• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 General soil map
 Use and management of soils
 Soils of Gadsden County
 Formation and classification of...
 General nature of the area
 Glossary
 Guide to mapping units, capability...
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey, Gadsden County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026079/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey, Gadsden County, Florida
Physical Description: 123 p., 21 fold. leaves of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thomas, Buster P., 1923-
Weeks, Herbert H., 1929-
Hazen, M. W ( Marian William ), 1900-
Publisher: G.P.O.
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1961
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Florida -- Gadsden County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Buster P. Thomas, H.H. Weeks, and M.W. Hazen, Jr.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Issued by U. S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida Agricultrual Experiment Stations.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026079
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002584474
notis - AMV0922
oclc - 07969871
lccn - agr62000141

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    General soil map
        Page 1
        Well to excessively drained, deep, undulating loamy sands to coarse sands on uplands: Lakeland-Eustis
            Page 1
        Well-drained, undulating, upland soils with loamy fine sand surface soils and sandy clay loam subsoils: Norfolk-Ruston-Orangeburg
            Page 2
        Well-drained undulating, upland soils with loamy sand surface soils and fine sandy clay loam to fine sandy clay subsoils: Magnolia-Faceville-Carnegie
            Page 2
        Well and moderately well drained, moderately steep, upland soils with loamy sand to sandy surface soils and sandy clay or clay subsoils: Susquehanna-Cuthbert-Shubuta
            Page 2
        Moderately well and poorly drained, nearly level, upland sands: Blanto-Klej-Plummer
            Page 3
        Moderately well and somewhat poorly drained, nearly level or gently sloping, upland soils with loamy sand surface soils and sandy loam subsoils: Golsboro-Lynchburg
            Page 3
        Moderately well to poorly drained soils on nearly level stream terraces: Leaf-Izagora
            Page 3
        Undeveloped and moderately wet land and land subject to flooding: Swamp
            Page 4
        Miscellaneous land areas: Mines, pits, and dumps
            Page 4
    Use and management of soils
        Page 4
        General practices of soil management
            Page 4
            Cultivated crops
                Page 4
                Page 5
            Pasture
                Page 6
        Capability groups of soils
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
        Estimated yields
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
        Woodland use of the soils
            Page 24
            Yields of unmanaged, natural stands
                Page 24
            Woodland suitability groups of soils
                Page 25
                Page 26
                Page 27
                Page 28
                Page 29
        Engineering interpretations
            Page 30
            Soil science terminology
                Page 31
            Soil test data
                Page 31
            Engineering classification systems
                Page 31
                Page 32
                Page 33
                Page 34
                Page 35
            Soil properties significant to engineering
                Page 36
            Suitability of soils for engineering uses
                Page 37
                Page 38
                Page 39
                Page 40
                Page 41
                Page 42
                Page 43
                Page 44
                Page 45
                Page 46
                Page 47
                Page 48
                Page 49
                Page 50
                Page 51
                Page 52
                Page 53
                Page 54
                Page 55
                Page 56
                Page 57
    Soils of Gadsden County
        Page 58
        Soil survey methods and definitions
            Page 58
        Descriptions of soils
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Alluvial land
                Page 61
            Arredondo series
                Page 61
            Binnsville series
                Page 62
            Blanton series
                Page 63
            Carnegie series
                Page 64
                Page 65
            Congaree series
                Page 66
            Cuthbert series
                Page 66
                Page 67
            Eustis series
                Page 68
                Page 69
            Faceville series
                Page 70
                Page 71
            Goldsboro series
                Page 72
                Page 73
            Grady series
                Page 74
            Gullied land
                Page 74
            Hannahatchee series
                Page 74
            Huckabee series
                Page 75
            Izagora series
                Page 76
            Kalmia series
                Page 77
            Klej series
                Page 77
                Page 78
            Lakeland series
                Page 79
                Page 80
                Page 81
            Leaf series
                Page 82
            Leon series
                Page 83
            Lynchburg series
                Page 84
            Made land
                Page 85
            Magnolia series
                Page 85
                Page 86
            Mines, pits, and dumps
                Page 87
            Myatt series
                Page 87
            Norfolk series
                Page 88
                Page 89
                Page 90
            Orangeburg series
                Page 91
                Page 92
            Plummer series
                Page 93
            Portsmouth series
                Page 94
            Rains series
                Page 95
            Red Bay series
                Page 95
                Page 96
            Ruston series
                Page 97
                Page 98
                Page 99
            Rutlege series
                Page 100
            Sawyer series
                Page 101
            Shubuta series
                Page 102
            Susquehanna series
                Page 103
            Swamp
                Page 104
            Tifton series
                Page 104
                Page 105
            Zuber series
                Page 106
    Formation and classification of soils
        Page 107
        Factors of soils formation
            Page 107
            Climate
                Page 107
            Parent material
                Page 107
            Relief
                Page 107
            Living organisms
                Page 108
            Time
                Page 108
        Classification of soils
            Page 108
            Red-yellow podzolic soils
                Page 109
                Page 110
                Page 111
            Reddish-brown lateritic soils
                Page 112
            Low-humic gley soils
                Page 112
            Ground-water podxols
                Page 112
            Humic gley soils
                Page 112
            Rendzina soils
                Page 113
            Planosols
                Page 113
            Regosols
                Page 113
            Alluvial soils
                Page 113
    General nature of the area
        Page 113
        Climate
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
        Geology
            Page 117
        Settlement and population
            Page 118
        Agriculture
            Page 119
        Industries
            Page 120
        Transportation and markets
            Page 120
        Farm, home, and community facilities
            Page 120
        Recreational facilities
            Page 120
        Schools
            Page 120
    Glossary
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Guide to mapping units, capability units, and woodland suitability groups
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    General soil map
        Page 125
    Index to map sheets
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
Full Text

Series 1959, No. 5 Issued January 1961

SOIL SURVEY




Gadsden County

Florida





SOUR SOIL OUR STRENGTH




SGrowt oh Through Agkictl Progress


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS









HOW TO USE THE SOIL SURVEY REPORT

THIS SOIL SURVEY of Gadsden County, Farmers and those who work with farmers
.Fla., is designed to serve several groups of will be interested in the sections "Soils of Gads-
readers. It will help farmers in planning the den County" and "Use and Management of
kind of management that will protect their Soils." Study of these sections will aid them
soils and provide good yields; assist engineers in identifying soils on a farm, in learning ways
in selecting sites for roads, buildings, ponds, the soils can e managed, and in judging what
and other structures; aid foresters in manag- yields can be expected. The"Guide to Mapping
ing woodlands; and add to soil scientists' fund Units, Capability Units, and Woodland Suita-
Sof knowledge. ability Groups" at the back of the report will
In making this survey, soil scientists walked guide you to practically everything in this re-
overthefields and woodlands.- Theydug holes port that is written about. each soil. In this
and examined surface soils and subsoils; meas- guide the map symbols for the soils of the
;-' ured slopes with a hand level; noticed differ- county are in alphabetic order. Listed for each
: ences in growth of crops, weeds, and brush; soil are the page numbers of its description and
- and, in fact' recorded all things about the soils of the discussion of- its capability unit and
that. they believed might affect their suitability woodland suitability group.
.for farming,- engineering, and related uses. Foresters and other.f inhre'fted, n woodlands
S They plotted the boundaries of the soils on can refer to the subsection "W:odlland Use of
aerial photographs. Then, cartographers pre- Soils." In that subsection the soils of the
pared the detailed soil map in the back of this county are placed in woodland suitability
: report. groups and the managenmeit of these groups is
discussed.
6i -': Enaineerq will want to refer to the section
S, Locating soils E. : .' '- ngieerit g tInterlpretations." A tablein that
Use the index to rnap sheets to oIbcte. areas section gives chlarateristics of the soils that
Son thj large map.:: The iridex i; a S-Iatll inmap affect engineering.
:of the county. on which numubered rectangles Soil scienti.tI and orher, ,' oncermed with the
Shav-e beert drawn to sholw where eua -t lieet of scientific aspects o-f so;il will find information
.the large map is 1kwated. Whien tle correct about how the soils were formed and how they
S heet. of ilie large map has been loLzated, it will were classified in tlhe se-tion "Formation and
be *een that boundaries of the soils are outlined Classification of Soils."
S and that there is a snnlbol for each kind of soil. Students, teachers and other users will find
-All areas inarked with the same svnmbol are the information al.bout soils aud their management
-same kiin of soil, wherever they appear o:i the-. in various parts of the report, delpenidii on
map: Tie symbol. will be inside the area if-. their particular interest.
there is enough room: otherwisee, it will be out- *
: side the area and a pointer will show wher To provide information for good land use,
: / :' the symbol belongs. '. .... this survey was made cooperatively by the
Si o -;, United States Department of Agriculture and
SFinding information the Florida Agricultural Experiment. Stations.
:-- Few' readers will be interested in all of the The survey is a part of tlhe technical assistance
/ : soil report, for it has special sections for dif- furnished by the Soil Coiuervation Service to
Sferent groups, as well us some sections of value the Gadsden Soil Conservation District. Field-
:-;to alL The-section "General Nature of the work was completed in 1959. Except where
Area" will be of interest mainly to those not. otherwise stated, this report refers to conditions
familiar with the county.' in the county at the time the survey was made.










U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1961

For sale by the Su;-C-rttenJ'orJ of DvoeiiniX l, r7 S. Ou rrnMermt-L Prritti' OCile
Washington 25, D.C.
^ '-
















Contents
Page Page
General soil map_ _--------- ---------- ---------- 1 Soils of Gadsden County-Continued
Well to excessively drained, deep, undulating loamy sands Izagora series --------------------- --------- 76
to coarse sands on uplands: Lakeland-Eustis ---------_- 1 Kalmia series ------------------------------------ 77
Well-drained, undulating, upland soils with loamy fine Klej series --------- -------------------- 77
sand surface soils and sandy clay loam subsoils: Nor- Lakeland series ------- ----------------------- 79
folk-Ruston-Orangeburg -_-.-------------- 2 Leaf series ------------- --------------------- 82
Well-drained, undulating, upland soils with loamy sand Leon series ------------------------------------ 83
surface soils and fine sandy clay loam to fine sandy clay Lynchburg series--- ----- --------------------- 84
subsoils: Magnolia-Faceville-Carnegie--------------- 2 Made land---------------------------------------- 85
Well and moderately well drained, moderately steep, Magnolia series------ ------------------------- 85
upland soils with loamy sand to sandy loam surface soils Mines, pits, and dumps ------------------------------ 87
and sandy clay or clay subsoils: Susquehanna-Cuth- Myatt series ----------------------------------- 87
bert-Shubuta --------------- ---------------- -- 2 Norfolk series------------------------------------- 88
Moderately well and poorly drained, nearly level, upland Orangeburg series--..---- --------------------- 91
sands: Blanton-Klej-Plummer ---------------------- 3 Plummer series----------------------------------. 93
Moderately well and somewhat poorly drained, nearly Portsmouth series---------------------------------- 94
level or gently sloping, upland soils with loamy sand Rains series--------------------------------------- 95
surface soils and sandy loam or sandy clay loam sub- Red Bay series -------- -------------------- 95
soils: Goldsboro-Lynchburg -------------------- 3 Ruston series------------------------- 97
Moderately well to poorly drained soils on nearly level Rutlege series----------------------------- 100
stream terraces: Leaf-Izagora ----------------- 3 Sawyer series------------------------------------ 101
Undeveloped and moderately wet land and land subject to Shubuta series----------------------------------- 102
flooding: Swamp---__--------------------_--------- 4 Susquehanna series-------- ------------- ------- 103
Miscellaneous land areas: Mines, pits, and dumps--- .-.. 4 Swamp --_----------------------------- ------ 104
Use and management of soils------------------------- 4 Tifton series ..._------------------------ ------- 104
General practices of soil management ------------------ 4 Zuber series------------------------------------ 106
Cultivated crops----------------------------- --4 Formation and classification of soils---------------------- 107
Pasture----- --------------------- ----- ----- 6 Factors of soil formation------------------------------ 107
Capability groups of soils ---------------------------- 7 Climate------------------------------------------ 107
Estimated yields------------------------------------- 20 Parent material----------------------------------- 107
Woodland use of soils-------------------- ---- 24 Relief----------------------------------------- 107
Yields of unmanaged, natural stands----------------- 24 Living organisms------------------- ------ 108
Woodland suitability groups of soils----------------- 25 Time--------------------------------------------- 108
Engineering interpretations-------------------------- 30 Classification of soils--------------------------------- 108
Soil science terminology---------------------------- 31 Red-Yellow Podzolic soils--------------------------- 109
Soil test data___----------------------------------- 31 Reddish-Brown Lateritic soils--__----------_-------- 112
Engineering classification systems----- ------------ 31 Low-Humic Gley soils ----------------- ------- 112
Soil properties significant to engineering--- ----------- 36 Ground-Water Podzols---------------------------- 112
Suitability of soils for engineering uses ------- ----- 37 Humic Gley soils --------------------------------- 112
Soils of Gadsden County----------------------------- 58 Rendzina soils.----------------------------------- 113
Soil survey methods and definitions ------------------ 58 Planosols---------------------------------------- 113
Descriptions of soils--...---------------..-----------.. 58 Regosols ----------------------- ----------- 113
Alluvial land-------------------------------------- 61 Alluvial soils-------------------------------------- 113
Arredondo series---------------------------------- 61 General nature of the area --------------------------- 113
Binnsville series----------------------------------- 62 Climate----- ------ ------------------------------ ..113
Blanton series------------------------------------ 63 Geology-----------. -------- ---------------------- 117
Carnegie series------------------------------------ 64 Settlement and population----------.---------------- 118
Congaree series------------------------------------ 66 Agriculture----------------------------------------- 119
Cuthbert series----------------------------------- 66 Industries --------- -------------------------------. 120
Eustis series-------------------------------------- 68 Transportation and markets _------------------_---- 120
Faceville series------------------------------------ 70 Farm, home, and community facilities ------. ---------- 120
Goldsboro series----------------------------------- 72 Recreational facilities------------------ --------- 120
Grady series .----------------------------------- 74 Schools ..._------------------------------ --- 120
Gullied land ._---------------------- -----------. 74 Glossary ----------------------------------- ---- 120
Hannahatchee series---..---------.----------- ----74 Guide to mapping units, capability units, and woodland
Huckabee series---------------------------------- 75 suitability groups---------------------------------- 122












Series 1959, No. 5 Issued January 1961















SOIL SURVEY OF GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA

By B. P. THOMAS, in charge, H. H. WEEKS, and M. W. HAZEN, JR., Soil Conservation Service 1
United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations



GADSDEN COUNTY is in the northwestern part of farming area and one of the foremost agricultural counties
Florida. Quincy, the county seat, is on U.S. High- in northwestern Florida. The principal crops are corn,
way No. 90, about midway between Pensacola and tobacco, small grains, cabbage, pole beans, sweetpotatoes,
Jacksonville. Distances by air from Quincy to the sugarcane, and peanuts. Shade tobacco is the main cash
principal cities in the State are shown in figure 1. The crop.
Ochlockonee River runs along the eastern boundary and
the Apalachicola River along the western boundary.
General Soil Map2
In mapping a county or other large tract, it is fairly
easy to see many differences as one travels from place to
I. place. Some of the differences are in shape, steepness,
and length of slopes; in the course, depth, and speed of
ALLAHAEEILLE streams; in the width of the bordering valleys; in the kinds
of wild plants; and in the kinds of agriculture. With these
0 SIvH 'more obvious differences there are other less easily noticed
differences in the patterns of soils. The soils differ along
with the other parts of the environment.
SBy drawing lines around the different patterns of soils
on a small map, one may obtain a map of the general soil
areas, or, as they are sometimes called, soil associations.
TAMPA Such a map is useful to those who want to compare
different parts of the county, or who want to locate large
areas suitable for some particular kind of agriculture or
other broad land use.
The general soil map at the back of this report shows in
\ _color the nine general soil areas in Gadsden County.
SOn this map there is a descriptive legend, titled "Soil
Associations", that tells the kinds of soils in each general
MIMI soil area. These areas are described in the following
pages.
Well to excessively drained, deep, undulating loamy
sands to coarse sands on uplands: Lakeland-
.0." 'Eustis
S eis A cricullural Expriment Stflion ______________
This general soil area, or soil association, is on gently
Figure I.-Location of Gadsden County in Florida. sloping ridges that broaden in a few places to fairly large,
nearly level areas. It has a well-established stream
pattern of creeks, branches, and draws with narrow, wet
Lake Talquin is on the southeastern boundary. The bottoms. Adjacent to most streams are short moderately
county is about 32 miles long and 22 miles wide. It has a steep to steep slopes. This soil area occupies about 29
land area of 325,120 acres, or 508 square miles. A humid, percent of the county. Most of it is in the eastern and
temperate climate prevails, and rainfall is abundant and southern parts, but some is distributed throughout the
generally well distributed. The county is a general county.
1 Others participating in the field survey were R. M. CRAIG, 2 This section was written by B. P. THOMAS, soil scientist, and
E. M. DUFFEE, A. L. FURMAN, H. F. HUCKLE, W. T. JACOBS, JR., DAVID P. POWELL, assistant State soil scientist, Soil Conservation
J. W. KEYES, and R. WILDERMUTH, Soil Conservation Service. Service.
1















SOIL SURVEY OF GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA

By B. P. THOMAS, in charge, H. H. WEEKS, and M. W. HAZEN, JR., Soil Conservation Service 1
United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations



GADSDEN COUNTY is in the northwestern part of farming area and one of the foremost agricultural counties
Florida. Quincy, the county seat, is on U.S. High- in northwestern Florida. The principal crops are corn,
way No. 90, about midway between Pensacola and tobacco, small grains, cabbage, pole beans, sweetpotatoes,
Jacksonville. Distances by air from Quincy to the sugarcane, and peanuts. Shade tobacco is the main cash
principal cities in the State are shown in figure 1. The crop.
Ochlockonee River runs along the eastern boundary and
the Apalachicola River along the western boundary.
General Soil Map2
In mapping a county or other large tract, it is fairly
easy to see many differences as one travels from place to
I. place. Some of the differences are in shape, steepness,
and length of slopes; in the course, depth, and speed of
ALLAHAEEILLE streams; in the width of the bordering valleys; in the kinds
of wild plants; and in the kinds of agriculture. With these
0 SIvH 'more obvious differences there are other less easily noticed
differences in the patterns of soils. The soils differ along
with the other parts of the environment.
SBy drawing lines around the different patterns of soils
on a small map, one may obtain a map of the general soil
areas, or, as they are sometimes called, soil associations.
TAMPA Such a map is useful to those who want to compare
different parts of the county, or who want to locate large
areas suitable for some particular kind of agriculture or
other broad land use.
The general soil map at the back of this report shows in
\ _color the nine general soil areas in Gadsden County.
SOn this map there is a descriptive legend, titled "Soil
Associations", that tells the kinds of soils in each general
MIMI soil area. These areas are described in the following
pages.
Well to excessively drained, deep, undulating loamy
sands to coarse sands on uplands: Lakeland-
.0." 'Eustis
S eis A cricullural Expriment Stflion ______________
This general soil area, or soil association, is on gently
Figure I.-Location of Gadsden County in Florida. sloping ridges that broaden in a few places to fairly large,
nearly level areas. It has a well-established stream
pattern of creeks, branches, and draws with narrow, wet
Lake Talquin is on the southeastern boundary. The bottoms. Adjacent to most streams are short moderately
county is about 32 miles long and 22 miles wide. It has a steep to steep slopes. This soil area occupies about 29
land area of 325,120 acres, or 508 square miles. A humid, percent of the county. Most of it is in the eastern and
temperate climate prevails, and rainfall is abundant and southern parts, but some is distributed throughout the
generally well distributed. The county is a general county.
1 Others participating in the field survey were R. M. CRAIG, 2 This section was written by B. P. THOMAS, soil scientist, and
E. M. DUFFEE, A. L. FURMAN, H. F. HUCKLE, W. T. JACOBS, JR., DAVID P. POWELL, assistant State soil scientist, Soil Conservation
J. W. KEYES, and R. WILDERMUTH, Soil Conservation Service. Service.
1







2 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

Lakeland and Eustis soils dominate in this soil area. Many of the larger, well-managed general farms in the
These soils have dark-gray to grayish-brown loamy sand county are in this general soil area. Much shade tobacco
or coarse sand surface layers and yellow to yellowish-red is grown on the more gently sloping areas. The soils
loamy sand to coarse sand subsoils. The surface layers respond well to good management. Much of the acreage
are 4 to 6 inches thick, and the coarse-textured subsoils that is suitable for cultivation is still woodland. This
extend to a depth of 30 inches or more. general soil area has a potential for future development.
Large, fairly uniform areas of deep drought sands and
coarse sands dominate in the southern part of the county. Well-drained, undulating, upland soils with loamy
Lakeland and Eustis soils make up about 85 percent of sand surface soils and fine sandy clay loam to fine
these large areas, and Rutlege, Plummer, and similar wet, sandy clay subsoils: Magnolia-Faceville-Carnegie
swampy soils make up the rest. This general soil area is mostly on gently sloping ridge-
Better soils occur in the central and northern parts of tops that broaden in a few places to fairly large, nearly
the county, where the soils are mostly finer sands and have level areas. It has a well-established stream pattern of
finer textured substrata nearer the surface. Here about creeks, of branches, and of draws with narrow wet bot-
70 percent of this general soil area is Lakeland and Eustis toms. Adjacent to most streams are moderately steep
soils; 20 percent is Ruston, Norfolk, Orangeburg, and slopes. This general soil area occupies about 2 percent
similar soils; and 10 percent is wet, swampy soils. of the county and occurs in small areas in the central and
The areas dominated by deep coarse sands are poorly eastern parts.
suited to cultivation and have not been farmed. Most Magnolia, Faceville, and Carnegie soils make up about
of these areas remain in scrub oak and scattered pines. 85 percent of this general soil area. These soils have
About 50 percent of the acreage in this general soil area very dark gray to grayish-brown loamy sand to fine
is moderately well suited to most farm crops. About 35 sandy loam surface layers less than 18 inches thick.
percent is suited to occasional cropping or to improved Their subsoils range from fine sandy clay loam to
pasture but needs intensive management. This acreage fine sandy clay in texture and from brownish yellow to
is mostly in woodland. The remaining 15 percent is too red in color. Tifton, Norfolk, Ruston, Orangeburg,
steep or too wet for farming and is used as woodland. Red Bay, and other upland soils are in small widely
distributed areas. They make up about 10 percent of
Well-drained, undulating, upland soils with loamy the acreage. Hannahatchee, Plummer, Rutlege, Rains,
fine sand surface soils and sandy clay loam subsoils: and Grady soils and wet alluvial land make up the
Norfolk-Ruston-Orangeburg remaining 5 percent.
This general soil area occurs mostly on upland ridges The nearly level and gently sloping ridges are well
with gently sloping ridgetops that broaden in a few suited to cultivation and are farmed extensively. They
places to fairly large, nearly level areas. It has a well- occupy about 50 percent of this general soil area. About
established stream pattern of creeks, branches, and draws 35 percent is on steeper slopes that are well suited to crops
with narrow, wet bottoms. Adjacent to most streams and pasture but need intensive management to prevent
are moderately steep to steep slopes. This general soil erosion. Much of this acreage is farmed. Approximately
area makes up about 40 percent of the county and is in 12 percent is too steep and susceptible to erosion for
the central, northern, and northeastern parts, cultivation, but this acreage is well suited to trees. About
Norfolk, Ruston, and Orangeburg soils occupy about 3 percent of this general soil area consists of wet bottom
75 percent of this general soil area. These soils have land where the natural vegetation is mainly water-
dark-gray to grayish-brown loamy sand to fine sandy tolerant hardwoods, shrubs, and vines. This wet bot-
loam surface layers that in most places are about 4 to tom land is used very little for agriculture.
13 inches thick. In some places these surface layers are Some of the better general farms in the county are in
as much as 30 inches thick. The subsoils range from this general soil area. The area is particularly well
fine sandy loam to sandy clay loam in texture and from suited to shade tobacco, which is grown extensively.
red to yellow in color. Red Bay, Eustis, Lakeland, The soils respond well to good management. Most of
Faceville, Magnolia, and other upland soils occur in the acreage that is suitable for cultivation has been
small widely distributed areas. These soils make up cleared and is used for that purpose.
about 20 percent of this general soil area. Hannahatchee,
Plummer, Rutlege, Rains, and Grady soils and wet Well and moderately well drained, moderately steep,
alluvial land make up the remaining 5 percent, upland soils with loamy sand to sandy loam sur-
The nearly level and gently sloping ridges are well face soils and sandy clay or clay subsoils: Sus-
suited to farming and are farmed extensively. They quehanna-Cuthbert-Shubuta
occupy about 55 percent of this area. About 30 percent This general soil area has been highly dissected by
of the area is on steeper slopes that are well suited to streams, creeks, and branches. It consists of ridges and
crops and pasture but need intensive management to stream bottoms. The ridgetops are narrow, and the
prevent erosion. Much of this acreage is farmed. Ap- stream bottoms are narrow and poorly drained. Most
proximately 10 percent is too steep and susceptible to of the acreage has moderately steep to steep slopes. This
erosion for cultivation, but this acreage is well suited to area occupies about 12 percent of the county. Most of
trees. The remaining 5 percent of this area is on wet it is west of Mt. Pleasant, but there are small areas in the
bottom land. This bottom land has a heavy growth of central part of the county.
swamp hardwoods, vines, and bushes and is used very Susquehanna, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils dominate in
little for agriculture, this area in the western part of the county. These soils







2 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

Lakeland and Eustis soils dominate in this soil area. Many of the larger, well-managed general farms in the
These soils have dark-gray to grayish-brown loamy sand county are in this general soil area. Much shade tobacco
or coarse sand surface layers and yellow to yellowish-red is grown on the more gently sloping areas. The soils
loamy sand to coarse sand subsoils. The surface layers respond well to good management. Much of the acreage
are 4 to 6 inches thick, and the coarse-textured subsoils that is suitable for cultivation is still woodland. This
extend to a depth of 30 inches or more. general soil area has a potential for future development.
Large, fairly uniform areas of deep drought sands and
coarse sands dominate in the southern part of the county. Well-drained, undulating, upland soils with loamy
Lakeland and Eustis soils make up about 85 percent of sand surface soils and fine sandy clay loam to fine
these large areas, and Rutlege, Plummer, and similar wet, sandy clay subsoils: Magnolia-Faceville-Carnegie
swampy soils make up the rest. This general soil area is mostly on gently sloping ridge-
Better soils occur in the central and northern parts of tops that broaden in a few places to fairly large, nearly
the county, where the soils are mostly finer sands and have level areas. It has a well-established stream pattern of
finer textured substrata nearer the surface. Here about creeks, of branches, and of draws with narrow wet bot-
70 percent of this general soil area is Lakeland and Eustis toms. Adjacent to most streams are moderately steep
soils; 20 percent is Ruston, Norfolk, Orangeburg, and slopes. This general soil area occupies about 2 percent
similar soils; and 10 percent is wet, swampy soils. of the county and occurs in small areas in the central and
The areas dominated by deep coarse sands are poorly eastern parts.
suited to cultivation and have not been farmed. Most Magnolia, Faceville, and Carnegie soils make up about
of these areas remain in scrub oak and scattered pines. 85 percent of this general soil area. These soils have
About 50 percent of the acreage in this general soil area very dark gray to grayish-brown loamy sand to fine
is moderately well suited to most farm crops. About 35 sandy loam surface layers less than 18 inches thick.
percent is suited to occasional cropping or to improved Their subsoils range from fine sandy clay loam to
pasture but needs intensive management. This acreage fine sandy clay in texture and from brownish yellow to
is mostly in woodland. The remaining 15 percent is too red in color. Tifton, Norfolk, Ruston, Orangeburg,
steep or too wet for farming and is used as woodland. Red Bay, and other upland soils are in small widely
distributed areas. They make up about 10 percent of
Well-drained, undulating, upland soils with loamy the acreage. Hannahatchee, Plummer, Rutlege, Rains,
fine sand surface soils and sandy clay loam subsoils: and Grady soils and wet alluvial land make up the
Norfolk-Ruston-Orangeburg remaining 5 percent.
This general soil area occurs mostly on upland ridges The nearly level and gently sloping ridges are well
with gently sloping ridgetops that broaden in a few suited to cultivation and are farmed extensively. They
places to fairly large, nearly level areas. It has a well- occupy about 50 percent of this general soil area. About
established stream pattern of creeks, branches, and draws 35 percent is on steeper slopes that are well suited to crops
with narrow, wet bottoms. Adjacent to most streams and pasture but need intensive management to prevent
are moderately steep to steep slopes. This general soil erosion. Much of this acreage is farmed. Approximately
area makes up about 40 percent of the county and is in 12 percent is too steep and susceptible to erosion for
the central, northern, and northeastern parts, cultivation, but this acreage is well suited to trees. About
Norfolk, Ruston, and Orangeburg soils occupy about 3 percent of this general soil area consists of wet bottom
75 percent of this general soil area. These soils have land where the natural vegetation is mainly water-
dark-gray to grayish-brown loamy sand to fine sandy tolerant hardwoods, shrubs, and vines. This wet bot-
loam surface layers that in most places are about 4 to tom land is used very little for agriculture.
13 inches thick. In some places these surface layers are Some of the better general farms in the county are in
as much as 30 inches thick. The subsoils range from this general soil area. The area is particularly well
fine sandy loam to sandy clay loam in texture and from suited to shade tobacco, which is grown extensively.
red to yellow in color. Red Bay, Eustis, Lakeland, The soils respond well to good management. Most of
Faceville, Magnolia, and other upland soils occur in the acreage that is suitable for cultivation has been
small widely distributed areas. These soils make up cleared and is used for that purpose.
about 20 percent of this general soil area. Hannahatchee,
Plummer, Rutlege, Rains, and Grady soils and wet Well and moderately well drained, moderately steep,
alluvial land make up the remaining 5 percent, upland soils with loamy sand to sandy loam sur-
The nearly level and gently sloping ridges are well face soils and sandy clay or clay subsoils: Sus-
suited to farming and are farmed extensively. They quehanna-Cuthbert-Shubuta
occupy about 55 percent of this area. About 30 percent This general soil area has been highly dissected by
of the area is on steeper slopes that are well suited to streams, creeks, and branches. It consists of ridges and
crops and pasture but need intensive management to stream bottoms. The ridgetops are narrow, and the
prevent erosion. Much of this acreage is farmed. Ap- stream bottoms are narrow and poorly drained. Most
proximately 10 percent is too steep and susceptible to of the acreage has moderately steep to steep slopes. This
erosion for cultivation, but this acreage is well suited to area occupies about 12 percent of the county. Most of
trees. The remaining 5 percent of this area is on wet it is west of Mt. Pleasant, but there are small areas in the
bottom land. This bottom land has a heavy growth of central part of the county.
swamp hardwoods, vines, and bushes and is used very Susquehanna, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils dominate in
little for agriculture, this area in the western part of the county. These soils







2 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

Lakeland and Eustis soils dominate in this soil area. Many of the larger, well-managed general farms in the
These soils have dark-gray to grayish-brown loamy sand county are in this general soil area. Much shade tobacco
or coarse sand surface layers and yellow to yellowish-red is grown on the more gently sloping areas. The soils
loamy sand to coarse sand subsoils. The surface layers respond well to good management. Much of the acreage
are 4 to 6 inches thick, and the coarse-textured subsoils that is suitable for cultivation is still woodland. This
extend to a depth of 30 inches or more. general soil area has a potential for future development.
Large, fairly uniform areas of deep drought sands and
coarse sands dominate in the southern part of the county. Well-drained, undulating, upland soils with loamy
Lakeland and Eustis soils make up about 85 percent of sand surface soils and fine sandy clay loam to fine
these large areas, and Rutlege, Plummer, and similar wet, sandy clay subsoils: Magnolia-Faceville-Carnegie
swampy soils make up the rest. This general soil area is mostly on gently sloping ridge-
Better soils occur in the central and northern parts of tops that broaden in a few places to fairly large, nearly
the county, where the soils are mostly finer sands and have level areas. It has a well-established stream pattern of
finer textured substrata nearer the surface. Here about creeks, of branches, and of draws with narrow wet bot-
70 percent of this general soil area is Lakeland and Eustis toms. Adjacent to most streams are moderately steep
soils; 20 percent is Ruston, Norfolk, Orangeburg, and slopes. This general soil area occupies about 2 percent
similar soils; and 10 percent is wet, swampy soils. of the county and occurs in small areas in the central and
The areas dominated by deep coarse sands are poorly eastern parts.
suited to cultivation and have not been farmed. Most Magnolia, Faceville, and Carnegie soils make up about
of these areas remain in scrub oak and scattered pines. 85 percent of this general soil area. These soils have
About 50 percent of the acreage in this general soil area very dark gray to grayish-brown loamy sand to fine
is moderately well suited to most farm crops. About 35 sandy loam surface layers less than 18 inches thick.
percent is suited to occasional cropping or to improved Their subsoils range from fine sandy clay loam to
pasture but needs intensive management. This acreage fine sandy clay in texture and from brownish yellow to
is mostly in woodland. The remaining 15 percent is too red in color. Tifton, Norfolk, Ruston, Orangeburg,
steep or too wet for farming and is used as woodland. Red Bay, and other upland soils are in small widely
distributed areas. They make up about 10 percent of
Well-drained, undulating, upland soils with loamy the acreage. Hannahatchee, Plummer, Rutlege, Rains,
fine sand surface soils and sandy clay loam subsoils: and Grady soils and wet alluvial land make up the
Norfolk-Ruston-Orangeburg remaining 5 percent.
This general soil area occurs mostly on upland ridges The nearly level and gently sloping ridges are well
with gently sloping ridgetops that broaden in a few suited to cultivation and are farmed extensively. They
places to fairly large, nearly level areas. It has a well- occupy about 50 percent of this general soil area. About
established stream pattern of creeks, branches, and draws 35 percent is on steeper slopes that are well suited to crops
with narrow, wet bottoms. Adjacent to most streams and pasture but need intensive management to prevent
are moderately steep to steep slopes. This general soil erosion. Much of this acreage is farmed. Approximately
area makes up about 40 percent of the county and is in 12 percent is too steep and susceptible to erosion for
the central, northern, and northeastern parts, cultivation, but this acreage is well suited to trees. About
Norfolk, Ruston, and Orangeburg soils occupy about 3 percent of this general soil area consists of wet bottom
75 percent of this general soil area. These soils have land where the natural vegetation is mainly water-
dark-gray to grayish-brown loamy sand to fine sandy tolerant hardwoods, shrubs, and vines. This wet bot-
loam surface layers that in most places are about 4 to tom land is used very little for agriculture.
13 inches thick. In some places these surface layers are Some of the better general farms in the county are in
as much as 30 inches thick. The subsoils range from this general soil area. The area is particularly well
fine sandy loam to sandy clay loam in texture and from suited to shade tobacco, which is grown extensively.
red to yellow in color. Red Bay, Eustis, Lakeland, The soils respond well to good management. Most of
Faceville, Magnolia, and other upland soils occur in the acreage that is suitable for cultivation has been
small widely distributed areas. These soils make up cleared and is used for that purpose.
about 20 percent of this general soil area. Hannahatchee,
Plummer, Rutlege, Rains, and Grady soils and wet Well and moderately well drained, moderately steep,
alluvial land make up the remaining 5 percent, upland soils with loamy sand to sandy loam sur-
The nearly level and gently sloping ridges are well face soils and sandy clay or clay subsoils: Sus-
suited to farming and are farmed extensively. They quehanna-Cuthbert-Shubuta
occupy about 55 percent of this area. About 30 percent This general soil area has been highly dissected by
of the area is on steeper slopes that are well suited to streams, creeks, and branches. It consists of ridges and
crops and pasture but need intensive management to stream bottoms. The ridgetops are narrow, and the
prevent erosion. Much of this acreage is farmed. Ap- stream bottoms are narrow and poorly drained. Most
proximately 10 percent is too steep and susceptible to of the acreage has moderately steep to steep slopes. This
erosion for cultivation, but this acreage is well suited to area occupies about 12 percent of the county. Most of
trees. The remaining 5 percent of this area is on wet it is west of Mt. Pleasant, but there are small areas in the
bottom land. This bottom land has a heavy growth of central part of the county.
swamp hardwoods, vines, and bushes and is used very Susquehanna, Cuthbert, and Shubuta soils dominate in
little for agriculture, this area in the western part of the county. These soils







GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

occur in about equal amounts. The Sawyer and Susque- areas and make up about 25 percent of this general soil
hanna soils dominate in the small acreage in the central area.
part of the county. Boswell soils occur in many small Because they are coarse and sandy, the soils in the south-
areas, mainly on steep slopes in the western part. ern part of the county are poorly suited to farming. Most
The major soils in this general soil area have dark-gray areas remain as woodland that consists mostly of thin
to grayish-brown loamy fine sand to fine sandy loam stands of longleaf and slash pines, turkey and post oaks,
surface layers. Their subsoils range from sandy clay loam and low shrubs. Small areas in the finer sands have been
to clay in texture and from yellowish brown to red in cleared and are used for corn, small grains, and other
color. In small scattered areas are Faceville, Norfolk, crops, and for pasture.
Ruston, Boswell, Lakeland, Binnsville, and Eustis soils. My w a s p
The underlying materials of these soils are not at a uniform Moderately well and somewhat poorly drained,
depth and do not have a uniform texture. The better nearly level or gently sloping, upland soils with
drained soils make up about 95 percent of this general loamy sand surface soils and sandy loam or sandy
soil area. Poorly drained Rutlege, Plummer, and Rains clay loam subsoils: Goldsboro-Lynchburg
soils and wet alluvial land make up the remaining 5 This general soil area is mostly nearly level or gently
percent. sloping and moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
The soils of this area are hIighly susceptible to erosion. drained, but it includes a few small areas on steeper slopes.
On slopes mild enough for safe cultivation, these soils It consists of broad, flat or gently undulating areas. In
are moderately well suited to shallow-rooted crops. Only these broad areas are narrow, wet stream bottoms,
about 20 percent of the acreage is suited to row crops. branches, and draws. Gently sloping to sloping areas are
An additional 10 percent can be cultivated occasionally if adjacent to most draws. This general soil area occupies
the control of erosion is intense. Areas suitable for about 2 percent of the county. It is mainly in the west-
cultivation are normally small and are not well suited for central part of the county, but few small areas are in the
field layout. About 65 percent of the acreage is too steep northern and northeastern parts.
and susceptible to erosion for farming. This acreage Goldsboro and Lynchburg soils nmake up about 70
has not been farmed. Most of it remains as woodland percent of this general soil area. These soils dominate in
and has a good stand of longleaf, slash, and loblolly pines, the broad flats and undulating areas. They have gray to
various hardwoods, and low shrubs. About 5 percent very dark gray loamy fine sand to loamy sand surface
of this area is on wet bottom land that has a natural cover layers that may be as much as 30 inches thick. The
of cypress, bay, gum, occasional pines, and small native subsoils are mottled and range from fine sandy loam to
shrubs. This wet bottom land is used very little for fine sandy clay loan in texture and from very pale brown
agriculture, to yellow in color. Rains, Grady, Portsmouth, Plummer,
Little of this general soil area has been used for farming. and Klej soils and wet alluvial land occur in widely
A few small areas, however, have been cleared for pasture distributed small areas and make up the remaining 30
and crops. Most of this general soil area is best suited percent of this area. About 90 percent of this general
to pine trees. soil area is on nearly level to gentle slopes, and the rest is
Moderately well and poorly drained, nearly level, on steeper slopes.
Moderately welland poorly drained, nearly leel, The oderatelv well drained soils are well suited to
upland sands: Blanton-Klej-Plummer cultivation and are farmed extensively. They occupy
This general soil area consists mostly of nearly level about 50 percent of this general soil area. The somewhat
soils that are moderately well drained and poorly drained, poorly drained soils are mainly in pasture and trees.
Some of the acreage is gently sloping and somewhat They occupy about 35 percent of this area. The remaining
poorly drained. Short, narrow seepage areas occur on 15 percent is poorly drained and is predominantly
the steeper slopes. Narrow, wet stream bottoms are in woodland.
the flatter areas. Slightly lower than the dominant soils
are well-established stream patterns of creeks, branches, Moderately well to poorly drained soils on nearly
and draws. This general soil area occupies about 11 per- level stream terraces: Leaf-Izagora
cent of the county and occurs mostly in the eastern and This general soil area is on long, narrow, nearly level
southern parts. stream terraces that make up less than 1 percent of the
Blanton, Klej, and Plummer soils occupy about 75 county. It occurs mostly on the terraces that border
percent of this general soil area. These soils have gray the Ochlockonee River on the eastern boundary of the
to dark-gray loamy sand to coarse sand surface layers. county. Small areas are along the Apalachicola River
The subsoils are mottled and range from light gray to on the west side of the county.
yellow in color and from coarse sands to loamy sands in The surface layers of the Leaf and Izagora soils are
texture. The sandy surface layers are 3 to 8 inches thick, dominantly gray to black fine sand to very fine sandy
and the subsoils extend to a depth of 30 inches or more. loam. The subsoils are mottled and range from gray to
About 85 percent of the acreage is nearly level to gently yellowish brown in color and frcm fine sand to fine sandy
-lolini_,, and the rest is on steeper slopes, clay in texture.
Sands and coarse sands dominate in the southern part Other soils of this general soil area are Blanton (terrace
of the county, and sands and fine sands dominate in the phase), Kalnia, and Myatt. Along the Apalachicola
eastern part. Better, slightly finer textured soils are in River in the northwestern corner of the county is a small,
the central part of the county. Lakeland, Eustis, Leon, narrow strip of Congaree soil that has dark gravish-brown
and Rutlege soils and wet alluvial land occur in small silty loam surface and subsurface layers and a dark







GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

occur in about equal amounts. The Sawyer and Susque- areas and make up about 25 percent of this general soil
hanna soils dominate in the small acreage in the central area.
part of the county. Boswell soils occur in many small Because they are coarse and sandy, the soils in the south-
areas, mainly on steep slopes in the western part. ern part of the county are poorly suited to farming. Most
The major soils in this general soil area have dark-gray areas remain as woodland that consists mostly of thin
to grayish-brown loamy fine sand to fine sandy loam stands of longleaf and slash pines, turkey and post oaks,
surface layers. Their subsoils range from sandy clay loam and low shrubs. Small areas in the finer sands have been
to clay in texture and from yellowish brown to red in cleared and are used for corn, small grains, and other
color. In small scattered areas are Faceville, Norfolk, crops, and for pasture.
Ruston, Boswell, Lakeland, Binnsville, and Eustis soils. My w a s p
The underlying materials of these soils are not at a uniform Moderately well and somewhat poorly drained,
depth and do not have a uniform texture. The better nearly level or gently sloping, upland soils with
drained soils make up about 95 percent of this general loamy sand surface soils and sandy loam or sandy
soil area. Poorly drained Rutlege, Plummer, and Rains clay loam subsoils: Goldsboro-Lynchburg
soils and wet alluvial land make up the remaining 5 This general soil area is mostly nearly level or gently
percent. sloping and moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
The soils of this area are hIighly susceptible to erosion. drained, but it includes a few small areas on steeper slopes.
On slopes mild enough for safe cultivation, these soils It consists of broad, flat or gently undulating areas. In
are moderately well suited to shallow-rooted crops. Only these broad areas are narrow, wet stream bottoms,
about 20 percent of the acreage is suited to row crops. branches, and draws. Gently sloping to sloping areas are
An additional 10 percent can be cultivated occasionally if adjacent to most draws. This general soil area occupies
the control of erosion is intense. Areas suitable for about 2 percent of the county. It is mainly in the west-
cultivation are normally small and are not well suited for central part of the county, but few small areas are in the
field layout. About 65 percent of the acreage is too steep northern and northeastern parts.
and susceptible to erosion for farming. This acreage Goldsboro and Lynchburg soils nmake up about 70
has not been farmed. Most of it remains as woodland percent of this general soil area. These soils dominate in
and has a good stand of longleaf, slash, and loblolly pines, the broad flats and undulating areas. They have gray to
various hardwoods, and low shrubs. About 5 percent very dark gray loamy fine sand to loamy sand surface
of this area is on wet bottom land that has a natural cover layers that may be as much as 30 inches thick. The
of cypress, bay, gum, occasional pines, and small native subsoils are mottled and range from fine sandy loam to
shrubs. This wet bottom land is used very little for fine sandy clay loan in texture and from very pale brown
agriculture, to yellow in color. Rains, Grady, Portsmouth, Plummer,
Little of this general soil area has been used for farming. and Klej soils and wet alluvial land occur in widely
A few small areas, however, have been cleared for pasture distributed small areas and make up the remaining 30
and crops. Most of this general soil area is best suited percent of this area. About 90 percent of this general
to pine trees. soil area is on nearly level to gentle slopes, and the rest is
Moderately well and poorly drained, nearly level, on steeper slopes.
Moderately welland poorly drained, nearly leel, The oderatelv well drained soils are well suited to
upland sands: Blanton-Klej-Plummer cultivation and are farmed extensively. They occupy
This general soil area consists mostly of nearly level about 50 percent of this general soil area. The somewhat
soils that are moderately well drained and poorly drained, poorly drained soils are mainly in pasture and trees.
Some of the acreage is gently sloping and somewhat They occupy about 35 percent of this area. The remaining
poorly drained. Short, narrow seepage areas occur on 15 percent is poorly drained and is predominantly
the steeper slopes. Narrow, wet stream bottoms are in woodland.
the flatter areas. Slightly lower than the dominant soils
are well-established stream patterns of creeks, branches, Moderately well to poorly drained soils on nearly
and draws. This general soil area occupies about 11 per- level stream terraces: Leaf-Izagora
cent of the county and occurs mostly in the eastern and This general soil area is on long, narrow, nearly level
southern parts. stream terraces that make up less than 1 percent of the
Blanton, Klej, and Plummer soils occupy about 75 county. It occurs mostly on the terraces that border
percent of this general soil area. These soils have gray the Ochlockonee River on the eastern boundary of the
to dark-gray loamy sand to coarse sand surface layers. county. Small areas are along the Apalachicola River
The subsoils are mottled and range from light gray to on the west side of the county.
yellow in color and from coarse sands to loamy sands in The surface layers of the Leaf and Izagora soils are
texture. The sandy surface layers are 3 to 8 inches thick, dominantly gray to black fine sand to very fine sandy
and the subsoils extend to a depth of 30 inches or more. loam. The subsoils are mottled and range from gray to
About 85 percent of the acreage is nearly level to gently yellowish brown in color and frcm fine sand to fine sandy
-lolini_,, and the rest is on steeper slopes, clay in texture.
Sands and coarse sands dominate in the southern part Other soils of this general soil area are Blanton (terrace
of the county, and sands and fine sands dominate in the phase), Kalnia, and Myatt. Along the Apalachicola
eastern part. Better, slightly finer textured soils are in River in the northwestern corner of the county is a small,
the central part of the county. Lakeland, Eustis, Leon, narrow strip of Congaree soil that has dark gravish-brown
and Rutlege soils and wet alluvial land occur in small silty loam surface and subsurface layers and a dark







GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

occur in about equal amounts. The Sawyer and Susque- areas and make up about 25 percent of this general soil
hanna soils dominate in the small acreage in the central area.
part of the county. Boswell soils occur in many small Because they are coarse and sandy, the soils in the south-
areas, mainly on steep slopes in the western part. ern part of the county are poorly suited to farming. Most
The major soils in this general soil area have dark-gray areas remain as woodland that consists mostly of thin
to grayish-brown loamy fine sand to fine sandy loam stands of longleaf and slash pines, turkey and post oaks,
surface layers. Their subsoils range from sandy clay loam and low shrubs. Small areas in the finer sands have been
to clay in texture and from yellowish brown to red in cleared and are used for corn, small grains, and other
color. In small scattered areas are Faceville, Norfolk, crops, and for pasture.
Ruston, Boswell, Lakeland, Binnsville, and Eustis soils. My w a s p
The underlying materials of these soils are not at a uniform Moderately well and somewhat poorly drained,
depth and do not have a uniform texture. The better nearly level or gently sloping, upland soils with
drained soils make up about 95 percent of this general loamy sand surface soils and sandy loam or sandy
soil area. Poorly drained Rutlege, Plummer, and Rains clay loam subsoils: Goldsboro-Lynchburg
soils and wet alluvial land make up the remaining 5 This general soil area is mostly nearly level or gently
percent. sloping and moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
The soils of this area are hIighly susceptible to erosion. drained, but it includes a few small areas on steeper slopes.
On slopes mild enough for safe cultivation, these soils It consists of broad, flat or gently undulating areas. In
are moderately well suited to shallow-rooted crops. Only these broad areas are narrow, wet stream bottoms,
about 20 percent of the acreage is suited to row crops. branches, and draws. Gently sloping to sloping areas are
An additional 10 percent can be cultivated occasionally if adjacent to most draws. This general soil area occupies
the control of erosion is intense. Areas suitable for about 2 percent of the county. It is mainly in the west-
cultivation are normally small and are not well suited for central part of the county, but few small areas are in the
field layout. About 65 percent of the acreage is too steep northern and northeastern parts.
and susceptible to erosion for farming. This acreage Goldsboro and Lynchburg soils nmake up about 70
has not been farmed. Most of it remains as woodland percent of this general soil area. These soils dominate in
and has a good stand of longleaf, slash, and loblolly pines, the broad flats and undulating areas. They have gray to
various hardwoods, and low shrubs. About 5 percent very dark gray loamy fine sand to loamy sand surface
of this area is on wet bottom land that has a natural cover layers that may be as much as 30 inches thick. The
of cypress, bay, gum, occasional pines, and small native subsoils are mottled and range from fine sandy loam to
shrubs. This wet bottom land is used very little for fine sandy clay loan in texture and from very pale brown
agriculture, to yellow in color. Rains, Grady, Portsmouth, Plummer,
Little of this general soil area has been used for farming. and Klej soils and wet alluvial land occur in widely
A few small areas, however, have been cleared for pasture distributed small areas and make up the remaining 30
and crops. Most of this general soil area is best suited percent of this area. About 90 percent of this general
to pine trees. soil area is on nearly level to gentle slopes, and the rest is
Moderately well and poorly drained, nearly level, on steeper slopes.
Moderately welland poorly drained, nearly leel, The oderatelv well drained soils are well suited to
upland sands: Blanton-Klej-Plummer cultivation and are farmed extensively. They occupy
This general soil area consists mostly of nearly level about 50 percent of this general soil area. The somewhat
soils that are moderately well drained and poorly drained, poorly drained soils are mainly in pasture and trees.
Some of the acreage is gently sloping and somewhat They occupy about 35 percent of this area. The remaining
poorly drained. Short, narrow seepage areas occur on 15 percent is poorly drained and is predominantly
the steeper slopes. Narrow, wet stream bottoms are in woodland.
the flatter areas. Slightly lower than the dominant soils
are well-established stream patterns of creeks, branches, Moderately well to poorly drained soils on nearly
and draws. This general soil area occupies about 11 per- level stream terraces: Leaf-Izagora
cent of the county and occurs mostly in the eastern and This general soil area is on long, narrow, nearly level
southern parts. stream terraces that make up less than 1 percent of the
Blanton, Klej, and Plummer soils occupy about 75 county. It occurs mostly on the terraces that border
percent of this general soil area. These soils have gray the Ochlockonee River on the eastern boundary of the
to dark-gray loamy sand to coarse sand surface layers. county. Small areas are along the Apalachicola River
The subsoils are mottled and range from light gray to on the west side of the county.
yellow in color and from coarse sands to loamy sands in The surface layers of the Leaf and Izagora soils are
texture. The sandy surface layers are 3 to 8 inches thick, dominantly gray to black fine sand to very fine sandy
and the subsoils extend to a depth of 30 inches or more. loam. The subsoils are mottled and range from gray to
About 85 percent of the acreage is nearly level to gently yellowish brown in color and frcm fine sand to fine sandy
-lolini_,, and the rest is on steeper slopes, clay in texture.
Sands and coarse sands dominate in the southern part Other soils of this general soil area are Blanton (terrace
of the county, and sands and fine sands dominate in the phase), Kalnia, and Myatt. Along the Apalachicola
eastern part. Better, slightly finer textured soils are in River in the northwestern corner of the county is a small,
the central part of the county. Lakeland, Eustis, Leon, narrow strip of Congaree soil that has dark gravish-brown
and Rutlege soils and wet alluvial land occur in small silty loam surface and subsurface layers and a dark







4 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

reddish-brown silty clay loan subsoil. Small areas of for they normally become less productive as their use for
Huckabee soils with deep, sandy profiles occur locally, cultivated crops and for pasture continues. In the follow-
A very small part of this area consists of small, wet creek ing pages general practices of management are discussed.
bottoms and drains.
This general soil area is not cultivated. Many of the Cultivated crops
soils would be suited to cultivation if they were not so Cultivation reduces the supply of organic matter, re-
inextensive and isolated. The hazard of occasional over- moves plant nutrients from the soil, and increases the haz-
flow from adjacent streams also limits suitability for ard of erosion. A soil is protected and its productivity is
farming. All of this general soil area is used as woodland, maintained by a cropping system that provides perennial
and that is its best use. sod or annual cover crops between periods of clean culti-
Smoderat wet land and land atio. So crops and cover crops that are retuned to
Undeveloped and moderately wet land and land the soil help to maintain the supply of organic matter
subject to flooding: Swamp (fig. 2). While they are gr,,. i,: cover crops and sod
This general soil area is made up primarily of very poorly
drained soils that occur adjacent to the major streams.
It is covered with a dense growth of hardwoods and water-
tolerant plants. This area consists of Alluvial land and .
Swamp. It makes up about 3 percent of the county.
The soils are very poorly drained throughout the year
and are frequently flooded by high water. This general
soil area occurs tloliugl,,uIt. the county in long narrow .
strips along streams. It includes the two large swamps '' -
in the county, which are Reed Swamp along the a
Ochlockonee River and a swamp near the southern end .
of Lake Talquin. The soils in these swampy areas are
primarily alluvial materials that, within short distances,
vary in texture, color, and thickness of layers. In these
areas are Leaf, Myatt, and similar soils. ":
This general soil area has little or no agricultural value t.-' o
and has remained in forest. The native growth consists
of cypress, bay, gum, occasional pines, wax myrtle, small
native bushes, and water-tolerant plants. u t
Miscellaneous land areas: Mines, pits, and dumps
This land consists of mines and pits from which fuller's Figure 2.-Regular use of green-manure crops in a rotation protects
earth has been removed. The dumps consist primarily the soil and maintains productivity. Class II land.
of waste material from these mines and pits. The largest
area is just north of Quincy, and other small areas are in
the north-central part of the county. This land has no crops protect the soil from erosion. The length of tine
agricultural value, but some areas are filled with water that soils should be cultivated, compared to the time they
and provide good fishing. should have a cover or sod crop, depends on the nature of
the soil, including its slope and amount of erosion.
Most of the soils of Gadsden County are suited to com-
Use and Management of Soils mon legumes and nonlegumes. They are suited to both
warm-season and cool-season plants. The warmn-season
This section consists of five main parts. The first part plants should be seeded in spring and early in sunlner.
discusses gen i.-. practices of good soil tm:ia ,innt.i In The cool-season plants should be seeded in September and
the second part, after the nationwide system of capability early in October.
classification is explained, the soils of the county are Fertilization.--Legumes ought to be fertilized at the
placed in capability units, or management groups, and use time of planting with 25 to 30 pounds of phosphate and
and management for these groups of soils are discussed. 50 to 60 pounds of potash per acre. Nonlegumes need a
The third part consists of a table that gives, for each soil, minimum of 45 to 60 pounds of nitrogen, 20 pounds of
estimated yields for crops and pasture under two levels phosphate, and 40 pounds of potash per acre. Fertilizer
of management. The fourth part discusses woodland left by preceding crops frequently furnishes enough phos-
management, and the fifth, engineering interpretations. phate and potash, and additions of these nutrients are not
needed every season.
General Practices of Soil Management 3 Fertilizer should be applied on all cropland, for the soils
in the county are naturally low in plant nutrients. Addi-
Soils planted to cultivated crops and those planted to tions of fertilizer increase yields and the amount of crop
pasture plants need to be managed so that the productivity residue as well. The needs of d fferenict crops vary, but
of the soils is maintained. The soils must be conserved, you can find out how much fertilizer is needed for each
3 This section was written bv H. E. VAN ARSDALL, management crop and how it should be applied from the county agri-
agronomist, DAVID P. POWELL, assistant State soil scientist, and cultural agent or the University of Florida Agricultural
B. P. THOMAs, soil scientist, Soil Conservation Service. Experiment Stations.







4 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

reddish-brown silty clay loan subsoil. Small areas of for they normally become less productive as their use for
Huckabee soils with deep, sandy profiles occur locally, cultivated crops and for pasture continues. In the follow-
A very small part of this area consists of small, wet creek ing pages general practices of management are discussed.
bottoms and drains.
This general soil area is not cultivated. Many of the Cultivated crops
soils would be suited to cultivation if they were not so Cultivation reduces the supply of organic matter, re-
inextensive and isolated. The hazard of occasional over- moves plant nutrients from the soil, and increases the haz-
flow from adjacent streams also limits suitability for ard of erosion. A soil is protected and its productivity is
farming. All of this general soil area is used as woodland, maintained by a cropping system that provides perennial
and that is its best use. sod or annual cover crops between periods of clean culti-
Smoderat wet land and land atio. So crops and cover crops that are retuned to
Undeveloped and moderately wet land and land the soil help to maintain the supply of organic matter
subject to flooding: Swamp (fig. 2). While they are gr,,. i,: cover crops and sod
This general soil area is made up primarily of very poorly
drained soils that occur adjacent to the major streams.
It is covered with a dense growth of hardwoods and water-
tolerant plants. This area consists of Alluvial land and .
Swamp. It makes up about 3 percent of the county.
The soils are very poorly drained throughout the year
and are frequently flooded by high water. This general
soil area occurs tloliugl,,uIt. the county in long narrow .
strips along streams. It includes the two large swamps '' -
in the county, which are Reed Swamp along the a
Ochlockonee River and a swamp near the southern end .
of Lake Talquin. The soils in these swampy areas are
primarily alluvial materials that, within short distances,
vary in texture, color, and thickness of layers. In these
areas are Leaf, Myatt, and similar soils. ":
This general soil area has little or no agricultural value t.-' o
and has remained in forest. The native growth consists
of cypress, bay, gum, occasional pines, wax myrtle, small
native bushes, and water-tolerant plants. u t
Miscellaneous land areas: Mines, pits, and dumps
This land consists of mines and pits from which fuller's Figure 2.-Regular use of green-manure crops in a rotation protects
earth has been removed. The dumps consist primarily the soil and maintains productivity. Class II land.
of waste material from these mines and pits. The largest
area is just north of Quincy, and other small areas are in
the north-central part of the county. This land has no crops protect the soil from erosion. The length of tine
agricultural value, but some areas are filled with water that soils should be cultivated, compared to the time they
and provide good fishing. should have a cover or sod crop, depends on the nature of
the soil, including its slope and amount of erosion.
Most of the soils of Gadsden County are suited to com-
Use and Management of Soils mon legumes and nonlegumes. They are suited to both
warm-season and cool-season plants. The warmn-season
This section consists of five main parts. The first part plants should be seeded in spring and early in sunlner.
discusses gen i.-. practices of good soil tm:ia ,innt.i In The cool-season plants should be seeded in September and
the second part, after the nationwide system of capability early in October.
classification is explained, the soils of the county are Fertilization.--Legumes ought to be fertilized at the
placed in capability units, or management groups, and use time of planting with 25 to 30 pounds of phosphate and
and management for these groups of soils are discussed. 50 to 60 pounds of potash per acre. Nonlegumes need a
The third part consists of a table that gives, for each soil, minimum of 45 to 60 pounds of nitrogen, 20 pounds of
estimated yields for crops and pasture under two levels phosphate, and 40 pounds of potash per acre. Fertilizer
of management. The fourth part discusses woodland left by preceding crops frequently furnishes enough phos-
management, and the fifth, engineering interpretations. phate and potash, and additions of these nutrients are not
needed every season.
General Practices of Soil Management 3 Fertilizer should be applied on all cropland, for the soils
in the county are naturally low in plant nutrients. Addi-
Soils planted to cultivated crops and those planted to tions of fertilizer increase yields and the amount of crop
pasture plants need to be managed so that the productivity residue as well. The needs of d fferenict crops vary, but
of the soils is maintained. The soils must be conserved, you can find out how much fertilizer is needed for each
3 This section was written bv H. E. VAN ARSDALL, management crop and how it should be applied from the county agri-
agronomist, DAVID P. POWELL, assistant State soil scientist, and cultural agent or the University of Florida Agricultural
B. P. THOMAs, soil scientist, Soil Conservation Service. Experiment Stations.







4 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

reddish-brown silty clay loan subsoil. Small areas of for they normally become less productive as their use for
Huckabee soils with deep, sandy profiles occur locally, cultivated crops and for pasture continues. In the follow-
A very small part of this area consists of small, wet creek ing pages general practices of management are discussed.
bottoms and drains.
This general soil area is not cultivated. Many of the Cultivated crops
soils would be suited to cultivation if they were not so Cultivation reduces the supply of organic matter, re-
inextensive and isolated. The hazard of occasional over- moves plant nutrients from the soil, and increases the haz-
flow from adjacent streams also limits suitability for ard of erosion. A soil is protected and its productivity is
farming. All of this general soil area is used as woodland, maintained by a cropping system that provides perennial
and that is its best use. sod or annual cover crops between periods of clean culti-
Smoderat wet land and land atio. So crops and cover crops that are retuned to
Undeveloped and moderately wet land and land the soil help to maintain the supply of organic matter
subject to flooding: Swamp (fig. 2). While they are gr,,. i,: cover crops and sod
This general soil area is made up primarily of very poorly
drained soils that occur adjacent to the major streams.
It is covered with a dense growth of hardwoods and water-
tolerant plants. This area consists of Alluvial land and .
Swamp. It makes up about 3 percent of the county.
The soils are very poorly drained throughout the year
and are frequently flooded by high water. This general
soil area occurs tloliugl,,uIt. the county in long narrow .
strips along streams. It includes the two large swamps '' -
in the county, which are Reed Swamp along the a
Ochlockonee River and a swamp near the southern end .
of Lake Talquin. The soils in these swampy areas are
primarily alluvial materials that, within short distances,
vary in texture, color, and thickness of layers. In these
areas are Leaf, Myatt, and similar soils. ":
This general soil area has little or no agricultural value t.-' o
and has remained in forest. The native growth consists
of cypress, bay, gum, occasional pines, wax myrtle, small
native bushes, and water-tolerant plants. u t
Miscellaneous land areas: Mines, pits, and dumps
This land consists of mines and pits from which fuller's Figure 2.-Regular use of green-manure crops in a rotation protects
earth has been removed. The dumps consist primarily the soil and maintains productivity. Class II land.
of waste material from these mines and pits. The largest
area is just north of Quincy, and other small areas are in
the north-central part of the county. This land has no crops protect the soil from erosion. The length of tine
agricultural value, but some areas are filled with water that soils should be cultivated, compared to the time they
and provide good fishing. should have a cover or sod crop, depends on the nature of
the soil, including its slope and amount of erosion.
Most of the soils of Gadsden County are suited to com-
Use and Management of Soils mon legumes and nonlegumes. They are suited to both
warm-season and cool-season plants. The warmn-season
This section consists of five main parts. The first part plants should be seeded in spring and early in sunlner.
discusses gen i.-. practices of good soil tm:ia ,innt.i In The cool-season plants should be seeded in September and
the second part, after the nationwide system of capability early in October.
classification is explained, the soils of the county are Fertilization.--Legumes ought to be fertilized at the
placed in capability units, or management groups, and use time of planting with 25 to 30 pounds of phosphate and
and management for these groups of soils are discussed. 50 to 60 pounds of potash per acre. Nonlegumes need a
The third part consists of a table that gives, for each soil, minimum of 45 to 60 pounds of nitrogen, 20 pounds of
estimated yields for crops and pasture under two levels phosphate, and 40 pounds of potash per acre. Fertilizer
of management. The fourth part discusses woodland left by preceding crops frequently furnishes enough phos-
management, and the fifth, engineering interpretations. phate and potash, and additions of these nutrients are not
needed every season.
General Practices of Soil Management 3 Fertilizer should be applied on all cropland, for the soils
in the county are naturally low in plant nutrients. Addi-
Soils planted to cultivated crops and those planted to tions of fertilizer increase yields and the amount of crop
pasture plants need to be managed so that the productivity residue as well. The needs of d fferenict crops vary, but
of the soils is maintained. The soils must be conserved, you can find out how much fertilizer is needed for each
3 This section was written bv H. E. VAN ARSDALL, management crop and how it should be applied from the county agri-
agronomist, DAVID P. POWELL, assistant State soil scientist, and cultural agent or the University of Florida Agricultural
B. P. THOMAs, soil scientist, Soil Conservation Service. Experiment Stations.







4 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

reddish-brown silty clay loan subsoil. Small areas of for they normally become less productive as their use for
Huckabee soils with deep, sandy profiles occur locally, cultivated crops and for pasture continues. In the follow-
A very small part of this area consists of small, wet creek ing pages general practices of management are discussed.
bottoms and drains.
This general soil area is not cultivated. Many of the Cultivated crops
soils would be suited to cultivation if they were not so Cultivation reduces the supply of organic matter, re-
inextensive and isolated. The hazard of occasional over- moves plant nutrients from the soil, and increases the haz-
flow from adjacent streams also limits suitability for ard of erosion. A soil is protected and its productivity is
farming. All of this general soil area is used as woodland, maintained by a cropping system that provides perennial
and that is its best use. sod or annual cover crops between periods of clean culti-
Smoderat wet land and land atio. So crops and cover crops that are retuned to
Undeveloped and moderately wet land and land the soil help to maintain the supply of organic matter
subject to flooding: Swamp (fig. 2). While they are gr,,. i,: cover crops and sod
This general soil area is made up primarily of very poorly
drained soils that occur adjacent to the major streams.
It is covered with a dense growth of hardwoods and water-
tolerant plants. This area consists of Alluvial land and .
Swamp. It makes up about 3 percent of the county.
The soils are very poorly drained throughout the year
and are frequently flooded by high water. This general
soil area occurs tloliugl,,uIt. the county in long narrow .
strips along streams. It includes the two large swamps '' -
in the county, which are Reed Swamp along the a
Ochlockonee River and a swamp near the southern end .
of Lake Talquin. The soils in these swampy areas are
primarily alluvial materials that, within short distances,
vary in texture, color, and thickness of layers. In these
areas are Leaf, Myatt, and similar soils. ":
This general soil area has little or no agricultural value t.-' o
and has remained in forest. The native growth consists
of cypress, bay, gum, occasional pines, wax myrtle, small
native bushes, and water-tolerant plants. u t
Miscellaneous land areas: Mines, pits, and dumps
This land consists of mines and pits from which fuller's Figure 2.-Regular use of green-manure crops in a rotation protects
earth has been removed. The dumps consist primarily the soil and maintains productivity. Class II land.
of waste material from these mines and pits. The largest
area is just north of Quincy, and other small areas are in
the north-central part of the county. This land has no crops protect the soil from erosion. The length of tine
agricultural value, but some areas are filled with water that soils should be cultivated, compared to the time they
and provide good fishing. should have a cover or sod crop, depends on the nature of
the soil, including its slope and amount of erosion.
Most of the soils of Gadsden County are suited to com-
Use and Management of Soils mon legumes and nonlegumes. They are suited to both
warm-season and cool-season plants. The warmn-season
This section consists of five main parts. The first part plants should be seeded in spring and early in sunlner.
discusses gen i.-. practices of good soil tm:ia ,innt.i In The cool-season plants should be seeded in September and
the second part, after the nationwide system of capability early in October.
classification is explained, the soils of the county are Fertilization.--Legumes ought to be fertilized at the
placed in capability units, or management groups, and use time of planting with 25 to 30 pounds of phosphate and
and management for these groups of soils are discussed. 50 to 60 pounds of potash per acre. Nonlegumes need a
The third part consists of a table that gives, for each soil, minimum of 45 to 60 pounds of nitrogen, 20 pounds of
estimated yields for crops and pasture under two levels phosphate, and 40 pounds of potash per acre. Fertilizer
of management. The fourth part discusses woodland left by preceding crops frequently furnishes enough phos-
management, and the fifth, engineering interpretations. phate and potash, and additions of these nutrients are not
needed every season.
General Practices of Soil Management 3 Fertilizer should be applied on all cropland, for the soils
in the county are naturally low in plant nutrients. Addi-
Soils planted to cultivated crops and those planted to tions of fertilizer increase yields and the amount of crop
pasture plants need to be managed so that the productivity residue as well. The needs of d fferenict crops vary, but
of the soils is maintained. The soils must be conserved, you can find out how much fertilizer is needed for each
3 This section was written bv H. E. VAN ARSDALL, management crop and how it should be applied from the county agri-
agronomist, DAVID P. POWELL, assistant State soil scientist, and cultural agent or the University of Florida Agricultural
B. P. THOMAs, soil scientist, Soil Conservation Service. Experiment Stations.







4 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

reddish-brown silty clay loan subsoil. Small areas of for they normally become less productive as their use for
Huckabee soils with deep, sandy profiles occur locally, cultivated crops and for pasture continues. In the follow-
A very small part of this area consists of small, wet creek ing pages general practices of management are discussed.
bottoms and drains.
This general soil area is not cultivated. Many of the Cultivated crops
soils would be suited to cultivation if they were not so Cultivation reduces the supply of organic matter, re-
inextensive and isolated. The hazard of occasional over- moves plant nutrients from the soil, and increases the haz-
flow from adjacent streams also limits suitability for ard of erosion. A soil is protected and its productivity is
farming. All of this general soil area is used as woodland, maintained by a cropping system that provides perennial
and that is its best use. sod or annual cover crops between periods of clean culti-
Smoderat wet land and land atio. So crops and cover crops that are retuned to
Undeveloped and moderately wet land and land the soil help to maintain the supply of organic matter
subject to flooding: Swamp (fig. 2). While they are gr,,. i,: cover crops and sod
This general soil area is made up primarily of very poorly
drained soils that occur adjacent to the major streams.
It is covered with a dense growth of hardwoods and water-
tolerant plants. This area consists of Alluvial land and .
Swamp. It makes up about 3 percent of the county.
The soils are very poorly drained throughout the year
and are frequently flooded by high water. This general
soil area occurs tloliugl,,uIt. the county in long narrow .
strips along streams. It includes the two large swamps '' -
in the county, which are Reed Swamp along the a
Ochlockonee River and a swamp near the southern end .
of Lake Talquin. The soils in these swampy areas are
primarily alluvial materials that, within short distances,
vary in texture, color, and thickness of layers. In these
areas are Leaf, Myatt, and similar soils. ":
This general soil area has little or no agricultural value t.-' o
and has remained in forest. The native growth consists
of cypress, bay, gum, occasional pines, wax myrtle, small
native bushes, and water-tolerant plants. u t
Miscellaneous land areas: Mines, pits, and dumps
This land consists of mines and pits from which fuller's Figure 2.-Regular use of green-manure crops in a rotation protects
earth has been removed. The dumps consist primarily the soil and maintains productivity. Class II land.
of waste material from these mines and pits. The largest
area is just north of Quincy, and other small areas are in
the north-central part of the county. This land has no crops protect the soil from erosion. The length of tine
agricultural value, but some areas are filled with water that soils should be cultivated, compared to the time they
and provide good fishing. should have a cover or sod crop, depends on the nature of
the soil, including its slope and amount of erosion.
Most of the soils of Gadsden County are suited to com-
Use and Management of Soils mon legumes and nonlegumes. They are suited to both
warm-season and cool-season plants. The warmn-season
This section consists of five main parts. The first part plants should be seeded in spring and early in sunlner.
discusses gen i.-. practices of good soil tm:ia ,innt.i In The cool-season plants should be seeded in September and
the second part, after the nationwide system of capability early in October.
classification is explained, the soils of the county are Fertilization.--Legumes ought to be fertilized at the
placed in capability units, or management groups, and use time of planting with 25 to 30 pounds of phosphate and
and management for these groups of soils are discussed. 50 to 60 pounds of potash per acre. Nonlegumes need a
The third part consists of a table that gives, for each soil, minimum of 45 to 60 pounds of nitrogen, 20 pounds of
estimated yields for crops and pasture under two levels phosphate, and 40 pounds of potash per acre. Fertilizer
of management. The fourth part discusses woodland left by preceding crops frequently furnishes enough phos-
management, and the fifth, engineering interpretations. phate and potash, and additions of these nutrients are not
needed every season.
General Practices of Soil Management 3 Fertilizer should be applied on all cropland, for the soils
in the county are naturally low in plant nutrients. Addi-
Soils planted to cultivated crops and those planted to tions of fertilizer increase yields and the amount of crop
pasture plants need to be managed so that the productivity residue as well. The needs of d fferenict crops vary, but
of the soils is maintained. The soils must be conserved, you can find out how much fertilizer is needed for each
3 This section was written bv H. E. VAN ARSDALL, management crop and how it should be applied from the county agri-
agronomist, DAVID P. POWELL, assistant State soil scientist, and cultural agent or the University of Florida Agricultural
B. P. THOMAs, soil scientist, Soil Conservation Service. Experiment Stations.








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

Legumes use large amounts of phosphate and potash,
and nonlegumes need nitrogen in addition to phosphate
and potash. Because nitrogen is retained in the soil for
only a short time, apply just enough of this nutrient to
supply the need of the crop being grown. Some of the
more productive soils in the county can retain phosphate
and potash. Soils ought to be tested so that you know .at'l,,
the kinds and amounts of nutrients needed by individual
crops on specific soils. -
Ero.sioI. control.-Surface runoff on bare soils must be
controlled so that it does not wash away the soil. If run-
off is slowed, the hazard of erosion is reduced and the water
has more tine to soak into the soil. Terraces, contour
cultivation, and wide strips of h,.---r,',wing vegetation
are colinlo lly used to control ftI',ir a; ii C.r'sion.l
Terraces of the channel type are suited to most of the
better soils in the county that have uniform slopes of not
more tha n S percent. This kind of terrace is ntade by -
d iil a broad, shallow channel and, with the spoil, fornm- Figure 4.--Unprotected, badly eroded natural draw.
iug a broad-based ridge on the lower side. These terraces
should be nearly level and constructed across the slope.
They intercept the water moving down the slope and con- f
duct it from the field slowly. The spacing of the terraces -
varies according to the kind of soil and the slope. Ter- 'd
races alle generally 50 to 110 feet apart. The water from
the terraces should be discharged into well-stabilized
waterways or into areas with dlese vegetation. Figure 3
shows a step in the construction of a channel-type terrace.




7,
I qP



Figure 5.-Natural draw protected by a good sod provides a safe
waterway.


5 The furrows act as individual small terraces that slow the
S water as it moves down tile slope a11d at the saiime time,
I-' '-. A '. the water is carried across the slope. In the gently
."- .-l i' Ae e :d ti..,I, more porous sandy soils, onto ur cultivation is
Figure 3.-Checking the construction of a channel-type terrace in generally sufficient to control runoff water. On other
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. soils contotlr cultivalionl is needed as a supplement to
terraces. Oin the field shown in figure 6, the contour fur-
rows are plowed across the slope and parallel to terraces.
Natural draws make the best waterways. If draws are Water is also intercepted and spread by wide strips of
not available, dig wide, shallow channels and protect them close-growing vegetation planted at intervals across the
with sod or other close-growing vegetation. These slope. These strips supplement terraces and contour
channels should be stabilized before water is discharged cultivation. W11hen they alternate with strips of row
into them. To prevent channel cutting, the gradient and crops (fig. 7), they imllJrove the soil.
capacity of waterways should be determined by consider- Irrigation.-Although rainfall is generally adequate to
ing the characteristics of the soil and the volume of water supply the moisture needs of most general crops, the use
that will be dlisloa rg..ed from the terraces. Figure 4 shows of sprinklers to irrigate crops of high value is increasing.
a natural draw that is not protected by vegetation, and Irrigation is profitable only at a high level of management
figure 5 shows one that is well protected. that provides for the addition of large amounts of manure
In contour cultivation, the furrows are plowed across and commercial fertilizer, tile return of crop residue to
the slope in the same direction that the terraces extend. the soil, and the planting of cover crops.







6 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5














WY-.-
n ... -- -" -i-










Figure 8.-This farm pond stores water for irrigation, helps control
Figure 6.-Soil plowed on the contour. downstream floods, and is an excellent fish pond.


where the water can be disposed safely. Although
erosion is generally not a problem, cover crops and sod
should be used to supply organic mat ter. The soils also
need applications of fertilizer and lime.
Pasture
Good pasture ser ves several purposes. Its sod protects
Sthe soil against erosion ; it supplies food for livestock; and
it improves the soil by adding organic matter and making
S the soil more porous.

County. The warmn-season plants, bahsiagrass aid im-
proved strains of berimudagrass, have a wide range of
suitability. They produce large amounts of Fi.cai even
on soils that are drought to slightly wet. White clover,
sweet clover, and crimson clover are grown in mixtures
with bahiagrass and bermnudagrass, but they are difficult
Figure 7.-Strip of mixed Pensacola bahiagrass and indigo is to maintain when they are grown with bahiagrass for
effective in reducing runoff and erosion on gently sloping loamy extended periods. Improved bermudagrass responds to
sands. large applications of fertilizer. Bahiagrass grows well on
soils of niedium fertility.
Water for irrigation can be stored in small farm ponds Tall fescue, which is a cool-season grass, is suited to
that are constructed in natural drains having small water- soils having a good available moisture-holding capacity.
sheds. The pond site should be carefully studied because, Most of its growth is at times when other grasses are
before a site is selected, it is necessary to know the suitabil- dormant. It needs medium to large applications of
ity of the foundation material, tihe amount of water fertilizer. Regular additions of fertilizer and lime are
available, and the storage capacity of the proposed pond. profitable on all pasture.
Dams and spillways should be carefully designed and Grass-clover pasture can be grown oni soils that have a
constructed. Figure 8 shows a small pond in Gadsden good available moisture-holding capacity or a hight water
County. table. Additions of phosphate and p)otaslh stimulate
Artificial drainage.-Somie moderately well drained good growth of clovers. Nitrogen added in summer
soils that have a perched water table or slow internal increases the growth of grasses. Droughty soils that are
drainage, or both, may be excessively wet at times. not suited to clovers but are suited to grasses should be
These soils can be drained by properly installed tile lines. fertilized with nitrogen, phosphate, and potaslh. The
A system of tile lines consists of a main line that has grazing capacity on these pastures depends to a large
laterals spaced 60 to 120 feet apart. The tile should be extent on the amount of fertilizer applied.
laid at depths of 2/?' to 4,2 feet. Before deciding on the Most soils in the county need to be limed if tihe growth
spacing and depth of the tile, determine the permlneability of pasture plants, particularly clovers, is to be satis-
and slope of the soil and the height of the water table. factory. The amount and frequency of aplpliction
Manv wet soils are highly productive if water is con- should be determined by soil tests.
trolled. Low-lying, land-locked areas must be provided Grazing needs to be regulated so that pasture plants
with surface drainage. Generally the main problems is have time to recover after they are grazed. The grazing
locating or constructing outlet ditches and finding areas should be regulated with the purpose of producing the







GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

most forage and conserving the soil. Figure 9 shows a Excessively drained soils on slopes are generally both
well-nmanaged pasture on which the steeply sloping class drought and subject to erosion; many soils that have
VI soils are protected. poor soil qualities also have seasonal problems of excess
water; and many perpetually wet soils have serious limi-
tations even if adequately drained. These soils with two
kinds of limitations are placed in units that have two
small letters dl-iiiiitini.r the subclass. The first letter
stands for the limitation that is the more severe.
In class there are no subclasses, because the soils of
this class have few or no limitations. Class V can
contain, at the most, only subelasses w, s, and c, because
the soils in it have little or no erosion hazard iut have
other limitations that limit their use largely to pasture,
range, woodland, or wildlife food and cover.
Within the subclasses are the capability units, groups
: of soils enough alike to be suited to the same crops and
s.e- .ad.-,. pasture plants, to require similar management, and to
have similar productivity and otlier responses to man-
.a agement. Thus, the cal ability unit is a convenient
S.. grouping of soils for many statements about their man-
i. *. iagement. Capability units are generally identified by
-I numbers assigned locally, for example, Ile- 1 or Ille-2.
Figure 9.-Well-managed pasture on Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston Soils are classified in capability classes, subclasses and
complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes. Class VI land. units in accordance with the degree and kind of their
permanent limitations; but without consideration of
Capability Groups of Soils 4 major and generally expensive land-forming that would
change the slope, depth, or other characteristics of the
The capability classification is a grouping of soils that soil; and without consideration of possible, but unlikely,
shows, in a general way, how suitable they are for most major reclamation projects.
kinds of farming. It is a practical grouping based on The capability classes, subclasses, and units in this
limitations of the soils, the risk of damage when they are county are described in the list that follows.
nused,s system Ial they k s of soilare g pedd tt three Class I.-Soils that have few limitations that restrict their
In this system ill tile kinds of soil are grouped at three use.
levels, the capability class, subclass, and unit. The e.Unit : Nearly level well-drained, de
eight capability classes in the broadest grouping are sils that have a loamy surface soil and a
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. In ol
class I are the soils that have few limitations, the widest friable, moderately ereble, claey subsoils
range of use, and the least risk of damage when they are Unit 1: Nea l evel, well-drained dee soils
used. The soils in the other classes have progressively that have a loamy surface soil and a mod-
preater natural limitations. In class VIII are soils and erately slowly permeable, clayey subsoil.
landfonrs so rough, shallow, or otherwise limited that Class II.-Soils that have some limitations that reduce
they do not produce worthwhile yields of crops, pasture, the choice of plants or require moderate conservation
or wood products. Gadsden County has no class VIII practices.
soils. Subclass IIe: Well-drained soils that have wide
The subclasses indicate major kinds of limitations crop suitability but are subject to moderate
within the classes. Within most of the classes there can erosion and need protection when cultivated.
be as many as four subclasses. The subclass is indicated Unit IIe-1: Gently sloping, well-drained,
by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or c to the class numeral, uneroded to moderately eroded, deep soils
for example, IIe. The letter e shows that the main that have a loamv surface soil and a well-
limitation is risk of erosion unless close-growinlg plant developed, moderately permeable, clayey sub-
cover is maintained; w means that water in or on the soil soil.
will interfere with plant growth or cultivation (in some Unit IIe-2: Gently sloping, well-drained,
soils the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial uneroded to moderately eroded, deep soils
drainage); s shows that the soil is limited mainly because that have a loamy surface soil and a moderately
it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used only in some slowly permeable, clayey subsoil.
parts of the country and not in Gadsden County, indi- Subclass Ilse: Well-drained soils that impose a
cates that the chief limitation is climate that is too cold few limitations on choice of plants because of
or too dry. soil qualities and make necessary simple practices
Most soils of Gadsden County have two kinds of limi- of erosion control.
stations that affect use and management about equally. Unit IIse-l: Nearly level to gently sloping,
This subsection was written by W. H. BUCKHANNAN, soil well-drained, uneroded to moderately eroded,
specialist, DAVID P. POWELL. asst. State soil scientist, and B. P. deep soils that have a thick, sandy surface
THOMAS, soil scientist, Soil Conservation Service. soil and a friable, clayey subsoil.


581618-61-2







8 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5
Subclass IIsw: Moderately well drained and some- range of crop suitability but are subject to a
what poorly drained soils on which choice of severe hazard of erosion if cultivated.
crops is slightly restricted because of very sandy Unit IVe-l: Sloping, severely eroded soils and
texture; seasonally wet. strongly sloping, slightly to modertely eroded
Unit IIsw-1: Nearly level soils in depressions soils that are well drained and deep. They
that are flooded occasionally. have a loamy surface soil and a moderately
Unit IIsw-2: Nearly level to gently sloping, permeable, clayey subsoil.
moderately well drained, deep soils that have Unit IVe-2: Sloping, severely eroded soils and
a sandy surface soil and a moderately to slowly strongly sloping, slightly to moderately eroded
permeable, clayey subsoil. soils that are well drained and deep. They
Class III.-Soils that have severe limitations that reduce have a loamy surface soil and a moderately
the choice of plants, or that require special conservation slowly permeable, clayey subsoil.
practices, or both. Subclass IVes: Well-drained soils that have a severe
Subclass IIIe: Well-drained soils that have wide hazard of erosion if cultivated and are somewhat
crop suitability but are subject to moderately limited in crop suitability by a low available
severe erosion if cultivated, moisture-holding capacity and low inherent fer-
Unit IIIe-1: Sloping, uneroded to moderately utility.
eroded, well-drained, deep soils that have a Unit IVes-1: Strongly sloping, slightly to
loamy surface soil and a moderately permeable, moderately eroded, well-drained, deep soils
friable, clayey subsoil. that have a thick, sandy surface soil and a
Unit IIIe-2: Sloping, uneroded to moderately friable, clayey subsoil.
eroded, well-drained, deep soils that havela Unit IVes-2: Sloping, slightly to moderately
loamy surface soil and a moderately slowly eroded, well-drained soils that have a loamy
permeable, clayey subsoil. or sandy surface soil and a dense clay subsoil.
Subclass IlIes: Well-drained soils that have a Subclass IVse: Well-drained soils that have severe
moderately severe hazard of erosion when culti- limitations because of a low available moisture-
vated and slight limitations in crop suitability holding capacity, low inherent fertility, and a
because of limited available moisture-holding ca- severe hazard of erosion if cultivated.
pacity and low natural fertility. Unit IVse-1: Sloping, slightly to moderately
Unit IIIes-1: Sloping, slightly eroded, well- eroded, well-drained, deep, very rapidly per-
drained, deep soils that have a thick, sandy meable, loamy sands more than 30 inches thick.
surface soil and a friable, clayey subsoil. Unit IVse-2: Nearly level to gently sloping,
Unit IIIes-2: Gently sloping, well-drained, well-drained to excessively drained, strongly
slightly eroded soils that have a loamy or acid, very drought, deep sands.
sandy surface soil and a dense clay subsoil. Unit IVse-3: Sloping, slightly to moderately
Subclass IIIse: Well-drained soils that have severe wet, strongly acid, rapidly permeable, deep
limitations because of a low available moisture- sands or loamy sands.
holding capacity, low inherent fertility, and a Subclass IVws: Poorly drained and very poorly
moderate risk of erosion. drained soils that have a very low available
Unit IIIse-1: Nearly level to gently sloping, moisture-holding capacity and very low fertility.
slightly eroded, well-drained, deep, very Unit IVws-1: Nearly level, moderately wet to
rapidly permeable loamy sands more than 30 wet soils that have sandy to loamy surface soil
inches thick. and a slowly permeable, clayey subsoil.
Unit IIIse-2: Nearly level to gently sloping, Unit IVsw-1: Nearly level to gently sloping,
very rapidly permeable, deep sands with sandy moderately wet to wet, strongly acid, rapidly
texture throughout, permeable, deep, sandy soils.
Unit IIIse-3: Nearly level to gently sloping, Class V.-Soils that have little or no erosion hazard but
slightly to moderately wet, strongly acid, have other limitations that are impractical to remove
rapidly permeable, deep sarids. that limit their use largely to pasture, range, woodland,
Subclass IIIws: Poorly drained and very poorly or wildlife food and cover.
drained soils that have a low available moisture- Subclass Vws: Wet soils that can be used for pasture
holding capacity, have low fertility, or deteriorate or woods.
rapidly when drained. Unit Vws-1: Nearly level, wet soils that have a
Unit IIIws-1: Nearly level to gently sloping, thin, loamy surface soil and a plastic, slowly
strongly acid, wet soils that have a sandy or permeable clay subsoil.
loamy surface soil and a slowly permeable, Unit Vws-2: Nearly level and gently sloping,
clayey subsoil. slightly wet to wet, deep sands.
Unit IIIws-2: Nearly level, very wet, black, Class VI.-Soils that have severe limitations that make
acid, deep, sandy soils that are high in organic them generally unsuited for cultivation and limit their
matter. use largely to pasture or range, woodland, or wildlife
Class IV.--Soils that have very severe limitations that food and cover.
restrict the choice of plants, or that need very careful Subclass Vies: Sloping soils on which the hazard of
management, or both. erosion is great and use is somewhat limited by
Subclass IVe: Well-drained soils that have a wide inherent soil characteristics.







GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

Unit VIes-1: Strongly sloping, well-drained, other cool-season plants. Warm-season plants that grow
deep, moderately to severely eroded soils that well are bahiagrass and improved bermnudagrass. Pas-
have a loamy surface soil and a moderately ture plants need large amounts of fertilizers.
permeable, clayey subsoil. These soils are not extensive. Most areas are cleared
Unit VIes-2: Strongly sloping, slightly to mod- and cultivated or are in pasture. The native vegetation
erately eroded, well drained to moderately was a mixed growth of pines and hardwoods, which are
well drained soils that have a loamy surface well suited to these soils.
soil and a very slowly permeable, clayey Odd corners and inaccessible areas of these soils can
subsoil, be managed so that they produce food and cover for
Subclass Vise: Soils that have severe limitations wildlife.
because of low available moisture-holding capacity, CAPABILITY UNIT I-2
low inherent fertility, and a severe risk of erosion. In this capability unit are nearly level, well-drained,
Unit VIse-1: Sloping or strongly sloping, deep, acid soils that have a loamy fine sand surface
slightly to moderately eroded, well-drained layer, 10 to 18 inches thick. The subsoil is friable sandy
to excessively drained, strongly acid, deep clay loam to sandy clay, 30 to 54 inches thick. It is
sands. underlain by unconsolidated parent materials of mod-
Class VII.-Soils that have very severe limitations that erately friable to firm sandy clay loam and sandy clay.
make them unsuited for cultivation and that restrict Permeability is moderately slow. The available moisture-
their use largely to grazing, woodland, or wildlife food holding capacity is high, and the soils are well aerated.
and cover. They are low in most plant nutrients but retain fertilizer
Subclass VIIes: Steeply sloping soils with very low well, and in forms available to plants. Generally they
fertility and a very low available moisture-holding are slightly more productive than soils of capability
capacity. unit I-1. These soils are:
Unit VIIes-1: Strongly sloping, severely eroded Carnegie loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
and steep, slightly or moderately eroded, well- Faceville loamy fine sand, O to 2 percent slopes.
drained soils that have a sandy to clayey Magnolia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
surface soil and a clayey subsoil. Tifton loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
Unit VIIes-2: Steep, well drained to moder- Use and management.-These are the most productive
ately well drained soils that have a sandy or soils in the county for tilled crops. They are very well
loamy surface soil and a very slowly permeable, suited to all of the crops grown in the county, particularly
clayey subsoil, shade tobacco. Partly because of their high capacity to
retain available moisture, they generally do not need to
CAPABILITY UNIT I-1 be irrigated except where shade tobacco and truck crops
In this capability unit are nearly level, well-drained, are grown. Planting of cover crops and use of crop
deep soils that have a loamy fine sand surface layer, 12 residue will maintain organic matter and keep production
to 18 inches thick. The subsoil is friable sandy loam to high.
sandy clay loam, 30 to 48 inches thick. It is underlain These soils are well suited to most grasses and legumes
by unconsolidated parent materials of moderately friable grown in the county. If fertilizer is applied, tall fescue,
to firm sandy clay loam. Though it is not so high as in white clover, crimson clover, sweet clover and other
the soils of capability unit 1-2, the available moisture- cool-season plants grow well. Warm-season grasses,
holding capacity of these soils is high. Aeration is good. particularly improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are
These soils are low in most plant nutrients but retain well suited to soils of this unit. They produce large
fertilizer well, and in forms that plants can use. The quantities of hay or pasture if the soils are fertilized and
soils in this unit are: limed. To establish and maintain good pasture, prepare
a l y fe 0 to 2 p t s, a firm seedbed, plant enough seed or sprigs, choose
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, suitable plants, and apply enough lime and fertilizer.
Norfolk loamy fine sand, pebbly, 0 to 2 percent slopes. The soils in this unit are inextensive. Most areas are
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, cleared and are cultivated or in pasture. These cleared
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, areas used to be covered with excellent stands of mixed
Ruston loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, pines and hardwoods. Most wooded areas of this unit
Use and management.-These soils are among the most are small and included with larger areas of wooded soils
productive in the county. They are well suited to all in capability units IIe-2 and IIIe-2. They need about
crops grown in the area, including shade tobacco. Partly the same woodland management as the soils in those units.
because of their high moisture-supplying capacity, these Practices of wildlife management are also similar to those
soils generally do not need irrigation, except for tobacco, for the soils in capability units IIe-2 and IIIe-2.
truck crops, and other crops of high value. Apply large
amounts of fertilizer regularly for high yields. Plant CAPABILITY UNIT Ie-1
cover crops and use crop residues to maintain organic In this capability unit are gently sloping, well-drained,
matter and good tilth. deep, acid soils that normally have a fine sandy loam or
These soils are well suited to most pasture grasses and fine sandy clay loam subsoil. The surface layer is loamy
legumes grown in the county. If fertilizer and lime are fine sand or loamy sand, 4 to 18 inches thick. The sub-
added, both cool-season and warm-season plants grow soil is friable and normally is 30 to 48 inches thick.
well. Cool-season plants that may be used are tall These soils are low in most plant nutrients but retain
fescue, white clover, crimson clover, and sweet clover, fertilizer in a form that plants can use. Though water
White clover may be injured by drought more often than moves freely through them, these soils have a high avail-







10 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

able moisture-holding capacity. The erosion hazard is Magnolia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
slight to moderate. Some of the soils are moderately Magnolia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
eroded. The soils in this unit are: Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes Use and management.-These soils are well suited to all
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.
Norfolk loamy fine sand, pebbly, 2 to 5 percent slopes, crops grown in the county, including shade tobacco. Where
Norfolk loamy fine sand, pebbly, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded, cultivated, they need protection from erosion. Use a
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. cropping system that provides for cover crops at least half
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded. the time and for a water-disposal system that has terraces
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded. and stabilized outlets. Keep the content of organic matter
Ruston loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, high by planting green-manure crops and conserving all
Ruston loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded, crop residue. Alternate from pasture to crops to obtain
Zuber loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, high yields. Pasture should be on these soils at least 2
Use and management.-These soils are among the most successive years, and cultivated crops not more than 2
productive in the county. They are very well suited to successive years. Because ot the capacity of these soils
all crops grown in the area, including shade tobacco. to retain moisture, irrigation generally is not needed.
Partly because the available water-holding capacity is Sprinkler irrigation is desirable on soils planted to tobacco
high, most crops grow well without irrigation. Shade and truck crops, because sprinlders maintain uniform
tobacco and truck crops should be irrigated by sprinklers. moisture and thus assure optimum growth.
Though they are on gentle slopes and have good tilth, The soils in this unit are well suited to most pasture
these soils erode if unprotected. The cropping systems grasses and legumes grown in the county. Both cool-
should provide cover crops at least half of the time. season and warm-season pasture plants grow well if the
These soils need a complete system of water disposal soils are fertilized and limed. Tall fescue, white clover,
that includes terraces and vegetated outlets, crimson clover, and sweet clover are suitable cool-season
Plow cover crops and all residue into the soils to help plants. Bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass are
to maintain organic matter and good tilth. When suitable warm-season plants. Large applications of
pasture and cultivated crops are alternated, pasture fertilizer are needed if yields are to be optimum. These
should be on these soils for at least 2 successive years, soils need normal practices of good pasture management.
and tilled crops should not be grown more than 2 sue- These are excellent soils for trees; both pines and hard-
cessive years. woods grow rapidly.
These soils are well suited to most pasture grasses and Wildlife management consists mostly of providing field
legumes grown in the county. Both cool-season and borders and food strips for wildlife in areas where the soils
warm-season plants grow well if the soils are fertilized in this unit are cultivated.
and limed. Suitable cool-season plants are tall fescue,
white clover, crimson clover, and sweet clover. White CAPABILITY UNIT Hse--
clover may be damaged by drought more often than In this capability unit are deep, well-drained, nearly level
other cool-season plants. Bahiagrass and improved and gently sloping soils on uplands. These soils have a
bermudagrass are suitable warm-season plants. To pro- loamy sand surface layer, 18 to 30 inches thick. The sub-
duce high yields of pasture plants, apply fairly large soil is friable, porous, well-aerated sandy loam or sandy
amounts of fertilizer. clay loam, 30 to 60 inches thick. It normally is underlain
Most of the acreage of these soils is cleared and in by sandy clay loam parent material. Permeability is rapid
cultivated crops or pasture. The native vegetation was in the surface soil and moderate in the subsoil. The
a mixed growth of pines and hardwoods, which are available moisture-holding capacity ranges from low in
trees well suited to these soils, the surface soil to moderately high in the subsoil. These
Odd corners and inaccessible areas of these soils may soils are strongly acid and are moderately low in organic
be managed so that they provide food and cover for matter. They have low natural fertility but respond well
wildlife, to fertilizer. The soils in this unit are:
CAPABILITY UNIT Ie-2
SINorfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
In this capability unit are deep, acid, well-drained Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
soils that have a loamy fine sand surface layer measuring Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, pebbly, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
3 to 18 inches in thickness. Most of these soils are Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, pebbly, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
gently sloping; some are moderately eroded. The surface Orangeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
Orangeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
layer grades to a friable sandy clay loam to sandy clay Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
subsoil that is 30 to 48 inches thick. It is underlain by Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
unconsolidated parent material of moderately friable to Use and management.-If they are intensively managed,
firm sandy clay loam and sandy clay. Permeability is these soils produce high yields. Maintain their supply of
moderately slow, and the available moisture-holding organic matter by planting green-manure crops and
capacity is high. These soils are well aerated throughout. conser all crop residues Keep cover crops on them
They are low in most plant nutrients but retain fertilizers conserving all crop residues. Keep cover crops on them
They are low in most plant nutrients but retain fertizers at least half of the time. Alternate improved pasture and
well in a form that plants can use. Tey are moderately cultivated crops, and keep well-managed pasture with full
susceptible to erosion. The soils in this unit are: sod on the soils at least 2 in every 4 years. Terraces are
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, frequently needed, though these soils are not so susceptible
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded to erosion as those in capability unit IIe-2. All terraces
Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded. should drain into well-stabilized outlets. These soils are
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, eroded. suited to shade tobacco. This crop and other crops of








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 11

high value need to be irrigated and highly fertilized if have a loamy sand to loamy fine sand surface layer, 10 to
yields are to be high. 30 inches thick. The surface layer grades to a friable fine
The soils in this unit are well-suited to most of sandy loam or fine sandy clay loam subsoil, 18 to 30 inches
the pasture grasses and legumes grown in the county, thick. The subsoil is underlain by moderately permeable
If they are well fertilized and limed, they produce satis- to slowly permeable sandy clay loam. The root zone is
factory yields of suitable plants. Crimson clover and moderately deep to deep. In some soils the restricted
sweet clover are suitable cool-season plants, but these drainage is caused by the slowly permeable subsoil, and
soils are too sandy and too drought to be well suited to in others it is caused by a high water table that lies above
fescue and white clover. Bahiagrass and bermudagrass impervious layers deep in the substratum. These soils
are suitable warm-season plants. Pasture plants need have moderately high available moisture-holding capacity
large amounts of fertilizer. They also need normal and low natural fertility. They are:
practices of good pasture management. Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
These soils are well suited to pine and hardwood trees. Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Wildlife management consists chiefly of providing field Goldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
borders and food strips for wildlife in areas of these soils Goldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Izagora loamy fine sand.
that are mostly in crops and pasture. Izagora loamy fine sand.
Use and management.-If they are fertilized and other-
CAPABILITY UNIT iisw-1 wise well managed, these soils are well suited to crops that
Hannahatchee soils, local alluvium, are the only soils tolerate slight wetness. They are best suited to corn,
in this capability unit. These soils are deep, acid, and small grains, and truck crops. If adequately drained,
moderately well drained. They consist of recently de- they are well suited to tobacco. Simple practices of sur-
posited alluvial-colluvial material and are in depressions face drainage are generally enough to prevent damage to
and shallow drainageways. They generally occur in small most crops, but tile drains are needed for tobacco. Where
areas surrounded by soils from which their soil material tile drains are used, sprinklers are needed to irrigate to-
was transported. Normally, they are more fertile and bacco and other crops of high value.
have better moisture relations than the surrounding soils. Management on these soils should provide green-manure
Their surface layer is 18 to 23 inches thick in most places. crops, the use of crop residue, fertilization, and liming.
It ranges from fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam. Many of the larger, steeper areas need terraces that have
Their subsoil is normally fine sandy clay loam. These stabilized outlets. The cropping system should include
soils are flooded occasionally. They have high available cover crops at least half of the time or provide pasture
moisture-holding capacity and are permeable to water, alternating with tilled crops. The pasture ought to
air, and roots. They respond well to fertilizer, produce a full sod and be kept on these soils 2 in every 4
Use and management.-These soils are well suited to the years. Before a tilled crop is planted, the sod crop should
general crops grown in the county. They are better be worked into the soils. Grow cover crops between suc-
suited to cultivation than their surrounding soils and cessive clean-tilled crops.
respond better to similar management. Crops, however, These soils are well suited to most pasture plants grown
are damaged occasionally by runoff from adjacent slopes. in the county. Suitable cool-season plants are fescue,
Where adequate outlets can be installed, excess water can crimson clover, white clover, and sweet clover. Suitable
be removed by simple artificial drainage. Clean-tilled warm-season plants are bahiagrass and bermudagrass
crops should be alternated with green-manure crops and Pasture plants need large applications of fertilizer if yields
should not occupy these soils more than half of the time. are to be high. They also need normal practices of good
All crops residue should be plowed under. In a cropping pasture management.
system that includes improved pasture, keep well-managed These soils are well suited to pine trees. Undisturbed
sod crops on these soils at least 2 in every 4 years. Yields areas of these soils provide shelter and a small amount of
are increased by large applications of fertilizer, food for many kinds of wildlife. If food plants are planted
These soils are well suited to improved pasture of all in the open areas, the undisturbed area will support more
locally grown plants. These plants do well if the soils wildlife. Wildlife management in farmed areas provides
are well fertilized and limed and if grazing is controlled, field borders and food strips.
Suitable cool-season plants are crimson clover, sweet
clover, white clover, and fescue. Pensacola bahiagrass CAPABILITY UNIT IIe-1
and bermudagrass are the most widely grown warm-season In this capability unit are well-drained, deep, acid soils
grasses. Pasture on these soils needs normal practices of that have a loamy fine sand or loamy sand surface layer,
good soil management. 4 to 18 inches thick. The subsoil is friable fine sandy
Because, normally, they are in small areas, these soils loam or sandy clay loam, normally 30 to 48 inches thick.
need to be considered with adjacent soils when woodland These soils are low in most plant nutrients, but retain fer-
management is planned. Nevertheless, they are well tilizers well in a form that plants can use. Though water
suited to slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines and to various moves freely through them, they have a high available
species of hardwoods, moisture-holding capacity. These soils are highly sus-
Most of the acreage in these soils is in well-developed ceptible to erosion. A few small areas are severely eroded.
farming areas and is used for improved pasture and tilled The soils in this unit are:
crops. Small areas are suited to plants that supply food Norfolk loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
for wildlife. Norfolk loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
CAPABILITY UNIT IIsw-2 Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
This capability unit consists of moderately well drained, ngebug loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
Thacid ois thcapability unit consists raly slop ing. They Red Bay fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, severely eroded.
acid soils that are nearly level to gently sloping. They Red Bay loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.








12 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

Red Bay loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded. Also needed is a complete system of water disposal that
Ruston loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded. provides terraces and vegetated outlets. Plant crops in
Ruston loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
Zuber loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, strips across the slope. To help maintain organic matter
Use and management.--These soils are well suited to and tilth, plow or disk into the soils covei crops, green-
most general crops and to shade tobacco, but strong slopes manure crops, and all crop residues.
and the erosion hazard restrict their use. Because the These soils are well suited to most locally grown pas-
available water-holding capacity is high, irrigation is not ture grasses and legumes. Both cool-season and warm-
needed for most crops. Areas in shade tobacco and truck seasn plants grow well if the soils are fertilized and
crops, however, need to be irrigated with sprinklers. Be- limed. Suitable cool-season plants are tall fescue, white
cause they erode if unprotected, these soils need intensive clover, crimson clover, and sweet clover. Bahiagrass and
management if they are cultivated. The cropping system bermudagrass are suitable warm-season plants. Because
should provide cover crops or pasture at least two-thirds these soils are highly erodible, they need pasture plants
of the time. Also needed is a complete system of water that orma full sod soon after seeding. Large appca-
disposal that includes terraces and vegetated outlets, tions of fertilizer are practical because response to
Plowing or disking cover crops and crop residue into the fertilizer is good.
soils will help to maintain organic matter and good tilth. These soils are excellent for pine and hardwood trees.
These soils are well suited to most pasture grasses and Small areas and odd corners of these soils can be managed
legumes grown in the county. Both cool-season and to provide cover and food for wildlife.
warm-season plants grow well if the soils are fertilized and CAPABILITY UNIT mes-i
limed. Suitable cool-season plants are tall fescue, white n i ii ni in -
clover, crimson clover, and sweet clover. White clover In this capability unit are sloping, deep, well-drained
may be damaged by drought more often than other cool- soils on uplands. These soils are slightly eroded and, if
season plants. Bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass cultivated, are susceptible to moderately severe erosion.
season plants. Bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass They are more susceptible than the soils in capability
are suitable warm-season plants. Because these soils are unit IIIse-1. They have a loamynt surface layer, 18
highly erodible, they need pasture plants that form a full to 30 inches thick. The subsoil is friable, porous, well-
sod soon after seeding. Pasture plants need fairly large to 30 inches thick. The subsoil is friable, porous, well-
sod soon after seeding. Pasture plants need fairly large aerated sandy loam or sandy clay loam, 30 to 60 inches
additions of fertilizer.
Most of the acreage of these soils is cleared and in culti- thick. It is underlain by sandy clay loam parent material.
ate cops or pasture These are excellent soils i efor pine These soils are rapidly permeable in the surface layer
antd hardwood trees h and moderately permeable in the subsoil. The available
Small areas and odd corners of these soils can be man- moisture-holding capacity is low in the surface layer and
aged to provide fond odd coers of these soils can be mandlife moderately high in the subsoil. The reaction is strongly
aged to provide food and cover for wildlifeacid. The content of organic matter and natural fer-
CAPABILITY UNIT me-2 utility are low, but response to fertilizer is good. The
In this capability unit are well-drained, deep, acid soils soils in this unit are:
that have a loamy fine sand surface layer, 3 to 18 inches Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
thick. The surface layer grades to a friable sandy clay Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, pebbly, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Orangeburg loamv sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
loam to sandy clay subsoil, 30 to 48 inches thick. The Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
subsoil is underlain by parent materials of moderately Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
friable to firm sandy clay loam and sandy clay Permeabil- Use and management.-Under good management these
ity is moderately slow. The available moisture-holding soils are suited to moderately intensive use for general
capacity is high. These soils are well aerated throughout crops. Good yields of most general crops can be obtained
the profile. They are low in most plant nutrients but if the content of organic matter is maintained and the soils
retain fertilizers well in a form that plants can use. are liberally fertilized and limed. Cropping systems
Some of the soils are eroded or severely eroded, and all should provide cover crops at least two-thirds of the time
are highly susceptible to erosion. The soils in this unit or should provide pasture alternating with tilled crops. The
are: soils should be in a full sod at least 4 in every 6 years. A
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. complete system of terraces and protected outlets is needed.
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded. Cultivate on the contour, and plant rotation crops in con-
Faceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent eroded. tour strips. Though most crops can be grown without
Magnolia fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, severely eroded. irrigation, crops of high value need sprinkler irrigation
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, that will maintain uniform moisture.
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded. These soils are well suited to pasture. Most warm-
Tifton loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded, season and cool-season grasses and legumes grown in
Use and management.-Most of the acreage has been Florida are suitable. Crimson clover and sweet clover
cleared and is in cultivated crops or pasture. The soils grow well, but the soils are too sandy and drought for
are suited to most general crops but, because of the ero- fescue and white clover. The most suitable warm-season
sion hazard, should be managed intensively. They are plants are bahiagrass and improved strains of bermuda-
too erodible to be safely used for shade tobacco. If crops grass. Pasture plants need to be well fertilized and limed.
of high value are grown, they should be irrigated with Soon after seeding, pasture needs to form a full sod that
sprinklers that are carefully controlled to prevent surface will prevent erosion. Control grazing to prevent the
runoff. Normally, general crops receive enough moisture stunting of the grasses.
without irrigation. The cropping system should provide These soils are well suited to pine and hardwood trees.
cover crops or pasture at least two-thirds of the time. Wildlife management consists mostly of planting odd cor-








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 13

ners and small areas to cover and food plants in areas that acid and are low in organic matter. The soils in this unit
are used mostly for crops and pasture. are:
Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
CAPABILITY UNIT mes-2 Eustis loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This capability unit consists of well-drained, acid soils. Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
These soils are gently sloping and only slightly eroded, Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Sare roLakeland loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
but they are very susceptible to erosion unless protected. Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
The surface soil is loamy fine sand to fine sandy loam, 6 Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
to 8 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sandy clay to fine Use and management.-These soils are moderately well
sandy clay loam, 12 to 30 inches thick. In the lower part, suited to most general crops but are not well suited to
the subsoil is slowly permeable and the rate of water in- shade tobacco. Yields are fair if management is intense.
take is slow. These soils contain little organic matter Maintain organic matter and fertility by returning all crop
and are low in natural plant nutrients. The soils in this residues to the soils, planting green-manure crops, and ap-
unit are: plying adequate fertilizer and lime. The cropping system
Cuthbert loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. should provide cover crops that occupy the soils at least
Sawyer loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, two-thirds of the time, or it should provide improved pas-
Shubuta fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, ture alternated with clean-tilled crops. The pasture needs
Use and management.-Most areas of these soils are well to be in full sod on these soils at least 4: in every 6 years.
suited to cultivated crops. The choice of crops is fairly Before planting the clean-tilled crops, plow under the sod.
narrow because of the shallow to moderately shallow root Plant annual cover crops after the tilled crops are har-
zone. Yields are low unless these soils are well managed. vested. Terraces are needed on the long slopes and should
Management should provide cover crops, the return of drain into stabilized outlets.
crop residue to the soils, and regular additions of lime These soils are suited to improved pasture of grass.
and fertilizer. Cultivated crops should not be grown Planting clover is risky because the soils are sandy and
more than one-third of the time. If tilled crops are alter- somewhat drought. Deep-rooting bahiagrass and im-
nated with pasture, the pasture should be on these soils 4 proved strains of bermudagrass grow well if these soils
in every 6 years. Where practical, establish a complete are well fertilized and limed and are otherwise well
system of water control that has terraces and stabilized managed. Management should provide a firm seedbed,
outlets. Keep a dense vegetative cover on areas not enough sprigs or seed, adequate fertilizer and lime, and
suited to terracing, such as small areas and areas that are controlled grazing.
dissected by natural draws and drainageways. These soils are well suited to pine trees. Longleaf and
Moderately good improved pasture can be grown on slash pines, as well as various species of hardwoods, grow
these soils. Most tame grasses that grow in the county naturally on these soils.
are suitable, but growth is stunted in dry seasons because In areas that are mostly in improved pasture and crops,
roots do not penetrate the soils deeply. Most legumes odd corners and small areas are planted to supply cover
are not well suited. The more drought-resistant ones, and food for wildlife. Undeveloped woods are well suited
however, can be grown successfully on the deeper soils if to wildlife and can be managed to support more animals
management is good. Soon after seeding, a full sod needs than they do. Lespedeza and other plants provide food
to form to prevent severe erosion while the pasture is being and cover, and they protect the soils as well.
established. Give special protection to active gullies by
diverting water and establishing a good sod. Prepare the CAPABILITY UNIT Ise-2
seedbed carefully. Use enough seed or sprigs, apply In this unit are deep to very deep, well-drained, sandy
adequate fertilizer and lime, and control grazing, soils that occur in high, broad areas on uplands and on
These soils are well suited to pine and hardwood trees, high stream terraces. These soils are nearly level to gently
Much of the acreage is cutover woodland of poor quality sloping and are only moderately susceptible to erosion.
that can be improved by good management. They have a surface layer of deep fine sand or sand more
Wooded areas can be managed to provide food and cover than 30 inches thick. They are very porous, are rapidly
for wildlife. Lespedeza and other plants that grow well permeable to water and air, and are low in available
on these soils will provide food for small wildlife. In ad- moisture-holding capacity. Consequently, these soils are
edition, these plants protect the soils. drought. They are low in natural fertility and organic
matter and are strongly acid. Plant nutrients leach
CAPABILITY UNIT IIse-l rapidly. The soils in this unit are:
In this unit are deep, well-drained, sandy soils that Huckabee fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
are in high, broad areas on uplands. These soils are un- Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
eroded or slightly eroded and are moderately susceptible
to erosion where cultivated. They have a deep, fine sand Use and management.-These soils need intensive man-
to loamy sand surface layer. They are porous and rapidly agement if they are cultivated. They are suited to water-
to loam sand surface layer. They are porous and rapidly melons, bright tobacco, and other specialized crops, as
permeable to water and air. The available-moisture well as to general crops. Cultivated crops need to be
holding capacity is low, and the soils are somewhat grown in a cropping system providing well-managed pas-
droughty in dry periods. The natural fertility is low, and ture or with crops that improve the soils. Keep pasture
added plant nutrients leach rapidly. In most places these or other cover crops on these soils at least two-thirds of
soils are underlain by fine sandy loam to sandy clay loam the time. In extensive fields, plant cultivated crops and
at depths of 30 to 60 inches. They are medium to strongly cover crops in alternate strips so that the soil is protected







14 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

against wind erosion. Partly because these soils are very CAPABILITY UNIT IHws-1
porous, cover crops provide adequate protection against In this capability unit are somewhat poorly drained
water erosion if cultivation is across the slope. Irrigation soils that have a high water table. These soils are wet
is desirable for special crops of high value, part of the time unless they are artificially drained.
These soils are moderately well suited to improved pas- Their surface layer consists of loamy sand, 7 to 18 inches
ture. Bahiagrass, lovegrass, and improved strains of ber- thick. It is underlain by a fine sandy clay loam subsoil,
mudagrass grow well. Grass-legume pastures are diffi- 16 to 24 inches thick. These soils have a moderate
cult to establish and maintain. Indigo, crotalaria, lupine, amount of organic matter and moderately low fertility.
and other upright growing legumes are suitable for improv- They have a high available moisture-holding capacity.
ing the soils before grass is planted. These legumes can The slopes are normally less than 2 percent, but in a few
be grown periodically with grass if the sod is scarified and places they range from 2 to 5 percent. The soils in this
grazing is closely regulated. Pasture management should unit are:
provide a firm seedbed, enough seed or sprigs, adequate Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing. Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
The native vegetation on these soils consists of open Lynchburg loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
stands of longleaf pine, scrub oaks, a few small shrubs, Lynchburg loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
and a ground cover of grasses and forbs. Use and management.-If they are fertilized and other-
Pine trees grow moderately well on these soils, but good wise well managed, these soils are well suited to crops
stands are obtained only by planting seedlings and pro- that tolerate wetness. Truck crops, potatoes, corn, small
testing them from fire and grazing. grains, and soybeans grow well. Maintain high fertility
Many kinds of native birds and animals live on unde- and organic matter by returning all crop residue to the
veloped areas of these soils. This wildlife can be increased soils, planting green-manure crops, and applying adequate
by growing food plants and following other good practices lime and fertilizer. Provide bedding of the soil and open
of wildlife management. ditches to drain surface water away quicldy. The crop-
ping system should provide cover crops that occupy the
CAPABILITY UNIT Ise-3 ils at least half the time. If cultivated crops are alter-
This capability unit consists of nearly level to gently nated with improved pasture, the soils should be kept in
sloping, moderately well drained, deep, sandy soils that pasture at least 2 years after each cultivation.
have a sand or loamy sand texture to depths of more than The soils of this unit are suited to most pasture grasses
30 inches. The available moisture-holding capacity, nat- and legumes grown in the county, but drains are needed
ural fertility, and the amount of organic matter are low. to remove water quickly in wet seasons. Both cool-
Reaction is strongly acid. Aeration is good. These soils season and warm-season plants grow well if the soils are
are porous and permeable. The depth to the water table fertilized and limed. Tall fescue, white clover, crimson
varies greatly but normally it is high enough to affect the clover, and sweet clover are suitable cool-season plants;
amount of moisture in the subsoil above 42 inches. Some bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass are suitable warm-
areas of these soils are in isolated areas surrounded by season plants. These soils need normal practices of good
areas of wetter or dryer soils. The soils in this unit are: pasture management.
Blanton fine sand, terrace, 0 to 5 percent slopes. These soils are well suited to pine trees. Undisturbed
Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, areas of these soils provide shelter and a small amount of
Blanton coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, food for many kinds of wildlife. If food plants are
Klej loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 2 percent slopes. planted in the open areas, the undisturbed areas will sup-
Klej sand, 0 to 5 Dercent slopes. port more wildlife than they do now. Wildlife manage-
Klej coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. ment in farmed areas provides field borders and food
Use and management.-These soils are only moderately strips. CAPABILITY UNIT IIw-
well suited to most general crops. They need intensive U
practices of soil improvement for good yields. Maintain This capability unit consists of poorly drained to very
fertility and organic matter by returning all crop residue poorly drained, dark-colored, acid soils. These soils are
to the soils, planting green-manure crops, and applying very wet most of the time unless they are artificially
adequate fertilizer and lime. The cropping system should drained. They have a black to very dark gray fne sand
provide cover crops, green-manure crops, or pasture at least and fine sandy loam surface layer, 8 to 18 inches thick.
two-thirds of the time. Before planting cultivated crops, The surface layer contains a large amount of organic
plow under crop residue; after cultivated crops are har- matter and nitrogen. The Rutlege soils have a sandy
vested, plant cover crops. Wetter soils that surround subsoil, and the Portsmouth soil has a fine sandy clay
areas of these soils need surface drainage in wet seasons. loam subsoil below depths of 10 to 18 inches. These
These soils are suited to improved pasture of grass. soils are very low in all plant nutrients except nitrogen.
Deep-rooting grasses grow well if these soils are fertilized They have a medium to high available moisture-holding
and limed and otherwise well managed. The roots of capacity. The slopes are normally less than 2 percent,
these grasses penetrate the moist zone above the water but in a few places they are slightly more than 5 percent.
table. The soils in this unit are:
These soils are well suited to pine trees, which grow Portsmouth fine sandy loam.
rapidly. Undeveloped areas of these soils are well suited Rutlege fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
to wildlife. These areas will support more wildlife than Rutlege fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
they do now if food plants are grown and other practices Use and management.-The soils in this unit are inex-
of wildlife management are followed. tensive. They are not well suited to general crops. If








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 15

drained and otherwise well managed, they can be culti- Pasture plants need large additions of fertilizer. Grazing
vated. They are suited to truck crops, but these crops should be controlled. These soils are well suited to pine
may be damaged by frost. Maintain fertility and increase and hardwood trees.
yields by applying lime and fertilizer. The cropping Undisturbed areas of these soils provide shelter for
system should provide cover crops of grasses and legumes many kinds of wildlife. If food plants are planted in
at least two-thirds of the time. Tilled crops should not open areas, the undisturbed areas will support more
be grown more than 1 in every 3 years, wildlife than they do now. Wildlife management in
If they are intensively managed, these soils are well farmed areas provides food strips and protection of the
suited to improved pasture. They need drains that re- area from fire.
move excess water after heavy rains. If they are ade- CAPABILITY UNIT IVe-2
quately limed and fertilized, these soils provide good winter This capability unit consists of well-drained, deep, acid
pasture of grass and clover. They are also well suited to soils that have a loamy fine sand or fine sandy loam surface
pasture of warm-season grasses. layer and a fine sandy clay loam to fine sandy clay sub-
The native vegetation consists of cypress and water- soil. These soils are slightly eroded to severely eroded
tolerant hardwoods. Undisturbed areas of these soils and are highly susceptible to further erosion. The
provide shelter and nesting places for many kinds of slightly eroded soils have a surface layer that is 6 to 18
wildlife. Many uncleared areas are best used as wildlife inches thick, but very little of the surface layer remains on
habitats. These areas can be managed to support more the severely eroded areas. The subsoil is generally 30 to
wildlife than they do now. 48 inches thick. These soils are low in most plant nutri-
ents but retain fertilizers well in a form that plants can
CAPABILITY UNIT e-1 use. Though permeability is moderately slow, the
This capability unit consists of well-drained, deep, available moisture-holding capacity is high. Aeration
acid soils that have a loamy fine sand or fine sandy loam is good. The soils in this unit are:
surface layer and a fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay
loam subsoil. These soils are slightly eroded to severely Carnegie fine sand 8 to percent slopes severely
eroded and are highly susceptible to further erosion, eroded.
The slightly eroded soils have a surface layer that is Faceville loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
10 to 18 inches thick, but very little of the surface layer Faceville fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, severely eroded.
remains on the severely eroded areas. The subsoil is Magnolia fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes, severely
Magnolia fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, severely
generally 30 to 48 inches thick. These soils are low in eroded.
most plant nutrients, but they retain fertilizers well in
a form that plants can use. Though water moves rapidly Use and management.-Much of the acreage of these
through them, they have a high available moisture- soils has been cleared and is cultivated or in pasture.
holding capacity. Aeration is good. The soils in this These soils need intensive management if they are culti-
unit are: vated. They are suited to a wide choice of crops but need
Sl f 8 t 1 p s large amounts of fertilizer to produce good yields. Be-
orfaebu loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. cause these soils are sloping and susceptible to erosion,
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes, they should be used mainly for pasture. Tilled crops
Red Bay fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, severely eroded, should not be grown more than 1 in every 4 years. Partly
Ruston loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes, because of their high water-holding capacity, these soils
Ruston fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, severely eroded. do not need irrigation for most crops. All natural draws
Use and management.-Much of the acreage has been and waterways where water accumulates should be kept
cleared and is cultivated or is in pasture. The soils need in close-growing, perennial vegetation. Planting cul-
intensive management if they are cultivated. They are tivated crops and close-growing crops in alternate strips
suited to a wide choice of crops but need large amounts across the slope will control erosion.
of fertilizer to produce good yields. Because they are These soils are well suited to most pasture grasses and
sloping and susceptible to erosion, these soils should be legumes grown in the county. If fertilizer and lime are
in close-growing crops most of the time. Cultivated added, both cool-season and warm-season plants grow
crops need to be grown in a cropping system that includes well. Cool-season plants that may be used are tall fescue,
a full grass sod or other effective cover and green-manure white clover, crimson clover, and sweet clover. Warm-
crops at least three-fourths of the time. All natural season plants that grow well are bahiagrass and improved
draws and waterways should be kept in close-growing, bermudagrass. To produce high yields of pasture plants,
perennial vegetation. Cultivated fields that have slopes apply fairly large amounts of fertilizer. These soils need
less than 8 percent should be terraced. To control normal practices of good pasture management.
erosion, plant cultivated crops and close-growing crops These soils are well suited to pine and hardwood trees.
in alternate strips across the slope. Undeveloped areas of these soils provide shelter for many
These soils are well suited to most pasture grasses and kinds of wildlife. If food plants are planted in open areas,
legumes grown in the county. If fertilizer and lime are the undeveloped areas will support more wildlife than they
added, both cool-season and warm-season plants grow do now. Wildlife management in farmed areas provides
well. Cool-season plants that may be used are tall food strips and protection of the area from fire.
fescue, white clover, crimson clover, and sweet clover.
White clover may be damaged by drought more often CAPABILITY UNIT IVes-I
than other cool-season plants. Warm-season plants that In this capability unit are well-drained, deep soils that
grow well are bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass. normally have a loamy sand surface layer, 18 to 30 inches







16 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

thick. The subsoil is friable, porous, well-aerated sandy quate fertilizer and lime. Cultivated crops should not
loam or sandy clay loam; it is underlain by sandy clay occupy these soils more than one-fourth of the time. Keep
loam parent material. The surface layer is rapidly these soils in well-managed pasture or close-growing cover
permeable, and the subsoil is moderately permeable. crops 6 in every 8 years.
The available moisture-holding capacity ranges from low These soils are moderately well suited to most locally
in the surface layer to moderately high in the subsoil, grown pasture plants. Bahiagrass and bermudagrass are
These soils are strongly acid, moderately low in organic suitable, but growth is retarded in dry seasons because the
matter, and low in natural fertility. They respond well roots do not penetrate deeply. Some of the more drought
to fertilizers. The soils in this unit are: resistant legumes can be grown on the deeper soils if they
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 8 to 12 percent slopes. are managed well. Because these soils are highly erodible,
Orangeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 8 to 12 percent slopes, pasture needs large additions of fertilizer and lime, diver-
Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 8 to 12 percent slopes. sion of water from active gullies until a full sod is formed,
Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes, and other good management.
Use and management.-If they are cultivated, these The native vegetation was a mixed growth of longleaf
soils need intensive management to control erosion. They pine, hickory, and oaks. These soils are well suited to
are suited to a wide choice of crops but need large additions pine trees.
of lime and fertilizer to produce good yields. Maintain Undisturbed areas of these soils are suited to wildlife
organic matter by returning crop residue to the soils and range. Lespedeza and other wildlife food plants produce
by planting green-manure crops and cover crops. Culti- well with good management. In farmed areas conditions
vated crops ought to be grown in a cropping system that for wildlife can be improved by providing borders and
provides a full grass sod at least 6 in every 8 years. Plant strips where they can feed.
cultivated crops and improved pasture in alternate strips
across the slope. Use the sod strips, which have been CAPABILITY UNIT IVse-1
accurately located, as guides for contour cultivation. All This capability unit consists of well-drained, deep, slop-
natural draws and waterways should be kept in close- ing and strongly sloping fine sands and loamy sands.
growing, perennial vegetation. These soils have a surface layer more than 30 inches thick.
These soils are well suited to most grasses and legumes Their subsoil is sandy loam to sandy clay loam. They are
grown in the county. If adequate fertilizer and lime are porous and well aerated throughout the profile. The
added, most warm-season plants and some cool-season available moisture-holding capacity is low, and the soils
plants grow well. Suitable cool-season plants are crimson are somewhat drought in dry seasons. Natural fertility
clover and sweet clover, but these soils are too sandy and is low and plant nutrients leach rapidly. The reaction is
too drought to grow fescue or white clover. Bahiagrass strongly acid, and the content of organic matter is low.
and improved bermudagrass are the warm-season grasses The soils in this unit are:
generally used. Apply fairly large amounts of fertilizer Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
to pasture. These soils need normal practices of pasture Eustis loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
management. Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Soils in this capability unit are well suited to pine and Lakeland loamy sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes.
hardwood trees. Undisturbed areas of these soils are well Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
suited to wildlife production. Lespedeza and other wild- Use and management.-If managed intensely to control
life food plants grow well under normal practices of wild- erosion, these soils can be cultivated occasionally. To
life management. They provide protection to the soil. maintain organic matter and produce good yields, plant
green-manure crops, return all crop residue to the soil, and
CAPABILITY UNIT IVes-2 apply adequate fertilizer and lime. Cultivated crops need
In this capability unit are the well-drained to moder- to be in a cropping system that provides improved pasture
ately well drained, gently sloping and sloping soils that at least three-fourths of the time, or 6 in every 8 years.
have a loamv fine sand surface layer, 6 to 14 inches thick. Plant cultivated crops and pasture in alternate strips
The subsoil is compact, slowly permeable sandy clay to across the slope. After cultivated crops are harvested,
clay. The parent material is moderately fine textured, plant annual cover crops. All natural draws and water-
compact, and very slowly permeable. These soils have a ways should be kept in close-growing perennial vegetation.
shallow root zone. The available moisture-holding ca- These soils are well suited to improved pasture. If
pacity is low. Permeability is slow, runoff is excessive, well fertilized and limed, bahiagrass and improved ber-
and the soils erode easily. They contain little organic mudagrass grow well. White clover and other clovers may
matter and have low natural fertility. They have poor be damaged by drought because these soils are somewhat
aeration. The soils in this unit are: drought. Pasture plants need fairly large additions of
Cuthbert loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, fertilizer for high yields. Apply normal practices of good
Lakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes, pasture management.
Sawyer loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Susquehanna loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. The native vegetation was scattered slash and longleaf
Use and management.-Partly because these soils have pines and hardwoods, which are well suited to these soils.
a shallow root zone, the range of suitable crops is narrow. Undeveloped woods are well suited to wildlife. If les-
Cultivated crops are only moderately well suited. Yields pedeza and other food plants are planted in open spaces,
arelow unless the soils are well managed. Maintain fertility the undisturbed areas will produce more wildlife than they
and increase crop yields by returning all crop residue to do now. These plants will provide some protection
the soil, planting green-manure crops, and applying ade- against erosion.








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 17
CAPABILITY UNIT IVse-2 crops can be grown but yields are low. Large additions of
This capability unit consists of well drained to ex- lime and fertilizer, applied regularly, will increase yields.
-essively drained, very deep coarse sands in nearly level and Plant cover crops and use plant residue to maintain organic
gently sloping areas. The coarse sand texture extends to matter. Clean-tilled crops should not be grown more
depths more than 60 inches. The soils are very porous, than one-fourth of the time. The rest of the time, green-
:apidly permeable, and well aerated throughout the manure crops or pasture should be on these soils.
profile. The available moisture-holding capacity is very These soils are well suited to improved pasture.
ow. Natural fertility is very low, and plant nutrients Bahiagrass and other deep-rooting grasses grow well
each rapidly. These soils are strongly acid and are because their roots penetrate to the moist layer above
very low in organic matter. The soils in this unit are: the water table.
Eustis coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. These soils are well suited to pine trees. If woodlands
Eustis coarse sand, excessively drained, 0 to 5 percent slopes. are well managed, trees make moderately rapid growth.
Lakeland coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Undeveloped woods provide shelter and a small amount
Lakeland coarse sand, excessively drained, 0 to 5 percent slopes. of food for many kinds of wildlife. They can be managed
Use and management.-Even under intense manage- to support more wildlife than they do now by planting
:nent, these soils are suited to only a few special crops. food plants and following good practices of wildlifemnanage-
[f well fertilized, watermelons grow well, but corn and ment.
small grains produce only fair yields. Cover crops or CAPABILITY UNIT IVws-1
improved pasture of perennial grass should occupy the In this capability unit are nearly level, deep, acid
soil at least three-fourths of the time. Maintain organic soils that are poorly drained. These soils have a fine
matter by returning all crop residue to the soil, planting sandy loam or loamy fine sand surface soil, 6 to 18 inches
green-manure crops, and applying adequate fertilizer thick. The subsoil is fine sandy clay loam and fine
dnd lime. Partly because these soils are porous and sandy clay. These soils have a moderate available mois-
iroughty, cover crops provide adequate protection from ture-holding capacity. The water table fluctuates be-
water and wind erosion if cultivation is across the slope. tween a level near the surface and a depth of about 24
These soils are moderately well suited to improved inches. The content of organic matter and natural
pasture. Bahiagrass and lovegrass are best suited, but fertility are low. The subsoil is slowly permeable.
some strains of improved bermudagrass can be grown. Aeration is poor. The soils in this unit are:
Grass-legume pasture is difficult to establish and maintain. Myatt loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Indigo, crotolaria, lupine, and other upright growing Rains fine sandy loam.
legumes can be grown to improve the soil before planting Use and management.-These soils generally are not
grass. These legumes can be grown with the grass from suited to cultivated crops. If drained, however, and
time to time if the sod is scarified and the grazing is otherwise well managed, some areas can be used for
regulated. These pastures make a good supplement to general crops. Apply large amounts of lime and fertilizer
other pastures but need to be fertilized several days before regularly to increase yields. Plant cover crops and use
they are used. To' establish and maintain good pasture, plant residue to maintain. organic matter. Clean-tilled
prepare a firm seedbed, choose suitable plants, plant crops should not be grown more than one-fourth of the
enough seed or sprigs, apply enough lime and fertilizer, time. The rest of the time, cover crops or perennial
and control grazing. sod should occupy the soils.
The native vegetation was longleaf pine, scrub oaks, These soils are well suited to pasture of warm-season
grasses, and forbs. These soils are suited to pines, but grasses, but simple drains are needed to remove excess
good stands can be obtained only by planting seedlings, water in rainy periods. If adequate fertilizer and lime
Undeveloped areas provide shelter and a small amount added, yields are high. Clovers can be grown with
of food for many kinds of wildlife. Population can be grasses for winter pasture, but irrigation is needed for
increased by planting food plants and following good successful growth.
practices of wildlife management. The native vegetation is a dense growth of water-
CAPABILITY UNIT IVse-3 tolerant hardwoods and cypress trees. If adequately
drained, these soils are suited to pine trees.
This capability unit consists of sloping, moderately Most of these soils are still in native vegetation. These
well drained, deep sand and loamy sand. Most areas undeveloped woods are important nesting places and
undeveloped woods are important nesting places and
are on long, narrow slopes adjacent to similar soils on shelter areas for many kinds of wildlife, and this is their
more gentle slopes. The surface layer is sand, fine sand, best use.
or loamy sand more than 30 inches thick. It is underlain CAPABILITY UNIT IVsw-l
by a moderately fine textured subsoil. Partly because of In this capability unit are nearly level, deep, acid,
seepage and partly because of a high water table, these sandy soils that are somewhat poorly drained. These
soils are wet most of the tne. They are low in organic soils are wet nearly all of the time. Their surface layer
matter. They have low available moisture-holding is sand, 2 to 5 inches thick. Their subsoil is sand or coarse
capacity and low natural fertility. The soils in this unit sand. These soils have a low available moisture-holding
are: capacity and a low content of organic matter. They are
Blanton fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, low in natural fertility. Aeration is poor. The soils
Goldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes, in this unit are:
Klej sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Leon sand.
Use and management.-These soils are not well suited plummer sand, high, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
to cultivated crops. Under intensive management, general Plummer sand, high, 2 to 5 percent slopes.







18 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

Use and management.-Under intense management, CAPABILITY UNIT Vws-2
these soils are suited to crops that tolerate wetness. In this capability unit are nearly level to gently sloping,
Because of a fluctuating water table, the soils are drought poorly drained to somewhat poorly drained, deep, sandy
in dry periods and wet in rainy periods. In areas where soils. These soils have a low content of organic matter
the height of the water table is controlled by shallow and a low capacity for holding available moisture. Nat-
ditches, yields are higher than elsewhere. Apply large ural fertility is low and tilth is poor. The soils in this
amounts of lime and fertilizer regularly for good yields. unit are:
Plant cover crops and use plant residue to maintain or- Plummer sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
ganic matter. Cover crops and improved pasture should Plummer sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
occupy the soils at least three-fourths of the time, or 6 Plummer coarse sand, high, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
in every 8 years. Sod should be plowed under before Use and management.-Most of the acreage in these soils
planting a clean-tilled crop, and cover crops should be is still in native vegetation; a few acres are in pasture.
planted after the tilled crops are harvested. Partly because they are wet, these soils are not suited to
These soils are well suited to improved pasture. Bahia- cultivated crops.
grass and other deep-rooting grasses grow well on these Under intensive management, some areas of these soils
soils if they are fertilized and otherwise well managed. can be used for pasture. The choice of plants, however,
Partly because of a low moisture-holding capacity, these is very narrow. Use simple drains to remove excess water
soils need irrigation to produce legume pasture. in rainy periods. If adequate fertilizer and lime are
These soils are well suited to slash and longleaf pines, added, yields are moderately high. Bahiagrass grows
If woodlands are well managed, trees grow moderately well, but bermudagrass does not. Clovers can be grown
well. with grass for winter pasture, but irrigation is needed for
Undeveloped woods are well suited to many kinds of successful growth,
wildlife. If food plants are planted in open spaces, these The native vegetation varies from dense hardwoods in
areas can be managed to support more wildlife than they swamp areas to scattered longleaf pine in better drained
do now. In farmed areas wildlife management consists areas. If drained, these soils are suited to pine trees.
mostly in providing wildlife borders and food strips. Undisturbed areas of these soils are important nesting
CAPABILITY UNIT Vws-i places and shelter areas for many kinds of wildlife. If
food plants are planted in better drained areas, these soils
In this capability unit are nearly level, moderately well will support more wildlife than they do now.
drained to very poorly drained soils on stream terraces
and nearly level, moderately well drained to poorly CAPABILITY UNIT VIes-i
drained soils on first bottoms or low uplands. These soils In this capability unit are strongly sloping, well drained
have excessive wetness. The soils on stream terraces to moderately well drained, deep soils. Their surface
are difficult to drain; those on first bottoms and low layer ranges from loamy sand to sandy loam and is less
uplands are frequently flooded. The surface layer of these than 18 inches thick. The subsoil is normally moderately
soils ranges from fine sandy loam to silt loam, and it is fine textured, but a few areas have a deep sand subsoil.
less than 18 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sandy clay These soils are slightly to severely eroded. The soils in
to silty clay. These soils have a moderately high to high this unit are:
capacity to hold available moisture and contain a moderate
amount of organic matter. They are poorly aerated. The Arredondo-Fellowship-Gainesville soils, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
amount of organic matter. They are poorly aerated. The Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
soils in this unit are: Faceville fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes, severely eroded.
Congaree silt loam. Lakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
Grady fine sandy loam. Magnolia fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes, severely eroded.
Leaf very fine sandy loam. Red Bay fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes, severely
eroded.
Use and management.-Partly because they flood fre-
quently, these soils are not suited to cultivated crops. If Use and management.-Because they have strong slopes
they could be drained and protected from floods, a few and a serious hazard of erosion, these soils are not suited
areas would be suited to truck crops and other crops of to cultivated crops. If they are cultivated, they need very
high value. Reclamation of these areas, however, is not intensive management to control erosion. A cultivated
feasible; the cost of protecting them against floods is too crop should be followed by several years of pasture. Di-
feasible; the cost of protecting them against floods is too vert excess water by ditches and stabilized gullies. Plant
If they are intensely managed, these soils are suited to alternate strips across the slope in different years. The
improved pasture. Simple drains are needed to remove moderately eroded soils i this unit are well suited to
excess water in rainy periods. If adequate fertilizer and pasture. If adequate fertilizer and lime are added, pas-
lime are added, both cool-season and warm-season plants ture plants grow well. Severely eroded soils need large
grow well. Tall fescue, crimson clover, white clover, and additions of organic matter, as well as fertilizer and lime,
sweet clover are suitable cool-season plants; bahiagrass before pasture is seeded. These soils need a pasture crop
and improved bermudagrass are suitable warm-season that forms a full sod soon after seeding. Keep plant
plants. Because they are puddled by trampling animals, growth strong by regulating grazing.
Most areas of these soils are in cutover woodland. They
these soils should be grazed only in drier periods. are suited to both pines and hardwoods.
The native vegetation consists chiefly of hardwoods, Undeveloped woods are well suited to wildlife. Les-
which are well suited to these soils. Undeveloped woods pedeza and other food plants grow well under normal
are well suited to wildlife. These areas furnish nesting practices of wildlife management. These plants also pro-
places and shelter for many kinds of wildlife. vide protection for the soils.








GADSDEN 'COUNTY, FLORIDA 19
CAPABILITY UNIT VIes-2 is closely regulated, some of these legumes may be grown
This capability unit consists of nearly level to strongly with the grasses. These soils are suited to supplemental
sloping, well drained to moderately well drained soils, pasture, but they need a heavy application of fertilizer
They have a loamy fine sand surface layer and sandy clay several days before grazing is started. The normal
or clay subsoil. Partly because they have a very slowly practices of good pasture management should be followed.
permeable, clayey subsoil, these soils are highly susceptible These soils are only moderately well suited to woodland.
to erosion. They have a low content of organic matter The native vegetation is chiefly scrub oaks and scattered
and a low available moisture-holding capacity. They are pine.
strongly acid, except for the widely scattered areas of Undeveloped areas provide shelter and a small amount
Binnsville soils, which are neutral in reaction. In some of food for many kinds of wildlife. Population can be
places the substratum within a depth of about 20 inches increased by planting food plants and following good
consists of marly clay. The soils in this unit are: practices of wildlife management.
Binnsville soils, 2 to 12 percent slopes. CAPABILITY UNIT VIIes-
Cuthbert, Boswell, and Susquehanna soils, 5 to 12 percentAPABILITY UNIT e-
slopes. In this capability unit are strongly sloping to steep,
Susquehanna loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. well-drained soils. Although they differ widely in many
Susquehanna-Boswell-Binnsville complex, marly substratum, characteristics, they are similar in steepness of slopes. The
5 to 12 percent slopes.
Susquehanna-Sawyer complex, 5 to 12 percent slopes, soils range from deep, porous sands to those having a sandy
Use and management.Because they have a shallow root surface layer less than 18 inches thick that is underlain by
Use and maret ng ngtt.-hBeause soil have not suitedhallow root a fine sandy clay loam or a fine sandy clay subsoil. A few
one and are strongly sloping, of these soils are severely eroded. The soils in this
,ultivated crops. Some areas are suited to pasture but unit are
need intensive management to control erosion while the
pasture is being established. A full sod should form soon Arredondo-Fellowship-Gainesville soils, 12 to 40 percent slopes.
ifter the time of seeding. If adequately fertilized and Facevlle-Shubueta-Ruston complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes,
.imed, these areas produce good yields of unproved Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 12 to 35 percent slopes.
3ermudagrass and bahiagrass. Most clovers grow well Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 12 to 35 percent slopes,
.ate in winter and in spring. Keep plant growth strong severely eroded.
Lakeland and Eustis sands, 12 to 50 percent slopes.
:y iigidly regulating grazing. Steep areas and lime- Lakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert complex, 12 to 45 percent slopes.
stone outcrops should be left in native vegetation. Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 12 to 50 percent slopes.
These soils are suited to both hardwoods and pines. Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 12 to 50 percent slopes,
These soils are well suited to wildlife. Many food plants severely eroded.
,row as part of the native vegetation. Normal practices Use and management.-These soils are not suited to
)f wildlife management are needed to encourage the cultivated crops or to pasture. Because they are strongly
growthh of these plants. sloping and highly susceptible to erosion, they should be
kept under continuous cover. They produce a moderate
CAPABILITY UNIT VIse-1 to good growth of pines and hardwoods, and they are
This capability unit consists of well-drained to exces- best used for growing trees.
lively drained, deep, acid soils that are sloping to strongly Most of these soils are on slopes adjacent to streams or
loping. The surface layer and subsoil are sand or coarse branches. Many kinds of plants that supply food for
land. These soils are porous, rapidly permeable, and very wildlife can be planted. In addition, these soils provide
ow in available moisture-holding capacity. Plant nutri- a natural feeding area for many kinds of wildlife that
mnts leach rapidly. These soils have a very low content live in the dense growth of the stream swamps. The soils
>f organic matter and low natural fertility. The soils in need normal practices of wildlife management.
.his unit are:
CAPABILITY UNIT VIes-2
Eustis coarse sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. .
Lakeland sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This capability unit consists of steep, well drained to
Lakeland coarse sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes, moderately well drained soils that have fine and very fine
Lakeland coarse sand, excessively drained, 5 to 12 percent textured, thin subsoil. They are underlain by sandy
slopes, clay, clay, and marly clay. The soils are strongly acid
Use and management.-Because they are sandy and low except in a few places where they are neutral. The slopes
a natural fertility, these soils are not suited to most range from 12 to 60 percent. These soils generally are
ultivated crops. If, however, adequate fertilizer and lime only slightly eroded, but they are susceptible to further
re added, watermelons grow fairly well. This crop should erosion. The soils in this unit are:
,e grown only on mild slopes and for not more than 1 in
e grown only on mild slopes and for not more than 1 in Cuthbert, Boswell, and Susquehanna soils, 12 to 60 percent
very 4 years. Maintain organic matter by growing large slopes.
,mounts of vegetation and plowing it under. If they are Susquehanna-Boswell-Binnsville complex, marly substratum,
ultivated, these soils should be in pasture several 12 to 50 percent slopes.
successive years after each cultivation. Susquehanna-Sawyer complex, 12 to 50 percent slopes.
These soils are only fairly well suited to pasture. If they Use and management.-These soils are not suited to
re limed and fertilized and otherwise well managed, cultivated crops and are only moderately well suited to
-ahiagrass, lovegrass, and other deep-rooted grasses grow pasture. Many areas are too steep for good pasture
fairly well. Indigo, crotalaria, lupines, and other upright management. If farm needs demand the use of these
rowing legumes may be grown for soil improvement soils for pasture, use the best practices possible for fertiliz-
efore planting grass. If the sod is scarified and grazing ing, liming, seeding, and water control Apply adequate







20 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

lime and fertilizer, and try to get a full sod. soon after of the soil survey party, from research data compiled by
seeding. Plant in contour strips, stabilize gullies, and the North Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, and
dig diversion ditches to control erosion. Grazing should from records of other crop yields. For many soils,
be rigidly controlled to prevent overgrazing and unneces- however, accurate records on crop yields were not avail-
sary trampling. able, and yield estimates for these, therefore, are based
These soils are well suited to pines and hardwoods, on yields on similar soils.
Much of the area is cutover woodland. Natural refor- Except for shade tobacco, the yields in columns B are
station should be encouraged in these areas. those expected under good management, without irriga-
Most of these soils are on slopes adjacent to streams tion. The yields of shade tobacco are those expected with
and branches. Many kinds of plants that supply food supplemental irrigation.
for wildlife can be planted. In addition, these soils pro- Improved management provides:
vide a natural feeding area for many kinds of wildlifecroppng
that live in the dense growth of the stream swamps. The 1. Proper selection of crops and cropping systems.
soils need normal practices of wildlife management. 2. Additions of commercial fertilizer, lime, and other
amendments according to the results of soil tests.
3. Study of the cropping history of the soil.
Estimated Yields 4. Maintenance of organic matter at a high level.
Table 1 lists estimated average acre yields for the 5. anting and seeding of high-yielding varieties
principal crops grown in the county. In columns A are and h ri
yields to be expected under the management generally 6. Planting and seeding at recommended rates and
practiced in the county, and in columns B are yields to be at proper time.
expected under improved management. Only one yield 7. Control of weeds, insects, and plant disease.
expected under improved management. 8. Control of excess water by artificial drainage.
level is given for shade tobacco, because soils used for 8. Contr io of excess water artlfical drainage.
this crop normally receive only the best management. 9. Conservation of soil material, plant nutrients,
this crop normally receive only the best management. and moisture.
Estimated yields are not given for some crops on someure.
soils, because the expected yields are too low or the needed The level of management needed to get the yields in
management is too exacting to warrant growing the crop columns B is about equivalent to that described for the
on these soils. capability units in the subsection "Capability Groups
The yield data for crops are based on information of Soils."
obtained from many farmers of the county, from the The miscellaneous land types are not listed in table 1,
district soil conservationist, from the county agricultural because they are not suited to crops. These land types
agent, and from other agricultural leaders, as well as are Alluvial land; Gullied land; Mines, pits, and dumps;
information gained from observations made by members and Swamp.

TABLE 1.-Estimated acre yields of principal crops and carrying capacity of pasture under two levels of management
[In columns A are estimated yields of crops and pasture under common management; in columns B are those under the highest level of
management feasible. Estimates for only one level of management are listed for shade tobacco because this specialized crop generally
receives only the highest level of management. Dashed lines indicate that the crop is not generally grown on the soil]

Corn Peanuts Shade Oats Pasture
tobacco
Soil
A B A B B A B A B

Bu. Bu. Lb. Lb. Lb. Bu. Bu. Cow-days 1 Cow-days 1
Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes------ 25 45 1,000 1,250 -------- 20 40 140 240
Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ---- -- 15 30 800 1,000 ------- 15 35 120 220
Arredondo-Fellowship-Gainesville soils, 8 to 12
percent slopes ....-- .___------ ---_..__------------ --------_ ------------------120 240
Arredondo-Fellowship-Gainesville soils, 12 to 40
percent slopes....---.--- -. ------_..-- -___. ---...-
Binnsville soils, 2 to 12 percent slopes------------ -------- --------. ----- ---------__. .___ ----_-. ____-. __-_
Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes--------- 20 40 ------------------------ 20 40 150 250
Blanton fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes---------- 20 35 -------------------------I 20 40 150 250
Blanton coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes-------- 15 25 -------- ----_--------- 15 25 140 240
Blanton fine sand, terrace, 0 to 5 percent slopes___ 20 35 ------------------------ 15 35 150 250
Carnegie fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
severely eroded ----------------------------------- -------.- _----- _-------- --------- 15 30 140 290
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes_ 45 75 1,350 1,650 1, 700 40 60 170 320
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes__- 45 75 1,350 1, 650 1, 600 40 60 170 320
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
eroded ------------------------------------- 40 65 1,200 1, 500 1,600 35 55 150 300
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes___ 30 55 1,050 1,300 1,450 30 50 170 300
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded----------------------------------- 25 45 900 1, 150 1,300 25 45 145 295
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes .-- --------------------- ---....---- --------- ----.---------. 140 290
Congaree silt loam-------------------------- ---------------- ------ ----- --- -------- -----
See footnote at end of table.









GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 21

TABLE 1.-Estimated acre yields of principal crops and carrying capacity of pasture under two levels of management-Con.


Corn Peanuts Shade Oats Pasture
tobacco
Soil

A B A B B A B A B

Bu. Bu. Lb. Lb. Lb. Bu. Bu. Cow-days 1 Cow-days
3uthbert loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes_-- 20 40 .------ --- ----- --- ----- 20 40 160 220
Cuthbert loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes --- -------- ------- --------- --------------- -------------- 130 210
Cuthbert, Boswell. and Susquehanna soils, 5 to
12 percent slopes--- ------------- ---------------- ---------------------------------------- 130 210
Duthbert, Boswell, and Susquehanna soils, 12 to
60 percent slopes---------------------------- ---- ------- -------- ------------------------ ------
Eustis loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes--------- 20 40 900 1,200 850 20 40 140 240
Eustis loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent ,lopes --------- 15 30 600 1,000 000 15 35 120 220
Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent slopes-_ 25 45 1,000 1, 300 1, 000 25 45 140 250
3ustis loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes- 25 45 1, 000 1,300 900 25 45 140 250
Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes-- 20 20 900 1 150 800 15 35 120 230
3ustis coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes----------------------------------- .----------------------------- 120 180
4ustis coarse sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ------ ------- ------- ------- --------- ------------------------ 120 170
Eustis coarse sand, excessively drained, 0 to 5
percent slopes------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------- 100 150
?aceville loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes _- 45 75 1,300 1,650 1,600 40 60 170 320
Faceville loamy fine sand. 2 to 5 percent slopes___ 45 75 1,300 1,650 1,500 40 60 170 320
'aceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
eroded ------ -------40 65 1, 200 1,500 1,500 35 55 150 300
'aceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes--- 30 55 1, 050 1, 300 1, 350 30 50 150 300
iaceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded ------------------------------------ 25 45 900 1, 150 1,300 25 45 145 295
'aceville loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes-- ---------------- ---------------------------------------- 140 290
Paceville fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
severely eroded--------------------------------------------------------------------- 15 30 140 290
Paceville fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes,
severely eroded----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 130 260
'aceville, Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 to 12 per-
cent slopes------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 140 290
'aceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 to 12 per-
cent slopes, severely eroded-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Paceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 12 to 35 per-
cent slopes -----------------------..-- -------- ----- -------- -- ------------ ---------------- ------------
'aceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 12 to 35 per-
cent slopes, severely eroded ...........................................--- -------- ----....-- ..-- -- ..--
ioldsboro loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes_ 35 60 ---------------- 1,400 30 50 160 300
ioldsboro loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes_- 40 65 ---------------- 1, 500 30 50 160 300
loldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 per-
cent slopes -------- ---------------------- 30 55 ---------------- 1,300 30 50 150 280
loldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes--------------------------------- 30 55 ---------------- 1,400 25 45 150 280
loldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes -------------------------------- 30 55 ------------------------ 25 45 150 280
rrady fine sandy loam ----------_ ----_------- -------- --------------- ----------------.------- .. -------- 170 320
[annahatchee soils, local alluvium ------------ 45 75 ------------------ 40 60 200 320
luckabee fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes-------- 20 35 800 1, 100 -------- 20 40 140 230
zagora loamy fine sand---------------------- 35 60 ------------------------ 30 50 160 300
:almia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes-- 40 65 1, 200 1, 550 ------- 35 55 160 300
:lej loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent slopes --- 25 40 --------1, 100 15 25 150 280
:lej loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes--- 20 40--------------- 1, 100 15 25 150 280
:lej sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ---------------- 20 40 ------------------------ 20 40 150 250
:lej sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes----------------- 18 35 ------------------------- 20 40 150 250
:lej coarse sand, O to 5 percent slopes----------- ---------------------------------------- 10 20 100 200
.akeland loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ----- 20 40 900 1,200 -- 20 40 140 240
akeland loamy sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ---- 15 30 600 1, 000 -------- 15 35 120 220
akeland loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent
slopes --------_--------------_ -----------_ 25 45 1,000 1,300 1,300 25 45 140 250
akeland loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent
slopes -- -.-------------------------.----. 25 45 1,000 1,300 1,200 25 45 140 250
akeland loamy sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent
slopes -------- --------------.-------- 20 35 900 1,150 1,200 15 35 120 230
akeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.--- -------. 15 35 600 800 -- 10 20 140 230
akeland sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ----------- 15 30 ---------------- -------I 10 20 120 210
akeland coarse sand, O to 5 percent slopes _-------------------- ---------------------- --------------- 120 180
akeland coarse sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ---.--- ----------.-- -------- ------- ------ ----------------- 120 170
akeland coarse sand, excessively drained, 0 to 5
percent slopes ----------------_ ---- -- --_. ---------------- -------- ---- -
akeland coarse sand, excessively drained, 5 to 12
percent slopes _....----................................... ................ -------... -------------....- -.....
See footnote at end of table.








22 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 1.-Estimated acre yields of principal crops and carrying capacity of pasture under two levels of management-Con.

Corn Peanuts Shade Oats Pasture
tobacco
Soil
A B A B B A B A B

Bu. Bu. Lb. Lb. Lb. Bu. Bu. Cow-days 1 Cow-days 1
Lakeland and Eustis sand, 12 to 50 percent slopes-- ----- ---- -- -- .. .. -- -
Lakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert complex, 5 to 8 percent
slopes ---- ------------------ -------- 15 30 --------------------- 15 25 120 170
Lakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert complex, 8 to 12 per-
cent slopes----------------- ______ ________________ ________-_____ ________________._--_____
Lakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert complex, 12 to 45
percent slopes---------_-- _--_---__-._...._______ -__._ ...________ _______ ________________ ________________
Leaf very fine sandy loam__-- ----------------------------____ -------- _____--------.. -----.. __ 180 320
Leon sand-------------------------------------------- ---------------- -------- -------- -------- 100 200
Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes -- ------_---------------------- --------_---------------_ _. 175 300
Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes-- --_---_--------- --------_------------- --------__ -------- 175 300
Lynchburg loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2
percent slopes----------...._------------_.._... .-----------------------______ ---------_-------.____ 165 290
Lynchburg loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5
percent slopes- ----__-._- __--------__------------------------ ----------------___--------- 165 290
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes_. 45 75 1, 300 1, 650 1, 600 40 60 170 320
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
eroded------------------------------------- 40 70 1,250 1,650 1,600 35 55 150 300
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes___ 45 75 1,300 1,650 1,500 40 60 170 320
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
eroded --.------------.. ---------__---_ --_ 40 65 1,200 1,500 1,500 35 55 150 300
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-__ 30 55 1, 050 1, 300 1, 350 30 50 150 300
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded -----------------------.---------- 25 45 900 1,150 1,300 25 45 145 295
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. ------ --------------------------------------__ 140 290
Magnolia fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
severely eroded ------------------ ---- 30 35 1,050 1,400 1,400 30 50 140 290
Magnolia fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
severely eroded --------------------------------------- 15 30 140 290
Magnolia fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes,
severely eroded __-----------.--------------------------------------------------- --------__-- 130 260
Myatt loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ----------------------------------------------.--_--- 160 300
Norfolk loamy fine sand, pebbly, 0 to 2 percent
slopes ------- ------------------------- 45 70 1,200 1,550 1,500 40 60 160 300
Norfolk loamy fine sand, pebbly, 2 to 5 percent
slopes------------------------ ------ 45 70 1,200 1,550 1,450 40 60 160 300
Norfolk loamy fine sand, pebbly, 2 to 5 percent
slopes, eroded-- ----------------------- 40 65 1,050 1,400 1,450 35 55 140 280
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes_-- 45 70 1,200 1,550 1,400 40 60 160 300
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes --- 40 70 1,200 1,550 1,300 40 60 160 300
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
eroded---------------------------------- 40 65 1,050 1,400 1,300 35 55 140 280
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .-- 30 55 950 1,250 1,200 30 50 140 280
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded------------------------------------- 25 45 800 1,100 1, 100 25 45 135 275-
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes------- -------- ---------------- ------- -------- 130 270
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent
slopes -----------------------------40 65 1,100 1,450 1,400 35 55 150 280
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent
slopes------------------------------ 35 65 1,100 1,450 1,300 35 55 150 280
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent
slopes -- --- ----------------------------- 25 50 850 1,200 1,200 25 45 130 260
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 8 to 12 percent
slopes -- ------------_--__----------------- -------- ---------------- ------- -- ----- 120 250
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, pebbly, 0 to 2
percent slopes--------------.. -------------- 40 65 1,100 1,450 1,400 35 55 150 280
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, pebbly, 2 to 5
percent slopes------------------------------ 35 65 1,100 1,450 1,300 35 55 150 280
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, pebbly, 5 to 8
percent slopes------------------------------ 25 50 850 1,200 1,200 25 45 130 260
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes-- 45 70 1,200 1,550 1,400 40 60 160 300
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes-- 40 70 1,200 1,550 1,300 40 60 160 300
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
eroded ------- --------- -------------- 40 65 1,050 1,400 1,300 35 55 140 280
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-- 30 55 950 1,250 1,200 30 50 140 280
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded ---------------- ----------------. 25 45 800 1,100 1,100 25 45 135 275
See footnote at end of table.








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 23

TABLE 1.-Estimated acre yields of principal crops and carrying capacity of pasture under two levels of management-Con.


Corn Peanuts Shade Oats Pasture
tobacco
Soil

A B A B B A B A B

Bui. B. Lb. Lb. Lb. Bu. Ru. Cow-days Cow-days I
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes- ...._-----------------_ -------------- --- -- -------- 130 170
Orangeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 per-
cent slopes------------------------------- 40 65 1,100 1,450 1,400 35 55 150 280
Orangeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes--------------------------------_ 35 65 1,100 1,450 1,300 35 55 150 280
Orangeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes--------------------------------- 25 50 850 1,200 1,200 25 45 130 260
Oranigeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 8 to 12
percent slopes ------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------ 120 250
Plummer coarse sand, high, 0 to 2 percent slopes 160 280
Plunmmer sand, high, 0 to 2 percent slopes---- -------- -------- ------ ------------ 150 250
Plummner sand, high, 2 to 5 percent slopes-------- -------------------- -- --- 160 280
Plummer sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes----------- ------------------------ ------------------------- 150 200
Plummer sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes-------------I------------------------ --------------------------------- 150 200
Plummer sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes50 200
Portsmouth fine sandy loam .__._---... .... 160 300
Rains fine sandy loam-- --------------------------------------------------------------------- 160 300
Red Bay fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, I 1
severely eroded---------------------------- 20 35 950 1,300 1,000 30 50 130 270
Red Bay fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, se-
verely eroded_ ------------------------------ -------------------------------------------------------- 130 270
Red Bay fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes,
severely eroded -----------------------_ ------ ------------------------------------------------------ 120 240
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ---- 40 60 1,200 1,550 1,200 40 60 160 300
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes___ 35 60 1, 150 1,550 1,100 40 60 160 300
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
eroded ------------------------------------ 35 55 1,050 1,400 1,100 35 55 140 280
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-_- 28 50 950 1,250 1,100 30 50 140 280
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded ----------------------------------- 25 40 800 1, 100 1,000 25 45 135 275
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes ------ --- ----------- ---------------------- 130 170
Ruston fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
severely eroded-__--_-- -------------------- --------------------- ------ ------------------- --------- 130 270
Ruston loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes --- 45 70 1,200 1,550 1,400 40 60 160 300
Ruston loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes----- 40 70 1,200 1,550 1,300 40 60 160 300
Ruston loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
eroded ---------------------------------- 40 65 1,050 1,400 1,300 35 55 140 280
Ruston loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes----- 30 55 950 1,250 1,200 30 50 140 280
Ruston loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded------------------------------------ 25 45 800 1,100 1,100 25 45 135 275
Ruston loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes ------------------------------------ ------------------------ 130 170
Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent
slopes ------------------------------------- 40 65 1,100 1,450 1,400 35 55 150 280
Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent
slopes------------------------------------ 35 65 1,100 1,450 1,300 35 55 150 280
Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent
slopes------------------------------------ 25 50 850 1,200 1,200 25 45 130 260
Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 8 to 12 percent
slopes------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 120 250
Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 5 to 8
percent slopes------------------------------- 30 55 900 1,100 1,200 30 50 140 280
Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 8 to 12
percent slopes--------------------------- ------ ------------------------------------ 130 170
Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 12 to 50
percent slopes------------------------------------------------------ -------------- ---
Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 12 to 50
percent slopes, severely eroded _---- -------- -. ------- -------- -------- ------------------------
Rutlege fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ---------- -------- -------- _---- 160 220
Rutlege fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes --------- -- ---I-- ---- 160 220
Sawyer loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes-.- 30 45 900 1, 100 ----30 50 160 220
Sawyer loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .- .- 140 200
Shubuta fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes .- 35 45 1,000 1,200 35 45 160 220
Susquehanna loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ---------------- 800 1,000 ------------------------ 160 220
Susquehanna loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ------------------------------------- 140 200
Susquehanna-Boswell-Binnsville complex, marly
substratum, 5 to 12 percent slopes------------ -------- -------- ---------------- ---------------- ---- 160 300
Susquehanna-Boswell-Binnsvlle complex, marly
substratum, 12 to 50 percent slopes- -------- -------- -- -
Susquehanna-Sawver complex, 5 to 12 percent
slopes.----- -- --- ------------ 160 220
See footnote at end of table.







24 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 1.-Estimated acre yields of principal crops and carrying capacity of pasture under two levels of management-Con.

Corn Peanuts Shade Oats Pasture
tobacco
Soil
A B A B B A B A B

Susquehanna-Sawyer complex, 12 to 50 percent Bu. Bu. Lb. Lb. Lb. Bu. Bu. Cow-days 3 Cow-days
slopes..___ ..__-___-- --- ----. ---- -------- -------- ---------------- ----- -- ---
Tifton loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes..---- 45 75 1,350 1,650 1,700 40 60 170 320
Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes..---- 45 75 1, 350 1, 650 1, 600 40 60 170 320
Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
eroded ----------------_----_-----------_ 40 65 1,200 1,500 1, 00 35 55 150 300
Tifton loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded ------------------------------------ 22 45 900 1,150 1,400 25 45 145 295
Zuber loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. --------- 35 60 1,200 1,550 -----_ __ 35 55 160 300
Zuber loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ---------- 30 50 950 1,250 -------- 30 50 140 280

SNumber of days a year that 1 acre of pasture will graze a cow without injury to the pasture.

Woodland Use of Soils 5 county was in 1928. In 1959, the planted areas in pines
consisted of about 21,000 acres.
The management of woodlands in Gadsden County is Longleaf pine used to be dominant in the sand-hills area
important because 230,866 acres of the 325,120 acres in of the county, but by 1900 most of the large longleaf pine
the county is woodland,6 and this woodland is an important trees had been cut for timber. At present the natural
source of income. A large part of this income is from vegetation on these sandy areas is predominantly scrub
lumber. The county has three large lumber companies oak and a scattering of longleaf pine (fig. 11).
and many small sawmills. In addition to lumber, posts,
pulpwood, poles, piling, veneer and other wood products
are produced. Crates, baskets, and furniture are manu-
factured. Both pine and hardwood are marketed.
Although much of the hardwood is used for veneer, some
is used for lumber.
Oaks are the dominant trees in the county. Loblolly is i
the most plentiful pine in natural stands. Longleaf
and loblolly pines dominate over slash pine on most of the
well-drained soils of the county. During the last 50 years,
however, slash pine has increased on the well-drained soils
because more areas have been planted to pine trees (fig.
10). The earliest record of pine being planted in the .. .







Figure 11.-Scrub oak and scattered pine cover large areas of
woodland in woodland group II. Here a good stand of 2-year old
slash pine has been established after the scrub oaks were killed
by chemicals.

Yields of unmanaged, natural stands
Ai Table 2 gives the normal yield for fully stocked,
unmanaged, naturally occurring stands of slash, longleaf,
and loblolly pines. The yields of these stands are listed
by site indexes 70, 80, and 90. For stands 20, 30, 40, 50,
and 60 years old, yields are given in board feet, in cords per
acre, by height, by average diameter, and by total trees
in the stand.
Figure 10.-Plantation of slash pine, 12 years old, on soils of The site index is the average height, in feet, of the
woodland suitability group L dominant trees in the stand at 50 years of age. It varies

6 This subsection was written by B. P. THoaus and H. H. WEEKS, very little for certain trees on similar, uneroded soils
Soil Conservation Service. with different degrees of slope, but on eroded slopes the
6 From Conservation Needs Inventory, U.S. Dept. Agr., 1959. site index decreases.







24 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 1.-Estimated acre yields of principal crops and carrying capacity of pasture under two levels of management-Con.

Corn Peanuts Shade Oats Pasture
tobacco
Soil
A B A B B A B A B

Susquehanna-Sawyer complex, 12 to 50 percent Bu. Bu. Lb. Lb. Lb. Bu. Bu. Cow-days 3 Cow-days
slopes..___ ..__-___-- --- ----. ---- -------- -------- ---------------- ----- -- ---
Tifton loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes..---- 45 75 1,350 1,650 1,700 40 60 170 320
Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes..---- 45 75 1, 350 1, 650 1, 600 40 60 170 320
Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
eroded ----------------_----_-----------_ 40 65 1,200 1,500 1, 00 35 55 150 300
Tifton loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded ------------------------------------ 22 45 900 1,150 1,400 25 45 145 295
Zuber loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. --------- 35 60 1,200 1,550 -----_ __ 35 55 160 300
Zuber loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ---------- 30 50 950 1,250 -------- 30 50 140 280

SNumber of days a year that 1 acre of pasture will graze a cow without injury to the pasture.

Woodland Use of Soils 5 county was in 1928. In 1959, the planted areas in pines
consisted of about 21,000 acres.
The management of woodlands in Gadsden County is Longleaf pine used to be dominant in the sand-hills area
important because 230,866 acres of the 325,120 acres in of the county, but by 1900 most of the large longleaf pine
the county is woodland,6 and this woodland is an important trees had been cut for timber. At present the natural
source of income. A large part of this income is from vegetation on these sandy areas is predominantly scrub
lumber. The county has three large lumber companies oak and a scattering of longleaf pine (fig. 11).
and many small sawmills. In addition to lumber, posts,
pulpwood, poles, piling, veneer and other wood products
are produced. Crates, baskets, and furniture are manu-
factured. Both pine and hardwood are marketed.
Although much of the hardwood is used for veneer, some
is used for lumber.
Oaks are the dominant trees in the county. Loblolly is i
the most plentiful pine in natural stands. Longleaf
and loblolly pines dominate over slash pine on most of the
well-drained soils of the county. During the last 50 years,
however, slash pine has increased on the well-drained soils
because more areas have been planted to pine trees (fig.
10). The earliest record of pine being planted in the .. .







Figure 11.-Scrub oak and scattered pine cover large areas of
woodland in woodland group II. Here a good stand of 2-year old
slash pine has been established after the scrub oaks were killed
by chemicals.

Yields of unmanaged, natural stands
Ai Table 2 gives the normal yield for fully stocked,
unmanaged, naturally occurring stands of slash, longleaf,
and loblolly pines. The yields of these stands are listed
by site indexes 70, 80, and 90. For stands 20, 30, 40, 50,
and 60 years old, yields are given in board feet, in cords per
acre, by height, by average diameter, and by total trees
in the stand.
Figure 10.-Plantation of slash pine, 12 years old, on soils of The site index is the average height, in feet, of the
woodland suitability group L dominant trees in the stand at 50 years of age. It varies

6 This subsection was written by B. P. THoaus and H. H. WEEKS, very little for certain trees on similar, uneroded soils
Soil Conservation Service. with different degrees of slope, but on eroded slopes the
6 From Conservation Needs Inventory, U.S. Dept. Agr., 1959. site index decreases.









GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 25

TABLE 2.-Normal yield orfully stocked, managed, naturally occurring even-aged stands of slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines
[Data from Florida Forest Service]

Height of
Tree Site index' Age2 Total Volume dominants Average Total trees
volume per acre4 and co- diameter per acre
dominants5

Years Board feet Cords Feet Inches Number
Slash pine-------- ----------------- 70 20 (7) 28 42 5. 1 840
30 3,500 40 56 6. 4 685
40 9, 300 49 64 7. 7 475
50 14,250 55 70 8. 8 375
60 17, 400 59 74 9. 4 325
80 20 (7) 34 48 5. 6 750
30 7, 900 47 63 7. 3 565
40 14, 950 57 73 8. 9 380
50 20, 075 64 80 10. 1 295
60 23, 500 68 84 10. 9 260
90 20 2, 750 41 54 6. 1 665
30 12,300 54 71 8.2 450
40 20, 600 66 83 10. 1 290
50 25, 900 73 90 11.4 220
60 29, 600 78 95 12. 5 195
Loblolly pine -------.--------------70 20 100 17 38 5. 2 675
30 3, 500 31 52 6. 8 575
40 9,400 42 63 8. 2 430
50 15,200 50 70 9. 5 325
60 19, 600 55 75 10. 6 270
80 20 800 22 43 5.6 650
30 7,100 38 59 7. 5 495
40 14, 975 51 72 9. 2 360
50 21, 725 60 80 10. 7 270
60 26, 350 66 85 12. 0 220
90 20 1,600 27 48 6.1 630
30 10, 700 46 67 8. 2 415
40 20, 550 61 81 10. 2 290
50 28, 250 71 90 12. 0 220
60 33, 100 78 96 13. 4 175
Longleaf pine ..----.-------...._-- 70 20 200 14 36 5. 2 500
30 2, 000 28 52 6. 2 540
40 6, 100 39 62 7.2 450
50 11,400 48 70 8. 1 380
60 16, 400 55 77 8. 9 330
80 20 600 20 41 5.4 540
30 4,250 35 59 6.6 515
40 10,950 49 71 7.8 405
50 17,750 60 80 8. 8 350
60 23, 700 69 87 9. 8 300
90 20 1,000 26 46 5. 7 580
30 6,500 43 66 7. 1 495
40 15,800 59 80 8. 4 380
50 24, 100 72 90 9. 6 320
60 31, 000 84 98 10. 7 275

SHeight in feet of the dominant and codominant trees at age of a pile of stacked cordwood 4 feet wide, 4 feet high, and 8 feet long.
50 years. 5 Average height of dominants ana codominants.
2 Average age of dominants and codominants. 6 Diameter of the average-sized tree at breast height.
8 Scribner Decimal C Log Rule. 7 Volume not calculated.
SIn cords: 1 cord equals 128 cubic feet of wood, bark, and air in

Woodland suitability groups of soils and the site index of loblolly, slash, and longleaf pines
A woodland suitability group of soils consists of soils is listed for each soil. The data in table 3 were compiled
that produce similar kinds of wood crops, need similar on the basis of soil productivity for southern pines and
woodland management, and have about the same pro- soil characteristics affecting pine growth, as reported by
luctivity under similar management. In table 3, the T. S. Coile, considered with the site indexes listed in the
soils of Gadsden County have been placed in four groups Dale County, Alabama, soil survey.









26 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 3.-Woodland suitability groups of soils and estimated productivity, by site indexes, for loblolly, slash, and longleaf
pines

Site index
Woodland suitability group and soils
Loblolly Slash Longleaf


Group I
Well-drained soils that have a loamy fine sand to fine sandy loam surface layer and clayey
material at depths less than 14 inches; permeability is slow to very slow and the available
moisture-holding capacity is moderately low to low:
Cuthbert loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------_------------------ 90 90 70
Cuthbert loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes---__--------------------------------- 85 90 70
Cuthbert, Boswell, and Susquehanna soils, 5 to 12 percent slopes ---.-----------------_ 85 90 70
Cuthbert, Boswell, and Susquehanna soils, 12 to 60 percent slopes------------ --__----_ 85 85 70
Shubuta fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes---------------------- -------------90 85 70
Deep, well-drained soils that have a loamy fine sand to fine sandy loam surface layer underlain
by fine sandy clay loam or fine sandy clay at depths less than 18 inches; permeability is
moderately slow and the available moisture-holding capacity is high:
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ----------------------------------90 85 70
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes-------------------------------------- 90 85 70
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded ------------------------------- 85 80 65
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-------------------------------------- 90 85 70
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded ------------------------------_ 85 80 65
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes ------------------------------------ 90 85 70
Carnegie fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, severely eroded -------------_----------85 75 65
Faceville loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ----------------------------------- 90 85 70
Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes-------------------------------------- 90 85 70
Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded-------------------------------- 85 80 70
Faceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-------------------------------------- 90 85 70
Faceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded---.---------------------------_ 85 80 65
Faceville loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes _----------------------------------- 90 85 70
Faceville fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, severely eroded----------------------- 80 75 65
Faceville fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes, severely eroded- ---------------__---_ 80 70 60
Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes --------------------------- 90 85 70
Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes, severely eroded ------------- 80 70 60
Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 12 to 35 percent slopes --------------------------- 90 85 70
Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 12 to 35 percent slopes, severely eroded ------------ 80 70 60
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes------------------------------------ 90 85 70
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, eroded ---------------------------_ 85 80 70
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ------------------------------------- 90 85 70
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded -----------------__---_-- 85 80 70
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-------------------------------------- 90 85 70
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded ------ -----_-------_--_------ 85 80 65
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes ----- --------------------------- 90 85 70
Magnolia fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, severely eroded----------------------- 80 75 65
Magnolia fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, severely eroded ----------------------- 80 75 65
Magnolia fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes, severely eroded --------------------- 80 70 65
Tifton loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes--------------------------------------- 90 85 70
Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes -------- .------------------------------- 90 85 70
Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded---------------------------------- 85 80 65
Tifton loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded -------------------------------- 85 80 65
Deep, well-drained soils that have a loamy sand to fine sandy loam surface layer underlain
by fine sandy clay loam at depths of less than 30 inches; permeability is moderate and
available moisture-holding capacity is high:
Kalmia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes -------------------------------------- 85 80 70
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes--------------------------------------- 90 80 70
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes -------- ----------------------------- 90 80 70
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded ------------_-----------------_ 85 75 65
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-------------------------------------- 90 80 70
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded -----------------------_-------- 85 75 65
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes-------------------------------- 85 80 70
Norfolk loamy fine sand, pebbly, 0 to 2 percent slopes ------------------------------- 90 80 70
Norfolk loamy fine sand, pebbly, 2 to 5 percent slopes -------------------------------- 90 80 70
Norfolk loamy fine sand, pebbly, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded ------------------------ 85 75 65
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes ---------------_-------------- 90 80 70
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes-- -----------------_-------__ 90 80 70
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes ------------------------------ 90 80 70
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 8 to 12 percent slopes----------------------------- 90 80 70
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, pebbly, 0 to 2 percent slopes ----_------_---------90 80 70
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, pebbly, 2 to 5 percent slopes -----.------_-------- 90 80 70
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, pebbly, 5 to 8 percent slopes -----------_-------- 90 80 70
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes----------------------------------90 80 70









GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 27

I'ABLE 3.-Woodland suitability groups of soils and estimated productivity, by site indexes, for loblolly, slash, and longleaf
pines-Continued


Site index
Woodland suitability group and soils

Loblolly Slash Longleaf

iroup I-Continued
)eep, well-drained soils that have a loamy sand to fine sandy loam surface layer underlain
by fine sandy clay loam at depths of less than 30 inches; permeability is moderate and
available moisture-holding capacity is high-Continued
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes --------------------------------- 90 80 70
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded --------------------------- 85 75 65
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ---------------------------------- 90 80 70
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded ---------------------------. 85 75 65
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes_------------------------------- 85 80 70
Orangeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes-------------------------- 90 80 70
Orangeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes----------------------- -90 80 70
Orangeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes-------------------------- 90 80 70
Orangeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 8 to 12 percent slopes ------------------------- 90 80 70
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ----.- ------------------- ------ 90 80 70
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ------------------------------------- 90 80 70
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded------------------------------- 85 75 65
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ------------------------------------- 90 80 70
Red Bay loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded ------------------------------ 85 75 65
fRed Bay loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes ------------------------------------ 85 80 70
Red Bay fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, severely eroded ---------------------- 80 70 65
Red Bay fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, severely eroded ---------------------- 80 70 65
Red Bay fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes, severely eroded _--------------------- 80 65 65
Ruston loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ---------------------------------- ---90 80 70
Ruston loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------------------ 90 80 70
Ruston loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded.---------- ------------------- -85 75 65
Ruston loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes_------------------------------- ---90 80 70
Ruston loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded---.---------------------------- 85 75 65
Ruston loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes------------------------- -------- 85 80 70
Ruston fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, severely eroded------------------------ 80 70 65
Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes------------------------------ 90 80 70
Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------------- 90 80 70
Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes------------------------------- 90 80 70
Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 8 to 12 percent slopes------------------------------ 90 80 70
Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes ----------------------- --90 80 70
Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes------------------------- 85 80 65
Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 12 to 50 percent slopes----------- ---------- 85 80 65
Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 12 to 50 percent slopes, severely eroded---------- 80 70 65
Zuber loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes -------------------------------.------------ 90 80 70
Zuber loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes- ..----------------------------------- 90 80 70

*oup II
sep, well-drained, lightly leached soils that have sand, fine sand, or loamy sand extending to
depths of more than 42 inches, or shallow, well-drained, highly leached soils that have finer
textured materials at depths of 30 to 42 inches; all soils in group have a low available moisture-
holding capacity and very rapid permeability:
Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes---------------------------------------- 90 70 65
Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes---------.----.----------------------.----- 90 70 65
Arredondo-Fellowship-Gainesville soils, 8 to 12 percent slopes ----------------------- 85 75 65
Arredondo-Fellowship-Gainesville soils, 12 to 40 percent slopes------------------------ 80 70 65
Eustis loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes---------------------------------------- 90 75 70
Eustis loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes--------------------- ---------------- 90 75 70
Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent slopes -----_--_---- --------------------- 90 80 70
Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes ----------------------------------. 90 80 70
Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes----------------.------------------- 90 80 70
Huckabee fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes -------------------------------- -------- -- 90 80 70
Lakeland loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes--------------------------- ---- ------------- 90 75 70
Lakeland loamy sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes---------------------------------------- 90 75 70
Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent slopes------_----------------- -------- 90 80 70
'Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes -----------------------------__ 90 80 70
Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes-------------------------------- 90 80 70
Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ------------------------------------------------- 85 70 65
Lakeland sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes---------------------------------------------- 85 70 65
Lakeland and Eustis sands, 12 to 50 percent slopes .-------------------------- -- --
Lakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes ------------------------ --- 85 70 70
Lakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes --------------------------- 80 70 70
iLakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert complex, 12 to 45 percent slopes --------------------------- 80 70 70









28 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 3.-Woodland suitability groups of soils and estimated productivity, by site indexes, for loblolly, slash, and longleaf
pines-Continued

Site index
Woodland suitability group and soils
Loblolly Slash Longleaf


Group II-Continued
Very deep, well-drained to excessively drained, highly leached soils that have a coarse sand
texture, very low available moisture-holding capacity, and very rapid permeability:
Eustis coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes -------------------------------------------. 80 70 65
Eustis coarse sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ------------------------------------------ 80 70 65
Eustis coarse sand, excessively drained, 0 to 5 percent slopes ------------------------- 80 65 60
Lakeland coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes----------------------------------------- 80 70 65
Lakeland coarse sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes----_-------_-- _---------------------. 80 70 65
Lakeland coarse sand, excessively drained, 0 to 5 percent slopes-------------------_--_ 80 65 60
Lakeland coarse sand, excessively drained, 5 to 12 percent slopes --------------...----.-80 65 60

Group III
Moderately well drained soils that have a fine sandy loam to loamy fine sand surface layer;
clayey material is at depths of less than 18 inches in the Sawyer soils and less than 12 inches
in all other soils; permeability is slow to very slow and available moisture-holding capacity
is high:
Binnsville soils, 2 to 12 percent slopes ------------------------------------------.--- 90 90 70
Sawyer loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ---------------------------------------- 95 90 70
Sawyer loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes --------- ---------------.------------- 95 90 70
Susquehanna loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ------- ---------- ------------- 90 90 70
Susquehanna loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes--------------------- ------------- 90 90 70
Susquehanna-Boswell-Binnsville complex, marly substratum, 5 to 12 percent slopes------ 90 85 70
Susquehanna-Boswell-Binnsville complex, marly substratum, 12 to 50 percent slopes-__-_ 90 85 70
Susquehanna-Sawyer complex, 5 to 12 percent slopes----------------___--_---------__- 90 90 70
Susquehanna-Sawyer complex, 12 to 50 percent slopes _-------_------------- ------- 90 85 70
Deep, moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained soils that have a loamy sand to silt
loam surface layer and mostly a fine sandy clay loam subsoil; permeability and available
moisture-holding capacity are moderate:
Congaree silt loam 1 ---------- ------------------- ------------------_ --_-__--_ ----- --
Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ----------------------------------- 90 90 65
Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes---------------------------- ------ 90 90 65
Goldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes ----.---------------------- 90 90 65
Goldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes ---------------------------- 90 90 65
Goldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes --------------------- 90 85 65
Hannahatchee soils, local alluvium ---------------- ---------------------------- 100 100 70
Izagora loamy fine sand---------------------------------------------------- --- --- 90 90 65
Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes-- ----------------- --.- ------- --- 90 85 65
Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------------------ 90 85 65
Lynchburg loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes --------------------------- 90 80 65
Lynchburg loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes -------------------------- 90 80 65
Deep, moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained soils that, except in the shallow
Klej soils, are coarse sand to loamy sand to depths greater than 42 inches; shallow Klej soils
have finer textured material at depths of 30 to 42 inches; permeability is rapid to very
rapid and the available moisture-holding capacity is low:
Blanton fine sand, terrace, 0 to 5 percent slopes-----------------------. ----- -------- 90 75 60
Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes------------------------------------------- 90 75 60
Blanton fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes_------__------__---- ------------------ 90 75 60
Blanton coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes----------------- --------------------- 85 70 60
Klej loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent slopes----------- --------------------- 90 80 60
Klej loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------- ------ -------- 90 80 60
Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes------------------------------------------ ---------- 90 75 60
Klej sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-----------------.---------------------- ---------- 90 75 60
Klej coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes-------_--------------------_ ---------------- 85 70 60
Leon sand------------------------------------------------------------ -------- 85 70 65
Plummer coarse sand, high, 0 to 2 percent slopes------------------------------------ 95 75 60
Plummer sand, high, 0 to 2 percent slopes ---------------------------- ----- 95 75 60
Plummer sand, high, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------------------------ 95 75 60
See footnote at end of table.








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 29

rABLE 3.-Woodland suitability groups of soils and estimated productivity, by site indexes, for loblolly, slash, and longleaf
pines-Continued

Site index
Woodland suitability group and soils

Loblolly Slash Longleaf

iroup IV2
'oorly drained to very poorly drained, very slowly permeable soils that have a fine sandy
loam to very fine sandy loam surface layer; fine sandy clay to clay material is at depths of
about 6 to 10 inches:
Grady fine sandy loam--------------------------------------------------------- 95 90 70
Leaf very fine sandy loam ----------------------------------------------------- 95 90 70
)eep, poorly to very poorly drained, moderately slowly to slowly permeable soils that have a
fine sandy loam to loomy fine sand surface layer; fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam
material is at depths of less than 18 inches:
Myatt loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ------------_--------------------------- 90 85 ------
Portsmouth fine sandy loam -------------------------- ------- -------------------- 95 80 65
Rains fine sandy loam--------------------- ------------------------------ 90 80 65
)eep, poorly to very poorly drained soils that have a fine sand or sand texture to a depth
greater than 42 inches; permeability is rapid and available moisture-holding capacity is low:
Plummer sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ---------------- ------------------------------- 100 70 60
Plummer sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ----------------------------------------------- 100 70 60
Rutlege fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes .._---------_ ----- ------------------------ 95 70 60
Rutlege fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes --------------------------------------------- 95 70 60

1 This soil is on a first bottom susceptible to flooding and supports 2 The site index of this woodland group is the estimated growth
trdwoods. with adequate drainage.
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP I The hazard of erosion varies for the different soils of this
This group consists of well-drained, medium acid to group. It ranges from slight on most soils with slopes
rongly acid, sandy soils that are underlain by fine sandy 0 to 5 percent to severe on some of the more stronglysloping
ay loam or fine sandy clay at a depth less than 30 inches. soils. Roads should be located and maintained with care,
hese soils have a site index of 80 to 90 for loblolly pine, particularly on slopes where there is a hazard of erosion.
5 to 85 for slash pine, and 65 to 70 for longleaf pine.
They normally do not have a special problem of seed- WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP II
ig mortality. They are suited to planting and natural This group consists of deep or very deep, well-drained
seeding, but natural restocking of pine is sometimes pre- to excessively drained, highly leached, strongly acid,
mnted by fires, wiregrass and other undergrowth, hard- sandy soils. These soils have a site index of 80 to 90 for
oods, birds, and lack of seed trees. Competing vegeta- loblolly pine, 65 to 80 for slash pine, and 60 to 70 for long-
an may delay the stand or slow its early growth, but the leaf pine.
ils in this group generally are not prepared before they The native vegetation consists principally of longleaf
e planted. pine, turkey oak, and blackjack oak. Most of the forest
Limitations to the use of equipment range from slight to has been severely cut over. The natural restocking of pine
moderate. Wetness is not a limiting factor. The great- is prevented by a lack of seed trees, fires, wiregrass, and
t hazard is the steep slopes of some of the soils. Fire scrub oaks. Some longleaf pine will restock where there
nes should be plowed across the slopes to minimize are seed trees and the land is protected from fire, but this
,zard of gullying. kind of restocking is slow. Trees grow more slowly on
The hazards of disease or insects to trees on the soils in these soils than on those that contain more moisture. If
)odland group I generally are about the same as those on pine seedlings are to survive on the excessively drained
e soils in the other woodland groups of the county, soils of this group, they must be almost free of competition
,onartium fusiform, commonly called Southern fusiform for moisture from other plants.
st, is the most common disease. Because of their faster Limitations to the use of equipment range from slight
owth, slash and loblolly pines are more susceptible to to moderate. Competing vegetation, poor soil qualities,
is disease than longleaf pine. Although this disease is droughtiness, and steep slopes limit tree growth on some
problem in the county, its effect on the trees is not soils in this group. To minimize gullying, fire lanes should
-ious. Insects do not cause widespread damage. But be plowed as nearly across the slopes as possible.
IThis woodland suitability group has no special problems
ere are scattered small losses caused by insects on trees of disease or insects. Its problems are similar to those of
at have been weakened by fires and poor logging and woodland group I.
tting practices. Windthrow is not a special problem, and trees can be
Windthrow is not a problem, and trees can be cut and cut and thinned without appreciable losses from wind-
Inned without losses from windthrow. throw.







30 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

The erosion hazard is not serious, except on the steep locating and maintaining roads and trails on all of the
slopes. Roads and trails, however, should be maintained shallow soils of this group.
with care, especially on the steep slopes.
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP IV
WOODLAND SUITABILITY GROUP III This group consists of poorly drained to very poorly
This group consists of moderately well drained to some- drained, strongly acid to very strongly acid soils. These
what poorly drained soils. All these soils, except the soils have a site index of 90 to 100 for loblolly pine, 70 to
Binnsville, are strongly acid. The Binnsville soils are 90 for slash pine, and 60 to 70 for longleaf pine.
neutral. The soils of this group have a site index of 85 to The native vegetation consists of mixed stands of
100 for loblolly pine, 70 to 100 for slash pine, and 60 to 70 blackgum, sweetgum, cypress, water oak, and other hard-
for longleaf pine. woods, as well as scattered areas of slash and loblolly
The native vegetation consists of mixed stands of slash pines. The species of trees on this woodland group vary
pine, longleaf pine, white oak, live oak, hickory, bay, and according to the amount of water on the soil or the near-
magnolia. Moisture is sufficient for these trees because ness of the water table to the surface. On the very poorly
the soils in this group are next to moist areas and are on drained soils, the trees are primarily hardwoods, whereas
slopes above the flood level where the water table is near on the poorly drained soils, mixtures of hardwoods and
the surface or where seepage water is adequate. Although scattered pines occur. Reseeding is difficult in areas
longleaf pine and slash pine grow in mixed stands in many susceptible to flooding. Because of the poor surface
places, the slash pine is better suited to the somewhat drainage and the high water table, reforestation either by
poorly drained soils of this group. Normally, there are no natural or mechanical means is a problem.
special problems of seedling mortality on these soils. Competition from undesirable plants is moderate.
Most trees generally restock satisfactorily by planting, Undesirable hardwoods and water-tolerant shrubs and
or by natural reseeding if a suitable source of seed is grasses invade to some extent, but they do not prevent
available. On moderately steep to steep, eroded slopes, adequate growth of the more desirable species. Compet-
however, reforestation of the shallow to very shallow soils ing vegetation may delay natural regeneration of the stand
is difficult by either natural reproduction or artificial or slow its early growth, but planting sites are not specially
means. prepared.
Competition from undesired plants on the soils of this Limitations to the use of equipment range from moderate
group is moderate. Some invasion of various hardwoods to extreme. During wet seasons the use of equipment on
and other plants can be expected, but not enough to the soils of this group is extremely limited.
prevent adequate growth of the desired species. Com- There are no special disease, insect, or pest problems on
peting vegetation may delay natural regeneration of the the soils in this group. These problems are similar to
stand or may slow its early growth, but special preparation those of woodland group III.
of the site or other special management is not essential. Where cutting and logging is poorly done, there is some
Slash pine is especially well suited to most of the soils of windthrow. If cutting and logging is improved, losses
this group because it is well suited to moist sites and from windthrow can be lessened.
because fires occur less frequently in moist locations. There is no erosion problem on the soils of this group,
Limitations to the use of equipment range from slight but drainage is a serious problem.
to severe. Heavy rains on some of the deep soils in this
group may delay the use of equipment for several days. Engineering Interpretations 7
If equipment is used early in spring when soils are usually
wet, tree roots may be damaged. The use of equipment is Soil engineering is well established today. It is, in a
severely limited on the shallow, moderately steep and broad sense, a subdivision of structural engineering, for
steep soils of this group. it deals with soil as foundation material and with soil as a
These soils do not have a serious problem of disease or structural material. To the engineer, soils are natural
insects, but Cronartium fusiform, or Southern fusiform materials that occur in a wide variety over the earth. The
rust, does cause some damage. This disease attacks fast- engineering properties of these materials may vary widely
growing species of pine, such as loblolly and slash, more within the boundaries of a single project. Generally, soil
than it does longleaf. It is more prevalent on trees is used in the locality and in the condition in which it is
growing in this group, but it does not appreciably damage found. A large part of soil engineering deals with the
the woodland economy of the county. Insects are not location of the various soils, the determination of their
epidemic in the county, but they cause some damage by engineering properties, the correlation of those properties
attacking trees that have been weakened by fires and by with the requirements of the job, and the selection of the
poor logging and cutting practices, very best possible material for each job.
Windthrow is not a special problem on the deep soils of This soil survey report contains information about the
this group, but it does occur on the soils that have shallow soils of Gadsden County that will be helpful to engineers.
and very shallow root zones. Losses from windthrow can Special emphasis has been placed on engineering proper-
be decreased by good cutting and logging practices, ties as related to agriculture, especially those that affect
Erosion hazards vary on the different soils. The hazard
ranges from slight on the nearly level, deep soils to very 7 This subsection was written by DAVID P. POWELL, assistant
severe on the steep soils with shallow root zones. The State soil scientist, 0. E. SMITH and L. E. STRICKLAND, engineering
management of woodland, including erosion control, ought specialists, and B. P. THOMAS, soil scientist, Soil Conservation Serv-
management of woodland, including erosion control, ought ce and by T. L. BRANSFORD, engineer of research, Florida State
to be intense on eroded areas. Special care is needed in Road Department.







GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 31

irrigation structures, farm ponds, and structures to con- test data are given in table 4. Each soil series was sampled
trol and conserve soil and water, in three localities, and the test data from different locations
The information in this report will be helpful in: show some variation in physical characteristics. The data,
1. Selecting and developing sites for industry, business, however, probably do not show the maximum variations
homes, and recreation. of the B and C horizons of each of the soil series. All
2. Selecting locations for highways, pipelines, and samples were obtained at depths of less than 5 feet. The
airports. test data, therefore, may not be adequate for estimating
3. Locating sand that is used in construction. the characteristics of soil materials in deep cuts that may
4. Correlating pavement performance with kinds of be made in areas of rolling or hilly topography.
soils and thus developing information that will be The engineering soil classifications in table 4 are based
useful in designing and maintaining pavements. on data obtained by mechanical analyses and by tests
5. Determining the suitability of soils for cross- made to determine liquid limits and plastic limits. Me-
country movement of vehicles and construction chanical analyses were made by combined sieve and
equipment. hydrometer methods. In the procedure of the American
6. Supplementing information obtained from pub- Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), the
listed maps and reports and aerial photographs fine material is analyzed by the hydrometer method and
for the purpose of presenting information that the various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis
can be used readily by engineers, of all the material in the soil sample, including that
7. Ma g rlimin ei e e engineering coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. The Soil Con-
properties of soils in the planning of agriculture servation Service uses the pipette method and excludes
draeinae systems farmi ponds irrigation systems material coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter from the
and diversionterraces calculations. Percentages of clay obtained by the hydrom-
eter method are not used in naming soil textural classes.
Engineers of the Florida State Road Department, the The liquid-limit and plastic-limit tests measure the
United States Bureau of Public Roads, and the Soil Con- effect of water on the consistence of the soil material.
servation Service collaborated with soil scientists of the As the moisture content of a clayey soil increases from
Soil Conservation Service in preparing this part of the a very dry state, the material changes from a solid to
report. These engineers used their knowledge of soils to a semisolid or plastic state. As the moisture content is
interpret laboratory tests and field experiences and to further increased, the material changes from the plastic
determine how the soils in the county will affect engineering, to a liquid state. The plastic limit is the moisture content
The interpretations are necessarily generalized. With- at which the soil material passes from a solid to a plastic
out further tests and sampling, the information in this report state. The liquid limit is the moisture content at which
is not adequate for the design and construction of specific the material passes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
engineering works. plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
At many construction sites, the soil material varies liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range
greatly within the depth of proposed excavations. Also, of moisture content within which a soil material is in a
several different soils may be found within short distances, plastic condition.
The maps, soil descriptions, and other data in this report Table 4 also gives compaction (moisture-density) data
should be used in planning detailed surveys of the soils at for the tested soils. If a soil material is compacted at
construction sites. By using the information in this soil successively higher moisture content, assuming that the
survey report, the engineer can concentrate on the most compactive effort remains constant, the density of the
suitable soil units. Then, a minimum number of soil compacted material will increase until the optimum
samples will be needed for laboratory testing. After moisture content is reached. After that, the density
testing the soil materials and observing their behavior decreases with increase in moisture content. The highest
in place, under varying conditions, the engineer should dry density obtained in the compaction test is termed
be able to anticipate, to some extent, the properties of maximum dry density. Moisture-density data are
individual soil units wherever they are mapped. important in earthwork, for as a rule, optimum stability
Soil science terminology is obtained if the soil is compacted to about the maximum
dry density, when it is at approximately the optimum
The terminology in this report is that used by agricul- dry density, when it is at approximately the optimum
turalists. Many of the terms have a special meaning to
soil scientists and should, therefore, be defined for the Engineering classification systems
engineer. Some of the more common terms are defined The engineering classifications of the soil materials
in the Glossary at the back of the report. The engineer in the soil samples tested are given in table 4 for the
should refer to the sections "Soil Survey Methods and system approved by the American Association of State
Definitions," "Descriptions of Soils," and "Formation Highway Officials (AASHO) and for the Unified system.
and Classification of Soils." In these sections there is Most highway engineers classify soil materials according
much information that will be of value in planning engi- to the AASHO system. In this system soil materials
Share classified in seven principal groups. The groups
Soil test data range from A-i, consisting of gravelly soils of high bear-
Samples of the principal soil types in 10 extensive soil ing capacity, to A-7, consisting of clay soils having low
series were tested in accordance with standard procedures strength when wet. Within each group, the relative
to help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The engineering value of the soil material is indicated by a
581618-61- 3







GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 31

irrigation structures, farm ponds, and structures to con- test data are given in table 4. Each soil series was sampled
trol and conserve soil and water, in three localities, and the test data from different locations
The information in this report will be helpful in: show some variation in physical characteristics. The data,
1. Selecting and developing sites for industry, business, however, probably do not show the maximum variations
homes, and recreation. of the B and C horizons of each of the soil series. All
2. Selecting locations for highways, pipelines, and samples were obtained at depths of less than 5 feet. The
airports. test data, therefore, may not be adequate for estimating
3. Locating sand that is used in construction. the characteristics of soil materials in deep cuts that may
4. Correlating pavement performance with kinds of be made in areas of rolling or hilly topography.
soils and thus developing information that will be The engineering soil classifications in table 4 are based
useful in designing and maintaining pavements. on data obtained by mechanical analyses and by tests
5. Determining the suitability of soils for cross- made to determine liquid limits and plastic limits. Me-
country movement of vehicles and construction chanical analyses were made by combined sieve and
equipment. hydrometer methods. In the procedure of the American
6. Supplementing information obtained from pub- Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), the
listed maps and reports and aerial photographs fine material is analyzed by the hydrometer method and
for the purpose of presenting information that the various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis
can be used readily by engineers, of all the material in the soil sample, including that
7. Ma g rlimin ei e e engineering coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. The Soil Con-
properties of soils in the planning of agriculture servation Service uses the pipette method and excludes
draeinae systems farmi ponds irrigation systems material coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter from the
and diversionterraces calculations. Percentages of clay obtained by the hydrom-
eter method are not used in naming soil textural classes.
Engineers of the Florida State Road Department, the The liquid-limit and plastic-limit tests measure the
United States Bureau of Public Roads, and the Soil Con- effect of water on the consistence of the soil material.
servation Service collaborated with soil scientists of the As the moisture content of a clayey soil increases from
Soil Conservation Service in preparing this part of the a very dry state, the material changes from a solid to
report. These engineers used their knowledge of soils to a semisolid or plastic state. As the moisture content is
interpret laboratory tests and field experiences and to further increased, the material changes from the plastic
determine how the soils in the county will affect engineering, to a liquid state. The plastic limit is the moisture content
The interpretations are necessarily generalized. With- at which the soil material passes from a solid to a plastic
out further tests and sampling, the information in this report state. The liquid limit is the moisture content at which
is not adequate for the design and construction of specific the material passes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
engineering works. plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
At many construction sites, the soil material varies liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range
greatly within the depth of proposed excavations. Also, of moisture content within which a soil material is in a
several different soils may be found within short distances, plastic condition.
The maps, soil descriptions, and other data in this report Table 4 also gives compaction (moisture-density) data
should be used in planning detailed surveys of the soils at for the tested soils. If a soil material is compacted at
construction sites. By using the information in this soil successively higher moisture content, assuming that the
survey report, the engineer can concentrate on the most compactive effort remains constant, the density of the
suitable soil units. Then, a minimum number of soil compacted material will increase until the optimum
samples will be needed for laboratory testing. After moisture content is reached. After that, the density
testing the soil materials and observing their behavior decreases with increase in moisture content. The highest
in place, under varying conditions, the engineer should dry density obtained in the compaction test is termed
be able to anticipate, to some extent, the properties of maximum dry density. Moisture-density data are
individual soil units wherever they are mapped. important in earthwork, for as a rule, optimum stability
Soil science terminology is obtained if the soil is compacted to about the maximum
dry density, when it is at approximately the optimum
The terminology in this report is that used by agricul- dry density, when it is at approximately the optimum
turalists. Many of the terms have a special meaning to
soil scientists and should, therefore, be defined for the Engineering classification systems
engineer. Some of the more common terms are defined The engineering classifications of the soil materials
in the Glossary at the back of the report. The engineer in the soil samples tested are given in table 4 for the
should refer to the sections "Soil Survey Methods and system approved by the American Association of State
Definitions," "Descriptions of Soils," and "Formation Highway Officials (AASHO) and for the Unified system.
and Classification of Soils." In these sections there is Most highway engineers classify soil materials according
much information that will be of value in planning engi- to the AASHO system. In this system soil materials
Share classified in seven principal groups. The groups
Soil test data range from A-i, consisting of gravelly soils of high bear-
Samples of the principal soil types in 10 extensive soil ing capacity, to A-7, consisting of clay soils having low
series were tested in accordance with standard procedures strength when wet. Within each group, the relative
to help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The engineering value of the soil material is indicated by a
581618-61- 3







GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 31

irrigation structures, farm ponds, and structures to con- test data are given in table 4. Each soil series was sampled
trol and conserve soil and water, in three localities, and the test data from different locations
The information in this report will be helpful in: show some variation in physical characteristics. The data,
1. Selecting and developing sites for industry, business, however, probably do not show the maximum variations
homes, and recreation. of the B and C horizons of each of the soil series. All
2. Selecting locations for highways, pipelines, and samples were obtained at depths of less than 5 feet. The
airports. test data, therefore, may not be adequate for estimating
3. Locating sand that is used in construction. the characteristics of soil materials in deep cuts that may
4. Correlating pavement performance with kinds of be made in areas of rolling or hilly topography.
soils and thus developing information that will be The engineering soil classifications in table 4 are based
useful in designing and maintaining pavements. on data obtained by mechanical analyses and by tests
5. Determining the suitability of soils for cross- made to determine liquid limits and plastic limits. Me-
country movement of vehicles and construction chanical analyses were made by combined sieve and
equipment. hydrometer methods. In the procedure of the American
6. Supplementing information obtained from pub- Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), the
listed maps and reports and aerial photographs fine material is analyzed by the hydrometer method and
for the purpose of presenting information that the various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis
can be used readily by engineers, of all the material in the soil sample, including that
7. Ma g rlimin ei e e engineering coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. The Soil Con-
properties of soils in the planning of agriculture servation Service uses the pipette method and excludes
draeinae systems farmi ponds irrigation systems material coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter from the
and diversionterraces calculations. Percentages of clay obtained by the hydrom-
eter method are not used in naming soil textural classes.
Engineers of the Florida State Road Department, the The liquid-limit and plastic-limit tests measure the
United States Bureau of Public Roads, and the Soil Con- effect of water on the consistence of the soil material.
servation Service collaborated with soil scientists of the As the moisture content of a clayey soil increases from
Soil Conservation Service in preparing this part of the a very dry state, the material changes from a solid to
report. These engineers used their knowledge of soils to a semisolid or plastic state. As the moisture content is
interpret laboratory tests and field experiences and to further increased, the material changes from the plastic
determine how the soils in the county will affect engineering, to a liquid state. The plastic limit is the moisture content
The interpretations are necessarily generalized. With- at which the soil material passes from a solid to a plastic
out further tests and sampling, the information in this report state. The liquid limit is the moisture content at which
is not adequate for the design and construction of specific the material passes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
engineering works. plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
At many construction sites, the soil material varies liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range
greatly within the depth of proposed excavations. Also, of moisture content within which a soil material is in a
several different soils may be found within short distances, plastic condition.
The maps, soil descriptions, and other data in this report Table 4 also gives compaction (moisture-density) data
should be used in planning detailed surveys of the soils at for the tested soils. If a soil material is compacted at
construction sites. By using the information in this soil successively higher moisture content, assuming that the
survey report, the engineer can concentrate on the most compactive effort remains constant, the density of the
suitable soil units. Then, a minimum number of soil compacted material will increase until the optimum
samples will be needed for laboratory testing. After moisture content is reached. After that, the density
testing the soil materials and observing their behavior decreases with increase in moisture content. The highest
in place, under varying conditions, the engineer should dry density obtained in the compaction test is termed
be able to anticipate, to some extent, the properties of maximum dry density. Moisture-density data are
individual soil units wherever they are mapped. important in earthwork, for as a rule, optimum stability
Soil science terminology is obtained if the soil is compacted to about the maximum
dry density, when it is at approximately the optimum
The terminology in this report is that used by agricul- dry density, when it is at approximately the optimum
turalists. Many of the terms have a special meaning to
soil scientists and should, therefore, be defined for the Engineering classification systems
engineer. Some of the more common terms are defined The engineering classifications of the soil materials
in the Glossary at the back of the report. The engineer in the soil samples tested are given in table 4 for the
should refer to the sections "Soil Survey Methods and system approved by the American Association of State
Definitions," "Descriptions of Soils," and "Formation Highway Officials (AASHO) and for the Unified system.
and Classification of Soils." In these sections there is Most highway engineers classify soil materials according
much information that will be of value in planning engi- to the AASHO system. In this system soil materials
Share classified in seven principal groups. The groups
Soil test data range from A-i, consisting of gravelly soils of high bear-
Samples of the principal soil types in 10 extensive soil ing capacity, to A-7, consisting of clay soils having low
series were tested in accordance with standard procedures strength when wet. Within each group, the relative
to help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The engineering value of the soil material is indicated by a
581618-61- 3








32 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 4.-Engineering test data for soil

Moisture-density 2 Mechanical analysis S
Bureau of
Public Percentage passing sieve
Soil name and location Roads Depth Horizon Maximum
report dry den- Optimum
No. sity moisture 2 in. 1l2-in. 1-in. %-in. %-in.



Carnegie loamy fine sand: Inches Lb. per cu. f. Percent
NW4SEY, sec. 26, R. 5 W., T. 3 N. S 33221 5-9 A,2------ 122 10 100 99 95 92 88
(Modal profile). S 33222 18-35 B,2 ..- .- 115 15 100 99 96 94 91
S 33223 56-65+ C ------ 101 22 -----_------. 100 99 98
NWSE3, sec. 28, R. 4 W., T. 3 N. S 33224 0-7 A, .---- 112 12 --- 100 99 98 96
(Coarse texture). S 33225 13-36 B,__2 .._ 110 17 --- 100 99 98 97
S 33226 51-65+ C__ ----- 103 20 ------ --- ------
NE'NE4, sec. 22, R. 2 W., T. 3 N. S 33227 0-3 A,, ...-- 118 12 ------------------ 100 96
(Finer texture). S 33228 9-22 B,..._.-- 99 23 ------- ------- 100 99
S 33229 36-46+ C -----. 92 27---------------
Eustis loamy sand:
SESE, sec. 31, R. 2 W., T. 3 N. S 33230 0-11 A,__-- 114 10
(Modal profile). S 33231 46-63 Ci---- 117 10
S 33232 71-77+ D3------ 123 11 ..... .... ......
Eustis loamy sand, shallow:
SENE4, sec. 16, R. 2 W., T. 2 N. S 33233 0-6 A,...__.. 116 10
(Modal profile). S 33234 24-39 B2---- -- 119 9
S 33235 44-55+ D2 ,----- 116 14
Eustis coarse sand:
NWyNW4, sec. 28, R. 4 W., T. 1 N. S 33236 3-12 As3 --- 114 10
(Deeper profile). S 33237 12-60 C, ------ 113 13
S 33238 90-104+ Ca------- 108 15 ------.------ --
Faceville loamy fine sand:
SEy4NWY4, sec. 29, R. 2 W., T. 3 N. S 33239 7-14 As------- 117 13 -------------100
(Modal profile). S 33240 17-35 B,------- 109 19
S 33241 61-79 C --.-. 113 17 ...............-
NWYSW%, sec. 33, R. 2 W., T. 2 N. S 33242 0-6 A,_--_-- 120 11 ------ 100 99 98 96
(Coarser texture). S 33243 9-43 B2---- 112 16 ---------- 100 98
S 33244 54-65+ C -- -94 27 ----------- ---
SW'NE%, sec. 33, R. 2 W., T. 2 N. S 33245 3-6 A2 ------ 121 11 .------------------ 100 98
(Finer texture). S 33246 11-29 B2------- 108 18 ------_----- ------- 100 98
S 33247 47-58+ C_--___. 98 25
Lakeland coarse sand:
NENEJ, sec. 13, R. 6 W., T. 2 N. S 33248 2-5 A2------ 114 10
(Modal profile). S 33249 11-31 C21 ----- 113 12
S 33250 55-74 C32----- 114 12
S 33251 74-82+ D --..__ 124 10 --- -------- ...
SWySW%4, sec. 28, R. 4 W., T. 1 N. S 33252 2-8 A ------- 105 13 ---. -
(Deeper profile). S 33253 60-86 C2- 106 14 -
S 33254 86-110 C ------- 102 16 ---.---- --....
Lakeland loamy sand:
SESE4, sec. 3, R. 5 W., T. 3 N. S 33255 0-4 A, ------ 120 11 -
(Finer textured). S 33256 14-39 Cz------ 125 9---- --- ---
S 33257 39-68+ D, ----- 125 10 -----.------------_ 100 98
Magnolia loamy fine sand:
NWY4NE4, sec. 8, R. 2 W., T. 2 N. S 33258 0-6 Ap ..--- 120 10 .-. ---
(Modal profile). S 33259 12-48 B2 ------ 114 15 ---- ----
S 33260 128-168+ C ------ 111 17 ----------- -..
SENWJ, sec. 34, R. 4 W., T. 3 N. S 33261 0-4 A -..... 121 11 --
(Coarser texture). S 33262 12-49 B2---..-- 114 15
S 33263 63-72+ Ci---.... 113 16 .....- .......
NEyNE11, sec. 34, R. 4 W., T. 3 N. S 33264 0-7 A,_p-- 117 13 ...........- ..
(Finer texture). S 33265 9-38 B----..-- 106 19 -- .. ---------
S 33266 48-65+ C .-...-. 114 15 ----.. --......
See footnotes at the end of table.








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 33

samples taken from thirty soil profiles

Mechanical analysis --Con. Classification

Percentage passing sieve-Con. Percentage smaller than- Liquid Plasticity
_limit index
AASHO 4 Unified 5
No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 60 No. 200 0.05 0.02 0.005 0.002
(4.76 (2.0 (0.42 (0.250 (0.074 mm. mm. mm. mm.
mm.) mm.) mm.) mm.) mm.)


85 84 76 66 27 20 17 13 9 (6) (6) A-2-4(0)_-- SM.
88 87 80 73 41 38 34 31 30 36 17 A-6(3)_ -- SC.
98 97 93 90 64 58 52 49 48 55 25 A-7-5(14)__ MH-CH.
95 94 91 86 30 18 8 7 5 (6) (6) A-2-4(0)__- SM.
96 95 93 90 50 44 37 36 34 36 16 A-6(5) --_ SC.
1--- 00 99 62 53 47 45 44 49 24 A-7-6(12)_ CL.
91 89 86 79 32 25 20 18 16 19 5 A-2-4(0)-_ SM-SC.
98 98 97 93 70 66 63 61 60 48 25 A-7-6(14)_ CL.
100 99 96 78 75 71 69 69 64 30 A-7-5(20)__ MH.

100 93 73 16 13 9 6 4 (6) (6) A-2-4(0)__ SM.
100 94 79 21 15 8 7 6 (6) (6) A-2-4(0)___ SM.
100 96 84 36 31 26 23 22 24 10 A-4(0)----- SC.

S 100 95 80 18 14 9 6 4 (6) (6) A-2-4(0)--_ SM.
100 96 82 20 16 11 9 9 (6) (6) A-2-4(0)__ SM.
S 100 96 85 39 35 31 29 26 29 12 A-6(1)----- SC.

100 48 27 10 8 5 5 4 (6) () A-l-b(0)__ SP-SM.
100 49 25 9 8 5 4 3 (6) () A-l-b(0)--- SP-SM.
100 45 18 4 4 3 2 2 (6) (6) A-l-b(0)_-- SP.

99 98 92 78 31 26 22 19 17 20 5 A-2-4(0)--- SM-SC.
100 95 84 50 47 43 42 40 35 17 A-6(6)----- SC.
100 91 74 38 36 34 32 31 39 20 A-6(3) ..- SC.
95 95 92 84 34 28 20 16 13 19 4 A-2-4(0).-- SM-SC.
96 95 92 84 54 49 42 38 36 35 17 A-6(6) -_. CL.
100 99 95 77 74 71 69 68 53 21 A-7-5(15)-- MH.
95 94 90 81 29 23 15 13 11 18 3 A-2-4(0)___ SM.
97 96 93 87 55 52 48 46 46 37 19 A-6(8) ----CL.
100 98 93 71 69 65 62 62 50 22 A-7-b(14)_ ML-CL.

100 64 33 9 8 6 5 4 (6) (6) A-3(0) --- SP-SM.
100 64 34 9 8 5 5 4 (6) (6) A-3(0)---. SP-SM.
100 68 43 9 7 5 5 4 (6) (6) A-3(0) -- SP-SM.
100 68 46 24 22 19 16 15 23 8 A-2-4(0)--- SC.
100 78 47 7 6 5 4 3 () (6) A-3(0)-- SP-SM.
100 76 45 7 6 4 3 2 (6) (6) A-3(0) SP-SM.
100 74 47 4 3 2 2 2 (6) (6) A-3(0) --- SP.

100 80 60 32 28 21 13 11 (6) () A-2-4(0)_-- SM.
100 68 45 18 16 14 12 10 (9 (6 A-2-4(0) -- SM.
94 88 54 37 20 18 14 12 11 23 5 A-2-4(0)-_ SM-SC.

100 96 86 26 20 15 11 10 (6) (6) A-2-4(0).-- SM.
100 97 89 51 46 40 38 35 37 20 A-6(7) ---- CL.
100 97 79 46 45 43 41 39 44 23 A-7-6(6) _- SC.
------- 100 97 88 33 25 19 15 12 (6) (6) A-2-4(0) ._ SM.
---- 100 98 94 55 44 39 36 34 35 15 A-6(6)--.-- CL.
------- 100 98 95 37 31 27 25 22 34 13 A-6(1)---- SC.
------- 100 97 89 34 29 25 21 18 22 7 A-2-4(0) __ SM-SC.
------ 100 98 92 54 51 47 46 43 40 19 A-6(7) .- CL.
-------- 100 98 94 32 28 27 25 23 34 13 A-2-6(1) __ SC.







34 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 4.-Engineering test data for soil

Moisture-density 2 Mechanical analysis 3
Bureau of
Public Percentage passing sieve
Soil name and location Roads Depth Horizon Maximum
report dry den- Optimum
No. sity moisture 2 in. 1%-in. 1-in. %-in. -i



Norfolk loamy fine sand: Inches Lb. per cu. ft. Percent
SENW4, sec. 14, R. 2 W., T. 3 N. S 33267 2-8 As ..... 114 11
(Modal profile). S 33268 16-47 B2 --- 114 15
S 33269 64-85+ C 112 16
SESE%, sec. 22, R. 2 W., T. 3 N. S 33270 0-3 A,._--- 117 11
(Finer texture). S 33271 9-29 Bz2----- 111 17
S 33272 55-67+ C ---- 103 21 ----------- ..-----. 100 99
SESE4, sec. 8, R. 2 W., T. 2 N. S 33273 2-10 As------- 119 9
(Deeper profile). S 33274 27-43 Bs------- 115 14
S 33275 65-76+ C .----- 109 18 ---- --- ---.. -- -........
Orangeburg loamy fine sand:
NWyNE4, sec. 22, R. 2 W., T. 3 N. S 33276 0-6 Ai ,---- 118 11
(Model profile). S 33277 16-38 B21------ 116 15 --
SEYSE%, sec. 16, R. 2 W., T. 2 N. S 33278 3-7 As------- 119 11 100 98
(Finer texture). S 33279 10-36 B2------- 106 20 ---- ------- 100 99
S 32280 52-62+ C1 ------ 101 22 ------ ..... --
SE4NE4, sec. 26, R. 2 W., T. 3 N. S 33281 0-7 A, and As. 119 9
(Deeper profile). S 33282 21-57 B ------- 117 14 -. -
S 33283 57-86+ C ------- 110 18 ......- -- -
Red Bay loamy fine sand:
SWSWY4, sec. 10, R. 4 W., T. 2 N. S 33284 0-5 A,-----. 121 9
(Model profile). S 33285 10-24 B21------ 119 13 -----------
SE4SE, sec. 17, R. 2 W., T. 3 N. S 33286 0-9 A,----- 120 8 ..............
(Finer texture). S 33287 19-68 B2 ------ 118 13
S 33288 110-150+ C --- 123 11 -
SEYSE4, sec. 17, R. 2 W., T. 3 N. S 33289 0-8 A----- 122 10
(Deeper profile). S 33290 24-72 B2 ,_--- 116 14
S 33291 72-122+ C ------ 120 13 ---- .- ........
Ruston loamy fine sand:
SW1.NEY, sec. 21, R. 2 W., T. 3 N. S 33292 0-9 A, ....- 118 11
(Modal profile). S 33293 15-32 B2 ------- 111 17
S 33294 68-90+ C.----- 100 24 -__--.-.-____ __-._ ------1. i00
SW/4SW%4, sec. 27, R. 2 W., T. 3 N. S 33295 4-9 As------- 120 10
(Mottling closer to surface). S 33296 22-31 Ba ------- 108 19
S 33297 47-55+ C ------ 102 22 .... .. ... -
NE4NE%4, sec. 2, R. 4 W., T. 2 N. S 33298 0-5 A,,.----- 120 9 ---------100 99
(Thick surface). S 33299 31-38 Bz----- 116 15
S 33300 47-60+ C .-..-- 112 16 --- .... .... ---
Tifton loamv fine sand:
SW%/NW, sec. 1, R. 5 W., T. 2 N. S 33301 3-6 Ais.---.- 121 10 ---- ------100 99
(Modal profile). S 33302 13-40 B2------ 112 17------ 1CO 99 97 89
S 33303 60-72+ C ...--- 119 8 ------------ 100 99 93
SW'NW4, sec. 16, R. 5 W., T 2 N. S 33304 0-6 A,--.--- 121 11 --------- 100 96
(Coarse texture). S 33305 12-32 B2------- 118 13 100 93
S 33306 47-74 C.---.- 113 16 ------------------ 100 97
SE4SEY, sec. 16, R. 4 W., T. 3 N. S 33307 0-5 A, -__... 109 14 ------_ 100 99 96
(Mottling closer to surface). S 33308 16-30 B .------ 109 18 ------------ 100 99 95
S 33309 42-49+ C ------- 99 24 _------__ __--_____ 100 99

1 Tests performed by the Bureau of Public Roads in accordance frequently may differ somewhat from results that would have been
with standard procedures of the American Association of State obtained by the soil survey procedure of the Soil Conservation
Highway Officials (AASHO). Service (SCS). In the AASHO procedure, the fine material is
2 Based on the compaction and density of soils, AASHO Desig- analyzed by the hydrometer method and the various grain-size
nation: T 99-57, Method A. fractions are calculated on the basis of all the material, including
3 Mechanical analyses according to the American Association of that coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. In the SCS soil survey
State Highway Officials Designation T 88. Results by this procedure procedure, the fine material is analyzed by the pipette method









GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 35

samples taken from thirty soil profiles-Continued

Mechanical analysis '-Continued Classification

Percentage passing sieve-Continued Percentage smaller than- Liquid Plasticity
limit index
AASHO 4 Unified s
No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 60 No. 200 0.05 0.02 0.005 0.002
(4.76 (2.0 (0.42 (0.250 (0.074 mm. mm. mm. mm.
rmm.) mm.) mm.) mm.) mm.)


100 95 85 57 19 13 9 6 (6) (6) A-4(4)--- ML.
100 97 90 49 44 37 35 33 33 14 A-6(4) -- SC.
100 98 92 52 46 38 38 37 36 16 A-6(6)----_ CL.
100 97 87 33 24 17 12 10 (6) (6) A-2-4(0) -_ SM.
100 97 91 53 47 43 40 38 34 15 A-6(6) ---_ CL.
98 96 93 87 56 50 45 42 41 42 17 A-7-6(7)__ ML-CL.
100 96 86 26 19 12 9 7 () (6) A-2-4(0) __ SM.
100 97 90 44 37 30 28 26 32 15 A-6(3) S-. SC.
100 98 93 51 46 40 37 36 40 17 A-6(6) --_ CL.

100 93 76 26 21 14 10 8 (1) (6) A-2-4(0)-__ SM.
100 96 87 27 20 15 12 10 34 16 A-2-6(1)___ SC.
97 96 92 82 46 40 36 33 32 (6) (6) A-4(0)----_ SM.
98 98 95 90 58 54 52 50 49 44 19 A-7-6(9).__ ML-CL.
100 97 90 60 57 53 50 50 46 18 A-7-6(9)__ ML-CL.
100 86 65 17 14 11 8 6 (6) (6) A-2-4(0)___ SM.
100 88 73 42 38 36 34 33 35 19 A-6(4) ___- SC.
100 91 79 50 47 43 42 42 43 17 A-7-6(6).. SM-SC.

100 93 80 26 21 15 11 10 (6) (6) A-2-4(0)_ SM.
100 96 87 45 40 36 32 30 30 15 A-6(4) SC.
100 81 54 17 14 10 8 8 (6) (6) A-2-4(0)___ SM.
100 86 69 39 37 33 31 31 30 16 A-6(2) ---- SC.
100 84 59 25 23 21 20 18 24 8 A-2-4(0)___ SC.
100 85 60 21 18 15 11 9 (6) (6) A-2-4(0)-__ SM.
100 86 66 40 38 35 34 32 33 17 A-6(3) __- SC.
100 79 59 33 26 23 23 22 30 13 A-2-6(0)___ SC.

100 95 81 29 24 17 12 11 (6) (6) A-2-4(0)___ SM.
100 97 88 53 48 42 38 37 33 17 A-6(6)---_ CL.
99 99 97 91 66 61 58 54 53 50 22 A-7-6(13)__ ML-CL.
-100 95 85 29 20 16 11 10 (0) (6) A-2-4(0)___ SM.
100 97 90 53 49 42 41 40 40 17 A-6(6)_---- CL.
100 99 94 66 61 57 55 54 51 24 A-7-6(14)__ MH-CH.
98 97 80 67 36 14 11 8 7 (6) (6) A-4(0)----- SM.
-- 100 90 76 36 34 32 31 30 32 14 A-6(1)----. SC.
--- 100 94 70 33 32 29 29 28 31 14 A-2-6(1)___ SC.
98 98 90 78 28 22 17 11 9 (6) (6) A-2-4(0)___ SM.
84 82 77 71 40 36 31 28 28 36 14 A-6(2)--.._ SC.
88 86 79 72 43 39 34 32 29 39 15 A-6(3) --_- SM-SC.
92 91 77 60 26 23 18 14 10 20 6 A-2-4(0)-_ SM-SC.
85 84 74 60 34 29 27 24 21 26 11 A-2-6(0)-__ SC.
95 94 80 68 54 38 33 30 27 36 16 A-6(6) ---. CL.
94 94 86 73 31 22 11 7 5 (6) (6) A-2-4(0)___ SM.
91 89 84 76 50 44 36 33 32 37 14 A-6(4).--._ SM-SC.
99 98 93 88 70 65 59 55 53 54 24 A-7-5(15)__ MH-CH.

and the material coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter is excluded of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction
from calculations of grain-size fractions. The mechanical analyses Purposes. AASHO Designation: M 145-49.
used in this table are not suitable for use in naming textural classes 6 Based on the Unified Soil Classification System, Technical
for soils. Memorandum No. 3-357, Volume 1, Waterways Experiment
4 Based on Standard Specifications for Highway Materials and Station, Corps of Engineers, March 1953.
Methods of Sampling and Testing (Pt. 1, Ed. 7): The Classification 6 Nonplastic.








36 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

group index number. Group indexes range from 0 for Soil properties significant to engineering
the best materials to 20 for the poorest. The group Table 5 briefly describes the profile of each soil in the
index number is shown in parentheses following the county and lists physical properties that are significant
soil group symbol, in engineering. These physical properties are estimates
Some engineers prefer to use the Unified system. In based on field observations and, for some soils, on labora-
this system soil materials are identified as coarse grained tory tests. They apply only to the soils in Gadsden
(8 classes), fine grained (6 classes), or highly organic. County. Terms such as dispersion and shrink-swell

TABLE 5.-Estimated physical properties

[Dashed lines indicate that soil has variable

Depth to Classification
season- Depth
Symbol Soil ally high Description of soil from
on map water surface 3
table2 USDA Texture Unified



Feet Inches
Ab Alluvial land.--.-------.----.---. Alluvial material with variable charac-
teristics.
AdB Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 6+ Well-drained fine sand overlying strati- 0-43 Fine sand------ SP-SM or SP_
percent slopes. 6+ fled sandy loams; fine sand generally 43-66 Loamy fine sand. SM--------
AdC Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 extends to depths of 2Y2 to 6 feet but 51-66 Sandy clay loam. SM-SC, SC _
percent slopes. may extend to depths of more than
6 feet in small local areas. A finer
textured sandy clay loam is at a
depth of 4Y2 to 6 feet in most places.
AfD Arredondo-Fellowship- 6+ Well-drained fine sand to fine sandy clay 0-6 Loamyfine sand_ SM-SC ----.
Gainesville soils, 8 to 12 loam underlain by sandy clay loams 6-42 Sandy clayloam CH or MH --
percent slopes.10 and clay; surface layer ranges in to clay.
AfF Arredondo-Fellowship- 6+ thickness from 0 to 6 feet; underlying
Gainesville soils, 12 to 40 material is of variable consistence
percent slopes.10 and permeability and is at depths
that vary within short distances;
some outcrops of plastic clay in
seepage areas on hillsides; fragments
of limestone in substratum.
BaC Binnsville soils, 2 to 12 2 0 inch to 6 inches of fine sandy loam to 0-4 Very fine sandy ML or OL---
percent slopes, fine sandy clay loam underlain by 0 loam.
inch to 6 inches of plastic clay on 4-10 Clay---------- CH or MH-
marly clay containing limestone. 10-42 Marly clay--- CH or MH---
Soils underlain by limestone at a
very shallow depth. In places the
limestone outcrops at the surface.
Occurs on uplands.
BfB Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 2 Fine sand, 2% to 6 feet thick, over fine 0-64 Fine sand------ SP-SM or
slopes, sandy loam or fine sandy clay loam. SP.
BfC Blanton fine sand, 5 to 8 2 Occur on uplands.
percent slopes.
BcB Blantoncoarsesand, 0 to 5 2 0-42+ Coarse sand---. SP-SM or
percent slopes. SP.
BtB Blanton fine sand, terrace, 1 Fine sand, 22 to 3/ feet thick, over 0-58+ Fine sand------ SP-SM to SP
0 to 5 percent slopes, sand, loamy sand, or finer textured
material. Occurs in terraces along
the large rivers.
CaC3 Carnegie fine sandy loam, 6+- Loamy fine sand or fine sandy loam, 0 0-11 Loamy fine sand- SM --.------
5 to 8 percent slopes, to 1% feet thick, over fine sandy clay 11-16 Light fine SC--------
severely eroded. loam or sandy clay; small concre- sandy clay
CnA Carnegie loamy fine sand, 64- tions of iron in upper part of profile, loam.
0 to 2 percent slopes. Occur on uplands. 16--65 Fine sandy clay MH-CH,
CnB Carnegie loamy fine sand, loam. CL.
2 to 5 percent slopes. 6+-
CnB2 Carnegie loamy fine sand, 64-
2 to 5 percent slopes,
eroded.
CnC Carnegie loamy fine sand, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes.
See footnotes at end of table.








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 37

potential, which may be unfamiliar to some readers, are are given. As a rule, the soil series are named and, after
defined in footnotes at the end of table 5. the series name, are the symbols of the evaluated soils in
the series. Soil complexes and groups of undifferentiated
Suitability of soils for engineering uses soils are not given in table 6. Their properties vary
In table 6 the soils of Gadsden County are evaluated according to the component soils. For an interpretation
from the standpoint of their suitability for engineering of the properties of the soils in a complex, see the soil
uses, and some of the soil features that affect these uses series that make up the complex.

significant to engineering I

characteristics and that property is not estimated]

Classification- Percentage
Continued Passing
__________ ____ Permeability4 Structure 5 Available Reaction7 Dispersion8 Shrink-swell
water 6 potential
AASHO #200 #10
sieve sieve

Inches per
Inches per foot of
hour depth p1p


A-2 ------------- 15 100 10+ Fine crumb--------- 0. 8 5-1-6. 0 Low -----_ Low.
A-2 -----___--- 25 100 5-10 Fine crumb--------- .9 5-1-5. 5 Low ------ Low.
A-4 ------------- 40 100




A-2 ------------- 15 100 0. 2-0. 8 Fine, crumb-__ -1. 1 5. 6-6. 0 Medium___ Moderate.
A-7-5 or A-7-6 --- 65 100 <0. 05 Angular blocky--- 1.3 5. 6-6. 0 High ------ High.







A-4 or A-6 _------ 70 100 0. 2-0. 8 Crumb .---------- 1. 1 6. 6-7. 3 Low --.-.. Moderate.
A-7-5 or A-7-6 -- 80 100 <0. 05 Angular blocky----- 1.3 6. 6-7. 3 High ------ Moderate to high.
A-7-5 or A-7-6 -- 90 100 0. 01-0. 2 Angular blocky.--- 1. 1 6. 6-7. 3 High ------ Moderate to high.




A-3 ---------- 10 100 10+ Single grain------- .8 5. 1-5. 5 ------------ Low.


A-3_------------- 8 100 10+ Single grain-------- .4 5. 1-5. 5 ------_--- Low.

A-3-------------_ 10 100 5-10 Single grain------ .8 5. 1-5. 5 ------------ Low.



A-2 ------------ 30 85 2. 5-5. 0 Crumb ------------ 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Low------- Low.
A-6 ----.-------_ 40 90 0. 8-2. 5 Crumb------------- 1. 3 5. 1-5. 5 Low------- Low.

A-7 -----.------- 65 95 0.2-0. 8 Subangular blocky_ 1.4 5. 1-5. 5 Medium ..- Moderate.








38 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 5.-Estimated physical properties

[Dashed lines indicate that soil has variable

Depth to Classification
season- Depth
Symbol Soil ally high Description of soil from
on map water surface 3
table2 USDA Texture Unified



feet Inches
CnC2 Carnegie loamy fine sand, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded.
CnD Carnegie loamy fine sand, 6+
8 to 12 percent slopes.
Co Congaree silt loam ------- (1) Silty alluvial materials, 3 feet thick or 0-12 Silt loam------- ML-CL.-----
more, underlain by materials of vari- 12-42 Silty clay loam_ CL .-___---_
able texture. Occurs in irregularly
shaped areas along Appalachicola
River.
CrB Cuthbert loamy fine sand, 6+ Loamy fine sand, 3 to 14 inches thick, 0-6 Loamy fine SM----------
2 to 5 percent slopes, over dense, slowly permeable strati- sand to
CrC Cuthbert loamy fine sand, 6+ fled clays and sandy clays; depth to sandy loam.
5 to 8 percent slopes, slowly permeable material variable 6-54 Fine sandy clay_ CL or CH---
within short distances; a few seepage
areas on hillsides.
CsD Cuthbert, Boswell, and 6+ Soils of variable texture, generally on _-------_ Variable-------- -------
Susquehanna soils, 5 to steep slopes on uplands.
12 percent slopes.
CsF Cuthbert, Boswell, and 6+
Susquehanna soils, 12 to
60 percent slopes.
EmB Eustis loamy sand, 0 to 5 6+ Well-drained sandy material, 2% to 6 0-39 Loamy sand.--- SM--------.
percent slopes, feet thick over sandy loam. 39-55 Finesandyloam_ SC------
EmC Eustis loamy sand, 5 to 8 6+
percent slopes.
EsA Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 6+
0 to 2 percent slopes.
EsB Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 6+
2 to 5 percent slopes.
EsC Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes.
EcB Eustis coarse sand, 0 to 5 6+ Well-drained sands, 2% to 6 feet thick, 0-63 Coarse-sand-_ SP-SM------
percent slopes, overlying stratified sand and loamy
EcD Eustis coarse sand, 5 to 12 6+ sand; coarse-textured material
percent slopes, extends more than 10 feet in the
EdB Eustis coarse sand, exces- 6+ excessively drained phase.
sively drained, 0 to 5
percent slopes.
FmA Faceville loamy fine sand, 6+ Loamy fine sand or fine sandy loarr, 0-7 Loamy fine sand SM_ ---
0 to 2 percent slopes. 0 to 1i3 feet thick, over fine sandy 7-14 Fine sandy loam- SM-SC or SC
FmB Faceville loamy fine sand, 6+ clay loam or sandy clay. Occur on 14-79 Fine sandy clay SC ------
2 to 5 percent slopes. uplands. loam.
FmB2 Faceville loamy fine sand, 6+
2 to 5 percent slopes,
eroded.
FmC Faceville loamy fine sand, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes.
FmC2 Faceville loamy fine sand, 6-
5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded.
FmD Faceville loamy fine sand, 6+
8 to 12 percent slopes.
FaC3 Faceville fine sandy loam, 6-
5 to 8 percent slopes,
severely eroded.
FaD3 Faceville fine sandy loam, 64
8 to 12 percent slope.
severely eroded.
See footnotes at end of table.









GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

significant to engineering '-Continued

characteristics and that property is not estimated]

Classification- Percentage
Continued Passing
_________ _____Permeability4 Structure Available Reaction7 Dispersion 8 Shrink-swell
water 6 potential 8
AASHO #200 #10
sieve sieve

Inches per
Inches per foot of
hour depth pH





A-4 or A-6-.------ 90 100 0. 8-2. 5 Crumb------------ 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Low------ Moderate.
A-6 or A-7-6--- 95 100 0.2-0. 8 Crumb-----------1. 3 5. 1-5. 5 Medium .-- Moderate tohigh.



A-4 ---- ------ 30 100 2. 5-5. 0 Crumb ------------ 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Low------- Low.

A-7-5 oriA-7-6-.- 70 100 0. 05-0. 2 Angular and sub- 1. 4 5. 1-5. 5 High ----- Moderate.
angular blocky.







A-2 ------------ 21 100 5-10 Single grain .------ .9 5. 1-5. 5 ------------ Low.
A-4 or A-6-------- 48 100 2. 5-5.0 Crumb------------- 1.2 5. 1-5. 5 Low------- Low.







A-l-b --------- 8 100 10+ Single grain ----- .6 5. 1-5. 5 ------------ Low.






A-2 ------------ 35 100 2. 5-5.0 Crumb------------ 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Low------ Low.
A-2 ------------- 30 100 0. 8-2. 5 Crumb------------- 1.3 5. 1-5. 5 Low ------ Low.
A-6 .--------.--.. 45 100 0. 2-0. 8 Subangular blocky___ 1.4 5. 1-5. 5 Medium--- Moderate.















8118--61----4









40 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 5.-Estimated physical properties

[Dashed lines indicate that soil has variable

Depth to Classification
season- Depth
Symbol Soil ally high Description of soil from
on map water surface 3
table2 USDA Texture Unified



Feet Inches
FsD Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston 6+
complex, 8 to 12 percent
slopes.
FsD3 Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston 6+
complex, 8 to 12 percent
slopes, severely eroded.
FsF Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston 6+
complex, 12 to 35 percent
slopes.
FsF3 Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston 6+
complex, 12 to 35 percent
slopes, severely eroded.
GoA Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 2 Loamy fine sand or loamy sand, 1% to 0-11 Loamy fine sand_ SM __- --_-
0 to 2 percent slopes. 2% feet thick, oyer sandy loam to
GoB Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 2 sandy clay loam; in some places 11-20 Fine sandy loam. SM-SC or SC_
2 to 5 percent slopes, dense sandy clay is within 6 feet of
GmA Goldsboro loamy sand, 2 surface. Occur in low positions on 20-59 Fine sandy clay CL.--------
thick surface, 0 to 2 per- uplands. loam.
cent slopes.
GmB Goldsboro loamy sand, 2
thick surface, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes.
GmC Goldsboro loamy sand, 2
thick surface, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes.
Gr Grady fine sandy loam---. 0 Fine sandy loam, 6 to 12 inches thick, 0-4 Fine sandy loam. SM-SC or SC_
over sandy clay and clay. Occurs 4-9 Fine sandy clay CL.-------..
in wet depressions on uplands, loam.
9-44 Fine sandy clay. CH or MH___
Gu Gullied land-------------- 6+ Severely eroded areas of various soil
types; deep gullies.
Ha Hannahatchee soils, local (1) Alluvial materials in depressions on 0-23 Very fine sandy ML--------.
alluvium. uplands; thickness and texture vari- loam.
able. 23-48 Fine sandy clay CL ------
loam.
HcB Huckabee fine sand, 0 to 5 126+ Fine sand, 5 feet thick, over substrata 0-64 Fine sand------ SM----------
percent slopes, of variable texture that were derived
from sediments deposited by streams.
Occurs on old stream terraces.
Iq Izagora loamy fine sand...- 1 Loamy fine sand, Y to 1% feet thick, 0-8 Loamy fine sand_ SM- __--
over sandy clay loams; substrata of 8-15 Fine sandy loam_ SM-SC or SC
variable thickness and texture were 15-50 Fine sandy clay CL-----
derived from sediments deposited by loam.
streams.
KaA Kalmia loamy fine sand, 0 6+ Loamy fine sand, Y foot to 13 feet 0-15 Loamy fine sand- SM --..._.--
to 2 percent slopes, thick, over permeable fine sandy 15-21 Fine sandy loam- SM-SC or SC-
clay loam derived from sediments 21-39 Fine sandy clay CL...-...--
that streams deposited. Occurs on loam.
terraces. 39-49 Fine sandy loam_ SM-SC or SC_
49-64 Fine sand------ SP-SM or SP-
SW.
See footnotes at end of table.








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 41

significant to engineering '-Continued

characteristics and that property is not estimated]

Classification- Percentage
Continued Passing
__________ __ _Permeability* Structure 5 Available Reaction 7 Dispersion Shrink-swell
water 6 potential
AASHO #200 #10
sieve sieve

Inches per
Inches per foot of
hour depth pH











A-2--------- --- 35 100 5-10 Crumb--..-------... 1.1 5. 1-5. 5 Low---.. Low.

A-4--.-------- -- 45 100 2.5-5.0 Crumb------------ 1.2 5. 1-5. 5 Low .----- Low.
A-6--..---------. 55 100 0.8-2. 5 Subangular blocky.__ 1.4 5. 1-5.5 Medium --. Moderate.







A-4-..------_ --. 50 100 0.2-0.8 Crumb------------- 1.1 5. 1-5. 5 Low------- Moderate.
A-6-------------- 63 100 0.05-0.05 Subangular blocky.__ 1.3 5. 1-5.5 Medium ... Moderate.

A-7-5 or A-7-6-.. 70 100 <0. 05 Massive--.-------- 1. 3 5. 1-5. 5 High ------ Moderate to high.



A-4--.------.---- 55 100 2.5-5.0 Crumb------------- 1. 1 5. 1-5.5 Low------ Moderate.

A-6--.----------- 65 100 0.2-0.8 Subangular-blocky._. 1.2 5. 1-5.5 Medium -. Moderate.

A-2--- --.. ------ 27 100 5-10 Single grain ..-----. .8 5.1-5.5 ---------- Low.



A-2 ----.-------- 35 100 5-10 Crumb -------------. 1 5.1-5.5 ------------ Low.
A-4-------------- 45 100 2.5-5.0 Crumb-------------. 1.2 5. 1-5.5 ------------ Low.
A-6-------------- 55 100 0.8-2.5 Crumb and sub- 1.3 5.1-5.5 ------------ Moderate.
angular blocky.

A-2 .------------ 35 100 5-10 Crumb ----..--. 1. 1 5. 1-5.5 ------------. Low.
A-4------..----.-. 45 100 2.5-5.0 Crumb __------- 1.2 5. 1-5.5 ------------ Low,
A-6-------------- 55 100 0.8-2. 5 Subangular blocky-_ 1.4 5. 1-5. 5 Medium_-. Moderate.

A-4 .------------- 45 100 2. 5-5. 0 Subangular blocky.__ 1. 2 5. 1-5. 5 Low...-.-- Low.
A-2---._--------- 26 100 5-10 Single grain--------- .9 5.1-5.5 ------------ Low.








42 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 5.-Estimated physical properties

[Dashed lines indicate that soil has variable

Depth to Classification
season- Depth
Symbol Soil ally high Description of soil from
on map water surface
table2 USDA Texture Unified



Feet Inches
KbA Klej loamy sand, shallow, 1 2 Mainly loamy sand, sand, and coarse 0-56 Sand -------_ SP-SM or SP
0 to 2 percent slopes, sand 3 to 6 feet thick overlying sandy
KbB Klej loamy sand, shallow, 1 clay loam and sandy clays. Occur
2 to 5 percent slopes, on uplands.
KsB Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent 1Y
slopes.
KsC Klej sand, 5 to 8 percent 1%
slopes.
KcB Klej coarse sand, 0 to 5 1%
percent slopes.
LdB Lakeland loamy sand, 0 to 6+ Loamy fine sand to coarse sand, 3Y2 to 6 0-37 Loamy sand_..- SM__ --..._.
5 percent slopes, feet thick, over finer textured ma- 37-72+ Sandy loam to SM-SC------
LdD Lakeland loamy sand, 5 to 6+ trial; finer textured material may fine sandy
12 percent slopes. be at depths as shallow as 2% to 3 clay loam.
LeA Lakeland loamy sand, shal- 6+ feet or as deep as 10 feet. Occur on
low, 0 to 2 percent slopes, uplands.
LeB Lakeland loamy sand, shal- 6+
low, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
LmC Lakeland loamy sand, shal- 6+
low, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
LnB Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 per- 6+
cent slopes.
LnD Lakeland sand, 5 to 12 per- 6+
cent slopes.
LaB Lakeland coarse sand, 0 to 6+
5 percent slopes.
LaD Lakeland coarse sand, 5 to 6+
12 percent slopes.
LcB Lakeland coarse sand, ex- 6+ Loamy fine sand to coarse sand, 3Y to 0-74 Coarse sand---- SP-SM------
cessively drained, 0 to 5 6 feet thick, over finer textured ma-
percent slopes. trial; finer textured material may
LcD Lakeland coarse sand, ex- 6+ be at depths as shallow as 2 % to 3 74-82+ Light sandy SC ---------
cessively drained, 5 to 12 feet or as deep as 10 feet. Occur on clay loam.
percent slopes, uplands.
LsF Lakeland and Eustis sands, 6+ Mixture of areas of Lakeland and -------------------------------
12 to 50 percent slopes. Eustis soils.
LtC Lakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert 6+ Mixture of small areas of Lakeland, --------
complex, 5 to 8 percent Eustis, and Cuthbert soils.
slopes.
LtD Lakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert 6+
complex, 8 to 12 percent
slopes.
LtF Lakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert 6+
complex, 12 to 45 percent
slopes.
Lv Leaf very fine sandy loam 2 Very fine sandy loam, % foot to 1 foot 0-10 Very fine sandy SM-SC or SC-
thick on sandy clay or clay. Occurs loam.
on river terraces. 10-40 Fine sandy clay CH or MH-_
40-58 Sandy clayloam_ CL____ ---. _
Lw Leon sand---------------- 1 Thick beds of sand that have a pan 3 0-48 Sand ---------- SP-SM or
to 6 inches thick that is stained with SP-SW.
organic matter and is at depths of 1
foot to 2y feet.
See footnotes at end of table.









GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

significant to engineering '-Continued

characteristics and that property is not estimated]

Clasification- Percentage
Continued Passing
_____________ _Permeability4 Structure 5 Available Reaction7 Dispersion 8 Shrink-swell
water 6 potential 9
AASHO #200 #10
sieve sieve

Inches per
Inches per foot of
hour depth pH
A-2-----..-------. 10 100 10+ Single grain ....------- 0. 7 5. 1-5. 5 ---------- Low.









A-2 ------ 20 100 5-10 Single grain---..--- .9 5. 1-5. 5 ---------- Low.
A-2_--- ------___ 20 90 2. 5-5. 0 Crumb------------- 1. 2 5. 1-5. 5 ----------- Low.















A-3-------------- 8 100 10+ Single grain........ .6 5. 1-5. 5 ----------- Low.

A-2. ---------- 25 100 10+ Crumb --....--..-- .9 5. 1-5. 5 ---------- Low.













A-4 or A-6-------- 52 100 0. 8-2. 5 Crumb------------ 1. 0 5. 1-5. 5 Medium.-- Moderate.

A-7-5 or A-7-6.-- 70 100 <0. 05 Massive ----------- 1.3 5. 1-5. 5 High ----- Moderate to high.
A-6 -------------- 55 100 0. 05-0. 2 Subangular blocky_ 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Medium .. Moderate.
A-3 -------------- 10 100 10+ Single grain----- .4 4. 5-5. 5 ---------- Low.









44 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 5.-Estimated physical properties

[Dashed lines indicate that soil has variable

Depth to Classification
season- Depth
Symbol Soil ally high Description of soil from
on map water surface3
table2 USDA Texture Unified



Feet Inches
LyA Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 1 Loamy fine sand to loamy sand over- 0-7 Loamy fine sand- SM_________
0 to 2 percent slopes, lying stratified materials. Occur 7-15 Fine sandy SM-SC or
LyB Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 1 in low positions on uplands, loam. SC.
2 to 5 percent slopes. 15-32 Light fine sandy SC-----_.__
LzA Lynchburg loamy sand, 1 clay loam.
thick surface, 0 to 2 per-
cent slopes. 32-54 Fine sandy clay CL ..._-...
LzB Lynchburg loamy sand, 1 loam.
thick surface, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes.
Ma Made land-------------.-------. Artificial fills of varied material------ -----._. -- -------..-- -..
MgA Magnolia loamy fine sand, 6+ Loamy fine sand or fine sandy loam 0-8 Loamy fine SM-------
0 to 2 percent slopes, over sandy clay. Occur on uplands. sand.
MgA2 Magnolia loamy fine sand, 6+ 8-12 Fine sandy SM-SC or SC.
0 to 2 percent slopes, clay loam.
eroded. 12-100 Fine sandy SC or CL.....
MgB Magnolia loamy fine sand, 6+ clay loam.
2 to 5 percent slopes. 100-168+ Fine sandy SC..-------.
MgB2 Magnolia loamy fine sand, 6+ clay loam.
2 to 5 percent slopes,
eroded.
MgC Magnolia loamy fine sand, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes.
MgC2 Magnolia loamy fine sand, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded.
MgD Magnolia loamy fine sand, 6+
8 to 12 percent slopes.
MfB3 Magnolia fine sandy loam, 6+
2 to 5 percent slopes,
severely eroded.
MfC3 Magnolia fine sandy loam, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes,
severely eroded.
MfD3 Magnolia fine sandy loam, 6+
8 to 12 percent slopes,
severely eroded.
Mp Mines, pits, and dumps---- -------- Open excavations and waste material......... ---------------- -------
from the excavations that have been
made for removal of sand, gravel, or
fuller's earth.
MyB Myatt loamy fine sand, 0 0 Stratified alluvial material ranging from 0-8 Loamy fine SM--....-_-
to 5 percent slopes, loamy fine sand to fine sandy clay sand.
loam. Occurs in low positions on 8-16 Light fine SC..-------
river terraces, and some areas are sandy clay
flooded each year. loam.
16-46 Fine sandy CL...-....-.
clay loam.
Nfa Norfolk loamy fine sand, 6+ Well-graded loamy fine sand or loamy 0-13 Loamy fine sand_ ML.----..--
0 to 2 percent slopes, sand, % foot to 2% feet thick, on 13-16 Fine sandy loam. SC or CL.--.
NfB Norfolk loamy fine sand, 6+ sandy loam to sandy clay loam; small
2 to 5 percent slopes, concretions of iron in upper part of 16-85+ Fine sandy clay SC or CL --.
NfB2 Norfolk loamy fine sand, 6+ profile of pebbly phases. Occur in loam.
2 to 5 percent slopes, large areas on uplands.
eroded.
NfC Norfolk loamy fine sand, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes.
NfC2 Norfolk' loamy fine sand, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded.
See footnotes at end of table.









GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 45

significant to engineering '-Continued

characteristics and that property is not estimated]

Classification- Percentage
Continued Passing
________ _______ Permeability4 Structure Available Reaction' Dispersion Shrink-swell
water 6 potential 9
AASHO #200 #10
sieve sieve

Inches per
Inches per foot of
hour depth pH
A-2 ---------- 35 100 5-10 Crumb ------------ 1.0 5. 1-5.5 Low------- Low.
A-4-------------- 45 100 2.5-5.0 Crumb------------- 1.2 5. 1-5. 5 Low------- Low.

A-6-------------- 50 100 2.5-5.0 Subangular blocky __ 1.2 5. 1-5. 5 Low------- Low.

A-6 ------------- 55 100 0. 8-2. 5 Subangular blocky __ 1.3 5. 1-5. 5 Medium -.- Moderate.




A-2 --.-..-----.- 35 100 2.5-5.0 Crumb-----------.. 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Low ----- Low.

A-4 ------------- 45 100 0.8-2.5 Crumb ------------ 1.3 5.1-5. 5 Low------ Low.

A-7-_------------ 50 100 0. 2-0. 8 Angular and sub- 1.4 5. 1-5. 5 Medium-... Moderate.
angular blocky.
A-7-------------- 45 100 ----------- --------- ------------------





















A-2 ------------- 35 100 5-10 Crumb .-----....... 1.1 5.1-5.5 Low .--.._ Low.
A-4 or A-6 .------ 45 100 2.5-5.0 Crumb .--------- 1.1 5.1-5.5 Low-----. Low.

A-6 ------------- 55 100 0.8-2.5 Angular blocky -... 1.2 5.1-5.5 Medium... Moderate.

A-4.---..--.----. 60 100 5-10 Crumb .----------. 1. 1 5.1-5.5 Low...... Low.
A-4-------------- 50 100 2.5-5.0 Crumb and sub- 1.3 5.1-5.5 Low------. Low.
angular blocky.
A-6---.-------- 50 100 0.8-2.5 Subangular blocky.__ 1.4 5.1-5.5 Medium-.... Moderate.








46 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 5.-Estimated physical properties

[Dashed lines indicate that soil has variable

Depth to Classification
season- Depth
Symbol Soil ally high Description of soil from
on map water surface S
table 2 USDA Texture Unified



Feet Inches
NfD Norfolk loamy fine sand, 6+
8 to 12 percent slopes.
NpA Norfolk loamy fine sand, 6+
pebbly, 0 to 2 percent
slopes.
NpB Norfolk loamy fine sand, 6+
pebbly, 2 to 5 percent
slopes.
NpB2 Norfolk loamy fine sand, 6+
pebbly, 2 to 5 percent
slopes, eroded.
NsA Norfolk loamy sand, thick 6+
surface, 0 to 2 percent
slopes.
NsB Norfolk loamy sand, thick 6+
surface, 2 to 5 percent
slopes.
NsC Norfolk loamy sand, thick 6+
surface, 5 to 8 percent
slopes.
NsD Norfolk loamy sand, thick 6+
surface, 8 to 12 percent
slopes.
NtA Norfolk loamy sand, thick 6+ Well-graded loamy fine sand or loamy 0-20 Loamy sand --. SM ....---
surface, pebbly, 0 to 2 sand Y foot to 2% feet thick, on 20-27 Fine sandy loam SM-SCorSC_
percent slopes, sandy loam to sandy clay loam; 27-76 Fine sandy clay CL---------.
NtB Norfolk loamy sand, thick 6+ small concretions of iron in upper loam.
surface, pebbly, 2 to 5 part of profile of pebbly phases.
percent slopes. Occur in large areas on uplands.
NtC Norfolk loamy sand, thick 6+
surface, pebbly, 5 to 8
percent slopes.
OfA Orangeburg loamy fine 6+ Well-graded loamy fine sand or loamy 0-13 Loamy fine sand. SM-.--.----.
sand, 0 to 2 percent sand, Y foot to 2% feet thick, on 13-18 Light finesandy SM-SC or SC
slopes, sandy loam to sandy clay loam. clay loam.
OfB Orangeburg loamy fine 6+ Occur in large areas on unlanris. 18-82 Fine sandy clay SC----------
sand, 2 to 5 percent loam.
slopes.
OfB2 Orangeburg loamy fine 6+
sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes, eroded.
OfC Orangeburg loamy fine 6+
sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes.
OfC2 Orangeburg loamy fine 6+
sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes, eroded.
OfD Orangeburg loamy fine 6+
sand, 8 to 12 percent
slopes.
OtA Orangeburg loamy sand, 6+ Well-graded loamy sand or loamy fine 0-19 Loamy sand --- SM-------
thick surface, 0 to 2 per- sand, % foot to 2% feet thick, over- 19-24 Fine sandy loam. SM-SC or SC-
cent slopes, lying sandy loam to sandy clay loam. 24-53 Fine sandy clay SC---------
OtB Orangeburg loamy sand, 6+ Occur in large areas on uplands. loam.
thick surface, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes.
OtC Orangeburg loamy sand, 6+
thick surface, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes.
OtD Orangeburg loamy sand, 6+
thick surface, 8 to 12
percent slopes.
See footnotes at end of table.









GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 47

significant to engineering '-Continued

characteristics and that property is not estimated]

Classification- Percentage
Continued Passing
Permeability4 Structure5 Available Reaction7 Dispersion s Shrink-swell
water 6 potential 0
AASHO #200 #10
sieve sieve

Inches per
Inches per foot of
hour depth pHI





















A-2------------ 28 100 5-10 Crumb.. --------- 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Low---.--. Low.
A-4-------------- 40 100 2. 5-5.0 Crumb------------ .1.2 5. 1-5. 5 Low .--- Low.
A-6-------------- 55 100 0. 8-2. 5 Subangular blocky.__ 1. 4 5. 1-5. 5 Medium.... Moderate.






A-2 ------------- 35 100 5-10 Crumb------------. 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Low------- Low.
A-2 ------------- 30 100 2. 5-5. 0 Crumb------------- 1. 3 5. 1-5. 5 Low------- Low.
A-2-------------- 30 100 0. 8-2. 5 Subangular blocky __ 1. 4 5. 1-5. 5 Medium.-- Moderate.














A-2-------------- 20 100 5-10 Crumb------------ 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Low------- Low.
A-4 -------------. 40 100 2. 5-5. 0 Crumb--.---------- 1. 2 5. 1-5. 5 Low------- Low.
A-6--------------. 45 100 0. 8-2. 5 Subangular blocky__ 1. 4 5. 1-5. 5 Medium-- Moderate.








48 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 5.-Estimated physical properties

[Dashed lines indicate that soil has variable

Depth to Classification
season- Depth
Symbol Soil ally high Description of soil from
on map water surface 3
table 2 USDA Texture Unified



Feet Inches
PsA Plummer sand, 0 to 2 per- 0 Thick beds of sands; low areas are 0-60 Sands--..... _- SP-SM or
cent slopes, flooded in wet seasons. Occur in SP-SW.
PsB Plummer sand, 2 to 5 per- 0 low positions on uplands.
cent slopes.
PhA Plummer sand, high, 0 to 2 0
percent slopes.
PhB Plummer sand, high, 2 to 5
percent slopes.
PcA Plummer coarse sand, high, 0 Thick beds of coarse sands----------- 0-60 Coarse sand-- SP-SM or SP
0 to 2 percent slopes.
Pt Portsmouth fine sandy 0 Fine sandy loam, high in organic mat- 0-15 Fine sandy loam -SM----.----.
loam. ter and Y foot to 1% feet thick, on 15-44 Fine sandy clay CL---.---_..
fine sandy clay loam or sandy clay. loam.
Occurs in ponds and narrow drain-
ageways.
Ra Rains fine sandy loam---- 0 Fine sandy loam, / foot to 12 feet 0-8 Fine sandy loam_ SM------
thick, on fine sandy clay loam or 8-44 Fine sandy clay CL--____-._
sandy clay. Occurs in depressions loam.
and narrow drainageways.
ReA Red Bay loamy fine sand, 6+ Loamy fine sand or fine sandy loam, 0-13 Loamy fine sand- SM_.---_.
0 to 2 percent slopes. 1% feet to 2% feet thick, on sandy 13-16 Fine sandy loam- SM-SC or SC
ReB Red Bay loamy fine sand, 6+ loam to sandy clay loam. Occur in 16-144 Fine sandy clay SC ---. __..
2 to 5 percent slopes, large areas of uplands, loam.
ReB2 Red Bay loamy fine sand, 6+
2 to 5 percent slopes,
eroded.
ReC Red Bay loamy fine sand, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes.
ReC2 Red Bay loamy fine sand, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded.
ReD Red Bay loamy fine sand, 6+
8 to 12 percent slopes.
RbB3 Red Bay fine sandy loam, 6+
2 to 5 percent slopes,
severely eroded.
RbC3 Red Bay fine sandy loam, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes,
severely eroded.
RbD3 Red Bay fine sandy loam, 6+
8 to 12 percent slopes,
severely eroded.
RmA Ruston loamy fine sand, 6+ Loamy fine sand or fine sandy loam, 0-10 Loamy fine sand- SM..--__
0 to 2 percent slopes. % foot to 1% feet thick, on sandy 10-18 Fine sandyloam_ SM-SCorSC-
RmB Ruston loamy fine sand, 6+ loam to sandy clay loam. Occur in 18-56 Fine sandy clay CL ._..____
2 to 5 percent slopes, broad areas on uplands. loam.
RmB2 Ruston loamy fine sand, 6+
2 to 5 percent slopes,
eroded.
RmC Ruston loamy fine sand, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes.
RmC2 Ruston loamy fine sand, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded.
RmD Ruston loamy fine sand, 6+
8 to 12 percent slopes.
RfC3 Ruston fine sandy loam, 6+
5 to 8 percent slopes,
severely eroded.
See footnotes at end of table.









GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 49

significant to engineering --Continued

characteristics and that property is not estimated]

Classification- Percentage
Continued Passing
Permeability4 Structure Available Reaction7 Dispersion 8 Shrink-swell
S #10 water 6 potential 9
AASHO #200 #10
sieve sieve

Inches per
Inches per foot of
hour depth pH
A-2 ---------- 11 100 10+ Single grain.-------- 0. 5 4. 5-5. 5 ----------- Low.







A-3------------- 5 100 10+ Single grain.....--.. .5 4. 5-5. 5 ------------ Low.

A-4-------------- 40 100 2.5-5. 0 Crumb ----------- 1. 1 4. 5-5. 0 Low------- Low.
A-6-------------- 55 100 0. 8-2. 5 Angular blocky .. 1. 2 4. 5-5. 0 Medium -- Moderate.



A-4-------------- 40 100 2. 5-5. 0 Crumb ------------ 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Low------ Low to moderate.
A-6------------- 55 100 0. 2-0. 8 Angular blocky--... 1.2 5. 1-5. 5 Medium __- Moderate.


A-2----..------.- 32 100 5-10 Crumb------------- 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Low------ Low.
A-4------------- 40 100 2. 5-5.0 Crumb ------------ 1. 3 5. 1-5. 5 Low------ Low.
A-6--------------- 50 100 0. 8-2. 5 Subangular blocky-_. 1. 4 5. 1-5. 5 Medium... Moderate.


















A-2---..-------... 35 100 5-10 Crumb------------- 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Low-----. Low.
A-4---.---------. 48 100 2.5-5. 0 Crumb------------- 1. 3 5. 1-5. 5 Low------. Low.
A-6----.-------.. 55 100 0.8-2. 5 Subangular blocky._ 1. 4 5. 1-5. 5 Medium-.... Moderate.








50 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 5.-Estimated physical properties

[Dashed lines indicate that soil has variable

Depth to Classification
season- Depth
Symbol Soil ally high Description of soil from
on map water surface 3
table 2 USDA Texture Unified



Feet Inches
RsA Ruston loamy sand, thick 6+ Loamy sand on fine sandy loam, 2 foot 0-20 Loamy sand---- SM----------
surface, 0 to 2 percent to 1)feet thick, on sandy loam to 20-24 Loamy fine sand SM-----
slopes, sandy clay loam. Occur in broad 24-52 Fine sandy clay CL----------
RsB Ruston loamy sand, thick 6+ areas on uplands, loam.
surface, 2 to 5 percent
slopes.
RsC Ruston loamy sand, thick 6+
surface, 5 to 8 percent
slopes.
RsD Ruston loamy sand, thick 6+
surface, 8 to 12 percent
slopes.
RtC Ruston-Orangeburg-Lake- 6+ Intermingled, small areas of Ruston,
land complex, 5 to 8 per- Orangeburg, and Lakeland soils.
cent slopes.
RtD Ruston- Orangeburg- Lake- 6 +
land complex, 8 to 12
percent slopes.
RtF Ruston-Orangeburg-Lake- 6+
land complex, 12 to 50
percent slopes.
RtF3 Ruston-Orangeburg-Lake- 6+
land complex, 12 to 50
percent slopes, severely
eroded.
RuA Rutlege fine sand, 0 to 2 0 Thick beds of fine sand that contains 0-11 Fine sand------ SP-SM or SP.
percent slopes, much organic matter to a depth of 1 11-48 Fine sand------ SP-SM or SP.
RbB Rutlege fine sand, 2 to 5 0 foot. Occur as fresh water swamps
percent slopes, in depressions and are saturated for
long periods.
SaB Sawyer loamy fine sand, 2 6+ Loamy fine sand, 1 foot to 1i feet thick 0-8 Loamy fine sand SM-SC or SC_
to 5 percent slopes, on compact sandy clay and clay. to fine sandy
SaC Sawyer loamy fine sand, 5 6+ loam.
to 8 percent slopes. 8-33 Heavy fine CL-----.----
sandy clay
loam.
33-54 Fine sandy clay CH or MH___
or clay.
ShB Shubuta fine sandy loam, 6+ Fine sandy loam, 6 to 14 inches thick, 0-9 Fine sandy loam- SM..-__-----
2 to 5 percent slopes, on compact sandy clay and clay. 9-15 Fine sandy clay SC---- -----
loam.
15-54+ Fine sandy clay CL or CH---
to sandy clay
loam.
SnB Susquehanna loamy fine 2 Loamy fine sand, V to 1 foot thick, on 0-7 Loamy fine sand_ SM-----.----
sand, 2 to 5 percent very plastic clays; very slow internal 7-37 Fine sandy clay. CL or CH ---
slopes, drainage. Occur in small areas in 37-62 Clay -- --- CH or MH___
SnC Susquehanna loamy fine uplands.
sand, 5 to 8 percent 2
slopes.
SrD Susquehanna-Boswell- 2 Intermingled small areas of the Susque- ----------------------------------
Binnsville complex, mar- hanna, Boswell, and Binnsville soils
ly substratum, 5 to 12 underlain by marly clay substratum
percent slopes, at depths of Y2 foot to 4 feet.
SrF Susquehanna-Boswell- 2
Binnsville complex, mar-
ly substratum, 12 to 50
percent slopes.
See footnotes at end of table.









GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 51

significant to engineering '-Continued

characteristics and that property is not estimated)

Classification- Percentage
Continued Passing
___Permeability4 Structure 5 Available Reaction7 Dispersion 8 Shrink-swell
water 6 potential 9
AASHO #200 #10
sieve sieve

Inches per
Inches per foot of
hour depth pH
A-2.--....--..... 28 100 5-10 Crumb --------- 1. 1 5 1-5. 5 Low ----. Low.
A-2 ------------ 35 100 5-10 Crumb------------- 1. 2 5. 1-5. 5 Low --- -. Low.
A-6 ------.---..-- 55 100 0. 8-2. 5 Subangular blocky._ 1. 4 5. 1-5. 5 Medium-..- Moderate.





















A-2 ------------. 10 100 5-10 Single grain --_--- 1. 1 4. 5-5. 5 ----------- Low.
A-3-------------- 5 100 10+ Single grain ----_.. .4 4. 5-5. 5 ------------ Low.



A-2 ------------- 31 100 2.5-5.0 Crumb ---------..- 1. 1 5.1-5.5 Low------- Low.

A-6 or A-7-6------ 56 100 0. 2-0. 8 Subangular blocky-_ 1.4 5. 1-5. 5 Medium .-- Moderate.

A-7-5 or A-7-6 .. 70 100 <0. 05 Subangular blocky__ 1. 4 5. 1-5. 5 High ----- Moderate to high.

A-4_--- -------_ 35 100 0. 8-2. 5 Crumb------------- 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Low ----- Low.
A-6 ----------- 55 100 0.2-0. 8 Crumb------------- 1.4 5. 1-5.5 Medium__ Low.

A-7-5 to A-7-6.-- 65 100 0. 05-0. 2 Subangular and an- 1. 4 5. 1-5. 5 Medium-... Moderate.
gular blocky.

A-2 ------------ 30 100 2. 5-5. 0 Crumb-..---.----- 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Medium.-- Low.
A-7-5 or A-7-6-..- 70 100 <0. 05 Angular blocky_ ... 1. 4 5. 1-5. 5 High ----- Moderate to high.
A-7-5 or A-7-6 ..- 90 100 <0. 05 Angular blocky-.... 1. 4 5. 1-5. 5 High ----. Moderate to high.



-------------------- -------- --------------------------------------------------------------








52 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 5.-Estimated physical properties

[Dashed lines indicate that soil has variable

Depth to Classification
season- Depth
Symbol Soil ally high Description of soil from
on map water surface
table 2 USDA Texture Unified



Feet Inches
SsD Susquehanna-Sawyer com- 2 Intermingled small areas of Susque- _......-..--__..._-...... ------------..
plex, 5 to 12 percent hanna and Sawyer soils. Occurs
slopes, mainly on steep slopes in uplands.
SsF Susquehanna-Sawyer com- 2
plex, 12 to 50 percent
slopes.
Sw Swamp------------------ 0 Areas in soils of varied characteristics -_------------------_ --------------
in swamps; surface layers high in
organic matter.
TfA Tifton loamy fine sand, 0 6+ Loamy fine sand, 0 foot to 1~4 feet 0-6 Loamy fine sand_ SM----......
to 2 percent slopes, thick, fine sandy clay loam that, in 6-10 Fine sandy loam_ SM-SC or SC-
TfB Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 6+ turn, is on sandy clay; pebbles of 10-72 Fine sandy clay SM-SC or SC_
to 5 percent slopes, iron occur throughout the solum. loam.
TfB2 Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 6+ Occurs on uplands.
to 5 percent slopes,
eroded.
TfC2 Tifton loamy fine sand, 5 6+
to 8 percent slopes,
eroded.
ZuB Zuber loamy sand, 2 to 5 6+ Loamy sand, Y foot to 1) feet thick, 0-13 Loamy sand--.. SM-----
percent slopes, on sandy loam or sandy clay loam; 13-17 Fine sandy loam- SM-SC or SC_
ZuC Zuber loamy sand, 5 to 8 6+ may contain a considerable amount 17-52 Sandy clay loam_ CL -----
percent slopes, of weathered phosphatic pebbles.
Occurs on uplands.

I The physical properties are estimated on basis of field observa- sample core 3 inches in diameter and 3 inches high with 1 inch head
tions and other experience. They apply only to the soils in Gadsden of;water and tension of 60 centimeters water column.
County. 5 Structure is arrangement of individual soil particles and groups
2 Level expected during the normal wet seasons, of particles in the natural state.
2 Depth from surface of a typical soil profile. 6 Available water is the amount of capillary water available to
Permeability as determined through saturated, undisturbed plants in the soil when the flow downward by gravity has practically









GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 53

significant to engineering --Continued

characteristics and that property is not estimated]

Classification- Percentage
Continued Passing
Permeability4 Structure Available Reaction 7 Dispersion Shrink-swell
water 6 potential
AASHO #200 #10
sieve sieve

Inches per hour Inches per foot
of depth pH
------~------------ '-------- ------- ------------ -------------------- --------- -~--------- ------------





-~----------------- -------- -------- ------------ -------------------- ---------- ---------- ------------


A-2 --..--------_ 31 100 2.5-5. 0 Crumb------------ 1. 1 5. 1-5. 5 Low------. Low.
A-4------------. 40 100 0.8-2.5 Crumb------------ 1.3 5. 1-5. 5 Low-----. Low.
A-6-------------- 40 85 0. 2-0. 8 Subangular blocky__ 1. 4 5. 1-5. 5 Medium .- Moderate.







A-2------------. 28 100 5-10 Crumb ----------- 1. 1 5. 6-6. 0 Low --.--_ Low.
A-4-------------- 40 90 2. 5-5.0 Subangular blocky._ 1. 2 5. 6-6. 0 Low------- Low.
A-6-------------- 55 90 0. 8-2. 5 Subangular blocky._ 1. 3 5. 1-5. 5 Medium ..- Moderate.



stopped. In sands it is approximately the total amount of water 9 Shrink-swell potential refers to the change in volume of the soil
held. In clays it may be considerably less than the total amount. with change in moisture content.
7 The pH value indicates the degree of soil acidity (less than 7.0) 10 Data given is that for Fellowship soils.
or alkalinity (more than 7.0). "1 Subject to seasonal flooding.
8 Dispersion refers to the degree and rapidity with which soil 12 Subject to occasional flooding.
structure breaks down or slakes in water.









54 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 6.-Engineering
[Dashed lines indicate that no estimate of

Soil features affecting-
Suitability of soil Suitability as ______Sifetr
material for- source of-
Soils and map symbols' Vertical alinement of highways

Road Road Topsoil Sand Materials Drainage
subgrade ,fill

Alluvial land (Ab)----------------- Variable-_ Variable_ Variable-_ Variable,_ Variable ------------- High water table;
frequent flooding.
Arredondo (AdB, AdC) ------------ Good ...- Good-.... Good-- .. Fair-.... Deep sands----------- Rapid internal drain-
age; erodible.
Arredondo-Fellowship-Gainesville (AfD, Poor.---. Good ---- Good ..-- Poor ..- Plastic clay; fragments Hillside seepage; very
AfF). of limestone in erodible.
substratum.
Binnsville (BaC)------------------- Poor .--. Fair---_ Fair----- Poor----. Plastic clay, marl or Hillside seepage; slow
fragments of lime- internal drainage.
stone.
Blanton (BcB, BfB, BfC, BtB)------.. Good----.... Good.---. Fair----. Good ..-- Deep sands ---------- Rapid internal drain-
age; erodible.
Carnegie (CaC3, CnA, CnB, CnB2, CnC, Good..-- Good ---- Very good Poor----- Compactable, well- Erodible; moderately
CnC2, CnD). graded sands with slow internal drain-
clay. age.
Congaree (Co)--------------------- Fair----- Fair_---. Fair--- .. Poor----- Friable silt; variable--. Low position; high
water table.
Cuthbert (CrB, CrC)---------------- Fair----- Good..--- Fair--- Poor --.. Dense, firm sandy Erodible; slow internal
clays and clays, drainage.

Eustis loamy sands and loamy sands, Good..--- Good..-- Fair----- Good ...- Sandy clay substrata Erodible; sandy clay
shallow (EmB, EmC, EsA, EsB, and below 30 inches. substrata.
EsC).
Eustis coarse sands (EcB, EcD, EdB). Good..--- Good..--. Fair.---- Good--.... Deep sands----------. Very rapid internal
drainage.
Faceville (FaC3, FaD3, FmA, FmB, Good---. Good-... Good.-- Poor_ Compactable, well- Erodible; moderately
FmB2, FmC, FmC2, FmD). graded sands with slow internal drain-
clay. age.
Goldsboro (GoA, GoB, GmA, GmB, Good---.... Good..-- Good-... Poor.---- Compactable, well- Low position; perched
GmC). graded sands with water table.
clay.
Grady (Gr)-..-----------------.--- Poor-.... Poor-..-- Good--... Poor.---- Plastic sandy clays Low position; very
and clays, slowly permeable
subsoil.
Gullied land (Gu)----------------- (2). (2) () (2) () ...(2).------- .--------------.).. (2)------- ............
Hannahatchee (Ha)-.-------------- Fair to Fair to Good..-- Poor--... Variable; stratified Depressed position;
good. good. sands. high water table.

Huckabee (HcB)----------------- Good----.... Good----.. Fair----- Fair----. Deep sands--......--. Very rapid internal
drainage.
Izagora (Ig)----------------------- Poor to Fair to Fair.---- Poor.---- Plastic sandy clay High water table,
fair. good. substrata. slowly permeable.
Kalmia (KaA)---..----------.----- Good---- Good-... Good---- Fair.---. Compactable, varia- Erodible; moderately
bly graded sands permeable.
with clay.
Klej (KbA, KbB, KcB, KsB, KsC)--- Good --- Good ..-- Fair.---- Fair----- Deep sands overlying Rapid internal drain-
sandy clay at 3 to 6 age.
feet.
Lakeland loamy sands and loamy Good --- Good .-- Fair----- Fair----- Sandy clay sub- Erodible; moderate
sands, shallow (LdB, LdD, LeA, strata. permeability.
LeB, LmC).
Lakeland sands and coarse sands Good--- Good..-- Poor.---- Very Deep sands---....--- Very rapid internal
(LaB, LaD, LcB, LcD, LnB, LnD). good. drainage.
Leaf (Lv).------------------------ Poor----- Fair----- Fair----- Poor --.. Plastic clay--....____ Slowly permeable sub-
soil; high water
table.
See footnotes at end of table.









GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 55

interpretation of soils
feature affecting engineering has been made]

Soil features affecting-Continued

Farm ponds
_______ Terraces and
Agricultural drainage Irrigation diversions Waterways
Reservoir area Embankments


Position along nat- Variable ----------- High water table; __---------------------------------- Naturally stable
ural drains; vari- frequent flooding, waterways.
able material.
Very porous to con- Loose permeable --------------------Low water-holding ----_------------ Erodes easily; grows
siderable depth. material, capacity, good sod.
Limestone substra- Plastic clays; frag- Hillside seepage; High water-holding Irregular surface; Erodes easily;
turn; variable mental limestone. erodible, capacity; low very erodible, difficult to
subsoil. infiltration, establish sod.
Slow permeability; Plastic clay over Slow permeability_- ------------ ------ ---------
underlain by marl marly limestone.
or limestone.
Very porous to con- Loose permeable Rapid permeability-_ Low water-holding ------------------ Low nearly level pos:-
siderable depth, material, capacity. tion; sand texture.
Sandy clay subsoil Good strength and --------------------Medium to high Deep soil; moder- Moderately erodible;
with moderately stability, water-holding ate erodibility. grows good sod.
slow permeability, capacity.
------.----------- Variable material----------------- ---------------------------------

Slowly permeable Good strength and --------------- Low intake rate; ------------- Erodible; difficult
subsoil; variable stability; sand medium to high to establish sod.
substrata, lenses in sub- water-holding
strata, capacity.
Sandy clay sub- Sandy clay sub- --------------------Low water-holding ------------------Erodes easily;
strata, strata, capacity. difficult to
establish sod.
Deep, very porous Loose sand-------------------------Low water-holding ------------------ Erodes easily;
sand. capacity, difficult to
establish sod.
Sandy clay subsoil Good strength and --------------------Medium to high Deep soil; moder- Moderately erodible;
with moderately stability, water-holding ate erodibility. grows good sod.
slow permeability, capacity.
Low position; Good strength and Perched water Medium water- ------------------Moderately erodible;
perched water stability. table. holding capacity, grows good sod.
table.
Low position; very Fair strength and Depressed position; --------
slowly permeable stability; plastic slowly permeable
subsoil. subsoil. subsoils.
(2)-- -.---- )-----. -- (2)-- ..........-... ( .............................
Depressed position; Variable----------- Depressed position; Medium water-
variable permea- variable stratified holding capacity.
ability in sub- material.
stratum.
Very porous to con- Loose permeable --------------------Low water-holding
siderable depth, material, capacity.
Variable stratified Fair strength and High water table; Medium water-
material; slow stability; plastic slow permea- holding capacity.
permeability, subsoil. ability.
Sandy clay subsoil Good strength and ------------------- Moderate water-
with moderate stability. holding capacity.
permeability.
Very porous to con- Loose permeable --------------------Low water-holding ---------------- Low, nearly level
siderable depth, material, capacity, positions; sand
sandy clay at 3 to texture.
6 feet.
Sandy clay substrata Loose permeable --------------------Low water-holding
with moderate material. capacity.
permeability.
Deep very porous Loose permeable ------------------- Low water-holding
sand. sand. capacity.
Slowly permeable Plastic clay subsoil_ High water table; High water-holding
subsoil, slowly permeable capacity.
subsoil.









56 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 6.-Engineering
[Dashed lines indicate that no estimate of

Soil features affecting-
Suitability of soil Suitability as
material for- source of-
Soils and map symbols 1 Vertical alinement of highways

Road Road Topsoil Sand Materials Drainage
subgrade fill


Leon (Lw) ..---------------------- Good---- Good.... Fair..--- Fair----- Deep sands; organic High water table;
pan. deep, porous sand.

Lynchburg (LyA, LyB. LzA, LzB)----- Fair--- Good ..- Fair--- Poor----- Compactable, well- High water table; hill-
graded sands with side seepage; sandy
clay. delay subsoil.
Made land (Ma)----------------- (2)- (2)-....-- (2)-.. --- (2) .-..- (2).. ._._. .... ... () c s................
Magnolia (MfB3, MfC3, MfD3, MgA, Good --- Good--.. Good --- Poor--.-- Compactable, well- Erodible; moderately
MgA2, MgB, MgB2, MgC, MgC2, graded sands with slow internal move-
M gD). clay. ment of water.
Mines, pits, and dumps (Mp) .----- (2)-...--. (2) ...- (2) ..... (2) ..--. (2) _.---- ---- -_ (2)......- -
Myatt (MyB) ---.----------------- Fair---- Good -- Fair Poor- Compactable, well- High water table;
graded sands with moderately slow in-
clay. ternal movement of
water.
Norfolk (NfA, NfB, NfB2, NfC, NfC2, Good---- Good---- Good ---- Poor --.. Compactable, well- Erodible; moderately
NfD, NpA, NpB, NpB2, NsA, NsB, graded sands with slow internal move-
NsC, NsD, NtA, NtB, NtC). clay. ment of water.
Orangeburg (OfA, OfB, OfB2, OfC, Good-... Good..-- Good .-- Poor----- Compactable, well- Erodible; moderately
OfC2, OfD, OtA, OtB, OtC, OtD). graded sands with slow internal move-
clay. ment of water.
Plummer (PcA, PhA, PhB, PsA, PsB)-- Good--- Good.--. Poor ---- Good.... Deep sands----------- Low position; high
water table.

Portsmouth (Pt)------------------ Fair----- Good---- Good---- Poor----- Compactable, well- Low position; high
graded sands with water table.
clay.
Rains (Ra)------------------- Fair----- Good---- Fair----- Poor----- Compactable, well- Low position; moder-
graded sands with ately slow permeabil-
clay. ity.
Red Bay (RbB3, RbC3, RbD3, ReA, Good..-- Good .-- Good --- Poor----- Compactable, well- Erodible; moderately
ReB, ReB2, ReC, ReC2, ReD). graded sands with slow internal drain-
clay. age.
Ruston (RfC3, Rm4, RmB, RmB2, Good--... Good..-- Good.--- Poor----- Compactable, well- Erodible; moderately
RmC, RmC2, RmD, RsA, RsB, RsC, graded sands with slow internal drain-
RsD). clay. age.
Rutlege (RuA, RbB)--------------- Fair -- Fair----- Good --- Fair----- Deep sands ---------- Low position; high
water table.

Sawyer (SaB, SaC) --------------- Poor----- Fair----- Fair----. Poor----- Plastic clay sub- Erodible; slow internal
stratum------------ drainage.


Shubuta (ShB)-------------------- Fair to Good---- Fair ---. Poor-.-.. Dense, firm clay sub- Erodible; slow internal
good. stratum. drainage.


Susquehanna (SnB, SnC) ------------ Poor----- Poor--.-- Poor-- -- Poor --. Very plastic clay sub- Highly erodible; very
soil. slow internal drain-
age.

Swamp (Sw)--------------------- Poor ---. Poor----- Fair to Poor ...- High organic content High water table; fre-
good. quently inundated.

Tifton (TfA, TfB, ifB2, TfC2) ------- Good-.... Good .-- Good.--. Poor----- Compactable, well- Erodible; moderately
graded sands with slow internal drain-
clays. age.
Zuber (ZuB, ZuC)----------------- Good.--- Good--.. Good---- Poor----- Plastic clay sub- Erodible; moderately
stratum. slow internal drain-
age.

1 The map symbols in parentheses that follow the name of the soil series or soil type stand for the soils in the respective series or type
that are included in the interpretations listed.










GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 57

interpretation of soils-Continued
feature affecting engineering has been made]

Soil features affecting-Continued

Farm ponds
Terraces and
Agricultural drainage Irrigation diversions Waterways
Reservoir area Embankments


Permeable sand; Loose permeable High water table; Low water-holding
periodically high material, rapid permea- capacity.
water table. bility.
High water table; Good strength and High water table; Medium water-
sandy clay sub- stability. seepage areas. holding capacity.
soil.
(2) ........------- ----- (2)--------------- (2) .................-- () ------- (2).........------..... ()---------------
Sandy clay subsoil Good strength and -------------------- Medium water- Deep soil; mod- Moderately erodible;
with moderately stability, holding capacity. rate erodi- grows sod well.
slow permeability. ability.
(2)--------- ()-----......... --........ () ......---------- (2)--) ------- (2)- -------- () -------
High water table; Good strength and High water table; Medium to high -
moderately slow stability, moderately slow water-holding
permeability, permeability, capacity
Sandy clay subsoil Good strength and ---- --------Medium to high Deep soil; mod- Moderate erodibility;
with moderately stability, water-holding rate erodibil- grows sod well.
slow permeability, capacity. ity.
Sandy clay subsoil Good strength and ---------- Medium to high Deep soil; mod- Moderate erodibility;
with moderately stability. water-holding rate erodi- grows sod well.
slow permeability, capacity, ability.
Low position; high Loose, permeable High water table; ------------------------------------Low, nearly level
water table; sand material. low position. position.
substratum.
Low position; high Loose, permeable High water table; ------------------------------------Low, nearly level
water table; clay material, low position. position.
substratum.
Low position; high Good strength and High water table; .. -------------------------------- Low, nearly level
water table; stability, moderately slow position.
clayey subsoil, permeability.
Sandy clay subsoil Good strength and ---------------- Medium to high Deep soil; mod- Moderately erod-
with moderately stability, water-holding erate erodi- ible; grows sod
slow permeability, capacity. ability. well.
Sandy clay subsoil Good strength and --------------------Medium to high Deep soil; mod- Moderately erod-
with moderately stability, water-holding erate erodi- ible; grows sod
slow permeability, capacity. ability. well.
Low position; high Loose permeable High water table; ------------------------------------ Low, nearly level
water table; sand material, low position, position.
substratum.
Plastic clay sub- Dense, plastic clay -----------Medium water- Thin surface soil; Moderately high
stratum with slow materials, holding capacity; plastic, moder- erodibility; mod-
permeability. low infiltration. ately highly erately difficult
erodible subsoil. to establish sod.
Variable substrata_-- Good strength and ------------------- Medium to high Deep soil; moder- Moderately erod-
stability, water-holding ately erodible. ible; moderately
capacity difficult to
establish sod.
Very slow perme- Very plastic clay Very slow perme- -- -------------- Very plastic sub- Highly erodible;
ability; very material, ability. soil. difficult to
plastic clay sub- establish sod.
soil.
Low position; high High organic con- Low position; vari- _------- -------------------------
water table. tent; variable able substrata.
mineral materials.
Sandy clay subsoil Good strength and --------------------Medium to high Deep soil; mod- Moderate erodi-
with moderately stability, water-holding erate erodi- ability; grows sod
slow permeability, capacity, ability. well.
Sandy clay subsoil; Plastic clay ma- ----------------Medium to high Deep soil; very Very erodible; grows
limestone in sub- trials. water-holding erodible. sod well.
stratum. capacity.

2 Variable; characteristics related to adjacent soils.








58 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

Soils of Gadsden County Soil type.-Soils similar in kind, thickness, and arrange-
ment of horizons, and having essentially the same texture
This section first tells how soils are mapped and de- in the surface soil, are classified as members of one soil
scribed, and then provides a description for each soil type. The name of the soil type consists of the name of
mapped in the county. the soil series followed by the textural designation of the
surface soil.
Soil Survey Methods and Definitions Soil phase.-Soil types are frequently divided into
phases because of differences other than those in kind,
The scientist who makes a soil survey examines soils thickness, and arrangement of horizons. Frequently,
in the fields, groves, pastures, and woodlands. He classi- these differences are significant in managing the soil.
fies the soils in accordance with the facts observed and Among the characteristics that suggest dividing a soil
maps their boundaries on an aerial photograph. The type into phases are variation in slope, in frequency of
map shows the location of each kind of soil identified, as rock outcrop, in degree of erosion, and in depth of soil
well as the roads, houses, streams, railroads, and other over the subsoil.
natural and cultural features of the landscape. If the depth of sand in a soil type ranges from 30 to 60
FIELD STUDY.-The soil scientist records everything inches the type may be mapped as two phases-a typical
about the soils that he believes might affect their suit- phase, in which sand extends to a depth of 42 inches or
ability for farming. He examines surface soils and sub- more, and a shallow phase, in which the sand is underlain
soils; measures slopes with a hand level; and notes dif- by a fine-textured horizon at depths of 30 to 42 inches. If
ferences in growth of crops, weeds, trees, and other a soil type varies in degree of slope, a level phase may be
vegetation. He bores or digs many holes to see what the mapped where the degree of slope is less than 2 percent,
soils are like. The holes are not spaced in a regular and a gently sloping phase where the slopes are between
pattern but are located according to the lay of the land. 2 and 5 percent.
Most of them are not more than a quarter of a mile apart, The soil phase (or the soil type if it has not been divided
and some are much closer. Each hole reveals several into phases) is the unit shown on the soil map. It is the
distinct layers, called soil horizons, which collectively are unit that has the smallest range of characteristics. Use
known as the soil profile. Each horizon is studied to see and management, therefore, can be specified more pre-
how it differs from others in the profile and to learn the cisely for it than for broader groups of soils that neces-
things about the soil that influence its capacity to support sarily contain more variation.
plant growth. Soil series.-Two or more soil types that are similar in
Color is normally related to drainage and the amount kind, thickness, and arrangement of soil layers are nor-
of organic matter in the soil. The darker the surface soil, mally designated as a soil series. In some places, how-
as a rule, the more organic matter it contains. Streaks, ever, a soil series may be represented by only one soil type.
spots, or mottles of gray, yellow, brown, and red in the Each soil series is named for a place near which it was first
lower layers generally indicate poor drainage and poor mapped. For example, the Lakeland series was first
aeration. Uniformly yellow, red, or brown lower layers identified and mapped near Lakeland, Florida. Leon
normally indicate good aeration. soils were first mapped in Leon County, Florida.
Consistence, or the tendency of the soil to crumble or Miscellaneous land types.-Areas that have little true
to stick together, indicates whether it is easy or difficult soil are not classified in types, phases, or series; they are
to keep the soil open and porous under cultivation, identified by descriptive names. In Gadsden County
Texture, or the relative proportions of sand, silt, and the miscellaneous land types are Alluvial land, Swamp,
clay, is estimated by the way the soil feels when rubbed Made land, Gullied land, and Mines, pits, and dumps.
between the fingers. It is later checked by mechanical Soil complex.-If two or more soils that normally occur
analysis in a laboratory. Texture determines how well in regular geographic association are so intricately mixed
the soil retains moisture, plant nutrients, and fertilizer that separate mapping is impractical, the soils are mapped
and whether the soil is easy or difficult to cultivate, together as a soil complex. The group is named for the
Structure is the way the individual soil particles are soils in it. An example in Gadsden County is Faceville-
arranged in larger aggregates, or peds, and the amount Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
of pore (open) space between the aggregates. Structure
has much to do with the ease or difficulty with which the Descriptions of Soils
soil is penetrated by plant roots, water, and air.
Other characteristics observed in field study and con- In the following pages the soil series of Gadsden County
sidered in classifying the soil are the depth of the soil are described in alphabetic order. Following the de-
over bedrock or compact layers; the presence of gravel scription of each series is a description of the mapping
or stones that may interfere with cultivation; the steep- units, or soils, in that series. The first mapping unit
ness and pattern of slopes; the degree of erosion; the described is considered most typical of the series. A de-
nature of the underlying material from which the soil tailed description of the profile is given for this unit and, in
developed; and the reaction (acidity or alkalinity) of the some series, for other units as well. The soils for which a
soil as measured by chemical tests. profile is not described are compared with the soils that
CLASSIFICATION.-On the basis of the characteristics have profile descriptions.
observed by the survey team or determined by laboratory In the profile descriptions, some terms are used that
tests, soils are classified in phases, types, and series. The may not be familiar to the general reader. The top layer
soil type is the basic unit of classification. A soil type in tilled areas is the A, horizon, or the plow layer, and in
may consist of several phases. Types that resemble each undisturbed areas it is the A1 horizon. Below this layer,
other in most characteristics are grouped in soil series. some profiles may have A2, A3, or other horizons that are








58 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

Soils of Gadsden County Soil type.-Soils similar in kind, thickness, and arrange-
ment of horizons, and having essentially the same texture
This section first tells how soils are mapped and de- in the surface soil, are classified as members of one soil
scribed, and then provides a description for each soil type. The name of the soil type consists of the name of
mapped in the county. the soil series followed by the textural designation of the
surface soil.
Soil Survey Methods and Definitions Soil phase.-Soil types are frequently divided into
phases because of differences other than those in kind,
The scientist who makes a soil survey examines soils thickness, and arrangement of horizons. Frequently,
in the fields, groves, pastures, and woodlands. He classi- these differences are significant in managing the soil.
fies the soils in accordance with the facts observed and Among the characteristics that suggest dividing a soil
maps their boundaries on an aerial photograph. The type into phases are variation in slope, in frequency of
map shows the location of each kind of soil identified, as rock outcrop, in degree of erosion, and in depth of soil
well as the roads, houses, streams, railroads, and other over the subsoil.
natural and cultural features of the landscape. If the depth of sand in a soil type ranges from 30 to 60
FIELD STUDY.-The soil scientist records everything inches the type may be mapped as two phases-a typical
about the soils that he believes might affect their suit- phase, in which sand extends to a depth of 42 inches or
ability for farming. He examines surface soils and sub- more, and a shallow phase, in which the sand is underlain
soils; measures slopes with a hand level; and notes dif- by a fine-textured horizon at depths of 30 to 42 inches. If
ferences in growth of crops, weeds, trees, and other a soil type varies in degree of slope, a level phase may be
vegetation. He bores or digs many holes to see what the mapped where the degree of slope is less than 2 percent,
soils are like. The holes are not spaced in a regular and a gently sloping phase where the slopes are between
pattern but are located according to the lay of the land. 2 and 5 percent.
Most of them are not more than a quarter of a mile apart, The soil phase (or the soil type if it has not been divided
and some are much closer. Each hole reveals several into phases) is the unit shown on the soil map. It is the
distinct layers, called soil horizons, which collectively are unit that has the smallest range of characteristics. Use
known as the soil profile. Each horizon is studied to see and management, therefore, can be specified more pre-
how it differs from others in the profile and to learn the cisely for it than for broader groups of soils that neces-
things about the soil that influence its capacity to support sarily contain more variation.
plant growth. Soil series.-Two or more soil types that are similar in
Color is normally related to drainage and the amount kind, thickness, and arrangement of soil layers are nor-
of organic matter in the soil. The darker the surface soil, mally designated as a soil series. In some places, how-
as a rule, the more organic matter it contains. Streaks, ever, a soil series may be represented by only one soil type.
spots, or mottles of gray, yellow, brown, and red in the Each soil series is named for a place near which it was first
lower layers generally indicate poor drainage and poor mapped. For example, the Lakeland series was first
aeration. Uniformly yellow, red, or brown lower layers identified and mapped near Lakeland, Florida. Leon
normally indicate good aeration. soils were first mapped in Leon County, Florida.
Consistence, or the tendency of the soil to crumble or Miscellaneous land types.-Areas that have little true
to stick together, indicates whether it is easy or difficult soil are not classified in types, phases, or series; they are
to keep the soil open and porous under cultivation, identified by descriptive names. In Gadsden County
Texture, or the relative proportions of sand, silt, and the miscellaneous land types are Alluvial land, Swamp,
clay, is estimated by the way the soil feels when rubbed Made land, Gullied land, and Mines, pits, and dumps.
between the fingers. It is later checked by mechanical Soil complex.-If two or more soils that normally occur
analysis in a laboratory. Texture determines how well in regular geographic association are so intricately mixed
the soil retains moisture, plant nutrients, and fertilizer that separate mapping is impractical, the soils are mapped
and whether the soil is easy or difficult to cultivate, together as a soil complex. The group is named for the
Structure is the way the individual soil particles are soils in it. An example in Gadsden County is Faceville-
arranged in larger aggregates, or peds, and the amount Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
of pore (open) space between the aggregates. Structure
has much to do with the ease or difficulty with which the Descriptions of Soils
soil is penetrated by plant roots, water, and air.
Other characteristics observed in field study and con- In the following pages the soil series of Gadsden County
sidered in classifying the soil are the depth of the soil are described in alphabetic order. Following the de-
over bedrock or compact layers; the presence of gravel scription of each series is a description of the mapping
or stones that may interfere with cultivation; the steep- units, or soils, in that series. The first mapping unit
ness and pattern of slopes; the degree of erosion; the described is considered most typical of the series. A de-
nature of the underlying material from which the soil tailed description of the profile is given for this unit and, in
developed; and the reaction (acidity or alkalinity) of the some series, for other units as well. The soils for which a
soil as measured by chemical tests. profile is not described are compared with the soils that
CLASSIFICATION.-On the basis of the characteristics have profile descriptions.
observed by the survey team or determined by laboratory In the profile descriptions, some terms are used that
tests, soils are classified in phases, types, and series. The may not be familiar to the general reader. The top layer
soil type is the basic unit of classification. A soil type in tilled areas is the A, horizon, or the plow layer, and in
may consist of several phases. Types that resemble each undisturbed areas it is the A1 horizon. Below this layer,
other in most characteristics are grouped in soil series. some profiles may have A2, A3, or other horizons that are








58 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

Soils of Gadsden County Soil type.-Soils similar in kind, thickness, and arrange-
ment of horizons, and having essentially the same texture
This section first tells how soils are mapped and de- in the surface soil, are classified as members of one soil
scribed, and then provides a description for each soil type. The name of the soil type consists of the name of
mapped in the county. the soil series followed by the textural designation of the
surface soil.
Soil Survey Methods and Definitions Soil phase.-Soil types are frequently divided into
phases because of differences other than those in kind,
The scientist who makes a soil survey examines soils thickness, and arrangement of horizons. Frequently,
in the fields, groves, pastures, and woodlands. He classi- these differences are significant in managing the soil.
fies the soils in accordance with the facts observed and Among the characteristics that suggest dividing a soil
maps their boundaries on an aerial photograph. The type into phases are variation in slope, in frequency of
map shows the location of each kind of soil identified, as rock outcrop, in degree of erosion, and in depth of soil
well as the roads, houses, streams, railroads, and other over the subsoil.
natural and cultural features of the landscape. If the depth of sand in a soil type ranges from 30 to 60
FIELD STUDY.-The soil scientist records everything inches the type may be mapped as two phases-a typical
about the soils that he believes might affect their suit- phase, in which sand extends to a depth of 42 inches or
ability for farming. He examines surface soils and sub- more, and a shallow phase, in which the sand is underlain
soils; measures slopes with a hand level; and notes dif- by a fine-textured horizon at depths of 30 to 42 inches. If
ferences in growth of crops, weeds, trees, and other a soil type varies in degree of slope, a level phase may be
vegetation. He bores or digs many holes to see what the mapped where the degree of slope is less than 2 percent,
soils are like. The holes are not spaced in a regular and a gently sloping phase where the slopes are between
pattern but are located according to the lay of the land. 2 and 5 percent.
Most of them are not more than a quarter of a mile apart, The soil phase (or the soil type if it has not been divided
and some are much closer. Each hole reveals several into phases) is the unit shown on the soil map. It is the
distinct layers, called soil horizons, which collectively are unit that has the smallest range of characteristics. Use
known as the soil profile. Each horizon is studied to see and management, therefore, can be specified more pre-
how it differs from others in the profile and to learn the cisely for it than for broader groups of soils that neces-
things about the soil that influence its capacity to support sarily contain more variation.
plant growth. Soil series.-Two or more soil types that are similar in
Color is normally related to drainage and the amount kind, thickness, and arrangement of soil layers are nor-
of organic matter in the soil. The darker the surface soil, mally designated as a soil series. In some places, how-
as a rule, the more organic matter it contains. Streaks, ever, a soil series may be represented by only one soil type.
spots, or mottles of gray, yellow, brown, and red in the Each soil series is named for a place near which it was first
lower layers generally indicate poor drainage and poor mapped. For example, the Lakeland series was first
aeration. Uniformly yellow, red, or brown lower layers identified and mapped near Lakeland, Florida. Leon
normally indicate good aeration. soils were first mapped in Leon County, Florida.
Consistence, or the tendency of the soil to crumble or Miscellaneous land types.-Areas that have little true
to stick together, indicates whether it is easy or difficult soil are not classified in types, phases, or series; they are
to keep the soil open and porous under cultivation, identified by descriptive names. In Gadsden County
Texture, or the relative proportions of sand, silt, and the miscellaneous land types are Alluvial land, Swamp,
clay, is estimated by the way the soil feels when rubbed Made land, Gullied land, and Mines, pits, and dumps.
between the fingers. It is later checked by mechanical Soil complex.-If two or more soils that normally occur
analysis in a laboratory. Texture determines how well in regular geographic association are so intricately mixed
the soil retains moisture, plant nutrients, and fertilizer that separate mapping is impractical, the soils are mapped
and whether the soil is easy or difficult to cultivate, together as a soil complex. The group is named for the
Structure is the way the individual soil particles are soils in it. An example in Gadsden County is Faceville-
arranged in larger aggregates, or peds, and the amount Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
of pore (open) space between the aggregates. Structure
has much to do with the ease or difficulty with which the Descriptions of Soils
soil is penetrated by plant roots, water, and air.
Other characteristics observed in field study and con- In the following pages the soil series of Gadsden County
sidered in classifying the soil are the depth of the soil are described in alphabetic order. Following the de-
over bedrock or compact layers; the presence of gravel scription of each series is a description of the mapping
or stones that may interfere with cultivation; the steep- units, or soils, in that series. The first mapping unit
ness and pattern of slopes; the degree of erosion; the described is considered most typical of the series. A de-
nature of the underlying material from which the soil tailed description of the profile is given for this unit and, in
developed; and the reaction (acidity or alkalinity) of the some series, for other units as well. The soils for which a
soil as measured by chemical tests. profile is not described are compared with the soils that
CLASSIFICATION.-On the basis of the characteristics have profile descriptions.
observed by the survey team or determined by laboratory In the profile descriptions, some terms are used that
tests, soils are classified in phases, types, and series. The may not be familiar to the general reader. The top layer
soil type is the basic unit of classification. A soil type in tilled areas is the A, horizon, or the plow layer, and in
may consist of several phases. Types that resemble each undisturbed areas it is the A1 horizon. Below this layer,
other in most characteristics are grouped in soil series. some profiles may have A2, A3, or other horizons that are









GADSDEN 'COUNTY, FLORIDA 59

designated by the letter A and a subscript. The A of this horizon does not conform with that of the horizon
horizon consists of all of these layers combined, above. The term "subsoil" is used also as a general term
In describing the individual soils of one series, the A that refers to all the soil below plow depth.
horizon is frequently referred to as "surface layers," for In this report color is designated both by a descriptive
the purpose of indicating that the horizon contains more term, such as grayish brown, and by Munsell notations,
than one layer and reaches a depth greater than 8 inches. such as 10YR 5/2. The Munsell notations are precise
Elsewhere in the report, where soils of one or more series terms that denote hue, value, and chroma. Unless
are grouped for the purpose of discussing their manage- otherwise designated, the color designated is for moist
ment, the significance of the separate layers and exact soils.
depth of the A horizon are not great and, therefore, the Other terms, such as "texture," "structure," and
term "surface layer" is used. The A horizon, if it is not "consistence," are described in the subsection "Soil
more than 8 inches deep, is equivalent to "surface soil," Survey Methods and Definitions." Soil terms may also
but if it is more than 8 inches deep it is equivalent to be found in the Glossary. Much valuable information
"surface soil" and "subsurface soil" (see Glossary). is in the "Soil SuRvey Manual." The approximate
The subsoil, or B horizon, contains clay and other acreage and proportionate extent of the soils are given
minerals that were moved from the A horizon. It is in table 7. The location and distribution of the soil
sometimes divided in B1, B2, and B3 layers. In most mapping units are shown on the soil map at the back of
places, the soil formed from material similar to that which this report. This map does not have section lines.
underlies the B horizon. This material is called the C SOIL SURVEY STAFF. SOIL SURVEY MANUAL. U.S. Dept. Agr.
horizon. Some soils have a D horizon. The material Handb. No. 18, 503 pp., illus., 1951.

TABLE 7.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of the soils mapped

Soil Area Extent Soil Area Extent

Acres Percent Acres Percent
Alluvial land ..-------------------------- 48, 184 14. 8 Faceville fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes--- 143 (1) severely eroded__-------------------- 250 0. 1
Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ---- 342 .1 Faceville fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes,
Arredondo-Fellowship-Gainesville soils, 8 to 12 severely eroded ------------------------ 162 (1)
percent slopes--------------------------- 231 .1 Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 to 12
Arredondo-Fellowship-Gainesville soils, 12 to 40 percent slopes------------------------- 1, 139 .4
percent slopes---------- ---------------- 204 .1 Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 to 12
Binnsville soils, 2 to 12 percent slopes--------- 141 (1) percent slopes, severely eroded------------- 557 .2
Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes------- 7, 635 2. 3 Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 12 to 35
Blanton fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ------ 2, 745 .8 percent slopes ------------------------ 3,275 1.0
Blanton fine sand, terrace, 0 to 5 percent slopes-- 1,835 .6 Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 12 to 35
Blanton coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes----- 666 .2 percent slopes, severely eroded------------- 389 .1
Carnegie fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. 1, 817 .6
severely eroded ..---------------------- 222 .1 Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 1,812 .6
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes-- 409 .1 Goldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes-. 655 .2 percent slopes--------------------------- 1, 816 .6
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Goldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5
eroded-----------------------.---------- 780 .2 percent slopes-------------------------- 1,500 .5
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes_- 199 .1 Goldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, percent slopes.-------- ------------------ 397 .1
eroded---------------------------------- 461 .1 Grady fine sandy loam --------------------- 533 .2
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes- 92 (1) Gullied land------------------------------- 22 ()
Congaree silt loam ------------------------ 338 .1 Hannahatchee soils, local alluvium------------ 643 .2
Cuthbert loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 102 (') Hickabee fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ---- 159
Cuthbert loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes- 107 (1) Izagora loamy fine sand--------------------- 725 .2
Cuthbert, Boswell, and Susquehanna soils, 5 to Kalmia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes_ 224 .1
12 percent slopes -----------------------. 1,760 .5 Klej loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent slopes-- 513 .2
Cuthbert, Boswell, and Susquehanna soils, 12 Klej loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes-_ 1,064 .3
to 60 percent slopes---------------------- 3, 508 1. 1 Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes--------------8, 123 2. 5
Eustis loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes------- 1, 108 .9 Klej sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-------------- 1, 835 .6
Eustis loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes------- 528 .2 Klej coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes-------- 1,250 .4
Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent slopes_ 280 1 Lakeland loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes --- 4, 565 1. 4
Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes 1, 156 .4 Lakeland loamy sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes .. 1, 744 .5
Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes_ 300 1 Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent
Eustis coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes------- 532 .2 slopes ------- -- ------------------ 1, 648 5
Eustis coarse sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ---- 333 1 Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent
Eustis coarse sand, excessively drained, 0 to 5 slopes-----.------------------------ 3, 984 1.2
percent slopes-------------------------- 1, 254 .4 Lakeland loamy sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent
Faceville loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes 167 .1 slopes .... --- ------------ 1,255 .4
Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes- 597 .2 Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes--------- 21, 012 6. 5
Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, 7 3
eroded --------------------------------- 1, 321 .4 Lakeland sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes--------- 9, 717 3. 0
Faceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes 300 1 Lakeland coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes --- 13, 870 4.3
Faceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Lakeland coarse sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes--_ 4, 687 1. 4
eroded -------------------------------- 1, 164 .4 Lakeland coarse sand, excessively drained, 0 to
Faceville loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes_ 273 .1 5 percent slopes ------------------------ 7, 809 2. 4
See footnote at end of table.









60 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

TABLE 7.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of the soils mapped-Continued

Soil Area Extent Soil Area Extent

Acres Percent Acres Percent
Lakeland coarse sand, excessively drained, 5 Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
to 12 percent slopes ----------------- 1, 314 0. 4 slopes, eroded_ -------------- ------- 2,200 0.7
Lakeland and Eustis sands, 12 to 50 percent Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes ------------------------------ 4,591 1.4 slopes -------------------------------. 1,331 .4
Lakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert complex, 5 to 8 per- Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
cent slopes _.-------------------------- 793 .2 slopes, eroded------------------------- 1,013 .3
Lakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert complex, 8 to 12 Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent
percent slopes ----------.---------------- 1,081 .3 slopes ---------------------------------- 948 .3
Lakeland-Eustis-Cuthbert complex, 12 to 45 Orangeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2
percent slopes---------------------- 6, 886 2. 1 percent slopes ----.----.----------------- 1,409 .4
Leaf very fine sandy loam------------------- 1, 442 .4 Orangeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5
Leon sand --------------------------------- 780 .2 percent slopes --------------------------- 1,225 .4
Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent Orangeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8
slopes---------------------------------- 320 1 percent slopes -------------------------- 310 .1
Lynchburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent Orangeburg loamy sand, thick surface, 8 to 12
slopes ----- ---------- ------------ 107 (') percent slopes.--------------___.---__.. 113 (1 )
Lynchburg loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 Plummer sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes----.----_ 7, 179 2. 2
percent slopes .------------------------- 1, 105 .3 Plummer sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes---------- 2,564 .8
Lynchburg loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 Plummer sand, high, 0 to 2 percent slopes----- 4, 284 1. 3
percent slopes-- ------------------------ 363 .1 Plummer sand, high, 2 to 5 percent slopes----- 864 .3
Made land -------------------------------. 570 .2 Plummer coarse sand, high, 0 to 2 percent
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes- 1, 230 .4 slopes. .------------------------------ 1, 770 .5
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, Portsmouth fine sandy loam ----------------. 440 .1
eroded---------------------------------- 255 .1 Rains fine sandy loam--.--------------_----- 597 .2
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 484 .1 Red Bay fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, severely eroded-------------------------- 106 (1)
eroded ------------------------------- 1,406 .4 Red Bay fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes_ 194 .1 severely eroded-------------------------- 325 .1
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Red Bay fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes,
eroded...-------------------------------- 551 .2 severely eroded-------------------------. 102 (')
Magnolia loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes_ 207 1 Red Bay loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. 880 3
Magnolia fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Red Bay loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 733 .2
severely eroded ------------------------- 146 (1) Red Bay loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
Magnolia fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.--------------------------------- 596 .2
severely eroded ----------------------.-- 258 .1 Red Bay loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. 138 (1)
Magnolia fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent Red Bay loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
slopes, severely eroded ------------------- 84 (1) eroded---------------------------------- 315 .1
Mines, pits, and dumps --------------------. 2, 032 .6 Red Bay loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. 570 .2
Myatt loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes___ 1, 000 .3 Ruston fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes,

Norfolk loamy fine sand, pebbly, 0 to 2 percent severely eroded----------------.. ---..--- 302 1
slopes ---------------------------------- 1,818 .6 Ruston loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes-- 2,262 .7
Norfolk loamy fine sand, pebbly, 2 to 5 percent Ruston loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes-- 6, 005 1. 8
slopes ---------------------------------. 1, 253 .4 Ruston loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
Norfolk loamy fine sand, pebbly, 2 to 5 percent eroded-------------------------------- 3,093 1.0
slopes, eroded---------------------------- 469 .1 Ruston loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes--. 1, 664 .5
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes-- 4, 435 1. 4 Ruston loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.- 5,973 1. 8 eroded ------------------------------- 1, 872 .6
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Ruston loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. 541 .2
eroded --------------------------------- 2, 006 .6 Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. 876 .3 slopes---------------------------------- 1, 096 .3
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent
eroded-------- ------------------------. 1,004 .3 slopes.--------------------------------- 2,729 .8
Norfolk loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes_ 204 1 Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 per- slopes-------------------------- ------- 1,078 .3
cent slopes----------------------------- 3, 286 1. 0 Ruston loamy sand, thick surface, 8 to 12 per-
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 per- cent slopes ----------------------------- 230 .1
cent slopes----------------------------- 4, 512 1. 4 Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 5 to 8
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 per- percent slopes ------------------------ 4, 222 1. 3
cent slopes---.-------------------------- 1, 056 .3 Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 8 to 12
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, 8 to 12 percent slopes --------------------------- 5, 652 1. 7
percent slopes -------------------------- 233 .1 Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 12 to 50
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, pebbly, 0 percent slopes------------------------- 10, 328 3. 2
to 2 percent slopes --------------------- 561 .2 Ruston-Orangeburg-Lakeland complex, 12 to 50
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, pebbly, 2 percent slopes, severely eroded------------- 237 1
to 5 percent slopes---------------------- 777 .2 Rutlege fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes------- 2, 180 .7
Norfolk loamy sand, thick surface, pebbly, 5 Rutlege fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes -------. 463 1
to 8 percent slopes-..-------------------- 264 .1 Sawyer loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes_- 378 .1
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent Sawyer loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes_- 545 .2
slopes-------------------------------- 3,023 .9 Shubuta fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes_ 115 ()
Orangeburg loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent Susquehanna loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes------------------------------- 4, 139 1.3 slopes -------------------------.------ 1,340 .4
See footnote at end of table.








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 61

TABLE 7-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of the soils mapped-Continued

Soil Area Extent Soil Area Extent

Acres Percent Acres Percent
Susquehanna loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent Tifton loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes_-- 278 0. 1
slopes ------------------------------ 626 0. 2 Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes_- 402 .1
Susquehanna-Sawyer complex, 5 to 12 percent Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
slopes----------------------- -------- 1,575 .5 eroded -------------------------------- 151 (1)
Susquehanna-Sawyer complex, 12 to 50 percent Tifton loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
slopes --------------------------------- 985 .3 eroded --_------------------------------ 137 (1)
Susquehanna-Boswell-Binnsville complex, Zuber loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes------- 153 (1)
marly substratum, 5 to 12 percent slopes -.. 344 1 Zuber loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes------- 115 (1)
Susquehanna-Boswell-Binnsville complex x,
marly substratum, 12 to 50 percent slopes.-- 189 .1 Total ---------------------------- 325, 120
Swamp -._----------------.-------------- 2, 165 .7

1 Less than 0.1 percent.
Alluvial land Arredondo series
This land type consists of alluvial soils on first bottoms The Arredondo series consists of deep, well-drained,
along streams. It is frequently flooded and varies greatly medium acid to strongly acid soils. These soils are on
in drainage, uplands in nearly level to very steep areas. They have
Alluvial land (Ab).-This mapping unit has a wide range a very small total acreage that occurs mostly along Rocky
in texture and color because it is made up of a variety of Comfort Creek. A few areas are in the southeastern part
sediments that were washed from many different soils, of the county. These soils developed from deep beds of
It is flooded intermittently, and variable amounts and unconsolidated loamy sands that were affected by phos-
kinds of sediments are deposited in each overflow. The phatic materials.
wide bottom lands, except in the narrow strips along their Arredondo soils have gray to dark grayish-brown fine
drainage channels, generally receive much finer textured sand surface layers, 4 to 16 inches thick. These are under-
sediments than the narrow bottom lands. Along these lain by a C horizon of yellowish-brown fine sand that
narrow strips the materials consist dominantly of sands extends to depths greater than 42 inches. No B horizon
and loamy sands. The finer textured materials are de- has developed. The subsoil is underlain by a mottled D
posited in areas farther from the stream channels than horizon that ranges from fine sandy loam to fine sandy
are the coarser textured materials. In these areas back- clay loam.
waters occur and surface drainage is slow. Because the Arredondo soils are associated with the Zuber, Gaines-
location of large channels changes little, deposition con- ville, and Fellowship soils. They have a lighter colored
tinues on the wide bottom lands for a long time. De- subsoil than the Gainesville soils and a thicker, much
posits of sediments with varied texture build up, and the coarser textured subsoil than the Fellowship soils. The
texture of the subsoil is extremely variable, subsoil of the Fellowship soils is fine textured and plastic.
The drainage of this land varies extremely in the narrow Finer textured materials are at depths of more than 30
bottom lands and in the wide bottom lands. The better inches in the Arredondo soils, whereas they are at depths of
drained areas occur along the stream channels where the less than 30 inches in the Zuber soils. The Arredondo soils
streams have enough gradient to form a deep channel, are similar to the Lakeland soils in profile characteristics
They are also in the higher areas along old, meandering but have a higher content of phosphorus due to underlying
drainage channels where the surface is hummocky or un- phosphatic materials.
even. Some of the narrow bottom lands are well drained The native vegetation consists principally of longleaf
and have brown or yellowish-brown soils. In many places, and loblolly pines, various oaks, hickory, and a sparse
however, these narrow strips have slow drainage and gray growth of native grasses. Only a small part of the total
soils. Here the stream gradient is slight, and water seeps acreage has been cleared; this is in corn, small grains,
from the adjacent upland. The soils on the large bottom and pasture.
lands range from brown, yellowish brown, and pale brown The Arredondo soils are rapidly permeable, have a low
to gray and light gray. The brownish and yellowish soils available moisture-holding capacity, and are somewhat
are in the better drained areas, and the grayish soils are drought. The natural fertility is low to moderate,
in the more poorly drained areas, and added plant nutrients leach rapidly. Where the
The native vegetation consists chiefly of oaks, bays, slopes are gentle and good management is practiced, these
gums, hickory, and pines. Only a small part of this land soils are moderately well suited to general farm crops.
type is cleared. The cultivated areas consist of only a Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (AdB).-
few small patches that are especially suited to garden This well-drained, deep, sandy soil is on uplands. It has
crops and a few areas that adjoin cultivated areas of other been affected by phosphatic materials.
soils. Because it is frequently flooded, is rough and dis- Profile in a gently sloping, cultivated field (location:
sected, and has varied drainage, this land is not suited to NE%9NE? sec. 29, R. 3 W., T. 2 N.):
cultivation in most places. Where it is cleared and prop-
erly managed, however, favorable yields from improved Ap 0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand;
grasses can be obtained except in the most poorly drained of organi cm b ter; feature; oots; o nl acid; found
areas or in the areas that are flooded for long periods, ary clear and smooth.








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 61

TABLE 7-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of the soils mapped-Continued

Soil Area Extent Soil Area Extent

Acres Percent Acres Percent
Susquehanna loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent Tifton loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes_-- 278 0. 1
slopes ------------------------------ 626 0. 2 Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes_- 402 .1
Susquehanna-Sawyer complex, 5 to 12 percent Tifton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
slopes----------------------- -------- 1,575 .5 eroded -------------------------------- 151 (1)
Susquehanna-Sawyer complex, 12 to 50 percent Tifton loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
slopes --------------------------------- 985 .3 eroded --_------------------------------ 137 (1)
Susquehanna-Boswell-Binnsville complex, Zuber loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes------- 153 (1)
marly substratum, 5 to 12 percent slopes -.. 344 1 Zuber loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes------- 115 (1)
Susquehanna-Boswell-Binnsville complex x,
marly substratum, 12 to 50 percent slopes.-- 189 .1 Total ---------------------------- 325, 120
Swamp -._----------------.-------------- 2, 165 .7

1 Less than 0.1 percent.
Alluvial land Arredondo series
This land type consists of alluvial soils on first bottoms The Arredondo series consists of deep, well-drained,
along streams. It is frequently flooded and varies greatly medium acid to strongly acid soils. These soils are on
in drainage, uplands in nearly level to very steep areas. They have
Alluvial land (Ab).-This mapping unit has a wide range a very small total acreage that occurs mostly along Rocky
in texture and color because it is made up of a variety of Comfort Creek. A few areas are in the southeastern part
sediments that were washed from many different soils, of the county. These soils developed from deep beds of
It is flooded intermittently, and variable amounts and unconsolidated loamy sands that were affected by phos-
kinds of sediments are deposited in each overflow. The phatic materials.
wide bottom lands, except in the narrow strips along their Arredondo soils have gray to dark grayish-brown fine
drainage channels, generally receive much finer textured sand surface layers, 4 to 16 inches thick. These are under-
sediments than the narrow bottom lands. Along these lain by a C horizon of yellowish-brown fine sand that
narrow strips the materials consist dominantly of sands extends to depths greater than 42 inches. No B horizon
and loamy sands. The finer textured materials are de- has developed. The subsoil is underlain by a mottled D
posited in areas farther from the stream channels than horizon that ranges from fine sandy loam to fine sandy
are the coarser textured materials. In these areas back- clay loam.
waters occur and surface drainage is slow. Because the Arredondo soils are associated with the Zuber, Gaines-
location of large channels changes little, deposition con- ville, and Fellowship soils. They have a lighter colored
tinues on the wide bottom lands for a long time. De- subsoil than the Gainesville soils and a thicker, much
posits of sediments with varied texture build up, and the coarser textured subsoil than the Fellowship soils. The
texture of the subsoil is extremely variable, subsoil of the Fellowship soils is fine textured and plastic.
The drainage of this land varies extremely in the narrow Finer textured materials are at depths of more than 30
bottom lands and in the wide bottom lands. The better inches in the Arredondo soils, whereas they are at depths of
drained areas occur along the stream channels where the less than 30 inches in the Zuber soils. The Arredondo soils
streams have enough gradient to form a deep channel, are similar to the Lakeland soils in profile characteristics
They are also in the higher areas along old, meandering but have a higher content of phosphorus due to underlying
drainage channels where the surface is hummocky or un- phosphatic materials.
even. Some of the narrow bottom lands are well drained The native vegetation consists principally of longleaf
and have brown or yellowish-brown soils. In many places, and loblolly pines, various oaks, hickory, and a sparse
however, these narrow strips have slow drainage and gray growth of native grasses. Only a small part of the total
soils. Here the stream gradient is slight, and water seeps acreage has been cleared; this is in corn, small grains,
from the adjacent upland. The soils on the large bottom and pasture.
lands range from brown, yellowish brown, and pale brown The Arredondo soils are rapidly permeable, have a low
to gray and light gray. The brownish and yellowish soils available moisture-holding capacity, and are somewhat
are in the better drained areas, and the grayish soils are drought. The natural fertility is low to moderate,
in the more poorly drained areas, and added plant nutrients leach rapidly. Where the
The native vegetation consists chiefly of oaks, bays, slopes are gentle and good management is practiced, these
gums, hickory, and pines. Only a small part of this land soils are moderately well suited to general farm crops.
type is cleared. The cultivated areas consist of only a Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (AdB).-
few small patches that are especially suited to garden This well-drained, deep, sandy soil is on uplands. It has
crops and a few areas that adjoin cultivated areas of other been affected by phosphatic materials.
soils. Because it is frequently flooded, is rough and dis- Profile in a gently sloping, cultivated field (location:
sected, and has varied drainage, this land is not suited to NE%9NE? sec. 29, R. 3 W., T. 2 N.):
cultivation in most places. Where it is cleared and prop-
erly managed, however, favorable yields from improved Ap 0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand;
grasses can be obtained except in the most poorly drained of organi cm b ter; feature; oots; o nl acid; found
areas or in the areas that are flooded for long periods, ary clear and smooth.








62 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5
A, 5 to 16 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; weak, 45 percent Arredondo, 35 to 45 percent Fellowship, and
fine, crumb structure; loose; few fine roots; medium 15 to 20 percent Gainesville. A small acreage of Zuber
acid; boundary clear and wavy.
C1 16 to 34 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand; soils is also in the mapping unit.
weak, fine, crumb structure; loose; few small pebbles; A profile of Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
medium acid; boundary clear and wavy. is described for the Arredondo series. Except that they
Ct 34 to 43 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) fine are strong brown to reddish brown in the subsoil instead
sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; many brown to reddish brown in the subsoil instead
fine pores; few fine roots; very few medium to large of yellowish brown, the Gainesville soils are similar to
pebbles of moderately hard sandstone; medium acid; the Arredondo soils in profile characteristics. The
boundary gradual and wavy. Fellowship soils have a plastic fine sandy clay subsoil.
Dj 43 to 51 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) loamy The texture of the surface layer is mainly loamy fine
fine sand; common, medium, faint, very pale brown
(10YR 7/3), and common, medium, faint, yellowish- sand, but in some areas it ranges from fine sand to loamy
brown (10YR 5/4) mottles; moderate, fine, crumb sand. Phosphatic pebbles occur on the surface and
structure; friable; common fine pores; few root chan- throughout the profile. Phosphatic stones, 3 to 6 inches
nels; few small, medium, and large pebbles; medium in diameter, are on the surface in some areas.
acid; boundary gradual and irregular. in diameter, are on the surface i some areas.
D2 51 to 66 inches +, gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam with Included in this mapping unit are small areas having
common, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR slopes of 5 to 8 percent. A few cultivated areas are
5/6), and common, fine, prominent, yellowish-red moderately eroded.
(5YR 4/8) mottles; moderate, fine, subangular blocky The native vegetation is chiefly longleaf and loblolly
and moderate, medium, crumb structure; friable;on is chefy longleaf and loblolly
common fine pores; few fine root channels; few small, pines, turkey, blackjack, and red oaks, hickory, low
medium, and large pebbles; medium acid. shrubs, and grasses. Many areas have been cleared and
The surface layer ranges from dark gray to dark grayish are planted to corn, small grains, pasture, and other crops.
brown in color and from 3 to 6 inches in thickness. The The total acreage is small.
subsurface layer ranges from gray to grayish brown in Surface runoff is rapid or medium, and internal drainage
color and from 4 to 11 inches in thickness. The C horizon depends on the kind of underlying material. The base-
is light yellowish brown to yellowish brown. exchange capacity, permeability, natural fertility, and
Included with this soil are small areas where loamy sand available moisture-holding capacity vary for the different
extends from the surface to depths of more than 42 inches. soils of the complex.
Finer textured material is commonly below a depth of 42 Because of their irregular characteristics, steepness,
inches. In a few small areas the finer textured material low fertility, and erosion hazard, these soils are not suited
is less than 42 inches deep. Also included is a small acre- to tilled crops. They are fairly well suited to improved
age that is moderately eroded and has many shallow pastures of bahiagrass but require good management.
gullies and a few deep ones. They are well suited as woodland and make a good habitat
The natural fertility and content of organic matter are for wildlife. Capability unit VIes-1.
low. Response to fertilization is fair to good. Arredondo-Fellowship-Gainesville soils, 12 to 40 percent
This soil is in relatively small areas adjacent to other slopes (AfF) -The soils in this complex have steeper
sandy soils that are only moderately well suited to crops. slopes than rredondo-Fellowship-Gainesille soils, 8 to
Because it has low natural fertility and low available 12 percent slopes. In some small areas the slopes are as
moisture, and because plant nutrients leach rapidly, this steep as 65 percent. Many areas have moderate sheet
soil is only fairly well suited to corn, peanuts, small grains, erosion. There are many shallow gulls in the erode
and other cultivated crops. It is not suited to shade areas, and a few deep ones.
tn oer c e c s is wen suited to iprov ps s depf These soils are in small areas on highly dissected, steep
tobacco but is well suited to improved pastures of deep hillsides and are too steep for cultivation. Pasture
rooted bahiagrass. It is well suited to woodland and
makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capability unit grasses grow moderately well, but modern farm machinery
Cannot be used effectively. These soils are best suited
IIIse-1. as woodland and make a good habitat for wildlife. Capa-
Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (AdC).- ability unit VIIes-1.
This soil has steeper slopes than Arredondo fine sand,
0 to 5 percent slopes. Included are a few scattered, mod- Binnsville series
erately eroded areas that have many shallow gullies and The Binnsville series consists of very shallow, neutral
a few deep ones. A few small areas with slopes of 8 to 12 soils that are moderately well drained but have slow
percent are also included. Small weathered phosphatic internal drainage. These soils developed from limestone
boulders and pebbles are on the surface in a few places. or marl on gentle to strong slopes on uplands in the
This soil is only moderately well suited to corn, small western part of the county. Their total acreage is small.
grains, and peanuts. It should not be cultivated fre- These soils have a thin, dark-gray to black fine sandy
quently. It is suited to improved pastures of deep-rooted, loam to fine sandy clay loam surface layer. Their subsoil
drought-resistant bahiagrass and similar grasses. It is is grayish-brown to light olive-brown fine sandy clay to
best suited as woodland or as a wildlife habitat. Capabil- clay that normally is slightly mottled. It is firm when
ity unit IVse-1. moist and plastic when wet. The subsoil grades abruptly
Arredondo-Fellowship-Gainsville soils, 8 to 12 percent to marly clay or limestone at a depth of as much as 12
slopes (AfD).-This mapping unit consists of Arredondo, inches. Various sizes of limestone outcrops occur in
Fellowship, and Gainesville soils that occur together on some areas.
strongly sloping hillsides, mainly along well-developed The Binnsville soils are closely associated with the
drainageways. These soils are in such intricate patterns marly substratum phases of the Boswell and Susquehanna
that it is not feasible to separate them on a map of the soils. They are shallower over limestone and much less
scale used. Generally, the proportion of soils is 35 to acid than the Boswell and Susquehanna soils. Their








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 63

-ubsoil is lighter colored than the yellowish-red subsoil The Blanton soils are associated with the Lakeland,
n the Boswell soils and is not highly mottled like that Leon, Plummer, and Klej soils and have parent material
)f the Susquehanna soils. similar to these soils. To a depth of 24 inches, they are
The native vegetation consists mainly of loblolly and grayer in the subsoil than the Klej soils, which have a
shortleaf pines, hickory, various oaks, sweetgum, low subsoil of yellowish color. They are better drained than
,hrubs, and native grasses. All the acreage is still in the Plummer and Leon soils and do not have a pan layer
native vegetation, stained with organic matter like that in the Leon soils.
These soils are poorly aerated and have low capacity Blanton soils have a lighter colored subsoil than the
or holding available moisture. They are moderately Lakeland soils and, within a depth of 48 inches, are more
ertile and contain a medium amount of organic matter, affected by the water table.
'he more gentle slopes are suited to a few shallow- Most of the acreage in Blanton soils is still in native
-ooted crops, vegetation-thin stands of longleaf and slash pines, turkey
Binnsville soils, 2 to 12 percent slopes (BaC).-These and post oaks, low shrubs, and grasses. Some areas have
Ire moderately well drained soils on hillsides. They are been cleared and are in corn, small grains, or pasture.
inderlain at very shallow depths by limestone or marly These soils are rapidly permeable and leach rapidly.
lay. They are low in available water-holding capacity and are
Profile in a sloping, disturbed area where the vegeta- somewhat drought. Tilth is poor, and natural fertility
ion is chiefly myrtle, sweetgum, wiregrass, and broom- and the content of organic matter are low.
edge (location: SWSE, sec. 4, R. 6 W., T. 3 N.): Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (BfB).-This
A 0 to 4 inches, black (10YR 2/1) very fine sandy loam; moderately well drained soil occurs on uplands. It is
weak, fine, crumb structure; friable; high organic coarse textured to depths of more than 42 inches.
content; few fine roots; neutral; boundary abrupt and Profile in a nearly level, undisturbed area where the
smooth vegetation is palmetto, slash pine, wiregrass, waxmyrtle,
B 4 to 10 inches, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay with mottles vartionris palmetto, slash pine, wiregrass, waxmyrtle,
of yellowish brown (10YR 5/4); moderate, medium, berry, and post oak (location: NENE sec. 3, R. 4
angular structure; firm when moist and plastic when W., T. 1. S):
wet; neutral; boundary abrupt and smooth. A, 0 to 4 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single grain
C 10 to 42 inches +, light-gray (10YR 7/2) marly clay; (structureless); loose; medium content of organic
very firm; some free lime; alkaline, matter; many fine roots and root channels; few worm
The surface layer ranges from 2 to 5 inches in thickness, holes; very strongly acid; boundary abrupt and
rom dark gray to black in color, and from fine sandy 4 to ches, grayish-brown (10Y 5/2) fine sand; single
)am to fine sandy clay loam in texture. The B horizon is grain (structureless); loose; many fine roots and
missing in places, but, where present, ranges from 2 to common fine root channels; few fine worm holes;
2 inches in thickness. In some areas limestone is on very strongly acid; boundary abrupt and smooth.
he surface in fragments, or it forms barren patches. C, 6 to 9 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single grain
(structureless); loose; many small roots; strongly
Included in this mapping unit are small severely eroded acid; boundary gradual and wavy.
reas of fine sandy clay or clay and a few small uneroded C2 9 to 35 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; few, fine,
reas of fine sandy clay loam. distinct, yellow (10YR 7/8) mottles; single grain
(structureless); loose; few fine roots and few fine
These soils are in small areas in highly dissected, rough worm holes; strongly acid; boundary gradual and
.rrain. The limestone material normally crops out on wavy.
hiort, choppy slopes or on the lower part of long, steep C3 35 to 50 inches, white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; few, medium,
opes. Cultivated crops are not grown. The more distinct, yellow (10YR 7/8) mottles; single grain
entle slopes are suited to improved pasture,but the (structureless); loose; few fine roots; strongly acid;
entle slopes are suited to improved pasture, but the boundary gradual and wavy.
est use for these soils is woodland. Hardwoods of low C4 50 to 64 inches +, white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; single
quality dominate in the present forest, and pine trees grain (structureless); loose; strongly acid.
iat make poor growth are scattered among the hard- The surface layer (A, horizon) ranges from dark gray
goods. Capability unit VIes-2. to gray in color and from 2 to 4 inches in thickness. The
anon series subsurface layer (A2 horizon) is gray, grayish brown, or
on series light brownish gray and is 2 or 3 inches thick. In most
The Blanton series consists of deep, moderately well places the upper part of the C horizon ranges from light
rained to somewhat poorly drained, strongly acid soils. gray to gray and light brownish gray. It has varied
thesee soils are on nearly level to strongly sloping stream amounts of white and yellow mottles. The dominant
traces and in moderately high positions on uplands. color of the mottled lower part of the C horizon is normally
'hey have a moderately large total acreage that is well white or light gray. In a few areas the texture of the C
distributed throughout the county, normally in small horizon is sand. Included are a few small areas that are
.eas. They developed from thick beds of unconsoli- higher and better drained than the soil described.
Ated acid sands. This soil is scattered throughout the county in fairly
The surface layers are dark-gray to grayish-brown large and small areas. The small areas are surrounded
md to coarse sand, 4 to 7 inches thick, and grade to a by soils suited to uses different than those of this soil.
:ay to white C horizon of fine sand to coarse sand. This soil is moderately well suited to corn, small grains,
o B horizon has developed. The substratum is slightly and other crops and is well suited to bahiagrass in im-
Sstrongly mottled with various shades of yellow to proved pastures. It is also well suited as woodland and
3pths of more than 42 inches. as a habitat for wildlife.

s81618-61--5







64 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

This is one of the less widely used soils in the county, The surface layers range from 2 to 6 inches in thickness
mainly because of its drought hazard and the difficulty and from gray to dark gray in color. The C horizon
of maintaining fertility. The larger areas, however, normally ranges from light brownish gray to light yellow-
could be used more intensively than they are. The smaller ish brown or very pale brown and, with increasing depth,
areas ought to be used, along with adjacent soils, for wood- grades to white. White to strong-brown mottles normally
land. Capability unit IIIse-3. occur at a depth of 20 inches but may be as shallow as
Blanton fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (BfC).-This 14 or as deep as 24 inches.
soil is steeper than Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Included with this soil are small areas that have a loamy
and has more rapid runoff as well as a lower water table, fine sand surface layer. A few small areas have fine sandy
Unprotected areas, therefore, are more susceptible to loam material within 30 to 42 inches of the surface. Most
water and wind erosion. Included with this soil are a of this soil is moderately well drained, but some areas are
few small areas that are higher and better drained than somewhat poorly drained.
is normal for this soil. This soil occurs along the major streams in the county,
This soil is low in fertility, and plant nutrients leach generally in small areas. A few areas are large, but they
rapidly. It responds only moderately well to fertilizer, are isolated from the general farming sections and are still
It is poorly suited to general farm crops; corn and small in native vegetation. The usefulness of the small areas
grains are the most suitable. Bahiagrass does moderately adjacent to poorly drained soils is commonly impaired by
well in improved pasture. This soil is suited as woodland those soils. This soil is suited to corn, small grains, and
and makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capability unit a few other crops. It is moderately well suited to bahia-
IVse-3. grass in improved pasture. It is well suited as woodland
Blanton coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (BcB).-This and makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capability unit
soil is coarser textured than Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 IIIse-3.
percent slopes, but it is similar to the fine sand in most
other characteristics. It occurs in small areas adjacent to Carnegie series
more poorly drained soils that are not suited to cultivated The Carnegie series consists of deep, well-drained,
crops. This soil is only moderately well suited to general strongly acid soils that are nearly level to strongly sloping.
crops but is fairly well suited to bahiagrass in improved They are on uplands in small areas scattered throughout
pastures that are managed well. It is well suited as all of the county except the southern part. Much of the
woodland and makes a good habitat for wildlife. Ca- acreage is in the central part of the county. These soils
ability unit IIIse-3. developed from unconsolidated, stratified, acid sandy clay
Blanton fine sand, terrace, 0 to 5 percent slopes (BtB).- loams and sandy clays.
This is a deep, sandy soil on terraces along streams. It is The surface layers are very dark gray to grayish-brown
moderately well drained, loamy fine sand to fine sandy loam as much as 18 inches
Profile in a nearly level area where the vegetation is thick. The subsoil is yellowish-red to red, heavy fine
mainly water oak, slash pine, waxmyrtle, and red oak sandy clay loam to fine sandy clay that is moderately
(location: NW3SEX sec. 13, R. 2 W., T. 2 N.): friable and porous. It is underlain by parent materials of
A, 0 to 2 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grain distinctly mottled fine sandy clay loam to sandy clay.
(structureless); loose; low organic content; common These soils contain many iron pebbles throughout the
fine roots and very few medium roots; strongly acid; profile.
boundary abrupt and smooth. Carnegie soils are associated with the Ruston, Faceville,
(structureless); loose; common fine roots angle rain and Tifton soils. Their subsoil is about the same color
medium roots; strongly acid; boundary clear and as that of the Ruston and Faceville soils but is redder
wavy. than that of the Tifton. It is finer textured and less
As 5 to 14 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; friable than the subsoil in the Ruston soils. Carnegie
single grain (structureless); loose; few fine and medium soils contain more iron pebbles than the Ruston or Face-
roots; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.more iron pebbles than the Ruston or Face-
C1 14 to 20 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand ville soils.
with common, medium, faint, light-gray (10YR 7/2) The original vegetation consisted chiefly of longleaf pine,.
mottles; single grain (structureless); loose; few fine shrubs, and wiregrass; but the native vegetation is now
roots; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.
C 20 to inches, vey pale brown (10YR 8 fine sand mainly longleaf and loblolly pines, hickory, various oaks,
with common, medium, faint, white (10YR 8/2) briars, low shrubs, and wiregrass. Much of this soil has.
mottles; single grain (structureless); loose; few fine been cleared and is planted to shade tobacco, corn, cotton,
roots and root channels; strongly acid; boundary peanuts, pasture plants, and other crops.
S40gradual ve le brown (YR 8/4) fine sand wavy.ith Carnegie soils have good surface runoff and internal
Cs 40 to 46 inches, very pale brown (10YR 8/4) fine sand with
common, coarse, distinct, white (10YR 8/1) mottles drainage. Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface
and few, fine, distinct, reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/8) soil and moderately slow in the subsoil. These soils are
mottles; single grain (structureless); loose; few fine well aerated and have a high capacity for holding available
roots; strongly acid; boundary gradual and wavy.
C4 46 to 50 inches, white (N 8/0) fine sand with common, moisture. They have moderately high natural fertility,
medium, distinct, very pale brown (10YR 8/4) mottles are able to retain plant nutrients, and respond well to
and few, fine, distinct, yellow (10YR 7/8) mottles; fertilizers. Tilth is good. Gently sloping areas of these
single grain (structureless); loose; strongly acid;
boundary gradual and wavy. soils are well suited to a wide variety of cultivated crops.
D 50 to 58 inches +, mottled strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8), Carnegie loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (CnB).-
white (N 8/0) very pale brown (10YR 8/3), and This well-drained, deep soil has a moderately fine textured
yellow (10Y 7/8) loamy fine sand; weak, fine, crumb soil.
structure; very friable; strongly acid. subsoil.







GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 65

Profile in a gently sloping, undisturbed area where the to all locally grown crops, pasture grasses, and clovers.
vegetation is chiefly longleaf pine, wiregrass, and briars It is especially well suited to shade tobacco. It is well
(location: NWSE% sec. 26, R. 5 W., T. 3 N.): suited as woodland and makes a good habitat for wildlife.
Ai 0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy fine sand; Capability unit IIe-2.
weak, very fine, crumb structure; loose; high content Carnegie loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes(CnA).-
of organic matter; many fine roots; common fine root This soil has milder slopes than Carnegie loamy fine sand,
channels and worm holes; many fine and medium 2 to 5 percent slopes, and, therefore, has slower runoff and
onot pebbles; strongly acid; boundary abrupt and less susceptibility to erosion. It is in small areas but is
A2 5 to 9 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) loamy fine adjacent to other well-drained soils and can be managed
sand; weak, very fine, crumb structure; loose; many with them in a good field layout. This soil is well suited
fine roots and root channels; common fine pores; to all general crops, especially shade tobacco. It is also
any small and medium iron pebbles; strongly acid; well suited to improved pasture. The supply of moisture
boundary clear and wavy.
As 9 to 11 inches, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) fine sandy loam; is sufficient for growing good yields of clovers, including
moderate, fine, crumb structure; very friable; many whiteclover. This soil is well suited as woodland and
fine and a few medium roots; common fine root makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capability unit I-2.
channels and common fine pores; common fine and Carnegie loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded
medium iron pebbles; strongly acid; boundary grad- C egeloamy fine sand 2 to5 p p eroded
ual and wavy. (CnB2).-Because it is eroded, this soil has thinner surface
B, 11 to 16 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 5/8), light fine sandy layers than Carnegie loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
clay loam; moderate, medium, crumb structure; very Most of the erosion is sheet erosion, and not many gullies
friable; common fine roots; common fine pores; have formed. In the sheet-eroded areas, the fine-textured
boundary gradual and wavy. subsoil is at depths ranging from 3 to 10 inches. A few
Bi, 16 to 18 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 4/8) fine sandy clay areas have many shallow gullies and a few deep ones. In
loam; moderate, fine, subangular blocky structure these areas the surface layers between the gullies are 10
that break friasly into modefie, mediumro and cr to 18 inches deep. Mottling normally is at depths of 30
common small to medium iron pebbles; strongly acid; to 42 inches but may be at depths of 28 to 30 inches. In
boundary gradual and wavy. most places the mottled parent material is at depths of
B2 18 to 35 inches, red (2.5YR 5/8) fine sandy clay loam; 42 to 54 inches, but in a few places it is at depths of 36
moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure; to 42 inches.
friable; common fine roots; common small to mediumines.
iron pebbles; common fine pores; strongly acid; This is a productive soil that occurs with other good
boundary gradual and irregular. soils and can be managed with them in a good field layout.
Ba3 35 to 45 inches, red (2.5YR 5/8) fine sandy clay loam with It is well suited to the cultivated crops grown in the area
few, medium, prominent, yellow ( R /6) mottles; and is one of the best soils in the county for shade tobacco.
moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure;
friable; few fine roots; common fine pores; common Erosion, however, is a hazard. This soil is well suited to
fine iron pebbles; strongly acid; boundary gradual whiteclover and other pasture plants grown in the area.
and irregular. It is also well suited as woodland and makes a good habitat
B3. 45 to 56 inches, mottled red (2.5YR 5/8) and yellow for wildlife. Capability unit IIe-2.
(10YR 8/8) fine sandy clay loam; moderate, medium, or ildfe Capability unit le-2.
subangular blocky structure; friable; very few fine Carnegie loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (CnC).-
roots; common fine pores; few fine and medium iron Except for difference in slope, this soil is similar to Car-
pebbles; strongly acid; boundary gradual and irreg- negie loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, in most
ular.
C 56 to 65 inches, mottled red (2.5YR 4/8), yellow characteristics. In most places, however, the thickness
(10YR 7/8), very pale brown (10YR 8/3), and strong- of the surface layers is only 10 to 16 inches and the depths
brown (7.5YR 5/8) fine sandy clay loam; moderate, to mottling are only 30 to 38 inches. The mottled parent
medium, subangular and angular blocky structure; material is generally at depths of 46 to 54 inches.
friable; no pebbles; strongly acid. This soil is suited to most cultivated crops grown in the
The surface layers range from 10 to 18 inches in thick- county, but, because of the hazard of erosion, it ought not
ness and from very dark gray to grayish brown in color. be cultivated so frequently as Carnegie loamy fine sand,
In a few small areas where erosion has exposed the sub- 2 to 5 percent slopes. It is well suited to improved
surface material the top layer is brown. The color of the pastures and woods and makes a good habitat for wildlife.
upper part of the subsoil ranges from yellowish red to red Capability unit IIIe-2.
in most areas, but in some places it is strong brown. The Carnegie loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded
texture of the subsoil is mainly fine sandy clay loam, but (CnC2).-This soil has steeper slopes, more erosion, and
in a few areas it is light fine sandy clay. The lower sub- generally thinner surface layers than Carnegie loamy
soil normally is mottled at depths ranging from 35 to 56 fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Most areas are sheet
inches, but in places mottles of strong brown and red are eroded but are not appreciably gullied. In these areas the
at 28 to 35 inches. In most places the mottled parent fine-textured subsoil is at depths of 3 to 10 inches and
material is at depths of 50 to 64 inches, but in a few places mottling occurs at 28 to 35 inches. The mottled parent
it is at depths of 40 to 50 inches, material is at depths of 38 to 48 inches. A few areas have
Included with this soil are a few small areas that have many shallow gullies and a few deep ones. Between the
a fine sandy loam surface layer, gullies the depth to the fine-textured subsoil is generally
This soil generally occurs in small areas, but it is 10 to 18 inches.
closely associated with other soils and can be managed with This soil is in small areas adjacent to areas of soils
them in a good field layout. Because tilth and response similar to it. It can be managed together with these soils.
to fertilizer are good, slopes are gentle, and the available Because of the rapid runoff, low rate of infiltration, and
moisture-holding capacity is high, this soil is well suited the hazard of erosion, this soil is only moderately well







66 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

suited to cultivated crops. It is well suited to woods frequently, this soil is not well suited to cultivated crops.
and pasture and makes a good habitat for wildlife. Congaree silt loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Co).-This
Capability unit IIIe-2. deep, moderately fine textured soil is on nearly level areas
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes of the first bottom along the Apalachicola River.
(CnD).-This soil has stronger slopes than Carnegie Profile in a nearly level undisturbed area where the
loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and is much more vegetation is mainly ironwood, white oak, palmetto,
susceptible to erosion. The surface layers range from sweetgum, and blackgum (location: SESEX sec. 6, R.
10 to 18 inches in thickness but, in most places, are only 6 W., T. 3 N.):
10 to 15 inches thick. Mottling generally occurs at 0 to 2 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) silt loam
depths of 27 to 38 inches. The depths to the parent containing common fine mica flakes; strong, medium, crumb
material normally range from 38 to 44 inches. Included structure; friable; high content of organic matter; strongly
with this soil are a few small areas that are moderately acid: boundary gradual and smooth.
eroded 2 to 12 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3) silt loam con-
Serodd training mica flakes; strong, medium, crumb structure;
This soil is poorly suited to cultivation. It is well friable: strongly acid; boundary gradual and smooth.
suited to use for improved pasture and as woodland, and 12 to 16 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3) silty clay loam
it makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capability unit containing many fine mica flakes; strong, coarse, crumb
Ve-2 structure; firm; strongly acid; boundary gradual and smooth.
IVe-2. 16 to 23 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 4/2) silty clay loam con-
Carnegie fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, severely training many fine mica flakes; firm; strong, coarse, crumb
eroded (CaC3).-This soil is steeper than Carnegie loamy structure; strongly acid; boundary gradual and wavy.
fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and more severely eroded. 23 to 36 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) silty clay
rlall of the surface layer has been lost in most areas, loam containing fine mica flakes: strong, coarse, crumb
Nearly all of the surface layer has been lost in most areas, structure; firm; strongly acid; boundary gradual and wavy.
and the subsoil is exposed or mixed with the remaining 1 36 to 42 inches +, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) silty clay
to 3 inches. Therefore, the surface layer is finer textured loam containing some mica; strong, coarse, crumb structure:
than that of Carnegie loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent firm; strongly acid.
slopes and, in many places, is reddish yellow. In some The surface layer ranges from very dark gray to very
areas there are many shallow gullies and a few deep ones. dark grayish brown in color and from 2 to 6 inches in
In these areas the surface layer is slightly more than 3 thickness. Mottles of strong brown or yellowish red
inches thick. Mottling generally is at depths of 24 to normally are at depths below 42 inches. In a few spots
32 inches, and mottled parent material is at depths of 32 yellowish-red mottles are at depths of 24 to 42 inches.
to 46 inches. Included with this soil are small areas where The subsoil is mainly silty clay loam. In some places it
the surface layer is sandy clay loam. is very fine sandy clay loam at depths below about 30
This soil is poorly suited to frequent cultivation. It is inches.
suited to improved pasture but must be managed inten- Included with this soil are some patches that have a
sively if yields are to be high. It is well suited as wood- fine sandy loam surface soil.
land and makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capability This soil has moderately high natural fertility and
unit IVe-2. moderately high cation-exchange capacity. It is loamy
enough to have good tilth.
Congaree series All this soil is in hardwood forest. It would be suited
The Congaree series consists of deep, well-drained, to corn and other grain if it were not susceptible to over-
strongly acid soils. These soils have a small total acreage, flow. But the acreage is too small and the cost of pro-
all of which is on the flood plain of the Apalachicola River testing it from flooding is too great to make reclamation
south of Chattahoochee. They are nearly level and are feasible under present conditions. Capability unit Vws-1.
likely to be flooded frequently. They formed from mod- C
erately fine textured, micaceous sediments that washed Cuthbert series
from upland soils on the Piedmont Plateau and the The Cuthbert series consists of well-drained, strongly
Middle Coastal Plain. acid soils that are on uplands on gentle slopes and steeper
Congaree soils have very dark grayish-brown to dark hillsides. These soils have a small total acreage that is
reddish-brown silt loam surface layers. The subsoil is mainly in the western part of the county. Small areas
dark-gray, very dark grayish-brown, or dark reddish- are scattered through all of the county except the extreme
brown silty clay loam. southern part. Cuthbert soils developed from thick beds
Congaree soils are associated with Alluvial land and of unconsolidated acid sandy clay and clay that contain
with the Blanton and Kalmia soils. They have a much thin lenses of coarse-textured materials.
narrower range in drainage than Alluvial land and much The surface layer is dark-gray to dark grayish-brown
less variety in texture and color. They are more reddish loamy fine sand. At depths of 5 to 12 inches, the sub-
brown and finer textured than Kalmia soils. The Con- surface layer grades abruptly to a yellowish-red, firm,
garee soils are finer textured throughout the profile than sandy clay or clay subsoil. The lower subsoil is red,
the Blanton soils and are free of mottles to a greater depth, mottled with various hues of red and brown. The parent
The native vegetation consists mainly of white oak, material is very slowly permeable, highly mottled, com-
sweetgum, ironwood, and palmetto. All the acreage in pact sandy clay.
the county is still in native vegetation. Cuthbert soils are associated with Faceville, Shubuta,
Only one Congaree soil is mapped in Gadsden County. and Sawyer soils. They have thinner surface layers than
This soil has moderate surface runoff and internal drain- the Faceville soils and a thinner, finer textured, less friable
age. The permeability of the subsoil is moderate to subsoil. The depth to mottling is much less than in the
moderately slow. Tilth is good and natural fertility is Faceville soils. Cuthbert soils have a thinner and more
moderately high, but because it is likely to be flooded compact subsoil than the Shubuta soils, and their subsoil







66 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

suited to cultivated crops. It is well suited to woods frequently, this soil is not well suited to cultivated crops.
and pasture and makes a good habitat for wildlife. Congaree silt loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Co).-This
Capability unit IIIe-2. deep, moderately fine textured soil is on nearly level areas
Carnegie loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes of the first bottom along the Apalachicola River.
(CnD).-This soil has stronger slopes than Carnegie Profile in a nearly level undisturbed area where the
loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and is much more vegetation is mainly ironwood, white oak, palmetto,
susceptible to erosion. The surface layers range from sweetgum, and blackgum (location: SESEX sec. 6, R.
10 to 18 inches in thickness but, in most places, are only 6 W., T. 3 N.):
10 to 15 inches thick. Mottling generally occurs at 0 to 2 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) silt loam
depths of 27 to 38 inches. The depths to the parent containing common fine mica flakes; strong, medium, crumb
material normally range from 38 to 44 inches. Included structure; friable; high content of organic matter; strongly
with this soil are a few small areas that are moderately acid: boundary gradual and smooth.
eroded 2 to 12 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3) silt loam con-
Serodd training mica flakes; strong, medium, crumb structure;
This soil is poorly suited to cultivation. It is well friable: strongly acid; boundary gradual and smooth.
suited to use for improved pasture and as woodland, and 12 to 16 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3) silty clay loam
it makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capability unit containing many fine mica flakes; strong, coarse, crumb
Ve-2 structure; firm; strongly acid; boundary gradual and smooth.
IVe-2. 16 to 23 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 4/2) silty clay loam con-
Carnegie fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, severely training many fine mica flakes; firm; strong, coarse, crumb
eroded (CaC3).-This soil is steeper than Carnegie loamy structure; strongly acid; boundary gradual and wavy.
fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and more severely eroded. 23 to 36 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) silty clay
rlall of the surface layer has been lost in most areas, loam containing fine mica flakes: strong, coarse, crumb
Nearly all of the surface layer has been lost in most areas, structure; firm; strongly acid; boundary gradual and wavy.
and the subsoil is exposed or mixed with the remaining 1 36 to 42 inches +, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) silty clay
to 3 inches. Therefore, the surface layer is finer textured loam containing some mica; strong, coarse, crumb structure:
than that of Carnegie loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent firm; strongly acid.
slopes and, in many places, is reddish yellow. In some The surface layer ranges from very dark gray to very
areas there are many shallow gullies and a few deep ones. dark grayish brown in color and from 2 to 6 inches in
In these areas the surface layer is slightly more than 3 thickness. Mottles of strong brown or yellowish red
inches thick. Mottling generally is at depths of 24 to normally are at depths below 42 inches. In a few spots
32 inches, and mottled parent material is at depths of 32 yellowish-red mottles are at depths of 24 to 42 inches.
to 46 inches. Included with this soil are small areas where The subsoil is mainly silty clay loam. In some places it
the surface layer is sandy clay loam. is very fine sandy clay loam at depths below about 30
This soil is poorly suited to frequent cultivation. It is inches.
suited to improved pasture but must be managed inten- Included with this soil are some patches that have a
sively if yields are to be high. It is well suited as wood- fine sandy loam surface soil.
land and makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capability This soil has moderately high natural fertility and
unit IVe-2. moderately high cation-exchange capacity. It is loamy
enough to have good tilth.
Congaree series All this soil is in hardwood forest. It would be suited
The Congaree series consists of deep, well-drained, to corn and other grain if it were not susceptible to over-
strongly acid soils. These soils have a small total acreage, flow. But the acreage is too small and the cost of pro-
all of which is on the flood plain of the Apalachicola River testing it from flooding is too great to make reclamation
south of Chattahoochee. They are nearly level and are feasible under present conditions. Capability unit Vws-1.
likely to be flooded frequently. They formed from mod- C
erately fine textured, micaceous sediments that washed Cuthbert series
from upland soils on the Piedmont Plateau and the The Cuthbert series consists of well-drained, strongly
Middle Coastal Plain. acid soils that are on uplands on gentle slopes and steeper
Congaree soils have very dark grayish-brown to dark hillsides. These soils have a small total acreage that is
reddish-brown silt loam surface layers. The subsoil is mainly in the western part of the county. Small areas
dark-gray, very dark grayish-brown, or dark reddish- are scattered through all of the county except the extreme
brown silty clay loam. southern part. Cuthbert soils developed from thick beds
Congaree soils are associated with Alluvial land and of unconsolidated acid sandy clay and clay that contain
with the Blanton and Kalmia soils. They have a much thin lenses of coarse-textured materials.
narrower range in drainage than Alluvial land and much The surface layer is dark-gray to dark grayish-brown
less variety in texture and color. They are more reddish loamy fine sand. At depths of 5 to 12 inches, the sub-
brown and finer textured than Kalmia soils. The Con- surface layer grades abruptly to a yellowish-red, firm,
garee soils are finer textured throughout the profile than sandy clay or clay subsoil. The lower subsoil is red,
the Blanton soils and are free of mottles to a greater depth, mottled with various hues of red and brown. The parent
The native vegetation consists mainly of white oak, material is very slowly permeable, highly mottled, com-
sweetgum, ironwood, and palmetto. All the acreage in pact sandy clay.
the county is still in native vegetation. Cuthbert soils are associated with Faceville, Shubuta,
Only one Congaree soil is mapped in Gadsden County. and Sawyer soils. They have thinner surface layers than
This soil has moderate surface runoff and internal drain- the Faceville soils and a thinner, finer textured, less friable
age. The permeability of the subsoil is moderate to subsoil. The depth to mottling is much less than in the
moderately slow. Tilth is good and natural fertility is Faceville soils. Cuthbert soils have a thinner and more
moderately high, but because it is likely to be flooded compact subsoil than the Shubuta soils, and their subsoil








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 67
is yellowish red to red instead of yellow as in the Sawyer areas are severely eroded. In the moderately eroded areas,
soils, the surface soil ranges from 2 to 6 inches in thickness.
The native vegetation consists mainly of loblolly, long- In the severely eroded areas, most of the surface soil and
leaf, slash, and shortleaf pines, sweetgum, myrtle, oaks, some of the subsoil have been removed.
hickory, dogwood, and wiregrass. Most of the acreage Most areas of this soil are small and are associated with
is still in native vegetation, other soils of poor quality in rough, highly dissected
Cuthbert soils have medium to rapid surface runoff terrain. The soil can be managed so that it produces
and slow to medium internal drainage. Permeability is moderate yields of corn, small grains, peanuts, and similar
moderate to moderately slow in the surface layers and crops, but it is too steep and too erodible for frequent
slow to very slow in the subsoil. The subsoil is dense, cultivation. It is one of the poorer soils of the county
poorly aerated, and not favorable for root development, and, in most places, is not well suited to farming. It is
A low capacity for holding available moisture causes the suited to improved pasture of bermudagrass and bahia-
soils to be drought. These soils are very erodible. On grass, but the shallow root zone causes droughtiness. This
slopes gentle enough for cultivation, they are best suited soil is well suited as woodland and makes a good habitat
to shallow-rooted, close-growing crops. for wildlife. Capability unit IVes-2.
Cuthbert loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (CrC).- Cuthbert loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (CrB).-
This well-drained, upland soil has a firm, poorly aerated, This soil has milder slopes than Cuthbert loamy fine sand,
fine-textured subsoil. 5 to 8 percent slopes, and, therefore, is less susceptible to
Profile in a sloping undisturbed area where the vegeta- erosion. Included with this soil are scattered areas that
tion is waxmyrtle, sweetgum, bay, and slash and loblolly have moderate sheet erosion, many shallow gullies, or a few
pines (location: NESW% sec. 24, R. 3 W., T. 3 N.): deep ones. The surface layer is only 2 to 6 inches thick
A, 0 to 3 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) loamy fine sand; where the sheet erosion is moderate.
weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; many very This soil is moderately well suited to corn, small grains,
small grains of quartz; few fine and medium roots; peanuts, cotton, and other crops. It is not well suited to
medium content of organic matter; strongly acid; shade tobacco. Because of its position on narrow hilltops
boundary gradual and smooth.
A3 3 to 6 inches, grayish-brown (10Y 5/2) sandy loam; in rough, highly dissected areas, this soil cannot be laid
moderate, medium, crumb structure; very friable; out in a good field arrangement. The soil is suited to
common, small, white quartz pebbles; few fine and improved pasture of bermudagrass and bahiagrass. It is
medium roots; few fine root channels; strongly acid; well suited as woodland and as a wildlife habitat.
boundary abrupt and smooth.
B2 6 to 10 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) fine sandy clay: Capability unit IIIes-2.
moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure; firm Cuthbert, Boswell, and Susquehanna soils, 5 to 12
when moist, plastic when wet, and hard when dry; percent slopes (CsD).-These are deep, well drained and
few fine quartz pebbles; very few fine roots; common moderately well drained, strongly acid soils that have a
fine pores; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy. plastic
B3 10 to 20 inches, yellowish-red (YR 5/6)fine sandy clay plastic clay subsoil. They are on uplands in gently
with common, medium, distinct, red (10R 4/6) mottles sloping to strongly sloping areas and occupy a small total
and few, medium, distinct, pink (7.5YR 8/4) mottles; acreage. These soils occur together in such intricate
strong, moderate, angular and subangular blocky patterns that it is not feasible to map them separately.
structure; firm when moist and very hard when dry;
ery few fine white pebbles of quverartz; very few fin d About 40 to 50 percent of the total acreage is in Cuthbert
roots and root channels; strongly acid; boundary soils, about 30 to 40 percent is in Boswell soils, and the
gradual and wavy. remaining 15 to 25 percent is in Susquehanna soils.
C 20 to 54 inches +, mottled red (10R 4/6), strong-brown Small scattered areas of the Shubuta soils and Esto soils
(7.5YR 518), and light-gray (N 7/0) sandy clay with
smlYR eses and ofightn say clay loam; moderate are also in this mapping unit. The Esto soils are not
medium, angular and subangular blocky structure; mapped separately in Gadsden County.
firm; slightly sticky when wet and hard when dry; The Cuthbert soils generally are on the upper part of
strongly acid. the slope, and the Boswell and Susquehanna soils are on
The surface layer ranges from 3 to 5 inches in thickness the lower part. In some areas Susquehanna soils are
and from dark gray to very dark gray in color. The missing, and in other areas they are dominant. In areas
subsurface layer ranges from 3 to 6 inches in thickness dominated by Shubuta soils, the Cuthbert soils are gen-
and from light brownish gray to dark grayish brown in rally missing.
color. The color of the subsoil is yellowish red to red. These soils are mainly on sloping and strongly sloping
The upper part of the subsoil is normally yellowish red, and hillsides where the slopes range from 5 to 12 percent.
the lower part is predominantly red. The texture of the Small areas with slopes of 2 to 5 percent are also in the
subsoil ranges from fine sandy clay to clay but is fine mapping unit. These soils are very susceptible to erosion.
sandy clay in most areas. The depth to mottling, in Where they are not cleared, the soils generally are only
most places, is 10 to 16 inches. Underlying the subsoil is slightly eroded. Where they are cleared, they are mod-
highly mottled red, yellowish-brown, strong-brown, and erately eroded.
gray, firm, sandy clay material. This material occurs at The texture of the surface soil of these soils ranges from
depths of 16 to 22 inches and, in many areas, has mixed loamy fine sand to fine sandy loam. The soils differ
with it thin layers of fine sandy loam and fine sandy mainly in color and texture of the subsoil. The Cuthbert
clay loam material, soil has a yellowish-red fine sandy clay subsoil, the Bos-
Included in this mapping unit are small areas that have well soil has a yellowish-red to red clay subsoil, and the
a fine sandy loam surface soil and a few scattered areas Susquehanna soils have a grayish-brown fine sandy clay
with slopes of 8 to 12 percent. Also included are a few loam subsoil.
scattered sheet-eroded areas. Most of these areas have For description of a profile for a Cuthbert soil and a
a few deep gullies and many shallow ones. A few small Susquehanna soil, turn to the part of this section that








68 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

discusses those soil series. The Esto soils are similar to These soils have dark-gray to grayish-brown coarse sand
the Cuthbert soils but are not so red in the subsoil and to loamy sand surface layers, 2 to 12 inches thick. No B
are only moderately well drained, horizon has developed, and the transition from the A
Following is a description of a profile for a gently horizon to the C horizon is clear and wavy. The C
sloping Boswell soil that is in an undisturbed area where horizon is coarse sand, fine sand, or loamy sand, which is
the vegetation is chiefly loblolly and longleaf pines, generally at depths of 42 to more than 60 inches. In some
sweetgum, and native grasses (location: SENSE sec. areas where the Eustis soils are shallower than normal, a
10, R. 6 W., T. 3 N.): D horizon of finer textured material occurs at depths of
A, 0 to 4 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy fine sand; 30 to 42 inches. This material generally is strong-brown
single grain (structureless); loose; few fine and to red sandy loam to fine sandy loam. The color of the
medium roots; strongly acid; boundary clear and C horizon ranges from reddish yellow to yellowish red.
smooth. Eustis soils are associated with the Lakeland, Ruston,
A2 4 to 7 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) loamy fine Eustis soils are associated with the Lakeland uston,
sand; single grain (structureless); loose; few fine Orangeburg, and Norfolk soils. They are similar to the
and medium roots; strongly acid; boundary abrupt Lakeland soils in texture and consistence and to the Ruston
and smooth, soils in color. Their C horizon is reddish yellow to
B2 7 to 11 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) clay; moderate, yellowish red, whereas that of the Lakeland soil is yellow
medium, subangular blocky and weak, medium,
angular structure; firm when moist, plastic when wet, to yellowish brown. Their C horizon is browner than the
and hard when dry; strongly acid; boundary gradual subsoil of the Norfolk soils and the Orangeburg soils.
and wavy. The coarser textured material extends to greater depths
Ba 11 to 32 inches +, mottled red (2.5YR 4/6), yellowish-red in Eustis soils than in Ruston, Norfol, and Orangeburg
(5YR 5/6), and grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) clay;, and rangeurg
moderate, medium, angular structure; firm when soils.
moist and plastic when wet; strongly acid. The native vegetation consists chiefly of longleaf pine,
The native vegetation consists mainly of longleaf, turkey and blackjack oaks, a few water oaks, and sparse
loblolly, slash, and shortleaf pines, hickory, various oaks, native grasses. Most of the acreage remains in native
low shrubs, and native grasses. Most of the acreage of vegetation, especially in those areas where the subsoil is
this unit is in native vegetation, but a few areas are mainly coarse sand. A fairly large acreage of the loamy
cleared and pastured. sand is cleared and cultivated.
These soils have medium to rapid surface runoff and The surface runoff from Eustis soils is slow to medium.
slow internal drainage. The dense, poorly aerated sub- The internal drainage ranges from very rapid in the more
soil is not favorable for root development. The avail- drought sands to rapid in the loamy sands. These soils
able moisture-holding capacity is low. are not loamy enough to have good tilth, and natural
Because of their position on long or short irregular fertility is low. Because of the deep, coarse-textured
slopes in highly dissected terrain, and because of other material, their capacity to retain plant nutrients is low.
unfavorable characteristics, these soils are not suited to The Eustis soils with a loamy sand subsoil, however,
cultivated crops. They are moderately well suited to respond fairly well to heavy fertilization. Gently sloping
improved pasture. Their best use is for woodland, and areas that have their finer textured materials occurring
they make good habitats for wildlife. Capability unit at depths of 30 to 48 inches are moderately well suited to
VIes-2. most general farm crops.
Cuthbert, Boswell, and Susquehanna soils, 12 to 60 Eustis coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (EcB).-The
percent slopes (CsF).-These soils are steeper than coarse sand in this well-drained, very deep, upland soil is
Cuthbert, Boswell, and Susquehanna soils, 5 to 12 percent strong brown or yellowish red and extends to depths of
slopes, and are, therefore, more susceptible to erosion. A more than 60 inches.
few areas have slopes as steep as 80 percent. Some areas Profile in a nearly level cultivated field (location:
have moderate sheet erosion and a few shallow gullies. SESWY see. 31, R. 2 W., T. 3 N.):
These soils are on steep irregular slopes in rough terrain. A, 0 to 5 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) coarse sand; single grain
They are not suited to crops or pastures. They have a (structureless); loose; low content of organic matter;
shallow, thin subsoil and low available moisture-holding common fine roots; strongly acid; boundary clear and
capacity. They are very susceptible to erosion and are A 5 to 11 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) coarse sand; single grain
best suited as woodland and as wildlife habitats. Ca- (structureless); loose; common fine roots; strongly
ability unit VIIes-2. acid; boundary clear and wavy.
A3 11 to 15 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) coarse
Eustis series sand; single grain (structureless); loose; common fine
roots; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.
The Eustis series consists of deep, well-drained to CO 15 to 29 inches, reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/6) coarse sand;
excessively drained, strongly acid soils that are on nearly single grain (structureless); loose; few fine roots and
level to strong slopes on uplands. These soils are fairly root channels; strongly acid; boundary gradual and
extensive and occur mostly in the southern part of the wavy.
county on drought coarse sand and sand. LToamy sands C2 29 to 46 inches, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) coarse sand;
county on drought coarse sand and sand. Loamy single grain (structureless); loose; very few fine roots;
are in the central and northern parts of the county, and a very few light-gray mottles in lower part; strongly
few scattered areas of sand are in the northeastern part. acid; boundary gradual and irregular.
Eustis soils developed from moderately thick beds of Ca 46 to 63 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) coarse sand with
unconsolidated acid sand and loamy sand that are under- common, medium, distinct mottles of light gray
lain by finer textured trials at depths of more tn 30 (10YR 7/1); single grain (structureless); loose; very
lain by finer textured materials at depths of more than 30 few fine roots; strongly acid; boundary clear and
inches. wavy.








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 69

C4 63 to 71 inches, light-red (2.5YR 6/8) coarse sand; weak, Profile in a gently sloping, cultivated field (location:
fine, crumb structure; loose; very few fine roots; SE)(NE/) sec. 16, R. 2 W., T. 2 N.):
strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.
D, 71 to 77 inches +, red (2.5YR 5/8) sandy loam; weak, A, 0 to 6 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) loamy sand; single grain
medium, crumb structure; friable; strongly acid. (structureless); loose; many fine and few medium
roots; low content of organic matter; strongly acid;
The surface layer of this soil ranges from 3 to 7 inches in boundary abrupt and smooth.
thickness and from dark gray to gray in color. It is under- A, 6 to 13 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) loamy
lain by a subsurface layer, 3 to 7 inches thick, that is gray to sand; single grain (structureless); loose; many fine
light brown. The C horizon is reddish yellow to yellowish and few medium roots; strongly acid; boundary clear
and wavy.
red. Mottles normally occur below depths of 48 inches, C, 13 to 24 inches, reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/6) loamy sand;
but in some areas the mottles are at 42 to 48 inches. The weak, medium, crumb structure; very friable; comn-
depth to the finer textured material is generally slightly mon fine and few medium roots; few fine pores;
more than 72 inches, but in some areas this material is at strongly acid; boundary clear and wa my
C2 24:to 39 inches, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) loamy sand;
depths of 60 to 72 inches. The finer textured material is weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; few fine
normally yellowish red to red. In most places the water roots; few fine pores; strongly acid; boundary clear
table is at depths of about 84 to 94 inches. and wavy.
Included with this soil are a few small areas of fine sand D, 39 to 42 inches, reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) sandy loam;
mr i moderate, medium, crumb structure; very friable;
or medium sand. In a few places water and wind have few fine roots; common fine pores; strongly acid;
removed some of the surface soil, but in most places no boundary gradual and wavy.
appreciable amount of erosion has occurred. D2 [42 to 55 inches +, yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) fine sandy
This soil is drought and very rapidly permeable in the clay loam; moderate, medium, subangular blocky
structure; friable; common fine pores and few medium
surface layer, subsurface layer, and subsoil. Its available pores; strongly acid.
moisture-holding capacity is very low. The free move- The surface layer ranges from dark gray to gray in
ment of water through the coarse-textured upper layers coloe surface layer ranes from dar to thickness. It is underlain
causes rapid leaching of plant nutrients. This soil is very co a l t row nish-gray to light yellowish-brown s
low in organic-matter content, natural fertility, and cation- by a light brownish-gray to light yellowish-brown sub-
exchange capacity. surface layer, 4 to 7 inches thic. The C horizon is reddish
Most of this soil is wooded. In most places the soil yellow to yellowish red. The D horizon is at depths of
is in small areas, not large enough for independent use,30 to 40 ches. It ranges from sandy loam to fine sandy
that are adjacent to soils not well suited to many culti- loam in texture and from strong brown to yellowish red
vated crops. But this soil and the adjacent soils can in color. In some areas the Dhorizon is red below 36
produce fair yields of watermelons, corn, small grains, and inches Many small ad medium iron pebbles occur
drought-resistant pasture grasses. Though natural repro- throughout the profile in some places.
duction of pines is poor on this soil, the best use for most Included with this soil are a few small areas of loamy
areas is woodland. Capability unit IVse-2. fine sand and some moderately eroded areas that have
Eustis coarse sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (EcD).-This many shallow gullies and a few deep ones.
soil is steeper than Eustis coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent This soil has a deep root zone, but the movement of
slopes, and more susceptible to erosion. A few scattered water through the profile is rapid and causes rapid leaching
areas are included that have many shallow gullies and of nutrients. The available moisture-holding capacity is
a few deep ones. low. The permeability of the surface layer is rapid, and
This soil is too steep, too drought, and too low in that of the underlying material is moderately rapid. This
fertility for cultivation. Fair to good yields of bahiagrass soil has a moderate content of organic matter and low
and other drought-resistant grasses can be obtained under natural fertility.
careful management. The soil is moderately well suited This soil is associated with productive agricultural
as woodland, though natural reproduction and growth of soils; it can be managed with them in a good field layout.
pines are slow. Capability unit VIse-1. The soil is only moderately well suited to most locally
Eustis coarse sand, excessively drained, 0 to 5 percent grown general crops. It is best suited to corn, small
slopes (EdB).-This soil is more drought than Eustis grains, and peanuts. Because of its deep sandy profile
coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent. Its water table and finer and droughtiness, it is not well suited to shade tobacco.
textured material are more than 10 feet from the surface. It is well suited to improved pastures of bermudagrass
The mottled substratum is generally below a depth of 16 and other deep-rooted grasses. It is also well suited as
feet. The movement of water through the profile causes woodland and makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capa-
very rapid leaching. The organic-matter content, natural ability unit IIIse-1.
fertility, and available water-holding capacity are very Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 0 to 2 percent slopes
low. (EsA).-This soil is more nearly level than Eustis loamy
All this soil is wooded. It is suitable to only a few sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes, but is similar to that
3rops, such as watermelons and corn, and needs a high soil in most other characteristics. Water erosion is not
level of management to produce good yields of these crops. likely, but unprotected fields may have some wind erosion.
If it is fertilized and otherwise well managed, it may This soil is in small areas that generally fit in well with
produce fair to good yields of bahiagrass and other large, uniform fields suitable for cultivation. It is mod-
irought-resistant grasses. Capability unit IVse-2. erately well suited to most locally grown general crops,
Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes particularly corn, small grains, and peanuts. It is too
(EsB).-This is a deep, well-drained, upland soil that has drought to be well suited to shade tobacco, but it is
sandy loam or light fine sandy clay loam material at depths well suited to improved pastures of bermudagrass, bahia-
Af 30 to 42 inches. grass, and other deep-rooted pasture grasses. This soil








70 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959,-NO. 5

is well suited as woodland and makes a good habitat for soils. They lack iron pebbles like those in the Carnegie
wildlife. Capability unit IIIse-1. soils and Tifton soils. The subsoil of the Faceville soils
Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes is not so red as that in the Magnolia soils and is finer tex-
(EsC).-This soil is more strongly sloping than Eustis tured and less friable than the subsoil in the Norfolk soils.
loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and, therefore, The subsoil is redder than that in the Norfolk or Tifton
has more rapid runoff and is more susceptible to erosion. soils.
It is moderately well suited to occasional cultivation for The native vegetation is mainly longleaf, slash, and lob-
small grains, corn, and similar crops. It is well suited lolly pines, various oaks, hickory, dogwood, and wiregrass.
to bahiagrass and other deep-rooted, drought-resistant Much of the acreage has been cleared and is planted to
pasture plants. It is also well suited as woodland and corn, cotton, peanuts, shade tobacco, vegetables, or pas-
makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capability unit ture plants.
IVse-1. Faceville soils have medium surface runoff and internal
Eustis loamy sand, O to 5 percent slopes (EmB).-This drainage. Their permeability is moderately rapid in the
soil has a surface layer of about the same thickness and surface layers and moderately slow in the subsoil. Water
texture as that of Eustis loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 per- and air move freely in these soils, and tilth is good. These
cent slopes, but the coarser underlying material extends soils hold a large amount of water that plants can use and
to depths of more than 42 inches. Water, therefore, are moderately high in natural fertility. They retain
moves more rapidly through this soil and leaching is more plant nutrients well and respond well to fertilizers.
rapid. This soil has lower cation-exchange capacity than Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (FmB).-
the shallower soil and lower available moisture-holding This is a gently sloping, well-drained, deep soil on uplands.
capacity. It has a yellowish-red, firm, moderately fine textured
This soil is in areas where a good field layout can be subsoil.
made. But it is only moderately well suited to corn, Profile in a gently sloping, undisturbed area where the
small grains, and similar crops. Bahiagrass and other vegetation is chiefly loblolly pine, holly, bay, and red oak
deep-rooted pasture plants do well. This soil is well suited (location: SENW% sec. 29, T. 3 N., R. 2 W.):
as woodland and makes a good habitat for wildlife.
as woodland and makes a good habitat for wildlife. Ai 0 to 7 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) loamy
Capability unit IIIse-. fine sand; weak, medium, crumb structure; very
Eustis loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (EmC).-Be- friable; many fine and few medium roots; very few
cause it is more strongly sloping, this soil has more rapid large roots; common fine root channels; few fine
runoff than Eustis loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and pores; medium content of organic matter; strongly
Included with th soil acid; boundary abrupt and smooth.
is more susceptible to erosion. Included with this soil A 7 to 14 inches, dark-brown (YR 4/3) fine sandy loam;
are a few scattered, moderately eroded areas. moderate, medium, crumb structure; very friable;
This soil is in small areas that are generally among areas common fine and few medium roots; many fine root
of more nearly level soils of the same soil type. It is channels; few fine pores; strongly acid; boundary
moderately well suited to watermelons, corn, small grains, clear and wavy.
moderately well suited to watermelons, corn, small grains B 14 to 17 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/4) fine sandy
and a few other crops, but it needs intensive management clay loam; weak, medium, subangular blocky struc-
that will control erosion. Deep-rooted pasture grass, such ture that breaks down easily when moist to moderate,
as bahiagrass and lovegrass, do well. This soil is well medium, crumb structure; friable; few fine roots and
suited to pine trees and makes a good habitat for wildlife. rmmon ai broodarnnel common fine pores;
Capability unit IVse-1. B s 17 to 35 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 4/8) heavy fine sandy
clay loam; moderate, medium, subangular blocky
Faceville series structure; firm when moist and slightly sticky and
In the Faceville series are deep, well-drained, strongly plastic when we; very few fine roots; common fine
pores; strongly acid; boundary gradual and wavy.
acid soils that are on uplands in nearly level to strongly B31 35 to 55 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 4/8) mottled fine sandy
sloping areas. These soils have a fairly large total acreage, clay loam; a few, medium, prominent, yellow (10YR
mainly in the northern and northeastern parts of the 7/8) mottles, a few, fine, prominent, very pale brown
county. They developed from thick beds of unconsoli- red (1 8/) mottles tand comdin, reas di district
dated, acid sandy clay loam and sandy clay. moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure and
These soils have very dark gray to dark grayish-brown moderate, fine, angular blocky structure; slightly
loamy fine sand to fine sandy loam surface layers as much firm; very few fine roots; common fine pores; strongly
as 18 inches thick. The subsoil is strong-brown to red, acid; boundary gradual and irregular.
B32 55 to 61 inches, red (10R 5/8) sandy clay loam with
moderately friable to firm fine sandy clay loam to fine sandy common, large, prominent, white (10YR 8/1) mottles
clay. It grades to underlying materials of clay loam to and common, medium, distinct, yellowish-red (5YR
sandy clay texture. These materials are gray mottled 5/8) mottles; moderate, medium, subangular blocky
with red, or they are strong brown to red mottled with structure; friable; common fine pores; strongly acid;
whiewi61boundary gradual and irregular.
gray orwhite C 61 to 79 inches +, mottled yellowish-red (5YR 5/8), red
The Faceville soils are associated with well-drained (2.5YR 5/8), pinkish-white (7.5YR 8/2), and yellow
soils in the Magnolia, Carnegie, Tifton, Orangeburg, (10YR 7/8) sandy clay loam; weak, medium, angular
Ruston, and Norfolk series, particularly those that have and subangular blocky structure; firm; strongly acid.
a finer textured subsoil. Faceville soils have darker sur- The surface layers range from 10 to 18 inches in thick-
face layers than the Ruston and Orangeburg soils and a ness. In most places the surface soil is dark gray to very
less friable, finer textured subsoil. Also, the transition in dark grayish brown, but in some eroded areas it is browner.
texture from their surface layers to the subsoil is more The subsoil normally ranges from strong brown to
abrupt. Their subsoil is not so red as that in the Orange- yellowish red, but in a few areas it is red. The texture of
burg soils. Faceville soils are not so red as the Carnegie the subsoil is generally heavy fine sandy clay loam, but in








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 71

a few areas it is fine sandy clay. Mottles normally occur 3 to 10 inches thick. A few areas have many shallow
at depths of 35 to 48 inches. In some areas strong-brown gullies and a few deep ones. Between the gullies in these
and red mottles are at depths of 24 to 36 inches. Included areas the depth to the finer textured subsoil ranges from
with this soil are a few areas that have a fine sandy loam 10 to 18 inches. Mottles normally are at depths of 30 to
surface layer. 40 inches. The mottled parent material generally is at
This is a productive soil. It occurs in fairly large 38 to 48 inches. Included with this soil are a few small
areas with other good soils and can be managed with patches of severely eroded Shubuta soils on slopes of 5
them in a good field layout. This soil is well suited to to 8 percent.
practically all crops grown in the county, especially shade This soil is only moderately well suited to cultivation.
tobacco. It is well suited to improved pasture. Because In most places it is in relatively small areas that are not
this soil can hold a large amount of moisture that plants well suited to a good field layout. It has been damaged
can use, white clover, sweet clover, and crimson clover enough by erosion to lower crop yields. It is well suited
are suitable pasture plants. This soil is well suited as to pasture and as woodland and wildlife habitats. Capa-
woodland and makes a good habitat for wildlife. Ca- ability unit IIIe-2.
ability unit IIe-2. Faceville fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
Faceville loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes (FmA).- severely eroded (FaC3).-This soil is steeper and more
Except that it is more nearly level, this soil is similar to severely eroded than Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. A few percent slopes, and is thinner in the surface layers.
small, scattered areas are moderately eroded and have a Nearly all of the original surface soil has been removed
surface layer 3 to 10 inches thick. by erosion, and many shallow gullies as well as a few deep
This is one of the best soils in the county. Most of its ones have been cut. In areas where sheet erosion is
small acreage is cultivated. It is adjacent to other good uniform and few gullies occur, the fine sandy loam surface
agricultural soils and can be managed with them in a good soil is less than 3 inches thick. In most of these areas the
field layout. It is well suited to all general crops grown fine sandy clay loam subsoil is exposed or is mixedwith
in the county and is one of the better soils for shade the original surface soil. Here the surface layer is some-
tobacco. It is also well suited to improved pasture. what browner than in places where the original surface
Capability unit 1-2. soil remains. In gullied areas the surface soil is 3 to 10
Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded inches thick between gullies. Generally, mottles are at
(FmB2).-This eroded soil generally has thinner surface depths of 26 to 38 inches and the mottled parent material
layers than Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, is at 38 to 46 inches. In some places the parent material
Most of the erosion is sheet erosion, but a few gullies is nearer the surface because erosion is severe or soil
occur. In eroded areas the finer textured subsoil is at development is poor.
depths of 3 to 10 inches. A few areas have many shallow Included with this soil are a few small areas of severely
gullies and a few deep ones. Mottles normally are at eroded Shubuta soils on 5 to 8 percent slopes.
depths of 32 to 40 inches, but in some areas they are at This soil is in small areas that are not suited to a good
28 to 32 inches, field layout. The soil is poorly suited to cultivated
This is a productive soil that has a fairly large total crops. The best uses are pasture, woodland, and wildlife
acreage. It occurs with other good agricultural soils and habitats. Capability unit IVe-2.
can be managed with them in a good field layout. It is Faceville loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes
suited to alllocally grown crops, especially shade tobacco. (FmD).-This soil has stronger slopes than Faceville
Because it is susceptible to erosion, it needs protection. loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. The surface
It is well suited to all locally grown pasture plants, includ- layers range from 10 to 18 inches in thickness but are
ing whiteclover. It is also well suited as woodland and less than 14 inches thick in most places. A few small
makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capability unit IIe-2. areas are moderately eroded and are similar to areas of
Faceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (FmC).- Faceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
This soil is more strongly sloping than Faceville loamy Mottles are normally at depths of 30 and 38 inches.
fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, but it is similar to that This soil has thinner soil horizons than similar soils
soil in most other characteristics. The surface layers that are more nearly level. The parent material is
range from 10 to 18 inches in thickness but are generally generally at depths of 36 to 44 inches.
10 to 15 inches thick. Mottles normally occur at depths This soil occurs on strongly sloping hillsides among
of 32 to 38 inches, and the mottled parent material gen- soils that are not well suited to cultivated crops. It is
erally is at 40 to 56 inches. A few, small intricate patterns poorly suited to cultivation. The best uses are pasture,
of Faceville, Shubuta, and Ruston soils are included with woodland, and wildlife habitats. Capability unit IVe-2.
this soil. Faceville fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes,
This soil is well suited to all general crops locally grown severely eroded (FaD3).-This soil is steeper and more
and to shade tobacco. Because of the erosion hazard, its severely eroded than Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
use should be only moderately intensive. It is well suited percent slopes. Nearly all of the original surface layer
to improved pasture and to woodland. It makes a good has been removed by erosion; many shallow gullies and a
habitat for wildlife. Capability unit IIIe-2. few deep ones have formed. In areas where sheet erosion
Faceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded is uniform and few gullies occur, the remaining fine sandy
(FmC2).-This soil is more strongly sloping and more loam surface layer is less than 3 inches thick. In some of
eroded than Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent these areas the fine sandy clay loam subsoil is exposed
slopes, and generally is thinner in the surface layers. or is mixed with the remaining surface layer. Here the
Most areas have uniform sheet erosion and not many surface layer is somewhat browner than that of Faceville
gullies. In these areas the remaining surface layers are loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. In gullied areas
581618-61-6







72 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

the surface layer is generally slightly more than 3 inches These soils are on highly dissected, steep slopes and are
thick. Mottles are normally at depths of 26 to 36 inches. not suited to cultivated crops. Some areas may be suited
This soil has a thinner solum than Faceville soils on more to pasture under very careful practices of erosion control.
gentle slopes. Its mottled parent material is at depths of Use as woodland or as wildlife habitats is best. Capa-
36 to 46 inches generally. ability unit VIIes-1.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. The best Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 12 to 35 percent
uses are improved pasture, woodland, and wildlife habitats. slopes, severely eroded (FsF3).-This soil complex is.
Capability unit VIes-1. more eroded than Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8
Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 to 12 percent to 12 percent slopes, and generally is thinner in the sur-
slopes (FsD).-This mapping unit consists of deep, well- face layer. All or nearly all of the original surface layer
drained, strongly acid soils that are along streams on has been removed by erosion in most areas. In these
sloping hillsides. These soils have a small total acreage, areas the fine-textured subsoil is exposed or has been
and they occur in such intricate patterns that it is not mixed with the original surface layer. The surface layer
feasible to map them separately. About 40 to 60 percent therefore, is generally finer textured in these areas than it
of the total acreage is in Faceville soils, about 30 to 40 is in less severely eroded areas. Many shallow gullies and
percent is in Shubuta soils, and about 20 to 30 percent is a few deep ones have formed in many places. Because of
in Ruston soils. Small, scattered areas of Magnolia, the severe erosion, the parent material normally is not so
Carnegie, Orangeburg, and Norfolk soils are included deep as it is in Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 to
with these soils. A characteristic profile of each soil is 12 percent slopes.
described for the corresponding series. Included with Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 12
The texture of the surface layer of these soils ranges to 35 percent slopes, severely eroded, are some areas that
from loamy sand to sandy loam. The finer textured have 25 to 65 percent slopes.
surface layer is in areas of Shubuta, Faceville, and other These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or to
finer textured soils, and in areas where erosion is active, pasture, and they are surrounded by other soils not
Areas of these soils that have not been cleared are gen- suited to cultivation. The best uses are for woodland
erally slightly eroded, whereas areas that are cleared and wildlife habitats. Capability unit VIIes-1.
and cultivated are generally moderately eroded. In-
eluded with these soils are small areas with slopes of Goldsboro series
5 to 8 percent. The Goldsboro series consists of deep, moderately well
Most of these soils have not been cleared. The native drained, strongly acid soils that are on uplands in nearly
vegetation consists mainly of oaks, hickory, and pines, level to sloping areas. Most of the small total acreage of
Most of the cleared areas are in pasture. A small part these soils is near Greensboro, but small areas are dis-
is cultivated, generally as a part of a more nearly level tribute throughout the county. These soils developed
field of other soils. from thick beds of acid sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
Depending on the soil, surface runoff is medium to They have a very dark gray loamy fine sand to loamy
rapid and internal drainage is medium. sand surface layer that generally totals 14 to 17 inches in
These soils are too steep and too erodible for cultiva- thickness. Thick-surface phases are mapped that have
tion. They are moderately well suited to pasture but an A horizon 18 to 30 inches thick. The upper part of
are best suited as woodland and as wildlife habitats. the subsoil is normally light yellowish brown to yellow in
Capability unit VIes-1. color and fine sandy loam to light fine sandy clay loam in
Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 to 12 percent texture. Faint pale-brown and pale-yellow mottles nor-
slopes, severely eroded (FsD3).-This mapping unit is mally occur at a depth of 24 inches. The mottles in-
more eroded than Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 crease in intensity below 30 inches and are gray at the
to 12 percent slopes, and generally is thinner in the sur- lower depths. Below the subsoil is distinctly mottled
face layer. In most places the surface layer is yellowish parent material with a fine sandy clay loam texture.
brown to yellowish red. Nearly all of the original surface Goldsboro soils are closely associated with the Norfolk,
layer has been removed by erosion in most areas. In these Klej, Lynchburg, Ruston, and Tifton soils. They are
areas the finer textured subsoil is exposed or is mixed with more poorly drained than the Norfolk, Ruston, and Tif-
the original surface layer. Therefore, the surface layer ton soils and are better drained than the Lynchburg soils.
is generally finer textured than in less severely eroded Their subsoil is not so brown as that in the Ruston soils
areas. In some areas many shallow gullies and a few but is finer textured than that in the Klej soils. In the
deep ones occur. Between the gullies the surface layer upper part, the subsoil is yellowish like the subsoil in the
is slightly thicker than in other places. Norfolk and Tifton soils. The lower part is faintly mot-
These soils are in highly dissected terrain, not suited to tied like the upper part of the subsoil in the Lynchburg
good field layout. Because of the strong slopes and severe soils.
erosion, these soils are not suited to cultivated crops and The native vegetation is mainly longleaf, slash, and
are only fairly well suited to pasture. They are best loblolly pines, gallberry, sweetgum, maple, various oaks,
suited as woodland and as wildlife habitats. Capability low shrubs, and wiregrass. Much of the acreage is in
unit VIIes-1. shade tobacco, corn, small grains, and pasture plants.
Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 12 to 35 percent Goldsboro soils have medium runoff and medium in-
slopes (FsF).-This mapping unit is much steeper than ternal drainage. Permeability is rapid to moderately
Faceville-Shubuta-Ruston complex, 8 to 12 percent rapid in the surface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
slopes. Some areas have slopes as steep as 65 percent. These soils are loamy enough to have good tilth. They
In some places these soils are moderately sheet eroded or have a high capacity for holding moisture that plants can
have many shallow gullies and a few deep ones. use. Their natural fertility is low, and their content of







GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 73

organic matter is medium, but they retain plant nutrients that are well suited to crops. If properly managed, this
well and respond well to fertilizer. Except in periods of soil is well suited to most locally grown crops, but yields
excess rainfall, these soils are well suited to most general from some crops are low because of restricted drainage.
crops. The soil is best suited to corn and small grains. If
Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes properly drained, it is well suited to shade tobacco. It
(GoB).-This moderately well drained, gently sloping soil is well suited to improved pasture and produces good
is on uplands. It has a friable, moderately fine textured, yields of grasses and clovers, including whiteclover. This
yellow subsoil. soil is well suited as woodland and makes a good habitat
Profile in a gently sloping, undisturbed area where for wildlife. Pine and hardwood trees grow rapidly.
the vegetation is chiefly gallberry, wiregrass, slash pine, Capability unit IIsw-2.
and dogfennel (location: SENW1 sec. 18, R. 4 W., Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
T. 3 N.): (GoA).-Because this soil is nearly level, runoff is slow.
0 t 3 s, v 3 loa fine snd After heavy rains the soil remains wet longer than Golds-
Ai 0 to 3 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy fine sand; bor loamy fine sand 2 to 5 percent slopes
weak, medium, crumb structure; loose; medium boro loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
content of organic matter; common fine and few This productive soil is in small and large areas, gener-
medium roots; strongly acid; boundary abrupt and ally adjacent to other soils suited to crops. In wet
smooth. periods the yield of most crops are low because of re-
A2 3 to 7 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) loamy fine sand; weak, pri te ie most crops re
medium, crumb structure; loose; common fine an stricted drainage. This soil is suited to most crops grown
very few medium roots; few fine pores and root in the county but is not so well suited to cotton and
channels; strongly acid; boundary clear and smooth. peanuts as it is to corn. It is well suited to shade tobacco
As 7 to 11 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) loamy fine if the soil is drained by tile or other effective means.
sand; weak, medium, crumb structure; loose; common This soil is well suited to pasture and produces good
fine and very few medium roots; few fine pores and
root channels; strongly acid; boundary clear and yields of all locally grown pasture plants. It is well
smooth, suited as woodland and makes a good habitat for wildlife.
B11 11 to 16 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) fine Capability unit IIsw-2.
sandy loam with common, medium, faint mottles of Goldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent
gryish brown (YR 5/2); moderate, medium and more nearly level than
coarse, crumb structure; very friable; few fine and slopes (GmA).-This soil is more nearly level than
medium roots; few fine and medium pores and root Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and is
channels; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy. thicker and coarser textured in the surface layers. The
B12 16 to 20 inches, yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sandy loam with A horizon is 18 to 30 inches thick. The surface layer, or
few, fine, faint, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; upper part of the A horizon, is about the same thickness as
moderate, medium, crumb structure; very friable;
few fine and medium roots and root channels; few that in the loamy fine sand, but the subsurface layers
fine and medium pores; strongly acid; boundary are thicker. Water moves through the upper part of the
clear and wavy. rooting zone more rapidly than in Goldsboro loamy fine
B2 20 to 27 inches, yellow (10YR 7/8) fine sandy clay loam sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes and leaching is more rapid.
wth few, eium, ufain t yllowy and moderatee mottes; The cation-exchange capacity and natural fertility of the
crumb structure; friable; very few fine roots; com- surface layers are lower.
mon fine pores and root channels; strongly acid; Most general crops can be grown on this soil, but it is
boundary clear and wavy. best suited to corn and small grains. Because of restricted
B, 27 to 42 inches, mottled yellow (10YR 8/6) and brownish- drainage in the subsoil, crop yields are sometimes low.
yellow (10YR 6/8) fine sandy clay loam; moderate, rin n t smteslw
medium, subangular blocky structure; friable; few This soil is well suited to improved pasture, woodland,
fine pores; strongly acid; boundary gradual and and wildlife habitats. Capability unit IIsw-2.
wavy. Goldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent
C 42 to 59 inches +, mottled yellow (10YR 8/6) and slopes (GmB).-This soil is thicker and coarser in the
brownish-yellow (10Yl 6/8) fine sandy clay loam
with few, common, distinct, light-gray (10YR 7/2) surface layers than Goldsboro loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
mottles; few, common, distinct, firm, yellowish- percent slopes. The top layer is about the same thickness
red (5YR 5/8) concretions; moderate fine pores; as in that soil, but the subsurface material is thicker.
strongly acid. Together these layers are 18 to 30 inches thick. Water
The surface layer ranges from 3 to 7 inches in thickness moves more rapidly through the upper part of the rooting
and from very dark gray to gray in color. In most places zone in this thick surface soil, and leaching is more rapid.
it is very dark gray to dark gray. The finer textured The cation-exchange capacity and natural fertility are
subsoil is within 18 inches of the surface. It ranges lower.
from light yellowish brown to brownish yellow. Pale- This soil is best suited to corn, small grains, and similar
yellow and brown mottles are normally at depths of 24 crops. Because of restricted drainage in the subsoil,
to 30 inches, but faint mottles may be as shallow as 20 crop yields are sometimes low in wet periods. This soil
inches. The mottling increases in intensity with increas- is well suited to improved pasture, woodland, and wild-
ing depth. Fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam is life habitats. Capability unit IIsw-2.
the texture of the subsoil. Compact, highly mottled, Goldsboro loamy sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent
slowly permeable fine sandy loam or fine sandy clay is at slopes (GmC).-This soil is steeper than Goldsboro loamy
depths as shallow as 34 inches in some places. Many sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Generally it
small iron pebbles occur throughout the profile in a few is on short slope breaks adjacent to that soil. It has
areas, particularly where this soil is associated with the more rapid runoff than the more nearly level soil and
the Tifton soils and with the pebbly Norfolk soils, normally a lower water table. Because of its thick,
This is a productive soil. It is on gentle slopes in both coarse-textured surface layers, leaching is rapid. The
large and small areas, generally adjacent to other soils cation-exchange capacity and natural fertility are a little







74 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

lower than for Goldsboro soils having thinner surface tureless); plastic when wet, firm when moist, and
layers. very hard when dry; strongly acid; boundary gradual
and wavy.
This soil is in small areas on short slopes and, in most C, 33 to 44 inches +, light-gray (N 7/0) fine sandy clay with
places, is kept wet by drainage from adjacent soils. It few, fine, distinct, yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles and
has some hazard of erosion. Because of the low fertility, few, fine, distinct, yellowish-red (5YR 4/8) mottles;
low content of organic matter, and rapid leaching of massive (structureless); plastic when wet, firm when
applied plant nutrients, this soil is poorly suited to moist, and hard when dry.
cultivated crops. It is suited to improved pasture of The surface layer ranges from very dark gray to dark
bermudagrass and bahiagrass. It is also well suited as gray in color and from 3 to 6 inches in thickness. The
woodland and makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capa- subsurface layer is gray to dark gray in color and fine
ability unit IVse-3. sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam in texture. It
extends to depths of 8 to 10 inches. The subsoil is mainly
Grady series gray in the upper part and light gray in the lower part.
In the Grady series are poorly and very poorly drained, A few mottles of yellow to yellowish red normally occur
strongly acid soils. These soils are on uplands in nearly throughout the subsoil, but in some areas the upper part
level, low-lying areas, generally in small depressions. of the subsoil is free of mottles. The texture of the sub-
The total acreage is small and is mostly in the central soil is normally fine sandy clay, but in a few areas it is
and northeastern parts of the county. These soils de- clay. The consistence of the subsoil ranges from slightly
veloped from thick beds of acid sandy clay and clay. sticky to sticky and plastic.
Grady soils have a very dark gray to dark gray fine Included with this soil are small areas that have a very
sandy loam surface layer, 3 to 6 inches thick. This grades fine sandy loam surface layer, and a few small areas with
to a subsurface layer of dark-gray to gray fine sandy loam slopes ranging up to 5 percent. Also included are a few
to fine sandy clay loam that normally extends to depths areas that have very dark gray to black surface layers
of 8 to 10 inches. Then the transition is fairly abrupt to as much as 18 inches thick. These areas are high in
a subsoil of gray to light gray, tough, plastic fine sandy organic matter. The surface layer in a few places con-
clay that is mottled with yellow to yellowish red. sists of sediments washed from adjacent areas.
Grady soils are associated with Rains, Magnolia, Face- This soil is susceptible to flooding. Several inches of
ville, Tifton, and Norfolk soils. Of these soils, the Grady water cover the surface in a few areas during most of the
soils are most similar to the Rains soils, and differ mainly year. The soil occurs in small depressions and the drain-
in having a finer textured subsoil. They are much more age is underground. Artificial drainage is difficult be-
poorly drained than the Magnolia, Faceville, Tifton, and cause there are no suitable outlets.
Norfolk soils, and they have a much lighter colored, more Even if it is drained, this soil is poorly suited to crops.
plastic, and finer textured subsoil. The soil is thin and has poor tilth. It is hard to plow
The native vegetation is mainly blackgum, cypress, when dry and clods if it is plowed when wet. If it is
sweetgum, and water-loving grasses. Much of the acre- drained, fair to poor pasture can be established. Pine
age has been cleared along with adjacent areas of better trees grow well in drained areas, but undrained areas are
drained soils. Most cleared areas are in pasture or are suited to only water-tolerant hardwoods.. Capability
idle, and little of the acreage is cultivated, unit Vws-1.
Grady soils have slow surface runoff and very slow drain-
age through the subsoil. The subsoil is very slowly per- Gullied land
meable. The drainage in depressions that have poor Gullied land consists of areas that are very severely
outlets, or none, is practically all underground. These eroded. These areas are so dissected by recently formed,
soils are very poorly aerated. Their natural fertility is deep gullies that the soils have been destroyed except for
moderate, small patches or narrow strips between the gullies. Most
Grady fine sandy loam is the only soil in the Grady of this land is in areas that have slopes steeper than 5
series mapped in Gadsden County. percent.
Grady fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Gr).- Gullied land (Gu).-Gullied land has formed in soils
This is a very poorly drained soil that is on uplands, that ranged from sandy to clayey texture before erosion.
generally in depressions. It has a fine-textured, plastic The exposed materials are equally varied in texture.
subsoil. Most of the gullies are more than 4 feet deep and have
Profile in a nearly level pasture (location: SENW% steep sides. In some areas erosion is still active, and in
sec. 9, R. 4 W., T. 2 N.): other areas it is stabilized.
A, 0 to 4 inches, very dark gray (N 3/0) fine sandy loam; mod- Except as a refuge for wildlife, in areas where native
rate, medium, crumb structure; friable; high content plants have reproduced naturally, Gullied land has little
f orguanc atter ver ne roots; strongly acid; or no agricultural value in its present condition. It may
As 4 to 9 inches, dark-gray (N 4/0) fine sandy clay loam; or may not be converted into arable land, depending on
weak, medium, subangular blocky structure and mod- the depth of the gullies and on the kind and depth of the
rate, medium, crumb structure; friable; very few soil materials.
fine roots; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.
Bi1 9 to 23 inches, gray (N 5/0) fine sandy clay; massive Hannahatchee series
(structureless); slightly sticky and plastic when wet,
firm when moist, and hard when dry; very few fine In the Hannahatchee series are deep, moderately well
roots in the upper part; strongly acid; boundary clear drained, strongly acid soils. These soils are nearly level
and wavy.essio
B2g 23 to 33 inches,gray (N 6/0) fine sandy clay with few, fine, and occur in depressions, at the base of slopes, and along
distinct, yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; massive (struc- intermittent streams. They have a small total acreage







74 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

lower than for Goldsboro soils having thinner surface tureless); plastic when wet, firm when moist, and
layers. very hard when dry; strongly acid; boundary gradual
and wavy.
This soil is in small areas on short slopes and, in most C, 33 to 44 inches +, light-gray (N 7/0) fine sandy clay with
places, is kept wet by drainage from adjacent soils. It few, fine, distinct, yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles and
has some hazard of erosion. Because of the low fertility, few, fine, distinct, yellowish-red (5YR 4/8) mottles;
low content of organic matter, and rapid leaching of massive (structureless); plastic when wet, firm when
applied plant nutrients, this soil is poorly suited to moist, and hard when dry.
cultivated crops. It is suited to improved pasture of The surface layer ranges from very dark gray to dark
bermudagrass and bahiagrass. It is also well suited as gray in color and from 3 to 6 inches in thickness. The
woodland and makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capa- subsurface layer is gray to dark gray in color and fine
ability unit IVse-3. sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam in texture. It
extends to depths of 8 to 10 inches. The subsoil is mainly
Grady series gray in the upper part and light gray in the lower part.
In the Grady series are poorly and very poorly drained, A few mottles of yellow to yellowish red normally occur
strongly acid soils. These soils are on uplands in nearly throughout the subsoil, but in some areas the upper part
level, low-lying areas, generally in small depressions. of the subsoil is free of mottles. The texture of the sub-
The total acreage is small and is mostly in the central soil is normally fine sandy clay, but in a few areas it is
and northeastern parts of the county. These soils de- clay. The consistence of the subsoil ranges from slightly
veloped from thick beds of acid sandy clay and clay. sticky to sticky and plastic.
Grady soils have a very dark gray to dark gray fine Included with this soil are small areas that have a very
sandy loam surface layer, 3 to 6 inches thick. This grades fine sandy loam surface layer, and a few small areas with
to a subsurface layer of dark-gray to gray fine sandy loam slopes ranging up to 5 percent. Also included are a few
to fine sandy clay loam that normally extends to depths areas that have very dark gray to black surface layers
of 8 to 10 inches. Then the transition is fairly abrupt to as much as 18 inches thick. These areas are high in
a subsoil of gray to light gray, tough, plastic fine sandy organic matter. The surface layer in a few places con-
clay that is mottled with yellow to yellowish red. sists of sediments washed from adjacent areas.
Grady soils are associated with Rains, Magnolia, Face- This soil is susceptible to flooding. Several inches of
ville, Tifton, and Norfolk soils. Of these soils, the Grady water cover the surface in a few areas during most of the
soils are most similar to the Rains soils, and differ mainly year. The soil occurs in small depressions and the drain-
in having a finer textured subsoil. They are much more age is underground. Artificial drainage is difficult be-
poorly drained than the Magnolia, Faceville, Tifton, and cause there are no suitable outlets.
Norfolk soils, and they have a much lighter colored, more Even if it is drained, this soil is poorly suited to crops.
plastic, and finer textured subsoil. The soil is thin and has poor tilth. It is hard to plow
The native vegetation is mainly blackgum, cypress, when dry and clods if it is plowed when wet. If it is
sweetgum, and water-loving grasses. Much of the acre- drained, fair to poor pasture can be established. Pine
age has been cleared along with adjacent areas of better trees grow well in drained areas, but undrained areas are
drained soils. Most cleared areas are in pasture or are suited to only water-tolerant hardwoods.. Capability
idle, and little of the acreage is cultivated, unit Vws-1.
Grady soils have slow surface runoff and very slow drain-
age through the subsoil. The subsoil is very slowly per- Gullied land
meable. The drainage in depressions that have poor Gullied land consists of areas that are very severely
outlets, or none, is practically all underground. These eroded. These areas are so dissected by recently formed,
soils are very poorly aerated. Their natural fertility is deep gullies that the soils have been destroyed except for
moderate, small patches or narrow strips between the gullies. Most
Grady fine sandy loam is the only soil in the Grady of this land is in areas that have slopes steeper than 5
series mapped in Gadsden County. percent.
Grady fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Gr).- Gullied land (Gu).-Gullied land has formed in soils
This is a very poorly drained soil that is on uplands, that ranged from sandy to clayey texture before erosion.
generally in depressions. It has a fine-textured, plastic The exposed materials are equally varied in texture.
subsoil. Most of the gullies are more than 4 feet deep and have
Profile in a nearly level pasture (location: SENW% steep sides. In some areas erosion is still active, and in
sec. 9, R. 4 W., T. 2 N.): other areas it is stabilized.
A, 0 to 4 inches, very dark gray (N 3/0) fine sandy loam; mod- Except as a refuge for wildlife, in areas where native
rate, medium, crumb structure; friable; high content plants have reproduced naturally, Gullied land has little
f orguanc atter ver ne roots; strongly acid; or no agricultural value in its present condition. It may
As 4 to 9 inches, dark-gray (N 4/0) fine sandy clay loam; or may not be converted into arable land, depending on
weak, medium, subangular blocky structure and mod- the depth of the gullies and on the kind and depth of the
rate, medium, crumb structure; friable; very few soil materials.
fine roots; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.
Bi1 9 to 23 inches, gray (N 5/0) fine sandy clay; massive Hannahatchee series
(structureless); slightly sticky and plastic when wet,
firm when moist, and hard when dry; very few fine In the Hannahatchee series are deep, moderately well
roots in the upper part; strongly acid; boundary clear drained, strongly acid soils. These soils are nearly level
and wavy.essio
B2g 23 to 33 inches,gray (N 6/0) fine sandy clay with few, fine, and occur in depressions, at the base of slopes, and along
distinct, yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; massive (struc- intermittent streams. They have a small total acreage







74 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

lower than for Goldsboro soils having thinner surface tureless); plastic when wet, firm when moist, and
layers. very hard when dry; strongly acid; boundary gradual
and wavy.
This soil is in small areas on short slopes and, in most C, 33 to 44 inches +, light-gray (N 7/0) fine sandy clay with
places, is kept wet by drainage from adjacent soils. It few, fine, distinct, yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles and
has some hazard of erosion. Because of the low fertility, few, fine, distinct, yellowish-red (5YR 4/8) mottles;
low content of organic matter, and rapid leaching of massive (structureless); plastic when wet, firm when
applied plant nutrients, this soil is poorly suited to moist, and hard when dry.
cultivated crops. It is suited to improved pasture of The surface layer ranges from very dark gray to dark
bermudagrass and bahiagrass. It is also well suited as gray in color and from 3 to 6 inches in thickness. The
woodland and makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capa- subsurface layer is gray to dark gray in color and fine
ability unit IVse-3. sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam in texture. It
extends to depths of 8 to 10 inches. The subsoil is mainly
Grady series gray in the upper part and light gray in the lower part.
In the Grady series are poorly and very poorly drained, A few mottles of yellow to yellowish red normally occur
strongly acid soils. These soils are on uplands in nearly throughout the subsoil, but in some areas the upper part
level, low-lying areas, generally in small depressions. of the subsoil is free of mottles. The texture of the sub-
The total acreage is small and is mostly in the central soil is normally fine sandy clay, but in a few areas it is
and northeastern parts of the county. These soils de- clay. The consistence of the subsoil ranges from slightly
veloped from thick beds of acid sandy clay and clay. sticky to sticky and plastic.
Grady soils have a very dark gray to dark gray fine Included with this soil are small areas that have a very
sandy loam surface layer, 3 to 6 inches thick. This grades fine sandy loam surface layer, and a few small areas with
to a subsurface layer of dark-gray to gray fine sandy loam slopes ranging up to 5 percent. Also included are a few
to fine sandy clay loam that normally extends to depths areas that have very dark gray to black surface layers
of 8 to 10 inches. Then the transition is fairly abrupt to as much as 18 inches thick. These areas are high in
a subsoil of gray to light gray, tough, plastic fine sandy organic matter. The surface layer in a few places con-
clay that is mottled with yellow to yellowish red. sists of sediments washed from adjacent areas.
Grady soils are associated with Rains, Magnolia, Face- This soil is susceptible to flooding. Several inches of
ville, Tifton, and Norfolk soils. Of these soils, the Grady water cover the surface in a few areas during most of the
soils are most similar to the Rains soils, and differ mainly year. The soil occurs in small depressions and the drain-
in having a finer textured subsoil. They are much more age is underground. Artificial drainage is difficult be-
poorly drained than the Magnolia, Faceville, Tifton, and cause there are no suitable outlets.
Norfolk soils, and they have a much lighter colored, more Even if it is drained, this soil is poorly suited to crops.
plastic, and finer textured subsoil. The soil is thin and has poor tilth. It is hard to plow
The native vegetation is mainly blackgum, cypress, when dry and clods if it is plowed when wet. If it is
sweetgum, and water-loving grasses. Much of the acre- drained, fair to poor pasture can be established. Pine
age has been cleared along with adjacent areas of better trees grow well in drained areas, but undrained areas are
drained soils. Most cleared areas are in pasture or are suited to only water-tolerant hardwoods.. Capability
idle, and little of the acreage is cultivated, unit Vws-1.
Grady soils have slow surface runoff and very slow drain-
age through the subsoil. The subsoil is very slowly per- Gullied land
meable. The drainage in depressions that have poor Gullied land consists of areas that are very severely
outlets, or none, is practically all underground. These eroded. These areas are so dissected by recently formed,
soils are very poorly aerated. Their natural fertility is deep gullies that the soils have been destroyed except for
moderate, small patches or narrow strips between the gullies. Most
Grady fine sandy loam is the only soil in the Grady of this land is in areas that have slopes steeper than 5
series mapped in Gadsden County. percent.
Grady fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Gr).- Gullied land (Gu).-Gullied land has formed in soils
This is a very poorly drained soil that is on uplands, that ranged from sandy to clayey texture before erosion.
generally in depressions. It has a fine-textured, plastic The exposed materials are equally varied in texture.
subsoil. Most of the gullies are more than 4 feet deep and have
Profile in a nearly level pasture (location: SENW% steep sides. In some areas erosion is still active, and in
sec. 9, R. 4 W., T. 2 N.): other areas it is stabilized.
A, 0 to 4 inches, very dark gray (N 3/0) fine sandy loam; mod- Except as a refuge for wildlife, in areas where native
rate, medium, crumb structure; friable; high content plants have reproduced naturally, Gullied land has little
f orguanc atter ver ne roots; strongly acid; or no agricultural value in its present condition. It may
As 4 to 9 inches, dark-gray (N 4/0) fine sandy clay loam; or may not be converted into arable land, depending on
weak, medium, subangular blocky structure and mod- the depth of the gullies and on the kind and depth of the
rate, medium, crumb structure; friable; very few soil materials.
fine roots; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.
Bi1 9 to 23 inches, gray (N 5/0) fine sandy clay; massive Hannahatchee series
(structureless); slightly sticky and plastic when wet,
firm when moist, and hard when dry; very few fine In the Hannahatchee series are deep, moderately well
roots in the upper part; strongly acid; boundary clear drained, strongly acid soils. These soils are nearly level
and wavy.essio
B2g 23 to 33 inches,gray (N 6/0) fine sandy clay with few, fine, and occur in depressions, at the base of slopes, and along
distinct, yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; massive (struc- intermittent streams. They have a small total acreage








GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 75

that is well distributed through all of the county except place to place. The position of this soil at the base of
the extreme southern and southeastern parts. slopes, however, is favorable for accumulating moisture,
Hannahatchee soils consist of unaltered or slightly organic matter, and plant nutrients from the surrounding
altered material that rolled or washed from Magnolia, soils.
Faceville, Orangeburg, Red Bay, Norfolk, and other fine- This soil is very productive of most crops, particularly
textured soils. Hannahatchee soils lack the well-devel- corn, small grains, and truck crops. But yields are lower
oped profile that characterizes the Magnolia, Faceville, than normal in some years because of long wet periods.
and Orangeburg soils. Few areas of this soil are large enough to cultivate sepa-
Hannahatchee soils have dark reddish-brown fine sandy rately, but the soil is generally in fields with larger areas
loam surface layers, 18 to 28 inches thick. These layers of soils suited to crops. It is well suited to pasture of
are underlain by soil material that varies greatly in color grasses and most clovers, as woodland, and as a wildlife
and texture. The material ranges from red to yellowish habitat. Pine trees grow rapidly on this soil. Capability
brown or very dark red in color and from fine sandy loam unit IIsw-1.
to fine sandy clay loam in texture. Huckabee series
The native vegetation is mainly slash pine, various oaks,
sweetgum, hickory, and dogwood. Much of the acreage The Huckabee series consists of deep, well-drained,
is planted to truck crops, small grains, and pasture. strongly acid soils that are on stream terraces in nearly
Hannahatchee soils have slow to medium surface runoff level to gently sloping areas. These soils have a small
and meduim internaldrainage. In depressionsthedrainage total acreage that is mainly along the Ochlockonee River
is underground. The internal movement of air and water on the eastern boundary of the county; a few acres are
varies according to the varied subsoil materials. These along other large streams. Huckabee soils developed
soils are susceptible to occasional flooding and have a from coarse-textured sediments that washed from acid
fluctuating water table. They have a high capacity for upland soils on the Coastal Plain.
holding available moisture. Natural fertility is high. These soils have dark gray to gray fine sand surface
These soils normally retain plant nutrients and respond layers 2 to 8 inches thick. No B horizon has developed.
well to fertilizer. The surface layers grade to a C horizon of light yellowish-
Hannahatchee soils, local alluvium, is the only mapping brown to yellow fine sand that extends to depths below
unit in the Hannahatchee series that is mapped in Gadsden 42 inches. Below depths of 36 inches, the material is
County. normally mottled.
Hannahatchee soils, local alluvium (0 to 2 percent These soils are closely associated with the Kalmia and
slopes) (Ha).-This moderately well drained, moderately Blanton soils on nearly level and gentle slopes. They
fine textured alluvial soil consists of sediments washed have a fine sand and loamy fine sand C horizon, instead
from the adjacent uplands. of the fine sandy clay loam that makes up the B horizon
Profile in a gently sloping cultivated field (location: of Kalmia soils. Drainage is better in the Huckabee soils
NENWX sec. 21, R. 4 W., T. 2 N.): than in the Blanton soils, and the parent material is less
0 to 17 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) very fine sandy gray and is unmottled to greater depths. Huckabee soils
loam; moderate, medium, crumb structure; friable; high are somewhat similar to the Lakeland soils in their profile
content of organic matter; common fine roots and pores; characteristics, but occupy river terraces instead of up-
strongly acid; boundary abrupt and wavy land positions.
17 to 23 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3) very fine sandy The ntiv v ti is chiefly blackjack oak, nativ
loam; moderate, medium, crumb structure; friable; high The native vegetation is chiefly blackjac oa, native
content of organic matter; common fine roots and pores; grasses, scattered slash pine, and a few clumps of palmetto.
strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy. All the acreage in Huckabee soils in the county is wooded.
23 to 48 inches +, dark-red (10R 3/6) fine sandy clay loam Huckabee soils have medium surface runoff and medium
with few, fine, faint, red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles; moderate, Hu
medium, subangular blocky structure; slightly firm when internal drainage. Permeability is rapid to very rapid
moist; few to common fine pores; strongly acid. and leaching is rapid. These soils have a low capacity
The surface layer generally ranges from 18 to 23 inches for holding available moisture. They are low in fertility,
in thickness. In a few small areas it may be as little as have poor tilth, and are not well suited to most general
16 inches or as much as 28 inches thick. The subsoil crops.
ranges in color according to the color of the upland soils Huckabee fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is the only
from which the materials were transported. The texture Huckabee soil mapped in Gadsden County.
of the subsoil is fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam Huckabee fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (HcB).-This
but, in most places, is fine sandy clay loam. The texture is a well-drained, deep, sandy soil. It is m nearly level
of the surface layer ranges from fine sandy loam to loam. and gently sloping areas on terraces along Ochlockonee
Included with this soil are a few very small areas that River and other large streams.
have a gray fine sand or loamy fine sand subsoil. In Profile in an undisturbed, nearly level, uneroded area,
these areas the surface layer is only 8 to 14 inches thick. where the vegetation is mainly blackjack oak, slash pine,
Also included are a few small, somewhat poorly drained a few palmettos, and wiregrass (location: NESE% sec.
areas and a few areas with slopes ranging from 2 to 5 2, R. 2 W., T. 2 N.):
percent. A, 0 to 2 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak, very
This soil has a deep root zone and is moderately well fine, crumb structure; loose; many fine and medium
drained. Because it is in low positions and is susceptible roots; medium to low content of organic matter;
to flooding, it may be waterlogged occasionally in wet 2 trongly acid; boundary clear and smooth. grain
T a 2 to 4 inches, gray (lOYR 5/i) fine sand; single grain
seasons. The available moisture-holding capacity, con- (structureless); loose; many fine and common medium
tent of organic matter, and natural fertility vary from roots; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.








76 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5
C, 4 to 28 inches, yellow (IOYR 7/6) fine sand; single grain Izagora soils have low to medium surface runoff and
(structureless); loose; many fine and medium roots; moderately slow internal drainage. Permeability is mod-
strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.
C2 28 to 39 inches, yellow (10YR 8/6) fine sand; single grain erately rapid in the surface soil and moderate to slow in
(structureless); loose; many fine roots; strongly acid; the subsoil. These soils have good aeration above the
boundary clear and wavy. water table, but aeration varies at different depths because
Ca 39 to 56 inches, yellow (10YR 8/6) fine sand with few, fine, the water table fluctuates.
faint, yellow (10YR 8/8) mottles and common,
medium, distinct, white (10YR 8/2) mottles; white Izagora loamy fine sand (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Ig).-
mottles increase with increasing depth; single grain This is a deep, moderately well drained soil that has a
(structureless); loose; strongly acid; boundary gradual moderately fine textured, friable subsoil. It is nearly level
and wavy.
C4 56 to 64 inches +, mottled white (10YR 8/2) and yellow and is on terraces.
(10YR 8/6) sand; single grain (structureless); loose; Profile in a nearly level, undisturbed area where the
strongly acid. vegetation is mainly water oak, pines, and waxmyrtle
The surface layer ranges from dark gray to gray in color (location: NWSE)} sec. 24, R. 2 W., T. 2 N.):
and from 2 to 4 inches in thickness. The subsurface layer A,, 0 to 4 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy fine sand;
is gray to grayish brown and is 2 to 3 inches thick. Small moderate, medium, crumb structure; very friable;
areas of this soil have a very dark gray surface layer. To many fine roots; medium content of organic matter;
aeas strongly acid; boundary clear and smooth.
a depth of at least 36 inches, the subsoil ranges from light A 4 to 8 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) loamy fine sand;
yellowish brown to yellow. Below this depth the color moderate, medium, crumb structure; very friable;
ranges from slightly mottled light yellowish brown or many fine roots; strongly acid; boundary clear and
yellow to a mixture of yellowish brown and gray in the B wav toTTyches, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4) fine sandy
lower horizons. Areas are included that have loamy loam; moderate, medium, crumb structure; friable;
sand to sand in the lower part of the subsoil. In most common fine roots and few medium roots; common
places the change in texture is gradual, but in some places fine pores; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.
it is abrupt, especially where the texture is coarser than B,2 15 to 20 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) light fine
normal. sandy clay loam; moderate, medium, crumb structure
normal, and weak, fine, subangular blocky structure; friable;
This soil occurs in parts of the county not generally few fine and medium roots; common fine pores; few
farmed, in small, isolated areas adjacent to soils that are root channels; strongly acid; boundary clear and
less well drained. Most areas are poorly situated for wavy.
a good field layout. Bahiagrass is suitable for improved B27-20 to 28 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) fine sandy
layout. Baagrass is suitable or improved clay loam with common, fine, distinct, yellowish-red
pasture, but this soil is too drought for clover. It is (5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate, medium, subangular
well suited as woodland and makes a good habitat for blocky structure; friable; few fine and medium roots;
wildlife. Capability unit IIIse-2. common fine pores; few root channels; strongly acid;
boundary clear and wavy.
Izagora series B22 28 to 31 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) fine sandy
clay loam with common, medium, distinct, yellowish-
The Izagora series consists of deep, moderately well red (5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate, medium, subangu-
drained, strongly acid soils. These soils are nearly level lar blocky structure; friable; few fine roots and pores;
and occur on terraces, in this county mainly those along strongly acid; boundary gradual and wavy.
and occur on terraces, in this county mainly those along B3 31 to 36 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) fine sandy
the Ochlockonee River. They formed from medium- clay loam with common, medium, distinct, yellowish-
textured sediments washed from upland soils of the Coastal red (5YR 4/8) mottles and few, fine, distinct, light-
Pgray (10YR 7/1) mottles; moderate, medium, sub-
laThe surface soil, to a depth of about 8 inches, is very angular blocky structure; friable; strongly acid;
The surface soil, to a depth of about 8 inches, is very boundary gradual and wavy.
dark gray to dark gray loamy fine sand. It is underlain C, 36 to 44 inches, mottled light-gray (10YR 7/1), strong-
by a fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam subsoil that brown (7.5YR 5/8), red (2.5YR 4/8) and yellowish-
is light yellowish brown to yellowish brown. The subsoil brown (10YR 5/6) fine sandy clay loam; moderate,
extends to a depth of about 36 inches. Mottles of very medium, subangular blocky structure; friable;
and yellowish red are normally at a strongly acid; boundary gradual and irregular.
pale brown, yellow, and yellowish red are normally at a C 44 to 50 inches +, mottled light-gray (10YR 7/1) and
depth of about 18 inches. The subsoil is underlain by yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) fine sandy clay loam
highly mottled fine sandy clay loam parent material. with common, fine streaks of yellowish red (hYR
Izagora soils are closely associated with the Blanton, 4/8); moderate, medium, blocky structure; friable;
Kalmia, Myatt, and Leaf soils. They are finer textured strongly acid.
than the Blanton soils. They are less well drained than The surface layer ranges from gray to very dark gray in
the Kalmia soils and are mottled closer to the surface. color but is mostly very dark gray. It is 3 to 8 inches
The Izagora soils are better drained than the Myatt soils thick. The subsoil is mainly yellowish brown, but in
and have a pale-brown to light yellowish-brown subsoil some areas it is yellowish brown to light yellowish brown.
instead of a gray one. They are better drained than the It is mottled at depths that generally ranges from 16 to 24
Leaf soils and are more friable in the upper part of the inches. The subsoil ranges from fine sandy loam to fine
subsoil. sandy clay loam but is mainly fine sandy clay loam. In
The native vegetation is mainly longleaf, slash, and places the subsoil grades gradually from fine sandy clay
loblolly pines, various oaks, sweetgum, hickory, low loam in the upper part to fine sandy loam in the lower
shrubs, and native grasses. All the acreage is in native part. In a few places the lower subsoil consists of mixed
vegetation, though Izagora soils are suited to some culti- layers of loamy sand and fine sand.
vated crops. These soils are mainly in small isolated Included with this soil are a few areas of fine sandy
areas, normally surrounded by soils that are poorly suited loam. Also included are small areas that are somewhat
to cultivation, poorly drained. In these areas the B horizon is weaker







GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 77

than that in well-drained areas and is more intensely fine root channels; few fine pores; strongly acid;
mottled and less yellowish or brownish in color. boundary abrupt and smooth.
This soil contains a medium amount of organic matter A 3 to 9 inches, dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2) loamy fine
sand; weak, medium, crumb structure; very friable;
and is loamy enough to have good tilth. Its cation-ex- many roots; few fine root channels; few fine pores;
change capacity is moderately high. The available strongly acid; boundary abrupt and wavy.
moisture-holding capacity is moderate in the surface soil A3 9 to 15 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) loamy fine
and moderately high in the subsoil. This soil has low sand; moderate, medium, crumb structure; friable;
few fine roots; few fine pores; strongly acid; boundary
natural fertility but responds well to fertilizer. When gradual and wavy.
rainfall is above normal, the water table is near the B, 15 to 21 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) fine sandy
surface. loam; weak, fine, subangular blocky structure that
This soil is suited to most general crops grown locally. breaks readily to moderate, medium, crumb struc-
ture; friable; few fine roots; few fine pores; strongly
Because of the slow drainage in the subsoil, however acid; boundary gradual and wavy.
some crops are not suited. If this soil were cleared, the B2 21 to 39 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) fine sandy
most suitable crops would be corn, small grains, and truck clay loam; moderate, fine and medium, subangular
crops. This soil is well suited to improved pasture, in- blocky structure and moderate, medium, crumb
structure; friable; few fine roots and common fine
cluding whiteclover. It is well suited as woodland and root channels; common fine pores; strongly acid;
as a habitat for wildlife. Capability unit IIsw-2. boundary gradual and irregular.
Ba 39 to 49 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) fine sandy
Kalmia series loam with common, fine, distinct, strong-brown
(7.5YR 5/6) mottles and common, fine, distinct, gray
The Ialmia series consists of deep, well-drained, (10YR 6/1) mottles; weak, fine, subangular blocky
strongly acid soils. These soils are in nearly level areas structure and moderate, medium, crumb structure;
on stream terraces. In this county they occur in a small friable; very few fine roots; few fine pores; strongly
-acreage, only along the Ochlockonee River. They de- acid; boundary gradual and irregular.
acreage, only along the Ochlockonee 49 to 64 inches +, yelloish-brown (YR 5/6) fine sand
veloped from medium-textured sediments that washed with common, medium, distinct, strong-brown (7.5YR
from acid soils on the uplands of the Coastal Plain. 5/6) mottles and many, medium, distinct, white
These soils have loamy fine sand surface layers, 15 to (10YR 8/2) mottles; the white increases with in-
18 inches thick. They are black to dark gray in the upper creasing depth; single grain (tructureless; very
friable; slightly compact; few fine roots; strongly
part and grayish brown to yellowish brown in the lower acid.
part. The subsoil is yellow to yellowish-brown, friable The surface layer of this soil ranges from 3 to 7 inches in
fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam. It is underlain thickness. It is mainly dark gray but ranges from black
by mottled fine sand to fine sandy clay loam parent to dark gray. The finer textured subsoil is normally at
ma mia soils are associated with the Blanton, Izagora, depths less than 18 inches, but in a few places it is at depths
Congaree, and Myatt soils. They are better drained slightly more than 18 inches. The subsoil ranges from
and finer textured than the Blanton soils and are not so fine sandy loam to light fine sandy clay loam. In many
pale in the subsoil. They have a finer textured subsoil places the texture change is gradual from fine sandy clay
than the Huckabee soils. Kalmia soils are better drained loam in the upper part of the subsoil to fine sandy loam
than the Myatt soils and have a yellow instead of a and fine sand in the lower part. Mottles generally occur
gray subsoil. They are better drained and lighter colored below 38 inches, but brown and gray mottles occur at
in the subsoil than the Congaree soils and are less sus- depths of 28 to 30 inches in a few small areas. In these
ceptible to flooding. areas the soil is moderately well drained.
The native vegetation is mainly longleaf, slash, and Kalmia soil occurs in small areas surrounded by larger
loblolly pines, various oaks, sweetgum, low shrubs, and areas of soils that are poorly suited for use as cropland.
wiregrass. These soils occur in small isolated areas and Good tilth, good drainage, deep root zone, and high
.are still in native vegetation, available moisture-holding capacity make this soil well
Kalmia soils have medium external drainage and in- suited to general crops. This soil, however, is isolated from
ternal drainage. Their permeability is moderately rapid the general farming section of the county, and all of the
in the surface layers and moderate in the subsoil. They acreage is in native vegetation. It is well suited to
have a high capacity for holding available moisture and improved pasture, woodland, and wildlife habitats.
are well aerated throughout the profile. Tilth is good Capability unit I-1.
and natural fertility is moderate. These soils retain Klej series
plant nutrients and respond well to fertilizer. If they
were cleared, they would be suited to many crops. In the Klej series are deep, moderately well drained,
Only one soil in the Kalmia series is mapped in Gadsden strongly acid soils that occur on uplands in nearly level to
County. sloping areas. These soils have a fairly large total acreage
Kalmia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes (KaA).- that is about equally distributed throughout the county in
This well-drained, deep, nearly level soil is on terraces. small areas. The soils developed from thick beds of acid
It has a moderately fine textured, friable subsoil, sand and loamy sand underlain by sandy clay loam and
Profile in a nearly level, undisturbed area where the sandy clay.
vegetation is wiregrass, water oak, slash pine, and sweet- Klej soils have gray to dark-gray coarse sand to loamy
gum (location: NW}4SE% sec. 24, R. 2 W., T. 2 N.): sand surface layers, 7 to 14 inches thick. No B horizon
0 to 3 inches, lac 2/1 i has developed, and the surface layers grade into a yellow-
Ai 0 to 3 inches, black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; weak, ish-brown to yellow C horizon of coarse sands, sands, or
medium, crumb structure; very friable; high content ish-own to yellow C horizon of coarse sands, sands, or
of organic matter; many fine to medium roots; few loamy sands. The C horizon generally extends to a depth







GADSDEN COUNTY, FLORIDA 77

than that in well-drained areas and is more intensely fine root channels; few fine pores; strongly acid;
mottled and less yellowish or brownish in color. boundary abrupt and smooth.
This soil contains a medium amount of organic matter A 3 to 9 inches, dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2) loamy fine
sand; weak, medium, crumb structure; very friable;
and is loamy enough to have good tilth. Its cation-ex- many roots; few fine root channels; few fine pores;
change capacity is moderately high. The available strongly acid; boundary abrupt and wavy.
moisture-holding capacity is moderate in the surface soil A3 9 to 15 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) loamy fine
and moderately high in the subsoil. This soil has low sand; moderate, medium, crumb structure; friable;
few fine roots; few fine pores; strongly acid; boundary
natural fertility but responds well to fertilizer. When gradual and wavy.
rainfall is above normal, the water table is near the B, 15 to 21 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) fine sandy
surface. loam; weak, fine, subangular blocky structure that
This soil is suited to most general crops grown locally. breaks readily to moderate, medium, crumb struc-
ture; friable; few fine roots; few fine pores; strongly
Because of the slow drainage in the subsoil, however acid; boundary gradual and wavy.
some crops are not suited. If this soil were cleared, the B2 21 to 39 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) fine sandy
most suitable crops would be corn, small grains, and truck clay loam; moderate, fine and medium, subangular
crops. This soil is well suited to improved pasture, in- blocky structure and moderate, medium, crumb
structure; friable; few fine roots and common fine
cluding whiteclover. It is well suited as woodland and root channels; common fine pores; strongly acid;
as a habitat for wildlife. Capability unit IIsw-2. boundary gradual and irregular.
Ba 39 to 49 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) fine sandy
Kalmia series loam with common, fine, distinct, strong-brown
(7.5YR 5/6) mottles and common, fine, distinct, gray
The Ialmia series consists of deep, well-drained, (10YR 6/1) mottles; weak, fine, subangular blocky
strongly acid soils. These soils are in nearly level areas structure and moderate, medium, crumb structure;
on stream terraces. In this county they occur in a small friable; very few fine roots; few fine pores; strongly
-acreage, only along the Ochlockonee River. They de- acid; boundary gradual and irregular.
acreage, only along the Ochlockonee 49 to 64 inches +, yelloish-brown (YR 5/6) fine sand
veloped from medium-textured sediments that washed with common, medium, distinct, strong-brown (7.5YR
from acid soils on the uplands of the Coastal Plain. 5/6) mottles and many, medium, distinct, white
These soils have loamy fine sand surface layers, 15 to (10YR 8/2) mottles; the white increases with in-
18 inches thick. They are black to dark gray in the upper creasing depth; single grain (tructureless; very
friable; slightly compact; few fine roots; strongly
part and grayish brown to yellowish brown in the lower acid.
part. The subsoil is yellow to yellowish-brown, friable The surface layer of this soil ranges from 3 to 7 inches in
fine sandy loam to fine sandy clay loam. It is underlain thickness. It is mainly dark gray but ranges from black
by mottled fine sand to fine sandy clay loam parent to dark gray. The finer textured subsoil is normally at
ma mia soils are associated with the Blanton, Izagora, depths less than 18 inches, but in a few places it is at depths
Congaree, and Myatt soils. They are better drained slightly more than 18 inches. The subsoil ranges from
and finer textured than the Blanton soils and are not so fine sandy loam to light fine sandy clay loam. In many
pale in the subsoil. They have a finer textured subsoil places the texture change is gradual from fine sandy clay
than the Huckabee soils. Kalmia soils are better drained loam in the upper part of the subsoil to fine sandy loam
than the Myatt soils and have a yellow instead of a and fine sand in the lower part. Mottles generally occur
gray subsoil. They are better drained and lighter colored below 38 inches, but brown and gray mottles occur at
in the subsoil than the Congaree soils and are less sus- depths of 28 to 30 inches in a few small areas. In these
ceptible to flooding. areas the soil is moderately well drained.
The native vegetation is mainly longleaf, slash, and Kalmia soil occurs in small areas surrounded by larger
loblolly pines, various oaks, sweetgum, low shrubs, and areas of soils that are poorly suited for use as cropland.
wiregrass. These soils occur in small isolated areas and Good tilth, good drainage, deep root zone, and high
.are still in native vegetation, available moisture-holding capacity make this soil well
Kalmia soils have medium external drainage and in- suited to general crops. This soil, however, is isolated from
ternal drainage. Their permeability is moderately rapid the general farming section of the county, and all of the
in the surface layers and moderate in the subsoil. They acreage is in native vegetation. It is well suited to
have a high capacity for holding available moisture and improved pasture, woodland, and wildlife habitats.
are well aerated throughout the profile. Tilth is good Capability unit I-1.
and natural fertility is moderate. These soils retain Klej series
plant nutrients and respond well to fertilizer. If they
were cleared, they would be suited to many crops. In the Klej series are deep, moderately well drained,
Only one soil in the Kalmia series is mapped in Gadsden strongly acid soils that occur on uplands in nearly level to
County. sloping areas. These soils have a fairly large total acreage
Kalmia loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes (KaA).- that is about equally distributed throughout the county in
This well-drained, deep, nearly level soil is on terraces. small areas. The soils developed from thick beds of acid
It has a moderately fine textured, friable subsoil, sand and loamy sand underlain by sandy clay loam and
Profile in a nearly level, undisturbed area where the sandy clay.
vegetation is wiregrass, water oak, slash pine, and sweet- Klej soils have gray to dark-gray coarse sand to loamy
gum (location: NW}4SE% sec. 24, R. 2 W., T. 2 N.): sand surface layers, 7 to 14 inches thick. No B horizon
0 to 3 inches, lac 2/1 i has developed, and the surface layers grade into a yellow-
Ai 0 to 3 inches, black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; weak, ish-brown to yellow C horizon of coarse sands, sands, or
medium, crumb structure; very friable; high content ish-own to yellow C horizon of coarse sands, sands, or
of organic matter; many fine to medium roots; few loamy sands. The C horizon generally extends to a depth







78 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 5

below 42 inches, but in some areas where the Klej soils depths but the intensity of the gray increases with in-
are shallower than normal, a D horizon of finer textured creasing depth.
material is at depths of 30 to 42 inches. A few, fine, faint Included with this soil are a few small areas of coarse
mottles of various shades of yellow and brown are nor- sand. Also included are a few small areas of loamy sand
mally at depths of 22 to 30 inches. In some areas these and fine sand where these sands extend to depths of more
mottles are as shallow as 20 inches or as deep as 34 inches. than 42 inches.
With increasing depth, the soil material is more distinctly Mainly because this soil leaches rapidly and is drought,
mottled with various shades of yellow, brown, and gray. it produces only moderate yields of most crops, even when
The Klej soils are closely associated with the Lakeland, it is managed well. It occurs in small areas with larger
Blanton, Plummer, Goldsboro, and Lynchburg soils, areas of similar sandy soils and generally is managed with
They are less well drained than the Lakeland soils and these soils. Locally grown crops best suited to this soil
are mottled at shallower depths. Except for color, which are corn and small grains. If this soil is managed well, it
is more yellow than gray, their surface layer is similar can produce good improved pasture of bahiagrass and other
to that of the Blanton soils. Their coarse-textured mate- drought-resistant grasses. It is well suited to woodland
rial extends to greater depths than that of the Goldsboro and makes a good habitat for wildlife. Capability unit
soils, and they are better drained than the Plummer soils. IIIse-3.
The native vegetation is mainly longleaf and slash Klej sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (KsC).-This soil has
pines, myrtle, gallberry, various oaks, and wiregrass. more rapid surface runoff than Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent
Most of the acreage is in native vegetation, especially slopes, and has scattered shallow gullies in a few areas.
where the subsoil is chiefly sand. Some areas of loamy Unprotected areas are susceptible to wind and water
sands and sands have been cleared and are in corn or erosion.
other cultivated crops and pasture plants. This soil is not well suited to the general farm crops
Klej soils have low surface runoff, and their internal grown in the county. It normally occurs in small narrow
drainage is restricted by a high water table. The perme- areas adjacent to larger areas of less strongly sloping but
ability, except in the loamy sand areas, is very rapid, and similar soils, and generally it is managed along with these
the capacity to retain plant nutrients is poor. These soils soils. It is best suited to improved pastures of deep-
have low natural fertility and are not loamy enough to rooting, drought-resistant grasses, to woodland, and to
have good tilth. Their poor soil qualities limit their use wildlife habitats. Capability unit IVse-3.
for general farm crops. Klej loamy sand, shallow, 2 to 5 percent slopes (K b B).-
Klej sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (KsB).-This is a mod- This moderately drained soil occurs in gently sloping
erately well drained, deep soil that is coarse textured to areas on uplands. Its loamy sand texture extends to
depths of more than 42 inches. It is on uplands in nearly depths of 30 to 42 inches. It differs from Klej sand, 0 to 5
level to gently sloping areas. percent slopes, mainly in texture of the surface layers and
Profile in a nearly level cultivated area (location: sec. 2, in having sandy loam or sandy clay loam beginning at
R. 4., T. 3 N.): depths between 30 and 42 inches.
A, 0 to 3 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain (structure- Profile in a gently sloping, undisturbed area where the
less); loose; few fine roots; low content of organic mat- vegetation is mainly wiregrass, slash pine, runner oak,
ter; strongly acid; boundary abrupt and smooth, maple, and fern (location: SW}4NE~% sec. 36, R. 5 W.,
A2 3 to 9 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sand; common, faint, pale- T. 3 N.):
brown (10YR 6/3) splotches; single grain (structure-
less); loose; few fine and medium roots and root chan- A, 0 to 4 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) loamy sand; weak,
nels; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy. fine, crumb structure; loose; numerous fine and
C, 9 to 22 inches, yellow (10YR 7/6) sand; few, distinct, white medium roots; moderate content of organic matter;
(10YR 8/1) streaks that have penetrated along the strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.
root channels from above; few fine roots and root As 4 to 13 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) loamy sand; single grain
channels; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy. (structureless); loose; numerous fine to medium roots
C, 22 to 36 inches, yellow (10YR 8/6) sand; few, medium, and numerous fine root channels; strongly acid;
faint, yellow (10YR 7/8) mottles; single grain (struc- boundary clear and wavy.
tureless); loose; few fine to medium root channels; C, 13 to 21 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) loamy
strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy. sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; loose; common
C3 36 to 47 inches, mottled yellow (10YR 7/6) and very pale- fine roots and root channels filled with grayish-brown
brown (10YR 8/3) sand; few, fine, distinct mottles of (10YR 5/2) material; strongly acid; boundary gradual
reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8); single grain (structure- and wavy.
less); loose; few fine to medium root channels; strongly C2 21 to 27 inches, yellow (10YR 7/8) loamy sand; few, fine,
acid; boundary gradual and irregular. faint, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) mottles; weak,
C4 47 to 56 inches +, yellow (10YR 8/6) sand; common, fine, crumb structure; loose; few fine roots and root
medium, distinct, white (10YR 8/2) and common, channels; strongly acid; boundary clear and wavy.
medium, distinct, reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/8) mottles; Ca 27 to 35 inches, yellow (10YR 7/8) loamy sand; common,
single grain (structureless); loose; strongly acid. medium, faint, yellow (10YR 8/6) and common, fine,
faint, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) mottles; weak,
The surface layer of this soil ranges from dark gray to fine, crumb structure; loose; very few fine roots;
gray in color and from 2 to 5 inches in thickness. The sub- strongly acid; boundary gradual and wavy.
surface layer ranges from gray to light brownish gray in C4 35 to 41 inches, yellow (10YR 8/8) sandy loam with com-
color and from 3 to 6 inches in thickness. The subsoil is mon, fine, faint, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles
and few, fine, faint, very pale brown (10YR 8/4)
light yellowish brown to yellow to depths of about 36 mottles; weak, very fine, crumb structure; loose; very
inches. Pale-brown and yellow mottles are normally at few fine roots; strongly acid; boundary gradual and
depths of 22 to 30 inches, but in a few small areas they are wavy.
at depths of 30 to 36 inches. Below a depth of about 36 DD 41 to 54 inches, yellow (10YR 7/8), light sandy clay loam
epth of 3 to 3 inces elow a deth o aot with common, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown
inches, the very pale brown mottles dominate at shallower (10YR 5/8) mottles and few, fine, faint, very pale




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