to maintain fertility and tilth. Soil blowing
can be controlled by maintaining a good ground cover
of close-growing plants, minimizing tillage, establishing
windbreaks, and wind stripcropping.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay.
Proper applications of fertilizer and lime help deep-
rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, to tolerate drought. Overgrazing results in
deterioration of the plant cover and increases the extent
of undesirable species. Proper stocking rates and
pasture rotation help to keep the pasture in good
condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.
If good management practices are applied, this site has
the potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates because of
poor management practices, the site is dominated by
saw palmetto and wiregrass.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of
pine trees. Potential productivity is medium for slash
pine. Slash pine grows best with an adequate supply of
phosphorus. The major management concerns are the
seasonal wetness and occasional droughtiness, which
increase the seedling mortality rate, restrict the use of
equipment, and cause plant competition. Careful site
preparation, such as chopping and bedding, removes
debris, helps to control competing vegetation, and
facilitates hand and mechanical planting. Using a
logging system that leaves plant debris distributed over
the site improves soil fertility. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is only moderately suited to use as a site for
homes, small commercial buildings, and local roads and
streets because of the seasonal wetness and
occasional droughtiness. Because of the rapid
permeability, areas for onsite waste disposal should be
carefully selected to prevent the contamination of
ground water. Homes should not be clustered together,
and the disposal site should not be located adjacent to
any body of water. On sites for septic tank absorption
fields, mounding increases the depth to the seasonal
high water table and thus helps to overcome the
wetness. Mulching, applying fertilizer, and using an
irrigation system help to establish lawn grasses and
other small-seeded plants. Installing a drainage system


and adding suitable fill material help to overcome the
wetness.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is VIs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8S.

25-Chowan, Brickyard, and Kenner soils,
frequently flooded. These very poorly drained, nearly
level soils are on the forested flood plains along the
Apalachicola River and its distributaries. Slopes are
generally less than 1 percent. Individual areas are
elongated and range from 25 to several thousand acres
in size. They are about 50 percent Chowan soil, 25
percent Brickyard soil, and 15 percent Kenner soil.
Typically, the surface layer of the Chowan soil is dark
grayish brown silty clay loam about 5 inches thick.
Below this is about 13 inches of grayish brown silt loam.
The next 19 inches is black silty clay loam. Below this
to a depth of 80 inches or more is a buried layer of very
dark grayish brown muck.
Typically, the surface layer of the Brickyard soil is
dark grayish brown silty clay about 4 inches thick. The
subsoil is about 24 inches of grayish brown silty clay
that has yellowish brown mottles. The next 17 inches is
grayish brown silty clay loam. Below this to a depth of
80 inches or more is dark gray silty clay that is 5 to 15
percent decomposed woody debris.
Typically, the surface layer of the Kenner soil is dark
brown muck about 12 inches thick. Below this is about
11 inches of fluid, dark gray silty clay loam. The next 47
inches is very dark grayish brown muck. Below this to a
depth of 80 inches or more is very dark gray mucky silty
clay.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of Maurepas and Meggett soils. The very poorly drained
Maurepas soils are in landscape positions similar to
those of the Chowan, Brickyard, and Kenner soils. The
poorly drained Meggett soils are on the slightly higher,
narrow natural levees. Also included are very poorly
drained soils that are similar to the Brickyard soil but
have a gray or loamy subsoil. These soils are in the
lower areas on the flood plains.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Chowan,
Brickyard, and Kenner soils, frequently flooded,
Chowan, Brickyard, Kenner, and similar soils make up
93 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Chowan, Brickyard, and Kenner soils have a
seasonal high water table at or above the surface for 6
months or more in most years. The soils are flooded in
the spring of most years for 1 month or more. The







Franklin County, Florida


water table is slightly influenced daily by the tide, and
the degree of influence increases with proximity to the
estuarine marshes near the mouth of the river.
Permeability is moderately slow or slow in the mineral
layers and moderately rapid or rapid in the organic
layers. The available water capacity ranges from very
high or high in the organic layers to moderate in the
mineral layers. The content of organic matter ranges
from very high in the organic layers to low in the
mineral layers. Natural fertility is high.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of water tupelo, Ogeechee tupelo, swamp
tupelo, Carolina water ash, cabbage palm, and
baldcypress.
Because of the frequent flooding and low strength,
these soils are unsuitable for crops, the production of
pine trees, pasture and hay, and recreational
development and as sites for homes, small commercial
buildings, and local roads and streets. They are
generally not used for range.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9W for the Chowan soil and 7W for
the Brickyard soil. No woodland ordination symbol is
assigned for the Kenner soil.

26-Duckston sand, occasionally flooded. This
poorly drained, nearly level soil is on level flats adjacent
to coastal dunes and marshes and in low swales
between dunes. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Individual areas are elongated and range from 5 to 100
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4
inches thick. The underlying material extends to a depth
of 80 inches or more. In sequence downward, it is 5
inches of grayish brown sand, 19 inches of light
brownish gray sand, 25 inches of white sand, and 27
inches or more of light gray sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bayvi, Corolla, Rutlege, and Scranton soils. The poorly
drained Scranton soils are in landscape positions that
are similar to those of the Duckston soil but are farther
inland. The very poorly drained Bayvi soils are in the
tidal marshes. The very poorly drained Rutlege soils are
in the lower swales between dunes. The somewhat
poorly drained Corolla soils are on small dune ridges.
Also included are deep, sandy soils that have a weakly
stained layer. These soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Duckston soil.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Duckston
sand, occasionally flooded, Duckston and similar soils
make up 78 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Duckston soil has a high water table within a
depth of 12 inches throughout most years. The water
table may fluctuate slightly with the rising and falling


tide. Flooding is likely during periods of heavy rainfall in
combination with high tides or during strong coastal
storms. The available water capacity is very low.
Permeability is very rapid. The content of organic matter
and natural fertility are low.
Most areas support natural vegetation and are
managed for recreational uses or wildlife habitat. A few
areas have been developed as homesites and building
sites. The natural vegetation is that of a maritime forest
or a low coastal savannah. The maritime forest
vegetation generally consists of cabbage palm, eastern
redcedar, live oak, laurel oak, slash pine, gallberry,
waxmyrtle, scattered saw palmetto, fetterbush lyonia,
and marshhay cordgrass. The coastal savannah
vegetation consists dominantly of marshhay cordgrass,
seaoats, gulf muhly, sand cordgrass, and various other
low grasses and widely scattered slash pine and
shrubs.
This soil is generally not used for range.
This soil is generally not used for commercial
production of pine trees because of the proximity to the
coast. Some areas, however, have been managed
extensively for turpentine production. If the soil is used
for the production of pine trees, the major management
concerns are the wetness, salt spray, and low fertility.
Using a logging system that leaves plant debris
distributed over the site improves soil fertility. Bedding
reduces the rate of seedling mortality caused by
wetness.
This soil is generally unsuitable for cultivated crops
and pasture.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
The major limitations are the wetness, the flooding
during storm tides, and the very rapid permeability. The
soil is generally unsuited to sanitary facilities because of
the proximity to the coast and the potential for pollution
of coastal waters. On sites for septic tank absorption
fields, the depth to the high water table can be
increased by constructing a mound of suitable fill
material. Generally, only low-density development is
recommended. On building sites, adding fill material
and installing a subsurface drainage system reduce the
wetness. Mulching, applying fertilizer, and using an
irrigation system help to establish lawn grasses and
other small-seeded plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion. For any kind of development,
protecting the natural vegetation helps to control
erosion caused by coastal winds and storm tides.







Soil Survey


The capability subclass is Vllw. No woodland
ordination symbol is assigned.

27-Pelham fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is on low flatwood ridges and broad, low-lying
flats. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas
are elongated or irregularly shaped and range from 5 to
100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine
sand. The upper 12 inches is dark grayish brown and
has light yellowish brown mottles. The lower 19 inches
is light gray. The upper part of the subsoil is light gray
fine sandy loam about 9 inches thick. The lower part to
a depth of 80 inches or more is light gray sandy clay
loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Leefield, Leon, Plummer, Sapelo, Scranton, and
Surrency soils. The poorly drained Leon, Sapelo, and
Scranton soils are in landscape positions similar to
those of the Pelham soil. The poorly drained Plummer
soils are on the slightly lower flats. The very poorly
drained Surrency soils are in depressions. The
somewhat poorly drained Albany and Leefield soils are
on the higher ridges and knolls.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Pelham
fine sand, Pelham and similar soils make up 75 to 97
percent of the mapped areas.
The Pelham soil has a seasonal high water table
within a depth of 18 inches for as long as 6 months in
most years. The available water capacity is very low or
low in the surface layer and moderate in the rest of the
profile. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
moderate in the rest of the profile. The content of
organic matter is moderately low or low. Natural fertility
is medium.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, water
oak, and red maple and an understory of black titi,
scattered saw palmetto, and wiregrass.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the wetness. The number of adapted crops that can
be grown is limited unless intensive management
practices are applied. A water-control system removes
excess water during wet periods and provides for
surface irrigation during dry periods. Row crops can be
rotated with close-growing, soil-improving crops.
Incorporating crop residue, including that of soil-
improving crops, into the soil helps to maintain the
content of organic matter. Seedbed preparation,
including bedding of rows, and applications of fertilizer
can increase crop yields.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Water-
control measures reduce surface wetness. Applications


of fertilizer and the proper selection of adapted grasses
and legumes help to maximize yields. Proper stocking
rates, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during wet
periods help to keep the pasture in good condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.
If good management practices are applied, this site has
the potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates because of
poor management practices, the site is dominated by
saw palmetto and wiregrass.
This soil is moderately suited to commercial
production of pine trees. Potential productivity is high
for slash pine. Slash pine grows best with an adequate
supply of phosphorus. The major management concern
is the seasonal wetness, which increases the seedling
mortality rate, restricts the use of equipment, and
causes plant competition. Site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding or double bedding, reduces the
seedling mortality rate and increases early growth.
Bedding should not block natural drainage. Using
special equipment, such as rubber-tired or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
root damage and soil compaction during thinning
activities. Soil compaction reduces the rate of water
infiltration and inhibits aeration and root growth. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the wetness. On sites for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding increases the depth to the
seasonal high water table and thus helps to overcome
the wetness. If adequate outlets are available, a
drainage system can be installed. Installing a drainage
system and adding suitable fill material to elevate
roadbeds and building sites help to overcome the
wetness. Installing a drainage system and selecting
adapted species can help to establish lawn grasses and
landscaping plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is Vw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

28-Plummer fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is in low areas in the flatwoods and on broad,
slightly depressional flats. Slopes range from 0 to 2
percent. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 15 to 500 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 12







Franklin County, Florida


inches thick. The upper 7 inches is very dark gray, and
the lower 5 inches is dark gray. The subsurface layer,
to a depth of about 58 inches, is gray fine sand. The
upper part of the subsoil is gray fine sandy loam about
11 inches thick. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches
or more is light gray sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Leon, Pelham, Sapelo, Scranton, and Surrency soils.
The poorly drained Scranton soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Plummer soil. The
poorly drained Leon, Pelham, and Sapelo soils are on
very slightly elevated knolls and ridges. The very poorly
drained Scranton and Surrency soils are on the lower
depressional flats. Also included are very poorly drained
soils that are similar to the Plummer soil and poorly
drained soils that have a subsoil of loamy fine sand.
These soils are on the lower depressional flats.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Plummer
fine sand, Plummer and similar soils make up 77 to 90
percent of the mapped areas.
The Plummer soil has a seasonal high water table
within a depth of 12 inches for as long as 6 months in
most years. The available water capacity is very low or
low in the surface and subsurface layers and low or
moderate in the rest of the profile. Permeability is
moderately rapid or rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and moderate in the rest of the profile. The
content of organic matter is low or moderate in the
surface layer and low in the rest of the profile. Natural
fertility is low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, sweetbay,
blackgum, and a few widely scattered cypress and an
understory of scattered saw palmetto, gallberry,
waxmyrtle, pitcherplant, black titi, and fetterbush lyonia.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the wetness and the low fertility. The number of
adapted crops that can be grown is limited unless
intensive management practices are applied. A water-
control system removes excess water during wet
periods and provides for surface irrigation during dry
periods. Row crops can be rotated with close-growing,
soil-improving crops. Incorporating crop residue,
including that of soil-improving crops, into the soil helps
to maintain the content of organic matter. Seedbed
preparation, including bedding of rows, reduces the rate
of seedling mortality caused by wetness. Applications of
fertilizer can increase crop yields.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay. Water-
control measures remove excess water during wet
periods. Applications of fertilizer and the proper
selection of adapted grasses and legumes help to
maximize yields. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation,


and restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep
the pasture in good condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.
If good management practices are applied, this site has
the potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates, the site is
dominated by saw palmetto and wiregrass.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of
pine trees. It is limited mainly by the seasonal wetness,
which can increase the seedling mortality rate, restrict
the use of equipment, and cause plant competition.
Potential productivity is medium for slash pine. Site
preparation, such as chopping, burning, and bedding,
removes debris, minimizes plant competition, facilitates
planting, and reduces the seedling mortality rate. Using
special equipment, such as rubber-tired or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
soil compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Using a harvesting system that leaves plant
debris distributed over the site helps to maintain the
content of organic matter. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the wetness. On sites for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding increases the depth to the
seasonal high water table and thus helps to overcome
the wetness. If adequate outlets are available, a
drainage system can lower the water table. Installing a
drainage system and adding suitable fill material to
elevate roadbeds and building sites help to overcome
the wetness. Selecting adapted species helps to
establish lawn grasses and landscaping plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9W.

29-Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
moderately well drained, nearly level or gently sloping
soil is on coastal ridges and remnant dunes. Slopes
range from 0 to 5 percent. Individual areas are irregular
in shape and range from 3 to 150 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand
about 19 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of about
58 inches, is fine sand. It has organic stains at its upper
boundary. The upper 22 inches is brownish yellow, and
the lower 14 inches is yellow and has reddish yellow







Soil Survey


mottles. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or
more is very pale brown fine sand that has reddish
yellow mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Corolla, Kureb, Mandarin, Ortega, and Ridgewood soils.
The moderately well drained Ortega soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Resota soil.
The excessively drained Kureb soils are on high ridges
and knolls. The somewhat poorly drained Ridgewood,
Corolla, and Mandarin soils are in slight swales and on
the lower ridge slopes.
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Resota fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Resota and similar soils
make up 76 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Resota soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 40 to 60 inches for as long as 6 months in
most years. The water table is below a depth of 60
inches during dry periods. The available water capacity
is very low. Permeability is very rapid. The content of
organic matter and natural fertility are low.
Most areas support natural vegetation. Some areas
have been developed as homesites. The natural
vegetation consists of sand pine, scrub oak, longleaf
pine, and turkey oak and an understory of wiregrass,
rosemary, and scattered saw palmetto.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops
because of droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant
nutrients. If the soil is cultivated, soil blowing is a
hazard. Applying fertilizer and using a well designed
irrigation system can increase crop yields. Returning all
crop residue to the soil and using a cropping system
that includes grasses, legumes, or grass-legume
mixtures help to maintain fertility and tilth. Soil blowing
can be controlled by maintaining a ground cover of
close-growing plants, minimizing tillage, establishing
windbreaks, and wind stripcropping.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay. It is
limited by the restricted available water capacity.
Applications of fertilizer and lime help deep-rooted
plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass,
to tolerate drought. Overgrazing results in deterioration
of the plant cover and increases the extent of
undesirable species. Proper stocking rates and pasture
rotation help to keep the pasture in good condition.
This soil supports vegetation that is characteristic of
the Sand Pine Scrub range site. Because of the
droughtiness of the soil, forage production is low. The
desirable plants on this site include creeping bluestem,
purple bluestem, indiangrass, and beaked panicum.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of
pine trees. It is limited mainly by the droughtiness,
which increases the seedling mortality rate and retards
growth. Potential productivity is medium for slash pine.
Using special nursery stock that is larger than usual or


that is containerized reduces the seedling mortality rate.
Using a harvesting system that leaves plant debris
distributed over the site helps to maintain the content of
organic matter.
This soil is well suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
It is poorly suited to sewage lagoons and landfills
because of seepage. In areas used for these purposes,
sidewalls should be sealed. Areas for onsite waste
disposal should be carefully selected to prevent the
contamination of ground water. Homes should not be
clustered together, and disposal sites should not be
located adjacent to any body of water. Disposal fields
should be established on the contour. Reducing the
slope by cutting and filling minimizes erosion on
homesites and in areas adjacent to roads. Mulching,
applying fertilizer, and using an irrigation system help to
establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is VIs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8S.

30-Rutlege loamy fine sand, depressional. This
very poorly drained, nearly level soil is in depressions.
Slopes are generally less than 2 percent. Individual
areas are somewhat circular or oval or are elongated
and range from 3 to 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is about 11 inches thick.
The upper 5 inches is black loamy fine sand, and the
lower 6 inches is very dark gray fine sand. The next 15
inches is light brownish gray fine sand. Below this to a
depth of 80 inches or more is light gray sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Lynn Haven, Pickney, and Scranton soils. The very
poorly drained Pickney and Scranton soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Rutlege soil.
The poorly drained Lynn Haven soils are on slight knolls
in depressions or near the edges of depressions. Also
included are soils that are similar to the Rutlege soil but
have a thin surface layer of muck. These soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Rutlege soil.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Rutlege
loamy fine sand, depressional, Rutlege and similar soils
make up 78 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Rutlege soil has a seasonal high water table
ponded on the surface or within a depth of 24 inches for
3 to 6 months in most years. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is rapid. The content of
organic matter is high in the surface layer and low in
the rest of the profile. Natural fertility is medium.







Franklin County, Florida


Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of black titi, swamp cyrilla, and scattered slash
pine and sweetbay.
This soil is not used for crops, the production of pine
trees, pasture and hay, or homesite development
because of the seasonal high water table and a lack of
suitable drainage outlets. It is generally not used for
range.
This soil is poorly suited to local roads and streets
and is generally unsuited to use as a site for small
commercial buildings because of the seasonal high
water table. Adding suitable fill material to elevate
roadbeds helps to overcome the wetness.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational uses, such
as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or trails,
because of the ponding and the lack of suitable
drainage outlets.
The capability subclass is Vllw. No woodland
ordination symbol is assigned.

31-Rutlege fine sand. This very poorly drained,
nearly level soil is on broad, low-lying flats and on
narrow flats adjacent to streams. Slopes range from 0
to 2 percent. Individual areas are elongated or
irregularly shaped and range from 25 to 500 acres in
size.
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 13
inches thick. The upper 6 inches is very dark brown,
and the lower 7 inches is very dark gray. Below this to
a depth of 80 inches or more is sand. The upper 21
inches is grayish brown, the next 24 inches is dark
gray, and the lower 22 inches or more is gray.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Lynn Haven, Pamlico, Pickney, and Scranton soils. The
very poorly drained Scranton and Pickney soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Rutlege soil.
The very poorly drained Pamlico soils are in
depressions. The poorly drained Lynn Haven soils are
on slight knolls. Also included are soils that have a
subsoil below a depth of 40 inches and soils that have
an organic layer that is as much as 12 inches thick.
These soils are very poorly drained and are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Rutlege soil.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Rutlege
fine sand, Rutlege and similar soils make up 91 to 100
percent of the mapped areas.
The Rutlege soil has a seasonal high water table at
or slightly above the surface for 3 to 6 months in most
years. The water table is within a depth of 20 inches
during the rest of most years. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is rapid. The content of
organic matter is high in the surface layer and low in
the rest of the profile. Natural fertility is medium.
Most areas support natural vegetation or are used for


the production of pine trees. The natural vegetation
consists of slash pine, black titi, swamp cyrilla, cypress,
sweetbay, and blackgum and an understory of shrub-
sized titi, St Johnswort, and pitcherplant.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the wetness and low fertility. The number of adapted
crops that can be grown is limited unless intensive
management practices are applied. A water-control
system removes excess water during wet periods.
Incorporating crop residue, including that of soil-
improving crops, into the soil increases the content of
organic matter. Seedbed preparation, including bedding
of rows, increases the depth to the water table.
Applications of fertilizer and lime can increase crop
yields.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay. Water-
control measures reduce surface wetness. Applications
of fertilizer and the proper selection of adapted grasses
and legumes increase yields. Proper stocking rates,
pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during wet
periods help to keep the pasture in good condition.
This soil is generally not used for range.
This soil is poorly suited to the production of pine
trees. It is limited mainly by the seasonal wetness,
which can increase the seedling mortality rate, restrict
the use of equipment, and cause plant competition.
Potential productivity is medium for slash pine. Site
preparation, such as chopping, burning, and bedding,
removes debris, minimizes plant competition, facilitates
planting, and reduces the seedling mortality rate. Using
special equipment, such as rubber-tired or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
soil compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Using a harvesting system that leaves plant
debris distributed over the site helps to maintain the
content of organic matter. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the wetness. On sites for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding increases the depth to the
seasonal high water table and thus helps to overcome
the wetness. If adequate outlets are available, a
drainage system can lower the water table. On sites for
roads, installing a drainage system and adding suitable
fill material help to overcome the wetness. Installing a
drainage system and selecting adapted species can
help to establish lawn grasses and landscaping plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.







Soil Survey


The capability subclass is Vw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8W.

32-Sapelo fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is on low knolls and ridges in the flatwoods.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 200 acres in
size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches or more. In sequence downward, it
is 12 inches of very dark grayish brown fine sand; 30
inches of light brownish gray fine sand; 6 inches of light
gray loamy fine sand that has grayish brown, very pale
brown, and red mottles; and 18 inches or more of gray
sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Leefield, Leon, Pelham, Plummer, and Scranton
soils. The poorly drained Leon soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Sapelo soil. The poorly
drained Pelham, Plummer, and Scranton soils are in the
slightly lower landscape positions. The somewhat poorly
drained Albany and Leefield soils are on the slightly
higher flats and knolls. Also included are somewhat
poorly drained soils that are similar to the Sapelo soil
but have a weakly developed, stained subsoil. These
soils are in the slightly higher landscape positions.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Sapelo fine
sand, Sapelo and similar soils make up 73 to 96
percent of the mapped areas.
The Sapelo soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 6 to 18 inches for 2 to 4 months each year.
The water table recedes to a depth of more than 40
inches during dry periods. The available water capacity
is very low in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate in the subsoil. The content of organic matter
is moderately low. Natural fertility is low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine, slash
pine, saw palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, wiregrass,
running oak, black titi, and fetterbush lyonia.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops
because of the wetness and the low fertility. The
number of adapted crops that can be grown is limited
unless intensive management practices are applied. A
water-control system removes excess water during wet
periods and provides for surface irrigation during dry
periods. Row crops can be rotated with close-growing,
soil-improving crops. Incorporating crop residue,
including that of soil-improving crops, into the soil
increases the content of organic matter. Seedbed
preparation that includes bedding of rows reduces the
rate of seedling mortality caused by wetness.


Applications of fertilizer and lime can increase crop
yields.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. A surface
water management system removes excess water
during wet periods. Applications of fertilizer and the
proper selection of adapted grasses and legumes help
to maximize yields. Proper stocking rates, pasture
rotation, and restricted grazing during wet periods help
to keep the pasture in good condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.
If good management practices are applied, this site has
the potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates because of
poor management practices, the site is dominated by
saw palmetto and wiregrass.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of
pine trees. It is limited mainly by the seasonal wetness
and occasional droughtiness, which can increase the
seedling mortality rate, restrict the use of equipment,
and cause plant competition. Potential productivity is
medium for slash pine. Site preparation, such as
chopping, burning, and bedding, removes debris,
minimizes plant competition, facilitates planting, and
reduces the seedling mortality rate. Using special
equipment, such as rubber-tired or crawler machinery,
and harvesting during dry periods minimize soil
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Using a harvesting system that leaves plant debris
distributed over the site helps to maintain the content of
organic matter. The trees respond well to applications
of fertilizer.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the wetness. On sites for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding increases the depth to the
seasonal high water table and thus helps to overcome
the wetness. If adequate outlets are available, a
drainage system can lower the water table. Adding
suitable fill material to elevate roadbeds and building
sites helps to overcome the wetness. Using an irrigation
system, installing a drainage system, and selecting
species that tolerate both wetness and droughtiness
can help to establish lawn grasses and landscaping
plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.







Franklin County, Florida


33-Scranton fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is in broad areas in the flatwoods. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are irregular
in shape and range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying material to a
depth of 80 inches or more is fine sand. The upper 15
inches is light gray and has patches of dark gray and
very dark gray. The next 24 inches is dark gray and has
patches of gray and light brownish gray. The lower 34
inches or more is grayish brown and has patches of
light gray.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Duckston, Leon, Meadowbrook, Plummer, Ridgewood,
and Rutlege soils and areas of Scranton soils that are
very poorly drained. The poorly drained Leon,
Meadowbrook, and Plummer soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Scranton soil. The
somewhat poorly drained Ridgewood soils are on slight
knolls. The poorly drained Duckston soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Scranton
soil, in areas adjacent to coastal waters. The very
poorly drained Scranton soils are on the slightly lower
savannahs and in the higher areas in swamps. The very
poorly drained Rutlege soils are in broad, low-lying
swamps and on narrow flood plains along small creeks.
Also included are soils that are similar to the Scranton
soil but have a stained subsoil below a depth of 50
inches. These soils are in landscape positions similar to
those of the Scranton soil.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Scranton
fine sand, Scranton and similar soils make up 77 to 100
percent of the mapped areas.
The Scranton soil has a seasonal high water table at
a depth of 6 to 18 inches for 3 to 6 months in most
years. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
is rapid. The content of organic matter is moderately
low or moderate. Natural fertility is low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, widely
scattered cypress, and blackgum and an understory of
saw palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, black titi, swamp
cyrilla, and fetterbush lyonia.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the wetness and the low fertility. The number of
adapted crops that can be grown is limited unless
intensive management practices are applied. A water-
control system removes excess water during wet
periods and provides for surface irrigation during dry
periods. Row crops can be rotated with close-growing,
soil-improving crops. Incorporating crop residue,
including that of soil-improving crops, into the soil
increases the content of organic matter. Seedbed
preparation, including bedding of rows, helps to


overcome the wetness. Applications of fertilizer and
lime can increase crop yields.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay. A
surface water management system helps to overcome
the wetness. Applications of fertilizer and the proper
selection of adapted grasses and legumes increase
yields. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and
restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep the
pasture in good condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.
If good management practices are applied, this site has
the potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates because of
poor management practices, the site is dominated by
saw palmetto and wiregrass.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of
pine trees. It is limited mainly by the seasonal wetness,
which can restrict the use of equipment and cause plant
competition. Potential productivity is medium or high for
slash pine. Site preparation, such as chopping, burning,
and bedding, removes debris, minimizes plant
competition, facilitates planting, and reduces the
seedling mortality rate. Using special equipment, such
as rubber-tired or crawler machinery, and harvesting
during dry periods minimize soil compaction and root
damage during thinning activities. Using a harvesting
system that leaves plant debris distributed over the site
helps to maintain the content of organic matter.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the wetness. On sites for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding increases the depth to the
seasonal high water table. If adequate outlets are
available, a drainage system can lower the water table.
Adding suitable fill material to elevate roadbeds and
building sites helps to overcome the wetness. Installing
a drainage system and selecting adapted species can
help to establish lawn grasses and landscaping plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.

34-Surrency fine sand. This very poorly drained,
nearly level soil is in shallow depressions, along small
streams, and in poorly defined drainageways. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are elliptical
or irregularly shaped and range from 5 to 200 acres in
size.







Soil Survey


Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about
12 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about
22 inches thick. The upper 16 inches is dark grayish
brown, and the lower 6 inches is grayish brown. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is
gray sandy loam that grades to sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pelham, Plummer, and Rutlege soils. The very poorly
drained Rutlege soils are in landscape positions similar
to those of the Surrency soil. The poorly drained
Pelham and Plummer soils are in the higher areas in
the flatwoods and on slight knolls. Also included are
soils that have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40
inches and soils that have a surface layer of muck or
mucky sand. These soils are poorly drained and are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Surrency
soil.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Surrency
fine sand, Surrency and similar soils make up 77 to 100
percent of the mapped areas.
The Surrency soil has a seasonal high water table
within a depth of 6 inches for 5 months or more in most
years. The available water capacity is low in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
Permeability is rapid or moderately rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
content of organic matter is moderate or high in the
surface layer and low in the subsurface layer and the
subsoil. Natural fertility is high.
Most areas support natural vegetation or are used for
the production of pine trees. The natural vegetation
consists of slash pine, black titi, swamp cyrilla, cypress,
sweetbay, and blackgum and an understory of shrub-
sized titi, St Johnswort, and pitcherplant.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the wetness. The number of adapted crops that can
be grown is limited unless intensive management
practices are applied. A water-control system removes
excess water during wet periods. Incorporating crop
residue, including that of soil-improving crops, into the
soil increases the content of organic matter. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding of rows.
Applications of fertilizer and lime can increase crop
yields.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay. A
surface water management system helps to overcome
the wetness. Applications of fertilizer and the proper
selection of adapted grasses and legumes increase
yields. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and
restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep the
pasture in good condition.
This soil is generally not used for range.
This soil is generally not used for commercial
production of pine trees. It is limited mainly by the


seasonal wetness, which can increase the seedling
mortality rate, restrict the use of equipment, and cause
plant competition. Potential productivity is medium or
high for slash pine and loblolly pine and low for longleaf
pine. Site preparation, such as chopping, burning, and
bedding, removes debris, minimizes plant competition,
facilitates planting, and reduces the seedling mortality
rate. Using special equipment, such as rubber-tired or
crawler machinery, and harvesting during dry periods
minimize soil compaction and root damage during
thinning activities. Using a harvesting system that
leaves plant debris distributed over the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the wetness. On sites for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding increases the depth to the
seasonal high water table and thus helps to overcome
the wetness. If adequate outlets are available, a
drainage system can lower the water table. Adding
suitable fill to elevate roadbeds and building sites helps
to overcome the wetness. Installing a drainage system
and selecting adapted species can help to establish
lawn grasses and landscaping plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

35-Stilson fine sand. This moderately well drained,
nearly level soil is on high inland ridges and knolls.
Slopes range from 0 to 3 percent. Individual areas are
elongated or irregularly shaped and range from 3 to 50
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 13
inches thick. The upper 7 inches is gray, and the lower
6 inches is light yellowish brown. The subsurface layer
is about 19 inches of very pale brown fine sand that has
few brownish yellow mottles. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 11 inches is
yellowish brown fine sandy loam that has few very pale
brown mottles. The next 16 inches is yellowish brown
sandy clay loam that has very pale brown and light
brownish gray mottles and contains 5 to 8 percent
plinthite. The lower 21 inches or more is mottled brown,
red, and gray sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton and Leefield soils and small areas of soils that
are similar to the Blanton soils but contain plinthite. The
moderately well drained Blanton soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Stilson soil. Also







Franklin County, Florida


included are soils that are similar to the Stilson soil but
have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches or do
not contain plinthite. These soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Stilson soil.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Stilson fine
sand, Stilson and similar soils make up 79 to 100
percent of the mapped areas.
The Stilson soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 30 to 42 inches for 1 to 4 months in most
years. The water table can be perched above the
subsoil for short periods after heavy rains during any
part of the year. The available water capacity is low in
the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and moderate in the subsoil. The content of
organic matter is low, and natural fertility is medium.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of live oak and longleaf
pine and an understory of wiregrass, ferns, huckleberry,
and scattered saw palmetto.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops.
Using an irrigation system may improve the production
of some crops by helping to overcome the potential
droughtiness during extended dry periods. Applications
of fertilizer can increase crop yields. Returning all crop
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that
includes grasses, legumes, or grass-legume mixtures
help to maintain fertility and tilth.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Proper
stocking rates and pasture rotation help to keep the
pasture in good condition. Forage plants include
longleaf uniola, low panicum, low paspalum,
switchgrass, and lopsided indiangrass. If the range
deteriorates because of poor management practices,
the site is dominated by hardwoods and an understory
of undesirable range species.
This soil is generally not used for range.
This soil is well suited to the production of pine trees.
The main management concern is the occasional
droughtiness, which contributes to seedling mortality.
Potential productivity is high for slash pine and medium
for longleaf pine. Slash pine grows best with an
adequate supply of phosphorus. Site preparation, such
as chopping and applying herbicide, helps to control
competing vegetation and facilitates mechanical
planting. Using a harvesting system that leaves debris
distributed over the site helps to maintain the content of
organic matter.
This soil is only moderately suited to homesite
development because of the seasonal wetness and the
occasional droughtiness. It is well suited to use as a
site for small commercial buildings and local roads and
streets. On sites for septic tank absorption fields,
mounding increases the depth to the seasonal high


water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
Mulching, applying fertilizer, and using an irrigation
system help to establish lawn grasses and other small-
seeded plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion.
The capability subclass is IIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 12W.

36-Pickney-Pamlico complex, depressional.
These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions, freshwater swamps, and poorly defined
drainageways. Slopes are generally less than 1 percent.
Individual areas are nearly round or are irregularly
shaped and range from 10 to several thousand acres in
size. They are about 45 percent Pickney soil and 40
percent Pamlico soil.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pickney soil is
about 41 inches of black and very dark brown sand that
has pockets of gray sand. Below this to a depth of 80
inches or more is grayish brown and light brownish gray
sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is
muck about 27 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is dark
brown, and the lower 22 inches is very dark brown. The
next layer is about 19 inches of black mucky sand.
Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is sand. The
upper 8 inches is very dark grayish brown, and the
lower 26 inches or more is grayish brown.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of Dorovan, Lynn Haven, Maurepas, Rutlege, and
Scranton soils. Also included are soils that are similar to
the Pamlico soil but have a loamy substratum. The very
poorly drained Dorovan and Maurepas soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Pickney and
Pamlico soils. The very poorly drained Rutlege and
Scranton soils are on slightly elevated flats. The poorly
drained Lynn Haven and Scranton soils are on low
ridges and flats.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pickney-
Pamlico complex, depressional, Pickney, Pamlico, and
similar soils make up 89 to 100 percent of the mapped
areas.
The Pickney and Pamlico soils have a seasonal high
water table within a depth of 18 inches for as much as
5 months each year. The water table is generally within
a depth of less than 6 inches for the rest of most years.
The available water capacity ranges from very low to
very high in the Pamlico soil and from very low to
moderate in the Pickney soil. Permeability ranges from
moderate to rapid in both soils. The content of organic







Soil Survey


matter is very high in the Pamlico soil and moderate in
the Pickney soil. Natural fertility of both soils is high.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of sweetbay, swamp tupelo, black titi, swamp
cyrilla, and scattered slash pine.
These soils are unsuitable for crops, the production
of pine trees, and pasture and hay because of the
seasonal high water table and low strength. They are
generally not used for range.
These soils are unsuitable for homesite development,
local roads and streets, and small commercial buildings
because of the seasonal high water table and low
strength.
These soils are unsuitable for recreational uses, such
as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or trails,
because of the seasonal high water table.
The capability subclass of the Pickney soil is VIw,
and that of the Pamlico soil is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol for both soils is 7W.

37-Tooles-Meadowbrook complex, depressional.
These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions and along poorly defined drainageways or
small streams. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Individual
areas are irregular in shape and range from 50 to 1,000
acres in size. They are about 55 percent Tooles soil
and 30 percent Meadowbrook soil.
Typically, the surface layer of the Tooles soil is very
dark grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray, light brownish gray, and dark
grayish brown fine sand about 29 inches thick. The
subsoil is 13 inches of olive gray and light greenish
gray sandy clay loam that has light olive brown and
olive yellow mottles. Light gray, soft limestone bedrock
is at a depth of about 47 inches.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil
is dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is light brownish gray and dark gray sand about
43 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is
greenish gray loamy sand about 20 inches thick. The
lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark
greenish gray sandy loam.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of the very poorly drained Scranton soils and soils that
are similar to the Tooles soil but have a loamy layer
within a depth of 20 inches. These included soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Tooles and
Meadowbrook soils.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Tooles-
Meadowbrook complex, depressional, Tooles,
Meadowbrook, and similar soils make up 89 to 100
percent of the mapped areas.
The Tooles and Meadowbrook soils have a seasonal
high water table at or on the surface for 4 to 6 months


in most years. The available water capacity is low in the
surface and subsurface layers of the Tooles soil and
high in the subsoil. It is low in the surface and
subsurface layers of the Meadowbrook soil and
moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers of both soils and
moderately slow or slow in the subsoil. The content of
organic matter and natural fertility are low.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of sweetbay, red maple, slash pine, cypress,
blackgum, and Atlantic white-cedar and an understory
of waxmyrtle, wiregrass, black titi, and sawgrass.
These soils are generally not used for cultivated
crops or for range because of the seasonal high water
table. They are poorly suited to the production of pine
trees and pasture and hay because of ponding and a
lack of suitable drainage outlets.
These soils are poorly suited to use as a site for
local roads and streets and are generally not suited to
use as a site for homes and small commercial buildings
because of the ponding. Adding suitable fill to elevate
roadbeds helps to overcome the wetness.
These soils are poorly suited to recreational uses,
such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or trails,
because of the ponding and the lack of suitable
drainage outlets.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W for the Tooles soil and 7W for
the Meadowbrook soil.

38-Meadowbrook sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is in the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2
percent. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 48 inches, is sand. The upper 35 inches
is mixed light brownish gray and dark grayish brown,
and the lower 9 inches is light gray. The upper part of
the subsoil is gray sandy loam about 16 inches thick.
The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is light
greenish gray sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chaires, Leon, Scranton, and Tooles soils; soils that are
similar to the Meadowbrook soil but have a loamy
subsoil within a depth of 40 inches; and soils that have
soft limestone bedrock below a depth of 60 inches.
These soils are poorly drained and are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Meadowbrook soil. Also
included are very poorly drained soils that are similar to
the Meadowbrook and Scranton soils. These soils are in
slight depressions and intermittent drainageways.
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as
Meadowbrook sand, Meadowbrook and similar soils







Franklin County, Florida


make up 76 to 98 percent of the mapped areas.
The Meadowbrook soil has a seasonal high water
table within a depth of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months
during most years. The available water capacity is low
or very low in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderately slow in
the subsoil. The content of organic matter and natural
fertility are low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees
or support natural vegetation. The natural vegetation
consists of slash pine, red maple, and sweetbay and an
understory of saw palmetto and various grasses and
forbs.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the wetness. The number of adapted crops that can
be grown is limited unless intensive management
practices are applied. A water-control system removes
excess water during wet periods and provides for
surface irrigation during dry periods. Row crops can be
rotated with close-growing, soil-improving crops.
Incorporating crop residue, including that of soil-
improving crops, into the soil increases the content of
organic matter. Seedbed preparation, including bedding
of rows, can increase the depth to the water table.
Applying fertilizer and lime can increase crop yields.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay. Water-
control measures reduce surface wetness. Applications
of fertilizer and the proper selection of adapted grasses
and legumes help to maximize yields. Proper stocking
rates, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during wet
periods help to keep the pasture in good condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.
If good management practices are applied, this site has
the potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates because of
poor management practices, the site is dominated by
saw palmetto and wiregrass.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of
pine trees. It is limited mainly by the seasonal wetness,
which can increase the seedling mortality rate, restrict
the use of equipment, and cause plant competition.
Potential productivity is medium for slash pine. Site
preparation, such as chopping, burning, and bedding,
removes debris, minimizes plant competition, facilitates
planting, and reduces the seedling mortality rate. Using
special equipment, such as rubber-tired or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
soil compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Using a harvesting system that leaves plant
debris distributed over the site helps to maintain the


content of organic matter. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the wetness. On sites for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding increases the depth to the
seasonal high water table and thus helps to overcome
the wetness. If adequate outlets are available, a
drainage system can lower the water table. Adding
suitable fill to elevate roadbeds and building sites helps
to overcome the wetness. Using an irrigation system,
installing a drainage system, and selecting species that
tolerate both seasonal wetness and droughtiness help
to establish lawn grasses and landscaping plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, adding suitable topsoil helps to stabilize the
sandy surface layer, control erosion, and overcome the
wetness.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.

39-Scranton sand, slough. This very poorly
drained, nearly level soil is in broad sloughs. Slopes are
generally less than 2 percent. Individual areas are
blocky or irregularly shaped and range from 25 to more
than 2,000 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is coarsely
mixed very dark gray, dark grayish brown, and light
gray sand about 13 inches thick. The next 11 inches is
light gray sand. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or
more is mixed light gray and grayish brown sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Lynn Haven, Meadowbrook, Plummer, and Rutlege soils
and areas of Scranton soils that are poorly drained. The
poorly drained Lynn Haven, Meadowbrook, Plummer,
and Scranton soils are in the slightly higher areas in the
flatwoods. The very poorly drained Rutlege soils are in
low, broad depressions. Also included are soils that are
similar to the Scranton soil but have a dark surface
layer less than 6 inches thick. These soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Scranton
soil.
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Scranton
sand, slough, Scranton and similar soils make up 75 to
100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Scranton soil has a seasonal high water table
within a depth of 6 inches for 3 to 6 months in most
years. The water table is within a depth of 30 inches for
the rest of most years, but it recedes to a depth of more
than 30 inches during extended dry periods. After
periods of heavy rainfall, the surface is covered by
shallow, slowly moving water for as long as 3 weeks.







Soil Survey


The available water capacity is low. Permeability is
rapid. The content of organic matter is moderate in the
surface layer and low in the rest of the profile. Natural
fertility is low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of scattered cypress
and sweetbay, black titi, swamp cyrilla, water-tolerant
grasses, and St Johnswort.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the wetness and low fertility. The number of adapted
crops that can be grown is limited unless intensive
management practices are applied. A water-control
system removes excess water during wet periods and
provides for surface irrigation during dry periods. Row
crops can be rotated with close-growing, soil-improving
crops. Incorporating crop residue, including that of soil-
improving crops, into the soil increases the content of
organic matter. Seedbed preparation, including bedding
of rows, can increase the depth to the water table.
Applying fertilizer and lime can increase crop yields.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay. A
surface water management system helps to overcome
the wetness. Applications of fertilizer and the proper
selection of adapted grasses and legumes help to
maximize yields. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation,
and restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep
the pasture in good condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the Slough range site. This site has the
potential to produce forage of moderately high quality.
Forage plants include chalky bluestem, blue
maidencane, bluejoint panicum, and toothachegrass. If
the range deteriorates because of poor management
practices, the site is dominated by bottlebrush
threeawn, muhly, and sand cordgrass.
This soil is poorly suited to the production of pine
trees. It is limited mainly by the seasonal wetness,
which increases the seedling mortality rate, restricts the
use of equipment, and causes plant competition.
Potential productivity is medium or high for slash pine.
Site preparation, such as chopping, burning, and
bedding, removes debris, minimizes plant competition,
facilitates planting, and reduces the seedling mortality
rate. Using special equipment, such as rubber-tired or
crawler machinery, and harvesting during dry periods
minimize soil compaction and root damage during
thinning activities. Using a harvesting system that
leaves plant debris distributed over the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter.
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the wetness. On sites for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding increases the depth to the
seasonal high water table and thus helps to overcome


the wetness. If adequate outlets are available, a
drainage system can lower the water table. Adding
suitable fill to elevate roadbeds and building sites helps
to overcome the wetness. Installing a drainage system
and selecting adapted species help to establish lawn
grasses and landscaping plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion. Adding topsoil, using elevated
walkways, and installing a drainage system help to
overcome the wetness.
The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8W.

40-Newhan-Corolla complex, rolling. These
excessively drained or somewhat poorly drained, gently
undulating to steep soils are on coastal dunes and in
swales. Slopes generally range from 5 to 15 percent but
can range from 2 to 30 percent. Individual areas of
these soils are elongated and range from 25 to 150
acres in size. They are about 60 percent Newhan soil
and 25 percent Corolla soil. Newhan soils are on high
dunes, and Corolla soils are on low dunes and in high
swales between dunes (fig. 5).
Typically, the surface layer of the Newhan soil is gray
sand about 1 inch thick. The underlying material
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is about 5
inches of light gray sand, 5 inches of white sand, 10
inches of mixed light gray and light brownish gray sand,
and 59 inches or more of light gray sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Corolla soil is very
dark gray sand about 3 inches thick. Below this to a
depth of 80 inches or more is light gray and light
brownish gray sand.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of Duckston and Hurricane soils. The somewhat poorly
drained Hurricane soils are on the older, more stable
side slopes and in swales. The poorly drained Duckston
soils are in low swales and on level flats adjacent to
coastal marshes and beaches. Also included are areas
of beaches along the coastal fringe of the unit.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Newhan-
Corolla complex, rolling, Newhan, Corolla, and similar
soils make up 86 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Newhan soil does not have a seasonal high
water table within a depth of 80 inches. The Corolla soil
has a seasonal high water table at a depth of 18 to 36
inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. The water table
in this soil is below a depth of 36 inches for the rest of
most years. The available water capacity is very low in
both soils. Permeability is very rapid. The content of
organic matter and natural fertility are low.







Franklin County, Florida


Figure 5.-A typical area of Newhan-Corolla complex, rolling. These soils are poorly suited to most uses because of the instability of the
landscape.


Many areas have been used for homesite or
commercial development or for recreation. Some areas
support natural vegetation. In most areas the natural
vegetation is sparse. It consists of slash pine, scrub
oak, Chapman oak, myrtle oak, waxmyrtle, saw
palmetto, and seaoats and various woody shrubs,
grasses, and herbaceous plants.
These soils are generally unsuitable for cultivated
crops, pasture, and the production of timber because of
the slope, shifting sands, droughtiness, soil blowing,
and salt spray.
These soils are poorly suited to use as a site for
homes, small commercial buildings, and local roads and
streets. They are generally unsuitable as sites for
sanitary landfills and sewage lagoons because of the
instability of the surface and the potential for pollution.
The major limitations are soil blowing, the slope, the
very rapid permeability, and shifting sands. On sites for
septic tank absorption fields, slopes can be reduced by
cutting and filling. Limiting development decreases the
risk of pollution. Absorption fields should not be located


near any body of water. Mulching, applying fertilizer,
and using an irrigation system help to establish
landscaping plants and lawn grasses.
If areas of these soils are developed for recreational
uses, erosion-control measures are needed. Access
walkways reduce the mortality of dune vegetation
caused by foot traffic. The less sloping areas can be
stabilized by adding mulch, suitable topsoil, or
pavement. For any kind of development, the natural
vegetation should be protected because it is adapted to
the soils and helps to control erosion. Vegetative
barriers also help to control soil blowing.
The capability subclass of the Newhan soil is VIlls,
and that of the Corolla soil is VIls. No woodland
ordination symbol is assigned.

41-Pamlico-Pickney complex, frequently flooded.
These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are on
flood plains along rivers and major streams. Slopes are
generally less than 1 percent. Individual areas are
elongated and range from 50 to several thousand acres








Soil Survey


in size. They are about 55 percent Pamlico soil and 45
percent Pickney and similar soils.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is very
dark brown muck about 46 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is very dark grayish brown mucky sand about 22
inches thick. Below this to a depth of 78 inches or more
is grayish brown sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pickney soil is
black fine sand about 13 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is very dark grayish brown sand about 22 inches
thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray
sand.
Included with these soils in mapping are areas of the
very poorly drained Dorovan, Harbeson, Maurepas, and
Rutlege soils. Also included are areas of soils that are
similar to the Pamlico soil but have a surface layer of
muck less than 12 inches thick. The very poorly drained
Dorovan, Harbeson, and Maurepas soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Pamlico and
Pickney soils. The very poorly drained Rutlege soils are
on slightly elevated flats that are commonly near the
edge of individual areas of the unit.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pamlico-
Pickney complex, frequently flooded, Pamlico, Pickney,
and similar soils make up 89 to 100 percent of the
mapped areas.
The Pamlico and Pickney soils have a seasonal high
water table at or above the surface for much of the
year. They are flooded during periods of heavy rainfall,
mainly from December to April. The available water
capacity is very high in the organic layers and very low
to moderate in the mineral layers. Permeability is rapid
or moderately rapid. The content of organic matter is
high in the surface layer and low in the rest of the
profile. Natural fertility is high.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of blackgum, slash pine, cypress, sweetbay,
and red maple and an understory of ferns and grasses.
These soils are unsuitable for crops, pasture and
hay, and the production of pine trees because of the
frequent flooding, the seasonal high water table, and
low strength. They are generally not used for range.
These soils are unsuitable for homesite development,
local roads and streets, and small commercial buildings
because of the seasonal high water table, the frequent
flooding, and low strength. They are unsuitable for
recreational uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas,
and paths or trails, because of the frequent flooding.
The capability subclass of the Pamlico soil is Vllw,
and that of the Pickney soil is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 4W for the Pamlico soil and 7W for
the Pickney soil.


42-Meadowbrook, Meggett, and Tooles soils,
frequently flooded. These poorly drained, nearly level
soils are on flood plains along small rivers. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
elongated and range from 25 to 300 acres in size. They
are about 35 percent Meadowbrook soil, 30 percent
Meggett soil, and 15 percent Tooles soil.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil
is dark grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick.
The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 42 inches, is
fine sand. The upper 27 inches is light gray and light
brownish gray and has grayish brown and brownish
yellow mottles. The lower 10 inches is gray. The subsoil
to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray sandy loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meggett soil is dark
gray fine sandy loam about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray fine sandy loam about 8 inches
thick. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is
sandy clay. The upper 8 inches is grayish brown, and
the lower 60 inches or more is dark gray.
Typically, the surface layer of the Tooles soil is dark
grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray fine sand about 18 inches
thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 59
inches. The upper 17 inches is gray sandy clay loam,
the next 16 inches is gray sandy clay, and the lower 5
inches is dark gray sandy clay. Soft. white limestone
bedrock is at a depth of about 59 inches. It is mixed
with pockets of gray sandy clay.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of the very poorly drained Harbeson soils in slight
depressions on the flood plains. Also included are small
areas of soils that are similar to the Meadowbrook soil
but have a thick, black surface layer and have soft
limestone bedrock at a depth of 40 to 60 inches and
soils that are similar to the Tooles soil but do not have
limestone bedrock within a depth of 80 inches. These
included soils are very poorly drained and are in
landscape positions similar to those of the
Meadowbrook and Tooles soils. Also included are
sandy soils that are stratified with loamy layers. These
included soils are somewhat poorly drained to
moderately well drained and are on narrow, sandy bluffs
along the New River, north of the Gulley Branch.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as
Meadowbrook, Meggett. and Tooles soils, frequently
flooded, Meadowbrook, Meggett, Tooles, and similar
soils make up 85 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Meadowbrook, Meggett, and Tooles soils have a
seasonal high water table within a depth of 12 inches
for 3 to 6 months in most years. The available water
capacity is moderate in the surface layer of the Meggett
soil and moderate or high in the subsoil. It is low in the








Franklin County, Florida


surface and subsurface layers of the Meadowbrook and
Tooles soils and moderate or high in the subsoil.
Permeability is moderately rapid or rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers of all three soils and moderately
slow or slow in the subsoil. The content of organic
matter is moderately low or low. Natural fertility is
medium in the Meggett soil and low in the
Meadowbrook and Tooles soils.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of slash pine, sweetbay, red maple, cypress,
and Atlantic white-cedar and an understory of
sawgrass, scattered saw palmetto, St Johnswort, and
pitcherplant.
These soils are unsuitable for crops because of
frequent flooding during the growing season. They are
generally not used for range.
These soils are poorly suited to commercial
production of pine trees because of the frequent
flooding and the seasonal wetness, which increase the
seedling mortality rate and restrict the use of equipment
and which can devastate the stand during periods of
severe flooding. Potential productivity is moderate or
high for slash pine and high for loblolly pine. Using
special equipment, such as rubber-tired or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
soil compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Planting after floodwaters subside improves
the seedling survival rate. Site preparation, such as
chopping, burning, and bedding, removes debris,
minimizes plant competition, facilitates planting, and
reduces the seedling mortality rate. Using a harvesting
system that leaves debris distributed over the site helps
to maintain the content of organic matter. The trees
respond well to applications of fertilizer.
These soils are unsuitable as sites for homes, small
commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the frequent flooding.
If areas of these soils are developed for recreational
uses, the frequent flooding is a major concern.
Generally, only low-intensity development is practical.
The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W for the Meadowbrook soil,
13W for the Meggett soil, and 11W for the Tooles soil.

43-Meadowbrook sand, slough. This very poorly
drained, nearly level soil is in broad sloughs. Slopes are
generally less than 2 percent. Individual areas are
elongated or irregularly shaped and range from 25 to
more than 300 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 57 inches, is sand. The upper 7 inches
is light brownish gray and has yellowish brown mottles.
The lower 46 inches is light gray and has brownish


yellow mottles. The upper part of the subsoil is greenish
gray sandy loam about 8 inches thick. The lower part to
a depth of 80 inches or more is dark greenish gray
sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Harbeson, Rutlege, and Scranton soils. The very poorly
drained Scranton soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Meadowbrook soil. The very
poorly drained Harbeson and Rutlege soils are in the
lower drainageways and depressions. Also included are
poorly drained Scranton and Meadowbrook soils that
are on slight knolls.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as
Meadowbrook sand, slough, Meadowbrook and similar
soils make up 75 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The Meadowbrook soil has a seasonal high water
table within a depth of 6 inches for 3 to 6 months in
most years. The water table is within a depth of 30
inches for the rest of most years. It recedes to a depth
of more than 30 inches during extended dry periods.
After periods of heavy rainfall, the surface is covered by
shallow, slowly moving water for as long as 3 weeks.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and moderate or moderately slow in the subsoil.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
content of organic matter is moderately low in the
surface layer and low in the rest of the profile. Natural
fertility is low.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
The natural vegetation consists of scattered cypress
and sweetbay, black titi, swamp cyrilla, Atlantic white-
cedar, pitcherplant, and St Johnswort.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the wetness and the low fertility. The number of
adapted crops that can be grown is limited unless
intensive management practices are applied. A water-
control system removes excess water during wet
periods and provides for surface irrigation during dry
periods. Growing row crops in rotation with close-
growing, soil-improving crops and incorporating crop
residue, including that of soil-improving crops, into the
soil increase the content of organic matter. Seedbed
preparation, including bedding of rows, can increase the
depth to the water table. Applying fertilizer and lime can
increase crop yields.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay. A
drainage system can remove excess water during wet
periods. Applications of fertilizer and the proper
selection of adapted grasses and legumes help to
maximize yields. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation,
and restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep
the pasture in good condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is








Soil Survey


characteristic of the Slough range site. This site has the
potential to produce forage of moderately high quality.
Forage plants include chalky bluestem, blue
maidencane, bluejoint panicum, and toothachegrass. If
the range is in poor condition, the site is dominated by
bottlebrush threeawn, muhly, and sand cordgrass.
This soil is poorly suited to the production of pine
trees. It is limited mainly by the seasonal wetness,
which increases the seedling mortality rate, restricts the
use of equipment, and causes plant competition.
Potential productivity is moderate or high for slash pine
and loblolly pine and low for longleaf pine. Site
preparation, such as chopping, burning, and bedding,
removes debris, minimizes plant competition, facilitates
planting, and reduces the seedling mortality rate. Using
special equipment, such as rubber-tired or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
soil compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer. Using a harvesting system that leaves plant
debris distributed over the site helps to maintain the
content of organic matter.
This soil is poorly suited to homesite development,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the wetness. Adding suitable fill material
can raise building sites and roadbeds to a level above
the wetness. On sites for septic tank absorption fields,
mounding increases the depth to the seasonal high
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness. If
adequate outlets are available, a drainage system can
lower the water table. Installing a drainage system and
selecting adapted species help to establish lawn
grasses and landscaping plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion. Adding topsoil, using elevated
walkways, or installing a drainage system helps to
overcome the wetness.
The capability subclass is Vlw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8W.

44-Tooles sand. This poorly drained, nearly level
soil is in the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2
percent. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 50 to 500 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is dark grayish brown and light gray sand about 24
inches thick. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam about
23 inches thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or
more is soft, white limestone bedrock that contains shell
fragments.


Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chaires, Meadowbrook, and Scranton soils. The poorly
drained Meadowbrook and Scranton soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Tooles soil.
The poorly drained Chaires soils are on slight knolls.
Also included are poorly drained soils that are similar to
the Tooles soil but have soft limestone bedrock at a
depth of more than 60 inches. These soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Tooles soil.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Tooles
sand, Tooles and similar soils make up 74 to 100
percent of the mapped areas.
The Tooles soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 6 to 12 inches for 6 to 8 months and within a
depth of 20 inches for 4 months in most years. The
available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and high in the subsoil. Permeability
is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderately slow or slow in the subsoil. The content of
organic matter is moderately low or moderate. Natural
fertility is low.
In most areas, the natural vegetation consists of
longleaf pine, slash pine, sweetgum, sweetbay, red
maple, and cabbage palm and an understory of
waxmyrtle, gallberry, black titi, and scattered saw
palmetto.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the wetness. The number of adapted crops that can
be grown is limited unless intensive management
practices are applied. A water-control system removes
excess water during wet periods and provides for
surface irrigation during dry periods. Row crops can be
rotated with close-growing, soil-improving crops.
Incorporating crop residue, including that of soil-
improving crops, into the soil increases the content of
organic matter. Seedbed preparation, including bedding
of rows, can increase the depth to the water table.
Applications of fertilizer and lime can increase crop
yields.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay. A
drainage system can remove excess water during wet
periods. Applications of fertilizer and the proper
selection of adapted grasses and legumes help to
maximize yields. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation,
and restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep
the pasture in good condition.
Typically, this soil supports vegetation that is
characteristic of the North Florida Flatwoods range site.
If good management practices are applied, this site has
the potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
Curtis dropseed. If the range deteriorates because of
poor grazing management, the site is dominated by saw
palmetto and wiregrass.








Franklin County, Florida


This soil is moderately suited to the production of
pine trees. It is limited mainly by the seasonal wetness,
which can increase the seedling mortality rate, restrict
the use of equipment, and cause plant competition.
Potential productivity is high for slash pine and loblolly
pine. Site preparation, such as chopping, burning, and
bedding, removes debris, minimizes plant competition,
facilitates planting, and reduces the seedling mortality
rate. Using special equipment, such as rubber-tired or
crawler machinery, and harvesting during dry periods
minimize soil compaction and root damage during
thinning activities. Using a harvesting system that
leaves plant debris distributed over the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter. The trees
respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is poorly suited to homesite development,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
because of the wetness. Adding suitable fill material
can raise building sites and roadbeds to a level above
the wetness. On sites for septic tank absorption fields,
mounding increases the depth to the seasonal high
water table. If adequate outlets are available, a
drainage system can lower the water table. Installing a
drainage system and selecting adapted species can
help to establish lawn grasses and landscaping plants.
If areas of this soil are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion. Adding topsoil, using elevated
walkways, or installing a drainage system helps to
overcome the wetness.
The capability subclass is Illw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

45-Wehadkee-Meggett complex, frequently
flooded. These poorly drained, nearly level soils are on
point bars and natural levees on the flood plains along
the Apalachicola River and its distributaries. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
elongated and range from 5 to 200 acres in size. They
are about 40 percent Wehadkee soil and 40 percent
Meggett soil.
Typically, the surface layer of the Wehadkee soil is
brown loam about 3 inches thick. The subsoil extends
to a depth of about 40 inches. The upper 13 inches is
gray loam that has strong brown mottles. The lower 24
inches is gray sandy loam that has yellowish brown
mottles and thin layers of sandy clay loam. The next 30
inches is light gray sand. Below this to a depth of 80
inches or more is gray fine sandy loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meggett soil is dark
grayish brown loam about 4 inches thick. The upper 6
inches of the subsurface layer is light gray loamy fine


sand that has yellowish brown mottles. The lower 8
inches is gray loamy sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80
inches or more is gray sandy clay. The upper 12 inches
has yellowish red mottles, and the lower 50 inches or
more has grayish brown mottles.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of Chowan, Brickyard, and Kenner soils. These very
poorly drained soils are on the lower flood plains.
Brickyard soils have a silty subsoil. Chowan soils are
stratified with layers of muck. Kenner soils are organic
and have strata of mineral soil material.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Wehadkee-
Meggett complex, frequently flooded, Wehadkee,
Meggett, and similar soils make up 82 to 100 percent of
the mapped areas.
The Meggett and Wehadkee soils have a seasonal
high water table within a depth of 12 inches for 3
months or more during most years. They are frequently
flooded, and water remains above the surface for 1
month or more. The available water capacity is
moderate or high in the surface layer and subsoil and is
highly variable in the underlying layers. Permeability is
moderately rapid in the surface layer, slow to moderate
in the subsoil, and variable in the underlying layers. The
content of organic matter is moderate in the surface
layer and low to moderate in the rest of the profile.
Natural fertility is medium.
In most areas, the natural vegetation consists of
water oak, overcup oak, cabbage palm, red maple,
sweetgum, scattered cypress, sweetbay, and Ogeechee
tupelo.
These soils are unsuitable for cultivated crops
because of the frequent flooding during the growing
season.
These soils are poorly suited to pasture and hay
because of the frequent flooding. They are generally not
used for range.
These soils are poorly suited to commercial
production of pine trees because of the frequent
flooding and seasonal wetness, which increase the
seedling mortality rate and restrict the use of equipment
and which can devastate the stand during periods of
severe flooding. Potential productivity is high for slash
pine and loblolly pine. Using special equipment, such as
rubber-tired or crawler machinery, and harvesting during
dry periods minimize soil compaction and root damage
during thinning activities. Planting after floodwaters
subside increases the rate of seedling survival. Site
preparation, such as chopping, burning, and bedding,
removes debris, minimizes plant competition, facilitates
planting, and reduces the seedling mortality rate. Using
a harvesting system that leaves plant debris distributed
over the site helps to maintain the content of organic








Soil Survey


matter. The trees respond well to applications of
nitrogen and phosphorus.
These soils are unsuitable for local roads and
streets, homesite development, and small commercial
buildings because of the frequent flooding.
If areas of these soils are developed for recreational
uses, the frequent flooding is a major concern.
Generally, only low-intensity development is practical.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8W for the Wehadkee soil and
13W for the Meggett soil.

46-Duckston-Rutlege-Corolla complex. These very
poorly drained to somewhat poorly drained, nearly level
soils are on low ridges and flats and in swales on the
barrier islands. The individual landscape components
occur in a repeating, parallel sequence. Slopes
generally range from 0 to 2 percent but are slightly
higher on short breaks between dunes and swales.
Individual areas of these soils are elongated and range
from 100 to several thousand acres in size. They are
about 50 percent Duckston soil, 25 percent Rutlege soil,
and 20 percent Corolla soil. The very poorly drained
Rutlege soil is in low swales. The poorly drained
Duckston soil is on flats. The somewhat poorly drained
Corolla soil is on low ridges.
Typically, the surface layer of the Duckston soil is
very dark grayish brown fine sand about 2 inches thick.
The next 10 inches is dark gray and light gray fine sand
that has a few small shell fragments. Below this is a
buried surface layer of very dark brown and dark gray
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The next 16 inches is
grayish brown fine sand. Below this to a depth of 80
inches or more is light brownish gray fine sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Rutlege soil is very
dark grayish brown fine sand about 10 inches thick.
Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is grayish
brown fine sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Corolla soil is very
dark gray sand about 3 inches thick. Below this to a
depth of 80 inches or more is light gray and light
brownish gray sand.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of Hurricane and Scranton soils. The somewhat poorly
drained Hurricane soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Corolla soil. The poorly drained
Scranton soils are in landscape positions similar to
those of the Duckston soil. Also included are very
poorly drained soils that are similar to the Rutlege soil
but have a loamy surface layer. These soils are in low
swales.
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Duckston-
Rutlege-Corolla complex, Duckston, Rutlege, Corolla,


and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent of the
mapped areas.
The Duckston soil has a seasonal high water table
within a depth of 12 inches for as long as 12 months in
most years. About 6 to 18 inches of water is ponded on
the surface of the Rutlege soil for 6 months or longer in
most years. The Corolla soil has a seasonal high water
table at a depth of 18 to 36 inches for 2 to 6 months in
most years. The available water capacity is low or very
low in all three soils. Permeability is rapid or very rapid.
The content of organic matter generally is low, but it is
high in the surface layer of the Rutlege soil. Natural
fertility is low.
Most areas support natural vegetation. The natural
vegetation on the Duckston soil consists of slash pine,
water oak, laurel oak, cabbage palm, gallberry, and
marshhay cordgrass. The natural vegetation on the
Corolla soil consists of live oak, myrtle oak, rosemary,
and waxmyrtle. The natural vegetation on the Rutlege
soil consists of willow, sawgrass, cabbage palm, slash
pine, and St Johnswort.
These soils are generally not used for crops, hay and
pasture, or range because of the wetness, the low
fertility, and the complex slope pattern.
These soils are generally not used for the production
of pine trees because of the low fertility and a high
seedling mortality rate. The Duckston soil is best suited
to this use. Careful site preparation, such as chopping
and bedding, removes debris, helps to control
competing vegetation, and facilitates planting. Using a
harvesting system that leaves plant debris distributed
over the site improves soil fertility. The trees respond
well to applications of fertilizer.
These soils are poorly suited to local roads and
streets, homesite development, and small commercial
buildings because of the ponding on the Rutlege soil,
the wetness of the Duckston soil, the narrowness of
ridges on the Corolla soil, and the potential for flooding
during extreme high tides and coastal storms. Onsite
investigation is needed to determine management
needs for these uses.
If areas of these soils are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion. Using access walkways or adding
suitable fill helps to overcome the wetness on the
Rutlege soil.
The capability subclass of the Duckston soil is Vllw,
that of the Rutlege soil is VIw, and that of the Corolla
soil is VIIw. No woodland ordination symbol is assigned.

47-Duckston-Bohicket-Corolla complex. These
very poorly drained to somewhat poorly drained, nearly








Franklin County, Florida


level soils are on low ridges and flats and in narrow,
elongated tidal marshes on the barrier islands. The
individual landscape components occur in a repeating,
parallel sequence. Slopes generally range from 0 to 2
percent but are slightly higher on short breaks between
dunes and swales. Individual areas of these soils are
elongated and range from 200 to 800 acres in size.
They are about 50 percent Duckston soil, 25 percent
Bohicket soil, and 15 percent Corolla soil. The poorly
drained Duckston soil is on very low dune ridges, on
nearly level flats, and in swales between the low dune
ridges of the somewhat poorly drained Corolla soil. The
very poorly drained Bohicket soil is in narrow, elongated
tidal marshes between the low dune ridges.
Typically, the surface layer of the Duckston soil is
dark grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick.
Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is grayish
brown sand that has a few small shell fragments.
Typically, the surface layer of the Bohicket soil is
very dark gray clay about 5 inches thick. The next 34
inches is dark gray and gray clay. Below this to a depth
of 80 inches or more is grayish brown and dark grayish
brown sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Corolla soil is very
dark gray sand about 3 inches thick. Below this to a
depth of 80 inches or more is light gray and white sand
in which the content of shell fragments ranges from 5 to
20 percent.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of the very poorly drained Rutlege soils in low swales
that are not adjacent to the tidal marshes. Also included
are soils that are similar to the Duckston soil and soils
that are similar to the Bohicket soil. The soils that are
similar to the Duckston soil are very poorly drained and
are in low swales that are not adjacent to the tidal
marshes. The soils that are similar to the Bohicket soil
are very poorly drained and are in tidal marshes. They
contain less than 35 percent clay in the underlying
material between depths of 10 and 40 inches.
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Duckston-
Bohicket-Corolla complex, Duckston, Bohicket, Corolla,
and similar soils make up 77 to 100 percent of the
mapped areas.
The Duckston soil has a seasonal high water table
within a depth of 12 inches for as long as 12 months in
most years. The Bohicket soil is flooded daily by normal
high tides. The Corolla soil has a seasonal high water
table at a depth of 18 to 36 inches for 3 to 6 months in
most years. The available water capacity is low or very
low in all three soils. Permeability is rapid or very rapid
in the Duckston and Corolla soils and very slow or slow
in the Bohicket soil. The content of organic matter is
generally low, but it is high in the surface layer of the
Bohicket soil. Natural fertility is low.


Most areas support natural vegetation. The natural
vegetation on the Duckston soil consists of slash pine,
water oak, laurel oak, cabbage palm, gallberry, and
marshhay cordgrass. The natural vegetation on the
Corolla soil consists of live oak, myrtle oak, rosemary,
and waxmyrtle. The natural vegetation on the Bohicket
soil consists of black needlerush, marshhay cordgrass,
saltwort, and sawgrass.
These soils are generally not used for crops, hay and
pasture, or range because of the wetness, the low
fertility, and the complex slope pattern.
These soils are generally not used for the production
of pine trees because of the low fertility and a high
seedling mortality rate. The Duckston soil is best suited
to this use. Careful site preparation, such as chopping
and bedding, removes debris, helps to control
competing vegetation, and facilitates planting. Using a
logging system that leaves plant debris distributed over
the site increases soil fertility. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This unit is poorly suited to local roads and streets,
homesite development, and small commercial buildings
because of the tidal flooding and the low strength of the
Bohicket soil, the wetness of the Duckston soil, and the
narrowness of ridges on the Corolla soil. Onsite
investigation is needed to determine management
needs for these uses.
If areas of these soils are developed for recreational
uses, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and paths or
trails, stabilizing the sandy surface layer by adding
suitable topsoil or some other material helps to prevent
excessive erosion. Using access walkways helps to
preserve the delicate vegetation that stabilizes these
soils. Using access walkways or adding suitable fill
helps to overcome the wetness on the Duckston soil.
The capability subclass of the Duckston soil is Vllw,
that of the Bohicket soil is Vlllw, and that of the Corolla
soil is Vlls. No woodland ordination symbol is assigned.

48-Udorthents, nearly level. These somewhat
poorly drained to moderately well drained soils are on
high, nearly level deposits of dredge spoil. They are
primarily on Timber Island, which is located at the
mouth of the Carrabelle River. Slopes generally range
from 0 to 3 percent. Individual areas are nearly round
and range from 15 to 100 acres in size.
These soils formed in recent dredge spoil of highly
variable composition. No one pedon is typical of these
soils, but commonly they have a surface layer that is
dark grayish brown loamy sand about 6 inches thick.
The next 17 inches is mixed white and pale brown
sand. It has about 25 percent fragments of very dark
gray clay that is mottled with brownish yellow and












reddish yellow. Below this is about 13 inches of sand. It
is light gray and has thin bands of yellowish brown and
brownish yellow. It has about 15 percent very dark gray
fragments that are coated with a thin olive yellow rind.
The next 22 inches is light brownish gray sand that has
reddish yellow mottles. Below this to a depth of 80
inches or more is light brownish gray sand that has 5 to
10 percent sand- and gravel-sized fragments of
carbonate.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of Bayvi, Bohicket, Dirego, and Tisonia soils. These
very poorly drained soils are in tidal marshes. Also
included are small areas of soils that are similar to the
Udorthents but have a seasonal high water table within
a depth of 20 inches.
The vegetation on the Udorthents is highly variable


but includes slash pine, sand pine, waxmyrtle, cabbage
palm, and water oak. Some areas are unvegetated or
very sparsely vegetated.
These soils have a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 20 to 60 inches for 3 months or longer during
most years. Other soil properties are so variable that
they cannot be determined without onsite investigation.
These soils are so variable that suitability for most
land uses cannot be determined without onsite
investigation. Some areas are extremely acid because
of the oxidation of sulfides in the dredge spoil. This
condition can be highly corrosive to metal and concrete.
Many plants cannot tolerate this extremely acid
condition.
No capability subclass or woodland ordination symbol
is assigned.


















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help
prevent soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary
facilities, highways and other transportation systems,
and parks and other recreational facilities; and for
wildlife habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials
and limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to
help prevent construction failures caused by
unfavorable soil properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with
nature.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
William F. Kuenstler, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants


best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under the heading
"Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific information can be
obtained from the local office of the Soil Conservation
Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.
According to United States Department of Agriculture
basic resource data, less than 1,000 acres in Franklin
County is used for crops or pasture. Limited acreages
of corn, vegetables, and specialty crops are grown.
Specialty crops, such as vegetables, blueberries,
grapes, nursery plants, and pecan trees, commonly are
grown in dooryard plots or in greenhouses (fig. 6).
Pastures produce forage for several herds of beef cattle
throughout the county.
The main agricultural enterprise in Franklin County is
beekeeping. The abundant tupelo gum trees along the
rivers and streams provide good habitat for bees that
produce high-quality tupelo honey. Honey derived from
titi blossoms, gallberry, palmetto, and other native and
cultivated plants also is collected.
Many areas of Franklin County are generally suited
to increased agricultural production if measures that
help to overcome limitations or hazards, such as
wetness, rapid permeability, and low natural fertility, are
applied. On most soils in the county, a water-control
system is needed to remove excess water in wet
seasons and to provide for subsurface irrigation in dry
seasons if high-value vegetable crops are grown. Also,
applying the latest crop production technology would

increase food production on all cropland in the survey
area.
Although the potential for increased food production
exists in Franklin County, several factors should be
considered when crops and growing sites are selected.
Among these factors are the economic conditions, the
possibility of adverse weather conditions, the availability


















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help
prevent soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary
facilities, highways and other transportation systems,
and parks and other recreational facilities; and for
wildlife habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials
and limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to
help prevent construction failures caused by
unfavorable soil properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with
nature.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
William F. Kuenstler, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants


best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under the heading
"Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific information can be
obtained from the local office of the Soil Conservation
Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.
According to United States Department of Agriculture
basic resource data, less than 1,000 acres in Franklin
County is used for crops or pasture. Limited acreages
of corn, vegetables, and specialty crops are grown.
Specialty crops, such as vegetables, blueberries,
grapes, nursery plants, and pecan trees, commonly are
grown in dooryard plots or in greenhouses (fig. 6).
Pastures produce forage for several herds of beef cattle
throughout the county.
The main agricultural enterprise in Franklin County is
beekeeping. The abundant tupelo gum trees along the
rivers and streams provide good habitat for bees that
produce high-quality tupelo honey. Honey derived from
titi blossoms, gallberry, palmetto, and other native and
cultivated plants also is collected.
Many areas of Franklin County are generally suited
to increased agricultural production if measures that
help to overcome limitations or hazards, such as
wetness, rapid permeability, and low natural fertility, are
applied. On most soils in the county, a water-control
system is needed to remove excess water in wet
seasons and to provide for subsurface irrigation in dry
seasons if high-value vegetable crops are grown. Also,
applying the latest crop production technology would

increase food production on all cropland in the survey
area.
Although the potential for increased food production
exists in Franklin County, several factors should be
considered when crops and growing sites are selected.
Among these factors are the economic conditions, the
possibility of adverse weather conditions, the availability








Soil Survey


-s A -
..- ,w-
~4r~ ~ ,~,.*. Ir.tA
.c- -
- r 1


Figure 6.-Blueberries in an area of Mandarin fine sand.


of suitable drainage outlets, an adequate supply of
fresh water for irrigation, and environmental
considerations, including the risk of pollution of nearby
water and the possibility of urban development.
In addition to these factors, knowledge of the soils
and their properties is necessary. Some of the major
soil properties that should be considered are erosion,
wetness, soil fertility, and tilth.
Erosion is a hazard mainly in disturbed areas that
have been developed for urban use or that are farmed.
Water erosion during intense storms lowers the
productivity of the soil by washing away the more fertile


topsoil. It also increases the pollution of streams by
sediment, which reduces the quality of water for
municipal and recreational uses and for fish and other
wildlife. Erosion-control practices provide a protective
cover, help to control runoff, and increase the rate of
water infiltration.
Soil blowing is a major problem on sandy soils. It
reduces soil fertility by removing fine soil particles and
organic matter; damages crops by sandblasting:
spreads diseases, insects, and weed seeds: creates
health hazards and cleaning problems in urban areas
that have been cleared of vegetation: and reduces air


_


_T I ,







Franklin County, Florida


quality. Maintaining a vegetative cover and surface
mulching minimize soil blowing.
Mulching, seeding, establishing cover crops, and
minimizing disturbance of the soil during fieldwork or
construction reduce the hazard of erosion. Information
about erosion-control measures for each kind of soil is
available from the local office of the Soil Conservation
Service.
Soil drainage is a major management concern on
some soils that are presently used for crops and
pasture. Under natural conditions, approximately 87
percent of the soils in the county are poorly drained or
very poorly drained. Some soils, such as Rutlege,
Pickney, and Surrency soils, are naturally so wet that
growing crops or pasture plants is generally not feasible
without extensive water-control systems. If a good
water-control system is installed, however, these wet
soils are moderately suited to many vegetable crops
and improved pasture. Also, many of the poorly drained
soils, such as Leon, Scranton, and Sapelo soils, have a
sandy surface layer and a low available water capacity
and are drought during dry periods. If these soils are
used for crops or pasture, a water-control system is
needed to remove excess water during wet periods and
to provide for subsurface irrigation during dry periods.
The design of the system varies according to the kind of
soil and the kinds of crops and pasture plants that are
to be grown.
Soil fertility is naturally low in most of the soils in the
county. Mineral soils that have a dark surface layer,
such as Harbeson, Pickney, and Surrency soils, have
the most organic matter and plant nutrients. Organic
soils, however, such as Pamlico and Dorovan soils,
require applications of special fertilizers because they
are low in copper, selenium, and other trace elements.
Many of the soils in the county have a surface layer
that is naturally strongly acid. If clover and other crops
that need a neutral pH are grown on these strongly acid
soils, applications of lime are required to raise the pH
level. The levels of nitrogen, available phosphorus, and
potash are naturally low in most of the mineral soils. On
all soils, additions of lime and fertilizer should be based
on the results of soil tests, on the needs of the crop,
and on the expected level of yields. The Cooperative
Extension Service can help in determining the kinds and
amounts of fertilizer and lime required.
Soil tilth refers to the condition of the soil in relation
to plant growth. It is an important factor in the
germination of seeds and in the infiltration of water into
the soil. Soils that have good tilth are granular and
porous and can be easily cultivated. Most of the mineral
soils in the county have a sandy surface layer that is
light in color and low in organic matter content.
Generally, the surface layer of such soils has no


structure or has only weak structure. If the soil becomes
very dry, a slight crust tends to form on the surface.
The crust impedes the rate of infiltration and increases
the runoff rate. Regular additions of crop residue and
other organic material improve soil structure. Soil-
improving crops and crop residue should be used to
control erosion and maintain the content of organic
matter.
The perennial pasture grasses grown in the county
consist primarily of bahiagrass and coastal
bermudagrass. Differences in the amount and kind of
pasture yields are closely related to the kind of soil.
Effective pasture management includes a system that
maintains adequate moisture levels in drought soils,
water-control measures that remove excess surface
water after heavy rains, regular applications of lime and
fertilizer, and a system of pasture rotation that prevents
overgrazing.

Yields per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management
are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table
because of variations in rainfall and other climatic
factors. The land capability classification of each map
unit also is shown in the table.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain the indicated
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Management can include drainage,
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop
varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable
soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures
the smallest possible loss.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
likely to increase as new production technology is
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 4 may be
grown in the survey area. The local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or of the Cooperative Extension
Service can provide information about the management
and productivity of the soils for those crops.







Soil Survey


Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general
way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops
that require special management are excluded. The
soils are grouped according to their limitations for field
crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops,
and the way they respond to management. The criteria
used in grouping the soils do not include major, and
generally expensive, landforming that would change
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for
interpretations designed to show suitability and
limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for
woodland, and for engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit (9).
Only class and subclass are used in this survey.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate
conservation practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
reduce the choice of plants or that require very special
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, IIw. The
letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of
erosion unless a close-growing plant cover is
maintained; w shows that water in or on the soil
interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some soils
the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial
drainage); s shows that the soil is limited mainly


because it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in
only some parts of the United States, shows that the
chief limitation is climate that is very cold or very dry.
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V
are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland,
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V
contains only the subclasses indicated by w, s, or c.
The capability classification of each map unit is given
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" and in the
yields table.

Rangeland

In areas that have similar climate and topography,
differences in the kind and amount of vegetation
produced on rangeland are closely related to the kind of
soil. Effective management is based on the relationship
between the soils and vegetation and water.
In Franklin County native grasses, forbs, and browse
plants have the potential to produce significant forage
for livestock. At the present time only a portion of this
resource is being utilized.
A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that
produces a characteristic climax plant community that
differs from natural plant communities on other range
sites in kind, amount, and proportion of range plants.
The relationship between soils and vegetation was
ascertained during this survey; thus, range sites
generally can be determined directly from the soil map.
Soil properties that affect moisture supply and plant
nutrients have the greatest influence on the productivity
of range plants. Soil reaction, salt content, and a
seasonal high water table are also important.
Range management requires a knowledge of the
kinds of soil and of the potential climax plant
community. It also requires an evaluation of the present
range condition. Range condition is determined by
comparing the present plant community with the climax
plant community on a particular range site. The more
closely the existing community resembles the climax
community, the better the range condition.. Range
condition is an ecological rating only. It does not have a
specific meaning that pertains to the present plant
community in a given use.
The objective in range management is to control
grazing so that the plants growing on a site are about
the same in kind and amount as the potential climax
plant community for that site. Such management
generally results in the optimum production of
vegetation, control of undesirable brush species,
conservation of water, and control of erosion.
Sometimes, however, a range condition somewhat







Franklin County, Florida


below the potential meets grazing needs, provides
wildlife habitat, and protects soil and water resources.
Four range sites make up significant acreages in
Franklin County. The North Florida Flatwoods range site
is of greatest extent and occurs in nearly all parts of the
county. The Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills and Sand
Pine Scrub range sites occur on the sandhills and on
the drier soils in the low uplands. The Slough range site
occurs in broad sloughs.
The North Florida Flatwoods range site occurs as
areas of nearly level soils that support tall grasses and
an overstory of slash pine, loblolly pine, or longleaf
pine. If good grazing management practices are
followed, the site has the potential to produce significant
amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
chalky bluestem, and Curtis dropseed. If the range
deteriorates because of poor grazing management
practices, the site is dominated by saw palmetto and
pineland threeawn (wiregrass). This site occurs as
areas of the Albany, Chaires, Hurricane, Leefield, Leon,
Lynn Haven, Pelham, Plummer, Ridgewood, Sapelo,
Scranton, Stilson, Meadowbrook, and Tooles soils.
The Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site occurs
as rolling areas that have nearly level to steep slopes.
The soils in this site support scattered longleaf pine and
turkey oak. Natural fertility is low because of the rapid
movement of plant nutrients and water through the soil.
Important forage species include creeping bluestem,
purple bluestem, and indiangrass. The Longleaf Pine-
Turkey Oak Hills range site provides winter shelter for
cattle and cover for wildlife. The potential for producing
high-quality forage grasses is moderately low. This site
occurs as areas of the Blanton, Kershaw, and Ortega
soils.
The Sand Pine Scrub range site occurs as areas of
soils that support an association of sand pine, sand live
oak, and bluejack oak. Important forage species include
creeping bluestem, purple bluestem, indiangrass, and
beaked panicum. Because of the drought nature of the
soils, the Sand Pine Scrub range site has low potential
for producing native forage. The vegetation on the site
provides summer shade, winter cover, and dry bedding
ground during wet periods. This site occurs as areas of
the Kureb and Resota soils and in the drier coastal
areas of the Mandarin soils.
If the Slough range site is in excellent condition, it is
dominated by blue maidencane, chalky bluestem,
toothachegrass, and plumegrass. The site also supports
scattered cypress, sweetbay, and black titi. Average
production is moderately high. Under poor conditions,
bottlebrush threeawn, sand cordgrass, muhly, threeawn,
and St Johnswort dominate. This site occurs as areas
of the Scranton and Meadowbrook soils.


Woodland Management and Productivity

About 317,000 acres, or 91 percent of Franklin
County, is forest land. The county has over 34,200
acres of federally owned land, of which about 21,800
acres is in the Apalachicola National Forest. About 86
percent of the nonfederal land is owned by large
companies that make woodland products.
Slash pine is the dominant species grown in the
county, especially in the flatwoods. The flatwoods make
up about 68 percent of the forest land in the county. In
the flatwoods, sparse stands of pine are clearcut and
replaced with improved slash pine. Black titi, waxmyrtle,
and slash pine are the primary species in the wet areas
of the flatwoods and in drainageways in the central part
of the county. The major soils that support native slash
pine communities and commercial plantations are Leon,
Lynn Haven, Meadowbrook, Scranton, Sapelo, Pelham,
Plummer, and Tooles soils.
Areas that support longleaf pine, loblolly pine, and
sand pine and mixed hardwood forest make up about
14 percent of the forest land in the county. The
sandhills in eastern Franklin County and small areas on
gulf and bay coast ridges support longleaf pine, sand
pine, bluejack oak, live oak, turkey oak, and scrub oak.
Gradually, the stands of longleaf pine and oak are being
replaced with planted stands of slash pine and sand
pine. The major soils of the sandhill areas include
Kershaw, Kureb, Ortega, Mandarin, Resota, and
Ridgewood soils.
The upland areas in northwestern Franklin County
support longleaf pine and loblolly pine as well as mixed
hardwoods. Many of these areas are within the
Apalachicola National Forest. Many of the private lands
nearby were cleared and now support stands of
improved slash pine. The major soils in the uplands are
Albany, Blanton, Lynchburg, Leefield, and Stilson soils.
Laurel oak, tupelo gum, blackgum, overcup oak,
cypress, red maple, sweetgum, magnolia, and slash
pine grow on the flood plains along the Apalachicola,
Ochlockonee, Crooked, and New Rivers. These areas
have been used extensively for logging in the past, but
timber harvesting is not currently feasible because of
the size of the trees, the low commercial value of many
species, and the difficulty of working on the flood plain
soils. Also, much of the extensive Apalachicola River
flood plain is federally owned or is owned by the State.
The major soils on the flood plains are Brickyard,
Chowan, Meggett, Pamlico, Pickney, Meadowbrook,
Tooles, and Wehadkee soils.
The depressions, sloughs, and small creeks in the
county support black titi, swamp cyrilla, cypress, Atlantic
white-cedar, bay, and slash pine. In these areas trees
are harvested and planted when the water table is low







Soil Survey


so that heavy equipment can be used. Some hand
planting is necessary when the soils are wet. Many of
the soils in these areas are only marginally suitable or
are unsuitable for growing pines because of wetness.
The major soils in these areas are Harbeson,
Meadowbrook, Pickney, Pamlico, Rutlege, Scranton,
and Surrency soils.
Timber management in the county ranges from
intensive clearcutting, bedding, and planting to selective
cutting. Prescribed burning of pine stands can reduce
plant competition and exposes mineral soils as a bed
for young pine seedlings. Burning also encourages the
growth of grasses and forbs that help to support various
wildlife species, such as deer, turkey, and quail. Many
corporate and private landowners apply phosphorus and
nitrogen fertilizer at planting time and midrotation.
Several small lumber mills are located in Franklin
County. They process timber primarily for the
construction of small buildings.
Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Available
water capacity and depth of the root zone have major
effects on tree growth. Fertility and texture also
influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate
determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site.
Elevation and aspect are of particular importance in
mountainous areas.
This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
planning ways to increase the productivity of forest
land. Some soils respond better to applications of
fertilizer than others, and some are more susceptible to
landslides and erosion after roads are built and timber
is harvested. Some soils require special reforestation
efforts. In the section "Detailed Soil Map Units," the
description of each map unit in the survey area suitable
for timber includes information about productivity,
limitations in harvesting timber, and management
concerns in producing timber. Table 5 summarizes this
forestry information and rates the soils for a number of
factors to be considered in management. Slight,
moderate, and severe are used to indicate the degree of
the major soil limitations to be considered in forest
management.
Table 5 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential
productivity is based on the site index and the point
where mean annual increment is the greatest.
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation affecting use
and management. The letter R indicates a soil that has
a significant limitation because of steepness of slope.
The letter X indicates that a soil has restrictions


because of stones or rocks on the surface. The letter W
indicates a soil in which excessive water, either
seasonal or year-round, causes a significant limitation.
The letter T indicates a soil that has, within the root
zone, excessive alkalinity or acidity, sodium salts, or
other toxic substances that limit the development of
desirable trees. The letter D indicates a soil that has a
limitation because of a restricted rooting depth, such as
a shallow soil that is underlain by hard bedrock, a
hardpan, or other layers that restrict roots. The letter C
indicates a soil that has a limitation because of the kind
or amount of clay in the upper part of the profile. The
letter S indicates a dry, sandy soil. The letter F
indicates a soil that has a large amount of coarse
fragments. The letter A indicates a soil having no
significant limitations that affect forest use and
management. If a soil has more than one limitation, the
priority is as follows: R, X, W, T, D, C, S, and F.
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability
that damage may occur if site preparation or harvesting
activities expose the soil. The risk is slight if no
particular preventive measures are needed under
ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion-control
measures are needed for particular silvicultural
activities; and severe if special precautions are needed
to control erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings
of moderate or severe indicate the need for construction
of higher standard roads, additional maintenance of
roads, additional care in planning harvesting and
reforestation activities, or the use of special equipment.
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the
use of forest management equipment, year-round or
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope,
wetness, stoniness, and susceptibility of the surface
layer to compaction. As slope gradient and length
increase, it becomes more difficult to use wheeled
equipment. On the steeper slopes, tracked equipment is
needed. On the steepest slopes, even tracked
equipment cannot be operated and more sophisticated
systems are needed. The rating is slight if equipment
use is restricted by wetness for less than 2 months and
if special equipment is not needed. The rating is
moderate if slopes are so steep that wheeled equipment
cannot be operated safely across the slope, if wetness
restricts equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, if
stoniness restricts the use of ground-based equipment,
or if special equipment is needed to prevent or minimize
compaction. The rating is severe if slopes are so steep
that tracked equipment cannot be operated safely
across the slope, if wetness restricts equipment use for
more than 6 months per year, if stoniness restricts the
use of ground-based equipment, or if special equipment
is needed to prevent or minimize compaction. Ratings
of moderate or severe indicate a need to choose the







Franklin County, Florida


most suitable equipment and to carefully plan the timing
of harvesting and other management activities.
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
the death of naturally occurring or properly planted
seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall, as
influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features.
Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much
water or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil
for seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer,
depth to a seasonal high water table and the length of
the period when the water table is high, rock fragments
in the surface layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of
the slope. The mortality rate generally is highest on
soils that have a sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk
is slight if, after site preparation, expected mortality is
less than 25 percent; moderate if expected mortality is
between 25 and 50 percent; and severe if expected
mortality exceeds 50 percent. Ratings of moderate or
severe indicate that it may be necessary to use
containerized or larger than usual planting stock or to
make special site preparations, such as bedding,
furrowing, installing a surface drainage system, and
providing artificial shade for seedlings. Reinforcement
planting is often needed if the risk is moderate or
severe.
Ratings of windthrow hazard indicate the likelihood
that trees will be uprooted by the wind. A restricted
rooting depth is the main reason for windthrow. The
rooting depth can be restricted by a high water table, a
fragipan, or bedrock or by a combination of such factors
as soil wetness, texture, structure, and depth. The risk
is slight if strong winds cause trees to break but do not
uproot them; moderate if strong winds cause an
occasional tree to be blown over and many trees to
break; and severe if moderate or strong winds
commonly blow trees over. Ratings of moderate or
severe indicate that care is needed in thinning or that
the stand should not be thinned at all. Special
equipment may be needed to prevent damage to
shallow root systems in partial cutting operations. A
plan for the periodic removal of windthrown trees and
the maintenance of a road and trail system may be
needed.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
competition is more severe on the more productive
soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils having a
restricted root zone that holds moisture. The risk is
slight if competition from undesirable plants hinders
adequate natural or artificial reforestation but does not
necessitate intensive site preparation and maintenance.
The risk is moderate if competition from undesirable
plants hinders natural or artificial reforestation to the
extent that intensive site preparation and maintenance


are needed. The risk is severe if competition from
undesirable plants prevents adequate natural or artificial
reforestation unless the site is intensively prepared and
maintained. A moderate or severe rating indicates the
need for site preparation to ensure the development of
an adequately stocked stand. Managers must plan site
preparation measures to ensure reforestation without
delays.
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is
expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in
the order of their observed general occurrence.
Generally, only two or three tree species dominate. The
first tree listed for each soil is the indicator species for
that soil. An indicator species is a tree that is common
in the area and that is generally the most productive on
a given soil.
The site index is determined by taking height
measurements and determining the age of selected
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the
average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a
specified number of years. This index applies to fully
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands.
The productivity class represents an expected volume
produced by the most important trees, expressed in
cubic meters per hectare per year calculated at the age
of culmination of mean annual increment.
Trees to plant are those that are used for
reforestation or, under suitable conditions, natural
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and can
produce a commercial wood crop. The desired product,
topographic position (such as a low, wet area), and
personal preference are three factors among many that
can influence the choice of trees for use in
reforestation.
More detailed information on woodland and forest
management can be obtained at the local offices of the
Florida Division of Forestry, the Soil Conservation
Service, the Florida Cooperative Extension Service, and
the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service.

Environmental Plantings

Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Coastal plantings help to control soil blowing and water
erosion.
Additional information about environmental plantings
and caring for trees and shrubs can be obtained from
local offices of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service or from a nursery.







Soil Survey


Recreation

In table 6, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational uses by the duration and intensity of
flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of the
height, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 6, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
of these measures.
The information in table 6 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 9
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and
for local roads and streets in table 8.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few
or no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive


foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after
rains, and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed,
the depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should
be considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They
have moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
Diverse and abundant fish and wildlife resources are
valuable commercial, recreational, and esthetic assets
in Franklin County. The wildlife habitat in many areas of
the county is characterized by the interspersion of
diverse natural communities, including pine flatwoods,
swamps and marshes, rivers, hammocks, and sandhills.
Other areas are vast and uniform, such as portions of
the forested Apalachicola River flood plain. Some areas
feature a gradual transition from one natural community
to another. The transition from forested flood plain to
estuarine delta marshes of the Apalachicola River is an
example. The wide variety of habitat characteristics in
the county produces a great diversity of wildlife species.
The pattern of land use and ownership in Franklin
County is a major factor contributing to the extensive
availability of wildlife habitat. In 1989, more than 95
percent of the land area was owned by the Federal and
State government, the forest industry, and private
woodland owners. Federal land within the county
includes the St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge, which
is more than 12,000 acres, and 21,800 acres of the
Apalachicola National Forest. State land includes the
1,900-acre St. George Island State Park, the 2,700-acre
Cape St. George State Preserve, and other large tracts,
such as the Apalachicola Wildlife and Environmental
Area and the Northwest Florida Water Management
District. Many other smaller tracts have been acquired
by the state as environmental buffers or preservation







Soil Survey


Recreation

In table 6, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational uses by the duration and intensity of
flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of the
height, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 6, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
of these measures.
The information in table 6 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 9
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and
for local roads and streets in table 8.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few
or no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive


foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after
rains, and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed,
the depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should
be considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They
have moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
Diverse and abundant fish and wildlife resources are
valuable commercial, recreational, and esthetic assets
in Franklin County. The wildlife habitat in many areas of
the county is characterized by the interspersion of
diverse natural communities, including pine flatwoods,
swamps and marshes, rivers, hammocks, and sandhills.
Other areas are vast and uniform, such as portions of
the forested Apalachicola River flood plain. Some areas
feature a gradual transition from one natural community
to another. The transition from forested flood plain to
estuarine delta marshes of the Apalachicola River is an
example. The wide variety of habitat characteristics in
the county produces a great diversity of wildlife species.
The pattern of land use and ownership in Franklin
County is a major factor contributing to the extensive
availability of wildlife habitat. In 1989, more than 95
percent of the land area was owned by the Federal and
State government, the forest industry, and private
woodland owners. Federal land within the county
includes the St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge, which
is more than 12,000 acres, and 21,800 acres of the
Apalachicola National Forest. State land includes the
1,900-acre St. George Island State Park, the 2,700-acre
Cape St. George State Preserve, and other large tracts,
such as the Apalachicola Wildlife and Environmental
Area and the Northwest Florida Water Management
District. Many other smaller tracts have been acquired
by the state as environmental buffers or preservation







Franklin County, Florida


areas. Also located in the county is the Apalachicola
National Estuarine Research Reserve, which plays a
role in environmental research, education, and the
coordination of volunteers and provides management
advice regarding all State and Federal lands in the
county.
Primary game species in Franklin County include
white-tailed deer, squirrels, turkey, bobwhite quail,
mourning dove, feral hogs, and waterfowl. One exotic
game species of special note is the imported Asian
sambur deer, found only on St. Vincent Island. Common
nongame species include raccoon, rabbit, opossum,
skunks, otter, gray fox, red fox, and bobcat and a
variety of songbirds, wading and shore birds, predatory
birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
There are about 30 freshwater lakes and ponds in
the county, most of which are smaller than 25 acres.
The largest are Oyster Pond and Tucker Lake. The
lakes and rivers provide good sport fishing. Game and
nongame species include largemouth bass, channel
catfish, bullhead catfish, bluegill, redear sunfish, spotted
sunfish, warmouth, black crappie, chain pickerel, gar,
bowfin, and suckers. Saltwater species include spotted
trout, spot, croaker, striped mullet, flounder, and red
drum.
There are a number of endangered and threatened
species in Franklin County. In 1985, the Florida Game
and Freshwater Fish Commission listed 17 endangered
species, 13 threatened species, and 23 species of
special concern. These range from the rarely seen red-
cockaded woodpecker to the more common
southeastern kestrel. The Atlantic loggerhead turtle is
an example of a threatened migratory species that
utilizes habitat in the county. It visits the area beaches
annually during the summer and lays its eggs. A
detailed list of endangered and threatened species and
information on their range and habitat needs are
available from the district conservationist at the local
office of the Soil Conservation Service or at the office of
the Apalachicola National Estuarine Research Reserve.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat
can be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable
plants.
In table 7, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that


are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
the intensity of management needed for each element
of the habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain
and seed crops are corn, soybeans, wheat, browntop
millet, and grain sorghum.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flooding,
and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
bahiagrass, lovegrass, Florida beggarweed, clover, and
sesbania.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod, partridge
pea, and bristlegrasses.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,







Soil Survey


available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
these plants are oak, palmetto, cherry, sweetgum, wild
grape, hawthorn, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and
blueberry. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are
suitable for planting on soils rated good are firethorn,
wild plum, and American beautyberry.
Coniferous plants furnish browse, seeds, and cones.
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar,
and juniper.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
plants are smartweed, wild millet, wildrice, saltgrass,
cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water-control
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
ponds.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described
in the following paragraphs.
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas
produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,
and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these
areas include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field
sparrow, cottontail, and red fox.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
turkey, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
raccoon, deer, and bear.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, geese, herons, shore
birds, otters, mink, beaver, and alligators.

Engineering
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features are identified. Ratings are given


for building site development, sanitary facilities,
construction materials, and water management. The
ratings are based on observed performance of the soils
and on the estimated data and test data in the "Soil
Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this
section. Local ordinances and regulations should be
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 or 6 feet of the
surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity,
shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, and
other behavioral characteristics affecting engineering
uses.
This information can be used to evaluate the
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
and recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and predict performance of proposed
small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same
or similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil







Franklin County, Florida


maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
this survey, can be used to make additional
interpretations.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
"Glossary."
Building Site Development
Table 8 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
without basements, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and
site features are generally favorable for the indicated
use and limitations are minor and easily overcome;
moderate if soil properties or site features are not
favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to
overcome that special design, significant increases in
construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
are required. Special feasibility studies may be required
where the soil limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to
bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer,
stone content, soil texture, and slope. The time of the
year that excavations can be made is affected by the
depth to a seasonal high water table and the
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of
the excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is
affected by soil texture and depth to the water table.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are
made for small commercial buildings without
basements, for dwellings with basements, and for
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on
soil properties, site features, and observed performance
of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrinking and
swelling, and organic layers can cause the movement of
footings. Depth to a high water table, depth to bedrock
or to a cemented pan, large stones, and flooding affect
the ease of excavation and construction. Landscaping
and grading that require cuts and fills of more than 5 or
6 feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.


They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base
of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material; and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, depth
to a high water table, flooding, large stones, and slope
affect the ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength
(as inferred from the engineering classification of the
soil), shrink-swell potential, frost-action potential, and
depth to a high water table affect the traffic-supporting
capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Soil reaction, depth to a high water table,
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, the available
water capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the content
of salts, sodium, and sulfidic materials affect plant
growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, stoniness, and the
amount of sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface
layer affect trafficability after vegetation is established.

Sanitary Facilities
Table 9 shows the degree and the kind of soil
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
are considered slight if soil properties and site features
are generally favorable for the indicated use and
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
special design, significant increases in construction
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are
required.
Table 9 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
as daily cover for landfill. A rating of good indicates that
soil properties and site features are favorable for the
use and that good performance and low maintenance
can be expected; fair indicates that soil properties and
site features are moderately favorable for the use and
one or more soil properties or site features make the
soil less desirable than the soils rated good; and poor
indicates that one or more soil properties or site
features are unfavorable for the use and overcoming
the unfavorable properties requires special design, extra
maintenance, or costly alteration.
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that







Soil Survey


part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to a high water table, depth to
bedrock or to a cemented pan, and flooding affect
absorption of the effluent. Large stones and bedrock or
a cemented pan interfere with installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material
beneath the absorption field to filter the effluent
effectively. Many local ordinances require that this
material be of a certain thickness.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the
solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly
level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
required to minimize seepage and contamination of
ground water.
Table 9 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. Considered in
the ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high
water table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
flooding, large stones, and content of organic matter.
Excessive seepage resulting from rapid permeability
in the soil or a water table that is high enough to raise
the level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to
function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is
excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high
content of organic matter is detrimental to proper
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic
activity. Slope, bedrock, and cemented pans can cause
construction problems, and large stones can hinder
compaction of the lagoon floor.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in
successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste
is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin


layer of soil from a source away from the site.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground-
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
should be considered.
The ratings in table 9 are based on soil properties,
site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
depth to a water table, slope, and flooding affect both
types of landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly
organic layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and
sodium affect trench landfills. Unless otherwise stated,
the ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a
depth of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation
rated slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite
investigation is needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
to cover compacted solid waste in an area sanitary
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil
blowing.
After soil material has been removed, the soil
material remaining in the borrow area must be thick
enough over bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water
table to permit revegetation. The soil material used as
final cover for a landfill should be suitable for plants.
The surface layer generally has the best workability,
more organic matter, and the best potential for plants.
Material from the surface layer should be stockpiled for
use as the final cover.

Construction Materials
Table 10 gives information about the soils as a
source of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils
are rated good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and
topsoil. They are rated as a probable or improbable
source of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on
soil properties and site features that affect the removal
of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
compaction, minor processing, and other standard
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
and used in road embankments in another place. In this
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
exacting in design than higher embankments.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface








Franklin County, Florida


layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
their profile. The table showing engineering index
properties provides detailed information about each soil
layer. This information can help to determine the
suitability of each layer for use as roadfill. The
performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or
cement is not considered in the ratings.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. The
thickness of suitable material is a major consideration.
The ease of excavation is affected by large stones, a
high water table, and slope. How well the soil performs
in place after it has been compacted and drained is
determined by its strength (as inferred from the
engineering classification of the soil) and shrink-swell
potential.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
material, a low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
plasticity index of less than 10. They have a moderate
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
more than 25 percent. They are wet and have a water
table at a depth of less than 1 foot. These soils may
have layers of suitable material, but the material is less
than 3 feet thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. They
are used in many kinds of construction. Specifications
for each use vary widely. In table 10, only the
probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect
excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source
of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as
indicated by the engineering classification of the soil),
the thickness of suitable material, and the content of
rock fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification
are given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of
grain sizes is given in the table on engineering index
properties.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of
clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is
up to 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at
least 3 feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight,
large stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable


source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as
shale and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and
gravel.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
can be established and maintained. The upper 40
inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also
evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow
area.
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of
less than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble
salts, are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer,
and are not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have
a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20
to 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts,
or soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils
are not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large
amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes
of more than 15 percent, or have a seasonal high water
table at or near the surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
for topsoil because of its organic matter content.
Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and
retention of moisture and releases a variety of plant-
available nutrients as it decomposes.

Water Management
Table 11 gives information on the soil properties and
site features that affect water management. The degree
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
excavated ponds. The limitations are considered slight if
soil properties and site features are generally favorable
for the indicated use and limitations are minor and are
easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site
features are not favorable for the indicated use and
special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
properties or site features are so unfavorable or so
difficult to overcome that special design, significant
increase in construction costs, and possibly increased
maintenance are required.










This table also gives the restrictive features that
affect each soil for drainage, irrigation, and terraces and
diversions.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage
capacity of the reservoir area.
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
constructed to impound water or to protect land against
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the
soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about
5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly
mixed and compacted during construction.
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth greater than the height of the embankment can
affect performance and safety of the embankment.
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
determine these properties.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features
include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high
content of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts
or sodium. A high water table affects the amount of
usable material. It also affects trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
impound water 3 feet or more above the original
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a
permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and


the salinity of the soil. Depth to bedrock and the content
of large stones affect the ease of excavation.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth
to a high water table or depth of standing water if the
soil is subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to
flooding; and subsidence of organic layers. Excavating
and grading and the stability of ditchbanks are affected
by depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large
stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving. The
productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely
affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in
the root zone, such as salts, sodium, or sulfur.
Availability of drainage outlets is not considered in the
ratings.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The
design and management of an irrigation system are
affected by depth to the water table, the need for
drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The
construction of a system is affected by large stones and
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan. The
performance of a system is affected by the depth of the
root zone, the amount of salts or sodium, and soil
reaction.
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
combination of channels and ridges constructed across
a slope to control erosion and conserve moisture by
intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the
construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
rooting depth, a severe hazard of soil blowing or water
erosion, an excessively coarse texture, and restricted
permeability adversely affect maintenance.

















Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during
the course of the soil survey. The data and the
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are
explained on the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity,
and compaction characteristics. These results are
reported in table 18.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help to characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 12 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the
upper 5 or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil
series under the heading "Soil Series and Their
Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27


percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the "Glossary."
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
for example, SP-SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20, or higher, for the poorest.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074

















Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during
the course of the soil survey. The data and the
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are
explained on the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity,
and compaction characteristics. These results are
reported in table 18.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help to characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 12 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the
upper 5 or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil
series under the heading "Soil Series and Their
Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27


percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the "Glossary."
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
for example, SP-SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20, or higher, for the poorest.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074







Soil Survey


millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area
or from nearby areas and on field examination.

Physical and Chemical Properties

Table 13 shows estimates of some characteristics
and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey
area. The estimates are based on field observations
and on test data for these and similar soils.
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain
moisture. They influence the shrink-swell potential,
permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, and
other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in a
soil also affect tillage and earthmoving operations.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at
1/3-bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential,
available water capacity, total pore space, and other
soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates
the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk
density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and
root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by
texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil
structure.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of
movement of water through the soil when the soil is
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil
drainage systems and septic tank absorption fields.
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
plants. The capacity for water storage in each major soil


layer is stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The
capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect
the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
The most important properties are the content of
organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
design and management of irrigation systems. Available
water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
water actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
corrosion.
Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
laboratory measurements at representative sites of
nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
construction material, and the potential of the soil to
corrode metal and concrete.
Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
minerals with water and varies with the amount and
type of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on
the soil and the magnitude of the change in soil
moisture content influence the amount of swelling of
soils in place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For
others, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind
and amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
measurements of similar soils.
If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
often needed.
Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
classes are low, a change of less than 3 percent;
moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high, more than 6
percent. Very high, more than 9 percent, is sometimes
used.








Franklin County, Florida


Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil
to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre
per year. These estimates are based primarily on
percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4
percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values
of K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the
more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by
water.
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water
that can occur over a sustained period without affecting
crop productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre
per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to soil
blowing in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the
susceptibility to soil blowing. Soils are grouped
according to the following distinctions:
1. Coarse sands, sands, fine sands, and very fine
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult
to establish.
2. Loamy coarse sands, loamy sands, loamy fine
sands, loamy very fine sands, and sapric soil material.
These soils are very highly erodible. Crops can be
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are
used.
3. Coarse sandy loams, sandy loams, fine sandy
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are
highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive
measures to control soil blowing are used.
4L. Calcareous loams, silt loams, clay loams, and
silty clay loams. These soils are erodible. Crops can be
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are
used.
4. Clays, silty clays, noncalcareous clay loams, and
silty clay loams that are more than 35 percent clay.
These soils are moderately erodible. Crops can be
grown if measures to control soil blowing are used.
5. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are less
than 20 percent clay and sandy clay loams, sandy
clays, and hemic soil material. These soils are slightly
erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to control soil
blowing are used.
6. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are
more than 20 percent clay and noncalcareous clay
loams that are less than 35 percent clay. These soils
are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used.
7. Silts, noncalcareous silty clay loams that are less
than 35 percent clay, and fibric soil material. These


soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used.
8. Soils that are not subject to soil blowing because
of coarse fragments on the surface or because of
surface wetness.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
soil at various stages of decomposition. In table 13, the
estimated content of organic matter is expressed as a
percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less
than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The content of organic matter in a soil can be
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
other nutrients for crops.

Soil and Water Features

Table 14 gives estimates of various soil and water
features. The estimates are used in land use planning
that involves engineering considerations.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
groups. They are grouped according to the infiltration of
water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
precipitation from long-duration storms.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained
sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of
water transmission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate
when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or
well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to
moderately coarse texture. These soils have a
moderate rate of water transmission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate
(high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These
consist chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell
potential, soils that have a permanent high water table,
soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the
surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly
impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate
of water transmission.
If a soil is assigned to two hydrologic groups in table
14, the first letter is for drained areas and the second is
for undrained areas.








Soil Survey


Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface
by flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by
runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high
tides. Shallow water standing or flowing for short
periods after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered
flooding. Standing water in swamps and marshes or in
a closed depression is considered ponding.
Table 14 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
and the time of year when flooding is most likely to
occur.
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of
occurrence are estimated. Frequency generally is
expressed as none, rare, occasional, or frequent. None
means that flooding is not probable. Rare means that
flooding is unlikely but possible under unusual weather
conditions (the chance of flooding is nearly 0 percent to
5 percent in any year). Occasional means that flooding
occurs infrequently under normal weather conditions
(the chance of flooding is 5 to 50 percent in any year).
Frequent means that flooding occurs often under normal
weather conditions (the chance of flooding is more than
50 percent in any year). Common is used when the
occasional and frequent classes are grouped for certain
purposes. Duration is expressed as very brief (less than
2 days), brief (2 to 7 days), long (7 days to 1 month),
and very long (more than 1 month). The time of year
that floods are most likely to occur is expressed in
months. About two-thirds to three-fourths of all flooding
occurs during the stated period.
The information on flooding is based on evidence in
the soil profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or
clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in
organic matter content with increasing depth; and little
or no horizon development.
Also considered is local information about the extent
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific
than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
levels.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The estimates
are based mainly on the evidence of a saturated zone,
namely grayish colors or mottles in the soil. Indicated in
table 14 are the depth to the seasonal high water table;
the kind of water table, that is, perched or apparent; and
the months of the year that the water table commonly is
highest. A water table that is seasonally high for less
than 2 weeks is not indicated in table 14.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A


perched water table is water standing above an
unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water
table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
Two numbers in the column showing depth to the
water table indicate the normal range in depth to a
saturated zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot.
The first numeral in the range indicates the highest
water level. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
indicates that the water table is above the surface of
the soil. "More than 6.0" indicates that the water table
is below a depth of 6 feet or that it is within a depth of 6
feet for less than a month.
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
generally results from either desiccation and shrinkage
or oxidation of organic material, or both, following
drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually
over a period of several years. Table 14 shows the
expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of
drainage, and total subsidence, which results from a
combination of factors.
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion
of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the
soil. Special site examination and design may be
needed if the combination of factors creates a severely
corrosive environment. The steel in installations that
intersect soil boundaries or soil layers is more
susceptible to corrosion than steel in installations that
are entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil
layer.
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed
as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage
class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field
capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation
extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation
extract.

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
Analyses of Selected Soils
Dr. Victor W. Carlisle, professor, University of Florida, Soil
Science Department and Agricultural Experiment Station, prepared
this section.
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical
properties of representative pedons sampled in Franklin








Franklin County, Florida


County are presented in tables 15, 16, and 17. The
analyses were conducted and coordinated by the Soil
Characterization Laboratory at the University of Florida.
Detailed descriptions of the analyzed soils are given in
the section "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Laboratory data and profile information for additional
soils in Franklin County, as well as for other counties in
Florida, are on file at the University of Florida, Soil
Science Department.
Typical pedons were sampled from pits at carefully
selected locations. Samples were air dried, crushed,
and sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most
analytical methods used are outlined in a soil survey
investigations report (11).
Particle-size distribution was determined using a
modified pipette method with sodium
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil
cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at
100-centimeters water (1Vo-bar) and 345-centimeters
water (/3-bar) were calculated from volumetric water
percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were
ovendried and ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and
the 15-bar water retention was determined. Organic
carbon was determined by a modification of the
Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils
with normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0.
Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined
by flame emission. Calcium and magnesium were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Extractable acidity was determined by the barium
chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. Cation-
exchange capacity was calculated by summation of
extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base
saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation-
exchange capacity expressed in percent. The pH
measurements were made with a glass electrode using
a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01 molar calcium chloride
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and normal
potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio.
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were
extracted from probable spodic horizons with 0.1 molar
sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and
iron was by atomic absorption, and determination of
extracted carbon was by the Walkley-Black wet
combustion method.


Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 2 microns
was ascertained by x-ray diffraction. Peak heights at
18-angstrom, 14-angstrom, 7.2-angstrom, and 4.31-
angstrom positions represent montmorillonite,
interstratified expandable vermiculite or 14-angstrom
intergrades, kaolinite, and quartz, respectively. Peaks
were measured, added, and normalized to give the
percentage of soil minerals identified in the x-ray
diffractograms. These percentage values do not indicate
absolute determined quantities of soil minerals but do
imply a relative distribution of minerals in a particular
mineral suite. Absolute percentages would require
additional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, unit
structure substitution, and matrix problems.

Physical Properties
The results of physical analyses are shown in table
15. Soils sampled in Franklin County for laboratory
analyses are inherently very sandy; however, many of
the pedons have an argillic horizon in the lower part of
the solum. Except for Lynchburg loamy fine sand,
Stilson fine sand, and Tooles loamy sand, all of the
soils have three or more horizons in which the total
content of sand is more than 90 percent. Corolla,
Kershaw, Kureb, Leon, Ortega, Resota, and Ridgewood
soils have more than 95 percent sand to a depth of 2
meters or more. Hurricane, Mandarin, and Scranton
soils have more than 90 percent sand to a depth of 2
meters or more.
The content of clay in the soils that were sampled is
rarely more than 2 percent. The content of clay in the
deeper argillic horizons of the Albany, Blanton, Chaires,
Leefield, Lynchburg, Meadowbrook, Pelham, Sapelo,
Stilson, and Tooles soils ranges from 5.9 to 35.8
percent.
The content of silt ranges from nondetectable in
several horizons of Kureb fine sand to 25.5 percent in
one horizon of Lynchburg loamy sand. All horizons
sampled in the Leefield, Lynchburg, Stilson, and Tooles
soils contain more than 5 percent silt.
Fine sand dominates the sand fractions in most of
the soils sampled. Corolla, Leon, and Ridgewood soils,
however, are dominated by medium sand. All horizons
of the Hurricane, Kureb, Mandarin, Ortega, Pelham,
Resota, and Scranton soils contain more than 50
percent fine sand. Albany, Blanton, Chaires, Kershaw,
Leefield, Lynchburg, Meadowbrook, Sapelo, Stilson,
and Tooles soils also are dominated by fine sand but
are less than 50 percent fine sand in some horizons. All
horizons of the Corolla and Ridgewood soils contain
more than 50 percent medium sand. The content of
very fine sand is generally less than 5 percent, but it
ranges from 5.7 to 29.4 percent in the Albany, Leefield,








Soil Survey


Lynchburg, Pelham, Sapelo, Stilson, and Tooles soils
and in one of the Scranton soils. The content of coarse
sand is less than 2 percent in the Lynchburg, Mandarin,
Resota, and Stilson soils. The content of coarse sand is
more than 10 percent in all horizons of the
Meadowbrook soil. Very coarse sand was
nondetectable in the Mandarin, Resota, and Ridgewood
soils and in one of the Scranton soils. The content of
very coarse sand is 0.1 percent or less in the Corolla,
Kershaw, Kureb, Lynchburg, and Stilson soils. It is more
than 4 percent in the Meadowbrook soil. The sandy
soils in Franklin County rapidly become drought during
periods of low precipitation when rainfall is widely
scattered. Conversely, they are rapidly saturated during
periods of heavy rainfall. Soils with inherently poor
drainage, such as Leon, Chaires, and Sapelo soils, can
remain saturated because the ground water is close to
the surface for long periods of time.
Hydraulic conductivity values are more than 40
centimeters per hour throughout the profile in the
Corolla, Kureb, Mandarin, Resota, and Ridgewood soils.
Similarly, values of 40 centimeters per hour or more are
recorded for one or more horizons of the Blanton,
Chaires, Hurricane, Kershaw, Leon, Meadowbrook, and
Ortega soils and of one of the Scranton soils. Hydraulic
conductivity values in the argillic horizon of the Albany,
Blanton, Chaires, Leefield, Lynchburg, Meadowbrook,
Pelham, Sapelo, Stilson, and Tooles soils are rarely
more than 2.0 centimeters per hour. Hydraulic
conductivity values are about 1.0 centimeter per hour or
less in some argillic horizons of the Chaires, Leefield,
Lynchburg, Stilson, and Tooles soils. Low hydraulic
conductivity values at a shallow depth can affect the
design and function of septic tank absorption fields.
Hydraulic conductivity values for the Bh horizon of the
Chaires, Leon, Mandarin, and Sapelo soils range from
14.1 to 48.3 centimeters per hour. These values are
much higher than those generally recorded for spodic
horizons in most soils in Florida. In excessively sandy
soils, such as Corolla, Kershaw, Kureb, Mandarin,
Ortega, Resota, and Ridgewood soils, the amount of
water available to plants is low.

Chemical Properties
The results of chemical analyses are shown in table
16. The soils in Franklin County have a low content of
extractable bases. Except for Tooles loamy sand, all of
the soils that were sampled have one or more horizons
with less than 1 milliequivalent per hundred grams
extractable bases. Only Blanton, Chaires, Lynchburg,
Meadowbrook, Stilson, and Tooles soils have one or
more horizons with more than 1 milliequivalent per
hundred grams extractable bases to a depth of 2


meters or more. Chaires, Meadowbrook, and Tooles
soils have horizons with more than 10 milliequivalents
per hundred grams extractable bases. Blanton and
Stilson soils have horizons with slightly more than 1
milliequivalent per hundred grams extractable bases.
The relatively mild, humid climate of Franklin County
results in a rapid depletion of basic cations (calcium,
magnesium, sodium, and potassium) through leaching.
Calcium is the dominant base in most of the soils
that were sampled; however, levels of magnesium are
higher than those of calcium in one or more horizons of
the Blanton, Leefield, Leon, Lynchburg, Pelham, and
Stilson soils. Albany, Blanton, Corolla, Kureb, Leefield,
Leon, Mandarin, Ortega, Pelham, Resota, Ridgewood,
Sapelo, and Scranton soils contain less than 0.30
milliequivalent per hundred grams extractable calcium
throughout. The content of extractable magnesium is
more than 1 milliequivalent per hundred grams in only
the deeper argillic horizons of Chaires sand and
Lynchburg loamy fine sand. Albany, Corolla, Kershaw,
Kureb, Mandarin, Ortega, Pelham, Ridgewood, Sapelo,
and Scranton soils contain less than 0.10 milliequivalent
per hundred grams extractable magnesium. The
combined levels of extractable calcium and magnesium
are rarely more than 0.50 milliequivalent per hundred
grams in the surface soil. The amount of sodium
generally is less than 0.10 milliequivalent per hundred
grams. The amount of extractable potassium generally
is 0.05 milliequivalent per hundred grams or less.
Except for Lynchburg loamy fine sand, all of the soils
that were sampled have one or more horizons with
nondetectable amounts of extractable potassium.
Values for cation-exchange capacity, an indication of
plant-nutrient capacity, are more than 10
milliequivalents per hundred grams in the surface layer
of Meadowbrook sand and in the lower horizons of the
Chaires, Leon, Lynchburg, Mandarin, Meadowbrook,
and Tooles soils. Enhanced cation-exchange capacities
parallel the higher content of clay in the argillic horizon
of the Albany, Blanton, Chaires, Leefield, Lynchburg,
Meadowbrook, Sapelo, Stilson, and Tooles soils. Soils
that have a low cation-exchange capacity in the surface
layer, such as Corolla sand, require only small amounts
of lime or sulfur to significantly alter the base status and
soil reaction. Generally, soils that are inherently low in
fertility are associated with low values for extractable
bases and a low cation-exchange capacity. Fertile soils
are associated with high extractable base values, high
base saturation values, and high cation-exchange
capacities.
The content of organic carbon is less than 1 percent
in all horizons of the Albany, Blanton, Corolla,
Hurricane, Kershaw, Kureb, Leefield, Ortega, and








Franklin County, Florida


Ridgewood soils. It also is less than 1 percent in all
horizons below the surface soil of the Lynchburg,
Meadowbrook, Resota, Scranton, Stilson, and Tooles
soils. Only Leon, Meadowbrook, and Pelham soils and
one of the Scranton soils have a horizon with more than
2 percent organic carbon. In most of the soils, the
content of organic carbon decreases rapidly with
increasing depth. It increases, however, in the Bh
horizon of the Chaires, Hurricane, Leon, Mandarin, and
Sapelo soils. Since the content of organic carbon in the
surface soil is directly related to the nutrient- and water-
holding capacities of sandy soils, management
practices that conserve organic carbon are highly
desirable.
Electrical conductivity values are low for all of the
soils sampled in Franklin County, generally ranging
from 0.01 to 0.04 millimho per centimeter. Values for
electrical conductivity are less than 0.01 millimho per
centimeter throughout the Corolla and Ridgewood soils.
These data indicate that the content of soluble salts in
the soils sampled in Franklin County, except for soils in
areas adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico, are insufficient to
hinder the growth of salt-sensitive plants.
Soil reaction in water generally ranges from pH 4.0 to
pH 5.5 in the soils that were sampled. One or more
horizons of the Albany, Chaires, Corolla, Mandarin,
Resota, Ridgewood, and Tooles soils have pH values
outside this range. With few exceptions, the reaction is
approximately 0.1 to 1.0 pH unit lower in calcium
chloride and potassium chloride solutions than it is in
water. The maximum availability of plant nutrients is
generally attained when reaction is between pH 6.5 and
7.5. In Florida, however, maintaining reaction above pH
6.0 is not economically feasible for most kinds of
agricultural production.
The ratio of sodium pyrophosphate carbon and
aluminum to clay in the Bh horizon of the Chaires,
Leon, Mandarin, and Sapelo soils is sufficient to meet
the chemical criteria established for spodic horizons.
Field morphology was used to determine the spodic
horizon in Hurricane fine sand. The Bh horizon in this
soil does not meet all the chemical criteria established
for spodic horizons. Ratios of sodium pyrophosphate
extractable iron and aluminum to citrate-dithionite
extractable iron and aluminum are sufficient in all of the
soils to meet the criteria for spodic horizons. Sodium
pyrophosphate extractable iron ranges from 0.01 to
0.18 percent in the Bh horizon, and citrate-dithionite
ranges from 0.04 to 0.24 percent.
The content of citrate-dithionite extractable iron in the
Bt horizon of the Albany, Chaires, Leefield, Lynchburg,
Meadowbrook, Pelham, Sapelo, Stilson, and Tooles
soils ranges from 0.04 to 1.43 percent and is most


frequently less than 0.50 percent. The content is higher
in the Bt horizon than in the Bh horizon. The content of
extractable iron and aluminum in the soils in Franklin
County is not sufficient to restrict the availability of
phosphorus.

Mineralogical Properties
The mineralogy of the sand fractions, which are 0.05
millimeter to 2.0 millimeters in size, is siliceous. Quartz
is overwhelmingly dominant in all of the soils sampled
in Franklin County. Varying amounts of heavy minerals
are in most horizons. The greatest concentration is in
the very fine sand fraction. The soils have no
weatherable minerals. The crystalline mineral
components of the clay fraction, which is less than
0.002 millimeter in size, are reported in table 17 for the
major horizons of the pedons sampled. The clay
mineralogical suite was made up mostly of
montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom intergrade, kaolinite,
and quartz.
Montmorillonite occurs in more than one-half of the
pedons sampled. The 14-angstrom intergrade mineral
occurs in all horizons of all of the soils, except for the
surface layer of Meadowbrook sand and the argillic
horizon of Tooles loamy sand. Kaolinite and quartz
occur in all horizons of all the pedons sampled. The
amounts of calcite, mica, and gibbsite are insufficient
for the assignment of numerical values.
Montmorillonite in the soils in Franklin County
appears to have been inherited from the sediments in
which the soils formed. The stability of montmorillonite
is generally increased by a high pH or by alkaline
conditions. Montmorillonite generally occurs most
abundantly in areas where the alkaline elements have
not been leached by percolating rainwater; however, it
can occur in moderate amounts regardless of drainage
or chemical conditions. Higher amounts of
montmorillonite occur most consistently in areas
adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico.
The 14-angstrom intergrade, a mineral of uncertain
origin, is widespread in the soils in Florida. It tends to
be more prevalent under moderately acidic, relatively
well drained conditions, although it occurs in a wide
variety of soil environments. This mineral is a major
constituent of sand grain coatings in Albany, Blanton,
Hurricane, Kershaw, Ortega, Resota, and Ridgewood
soils. The abundance of coatings in the Kershaw,
Ortega, and Ridgewood soils, however, is not sufficient
to meet taxonomic criteria established for coated Typic
Quartzipsamments.
Kaolinite was most likely inherited from the parent
material, or it could have formed as a weathering
product of other materials. It is relatively stable in the










acidic environment of the soils throughout most of the
survey area. Kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral in a
majority of the pedons sampled. The weathering
environment is less severe with increased soil depth;
therefore, the amount of kaolinite frequently increases
in the lower part of the solum. Clay-sized quartz has
mainly resulted from decrements of the silt fraction.
Clay mineralogy can have a significant impact on soil
properties, particularly in soils that have a higher
content of clay. Soils that are dominated by
montmorillonite have a higher capacity for retention of
plant nutrients than soils dominated by kaolinite, 14-
angstrom intergrade minerals, or quartz. None of the
soils sampled has an excessive amount of
montmorillonitic clay; therefore, the amount of shrinking
and swelling of these soils should not create problems
for most types of construction. The total content of clay
influences the use and management of the soils in
Franklin County more frequently than the clay
mineralogy.


Engineering Index Test Data

Table 18 shows laboratory test data for several
pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey
area. The pedons are typical of the series and are
described in the section "Soil Series and Their
Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the Soil
Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
Bureau of Materials and Research.
The testing methods generally are those of the
American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials (AASHTO) or the American
Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
The tests and methods are: AASHTO classification-
M 145 (AASHTO), D 3282 (ASTM); Unified
classification-D 2487 (ASTM); Mechanical analysis-T
88 (AASHTO), D 422 (ASTM), D 2217 (ASTM); Liquid
limit-T 89 (AASHTO), D 4318 (ASTM); Plasticity
index-T 90 (AASHTO), D 4318 (ASTM); and Moisture
density, Method A-T 99 (AASHTO), D 698 (ASTM).

















Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (10).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or on laboratory measurements. Table 19 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu,
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm,
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
on the basis of physical and chemical properties and


other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is siliceous, thermic Typic
Psammaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
of the surface layer or of the substratum within a series.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (8). Many
of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (10). Unless otherwise
stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
Following the pedon description is the range of
important characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Albany Series
The Albany series consists of somewhat poorly
drained, moderately permeable, nearly level soils that
formed in sandy and loamy marine sediments. These
soils are on low uplands and ridges in the flatwoods. A

















Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (10).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or on laboratory measurements. Table 19 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu,
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm,
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
on the basis of physical and chemical properties and


other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is siliceous, thermic Typic
Psammaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
of the surface layer or of the substratum within a series.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (8). Many
of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (10). Unless otherwise
stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
Following the pedon description is the range of
important characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Albany Series
The Albany series consists of somewhat poorly
drained, moderately permeable, nearly level soils that
formed in sandy and loamy marine sediments. These
soils are on low uplands and ridges in the flatwoods. A

















Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (10).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or on laboratory measurements. Table 19 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu,
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm,
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
on the basis of physical and chemical properties and


other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is siliceous, thermic Typic
Psammaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
of the surface layer or of the substratum within a series.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (8). Many
of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (10). Unless otherwise
stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
Following the pedon description is the range of
important characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Albany Series
The Albany series consists of somewhat poorly
drained, moderately permeable, nearly level soils that
formed in sandy and loamy marine sediments. These
soils are on low uplands and ridges in the flatwoods. A







Soil Survey


seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12 to 30
inches for 2 to 4 months in most years. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. The soils are loamy, siliceous,
thermic Grossarenic Paleudults.
Albany soils are closely associated with Blanton,
Leefield, Meggett, Pelham, Plummer, Ridgewood,
Sapelo, and Stilson soils. The somewhat poorly drained
Leefield and Ridgewood soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Albany soils. Ridgewood soils do
not have an argillic horizon. Leefield soils have an
argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. The
moderately well drained Blanton and Stilson soils are in
the higher landscape positions. Stilson soils contain 5
percent or more plinthite in the argillic horizon. The
poorly drained Meggett, Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo
soils are in the lower landscape positions. Pelham soils
have an argillic horizon within a depth of 40 inches, and
Meggett soils have one within a depth of 20 inches.
Sapelo soils have a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Albany fine sand, in a slash pine
plantation; 0.1 mile west of State Highway 65 on
Sumatra Cemetery Road, 2,400 feet north and 1,650
feet east of the southwest corner of sec. 30, T. 5 S., R.
7 W.
A-0 to 8 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; very strongly
acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
E1-8 to 13 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
E2-13 to 22 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
E3-22 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
few medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) and many
medium prominent yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Btg1-50 to 62 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sandy loam; many coarse prominent brownish
yellow (10YR 6/6) and common fine prominent
strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak medium
subangular blocky structure; very friable; strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg2-62 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
sandy clay loam; many coarse prominent gray
(10YR 6/1) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) and
common medium prominent reddish yellow (5YR
6/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; strongly acid.
The thickness of the solum is 80 inches or more.
Reaction ranges from extremely acid to medium acid in
the Ap or A horizon and from very strongly acid to


medium acid in the E and B horizons.
The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value
of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is fine sand, sand,
loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. It is 6 to 10 inches
thick.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to
8, and chroma of 1 to 6. It is mottled in shades of
brown, yellow, gray, or white. It is fine sand, loamy fine
sand, or loamy sand.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y or is
neutral in hue. It has value of 5 to 7 and chroma of 0 to
6. It is mottled in shades of white, gray, yellow, brown,
or red. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay
loam.

Bayvi Series
The Bayvi series consists of very poorly drained,
rapidly permeable, nearly level soils that formed in
marine and alluvial sediments in gulf coast and
estuarine tidal marshes. These soils are flooded daily
by normal high tides. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. The
soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Cumulic Haplaquolls.
Bayvi soils are closely associated with Bohicket,
Dirego, Rutlege, Scranton, and Tisonia soils. The very
poorly drained Bohicket, Dirego, and Tisonia soils are in
the tidal marshes. Bohicket soils are fine textured.
Tisonia and Dirego soils have an organic surface layer.
Tisonia soils are fine textured in the substratum. Dirego
soils have a sandy substratum. The very poorly drained
Rutlege and poorly drained Scranton soils are in the
higher landscape positions outside the tidal marshes.
They have a base saturation of less than 35 percent.
Also, they have an A horizon that is thinner than that of
the Bayvi soils.
Typical pedon of Bayvi mucky sand, in an area of
Dirego and Bayvi soils, tidal, in a tidal marsh; about 300
feet east of the northwest corner of sec. 14 and about
1,000 feet south of Ochlockonee Bay, in sec. 14, T. 6
S., R. 2 W.

A1-0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky sand;
moderate medium granular structure; very friable;
slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A2-8 to 26 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; neutral;
clear wavy boundary.
Cg-26 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; light gray
(10YR 7/1) patches; single grained; loose; mildly
alkaline.

Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately
alkaline throughout the profile. Some pedons have an
Oa horizon, which is as much as 7 inches thick.
The A horizon is mucky loamy sand, mucky sand,








Franklin County, Florida


sand, or loamy sand. It has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value
of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 24 to 42 inches
thick.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4
to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand or loamy sand.

Blanton Series

The Blanton series consists of moderately well
drained, moderately permeable, nearly level to gently
sloping soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine
sediments. These soils are on ridges, knolls, and side
slopes adjacent to stream channels. A perched water
table is above the subsoil during wet periods and is
below a depth of 72 inches during the rest of the year.
Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils are loamy,
siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleudults.
Blanton soils are closely associated with Albany,
Ridgewood, Ortega, and Stilson soils. Ortega and
Stilson soils are in landscape positions similar to those
of the Blanton soils. Ortega soils do not have an argillic
horizon. Stilson soils have an argillic horizon that
contains plinthite at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. The
somewhat poorly drained Albany and Ridgewood soils
are in the lower landscape positions. Ridgewood soils
do not have an argillic horizon.
Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes (fig. 7), in an area that supports natural
vegetation; about 500 feet west and 500 feet north of
the southeast corner of sec. 1, T. 6 S., R. 3 W.

Ap-0 to 6 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; very strongly acid;
abrupt wavy boundary.
E1-6 to 31 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
E2-31 to 61 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; few fine distinct reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6)
mottles in the lower 8 inches; single grained; loose;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E3-61 to 72 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
many medium and coarse prominent brownish
yellow (10YR 6/6), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), and
yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; single grained;
loose; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Bt-72 to 80 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4)
sandy loam; many coarse prominent light gray
(10YR 7/1), strong brown (7.5YR 7/8), and yellowish
red (5YR 5/6) mottles; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; very strongly
acid.

Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid


throughout the profile. The solum is more than 80
inches thick.
The Ap or A horizon is 6 to 12 inches thick. It has
hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is
fine sand or sand.
The upper part of the E horizon has hue of 10YR,
value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 3 to 6. The lower part
has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 to 3.
It commonly has brownish or yellowish mottles. The E
horizon is typically 40 to 68 inches thick, but it ranges
from 36 to 73 inches in thickness. It is fine sand or
sand.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 6
or 7, and chroma of 3 to 6. It has few to many mottles
in shades of brown, gray, yellow, or red. The Btg
horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,
and chroma of 2 and has yellowish, reddish, or
brownish mottles. The Bt horizon extends to a depth of
more than 80 inches. It is sandy clay loam, sandy loam,
or fine sandy loam.

Bohicket Series

The Bohicket series consists of very poorly drained,
very slowly permeable, nearly level soils that formed in
clayey marine sediments. These soils are in estuarine
and gulf coast tidal marshes. They are flooded daily by
normal high tides. Slopes are less than 1 percent. The
soils are fine, mixed, nonacid, thermic Typic
Sulfaquents.
Bohicket soils are closely associated with Bayvi,
Brickyard, Chowan, Dirego, Kenner, Maurepas, Rutlege,
Scranton, and Tisonia soils. The very poorly drained
Bayvi, Dirego, and Tisonia soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Bohicket soils. Bayvi
soils are sandy. Tisonia and Dirego soils are organic to
a depth of 16 to 50 inches. Tisonia soils have a clayey
substratum, and Dirego soils have a sandy substratum.
The very poorly drained Maurepas soils are in brackish
and freshwater marshes. They do not have a high
content of sulfur, and they have organic soil material
that is more than 51 inches thick. The very poorly
drained Brickyard, Chowan, and Kenner soils are on the
forested flood plain along the Apalachicola River. They
are not flooded daily by normal high tides. Brickyard
soils are clayey and silty throughout. Chowan and
Kenner soils are stratified with organic and mineral soil
material. Rutlege and Scranton soils are sandy
throughout. The very poorly drained Rutlege soils are in
upland swamps and are not affected by normal high
tides. The poorly drained Scranton soils are in the
flatwoods.
Typical pedon of Bohicket silty clay, in an area of
Bohicket and Tisonia soils, tidal; about 100 feet west of








Franklin County, Florida


sand, or loamy sand. It has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value
of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 24 to 42 inches
thick.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4
to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand or loamy sand.

Blanton Series

The Blanton series consists of moderately well
drained, moderately permeable, nearly level to gently
sloping soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine
sediments. These soils are on ridges, knolls, and side
slopes adjacent to stream channels. A perched water
table is above the subsoil during wet periods and is
below a depth of 72 inches during the rest of the year.
Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils are loamy,
siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleudults.
Blanton soils are closely associated with Albany,
Ridgewood, Ortega, and Stilson soils. Ortega and
Stilson soils are in landscape positions similar to those
of the Blanton soils. Ortega soils do not have an argillic
horizon. Stilson soils have an argillic horizon that
contains plinthite at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. The
somewhat poorly drained Albany and Ridgewood soils
are in the lower landscape positions. Ridgewood soils
do not have an argillic horizon.
Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes (fig. 7), in an area that supports natural
vegetation; about 500 feet west and 500 feet north of
the southeast corner of sec. 1, T. 6 S., R. 3 W.

Ap-0 to 6 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; very strongly acid;
abrupt wavy boundary.
E1-6 to 31 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
E2-31 to 61 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; few fine distinct reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6)
mottles in the lower 8 inches; single grained; loose;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E3-61 to 72 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
many medium and coarse prominent brownish
yellow (10YR 6/6), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), and
yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; single grained;
loose; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Bt-72 to 80 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4)
sandy loam; many coarse prominent light gray
(10YR 7/1), strong brown (7.5YR 7/8), and yellowish
red (5YR 5/6) mottles; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; very strongly
acid.

Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid


throughout the profile. The solum is more than 80
inches thick.
The Ap or A horizon is 6 to 12 inches thick. It has
hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is
fine sand or sand.
The upper part of the E horizon has hue of 10YR,
value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 3 to 6. The lower part
has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 to 3.
It commonly has brownish or yellowish mottles. The E
horizon is typically 40 to 68 inches thick, but it ranges
from 36 to 73 inches in thickness. It is fine sand or
sand.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 6
or 7, and chroma of 3 to 6. It has few to many mottles
in shades of brown, gray, yellow, or red. The Btg
horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,
and chroma of 2 and has yellowish, reddish, or
brownish mottles. The Bt horizon extends to a depth of
more than 80 inches. It is sandy clay loam, sandy loam,
or fine sandy loam.

Bohicket Series

The Bohicket series consists of very poorly drained,
very slowly permeable, nearly level soils that formed in
clayey marine sediments. These soils are in estuarine
and gulf coast tidal marshes. They are flooded daily by
normal high tides. Slopes are less than 1 percent. The
soils are fine, mixed, nonacid, thermic Typic
Sulfaquents.
Bohicket soils are closely associated with Bayvi,
Brickyard, Chowan, Dirego, Kenner, Maurepas, Rutlege,
Scranton, and Tisonia soils. The very poorly drained
Bayvi, Dirego, and Tisonia soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Bohicket soils. Bayvi
soils are sandy. Tisonia and Dirego soils are organic to
a depth of 16 to 50 inches. Tisonia soils have a clayey
substratum, and Dirego soils have a sandy substratum.
The very poorly drained Maurepas soils are in brackish
and freshwater marshes. They do not have a high
content of sulfur, and they have organic soil material
that is more than 51 inches thick. The very poorly
drained Brickyard, Chowan, and Kenner soils are on the
forested flood plain along the Apalachicola River. They
are not flooded daily by normal high tides. Brickyard
soils are clayey and silty throughout. Chowan and
Kenner soils are stratified with organic and mineral soil
material. Rutlege and Scranton soils are sandy
throughout. The very poorly drained Rutlege soils are in
upland swamps and are not affected by normal high
tides. The poorly drained Scranton soils are in the
flatwoods.
Typical pedon of Bohicket silty clay, in an area of
Bohicket and Tisonia soils, tidal; about 100 feet west of







Soil Survey


the Apalachicola River, 2,200 feet east and 1,200 feet
south of the northwest corner of sec. 21, T. 5 E., R. 8
W.

A-0 to 23 inches; very dark gray (5Y 3/1) silty clay;
massive; sticky; flows easily between fingers when
squeezed; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg1-23 to 50 inches; black (5Y 2.5/1) silty clay;
massive; sticky; flows easily between fingers when
squeezed; mildly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
Cg2-50 to 80 inches; black (N 2/0) silty clay; massive;
sticky; mildly alkaline.

Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately
alkaline throughout the profile. Some pedons have an
Oa horizon, which is as much as 7 inches thick.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y or is neutral in
hue. It has value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 0 to 2. It is
silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y or is neutral
in hue. It has value of 2 to 6 and chroma of 0 to 2. It is
clay, silty clay, clay loam, or the mucky analogs of
these textures to a depth of 40 inches.

Bonsai Series

The Bonsai series consists of very poorly drained,
moderately rapidly permeable, nearly level soils that
formed in recent sandy and loamy alluvium. These soils
are frequently flooded. A seasonal high water table is at
or slightly above the surface for 2 to 4 months each
year and is within a depth of 20 inches during the rest
of the year. Slopes are generally less than 1 percent.
The soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Aeric
Fluvaquents.
Bonsai soils are closely associated with Harbeson,
Meadowbrook, and Scranton soils. Harbeson soils are
in the lower depressions. They have a thick, dark A
horizon and a loamy argillic horizon. Scranton and
Meadowbrook soils are in landscape positions similar to
or higher than those of the Bonsai soils. Scranton soils
are sandy throughout. Meadowbrook soils have a loamy
argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Bonsai mucky fine sand, frequently
flooded, in a dwarf cypress swamp in Tates Hell
Swamp; about 1,800 feet north and 1,900 feet west of
the southeast corner of sec. 25, T. 7 S., R. 6 W.

A-0 to 3 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
mucky fine sand; moderate medium granular
structure; very friable; strongly acid; abrupt smooth
boundary.
C1-3 to 11 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; few
fine distinct olive yellow (2.5Y 6/6) mottles; single


grained; loose; strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary.
C2-11 to 36 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; few
fine distinct olive yellow (2.5Y 6/6) mottles; single
grained; loose; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Cgl-36 to 46 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
loamy fine sand; thin strata of grayish brown (10YR
5/2) sandy loam and light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; massive; friable; mildly alkaline; clear
smooth boundary.
Cg2-46 to 65 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; thin strata of moderately
decomposed organic material, including leaves and
woody debris; clasts and strata of greenish gray
(5GY 5/1) sandy loam; moderately alkaline; gradual
wavy boundary.
2Cg3-65 to 80 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) sandy loam;
massive; friable; thin strata of moderately
decomposed organic material; strata of light
brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; few very soft
white (10YR 8/1) fragments of mollusk shells;
moderately alkaline.

Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to neutral in
the A and C horizons and from medium acid to
moderately alkaline in the Cg horizon. In most pedons a
thick mat of coarse and medium cypress roots is in the
C2 horizon and ends abruptly in or above the Cgl
horizon. Thin strata of sandy loam or finer textured soil,
typically less than 0.5 inch thick, are within a depth of
40 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR. It has value of 3
and chroma of 1 to 4, value of 4 or 5 and chroma of 2
or 3, or value of 6 and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand, fine
sand, loamy sand, loamy fine sand, or the mucky
analogs of these textures.
Some pedons have an AC horizon. This horizon has
textures similar to those of the A horizon and colors
intermediate between those of the A horizon and the C1
horizon.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR. It has value of 4 or
5 and chroma of 2 or 3 or has value of 6 and chroma of
3. It has distinct or prominent mottles in shades of
yellow, brown, or gray. It is sand, fine sand, loamy
sand, or loamy fine sand.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6,
and chroma of 1 or 2 or has hue of 2.5Y to 5GY, value
of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1. It is sand, fine sand, loamy
sand, loamy fine sand, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam.
It has strata of alternating mineral or organic material,
including leaves and woody debris. The strata are
commonly 0.5 inch to 3.0 inches thick.
The 2Cg horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 2.5Y to
5GY, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1. It is sandy loam,








Franklin County, Florida


fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. In some pedons it
has no fragments of mollusk shells.

Brickyard Series
The Brickyard series consists of very poorly drained,
slowly permeable, nearly level soils that formed in
loamy alluvial sediments. These soils are on the flood
plains along the Apalachicola River and its
distributaries. They are frequently flooded. A seasonal
high water table is at or near the surface for 6 months
in most years. Slopes are generally less than 1 percent.
The soils are fine, montmorillonitic, nonacid, thermic
Aeric Fluvaquents.
Brickyard soils are closely associated with Bohicket,
Chowan, Kenner, Maurepas, Meggett, Plummer,
Rutlege, Scranton, Tisonia, and Wehadkee soils. The
very poorly drained Chowan, Kenner, and Maurepas
soils are in landscape positions similar to those of the
Brickyard soils. Kenner and Maurepas soils are
composed of organic material. Kenner soils have strata
of silty clay. The very poorly drained Bohicket and
Tisonia soils are in the slightly lower landscape
positions in tidal marshes. They have a high content of
sulfur. Bohicket soils are fine textured. Tisonia soils
have an organic surface layer and a fine textured
substratum. The poorly drained Meggett and Wehadkee
soils are in the higher landscape positions along the
river banks and natural river bars. The very poorly
drained Rutlege and poorly drained Plummer and
Scranton soils are on terraces above the flood plains.
Rutlege and Scranton soils are sandy throughout.
Plummer soils have an argillic horizon below a depth of
40 inches.
Typical pedon of Brickyard silty clay, in an area of
Chowan, Brickyard, and Kenner soils, frequently
flooded, on the flood plain along the Apalachicola River;
20 feet west of Little Brothers Slough near its upper end
on Forbes Island, 200 feet west and 1,800 feet north of
the southeast corner of sec. 15, T. 7 S., R. 8 W.
A-0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) silty
clay; common medium prominent strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6 and 4/6) mottles; moderate fine granular
structure; very friable; sticky, plastic; common mica
flakes; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bg-4 to 28 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty clay;
common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR
5/6) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
very friable; sticky, plastic; common mica flakes;
slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Cg1-28 to 45 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty
clay loam; massive; sticky, plastic; common mica
flakes; neutral; gradual smooth boundary.
Cg2-45 to 80 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) silty clay;


massive; sticky, plastic; 5 to 15 percent partially
decomposed woody and fibrous debris and few
mica flakes; mildly alkaline.

The thickness of the solum ranges from 8 to 48
inches. The 10- to 40-inch control section contains 35
to 60 percent clay. The A and B horizons range from
medium acid to neutral, and the C horizon ranges from
slightly acid to moderately alkaline. The soils commonly
have few to many mica flakes.
The A horizon has hue of 2.5Y to 7.5YR, value of 3
to 5, and chroma of 2 or 3. It is silty clay loam, clay
loam, silty clay, clay, or the mucky analogs of these
textures. In most pedons it is mottled in shades of
brown. The thickness of this horizon varies from 2 to 18
inches, but it is less than 6 inches where value is 3.
The B horizon has hue of 2.5Y to 7.5YR, value of 4
to 6, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is silty clay, silty clay
loam, clay loam, or clay. It is mottled in shades of
brown. Where this horizon has colors with chroma
higher than 2, it extends to a depth of less than 20
inches. Some pedons do not have a B horizon.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY or is neutral
in hue. It has value of 3 to 7 and chroma of 0 to 2. It is
silty clay, silty clay loam, clay, clay loam, or the mucky
analogs of these textures. In some pedons it has thin
strata of organic material below a depth of 40 inches
and strata of sand and clay below a depth of 60 inches.

Chaires Series
The Chaires series consists of poorly drained,
moderately slowly permeable, nearly level soils that
formed in sandy and loamy marine sediments. These
soils are in nearly level flatwoods and on breaks along
drainageways. A seasonal high water table is within a
depth of 6 to 12 inches for 1 to 3 months and is within a
depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6 months in
most years. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The soils
are sandy, siliceous, thermic Alfic Haplaquods.
Chaires soils are closely associated with Leon,
Meadowbrook, Ridgewood, Scranton, and Tooles soils.
The poorly drained Leon and Scranton soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Chaires
soils. Leon soils do not have an argillic horizon.
Scranton soils do not have a spodic or an argillic
horizon. The poorly drained and very poorly drained
Meadowbrook and Tooles soils are in the slightly lower
landscape positions. They do not have a spodic
horizon. Tooles soils have soft limestone bedrock at a
depth of 40 to 60 inches. The somewhat poorly drained
Ridgewood soils are in the higher landscape positions.
They do not have an argillic or a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Chaires sand, in a slash pine








Franklin County, Florida


fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. In some pedons it
has no fragments of mollusk shells.

Brickyard Series
The Brickyard series consists of very poorly drained,
slowly permeable, nearly level soils that formed in
loamy alluvial sediments. These soils are on the flood
plains along the Apalachicola River and its
distributaries. They are frequently flooded. A seasonal
high water table is at or near the surface for 6 months
in most years. Slopes are generally less than 1 percent.
The soils are fine, montmorillonitic, nonacid, thermic
Aeric Fluvaquents.
Brickyard soils are closely associated with Bohicket,
Chowan, Kenner, Maurepas, Meggett, Plummer,
Rutlege, Scranton, Tisonia, and Wehadkee soils. The
very poorly drained Chowan, Kenner, and Maurepas
soils are in landscape positions similar to those of the
Brickyard soils. Kenner and Maurepas soils are
composed of organic material. Kenner soils have strata
of silty clay. The very poorly drained Bohicket and
Tisonia soils are in the slightly lower landscape
positions in tidal marshes. They have a high content of
sulfur. Bohicket soils are fine textured. Tisonia soils
have an organic surface layer and a fine textured
substratum. The poorly drained Meggett and Wehadkee
soils are in the higher landscape positions along the
river banks and natural river bars. The very poorly
drained Rutlege and poorly drained Plummer and
Scranton soils are on terraces above the flood plains.
Rutlege and Scranton soils are sandy throughout.
Plummer soils have an argillic horizon below a depth of
40 inches.
Typical pedon of Brickyard silty clay, in an area of
Chowan, Brickyard, and Kenner soils, frequently
flooded, on the flood plain along the Apalachicola River;
20 feet west of Little Brothers Slough near its upper end
on Forbes Island, 200 feet west and 1,800 feet north of
the southeast corner of sec. 15, T. 7 S., R. 8 W.
A-0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) silty
clay; common medium prominent strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6 and 4/6) mottles; moderate fine granular
structure; very friable; sticky, plastic; common mica
flakes; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bg-4 to 28 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty clay;
common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR
5/6) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
very friable; sticky, plastic; common mica flakes;
slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Cg1-28 to 45 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty
clay loam; massive; sticky, plastic; common mica
flakes; neutral; gradual smooth boundary.
Cg2-45 to 80 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) silty clay;


massive; sticky, plastic; 5 to 15 percent partially
decomposed woody and fibrous debris and few
mica flakes; mildly alkaline.

The thickness of the solum ranges from 8 to 48
inches. The 10- to 40-inch control section contains 35
to 60 percent clay. The A and B horizons range from
medium acid to neutral, and the C horizon ranges from
slightly acid to moderately alkaline. The soils commonly
have few to many mica flakes.
The A horizon has hue of 2.5Y to 7.5YR, value of 3
to 5, and chroma of 2 or 3. It is silty clay loam, clay
loam, silty clay, clay, or the mucky analogs of these
textures. In most pedons it is mottled in shades of
brown. The thickness of this horizon varies from 2 to 18
inches, but it is less than 6 inches where value is 3.
The B horizon has hue of 2.5Y to 7.5YR, value of 4
to 6, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is silty clay, silty clay
loam, clay loam, or clay. It is mottled in shades of
brown. Where this horizon has colors with chroma
higher than 2, it extends to a depth of less than 20
inches. Some pedons do not have a B horizon.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY or is neutral
in hue. It has value of 3 to 7 and chroma of 0 to 2. It is
silty clay, silty clay loam, clay, clay loam, or the mucky
analogs of these textures. In some pedons it has thin
strata of organic material below a depth of 40 inches
and strata of sand and clay below a depth of 60 inches.

Chaires Series
The Chaires series consists of poorly drained,
moderately slowly permeable, nearly level soils that
formed in sandy and loamy marine sediments. These
soils are in nearly level flatwoods and on breaks along
drainageways. A seasonal high water table is within a
depth of 6 to 12 inches for 1 to 3 months and is within a
depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6 months in
most years. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The soils
are sandy, siliceous, thermic Alfic Haplaquods.
Chaires soils are closely associated with Leon,
Meadowbrook, Ridgewood, Scranton, and Tooles soils.
The poorly drained Leon and Scranton soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Chaires
soils. Leon soils do not have an argillic horizon.
Scranton soils do not have a spodic or an argillic
horizon. The poorly drained and very poorly drained
Meadowbrook and Tooles soils are in the slightly lower
landscape positions. They do not have a spodic
horizon. Tooles soils have soft limestone bedrock at a
depth of 40 to 60 inches. The somewhat poorly drained
Ridgewood soils are in the higher landscape positions.
They do not have an argillic or a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Chaires sand, in a slash pine




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