• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Brevard County, Florida
 Environmental factors affecting...
 How this survey was made
 General soil map
 Descriptions of the soils
 Use and management of the...
 Formation and classification of...
 Literature cited
 Glossary
 Guide to mapping units
 Index to map
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Brevard County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026071/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Brevard County, Florida
Physical Description: 123 p., 56 fold. leaves of plates : ill. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Huckle, Horace F., 1924-
Dollar, Hershel D. ( joint author )
Pendleton, Robert F. ( joint author )
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1974
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Brevard County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Brevard County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 121-122.
Statement of Responsibility: by Horace F. Huckle, Hershel D. Dollar, and Robert F. Pendleton, United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Part of illustrative matter in pocket.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026071
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001158454
notis - AFQ8607
oclc - 01677331
lccn - 75601115

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Brevard County, Florida
        Page 1
    Environmental factors affecting soil use
        Cultural features
            Page 2
        Climate
            Page 2
            Page 3
        Farming
            Page 4
        Water
            Page 4
    How this survey was made
        Page 4
    General soil map
        Page 5
        Soils of the sand ridges
            Page 6
            Paola-Pomello-Astatula association
                Page 6
            Canaveral-Palm Beach-Welaka association
                Page 7
        Soils of the broad grassy flats
            Page 7
            Pompano association
                Page 7
        Soils of the flatwoods
            Page 8
            Myakka-EauGallie-Immokalee association
                Page 8
            Pineda-Wabasso association
                Page 9
        Soils of the hammocks and low ridges
            Page 9
            Myakka-Bradenton shallow variant - Copeland association
                Page 9
            Copeland-Wabasso association
                Page 10
        Soils of the St. Johns river flood plains
            Page 10
            Felds-Floridana-Winder association
                Page 10
            Floridana-Chobee-Felda association
                Page 10
        Soils of the swamps and marshes and very wet areas
            Page 11
            Montverde-Micco-Tomoka association
                Page 11
            Swamp association
                Page 11
            Tidal marsh-Tidal swamp association
                Page 11
    Descriptions of the soils
        Page 12
        Anclote series
            Page 13
        Astatula series
            Page 13
        Basinger series
            Page 14
        Bradenton series, shallow variant
            Page 15
        Canaveral series
            Page 15
        Canova series
            Page 16
        Chobee series
            Page 17
        Coastal beaches
            Page 18
        Cocoa series
            Page 18
        Copeland series
            Page 19
        EauGallie series
            Page 20
        Felda series
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Floridana series
            Page 23
        Galveston series
            Page 24
        Holopaw series
            Page 24
        Immokalee series
            Page 25
        Malabar series
            Page 26
        Micco series
            Page 27
        Montverde series
            Page 28
        Myakka series
            Page 29
            Page 30
        Oldsmar series
            Page 31
        Orsino series
            Page 32
        Palm Beach series
            Page 33
        Paola series
            Page 33
        Parkwood series, moderately fine subsoil variant
            Page 34
        Pineda series
            Page 35
        Pineda series, dark surface variant
            Page 36
        Pomello series
            Page 37
        Pompano series
            Page 38
        Quartzipsamments, smoothed
            Page 39
        Satellite series
            Page 39
        St. Johns series
            Page 40
        St. Lucie series
            Page 41
        Spoil banks
            Page 41
        Swamp
            Page 41
        Tavares series
            Page 41
        Terra Ceia series
            Page 42
        Tidal marsh
            Page 43
        Tidal swamp
            Page 43
        Tomoka series
            Page 43
            Page 44
        Urban land
            Page 45
        Valkaria series
            Page 45
        Wabasso series
            Page 45
        Welaka land
            Page 46
        Winder land
            Page 47
    Use and management of the soils
        Cultivated crops, citrus crops and pasture
            Page 48
            Page 49
        Capability grouping
            Page 50
            Management of soils by capability units
                Page 50
                Page 51
                Page 52
                Page 53
                Page 54
        Estimated yields
            Page 55
        Range and grazeable woodland
            Page 55
            Grazeable woodland
                Page 56
            Descriptions of sites
                Page 56
                Page 57
                Page 58
                Page 59
                Page 60
            Major grazing management practices
                Page 61
        Woodland
            Page 61
            General woodland management
                Page 61
            Woodland suitability groups
                Page 62
                Page 63
                Page 64
        Wildlife
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
        Town and country planning
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
        Soils and engineering
            Page 82
            Engineering classification systems
                Page 83
            Engineering test data
                Page 83
            Soil properties significant in engineering
                Page 83
                Page 84
                Page 85
                Page 86
                Page 87
                Page 88
                Page 89
                Page 90
                Page 91
                Page 92
                Page 93
                Page 94
                Page 95
                Page 96
                Page 97
                Page 98
                Page 99
                Page 100
                Page 101
                Page 102
                Page 103
                Page 104
                Page 105
            Engineering interpretations
                Page 106
    Formation and classification of soils
        Page 107
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 107
            Living organisms
                Page 107
            Climate
                Page 107
            Time
                Page 108
            Relief
                Page 108
            Parent material
                Page 108
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 108
        Classification of the soils
            Page 109
        Physical, chemical, and clay mineralogical analysis
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
    Literature cited
        Page 121
    Glossary
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Guide to mapping units
        Page 124
    Index to map
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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Full Text




SOIL SURVEY OF


Brevard County, Florida

























SUnited States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations

Issued November 1974










Major fieldwork for this soil survey was done in the period 1964-69. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1970. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this publi-
cation refer to conditions in the county in 1970. This survey was made cooperatively by
the Soil Conservation Service, the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the Brevard Soil and Water Conservation
District. The Brevard Board of County Commissioners contributed financially to accelerate
the completion of fieldwork for the soil survey.
Either enlarged or reduced copies of the soil map in this publication can be made
by commercial photographers, or they can be purchased on individual order from the
Cartographic Division, Soil Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D.C. 20250.


HOW TO USE THIS SOIL SURVEY
THIS SOIL SURVEY contains infor- with a moderate limitation can be colored
nation that can be applied in manag- yellow, and those with a severe limitation
ing farms, ranches, and woodlands; in can be colored red.
selecting sites for roads, ponds, buildings, Farmers and those who work with farm-
and other structures; and in judging the ers can learn about use and management
suitability of tracts of land for farming of the soils from the soil descriptions and
and ranching, industry, and recreation, from the descriptions of the capability
units and the range sites.
Locating Soils Foresters and others can refer to the
All the soils of Brevard County are section "Woodland," where the soils of the
shown on the detailed map at the back of county are grouped according to their
this publication. The map consists of many suitability for trees.
sheets made from aerial photographs. Game managers, sportsmen, and others
Each sheet is numbered to correspond with can find information about soils and wild-
a number on the Index to Map Sheets. life in the section "Wildlife."
On each sheet of the detailed map, soil Ranchers and others can find, under
areas are outlined and are identified by "Range and Grazeable Woodland," group-
symbols. All areas marked with the same ings of the soils according to their suit-
symbol are the same kind of soil. The soil ability for range, and also the names of
symbol is inside the area if there is enough many of the plants that grow on each
room; otherwise, it is outside and a pointer range site.
shows where the symbol belongs. Community planners and others can
Spread about soil properties that affect the
Finding and Using Information choice of sites for dwellings, industrial
The "Guide to Mapping Units" can be buildings, and for recreation areas in the
used to find information. This guide lists section "Town and Country Planning."
all the soils of the county in alphabetic Engineers and builders can find, under
order by map symbol and gives the capa- "Town and Country Planning" and "Soils
ability classification of each. It also shows and Engineering," tables that contain test
the page where each soil is described and data, estimates of soil properties, and in-
the page for the capability unit and range formation about soil features that affect
site in which the soil has been placed. engineering practices.
Individual colored maps showing the Scientists and others can read about
relative suitability or degree of limitation how the soils formed and how they are
of soils for many specific purposes can be classified in the section "Formation and
devolped by using the soil map and the Classification of Soils."
information in the text. Translucent ma- Newcomers to Brevard County may be
trial can be used as an overlay over the especially interested in the section "Gen-
soil map and colored to show soils that eral Soil Map," where broad patterns of
have the same limitation or suitability. For soils are described. They may also be inter-
example, soils that have slight limitation ested in the information about the county
for a given use can be colored green, those given at the beginning of the publication.

Cover: Launch complex on Canaveral-Palm Beach-Welaka
association. Soils of this association are poor for farming,
but provide a good site for launching facilities.


















Contents

Page Descriptions of the soils-Continued Page
Environmental factors affecting soil use--------------- 2 Pineda series, dark surface variant -------------------- 36
Cultural features----------------------------------- 2 Pomello series------------------------------------- 37
Climate---------- ----------------------------- 2 Pompano series --------------------------------- 38
Farming------------------------------------------ 4 Quartzipsamments, smoothed ------------------------- 39
Water ------------------------------------------ 4 Satellite series---- ------------------------------ 39
How this survey was made---------------------------- 4 St. Johns series------------------------------------ 40
General soil map----------------------------------- 5 St. Lucie series --------------------- ----------41
Soils of the sand ridges---.----------------- --------- 6 Spoil banks-------------------------------------- 41
1. Paola-Pomello-Astatula association --------------- 6 Swamp------------------------------------------ 41
2. Canaveral-Palm Beach-Welaka association-------- 7 Tavares series----------------------------------- 41
Soils of the broad grassy flats ----------- -------- 7 Terra Ceia series-------------------------------- 42
3. Pompano association------------- ------ 7 Tidal marsh--- ----------_------------------- 43
Soils of the flatwoods ---...-- --------------- ------- 8 Tidal swamp-------------------------------------- 43
4. Myakka-EauGallie-Immokalee association ------. 8 Tomoka series---- ------------------------ 43
5. Pineda-Wabasso association ----------------- 9 Urban land ----------------------------------- 45
Soils of the hammocks and low ridges------------------ 9 Valkaria series----------------------------------- 45
6. Myakka-Bradenton shallow variant-Copeland as- Wabasso series------------------------------------ 45
sociation--------------------------------- 9 Welaka series----------------------------------- 46
7. Copeland-Wabasso association ------------------ 10 Winder series--_--------------------------- 47
Soils of the St. Johns River flood plains---------------- 10 Use and management of the soils----_------------------ 48
8. Felda-Floridana-Winder association---- --------- 10 Cultivated crops, citrus crops, and pasture ------------ 48
9. Floridana-Chobee-Felda association-------------- 1Q Capability grouping ---------------_---.------------ 50
Soils of the swamps and marshes and very wet areas 11 Management of soils by capability units ------------ 50
10. Montverde-Micoo-Tomoka association----------- 11 Estimated yields------------------------------- 55
11. Swamp association--------------------------- 11 Range and grazeable woodland------------------------ 55
12. Tidal marsh-Tidal swamp association ---------- 11 Range sites and condition classes ---------------------- 55
Descriptions of the soils---------------------- ----- 12 Grazeable woodland-------------- ------------ 56
Anclote series ------------------------ ---------- 13 Descriptions of sites-----__- ------------------ 56
Astatula series ----------------------------------- 13 Major grazing management practices--------------- 61
Basinger series ------------------------------------ 14 Woodland---------------------------------------- 61
Bradenton series, shallow variant ------------------- 15 General woodland management_ -------------------- 61
Canaveral series---------------------------------- 15 Woodland suitability groups------------------- 62
Canova series----------------------------------- 16 Wildlife ------------------------- ---------------- 65
Chobee series ----------------------- --------- 17 Town and country planning ----------------------- 72
Coastal beaches--------------------------------- 18 Soils and engineering-------------------------------- 82
Cocoa series ------------------------------------ 18 Engineering classification systems ---_-------------- 83
Copeland series ---_-------- --------------------- 19 Engineering test data-_--------------------_-- --- 83
EauGallie series --------------------------------- 20 Soil properties significant in engineering ------------ 83
Felda series-------------------------------------- 21 Engineering interpretations ------------------------ 106
Floridana series--_---_ --- ------------------- -- 23 Formation and classification of soils --------------------- 107
Galveston series --------------------------------- 24 Factors of soil formation -------------------------- 107
Holopaw series ------------------------------------ 24 Living organisms-------------------------------- 107
Immokalee series---------------------------------- 25 Climate- --------------------------------- 107
Malabar series---------------------------------- 26 Time------------------------------------------ 108
Micco series------------------------------------- 27 Relief-------------------------------------------- 108
Montverde series----------------------------------- 28 Parent material--------------------------------- 108
Myakka series------------------------------------- 29 Processes of soil formation ------------------------- 108
Oldsmar series 31 Classification of the soils ---------------------------- 109
Pa Bseah series-- ---------------------------- 33 Physical, chemical, and clay mineralogical analysis ----- 109
Palm Beach series - - - - 3
Paola series--_---------- ------------------- 33 Literature cited-------------------------- 121
Parkwood series, moderately fine subsoil variant--------- 34 Glossary----------------------- ----------------- 122
Pineda series--------------------..--------------- 35 Guide to mapping units------------------ Following 123














Issued November 1974















SOIL SURVEY OF BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA

BY HORACE F. CHUCKLE, HERSHEL D. DOLLAR, AND ROBERT F. PENDLETON,1 SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE, IN COOPERATION WITH UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS



BREVARD COUNTY is on the Atlantic Coast near Brevard County is on the coastal lowlands of Florida
the middle of the Florida Peninsula (fig. 1). It is (7).2 The principal features are the St. Johns River Val-
bordered on the north by Volusia County, on the west by ley, the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, and the Barrier Islands.
Osceola, Orange, and Volusia Counties, on the south by The St. Johns River Valley includes all of the area west
Indian River County, and on the east by the Atlantic of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. The source of the St.
Ocean. Cape Kennedy forms the central part of the At- Johns River is the marsh area in the southern part of
lantic coast line of Brevard County. The cape is conspicu- the county. The river forms a definite channel where it
ous in that it breaks the relatively smooth line of Florida's leaves Lake Hellen Blazes. It then passes through Saw-
east coast. grass Lake, Lake Washington, Lake Winder, and Lake
The land area within the county is 660,480 acres, or 1,032 Poinsett. From Lake Poinsett it flows along the western
square miles. Freshwater lakes cover about 12,550 acres, border of the county until it reaches a point west of
and salt water about 159,245 acres. The county is about 72 Titusville, where it flows out of the county and continues
miles long and about 25 miles wide. Titusville, the county flowing northward until it discharges into the Atlantic
seat, is in the northern part of the county near the Indian Ocean near Jacksonville.
River. Approximate distances by air from Titusville to The St. Johns River Valley is made up of marsh,
the principal cities in the State are shown in figure 1. sandy prairie, and flatwoods.
Much of the land immediately adjacent to the river is
marsh and is covered with water when the river is at
flood stage. The marsh ranges from less than 1 mile
TALHASE to more than 7 miles in width. It is less than 25 feet
CKSONVILLE above sea level. The vegetation is mainly marsh grasses
and a few palm hammocks and clusters of cypress trees.
-I Vy The sandy prairie borders the marsh in some places
and is as much as several miles wide. It, too, is part of
the St. Johns River flood plain and is flooded frequently.
The vegetation is mainly grasses, saw-palmetto, many
low shrubs, and a few cabbage palm hammocks.
mIUSVL The pine and palmetto flatwoods lie between the
SI prairie and the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. The prairie and
forest areas are less than a mile to more than 12 miles
wide. In some places the flatwoods area borders the
marsh. The flatwoods is nearly level and poorly drained.
There are numerous scattered intermittent ponds, lakes,
swamps, and sloughs. The altitude east of the St. Johns
River ranges from a few feet above sea level along the
border of the marsh to about 35 feet above sea level.
Other areas of flatwoods, in the southwest corner of the
,""' county, rise to an elevation of about 52 feet. The vegeta-
S' tion is mostly pine, saw-palmetto, and wiregrasses.
The Atlantic Coastal Ridge is bordered on the west
*... ,A E ..... 1. by the flatwoods and on the east by the Indian River.
*aAriiEnan_______________ ____ It extends the entire length of the county and is 11/2 to
Figure Location of Brevard County in Florida. 3 miles wide. The landscape is one of parallel, north-
ure location of Brevard County Florida. south, elongated ridges and intervening swales. In the
Sswales are many shallow ponds, lakes, and long narrow
1 Others participating in the field survey were W. D. BABNDT, sloughs. The ridge ranges from sea level to an elevation
D. L. COBB, O. E. CRUz, A. L. FURMAN, A. HYDE, L. LAW, JR., D. E. a f a lvl
PETTY, E. H. RAWLS, J. L. SULLIVAN, and H. O. WHITE, Soil Con-
servation Service. G Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 121.
1







2 SO&L SURVEY
of 55 feet, the highest in the county. Its crest forms the moved to Cape Canaveral and the Cape was selected as
natural drainage divide between the St. Johns River and a launching facility for the exploration of space, and
the Indian River basins. A series of small streams flow again in 1963 when 88,000 acres on North Merritt Island
eastward out of the ridge into the Indian River. The became the John F. Kennedy Space Center under the
western slope is drained by a series of small intercon- National Aeronautics and Space Administration. In
necting depressions that channel water westward into the 1950, the population was 23,653; in 1960, it had in-
St. Johns River. The vegetation is mainly saw-palmetto, creased to 111,435, and in 1970, it totaled 224,367.
sand pine, scrub oak, and shrubs. Since the beginning of the space program industrial
The Barrier Islands are separated from the mainland employment in the county has increased greatly. Pre-
by the Indian River and are bordered on the east by cision instruments, electrical machinery, and transpor-
the Atlantic Ocean. They are made up of relict beach station equipment are manufactured. Food products, fab-
ridges formed by the action of wind and waves along ricated metals, and a little lumber and furniture are
the shore. The main ridge is a few hundred feet to a mile other products. Large numbers are employed in con-
wide. Cape Kennedy is about 41/2 miles wide, and Mer- struction, and many more are employed by the space
ritt Island is about 7 miles wide. The islands range from program. The number employed in agricultural enter-
sea level along the shore to an elevation of 20 feet prise has increased in the last few years, but the per-
along the crest of the dune ridges. The vegetation is the centage of total population employed in agriculture has
kind that thrives in saline soil and air, most commonly decreased during the same period.
sea oats, saw-palmetto, sea grape, cocoa plum, wax Commercial fishing is important to the economy of the
myrtle, lantana, and bay cedar. county. In 1968 more than two million pounds of food
Brevard County is an urban and specialized farming fish were landed in the county and almost two and a
area. Centers of population are along the Indian River half million pounds of shell fish. A shrimp fleet docks at
on the mainland, on South Merritt Island, and on the Port Canaveral.
Atlantic barrier beaches. The Cape Kennedy Air Force Community facilities have expanded rapidly since the
Station is located on Canaveral Peninsula, and the John beginning of the space program and the expansion of the
F. Kennedy Space Center is on North Merritt Island. several urban centers. All parts of the county are ade-
The main crops are citrus and forage grasses. Commer- quately served by electric and telephone facilities. Natu-
cial beef raising is important in the county. A few vege- ral gas is available in many places.
tables and subtropical fruits are grown. A humid, tem- Recreational activities are mostly centered around the
operate climate prevails. Rainfall is abundant and is more many miles of coastal beaches and large expanses of
plentiful in summer than in other seasons, inland waters in the Indian and Banana Rivers, the
St. Johns River, and large freshwater lakes. The
beaches attract many visitors, and surfing is popular.
Environmental Factors Affecting Boating, water skiing, and fishing are common activities
on the Indian and Banana Rivers. Deep sea fishing is
Soil Use popular on the ocean. Recreational parks that have
facilities for swimming, picnicking, and camping are
This section describes the chief natural and cultural battered about the county Horseback riding is popular.
features that affect the use and management of the soils Most of Brevard County is served by good transpor-
in Brevard County. station facilities. Several county, State, and Federal high-
ways provide ready access between population centers
Cultural Features within the county and the State. The mainland is con-
time of discovery in 1513 to more than 300 nected to Merritt Island and the beaches by a modern
From the time of discovery 1513 to more than 300 system of bridges. Airline service is available in Mel-
years later the area that is now Brevard County was bourne, Titusville, and Cocoa. Rail and bus service are
practically a wilderness, occupied mostly by Indians, available between most cities in the county. The Intra-
shipwrecked sailors, and a few Spanish friars. coastal Waterway provides a water route through the
In 1818, Colonel Thomas Dummitt became the first counastal Waterway provides and water route through theer La-
settler. The citrus grove he established is considered to goon. Port Canaveral is a deepwater port where naval
be the nation's oldest commercial grove. Another early ships and commercial freighters dock and load and un-
settler was Captain Miles O. Burnham who was the i
first lighthouse keeper on the Cape.
The first record of any real settlement in the county
was in 1856, when 30 to 40 families formed the com- Climate
munity of Canaveral, just about where the City of Cape The climate in Brevard County is characterized by
Canaveral is now. Early settlements were along the east long, relatively humid summers and mild winters. Rain-
coast near rivers, where population growth and urban fall is heaviest in summer. About 65 percent of the an-
development are still concentrated. nual total falls from June through October in an aver-
Early settlement of Brevard County was slow. The age year. The other 35 percent is more or less evenly
1850 census showed a population of 139. Economic. distributed throughout the rest of the year.
growth began in the 80's with regular steamer service Temperatures in both summer and winter are mod-
on the Indian River. rated by the waters of the Indian and Banana Rivers
Rapid growth in population occurred after World 3FRANKLIN NEWHALL, climatologist, Soil Conservation Service,
War II when the long-range missile program was helped prepare this section.







2 SO&L SURVEY
of 55 feet, the highest in the county. Its crest forms the moved to Cape Canaveral and the Cape was selected as
natural drainage divide between the St. Johns River and a launching facility for the exploration of space, and
the Indian River basins. A series of small streams flow again in 1963 when 88,000 acres on North Merritt Island
eastward out of the ridge into the Indian River. The became the John F. Kennedy Space Center under the
western slope is drained by a series of small intercon- National Aeronautics and Space Administration. In
necting depressions that channel water westward into the 1950, the population was 23,653; in 1960, it had in-
St. Johns River. The vegetation is mainly saw-palmetto, creased to 111,435, and in 1970, it totaled 224,367.
sand pine, scrub oak, and shrubs. Since the beginning of the space program industrial
The Barrier Islands are separated from the mainland employment in the county has increased greatly. Pre-
by the Indian River and are bordered on the east by cision instruments, electrical machinery, and transpor-
the Atlantic Ocean. They are made up of relict beach station equipment are manufactured. Food products, fab-
ridges formed by the action of wind and waves along ricated metals, and a little lumber and furniture are
the shore. The main ridge is a few hundred feet to a mile other products. Large numbers are employed in con-
wide. Cape Kennedy is about 41/2 miles wide, and Mer- struction, and many more are employed by the space
ritt Island is about 7 miles wide. The islands range from program. The number employed in agricultural enter-
sea level along the shore to an elevation of 20 feet prise has increased in the last few years, but the per-
along the crest of the dune ridges. The vegetation is the centage of total population employed in agriculture has
kind that thrives in saline soil and air, most commonly decreased during the same period.
sea oats, saw-palmetto, sea grape, cocoa plum, wax Commercial fishing is important to the economy of the
myrtle, lantana, and bay cedar. county. In 1968 more than two million pounds of food
Brevard County is an urban and specialized farming fish were landed in the county and almost two and a
area. Centers of population are along the Indian River half million pounds of shell fish. A shrimp fleet docks at
on the mainland, on South Merritt Island, and on the Port Canaveral.
Atlantic barrier beaches. The Cape Kennedy Air Force Community facilities have expanded rapidly since the
Station is located on Canaveral Peninsula, and the John beginning of the space program and the expansion of the
F. Kennedy Space Center is on North Merritt Island. several urban centers. All parts of the county are ade-
The main crops are citrus and forage grasses. Commer- quately served by electric and telephone facilities. Natu-
cial beef raising is important in the county. A few vege- ral gas is available in many places.
tables and subtropical fruits are grown. A humid, tem- Recreational activities are mostly centered around the
operate climate prevails. Rainfall is abundant and is more many miles of coastal beaches and large expanses of
plentiful in summer than in other seasons, inland waters in the Indian and Banana Rivers, the
St. Johns River, and large freshwater lakes. The
beaches attract many visitors, and surfing is popular.
Environmental Factors Affecting Boating, water skiing, and fishing are common activities
on the Indian and Banana Rivers. Deep sea fishing is
Soil Use popular on the ocean. Recreational parks that have
facilities for swimming, picnicking, and camping are
This section describes the chief natural and cultural battered about the county Horseback riding is popular.
features that affect the use and management of the soils Most of Brevard County is served by good transpor-
in Brevard County. station facilities. Several county, State, and Federal high-
ways provide ready access between population centers
Cultural Features within the county and the State. The mainland is con-
time of discovery in 1513 to more than 300 nected to Merritt Island and the beaches by a modern
From the time of discovery 1513 to more than 300 system of bridges. Airline service is available in Mel-
years later the area that is now Brevard County was bourne, Titusville, and Cocoa. Rail and bus service are
practically a wilderness, occupied mostly by Indians, available between most cities in the county. The Intra-
shipwrecked sailors, and a few Spanish friars. coastal Waterway provides a water route through the
In 1818, Colonel Thomas Dummitt became the first counastal Waterway provides and water route through theer La-
settler. The citrus grove he established is considered to goon. Port Canaveral is a deepwater port where naval
be the nation's oldest commercial grove. Another early ships and commercial freighters dock and load and un-
settler was Captain Miles O. Burnham who was the i
first lighthouse keeper on the Cape.
The first record of any real settlement in the county
was in 1856, when 30 to 40 families formed the com- Climate
munity of Canaveral, just about where the City of Cape The climate in Brevard County is characterized by
Canaveral is now. Early settlements were along the east long, relatively humid summers and mild winters. Rain-
coast near rivers, where population growth and urban fall is heaviest in summer. About 65 percent of the an-
development are still concentrated. nual total falls from June through October in an aver-
Early settlement of Brevard County was slow. The age year. The other 35 percent is more or less evenly
1850 census showed a population of 139. Economic. distributed throughout the rest of the year.
growth began in the 80's with regular steamer service Temperatures in both summer and winter are mod-
on the Indian River. rated by the waters of the Indian and Banana Rivers
Rapid growth in population occurred after World 3FRANKLIN NEWHALL, climatologist, Soil Conservation Service,
War II when the long-range missile program was helped prepare this section.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

and the Atlantic Ocean. Maximum temperatures in sum- In many areas, particularly near the water, tempera-
mer show little day to day variation, and temperatures tures seldom drop below freezing. Important farming
as high as 950 F. are not common. Minimum temperatures is carried on in many local areas where freezing tem-
in winter vary considerably from day to day, largely peratures occur at least once each winter and on an
because periodic invasions of cold, dry air move south- average of five to ten times per year. Temperatures drop
ward from across the continent. Summarized tempera- to 280 or lower in the cold areas about three times in
ture and precipitation data, based on about 10 years of an average winter. Table 2 shows the probability of the
record from Titusville, are shown in table 1. Extreme first and last freezing temperatures based on observa-
temperatures during this period were a high of 1020 tions at Cocoa. The average date of the first freeze is
and a low of 230 F. December 30, and the last is January 27.

TABLE 1.-Temperature and precipitation
[All data from Titusville. Elevation 15 feet]

Average number Average number
Temperature of days with Precipitation of days with
temperature- rainfall of-

Month Average Average One year in 10
Average daily daily 900 F. 320 F. Average will have- 0.10 0.50
daily maxi- mini- or or total inch or inch or
mum mum more lower more more
Less More
than- than-

OF. OF. OF. Inches Inches Ines
January -------- 60.3 72.4 48.2 0 2 1.87 0.1 5.1 4 2
February.------- 62.9 74.7 51.0 0 1 2.36 1.3 4.1 5 2
March---------- 65.8 78.0 53.6 1 (1) 3.66 .2 9.0 6 3
April---------- 70.9 82.4 59.4 2 0 3.42 1.7 6.5 5 3
May------------ 76.3 87.6 65.0 9 0 3.18 .7 7.5 6 2
June ----------- 79.9 90.8 68.9 20 0 7.73 3.4 8.4 10 4
July------------ 81.3 91.9 70. 7 26 0 7.67 5.9 14.4 13 5
August --------- 81.7 91.9 71.4 26 0 6.95 2.3 19.8 9 5
September ----- 80. 1 88. 9 71. 1 14 0 8. 75 3.6 16. 0 12 6
October- ------ 74.0 83.3 64.9 3 0 6.18 3.2 13.7 8 5
November------- 67.3 78.0 56.6 0 (1) 2.18 .5 5.2 3 1
December------- 61.5 73.0 49.9 0 1 2.01 .5 4.3 4 1
Year .-------- 71.8 82. 7 60. 9 101 4 55. 96 43. 7 81.7 85 39

1 Less than 1 day.

TABLE 2.-Probabilities of first freezing temperatures in intense as in summer. Rainfall in excess of 8 inches
fall and last in spring during a 24-hour period can be expected sometime during
the year in about 1 year in 25.
[All data obtained from records at Cocoa. Elevation 25 feet] Hail falls occasionally during thunderstorms, but hail-
stones are usually small and seldom cause much damage.
Dates for given Snow is rare in Brevard County; when it occurs, it melts
Probability probability at a as it hits the ground.
temperature of 32* F.
or lower Tropical storms can affect the area any time from
___ __ early in June through mid-November. The changes of
winds reaching hurricane force, 74 miles per hour or
1 year in 10 earlier than------- November 30. greater, in Brevard County in any given year are about
2 years in 10 earlier than --------.-- December 13. 1 in 20. The copious rains and the flooding associated
5 years in 10 earlier than---------- December 30. with these storms can cause considerable damage.
Extended periods of dry weather can occur in any
Spring:r in 10 later than March 7. season, but are most common in spring and fall. Dry
2 years in 10 later than ------------ March 2. periods in April and May are generally of shorter
5 years in 10 later than. ----_----- January 27. duration than those in fall, but tend to be more serious.
Temperatures are higher, and the need for moisture is
greater.
Most rainfall in summer occurs as afternoon and eve- Prevailing winds are generally from the north and
ning showers and thundershowers; sometimes 2 or 3 east, except in March, when southerly winds prevail.
inches falls within ,an hour or two. Day-long rains in sum- Windspeeds are usually between 10 and 15 miles per
mer are rare. Generally they are associated with tropical hour in the afternoon, and 5 and 10 miles per hour at
storms. Rainfall in fall, winter, and spring is seldom as night.






4 SOiT SURVEY

Farming of the time. The lower part'of the sediments contains
saline water in some places.
Oranges were among the first crops grown by the The quality of nonartesian water is generally superior
early settlers. In 1S1., Captain Thomas Dummitt brought to that of artesian water. The high chloride content and
orange trees from the northern part of Florida to the hardness of some nonartesian water result, at least in
northern end of Merritt Island and grafted the imported part, from contamination by upward-flowing artesian
trees to wild sour orange trees growing in the area. water. The chemical composition of nonartesian water is
Citrus became the major farm crop. such that the water generally is suitable for all purposes.
According to the Conservation Needs Inventory, about Removing the iron and color and reducing the hardness,
24,500 acres in the county in 1968 was in citrus groves. however, genier1rll are desirable when the water is used
About 16,500 acres was in oranges, 3,250 in grapefruit, for domestic purposes. The nonartesian aquifer in the
and the rest in tangerines, temples, tnngelos, lemons, and Atlantic Coastal Ridge is the source of supply for several
limes. Between 1959 and 1964 the acreage planted to municipalities and hundreds of privately owned wells.
citrus increased about 28 percent. Any large water supply taken from a nonartesian
Tomatoes have been grown in scattered areas through- aquifer lowers the water table and either increases the
out the county, but mostly in the southern part. A few upward flow of artesian water into the nonartesian
are still grown occasionally, but not to the extent of aquifer, if such flow is occurring, or causes an upward
past years. A very small acreage is occasionally planted flow in areas where the flow is now downward.
to other vegetable crops, but not on a commercial scale. The source of the largest supply of artesian water in
About 40 acres of strawberries is planted yearly. Brevard County is the Floridan aquifer, which consists
A few plantings of mangos and avocados are on the of limestone formations of Eocene age and permeable
southern part of Merritt Island. Ornamental nursery beds in the basal part of the Hawthorne Formation of
operations have increased to furnish landscaping ma- Miocene age. The top of the aquifer is about 75 feet
trials to an expanding urban community, below sea level in the northwestern part of the county
Beef production, a cow-calf type of operation, is a and more than 300 feet below sea level in the southeast-
major enterprise, second only to citrus. About 400,000 ern part.
beef cattle, mostly Brahman and Black Angus, were The chloride content of artesian water in the county
in the county in. 1968. They graze about 60,000 acres ranges from about 32 to 14,500 parts per million. In gen-
of improved pasture and 150,100I acres of range. The eral, the quality of the artesian water is unsuitable for
county has only two dairies, public drinking, except in a small area in the south-
eastern corner of the county and in two small local
Water areas of recharge near Titusville. The chloride concen-
tration is highest in the central part of the county.
Large quantities of surface water are available at The Floridan aquifer is the main source of water for
many places in Brevard County. The St. Johns River irrigation. Many scattered artesian wells occur through-
throughout its length is a potential source of water for out the county. Generally, artesian water from wells on
municipal, industrial, and agricultural supplies. The Merritt Island and the low marine terrace east of Mime
lakes through which the river flows are natural reservoirs has such a high chloride content that it is not suitable
that have large storage capacities. for irrigation.
The analysis of water from the St. Johns River shows
that the river is low in mineral content, but fairly high
in color at the source. The hardness, chloride content, How This Survey Was Made
and dissolved solids generally increase downstream from
the source. Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds
The streams that flow eastward out of the Atlantic of soil are in Brevard County, where they are located,
Coastal Ridge into the Indian River continue to flow, and how they can be used. The soil scientists went into
even during periods of low rainfall. The analysis of the county knowing they likely would find many soils
water from these streams indicates that several have they had already seen and perhaps some they had not.
potential for water-supply development. The lakes and They observed the steepness, length, and shape of slopes,
sloughs in the Atlantic Coastal Eidhe area also can be
sed to provide water s l ige area also can be the size and speed of streams, the kinds of native plants
Ground water is the subltsrface water in the zone of or crops, the kinds of rock, and many facts about the
saturation; that is, the zone in which all pore spaces soils. They dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A
are filled with water under pressure no greater than profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons,
atmospheric pressure. Ground water is derived almost in a soil; it extends from the surface down into the
entirely from local precipitation. parent material that has not been changed much by
Nonartesian water occurs in the sediments of Pleisto- leaching or by the action of plant roots.
cene and Recent age. These sediments are about 50 feet The soil scientists made comparisons among the pro-
thick in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, but are less than 20 files they studied, and they compared these profiles with
feet thick in the vicinity of the St. Joh ns River. About those in counties nearby and in places more distant. They
40 feet of these sediments is saturated with rtoiiiul classified and named the soils according to nationwide,
water in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge area, but the zone uniform procedures. The soil series and the soil phase
of unsatuiiation thins toward the St. Johns and Indian are the cntegories of soil classification most used in a
Rivers, and ground water is at or near the surface most local survey.






4 SOiT SURVEY

Farming of the time. The lower part'of the sediments contains
saline water in some places.
Oranges were among the first crops grown by the The quality of nonartesian water is generally superior
early settlers. In 1S1., Captain Thomas Dummitt brought to that of artesian water. The high chloride content and
orange trees from the northern part of Florida to the hardness of some nonartesian water result, at least in
northern end of Merritt Island and grafted the imported part, from contamination by upward-flowing artesian
trees to wild sour orange trees growing in the area. water. The chemical composition of nonartesian water is
Citrus became the major farm crop. such that the water generally is suitable for all purposes.
According to the Conservation Needs Inventory, about Removing the iron and color and reducing the hardness,
24,500 acres in the county in 1968 was in citrus groves. however, genier1rll are desirable when the water is used
About 16,500 acres was in oranges, 3,250 in grapefruit, for domestic purposes. The nonartesian aquifer in the
and the rest in tangerines, temples, tnngelos, lemons, and Atlantic Coastal Ridge is the source of supply for several
limes. Between 1959 and 1964 the acreage planted to municipalities and hundreds of privately owned wells.
citrus increased about 28 percent. Any large water supply taken from a nonartesian
Tomatoes have been grown in scattered areas through- aquifer lowers the water table and either increases the
out the county, but mostly in the southern part. A few upward flow of artesian water into the nonartesian
are still grown occasionally, but not to the extent of aquifer, if such flow is occurring, or causes an upward
past years. A very small acreage is occasionally planted flow in areas where the flow is now downward.
to other vegetable crops, but not on a commercial scale. The source of the largest supply of artesian water in
About 40 acres of strawberries is planted yearly. Brevard County is the Floridan aquifer, which consists
A few plantings of mangos and avocados are on the of limestone formations of Eocene age and permeable
southern part of Merritt Island. Ornamental nursery beds in the basal part of the Hawthorne Formation of
operations have increased to furnish landscaping ma- Miocene age. The top of the aquifer is about 75 feet
trials to an expanding urban community, below sea level in the northwestern part of the county
Beef production, a cow-calf type of operation, is a and more than 300 feet below sea level in the southeast-
major enterprise, second only to citrus. About 400,000 ern part.
beef cattle, mostly Brahman and Black Angus, were The chloride content of artesian water in the county
in the county in. 1968. They graze about 60,000 acres ranges from about 32 to 14,500 parts per million. In gen-
of improved pasture and 150,100I acres of range. The eral, the quality of the artesian water is unsuitable for
county has only two dairies, public drinking, except in a small area in the south-
eastern corner of the county and in two small local
Water areas of recharge near Titusville. The chloride concen-
tration is highest in the central part of the county.
Large quantities of surface water are available at The Floridan aquifer is the main source of water for
many places in Brevard County. The St. Johns River irrigation. Many scattered artesian wells occur through-
throughout its length is a potential source of water for out the county. Generally, artesian water from wells on
municipal, industrial, and agricultural supplies. The Merritt Island and the low marine terrace east of Mime
lakes through which the river flows are natural reservoirs has such a high chloride content that it is not suitable
that have large storage capacities. for irrigation.
The analysis of water from the St. Johns River shows
that the river is low in mineral content, but fairly high
in color at the source. The hardness, chloride content, How This Survey Was Made
and dissolved solids generally increase downstream from
the source. Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds
The streams that flow eastward out of the Atlantic of soil are in Brevard County, where they are located,
Coastal Ridge into the Indian River continue to flow, and how they can be used. The soil scientists went into
even during periods of low rainfall. The analysis of the county knowing they likely would find many soils
water from these streams indicates that several have they had already seen and perhaps some they had not.
potential for water-supply development. The lakes and They observed the steepness, length, and shape of slopes,
sloughs in the Atlantic Coastal Eidhe area also can be
sed to provide water s l ige area also can be the size and speed of streams, the kinds of native plants
Ground water is the subltsrface water in the zone of or crops, the kinds of rock, and many facts about the
saturation; that is, the zone in which all pore spaces soils. They dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A
are filled with water under pressure no greater than profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons,
atmospheric pressure. Ground water is derived almost in a soil; it extends from the surface down into the
entirely from local precipitation. parent material that has not been changed much by
Nonartesian water occurs in the sediments of Pleisto- leaching or by the action of plant roots.
cene and Recent age. These sediments are about 50 feet The soil scientists made comparisons among the pro-
thick in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, but are less than 20 files they studied, and they compared these profiles with
feet thick in the vicinity of the St. Joh ns River. About those in counties nearby and in places more distant. They
40 feet of these sediments is saturated with rtoiiiul classified and named the soils according to nationwide,
water in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge area, but the zone uniform procedures. The soil series and the soil phase
of unsatuiiation thins toward the St. Johns and Indian are the cntegories of soil classification most used in a
Rivers, and ground water is at or near the surface most local survey.






4 SOiT SURVEY

Farming of the time. The lower part'of the sediments contains
saline water in some places.
Oranges were among the first crops grown by the The quality of nonartesian water is generally superior
early settlers. In 1S1., Captain Thomas Dummitt brought to that of artesian water. The high chloride content and
orange trees from the northern part of Florida to the hardness of some nonartesian water result, at least in
northern end of Merritt Island and grafted the imported part, from contamination by upward-flowing artesian
trees to wild sour orange trees growing in the area. water. The chemical composition of nonartesian water is
Citrus became the major farm crop. such that the water generally is suitable for all purposes.
According to the Conservation Needs Inventory, about Removing the iron and color and reducing the hardness,
24,500 acres in the county in 1968 was in citrus groves. however, genier1rll are desirable when the water is used
About 16,500 acres was in oranges, 3,250 in grapefruit, for domestic purposes. The nonartesian aquifer in the
and the rest in tangerines, temples, tnngelos, lemons, and Atlantic Coastal Ridge is the source of supply for several
limes. Between 1959 and 1964 the acreage planted to municipalities and hundreds of privately owned wells.
citrus increased about 28 percent. Any large water supply taken from a nonartesian
Tomatoes have been grown in scattered areas through- aquifer lowers the water table and either increases the
out the county, but mostly in the southern part. A few upward flow of artesian water into the nonartesian
are still grown occasionally, but not to the extent of aquifer, if such flow is occurring, or causes an upward
past years. A very small acreage is occasionally planted flow in areas where the flow is now downward.
to other vegetable crops, but not on a commercial scale. The source of the largest supply of artesian water in
About 40 acres of strawberries is planted yearly. Brevard County is the Floridan aquifer, which consists
A few plantings of mangos and avocados are on the of limestone formations of Eocene age and permeable
southern part of Merritt Island. Ornamental nursery beds in the basal part of the Hawthorne Formation of
operations have increased to furnish landscaping ma- Miocene age. The top of the aquifer is about 75 feet
trials to an expanding urban community, below sea level in the northwestern part of the county
Beef production, a cow-calf type of operation, is a and more than 300 feet below sea level in the southeast-
major enterprise, second only to citrus. About 400,000 ern part.
beef cattle, mostly Brahman and Black Angus, were The chloride content of artesian water in the county
in the county in. 1968. They graze about 60,000 acres ranges from about 32 to 14,500 parts per million. In gen-
of improved pasture and 150,100I acres of range. The eral, the quality of the artesian water is unsuitable for
county has only two dairies, public drinking, except in a small area in the south-
eastern corner of the county and in two small local
Water areas of recharge near Titusville. The chloride concen-
tration is highest in the central part of the county.
Large quantities of surface water are available at The Floridan aquifer is the main source of water for
many places in Brevard County. The St. Johns River irrigation. Many scattered artesian wells occur through-
throughout its length is a potential source of water for out the county. Generally, artesian water from wells on
municipal, industrial, and agricultural supplies. The Merritt Island and the low marine terrace east of Mime
lakes through which the river flows are natural reservoirs has such a high chloride content that it is not suitable
that have large storage capacities. for irrigation.
The analysis of water from the St. Johns River shows
that the river is low in mineral content, but fairly high
in color at the source. The hardness, chloride content, How This Survey Was Made
and dissolved solids generally increase downstream from
the source. Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds
The streams that flow eastward out of the Atlantic of soil are in Brevard County, where they are located,
Coastal Ridge into the Indian River continue to flow, and how they can be used. The soil scientists went into
even during periods of low rainfall. The analysis of the county knowing they likely would find many soils
water from these streams indicates that several have they had already seen and perhaps some they had not.
potential for water-supply development. The lakes and They observed the steepness, length, and shape of slopes,
sloughs in the Atlantic Coastal Eidhe area also can be
sed to provide water s l ige area also can be the size and speed of streams, the kinds of native plants
Ground water is the subltsrface water in the zone of or crops, the kinds of rock, and many facts about the
saturation; that is, the zone in which all pore spaces soils. They dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A
are filled with water under pressure no greater than profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons,
atmospheric pressure. Ground water is derived almost in a soil; it extends from the surface down into the
entirely from local precipitation. parent material that has not been changed much by
Nonartesian water occurs in the sediments of Pleisto- leaching or by the action of plant roots.
cene and Recent age. These sediments are about 50 feet The soil scientists made comparisons among the pro-
thick in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, but are less than 20 files they studied, and they compared these profiles with
feet thick in the vicinity of the St. Joh ns River. About those in counties nearby and in places more distant. They
40 feet of these sediments is saturated with rtoiiiul classified and named the soils according to nationwide,
water in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge area, but the zone uniform procedures. The soil series and the soil phase
of unsatuiiation thins toward the St. Johns and Indian are the cntegories of soil classification most used in a
Rivers, and ground water is at or near the surface most local survey.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil proportion of soils are not uniform. An area shown on
series. Except for different texture in the surface layer, the map may be made up of only one of the dominant
all the soils of one series have major horizons that are soils, or of two or more. The name of an undifferen-
similar in thickness, arrangement, and other important tiated group consists of the names of the dominant soils,
characteristics. Each soil series is named for a town or joined by "and." Floridana, Chobee, and Felda soils,
other geographic feature near the place where a soil of flooded, is an example.
that series was first observed and mapped. Felda and In most areas surveyed there are places where the soil
Myakka, for example, are the names of two soil series, material is so rocky, so shallow, or so severely eroded
All the soils in the United States having the same series that it cannot be classified by soil series. These places are
name are essentially alike in those characteristics that shown on the soil map and are described in the survey,
affect their behavior in the undisturbed landscape. but they are called land types and are given descriptive
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface names. Coastal beaches is a land type in Brevard County.
soil and in slope, stoniness, or some other characteristic While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists take
that affects use of the soils by man. On the basis of soil.samples needed for laboratory measurements and for
such differences, a soil series is divided into phases. The engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kinds
name of a soil phase indicates a feature that affects of soil in other places are also assembled. Data on yields
management. For example, St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 of crops under defined practices are assembled from farm
percent slopes, is one of several phases within the St. records and from field or plot experiments on the same
Lucie series. kind of soil. Yields under defined management are
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils estimated for all the soils.
had been worked out, the soil scientists drew the boun- Soil scientists observe how soils behave when used as
daries of the individual soils on aerial photographs, a growing medium for native and cultivated plants and
These photographs show woodlands, buildings, field as material for structures, foundations for structures, or
borders, trees, and other details that help in drawing covering for structures. They relate this behavior to
boundaries accurately. The soil map in the back of this properties of the soils. For example, they observe that
publication was prepared from the aerial photographs. filter fields for onsite disposal of sewage fail on a given
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping kind of soil, and they relate this to slow permeability
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in or a high water table. They see that streets, road pave-
planning the management of farms and fields, a mapping ments, and foundations for houses crack on a given kind
unit is nearly equivalent to a soil phase. It is not exactly of soil, and they relate this failure to a high shrink-swell
equivalent, because it is not practical to show on such potential. Thus, they use observation and knowledge of
a map all the small, scattered bits of soil of some other soil properties, together with available research data, to
kind that have been seen within an area that is domi- predict the limitations or suitability of a soil for present
nantly of a recognized soil phase. and potential uses.
Some mapping units are made up of soils of different After data have been collected and tested for the
series, or of different phases within one series. Two such key, or benchmark, soils in a survey area, the soil
kinds of mapping units are shown on the soil map of scientists set up trial groups of soils. They test these
Brevard County: the soil complex and the undifferen- groups by further study and by consultation with farm-
tiated group. ers, agronomists, engineers, and others. They then ad-
Sometimes soils are observed that are closely related just the groups according to the results of their study
to a soil series, but depart from it in at least one dif- and consultation. Thus, the groups that are finally evolved
ferentiating characteristic and are of too small an extent reflect up-to-date knowledge of the soils and their be-
to justify establishing a new series. These soils are called havior under current methods of use and management.
soil variants and take the name of the closely related
series, but are modified by the principal distinguishing
feature. For exiamille. Parkwood fine sand, moderately General Soil Map
fine subsoil variant, is the name of one soil variant in
Brevard County. A soil may be recognized and defined The general soil map at the back of this survey shows,
as a variant in one survey area and later be designated as in color, the soil associations in Brevard County. A soil
a separate series if found to be of important extent. association is a landscape that has a distinctive pro-
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils, portional pattern of soils. It normally consists of one
so intermingled or so small in size that they cannot be or more major soils and at least one minor soil, and it is
shown separately on the soil map. Each area of a named for the major soils. The soils in one association
complex contains some of each of the two or more may occur in another, but in a different pattern.
dominant soils, and the pattern and relative proportions A map showing soil associations is useful to people
are about the same in all areas. The name of a soil who want a general idea of the soils in a county, who
are about the same in all areas. The name of ant soilparts of a county, or who
want to compare different parts of a county, or who
complex consists of the names of the dominant soils, want to know the location of large tracts that are suitable
joined by a hypen, for example, Myakka-Urban land for a certain kind of land use. Such a map is a useful
complex. general guide in managing a watershed, a wooded tract,
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more or a wildlife area, or in planning engineering works, rec-
soils that could be delineated individually but are shown rational facilities, and community developments. It is
as one unit because, for the purpose of the soil survey, not a suitable map for planning the management of a
there is little value in separating them. The pattern and farm or field, or for selecting the exact location of a







6 SOIL SURVEY

road, building, or similar structure, because the soils in area is a long, narrow ridge on the mainland, roughly
any one association ordinarily differ in slope, depth, stoni- parallel to the Indian River. It extends the length of the
ness, drainage, and other characteristics that affect their county, from north to south, and in most places is less
management. than 2 miles wide. A few wider areas are near Mel-
The 12 soil associations in this survey have been bourne and Titusville. Smaller areas of this association
grouped into six general kinds of landscapes for broad are in the southern part on Merritt Island, between the
interpretative purposes. All are described on the pages Indian and Banana Rivers, and in the northern part,
that follow, between the Indian River and the Indian River Lagoon.
Most areas are nearly level to gently sloping, but some
Soils of the Sand Ridges areas west and south of Titusville have broken topog-
raphy and are steeper. In the sandhills the natural vege-
The two soil associations in this group consist of ex- station (fig. 2) is sand pine, scrub live oak, turkey oak,
cessively drained to moderately well drained, nearly level scattered saw-palmetto, runner oak, grasses, and rose-
to strongly sloping soils that are sandy to a depth of mary; in the flatwoods it is saw-palmetto, slash pine,
80 inches or more. They are on ridges along the Indian longleaf pine, and pineland three-awn, or wiregrass; and
River on the mainland, on Merritt Island, and on the in the sloughs and wet depressions, wetland grasses,
Atlantic Coastal Ridge. sedges, and flags.
Paoa-Pomello-Astatla association This association makes up about 40,100 acres, or a
1. Pao Pomell-Astatula association little less than 6 percent of the land area in the county.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained and It is about 23 percent Paola soils, 17 percent Pomello
moderately well drained soils, sandy throughout soils, 14 percent Astatula soils, and 46 percent soils of
This association is made up of undulating sandhills minor extent. The major soils are sandy and are more
interspersed with small areas of flatwoods, grassy than 80 inches deep. Some of the minor soils have coquina
sloughs, and isolated wet depressions. The most extensive rock within a depth of 50 inches.

































Figure 2.-Sand pine, scrub live oak, and scattered saw-palmetto on Paola-Pomello-Astatula association. The soil is Paola fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.







6 SOIL SURVEY

road, building, or similar structure, because the soils in area is a long, narrow ridge on the mainland, roughly
any one association ordinarily differ in slope, depth, stoni- parallel to the Indian River. It extends the length of the
ness, drainage, and other characteristics that affect their county, from north to south, and in most places is less
management. than 2 miles wide. A few wider areas are near Mel-
The 12 soil associations in this survey have been bourne and Titusville. Smaller areas of this association
grouped into six general kinds of landscapes for broad are in the southern part on Merritt Island, between the
interpretative purposes. All are described on the pages Indian and Banana Rivers, and in the northern part,
that follow, between the Indian River and the Indian River Lagoon.
Most areas are nearly level to gently sloping, but some
Soils of the Sand Ridges areas west and south of Titusville have broken topog-
raphy and are steeper. In the sandhills the natural vege-
The two soil associations in this group consist of ex- station (fig. 2) is sand pine, scrub live oak, turkey oak,
cessively drained to moderately well drained, nearly level scattered saw-palmetto, runner oak, grasses, and rose-
to strongly sloping soils that are sandy to a depth of mary; in the flatwoods it is saw-palmetto, slash pine,
80 inches or more. They are on ridges along the Indian longleaf pine, and pineland three-awn, or wiregrass; and
River on the mainland, on Merritt Island, and on the in the sloughs and wet depressions, wetland grasses,
Atlantic Coastal Ridge. sedges, and flags.
Paoa-Pomello-Astatla association This association makes up about 40,100 acres, or a
1. Pao Pomell-Astatula association little less than 6 percent of the land area in the county.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained and It is about 23 percent Paola soils, 17 percent Pomello
moderately well drained soils, sandy throughout soils, 14 percent Astatula soils, and 46 percent soils of
This association is made up of undulating sandhills minor extent. The major soils are sandy and are more
interspersed with small areas of flatwoods, grassy than 80 inches deep. Some of the minor soils have coquina
sloughs, and isolated wet depressions. The most extensive rock within a depth of 50 inches.

































Figure 2.-Sand pine, scrub live oak, and scattered saw-palmetto on Paola-Pomello-Astatula association. The soil is Paola fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

Paola soils are excessively drained and have a dark- The major soils in this association are drought, even
gray surface layer, a light-gray subsurface layer, and a though in some areas the water table is near the surface
brownish subsoil. during rainy periods. The soils are very poor for farm-
Pomello soils are light colored and moderately well ing. Only a few areas in the southern part of the county
drained and have a black and dark reddish-brown, weak- are in citrus. Pine trees do not grow well in most areas.
ly cemented layer below a depth of 30 inches. In wet The thick growth of saw-palmetto and scrub oak, how-
weather the water table rises to within a depth of 40 ever, makes good cover for wildlife, particularly deer.
to 60 inches. Clearing and leveling for urban uses has been extensive
Astatula soils are sandy, yellowish to brownish, and on this association between Port Canaveral and Mel-
excessively drained. bourne Beach. All of the missile launch complexes and
Minor in this association are St. Lucie, Orsino, Cocoa, support facilities of Cape Kennedy Air Force Station
Myakka, Immokalee, Anclote, and Terra Ceia soils; are on this association.
Quartzipsamments, smoothed; and Urban land. Limitations are slight to moderate for residential and
A large part of this association has been cleared and light industrial developments. Limitations are slight to
planted to citrus, but some of this has since been moderate for septic tank absorption fields, but this use
abandoned. For most part, the soils are too drought and could contaminate the ground water. Limitations are
too low in fertility to be more than poorly suited to slight to moderate for all-weather surfaced local roads
vegetable crops. They are of only limited use for pasture, and streets. The loose sand is a severe limitation for rec-
range, and woodland. They do, however, provide pro- rational developments and for unpaved streets and
tection and a limited supply of food for wildlife. Much roads.
of the urban development in the county is on this soil
association. Soils of the Broad Grassy Flats
Limitations are only slight to moderate for residential
and light industrial development if a community sewage The one soil association on broad grassy flats consists
disposal system is available. Limitations are only slight of poorly drained, nearly level soils that are sandy to
to moderate for septic tank absorption fields, but the a depth of 80 inches or more. This association is on the
hazard of contaminating ground water is severe. Limi- mainland, mainly between Titusville and Melbourne at
stations are severe for unpaved streets and roads, but the eastern edge of the lowlands along the St. Johns
only slight for all-weather surfaced roads and streets. River.
Limitations are severe for recreational development. 3. Pompano association
2. Canaveral-Palm Beach-Welaka association Nearly level, poorly drained soils, sandy throughout
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained This association is made up of broad grassy flats in-
to excessively drained soils, sandy throughout terspersed with low flatwood knolls, low depressions, and
This association is made up of nearly level and gently small hardwood swamps. It is on the mainland east of
sloping ridges interspersed with narrow wet sloughs the St. Johns River in an area extending from west of
that generally parallel the ridges. It is along the coast Palm Shores to west of Ti-Co Airport. The largest area
near the Atlantic Ocean and extends the entire length is south of Rockledge. The natural vegetation is mostly
of the county. The largest area is Canaveral Peninsula. marsh cordgrass and scattered cabbage palms and a few
The natural vegetation is saw-palmetto, scrub live oak, pines on the broad flats; pines, saw-palmetto, and pine-
runner oak, cactus, and sea grape. Australian pines have land three-awn on the low flatwoods knolls; and wetland
been planted in places for windbreaks. grasses and sedges in the depressions and mixed hard-
This association makes up about 31,400 acres, or woods in the swamps.
slightly less than 5 percent of the land area in the This association makes up about 12,900 acres, or slight-
county. It is about 37 percent Canaveral soils, 17 percent ly less than 2 percent of the land area in the county.
Palm Beach soils, 9 percent Welaka soils, and 37 percent It is about 77 percent Pompano soils and about 23
soils of minor extent. percent soils of minor extent.
Canaveral soils are on moderately low ridges. They Pompano soils have" a very dark brown and dark-
consist of a mixture of light-colored quartz sand grains gray surface layer and brownish or grayish sandy ma-
and multicolored shell fragments. 'They are moderately trial to a depth of 90 inches or more. These soils are
well drained, poorly drained.
Palm Beach soils are similar to Canaveral soils, but Minor in this association are the Myakka, Valkaria,
are excessively drained. They are on higher ridges and and Anclote soils and Swamp.
have a lower water table. They commonly are in areas _About half of this association has been cleared and is
between Port Canaveral and Melbourne Beach. now in improved pasture. A large acreage is still in
Welaka soils have a light-colored subsurface layer natural vegetation, some of which is used for range.
and a yellowish subsoil. The subsoil extends to a depth Some areas have been subdivided into lots, but very few
of 40 to 60 inches. Below this is a mixture of quartz sand houses have been built.
and shell fragments. A high water table is a severe limitation for residential
Minor in this association are the Myakka, Pomello, and light industrial developments, septic tank absorption
and Parkwood soils, Coastal beaches, and poorly drained fields, unpaved streets and roads, and all-weather sur-
soils in sloughs. faced roads and streets. Limitations are severe for rec-







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

Paola soils are excessively drained and have a dark- The major soils in this association are drought, even
gray surface layer, a light-gray subsurface layer, and a though in some areas the water table is near the surface
brownish subsoil. during rainy periods. The soils are very poor for farm-
Pomello soils are light colored and moderately well ing. Only a few areas in the southern part of the county
drained and have a black and dark reddish-brown, weak- are in citrus. Pine trees do not grow well in most areas.
ly cemented layer below a depth of 30 inches. In wet The thick growth of saw-palmetto and scrub oak, how-
weather the water table rises to within a depth of 40 ever, makes good cover for wildlife, particularly deer.
to 60 inches. Clearing and leveling for urban uses has been extensive
Astatula soils are sandy, yellowish to brownish, and on this association between Port Canaveral and Mel-
excessively drained. bourne Beach. All of the missile launch complexes and
Minor in this association are St. Lucie, Orsino, Cocoa, support facilities of Cape Kennedy Air Force Station
Myakka, Immokalee, Anclote, and Terra Ceia soils; are on this association.
Quartzipsamments, smoothed; and Urban land. Limitations are slight to moderate for residential and
A large part of this association has been cleared and light industrial developments. Limitations are slight to
planted to citrus, but some of this has since been moderate for septic tank absorption fields, but this use
abandoned. For most part, the soils are too drought and could contaminate the ground water. Limitations are
too low in fertility to be more than poorly suited to slight to moderate for all-weather surfaced local roads
vegetable crops. They are of only limited use for pasture, and streets. The loose sand is a severe limitation for rec-
range, and woodland. They do, however, provide pro- rational developments and for unpaved streets and
tection and a limited supply of food for wildlife. Much roads.
of the urban development in the county is on this soil
association. Soils of the Broad Grassy Flats
Limitations are only slight to moderate for residential
and light industrial development if a community sewage The one soil association on broad grassy flats consists
disposal system is available. Limitations are only slight of poorly drained, nearly level soils that are sandy to
to moderate for septic tank absorption fields, but the a depth of 80 inches or more. This association is on the
hazard of contaminating ground water is severe. Limi- mainland, mainly between Titusville and Melbourne at
stations are severe for unpaved streets and roads, but the eastern edge of the lowlands along the St. Johns
only slight for all-weather surfaced roads and streets. River.
Limitations are severe for recreational development. 3. Pompano association
2. Canaveral-Palm Beach-Welaka association Nearly level, poorly drained soils, sandy throughout
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained This association is made up of broad grassy flats in-
to excessively drained soils, sandy throughout terspersed with low flatwood knolls, low depressions, and
This association is made up of nearly level and gently small hardwood swamps. It is on the mainland east of
sloping ridges interspersed with narrow wet sloughs the St. Johns River in an area extending from west of
that generally parallel the ridges. It is along the coast Palm Shores to west of Ti-Co Airport. The largest area
near the Atlantic Ocean and extends the entire length is south of Rockledge. The natural vegetation is mostly
of the county. The largest area is Canaveral Peninsula. marsh cordgrass and scattered cabbage palms and a few
The natural vegetation is saw-palmetto, scrub live oak, pines on the broad flats; pines, saw-palmetto, and pine-
runner oak, cactus, and sea grape. Australian pines have land three-awn on the low flatwoods knolls; and wetland
been planted in places for windbreaks. grasses and sedges in the depressions and mixed hard-
This association makes up about 31,400 acres, or woods in the swamps.
slightly less than 5 percent of the land area in the This association makes up about 12,900 acres, or slight-
county. It is about 37 percent Canaveral soils, 17 percent ly less than 2 percent of the land area in the county.
Palm Beach soils, 9 percent Welaka soils, and 37 percent It is about 77 percent Pompano soils and about 23
soils of minor extent. percent soils of minor extent.
Canaveral soils are on moderately low ridges. They Pompano soils have" a very dark brown and dark-
consist of a mixture of light-colored quartz sand grains gray surface layer and brownish or grayish sandy ma-
and multicolored shell fragments. 'They are moderately trial to a depth of 90 inches or more. These soils are
well drained, poorly drained.
Palm Beach soils are similar to Canaveral soils, but Minor in this association are the Myakka, Valkaria,
are excessively drained. They are on higher ridges and and Anclote soils and Swamp.
have a lower water table. They commonly are in areas _About half of this association has been cleared and is
between Port Canaveral and Melbourne Beach. now in improved pasture. A large acreage is still in
Welaka soils have a light-colored subsurface layer natural vegetation, some of which is used for range.
and a yellowish subsoil. The subsoil extends to a depth Some areas have been subdivided into lots, but very few
of 40 to 60 inches. Below this is a mixture of quartz sand houses have been built.
and shell fragments. A high water table is a severe limitation for residential
Minor in this association are the Myakka, Pomello, and light industrial developments, septic tank absorption
and Parkwood soils, Coastal beaches, and poorly drained fields, unpaved streets and roads, and all-weather sur-
soils in sloughs. faced roads and streets. Limitations are severe for rec-







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

Paola soils are excessively drained and have a dark- The major soils in this association are drought, even
gray surface layer, a light-gray subsurface layer, and a though in some areas the water table is near the surface
brownish subsoil. during rainy periods. The soils are very poor for farm-
Pomello soils are light colored and moderately well ing. Only a few areas in the southern part of the county
drained and have a black and dark reddish-brown, weak- are in citrus. Pine trees do not grow well in most areas.
ly cemented layer below a depth of 30 inches. In wet The thick growth of saw-palmetto and scrub oak, how-
weather the water table rises to within a depth of 40 ever, makes good cover for wildlife, particularly deer.
to 60 inches. Clearing and leveling for urban uses has been extensive
Astatula soils are sandy, yellowish to brownish, and on this association between Port Canaveral and Mel-
excessively drained. bourne Beach. All of the missile launch complexes and
Minor in this association are St. Lucie, Orsino, Cocoa, support facilities of Cape Kennedy Air Force Station
Myakka, Immokalee, Anclote, and Terra Ceia soils; are on this association.
Quartzipsamments, smoothed; and Urban land. Limitations are slight to moderate for residential and
A large part of this association has been cleared and light industrial developments. Limitations are slight to
planted to citrus, but some of this has since been moderate for septic tank absorption fields, but this use
abandoned. For most part, the soils are too drought and could contaminate the ground water. Limitations are
too low in fertility to be more than poorly suited to slight to moderate for all-weather surfaced local roads
vegetable crops. They are of only limited use for pasture, and streets. The loose sand is a severe limitation for rec-
range, and woodland. They do, however, provide pro- rational developments and for unpaved streets and
tection and a limited supply of food for wildlife. Much roads.
of the urban development in the county is on this soil
association. Soils of the Broad Grassy Flats
Limitations are only slight to moderate for residential
and light industrial development if a community sewage The one soil association on broad grassy flats consists
disposal system is available. Limitations are only slight of poorly drained, nearly level soils that are sandy to
to moderate for septic tank absorption fields, but the a depth of 80 inches or more. This association is on the
hazard of contaminating ground water is severe. Limi- mainland, mainly between Titusville and Melbourne at
stations are severe for unpaved streets and roads, but the eastern edge of the lowlands along the St. Johns
only slight for all-weather surfaced roads and streets. River.
Limitations are severe for recreational development. 3. Pompano association
2. Canaveral-Palm Beach-Welaka association Nearly level, poorly drained soils, sandy throughout
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained This association is made up of broad grassy flats in-
to excessively drained soils, sandy throughout terspersed with low flatwood knolls, low depressions, and
This association is made up of nearly level and gently small hardwood swamps. It is on the mainland east of
sloping ridges interspersed with narrow wet sloughs the St. Johns River in an area extending from west of
that generally parallel the ridges. It is along the coast Palm Shores to west of Ti-Co Airport. The largest area
near the Atlantic Ocean and extends the entire length is south of Rockledge. The natural vegetation is mostly
of the county. The largest area is Canaveral Peninsula. marsh cordgrass and scattered cabbage palms and a few
The natural vegetation is saw-palmetto, scrub live oak, pines on the broad flats; pines, saw-palmetto, and pine-
runner oak, cactus, and sea grape. Australian pines have land three-awn on the low flatwoods knolls; and wetland
been planted in places for windbreaks. grasses and sedges in the depressions and mixed hard-
This association makes up about 31,400 acres, or woods in the swamps.
slightly less than 5 percent of the land area in the This association makes up about 12,900 acres, or slight-
county. It is about 37 percent Canaveral soils, 17 percent ly less than 2 percent of the land area in the county.
Palm Beach soils, 9 percent Welaka soils, and 37 percent It is about 77 percent Pompano soils and about 23
soils of minor extent. percent soils of minor extent.
Canaveral soils are on moderately low ridges. They Pompano soils have" a very dark brown and dark-
consist of a mixture of light-colored quartz sand grains gray surface layer and brownish or grayish sandy ma-
and multicolored shell fragments. 'They are moderately trial to a depth of 90 inches or more. These soils are
well drained, poorly drained.
Palm Beach soils are similar to Canaveral soils, but Minor in this association are the Myakka, Valkaria,
are excessively drained. They are on higher ridges and and Anclote soils and Swamp.
have a lower water table. They commonly are in areas _About half of this association has been cleared and is
between Port Canaveral and Melbourne Beach. now in improved pasture. A large acreage is still in
Welaka soils have a light-colored subsurface layer natural vegetation, some of which is used for range.
and a yellowish subsoil. The subsoil extends to a depth Some areas have been subdivided into lots, but very few
of 40 to 60 inches. Below this is a mixture of quartz sand houses have been built.
and shell fragments. A high water table is a severe limitation for residential
Minor in this association are the Myakka, Pomello, and light industrial developments, septic tank absorption
and Parkwood soils, Coastal beaches, and poorly drained fields, unpaved streets and roads, and all-weather sur-
soils in sloughs. faced roads and streets. Limitations are severe for rec-







8 SOIL SURVEY

rational development because in most areas the water pines. The low ridges, where the vegetation is scrub oaks,
table is at or near the surface at times of peak use. pine-land three-awn, and scattered pines, are more nu-
merous near the Indian River. Common vegetation in
Soils of the Flatwoods sloughs is sand cordgrass, maidencane, and sawgrass.
In the intermittent ponds St.-Johnswort is common.
The two soil associations in this group consist of poorly Many sloughs and intermittent ponds are bordered with
drained, nearly level sandy soils over dark-colored, cabbage palms, and in some places scattered cabbage
weakly cemented sandy layers that are underlain by palms are growing in the sloughs. Cypress trees and
sandy or loamy material. These associations are on the mixed ardwoos in swamps.
mainland, generally between the coastal ridge and the mxe hardwoods are in swamps.
lowlands along the St. Johns River, and on Merritt This association makes up about 255,300 acres, or about
Island. They are interspersed with grassy sloughs, ponds, 39 percent of the county. It is about 27 percent Myakka
and swamps. soils, about 17 percent EauGallie soils, about 13 percent
Immokalee soils, and about 43 percent soils of minor
4. Myakka-EauGallie-Immokalee association extent.
Nearly level, poorly drained soils, sandy throughout, or Myakka soils have a grayish sandy surface layer and
sandy to a depth of 40 inches and loamy below subsurface layer and a dark-colored, weakly cemented
This association is made up of nearly level pine and layer that begins within a depth of 30 inches. Below
palmetto flatwoods interspersed with low scrub oak this is sandy material to a depth of 63 inches or more.
ridges, small to large grassy ponds and sloughs, and These soils are poorly drained.
swamps. It is extensive on the mainland and Merritt Is- EauGallie soils are similar to Myakka soils and are
land. The natural vegetation in the flatwoods is mainly also poorly drained, but they have loamy layers that
pine trees, saw-palmetto, and pineland three-awn (fig. begin between depths of 40 and 60 inches. These loamy
3). In some places it is a mixture of cabbage palms and layers are below the dark-colored, weakly cemented layer.

































Figure 3.-Pines, saw-palmetto, and pineland three-awn (wiregrass) in a flatwoods area of the Myakka-EauGallie-Immokalee
association. The soil is nearly level Myakka sand.







8 SOIL SURVEY

rational development because in most areas the water pines. The low ridges, where the vegetation is scrub oaks,
table is at or near the surface at times of peak use. pine-land three-awn, and scattered pines, are more nu-
merous near the Indian River. Common vegetation in
Soils of the Flatwoods sloughs is sand cordgrass, maidencane, and sawgrass.
In the intermittent ponds St.-Johnswort is common.
The two soil associations in this group consist of poorly Many sloughs and intermittent ponds are bordered with
drained, nearly level sandy soils over dark-colored, cabbage palms, and in some places scattered cabbage
weakly cemented sandy layers that are underlain by palms are growing in the sloughs. Cypress trees and
sandy or loamy material. These associations are on the mixed ardwoos in swamps.
mainland, generally between the coastal ridge and the mxe hardwoods are in swamps.
lowlands along the St. Johns River, and on Merritt This association makes up about 255,300 acres, or about
Island. They are interspersed with grassy sloughs, ponds, 39 percent of the county. It is about 27 percent Myakka
and swamps. soils, about 17 percent EauGallie soils, about 13 percent
Immokalee soils, and about 43 percent soils of minor
4. Myakka-EauGallie-Immokalee association extent.
Nearly level, poorly drained soils, sandy throughout, or Myakka soils have a grayish sandy surface layer and
sandy to a depth of 40 inches and loamy below subsurface layer and a dark-colored, weakly cemented
This association is made up of nearly level pine and layer that begins within a depth of 30 inches. Below
palmetto flatwoods interspersed with low scrub oak this is sandy material to a depth of 63 inches or more.
ridges, small to large grassy ponds and sloughs, and These soils are poorly drained.
swamps. It is extensive on the mainland and Merritt Is- EauGallie soils are similar to Myakka soils and are
land. The natural vegetation in the flatwoods is mainly also poorly drained, but they have loamy layers that
pine trees, saw-palmetto, and pineland three-awn (fig. begin between depths of 40 and 60 inches. These loamy
3). In some places it is a mixture of cabbage palms and layers are below the dark-colored, weakly cemented layer.

































Figure 3.-Pines, saw-palmetto, and pineland three-awn (wiregrass) in a flatwoods area of the Myakka-EauGallie-Immokalee
association. The soil is nearly level Myakka sand.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

Immokalee soils are similar to Myakka soils, but the Soils of the Hammocks and Low Ridges
dark-colored weakly cemented layer begins at a depth
of more than 30 inches. These soils are poorly drained. The two soil associations in this group consist of poor-
Minor in this association are the Pomello, Basinger, ly drained and very poorly drained, nearly level soils in
Anclote, Wabasso, St. Johns, Oldsmar, Felda, and Holo- hammocks and on low ridges. Some of these soils have a
paw soils, loamy subsoil, some contain dark-colored, weakly ce-
Large areas of this association are still in natural mented layers, and some are less than 40 inches deep over
vegetation. The original pines have been harvested, and hard limestone. These associations are on low marine ter-
most of the woodland is now second growth. Many areas races north of Titusville and near Valkaria on the
are used for range, and a few areas are in improved mainland and in areas near Courtenay and Orsino on
pasture. A few are in citrus groves. Development for Merritt Island.
urban uses has been moderately extensive. Many kinds of 6. Myakka-Bradenton, shallow variant-Copeland
native birds and animals live on the broad expanse of the association
open, undeveloped areas.
Limitations are severe for all residential and light in- Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
dustrial developments because the water table is high. soils, some sandy throughout and others sandy to a depth
The high water table also causes severe limitations for of less than 20 inches and loamy below
septic tank absorption fields, unpaved streets and roads, This association is made up of nearly level, low sandy
all-weather surfaced local roads and streets, and recrea- ridges and small-to-large hammocks that are underlain
tional developments, by limestone. The largest area is on the low marine ter-
5. Pineda-Wabasso association race north of Titusville and east of U.S. Highway No. 1,
on the mainland. A small area is near Valkaria. The
Nearly level, poorly drained soils, sandy to within a natural vegetation is mixed pines, cabbage palms, and
depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below hardwoods, such as live oak, magnolia, bay, and sweet-
This association is made up of nearly level flatwoods, gum.
palm hammocks, large to small sloughs and depressions, This association makes up about 7,100 acres, or slightly
and in places, scattered intermittent ponds. It is on the more than 1 percent of the land area in the county. It
mainland near the river flood plain, mostly in the south- is about 25 percent Myakka soils, 20 percent the Bra-
ern half of the county. A few areas are in the northern denton shallow variant, 15 percent Copeland soils, and
part. The natural vegetation is a mixture of cabbage 40 percent soils of minor extent.
palms and pines on the palm hammocks; pines, pine- Myakka soils are at the highest elevations. They have
land three-awn, saw-palmetto, and scattered palms on the a grayish, sandy surface layer and subsurface layer and
flatwoods; and sand cordgrass and other wetland grasses a dark-colored, weakly cemented layer within 30 inches
and plants in the depressions and sloughs. A few cypress of the surface. Below this they are sandy to a depth
and hardwoods are growing in places, of 63 inches or more. Typically these soils are poorly
This association makes up about 65,800 acres, or slight- drained. Artificial drainage is provided in most areas.
ly less than 10 percent of the land area in the county. Bradenton soils, shallow variant, are also poorly
It is about 35 percent Pineda soils, about ,15 percent drained. They have a fine sandy surface layer and sub-
Wabasso soils, and about 50 percent soils of minor extent, surface layer less than 20 inches thick and a sandy clay
Pineda soils have a black and dark-gray sandy sur- loam subsoil. Below the subsoil, generally within a depth
face layer and a brownish sandy layer within a depth of 40 inches, is hard limestone.
of inc hes. Loamy material is at a depth of 20 to 40 Copeland soils have a dark-colored, sandy surface
Wabasso soils have a black or very dark gray sandy layer and a loamy subsoil. Hard limestone is within a
surface layer, a dark-colored, weakly cemented sandy depth of 40 inches. Typically, these soils are very
layer within a depth of 30 inches, and loamy material poorly drained. Some artificial drainage is provided
within a depth of 40 inches. in most areas.
Minor in this association are the EauGallie, Floridana, Minor in this association are Felda, Pompano, and
Malabar, Oldsmar, Myakka, and Felda soils. Any one Wabasso soils and Tidal marsh, each of which makes up
of these soils is only 10 percent or less of the association. no more than 10 percent of the association.
Large areas of this association are still in natural Only small scattered areas of this association are still
vegetation, but the original pines have been harvested in native woodland. About 80 percent of the acreage has
and most of the woodland is second growth. A large part been cleared and planted to citrus. A few small areas
of the woodland is used as range or grazeable woodland. are in pasture used for grazing horses. Small animals,
Moderately large areas have been planted to improved especially rabbits, are plentiful.
pastures. A small area west of Micco has been planted to Limitations are severe for residential and light indus-
citrus. Many kinds of native birds and animals live in trial development, mainly because the water table is
the broad expanses of open, undeveloped areas, high. The high water table and, in places, the shallow-
Limitations are severe for residential and light indus- ness of the soils over rock are severe limitations for septic
trial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un- tank absorption fields. The water table and excessive
paved local roads and streets, all-weather surfaced local wetness are severe limitations for unpaved streets and
roads and streets, and recreational developments, be- roads, all-weather surfaced local roads and streets, and
cause the high water table rises close to the surface, recreational developments.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

Immokalee soils are similar to Myakka soils, but the Soils of the Hammocks and Low Ridges
dark-colored weakly cemented layer begins at a depth
of more than 30 inches. These soils are poorly drained. The two soil associations in this group consist of poor-
Minor in this association are the Pomello, Basinger, ly drained and very poorly drained, nearly level soils in
Anclote, Wabasso, St. Johns, Oldsmar, Felda, and Holo- hammocks and on low ridges. Some of these soils have a
paw soils, loamy subsoil, some contain dark-colored, weakly ce-
Large areas of this association are still in natural mented layers, and some are less than 40 inches deep over
vegetation. The original pines have been harvested, and hard limestone. These associations are on low marine ter-
most of the woodland is now second growth. Many areas races north of Titusville and near Valkaria on the
are used for range, and a few areas are in improved mainland and in areas near Courtenay and Orsino on
pasture. A few are in citrus groves. Development for Merritt Island.
urban uses has been moderately extensive. Many kinds of 6. Myakka-Bradenton, shallow variant-Copeland
native birds and animals live on the broad expanse of the association
open, undeveloped areas.
Limitations are severe for all residential and light in- Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
dustrial developments because the water table is high. soils, some sandy throughout and others sandy to a depth
The high water table also causes severe limitations for of less than 20 inches and loamy below
septic tank absorption fields, unpaved streets and roads, This association is made up of nearly level, low sandy
all-weather surfaced local roads and streets, and recrea- ridges and small-to-large hammocks that are underlain
tional developments, by limestone. The largest area is on the low marine ter-
5. Pineda-Wabasso association race north of Titusville and east of U.S. Highway No. 1,
on the mainland. A small area is near Valkaria. The
Nearly level, poorly drained soils, sandy to within a natural vegetation is mixed pines, cabbage palms, and
depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below hardwoods, such as live oak, magnolia, bay, and sweet-
This association is made up of nearly level flatwoods, gum.
palm hammocks, large to small sloughs and depressions, This association makes up about 7,100 acres, or slightly
and in places, scattered intermittent ponds. It is on the more than 1 percent of the land area in the county. It
mainland near the river flood plain, mostly in the south- is about 25 percent Myakka soils, 20 percent the Bra-
ern half of the county. A few areas are in the northern denton shallow variant, 15 percent Copeland soils, and
part. The natural vegetation is a mixture of cabbage 40 percent soils of minor extent.
palms and pines on the palm hammocks; pines, pine- Myakka soils are at the highest elevations. They have
land three-awn, saw-palmetto, and scattered palms on the a grayish, sandy surface layer and subsurface layer and
flatwoods; and sand cordgrass and other wetland grasses a dark-colored, weakly cemented layer within 30 inches
and plants in the depressions and sloughs. A few cypress of the surface. Below this they are sandy to a depth
and hardwoods are growing in places, of 63 inches or more. Typically these soils are poorly
This association makes up about 65,800 acres, or slight- drained. Artificial drainage is provided in most areas.
ly less than 10 percent of the land area in the county. Bradenton soils, shallow variant, are also poorly
It is about 35 percent Pineda soils, about ,15 percent drained. They have a fine sandy surface layer and sub-
Wabasso soils, and about 50 percent soils of minor extent, surface layer less than 20 inches thick and a sandy clay
Pineda soils have a black and dark-gray sandy sur- loam subsoil. Below the subsoil, generally within a depth
face layer and a brownish sandy layer within a depth of 40 inches, is hard limestone.
of inc hes. Loamy material is at a depth of 20 to 40 Copeland soils have a dark-colored, sandy surface
Wabasso soils have a black or very dark gray sandy layer and a loamy subsoil. Hard limestone is within a
surface layer, a dark-colored, weakly cemented sandy depth of 40 inches. Typically, these soils are very
layer within a depth of 30 inches, and loamy material poorly drained. Some artificial drainage is provided
within a depth of 40 inches. in most areas.
Minor in this association are the EauGallie, Floridana, Minor in this association are Felda, Pompano, and
Malabar, Oldsmar, Myakka, and Felda soils. Any one Wabasso soils and Tidal marsh, each of which makes up
of these soils is only 10 percent or less of the association. no more than 10 percent of the association.
Large areas of this association are still in natural Only small scattered areas of this association are still
vegetation, but the original pines have been harvested in native woodland. About 80 percent of the acreage has
and most of the woodland is second growth. A large part been cleared and planted to citrus. A few small areas
of the woodland is used as range or grazeable woodland. are in pasture used for grazing horses. Small animals,
Moderately large areas have been planted to improved especially rabbits, are plentiful.
pastures. A small area west of Micco has been planted to Limitations are severe for residential and light indus-
citrus. Many kinds of native birds and animals live in trial development, mainly because the water table is
the broad expanses of open, undeveloped areas, high. The high water table and, in places, the shallow-
Limitations are severe for residential and light indus- ness of the soils over rock are severe limitations for septic
trial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un- tank absorption fields. The water table and excessive
paved local roads and streets, all-weather surfaced local wetness are severe limitations for unpaved streets and
roads and streets, and recreational developments, be- roads, all-weather surfaced local roads and streets, and
cause the high water table rises close to the surface, recreational developments.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

Immokalee soils are similar to Myakka soils, but the Soils of the Hammocks and Low Ridges
dark-colored weakly cemented layer begins at a depth
of more than 30 inches. These soils are poorly drained. The two soil associations in this group consist of poor-
Minor in this association are the Pomello, Basinger, ly drained and very poorly drained, nearly level soils in
Anclote, Wabasso, St. Johns, Oldsmar, Felda, and Holo- hammocks and on low ridges. Some of these soils have a
paw soils, loamy subsoil, some contain dark-colored, weakly ce-
Large areas of this association are still in natural mented layers, and some are less than 40 inches deep over
vegetation. The original pines have been harvested, and hard limestone. These associations are on low marine ter-
most of the woodland is now second growth. Many areas races north of Titusville and near Valkaria on the
are used for range, and a few areas are in improved mainland and in areas near Courtenay and Orsino on
pasture. A few are in citrus groves. Development for Merritt Island.
urban uses has been moderately extensive. Many kinds of 6. Myakka-Bradenton, shallow variant-Copeland
native birds and animals live on the broad expanse of the association
open, undeveloped areas.
Limitations are severe for all residential and light in- Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
dustrial developments because the water table is high. soils, some sandy throughout and others sandy to a depth
The high water table also causes severe limitations for of less than 20 inches and loamy below
septic tank absorption fields, unpaved streets and roads, This association is made up of nearly level, low sandy
all-weather surfaced local roads and streets, and recrea- ridges and small-to-large hammocks that are underlain
tional developments, by limestone. The largest area is on the low marine ter-
5. Pineda-Wabasso association race north of Titusville and east of U.S. Highway No. 1,
on the mainland. A small area is near Valkaria. The
Nearly level, poorly drained soils, sandy to within a natural vegetation is mixed pines, cabbage palms, and
depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below hardwoods, such as live oak, magnolia, bay, and sweet-
This association is made up of nearly level flatwoods, gum.
palm hammocks, large to small sloughs and depressions, This association makes up about 7,100 acres, or slightly
and in places, scattered intermittent ponds. It is on the more than 1 percent of the land area in the county. It
mainland near the river flood plain, mostly in the south- is about 25 percent Myakka soils, 20 percent the Bra-
ern half of the county. A few areas are in the northern denton shallow variant, 15 percent Copeland soils, and
part. The natural vegetation is a mixture of cabbage 40 percent soils of minor extent.
palms and pines on the palm hammocks; pines, pine- Myakka soils are at the highest elevations. They have
land three-awn, saw-palmetto, and scattered palms on the a grayish, sandy surface layer and subsurface layer and
flatwoods; and sand cordgrass and other wetland grasses a dark-colored, weakly cemented layer within 30 inches
and plants in the depressions and sloughs. A few cypress of the surface. Below this they are sandy to a depth
and hardwoods are growing in places, of 63 inches or more. Typically these soils are poorly
This association makes up about 65,800 acres, or slight- drained. Artificial drainage is provided in most areas.
ly less than 10 percent of the land area in the county. Bradenton soils, shallow variant, are also poorly
It is about 35 percent Pineda soils, about ,15 percent drained. They have a fine sandy surface layer and sub-
Wabasso soils, and about 50 percent soils of minor extent, surface layer less than 20 inches thick and a sandy clay
Pineda soils have a black and dark-gray sandy sur- loam subsoil. Below the subsoil, generally within a depth
face layer and a brownish sandy layer within a depth of 40 inches, is hard limestone.
of inc hes. Loamy material is at a depth of 20 to 40 Copeland soils have a dark-colored, sandy surface
Wabasso soils have a black or very dark gray sandy layer and a loamy subsoil. Hard limestone is within a
surface layer, a dark-colored, weakly cemented sandy depth of 40 inches. Typically, these soils are very
layer within a depth of 30 inches, and loamy material poorly drained. Some artificial drainage is provided
within a depth of 40 inches. in most areas.
Minor in this association are the EauGallie, Floridana, Minor in this association are Felda, Pompano, and
Malabar, Oldsmar, Myakka, and Felda soils. Any one Wabasso soils and Tidal marsh, each of which makes up
of these soils is only 10 percent or less of the association. no more than 10 percent of the association.
Large areas of this association are still in natural Only small scattered areas of this association are still
vegetation, but the original pines have been harvested in native woodland. About 80 percent of the acreage has
and most of the woodland is second growth. A large part been cleared and planted to citrus. A few small areas
of the woodland is used as range or grazeable woodland. are in pasture used for grazing horses. Small animals,
Moderately large areas have been planted to improved especially rabbits, are plentiful.
pastures. A small area west of Micco has been planted to Limitations are severe for residential and light indus-
citrus. Many kinds of native birds and animals live in trial development, mainly because the water table is
the broad expanses of open, undeveloped areas, high. The high water table and, in places, the shallow-
Limitations are severe for residential and light indus- ness of the soils over rock are severe limitations for septic
trial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un- tank absorption fields. The water table and excessive
paved local roads and streets, all-weather surfaced local wetness are severe limitations for unpaved streets and
roads and streets, and recreational developments, be- roads, all-weather surfaced local roads and streets, and
cause the high water table rises close to the surface, recreational developments.







10 sOa SURVEY

7. Copeland-Wabasso association idana soils, 9 percent Winder soils, and 40 percent soils
Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained of minor extent.
i, y to a 1 dra d inches and ae Felda soils have a sandy surface layer and subsurface
belowsandy depth of than 40 loamy layer, 20 to 40 inches thick, and a loamy subsoil. They
are poorly drained.
This soil association is made up mostly of hammocks. Floridana soils are in depressions and swamps. They
It is in the central part of Merritt Island. The natural are similar to Felda soils, but they have a thick, dark-
vegetation is a thick growth of cabbage palms and hard- colored surface layer. They are very poorly drained.
woods, such as live oak, magnolia, bay, and sweetgum, Winder soils have a very dark gray and dark-gray
and a few pines, loamy sand surface layer and subsurface layer, and a
This association makes up about 8,500 acres, or a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. Calcareous
little more than 1 percent of the county. It is about sandy clay loam is generally below the subsoil. These
40 percent Copeland soils, 12 percent Wabasso soils, and soils are poorly drained.
48 percent soils of minor extent. Minor in this association are the Pineda, Anclote,
Copeland soils have a thick, black surface layer and Wabasso, Terra Ceia, Malabar, Chobee, and Holopaw
a loamy subsoil overlying marl and hard limestone. Typi- soils and Swamp. Any one of these soils seldom makes
cally, these soils are very poorly drained. The drainage up more than 6 percent of this association.
provided in most areas has lowered the water table. A large part of this association is in improved pasture
Wabasso soils have a sand surface layer and dark- and native pasture. Most other areas are used forrange.
colored, weakly cemented layers overlying loamy ma- If drainage is adequate, citrus can be grown on most of
trial. Typically, they are poorly drained. Artificial these soils. Most areas, however, are subject to frequent
drainage is provided in most areas. frost damage. This is a natural habitat for many kinds
Minor in this association are the Anclote, Bradenton of birds and wild animals.
shallow variant, Chobee, Parkwood, St. Johns, and Win- Limitations are severe for residential and light indus-
der soils. trial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un-
Only small scattered areas of this association are still paved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local roads
in natural vegetation. About 85 percent of the acreage and streets, and recreational developments because the
has been cleared and planted to citrus, but some groves high water table is close to the surface and the soils are
have been abandoned and the vegetation now is palm subject to flooding.
trees. Citrus groves are drained, and most are bedded.
Small animals, especially rabbits, are plentiful. 9. Floridana-Chobee-Felda association
Limitations are severe for residential and light in- Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
dustrial development, unpaved streets and roads, all- soils, some loamy throughout and others sandy to a depth
weather surfaced local roads and streets, and recreational of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below
developments, mainly because the water table is high. This association is made up of low, first river bottoms
The high water table and, in places, the shallowness of Ths association is made up of low, first river bottoms
the soils over rock are severe limitations for septic that flood frequently. It is interspersed with shallow
tank absorption fields river channels. It is on the mainland along the St. Johns
S p River and extends from southwest of Titusville north
along the river almost to the county line. The natural
Soils of the St. Johns River Flood Plains vegetation is sand cordgrass and a very few scattered
The two soil associations in this group consist of cabbage palms and small cabbage palm hammocks.
poorly drained and very poorly drained, nearly level This association makes up about 7,280 acres, or slightly
soils that have a loamy subsoil. These associations are more than 1 percent of the land area in the county. It
on lowlands along the St. Johns River, on the mainland, is 35 percent Floridana soils, 27 percent Chobee soils,
27 percent Felda soils, and 11 percent soils of minor
8. Felda-Floridana-Winder association extent.
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained Floridana soils have a thick dark-colored surface layer
soils, sandy to a depth of less than 40 inches and loamy and a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches They
below are very poorly drained.
Chobee soils also are very poorly drained and have a
This association is made up mostly of broad, low areas thick, dark-colored surface layer. A loamy subsoil is
interspersed with depressions and swamps and a few, within a depth of 20 inches and generally is underlain
scattered, low knolls. It is on the mainland, on the flood by calcareous sandy clay loam.
plain along the St. Johns River. The natural vegeta- Felda soils have a sandy surface layer and subsurface
tion is sand cordgrass and scattered cabbage palms or layer and a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
clumps of palms on the broad flats; wetland grasses, They are poorly drained.
flags, and lilies in the depressions; cypress or mixed Minor in this association are river channels and shal-
cypress and hardwoods in the swamps; and scattered low lakes.
pines, saw-palmetto, palm, and pineland three-awn (wire- This association is still in natural vegetation. Except
grass) on the slightly higher knolls, when flooded, some of it is used for range or native
This association makes up about 96,100 acres, or a pasture. It is too wet for pine trees. Water birds, such
little more than 14 percent of the land -area in the as cranes and herons, are common and ducks are common
county. It is 34 percent Felda soils, 17 percent Flor- in winter.







10 sOa SURVEY

7. Copeland-Wabasso association idana soils, 9 percent Winder soils, and 40 percent soils
Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained of minor extent.
i, y to a 1 dra d inches and ae Felda soils have a sandy surface layer and subsurface
belowsandy depth of than 40 loamy layer, 20 to 40 inches thick, and a loamy subsoil. They
are poorly drained.
This soil association is made up mostly of hammocks. Floridana soils are in depressions and swamps. They
It is in the central part of Merritt Island. The natural are similar to Felda soils, but they have a thick, dark-
vegetation is a thick growth of cabbage palms and hard- colored surface layer. They are very poorly drained.
woods, such as live oak, magnolia, bay, and sweetgum, Winder soils have a very dark gray and dark-gray
and a few pines, loamy sand surface layer and subsurface layer, and a
This association makes up about 8,500 acres, or a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. Calcareous
little more than 1 percent of the county. It is about sandy clay loam is generally below the subsoil. These
40 percent Copeland soils, 12 percent Wabasso soils, and soils are poorly drained.
48 percent soils of minor extent. Minor in this association are the Pineda, Anclote,
Copeland soils have a thick, black surface layer and Wabasso, Terra Ceia, Malabar, Chobee, and Holopaw
a loamy subsoil overlying marl and hard limestone. Typi- soils and Swamp. Any one of these soils seldom makes
cally, these soils are very poorly drained. The drainage up more than 6 percent of this association.
provided in most areas has lowered the water table. A large part of this association is in improved pasture
Wabasso soils have a sand surface layer and dark- and native pasture. Most other areas are used forrange.
colored, weakly cemented layers overlying loamy ma- If drainage is adequate, citrus can be grown on most of
trial. Typically, they are poorly drained. Artificial these soils. Most areas, however, are subject to frequent
drainage is provided in most areas. frost damage. This is a natural habitat for many kinds
Minor in this association are the Anclote, Bradenton of birds and wild animals.
shallow variant, Chobee, Parkwood, St. Johns, and Win- Limitations are severe for residential and light indus-
der soils. trial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un-
Only small scattered areas of this association are still paved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local roads
in natural vegetation. About 85 percent of the acreage and streets, and recreational developments because the
has been cleared and planted to citrus, but some groves high water table is close to the surface and the soils are
have been abandoned and the vegetation now is palm subject to flooding.
trees. Citrus groves are drained, and most are bedded.
Small animals, especially rabbits, are plentiful. 9. Floridana-Chobee-Felda association
Limitations are severe for residential and light in- Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
dustrial development, unpaved streets and roads, all- soils, some loamy throughout and others sandy to a depth
weather surfaced local roads and streets, and recreational of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below
developments, mainly because the water table is high. This association is made up of low, first river bottoms
The high water table and, in places, the shallowness of Ths association is made up of low, first river bottoms
the soils over rock are severe limitations for septic that flood frequently. It is interspersed with shallow
tank absorption fields river channels. It is on the mainland along the St. Johns
S p River and extends from southwest of Titusville north
along the river almost to the county line. The natural
Soils of the St. Johns River Flood Plains vegetation is sand cordgrass and a very few scattered
The two soil associations in this group consist of cabbage palms and small cabbage palm hammocks.
poorly drained and very poorly drained, nearly level This association makes up about 7,280 acres, or slightly
soils that have a loamy subsoil. These associations are more than 1 percent of the land area in the county. It
on lowlands along the St. Johns River, on the mainland, is 35 percent Floridana soils, 27 percent Chobee soils,
27 percent Felda soils, and 11 percent soils of minor
8. Felda-Floridana-Winder association extent.
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained Floridana soils have a thick dark-colored surface layer
soils, sandy to a depth of less than 40 inches and loamy and a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches They
below are very poorly drained.
Chobee soils also are very poorly drained and have a
This association is made up mostly of broad, low areas thick, dark-colored surface layer. A loamy subsoil is
interspersed with depressions and swamps and a few, within a depth of 20 inches and generally is underlain
scattered, low knolls. It is on the mainland, on the flood by calcareous sandy clay loam.
plain along the St. Johns River. The natural vegeta- Felda soils have a sandy surface layer and subsurface
tion is sand cordgrass and scattered cabbage palms or layer and a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
clumps of palms on the broad flats; wetland grasses, They are poorly drained.
flags, and lilies in the depressions; cypress or mixed Minor in this association are river channels and shal-
cypress and hardwoods in the swamps; and scattered low lakes.
pines, saw-palmetto, palm, and pineland three-awn (wire- This association is still in natural vegetation. Except
grass) on the slightly higher knolls, when flooded, some of it is used for range or native
This association makes up about 96,100 acres, or a pasture. It is too wet for pine trees. Water birds, such
little more than 14 percent of the land -area in the as cranes and herons, are common and ducks are common
county. It is 34 percent Felda soils, 17 percent Flor- in winter.







10 sOa SURVEY

7. Copeland-Wabasso association idana soils, 9 percent Winder soils, and 40 percent soils
Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained of minor extent.
i, y to a 1 dra d inches and ae Felda soils have a sandy surface layer and subsurface
belowsandy depth of than 40 loamy layer, 20 to 40 inches thick, and a loamy subsoil. They
are poorly drained.
This soil association is made up mostly of hammocks. Floridana soils are in depressions and swamps. They
It is in the central part of Merritt Island. The natural are similar to Felda soils, but they have a thick, dark-
vegetation is a thick growth of cabbage palms and hard- colored surface layer. They are very poorly drained.
woods, such as live oak, magnolia, bay, and sweetgum, Winder soils have a very dark gray and dark-gray
and a few pines, loamy sand surface layer and subsurface layer, and a
This association makes up about 8,500 acres, or a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. Calcareous
little more than 1 percent of the county. It is about sandy clay loam is generally below the subsoil. These
40 percent Copeland soils, 12 percent Wabasso soils, and soils are poorly drained.
48 percent soils of minor extent. Minor in this association are the Pineda, Anclote,
Copeland soils have a thick, black surface layer and Wabasso, Terra Ceia, Malabar, Chobee, and Holopaw
a loamy subsoil overlying marl and hard limestone. Typi- soils and Swamp. Any one of these soils seldom makes
cally, these soils are very poorly drained. The drainage up more than 6 percent of this association.
provided in most areas has lowered the water table. A large part of this association is in improved pasture
Wabasso soils have a sand surface layer and dark- and native pasture. Most other areas are used forrange.
colored, weakly cemented layers overlying loamy ma- If drainage is adequate, citrus can be grown on most of
trial. Typically, they are poorly drained. Artificial these soils. Most areas, however, are subject to frequent
drainage is provided in most areas. frost damage. This is a natural habitat for many kinds
Minor in this association are the Anclote, Bradenton of birds and wild animals.
shallow variant, Chobee, Parkwood, St. Johns, and Win- Limitations are severe for residential and light indus-
der soils. trial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un-
Only small scattered areas of this association are still paved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local roads
in natural vegetation. About 85 percent of the acreage and streets, and recreational developments because the
has been cleared and planted to citrus, but some groves high water table is close to the surface and the soils are
have been abandoned and the vegetation now is palm subject to flooding.
trees. Citrus groves are drained, and most are bedded.
Small animals, especially rabbits, are plentiful. 9. Floridana-Chobee-Felda association
Limitations are severe for residential and light in- Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
dustrial development, unpaved streets and roads, all- soils, some loamy throughout and others sandy to a depth
weather surfaced local roads and streets, and recreational of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below
developments, mainly because the water table is high. This association is made up of low, first river bottoms
The high water table and, in places, the shallowness of Ths association is made up of low, first river bottoms
the soils over rock are severe limitations for septic that flood frequently. It is interspersed with shallow
tank absorption fields river channels. It is on the mainland along the St. Johns
S p River and extends from southwest of Titusville north
along the river almost to the county line. The natural
Soils of the St. Johns River Flood Plains vegetation is sand cordgrass and a very few scattered
The two soil associations in this group consist of cabbage palms and small cabbage palm hammocks.
poorly drained and very poorly drained, nearly level This association makes up about 7,280 acres, or slightly
soils that have a loamy subsoil. These associations are more than 1 percent of the land area in the county. It
on lowlands along the St. Johns River, on the mainland, is 35 percent Floridana soils, 27 percent Chobee soils,
27 percent Felda soils, and 11 percent soils of minor
8. Felda-Floridana-Winder association extent.
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained Floridana soils have a thick dark-colored surface layer
soils, sandy to a depth of less than 40 inches and loamy and a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches They
below are very poorly drained.
Chobee soils also are very poorly drained and have a
This association is made up mostly of broad, low areas thick, dark-colored surface layer. A loamy subsoil is
interspersed with depressions and swamps and a few, within a depth of 20 inches and generally is underlain
scattered, low knolls. It is on the mainland, on the flood by calcareous sandy clay loam.
plain along the St. Johns River. The natural vegeta- Felda soils have a sandy surface layer and subsurface
tion is sand cordgrass and scattered cabbage palms or layer and a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
clumps of palms on the broad flats; wetland grasses, They are poorly drained.
flags, and lilies in the depressions; cypress or mixed Minor in this association are river channels and shal-
cypress and hardwoods in the swamps; and scattered low lakes.
pines, saw-palmetto, palm, and pineland three-awn (wire- This association is still in natural vegetation. Except
grass) on the slightly higher knolls, when flooded, some of it is used for range or native
This association makes up about 96,100 acres, or a pasture. It is too wet for pine trees. Water birds, such
little more than 14 percent of the land -area in the as cranes and herons, are common and ducks are common
county. It is 34 percent Felda soils, 17 percent Flor- in winter.







10 sOa SURVEY

7. Copeland-Wabasso association idana soils, 9 percent Winder soils, and 40 percent soils
Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained of minor extent.
i, y to a 1 dra d inches and ae Felda soils have a sandy surface layer and subsurface
belowsandy depth of than 40 loamy layer, 20 to 40 inches thick, and a loamy subsoil. They
are poorly drained.
This soil association is made up mostly of hammocks. Floridana soils are in depressions and swamps. They
It is in the central part of Merritt Island. The natural are similar to Felda soils, but they have a thick, dark-
vegetation is a thick growth of cabbage palms and hard- colored surface layer. They are very poorly drained.
woods, such as live oak, magnolia, bay, and sweetgum, Winder soils have a very dark gray and dark-gray
and a few pines, loamy sand surface layer and subsurface layer, and a
This association makes up about 8,500 acres, or a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. Calcareous
little more than 1 percent of the county. It is about sandy clay loam is generally below the subsoil. These
40 percent Copeland soils, 12 percent Wabasso soils, and soils are poorly drained.
48 percent soils of minor extent. Minor in this association are the Pineda, Anclote,
Copeland soils have a thick, black surface layer and Wabasso, Terra Ceia, Malabar, Chobee, and Holopaw
a loamy subsoil overlying marl and hard limestone. Typi- soils and Swamp. Any one of these soils seldom makes
cally, these soils are very poorly drained. The drainage up more than 6 percent of this association.
provided in most areas has lowered the water table. A large part of this association is in improved pasture
Wabasso soils have a sand surface layer and dark- and native pasture. Most other areas are used forrange.
colored, weakly cemented layers overlying loamy ma- If drainage is adequate, citrus can be grown on most of
trial. Typically, they are poorly drained. Artificial these soils. Most areas, however, are subject to frequent
drainage is provided in most areas. frost damage. This is a natural habitat for many kinds
Minor in this association are the Anclote, Bradenton of birds and wild animals.
shallow variant, Chobee, Parkwood, St. Johns, and Win- Limitations are severe for residential and light indus-
der soils. trial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un-
Only small scattered areas of this association are still paved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local roads
in natural vegetation. About 85 percent of the acreage and streets, and recreational developments because the
has been cleared and planted to citrus, but some groves high water table is close to the surface and the soils are
have been abandoned and the vegetation now is palm subject to flooding.
trees. Citrus groves are drained, and most are bedded.
Small animals, especially rabbits, are plentiful. 9. Floridana-Chobee-Felda association
Limitations are severe for residential and light in- Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
dustrial development, unpaved streets and roads, all- soils, some loamy throughout and others sandy to a depth
weather surfaced local roads and streets, and recreational of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below
developments, mainly because the water table is high. This association is made up of low, first river bottoms
The high water table and, in places, the shallowness of Ths association is made up of low, first river bottoms
the soils over rock are severe limitations for septic that flood frequently. It is interspersed with shallow
tank absorption fields river channels. It is on the mainland along the St. Johns
S p River and extends from southwest of Titusville north
along the river almost to the county line. The natural
Soils of the St. Johns River Flood Plains vegetation is sand cordgrass and a very few scattered
The two soil associations in this group consist of cabbage palms and small cabbage palm hammocks.
poorly drained and very poorly drained, nearly level This association makes up about 7,280 acres, or slightly
soils that have a loamy subsoil. These associations are more than 1 percent of the land area in the county. It
on lowlands along the St. Johns River, on the mainland, is 35 percent Floridana soils, 27 percent Chobee soils,
27 percent Felda soils, and 11 percent soils of minor
8. Felda-Floridana-Winder association extent.
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained Floridana soils have a thick dark-colored surface layer
soils, sandy to a depth of less than 40 inches and loamy and a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches They
below are very poorly drained.
Chobee soils also are very poorly drained and have a
This association is made up mostly of broad, low areas thick, dark-colored surface layer. A loamy subsoil is
interspersed with depressions and swamps and a few, within a depth of 20 inches and generally is underlain
scattered, low knolls. It is on the mainland, on the flood by calcareous sandy clay loam.
plain along the St. Johns River. The natural vegeta- Felda soils have a sandy surface layer and subsurface
tion is sand cordgrass and scattered cabbage palms or layer and a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
clumps of palms on the broad flats; wetland grasses, They are poorly drained.
flags, and lilies in the depressions; cypress or mixed Minor in this association are river channels and shal-
cypress and hardwoods in the swamps; and scattered low lakes.
pines, saw-palmetto, palm, and pineland three-awn (wire- This association is still in natural vegetation. Except
grass) on the slightly higher knolls, when flooded, some of it is used for range or native
This association makes up about 96,100 acres, or a pasture. It is too wet for pine trees. Water birds, such
little more than 14 percent of the land -area in the as cranes and herons, are common and ducks are common
county. It is 34 percent Felda soils, 17 percent Flor- in winter.







BREVARD COUNff, PLORIDA 11

Limitations are severe for residential and light in- capacity. The peat must be removed and backfilled with
dustrial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un- suitable material if areas of this association are to be
paved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local roads used.
and streets, and recreational developments because the Swamp as
water table is high and the soils are frequently flooded. 11. Swam association
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
Soils of the Swamps and Marshes and soils of variable texture
Very Wet Areas This association is made up of nearly level, freshwater
/ hardwood and cypress swamps. It occupies broad areas
The three soil associations in this group consist of or narrow, poorly defined drainageways. Jane Green
broad expanses of organic soils, freshwater swamps, Swamp, west of the St. Johns River and south of U.S.
tidal marshes, and tidal swamps. They are on the main- Highway 192, is the largest single area. All other areas
land, on the flood plain along the St. Johns River and are in the northern part of the county. Vegetation in
along saltwater rivers, creeks, and lagoons. the hardwood swamps consists of bay, gum, maple, and
10. Montverde-Micco-Tomoka association other wetland species. Some areas have pure stands of
cypress.
Nearly level, very poorly drained, organic soils, sandy This association makes up about 10,000 acres, or slight-
and loamy material at a depth of more than 52 inches for ly less than 2 percent of the land area in the county.
some and within a depth of 16 to 40 inches for others The soils are poorly drained and very poorly drained
This association is made up of nearly level peat and and are flooded for long periods. Organic and mineral
muck soils and scattered lakes along the St. Johns River. soils are in these swamps, but all are too wet and inac-
It is on the mainland, and most is on the flood plain. A cessible to map separately.
few small areas are in other parts of the mainland. The This association is unimproved and is still in natural
natural vegetation is sawgrass, maidencane, flags, sedges, vegetation. It provides food and cover for wildlife.
and scattered to thick stands of woody button bushes. A Limitations are very severe for residential and light
few areas outside the river basin are covered with mixed industrial developments, septic tank absorption fields,
hardwoods, mainly maple. unpaved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local
This association makes up about 91,800 acres, or slight- roads and streets, and recreational developments, because
ly less than 14 percent of the county. It is 30 percent the soils are very wet and are flooded for long periods.
Montverde soils, 23 percent Micco soils, 21 percent Tom- 12. Tidal marsh-Tida swamp association
oka soils, 14 percent soils of minor extent, and 12 percent
open fresh water. Nearly level, very poorly drained, saline to brackish soils
Montverde soils are mainly south of Lake Washington. of variable texture
They are black or dark reddish-brown, partly decom- This association is made up of salt or brackish marshes
posed fibrous peat to a depth of 52 inches or more. They and mangrove swamps. It is on Merritt Island, mostly
are very poorly drained and are frequently flooded for within the John F. Kennedy Space Center; on the south
long periods. beach area north of Sebastian Inlet; and west of Cocoa
Micco soils are mainly south of Lake Washington. Beach along the Banana River. The natural vegetation
They also are very poorly drained. They are peat soils in the swamps is mangrove trees, and in the marshes it is
like the Montverde soils, but the peat is only 16 to about salt-tolerant grasses and shrubs. A large part of the as-
40 inches thick. Beneath the peat are thin sandy layers sociation has been diked so that constant water levels
underlain by loamy material within a depth of 50 inches. can be maintained with artesian wells or pumps for mos-
Tomoka soils are north of Lake Washington. They quito control and wildlife habitat. These dikes overflow
consist of black or dark reddish-brown muck 16 to about only occasionally during storms. Undiked areas are flood-
40 inches thick. Beneath the muck are sandy and loamy ed daily by tides.
layers within a depth of 50 inches of the organic surface. This association makes up about 34,200 acres, or slight-
Minor in this association are the Terra Ceia, Felda, ly more than 5 percent of the land area in the county.
and Canova soils. Also in this association are Lakes Constant flooding and tangled mangrove growth make
Poinsett, Winder, Washington, Hellen Blazes, and Saw- examination of the soils very difficult. Most areas are
grass and the St. Johns River channel. The river flows mineral soils and scattered spots of organic soils. The
through these lakes. mineral soils are mixed sand and shell fragments and
Most areas of this association are still in natural vege- have lenses or balls of clayey material in places. They are
station and are used for range. A relatively small part has saline to brackish
been diked and ditched and developed for improved pas- Most of this association is still in natural vegetation.
ture. A few places are used for vegetable crops. Many Some areas near urban centers have been filled with ma-
water birds, such as cranes and herons, are in some areas. trial dredged from the Banana River or Sykes Creek.
Ducks frequent the large canals and ditches. The Long Point Recreational Area was developed from
Limitations are very severe for residential and light Tidal swamp. This association has no value for farming,
industrial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un- but it provides roosting and nesting places for many
paved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local roads birds and spawning places for marine life.
and streets, and recreational developments, because the Limitations are very severe for residential and light
soils are very wet, they are frequently flooded for long industrial developments, septic tank absorption fields,
periods, and the muck and peat have very low bearing unpaved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local







BREVARD COUNff, PLORIDA 11

Limitations are severe for residential and light in- capacity. The peat must be removed and backfilled with
dustrial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un- suitable material if areas of this association are to be
paved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local roads used.
and streets, and recreational developments because the Swamp as
water table is high and the soils are frequently flooded. 11. Swam association
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
Soils of the Swamps and Marshes and soils of variable texture
Very Wet Areas This association is made up of nearly level, freshwater
/ hardwood and cypress swamps. It occupies broad areas
The three soil associations in this group consist of or narrow, poorly defined drainageways. Jane Green
broad expanses of organic soils, freshwater swamps, Swamp, west of the St. Johns River and south of U.S.
tidal marshes, and tidal swamps. They are on the main- Highway 192, is the largest single area. All other areas
land, on the flood plain along the St. Johns River and are in the northern part of the county. Vegetation in
along saltwater rivers, creeks, and lagoons. the hardwood swamps consists of bay, gum, maple, and
10. Montverde-Micco-Tomoka association other wetland species. Some areas have pure stands of
cypress.
Nearly level, very poorly drained, organic soils, sandy This association makes up about 10,000 acres, or slight-
and loamy material at a depth of more than 52 inches for ly less than 2 percent of the land area in the county.
some and within a depth of 16 to 40 inches for others The soils are poorly drained and very poorly drained
This association is made up of nearly level peat and and are flooded for long periods. Organic and mineral
muck soils and scattered lakes along the St. Johns River. soils are in these swamps, but all are too wet and inac-
It is on the mainland, and most is on the flood plain. A cessible to map separately.
few small areas are in other parts of the mainland. The This association is unimproved and is still in natural
natural vegetation is sawgrass, maidencane, flags, sedges, vegetation. It provides food and cover for wildlife.
and scattered to thick stands of woody button bushes. A Limitations are very severe for residential and light
few areas outside the river basin are covered with mixed industrial developments, septic tank absorption fields,
hardwoods, mainly maple. unpaved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local
This association makes up about 91,800 acres, or slight- roads and streets, and recreational developments, because
ly less than 14 percent of the county. It is 30 percent the soils are very wet and are flooded for long periods.
Montverde soils, 23 percent Micco soils, 21 percent Tom- 12. Tidal marsh-Tida swamp association
oka soils, 14 percent soils of minor extent, and 12 percent
open fresh water. Nearly level, very poorly drained, saline to brackish soils
Montverde soils are mainly south of Lake Washington. of variable texture
They are black or dark reddish-brown, partly decom- This association is made up of salt or brackish marshes
posed fibrous peat to a depth of 52 inches or more. They and mangrove swamps. It is on Merritt Island, mostly
are very poorly drained and are frequently flooded for within the John F. Kennedy Space Center; on the south
long periods. beach area north of Sebastian Inlet; and west of Cocoa
Micco soils are mainly south of Lake Washington. Beach along the Banana River. The natural vegetation
They also are very poorly drained. They are peat soils in the swamps is mangrove trees, and in the marshes it is
like the Montverde soils, but the peat is only 16 to about salt-tolerant grasses and shrubs. A large part of the as-
40 inches thick. Beneath the peat are thin sandy layers sociation has been diked so that constant water levels
underlain by loamy material within a depth of 50 inches. can be maintained with artesian wells or pumps for mos-
Tomoka soils are north of Lake Washington. They quito control and wildlife habitat. These dikes overflow
consist of black or dark reddish-brown muck 16 to about only occasionally during storms. Undiked areas are flood-
40 inches thick. Beneath the muck are sandy and loamy ed daily by tides.
layers within a depth of 50 inches of the organic surface. This association makes up about 34,200 acres, or slight-
Minor in this association are the Terra Ceia, Felda, ly more than 5 percent of the land area in the county.
and Canova soils. Also in this association are Lakes Constant flooding and tangled mangrove growth make
Poinsett, Winder, Washington, Hellen Blazes, and Saw- examination of the soils very difficult. Most areas are
grass and the St. Johns River channel. The river flows mineral soils and scattered spots of organic soils. The
through these lakes. mineral soils are mixed sand and shell fragments and
Most areas of this association are still in natural vege- have lenses or balls of clayey material in places. They are
station and are used for range. A relatively small part has saline to brackish
been diked and ditched and developed for improved pas- Most of this association is still in natural vegetation.
ture. A few places are used for vegetable crops. Many Some areas near urban centers have been filled with ma-
water birds, such as cranes and herons, are in some areas. trial dredged from the Banana River or Sykes Creek.
Ducks frequent the large canals and ditches. The Long Point Recreational Area was developed from
Limitations are very severe for residential and light Tidal swamp. This association has no value for farming,
industrial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un- but it provides roosting and nesting places for many
paved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local roads birds and spawning places for marine life.
and streets, and recreational developments, because the Limitations are very severe for residential and light
soils are very wet, they are frequently flooded for long industrial developments, septic tank absorption fields,
periods, and the muck and peat have very low bearing unpaved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local







BREVARD COUNff, PLORIDA 11

Limitations are severe for residential and light in- capacity. The peat must be removed and backfilled with
dustrial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un- suitable material if areas of this association are to be
paved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local roads used.
and streets, and recreational developments because the Swamp as
water table is high and the soils are frequently flooded. 11. Swam association
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
Soils of the Swamps and Marshes and soils of variable texture
Very Wet Areas This association is made up of nearly level, freshwater
/ hardwood and cypress swamps. It occupies broad areas
The three soil associations in this group consist of or narrow, poorly defined drainageways. Jane Green
broad expanses of organic soils, freshwater swamps, Swamp, west of the St. Johns River and south of U.S.
tidal marshes, and tidal swamps. They are on the main- Highway 192, is the largest single area. All other areas
land, on the flood plain along the St. Johns River and are in the northern part of the county. Vegetation in
along saltwater rivers, creeks, and lagoons. the hardwood swamps consists of bay, gum, maple, and
10. Montverde-Micco-Tomoka association other wetland species. Some areas have pure stands of
cypress.
Nearly level, very poorly drained, organic soils, sandy This association makes up about 10,000 acres, or slight-
and loamy material at a depth of more than 52 inches for ly less than 2 percent of the land area in the county.
some and within a depth of 16 to 40 inches for others The soils are poorly drained and very poorly drained
This association is made up of nearly level peat and and are flooded for long periods. Organic and mineral
muck soils and scattered lakes along the St. Johns River. soils are in these swamps, but all are too wet and inac-
It is on the mainland, and most is on the flood plain. A cessible to map separately.
few small areas are in other parts of the mainland. The This association is unimproved and is still in natural
natural vegetation is sawgrass, maidencane, flags, sedges, vegetation. It provides food and cover for wildlife.
and scattered to thick stands of woody button bushes. A Limitations are very severe for residential and light
few areas outside the river basin are covered with mixed industrial developments, septic tank absorption fields,
hardwoods, mainly maple. unpaved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local
This association makes up about 91,800 acres, or slight- roads and streets, and recreational developments, because
ly less than 14 percent of the county. It is 30 percent the soils are very wet and are flooded for long periods.
Montverde soils, 23 percent Micco soils, 21 percent Tom- 12. Tidal marsh-Tida swamp association
oka soils, 14 percent soils of minor extent, and 12 percent
open fresh water. Nearly level, very poorly drained, saline to brackish soils
Montverde soils are mainly south of Lake Washington. of variable texture
They are black or dark reddish-brown, partly decom- This association is made up of salt or brackish marshes
posed fibrous peat to a depth of 52 inches or more. They and mangrove swamps. It is on Merritt Island, mostly
are very poorly drained and are frequently flooded for within the John F. Kennedy Space Center; on the south
long periods. beach area north of Sebastian Inlet; and west of Cocoa
Micco soils are mainly south of Lake Washington. Beach along the Banana River. The natural vegetation
They also are very poorly drained. They are peat soils in the swamps is mangrove trees, and in the marshes it is
like the Montverde soils, but the peat is only 16 to about salt-tolerant grasses and shrubs. A large part of the as-
40 inches thick. Beneath the peat are thin sandy layers sociation has been diked so that constant water levels
underlain by loamy material within a depth of 50 inches. can be maintained with artesian wells or pumps for mos-
Tomoka soils are north of Lake Washington. They quito control and wildlife habitat. These dikes overflow
consist of black or dark reddish-brown muck 16 to about only occasionally during storms. Undiked areas are flood-
40 inches thick. Beneath the muck are sandy and loamy ed daily by tides.
layers within a depth of 50 inches of the organic surface. This association makes up about 34,200 acres, or slight-
Minor in this association are the Terra Ceia, Felda, ly more than 5 percent of the land area in the county.
and Canova soils. Also in this association are Lakes Constant flooding and tangled mangrove growth make
Poinsett, Winder, Washington, Hellen Blazes, and Saw- examination of the soils very difficult. Most areas are
grass and the St. Johns River channel. The river flows mineral soils and scattered spots of organic soils. The
through these lakes. mineral soils are mixed sand and shell fragments and
Most areas of this association are still in natural vege- have lenses or balls of clayey material in places. They are
station and are used for range. A relatively small part has saline to brackish
been diked and ditched and developed for improved pas- Most of this association is still in natural vegetation.
ture. A few places are used for vegetable crops. Many Some areas near urban centers have been filled with ma-
water birds, such as cranes and herons, are in some areas. trial dredged from the Banana River or Sykes Creek.
Ducks frequent the large canals and ditches. The Long Point Recreational Area was developed from
Limitations are very severe for residential and light Tidal swamp. This association has no value for farming,
industrial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un- but it provides roosting and nesting places for many
paved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local roads birds and spawning places for marine life.
and streets, and recreational developments, because the Limitations are very severe for residential and light
soils are very wet, they are frequently flooded for long industrial developments, septic tank absorption fields,
periods, and the muck and peat have very low bearing unpaved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local







BREVARD COUNff, PLORIDA 11

Limitations are severe for residential and light in- capacity. The peat must be removed and backfilled with
dustrial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un- suitable material if areas of this association are to be
paved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local roads used.
and streets, and recreational developments because the Swamp as
water table is high and the soils are frequently flooded. 11. Swam association
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
Soils of the Swamps and Marshes and soils of variable texture
Very Wet Areas This association is made up of nearly level, freshwater
/ hardwood and cypress swamps. It occupies broad areas
The three soil associations in this group consist of or narrow, poorly defined drainageways. Jane Green
broad expanses of organic soils, freshwater swamps, Swamp, west of the St. Johns River and south of U.S.
tidal marshes, and tidal swamps. They are on the main- Highway 192, is the largest single area. All other areas
land, on the flood plain along the St. Johns River and are in the northern part of the county. Vegetation in
along saltwater rivers, creeks, and lagoons. the hardwood swamps consists of bay, gum, maple, and
10. Montverde-Micco-Tomoka association other wetland species. Some areas have pure stands of
cypress.
Nearly level, very poorly drained, organic soils, sandy This association makes up about 10,000 acres, or slight-
and loamy material at a depth of more than 52 inches for ly less than 2 percent of the land area in the county.
some and within a depth of 16 to 40 inches for others The soils are poorly drained and very poorly drained
This association is made up of nearly level peat and and are flooded for long periods. Organic and mineral
muck soils and scattered lakes along the St. Johns River. soils are in these swamps, but all are too wet and inac-
It is on the mainland, and most is on the flood plain. A cessible to map separately.
few small areas are in other parts of the mainland. The This association is unimproved and is still in natural
natural vegetation is sawgrass, maidencane, flags, sedges, vegetation. It provides food and cover for wildlife.
and scattered to thick stands of woody button bushes. A Limitations are very severe for residential and light
few areas outside the river basin are covered with mixed industrial developments, septic tank absorption fields,
hardwoods, mainly maple. unpaved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local
This association makes up about 91,800 acres, or slight- roads and streets, and recreational developments, because
ly less than 14 percent of the county. It is 30 percent the soils are very wet and are flooded for long periods.
Montverde soils, 23 percent Micco soils, 21 percent Tom- 12. Tidal marsh-Tida swamp association
oka soils, 14 percent soils of minor extent, and 12 percent
open fresh water. Nearly level, very poorly drained, saline to brackish soils
Montverde soils are mainly south of Lake Washington. of variable texture
They are black or dark reddish-brown, partly decom- This association is made up of salt or brackish marshes
posed fibrous peat to a depth of 52 inches or more. They and mangrove swamps. It is on Merritt Island, mostly
are very poorly drained and are frequently flooded for within the John F. Kennedy Space Center; on the south
long periods. beach area north of Sebastian Inlet; and west of Cocoa
Micco soils are mainly south of Lake Washington. Beach along the Banana River. The natural vegetation
They also are very poorly drained. They are peat soils in the swamps is mangrove trees, and in the marshes it is
like the Montverde soils, but the peat is only 16 to about salt-tolerant grasses and shrubs. A large part of the as-
40 inches thick. Beneath the peat are thin sandy layers sociation has been diked so that constant water levels
underlain by loamy material within a depth of 50 inches. can be maintained with artesian wells or pumps for mos-
Tomoka soils are north of Lake Washington. They quito control and wildlife habitat. These dikes overflow
consist of black or dark reddish-brown muck 16 to about only occasionally during storms. Undiked areas are flood-
40 inches thick. Beneath the muck are sandy and loamy ed daily by tides.
layers within a depth of 50 inches of the organic surface. This association makes up about 34,200 acres, or slight-
Minor in this association are the Terra Ceia, Felda, ly more than 5 percent of the land area in the county.
and Canova soils. Also in this association are Lakes Constant flooding and tangled mangrove growth make
Poinsett, Winder, Washington, Hellen Blazes, and Saw- examination of the soils very difficult. Most areas are
grass and the St. Johns River channel. The river flows mineral soils and scattered spots of organic soils. The
through these lakes. mineral soils are mixed sand and shell fragments and
Most areas of this association are still in natural vege- have lenses or balls of clayey material in places. They are
station and are used for range. A relatively small part has saline to brackish
been diked and ditched and developed for improved pas- Most of this association is still in natural vegetation.
ture. A few places are used for vegetable crops. Many Some areas near urban centers have been filled with ma-
water birds, such as cranes and herons, are in some areas. trial dredged from the Banana River or Sykes Creek.
Ducks frequent the large canals and ditches. The Long Point Recreational Area was developed from
Limitations are very severe for residential and light Tidal swamp. This association has no value for farming,
industrial developments, septic tank absorption fields, un- but it provides roosting and nesting places for many
paved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local roads birds and spawning places for marine life.
and streets, and recreational developments, because the Limitations are very severe for residential and light
soils are very wet, they are frequently flooded for long industrial developments, septic tank absorption fields,
periods, and the muck and peat have very low bearing unpaved streets and roads, all-weather surfaced local








12 SOIL SURVEY

roads and streets, and recreational developments. The as- precise studies of soils. Unless it is otherwise stated, the
sociation is below sea level. Unsuitable-material must be colors given in the descriptions are those of a moist soil,
removed and then backfilled with stable material that and the percentage of coarse fragments is a volume meas-
generally is dredged from nearby water areas. urement.
As mentioned in the section "How This Survey Was
Made," not all mapping units are members of a soil
Descriptions of the Soils series. Tidal marsh, for example, does not belong to a
soil series, but nevertheless, is listed in alphabetic order
This section describes the soil series and mapping units along with the soil series.
in Brevard County. Each soil series is described in con- Following the name of each mapping unit is a symbol
siderable detail, and then, briefly, each mapping unit in in parentheses. This symbol identifies the mapping unit
that series. Unless it is specifically mentioned otherwise, on the detailed soil map. Listed at the end of each de-
it is to be assumed that what is stated about the soil series scription of a mapping unit is the capability unit, range
hold true for the mapping units in that series. Thus, to site, and woodland group in which the mapping unit has
get full information about any one mapping unit, it is been placed. The page for the description of each capa-
necessary to read both the description of the mapping ability unit and range site can be found by referring to
unit and the description of the soil series to which it the "Guide to Mapping Units" at the back of this survey.
belongs. The acreage and proportionate extent of each mapping
An important part of the description of each soil series unit are shown in table 3. Many of the terms used in de-
is the soil profile, that is, the sequence of layers from the scribing soils can be found in the Glossary at the end of
surface downward to rock or other underlying material, this survey, and more detailed information about the
Each series contains two descriptions of this profile. The terminology and methods of soil mapping can be obtained
first is brief and in terms familiar to the layman. The from the Soil Survey Manual (11).
second, detailed and in technical terms, is for scientists, A given soil series in this county may be identified by
engineers, and others who need to make thorough and a different name in a recently published soil survey of an


TABLE 3.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of soils

Soil name Area Extent Soil name Area Extent

.4cro Percent Acres Percent
Anclote sand ------------------------------ 21, 075 3. 2 Parkwood fine sand, moderately fine subsoil
Astatula fine sand, dark surface-------------- 3, 890 .6 variant ------- .----------- ------ 1, 535 0.2
Astatula-Urban land complex-----.-----.---- 1, 900 .3 Pineda sand --.---------------------_- 20, 935 3.2
Basinger sand---------------------------- 9, 010 1.4 Pineda sand, bedded-----.----------------- 2,390 .4
Bradenton fine sand, shallow variant-------- 1, 960 .3 Pineda sand, dark surface variant----------- 1, 865 .3
Canaveral complex, gently undulating-------- 8, 760 1. 3 Pomello sand --------------------------- 16, 440 2. 5
Canaveral-Urban land complex--------------- 9, 345 1. 4 Pomello-Urban land complex --_-- ------- 3,790 .6
Canova peat -------------.-----._---.---- 4, 105 .6 Pompano sand-------------------------- 10, 785 1. 6
Chobee sandy loam i-................... -6,220 .9 Quartzipsamments, smoothed --------- 6,090 .9
Coastal beaches--------------------------- 1, 685 .3 Satellite sand---------------------------- 2, 795 .4
Cocoa sand-------------------------------_ 1,960 .3 St. Johns sand--------------------------- 6, 510 1. 0
Copeland complex -------------------- 6, 505 1.0 St. Johns soils, ponded------------------ 4,380 .7
EauGallie sand ---------------------r--- 41, 635 6. 3 St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes------- 2, 545 .4
Eauallihe sand, bedded ------.---...... ----3, 215 .5 St. Lucie fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ---- 515 1
EauGallie. Winder, and Felda ...,il, ponded-..- 5,280 .8 Spoil banks -------------------------- 2,430 .4
Felda sand-----....................... 45, 165 6. 8 Swamp .---. ---.------..--- --------.---19, 560 3. 0
Felda sand, bedded--------------------- -- 3,005 .4 Tavares fine sand --------------- 1,625 .3
Felda and Winder soils--------------------- 5, 025 .8 Terra Ceia muck ------------------- 6,355 1.0
Felda and Winder soils, ponded ----_--_--- 3, 405 .5 Tidal marsh ------ --- ------- 2,890 .4
Floridana sand--------------- ---- 22,815 3.4 Tidal swamp ---------------- 5,435 .8
Floridana, Chobee, and Felda soils, flooded ---- 12,810 1.9 Tomoka muck---------------------------- 30,650 4.6
Galveston-Urban land complex------------- 4,275 .7 Urban land ---------------------------- 5,850 .9
Holopaw sand-------------------------- 6,895 1.0 Valkaria sand-------------------------- 2,945 .4
Immokalee sand............................ 34,370 5. 2 Wabasso sand--------------------------- 19, 315 2. 9
Malabar sand ------------------- -..--.... 12,330 1.9 Welaka sand---------------------------- 2,945 .4
M1alabar, Holopaw, and Pineda soil ---------12, 950 2.0 Winder loamy sand --------------------- 9,055 1. 4
Micco peat ------------------------ ---- 24, 960 3.8 Borrow pits --.------------------- ----- 620 .1
Montverde peat---.----.------ ------- --- 30, 770 4.7 Made land, sanitary land fill--------------- 175 (
Myakka sand ------------------------- 62, 170 9. 4 Submerged marsh--------------------- 20,525 3.1
Myakka sand, ponded-------- ---------- 6,775 1.0 Inland water less than 40 acres ----------- 7, 115 1. 1
Myakka-Urban land complex ----------- 6, 035 .9
Oldsmar sand------------ ---- _-------- 3,955 .6 Total land area_ -------------660, 480 100.0
Orsino fine sand----- ----------------_---_ 1, 555 .2 Inland water more than 40 acres --------- 12, 550 --------
Palm Beach sand ---------------_---- --- 5,565 .8 Salt water 1--5-------------- 159, 245 -----
Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes-------- 6, 605 1. 0
Paola fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes-------- 1,230 .2 Total area in county----------------- 832, 275--------
Paola-Urban land coniplex -------------.. 3, 205 .5

SLess than 0.05 percent.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 13

adjacent county. Such differences in name result from inches. This soil is occasionally flooded 2 to 7 days fol-
changes in the concept of soil classification that have oc- lowing heavy rains.
curred since publication. The characteristics of the soil Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
series described in this county are considered to be within Terra Ceia muck or Tomoka muck and Felda and Flori-
the range defined for that series. In those instances where dann soils. Also included are a few areas where the tex-
a soil series has one or more features outside the defined ture is fine sand, loamy fine sand, or loam sand and
range, the differences are explained, small areas that have a black surface layer less than 10
inches thick.
Anclote Series Many areas are in natural vegetation of grass, and a
few are covered with thick stands of hardwoods. Some
The Anclote series consists of nearly level, very poorly areas are used for range.
drained sandy soils that have a thick, dark-colored sur- If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil is
face layer. These soils are in broad areas on flood plains, well suited to vegetables, improved pasture grasses and
in marshy depressions in the flatwoods, and in poorly de- clover, lawn grasses, and most kinds of ornamental
fined drainageways. They formed in sandy marine sedi- plants. It is poorly suited to citrus. Capability unit IIIw-
ments. 2; Slough range site; woodland group 14.
In a representative profile the surface layer is black
sand about 19 inches thick. Below this is 43 inches of Astatula Series
gray sand and 10 inches of light-gray sand.
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available water The Astatula series consists of nearly level and gently
capacity is moderate in the surface layer and low below sloping, excessively drained sandy soils on ridges. These
this layer. Organic-matter content is high in the surface soils formed in sandy marine or eolian sediments and are
layer, and natural fertility is low. more than 95 percent quartz.
Representative, profile of 'Anclote sand, about 150 feet In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
southwest of the crossroads of two poor motor roads, grayish-brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. Next is
SW1ANE1/ sec. 5, T. 24 S., R. 35 E.: about 9 inches of yellowish-brown fine sand. Below this is
All-0 to 10 inches, black (10YR 2/1, rubbed) sand; weak, yellow fine sand that extends to a depth of 120 inches.
medium, granular structure; very friable; many fine Permeability is very rapid, and the available water ca-
roots; high organic-matter content; slightly acid; pacity is low in all layers. Organic-matter content and
clear, smooth boundary. n l erili e .
A12-10 to 19 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; few, medium, natural fertility are low.
faint, very dark gray, vertical mottles along old root Representative profile of Astatula fine sand, dark sur-
channels; weak, fine, granular structure; friable; face, in a wooded area about 1 mile west of State Road
common fine and few medium roots; slightly acid; No. 3, SW1/4NE1/ sec. 22, T. 24 S., R. 36 E.:
clear, wavy boundary.
01-19 to 62 inches, gray (5Y 5/1) sand; single grain; loose; 01-1 inch to 0, partly decomposed surface litter of pine
few faint mottles of very dark gray in upper few needles, twigs, and branches.
inches; uncoated sand grains; neutral; clear, wavy A1-0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand;
boundary. single grain; loose; many fine and medium roots and
02-62 to 72 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single few large roots; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
grain; loose; uncoated sand grains; neutral. 01-5 to 14 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) fine sand;
Ancote sois are strongly acid to moderately alkaine in common medium and coarse mottles of brown (10YR
Anclote soils are strongly acid to moderately alkaline in 5/3) in old root channels; few fine, medium, and
the A horizon and slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the large roots; many clean sand grains; strongly acid;
C horizon. Texture is sand, fine sand, loamy sand, or loamy gradual, wavy boundary.
ine sand in all horizons. C2-14 to 120 inches, yellow (10YR 7/8) fine sand; single
The A horizon is black or very dark gray, is 10 to 20 inches grain; loose; very few fine and medium roots in
thick, and has an organic-matter content of 2 to 10 percent. upper few inches; many clean sand grains; strongly
In the lower part of the A horizon are few or common, fine acid.
or medium mottles in shades of gray.
The C horizon is grayish brown or gray to light gray and The A horizon is very strongly acid to slightly acid. It is
has few to common mottles of very dark gray. In some places dark brown to dark grayish brown and 2 to 18 inches thick.
the C horizon has few to common mottles in shades of yellow The C horizon is strongly acid and very strongly acid. It is
or brown, dark yellowish brown or yellow to very pale brown to a
Anclote soils are associated with EauGallie, Felda, Im- depth of 80 inches or more. It generally is darker colored in
mokalee, Malabar, Pompano, Terra Cela, and Wabasso soils. the upper part and becomes lighter colored with increasing
They are more poorly drained than all except the Terra Ceia depth. In some profiles it has mottles of gray or white,' the
soils. They have a thick, black Al horizon and a grayish C color of the clean sand grains. These soils are less than 5
horizon, whereas EauGallie, Immokalee, and Wabasso soils percent silt and clay between depths of 10 to 40 inches. The
have a thin Al horizon and a weakly cemented B2h horizon, water table is below a depth of 10 feet.
Anclote soils are sandy to a depth of 72 inches or more, in Astatula soils are associated with Paola, Pomello, and St.
contrast with Felda and Floridana soils, which have a loamy Lucie soils. They lack the A2 and the B horizons, both of
B2tg horizon. They lack the B21r horizon that is typical of which are typical of Paola soils. Their C horizon is yellowish
Malabar soils. They are mineral soils, whereas Terra Ceia or very pale brown, whereas that of St. Lucie soils is white.
soils are organic. They are better drained than Pomello soils and lack the B2h
Anclote sand (An).-This is a nearly level, very poorly horizon that is typical of those soils.
drained sandy soil in mnizshl depressions in the flat- Astatula fine sand, dark surface (As).-This is a nearly
woods, in broad areas 'on flood plains, and in poorly de- level to gently sloping, excessively drained, sandy soil on
fined drainageways. In most years the water table is with- high undulating ridges. This soil has the profile described
in a depth of 10 inches for more than 6 months. In dry as representative of the series. The water table is below
seasons it is deeper, but is seldom below a depth of 40 10 feet all the time.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 13

adjacent county. Such differences in name result from inches. This soil is occasionally flooded 2 to 7 days fol-
changes in the concept of soil classification that have oc- lowing heavy rains.
curred since publication. The characteristics of the soil Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
series described in this county are considered to be within Terra Ceia muck or Tomoka muck and Felda and Flori-
the range defined for that series. In those instances where dann soils. Also included are a few areas where the tex-
a soil series has one or more features outside the defined ture is fine sand, loamy fine sand, or loam sand and
range, the differences are explained, small areas that have a black surface layer less than 10
inches thick.
Anclote Series Many areas are in natural vegetation of grass, and a
few are covered with thick stands of hardwoods. Some
The Anclote series consists of nearly level, very poorly areas are used for range.
drained sandy soils that have a thick, dark-colored sur- If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil is
face layer. These soils are in broad areas on flood plains, well suited to vegetables, improved pasture grasses and
in marshy depressions in the flatwoods, and in poorly de- clover, lawn grasses, and most kinds of ornamental
fined drainageways. They formed in sandy marine sedi- plants. It is poorly suited to citrus. Capability unit IIIw-
ments. 2; Slough range site; woodland group 14.
In a representative profile the surface layer is black
sand about 19 inches thick. Below this is 43 inches of Astatula Series
gray sand and 10 inches of light-gray sand.
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available water The Astatula series consists of nearly level and gently
capacity is moderate in the surface layer and low below sloping, excessively drained sandy soils on ridges. These
this layer. Organic-matter content is high in the surface soils formed in sandy marine or eolian sediments and are
layer, and natural fertility is low. more than 95 percent quartz.
Representative, profile of 'Anclote sand, about 150 feet In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
southwest of the crossroads of two poor motor roads, grayish-brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. Next is
SW1ANE1/ sec. 5, T. 24 S., R. 35 E.: about 9 inches of yellowish-brown fine sand. Below this is
All-0 to 10 inches, black (10YR 2/1, rubbed) sand; weak, yellow fine sand that extends to a depth of 120 inches.
medium, granular structure; very friable; many fine Permeability is very rapid, and the available water ca-
roots; high organic-matter content; slightly acid; pacity is low in all layers. Organic-matter content and
clear, smooth boundary. n l erili e .
A12-10 to 19 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; few, medium, natural fertility are low.
faint, very dark gray, vertical mottles along old root Representative profile of Astatula fine sand, dark sur-
channels; weak, fine, granular structure; friable; face, in a wooded area about 1 mile west of State Road
common fine and few medium roots; slightly acid; No. 3, SW1/4NE1/ sec. 22, T. 24 S., R. 36 E.:
clear, wavy boundary.
01-19 to 62 inches, gray (5Y 5/1) sand; single grain; loose; 01-1 inch to 0, partly decomposed surface litter of pine
few faint mottles of very dark gray in upper few needles, twigs, and branches.
inches; uncoated sand grains; neutral; clear, wavy A1-0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand;
boundary. single grain; loose; many fine and medium roots and
02-62 to 72 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single few large roots; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
grain; loose; uncoated sand grains; neutral. 01-5 to 14 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) fine sand;
Ancote sois are strongly acid to moderately alkaine in common medium and coarse mottles of brown (10YR
Anclote soils are strongly acid to moderately alkaline in 5/3) in old root channels; few fine, medium, and
the A horizon and slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the large roots; many clean sand grains; strongly acid;
C horizon. Texture is sand, fine sand, loamy sand, or loamy gradual, wavy boundary.
ine sand in all horizons. C2-14 to 120 inches, yellow (10YR 7/8) fine sand; single
The A horizon is black or very dark gray, is 10 to 20 inches grain; loose; very few fine and medium roots in
thick, and has an organic-matter content of 2 to 10 percent. upper few inches; many clean sand grains; strongly
In the lower part of the A horizon are few or common, fine acid.
or medium mottles in shades of gray.
The C horizon is grayish brown or gray to light gray and The A horizon is very strongly acid to slightly acid. It is
has few to common mottles of very dark gray. In some places dark brown to dark grayish brown and 2 to 18 inches thick.
the C horizon has few to common mottles in shades of yellow The C horizon is strongly acid and very strongly acid. It is
or brown, dark yellowish brown or yellow to very pale brown to a
Anclote soils are associated with EauGallie, Felda, Im- depth of 80 inches or more. It generally is darker colored in
mokalee, Malabar, Pompano, Terra Cela, and Wabasso soils. the upper part and becomes lighter colored with increasing
They are more poorly drained than all except the Terra Ceia depth. In some profiles it has mottles of gray or white,' the
soils. They have a thick, black Al horizon and a grayish C color of the clean sand grains. These soils are less than 5
horizon, whereas EauGallie, Immokalee, and Wabasso soils percent silt and clay between depths of 10 to 40 inches. The
have a thin Al horizon and a weakly cemented B2h horizon, water table is below a depth of 10 feet.
Anclote soils are sandy to a depth of 72 inches or more, in Astatula soils are associated with Paola, Pomello, and St.
contrast with Felda and Floridana soils, which have a loamy Lucie soils. They lack the A2 and the B horizons, both of
B2tg horizon. They lack the B21r horizon that is typical of which are typical of Paola soils. Their C horizon is yellowish
Malabar soils. They are mineral soils, whereas Terra Ceia or very pale brown, whereas that of St. Lucie soils is white.
soils are organic. They are better drained than Pomello soils and lack the B2h
Anclote sand (An).-This is a nearly level, very poorly horizon that is typical of those soils.
drained sandy soil in mnizshl depressions in the flat- Astatula fine sand, dark surface (As).-This is a nearly
woods, in broad areas 'on flood plains, and in poorly de- level to gently sloping, excessively drained, sandy soil on
fined drainageways. In most years the water table is with- high undulating ridges. This soil has the profile described
in a depth of 10 inches for more than 6 months. In dry as representative of the series. The water table is below
seasons it is deeper, but is seldom below a depth of 40 10 feet all the time.







14 SOL SURVEY

Included with this soil in mapping are areas of sloping All--o to 2 inches, very dark gray (N 3/0, rubbed) sand;
and strongly sloping soils and a few areas of modal Asta- single grain; loose; nonsticky; common fne roots;
slightly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
tula fine sand and Paola soils. A.12-2 to 8 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; many,
The natural vegetation is open forest of longleaf pine medium and coarse, dominantly vertical-oriented
and scattered scrub oak and hickory in places. The under- streaks of very dark gray (10YR 3/1) ; single grain;
story is mainly native grasses. loose; common fine roots; slightly acid; gradual,
wavy boundary.
This soil is poorly suited to most vegetables, but it is A2-8 to 20 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; few, medium and
moderately well suited to watermelons. It is well suited coarse, very dark gray (10YR 8/1) vertical streaks
to citrus, to which many areas have been planted. It is in upper 6 inches; single grain; loose; few fine roots;
moderately well suited to deep-rooted improved pasture slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
grasses, lawn grasses, and most kinds of ornamental C&Bh-20 to 27 inches, dark-brown (10YR 3/8) sand; few,
coarse, distinct, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles
plants. Capability unit IVs-1; Sandhill range site; and common, medium, distinct, light brownish-gray
woodland group 2. (10YR 6/2) mottles; single grain; loose; many un-
Astatula-Urban land complex (At).-This is a nearly coated sand grains; medium acid; gradual, wavy
level to gently sloping soil that was formerly Astatula C1-27 to 0 inches, brown (10YR 4/) sand; few, medium,
fine sand, dark surface, but now much of it has been al- faint, dark-brown (10YR 3/3) mottles; single grain;
tered for use as building sites or covered with pavement loose; many uncoated sand grains; slightly acid;
or buildings. About 45 to 65 percent of the land area is clear, wavy boundary.
Astatula fine sand, dark surface. The rest is mostly As- C2-40 to 80 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) sand; common very
dark brown decaying roots in upper 10 inches; single
tatula fine sand, dark surface, but it has been reworked grain; loose; uncoated sand grains; slightly acid.
and reshaped. About 20 to 45 percent of the land area is Basinger soils range from very strongly acid to mildly
covered with houses, streets, driveways, buildings, park- alkaline in all horizons. Texture is sand or fine sand in all
ing lots, and other related structures. Most areas that are horizons.
not covered with pavement and buildings are in lawns, The Al horizon is black or very dark gray to grayish brown
vacant lots, or playgrounds and generally are so small and is 2 to 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon is brown, grayish
d a brown, gray, or light gray and ranges from 6 to 31 inches In
and intermixed with Urban land that it is impractical to thickness. Streaks of the Al horizon extend into the A2 hori-
map them separately. zon. The C&Bh horizon is very dark grayish brown, brown,
This complex has been reworked less in the older cor- dark brown, or dark yellowish brown, has few to common
munities than in the newer, more densely populated ones. mottles of lighter color, and ranges from 6 to 24 inches in
Excavating streets below the original soil surface and thickness. The C horizon is brown to light gray and extends
spreading this material on adjacent areas has been a to a depth of 80 inches or more.
common practice in the newer developments. This ex- Basinger soils are associated with Anclote, Immokalee,
common practiceMyakka, Pompano, St. Johns, Valkaria, and Wabasso soils.
cavated material is used to fill low places. They are better drained than Anclote soils and lack the thick
Included in the areas mapped are small areas of Paola, black Al horizon that is typical of those soils. They have a
Pomella, St. Lucie, and Tavares soils and Made land. stained C&Bh horizon, whereas Immokalee, Myakka, St.
Also included are a few small areas that are sloping or Johns, and Wabasso soils have a weakly cemented B2h hori-
strongly sloping, and a few that are either more than 45 zon. They differ from Pompano soils in having a stained
percent or less than 20 percent Urban land. C&Bh horizon. They differ from Valkaria soils in not having
This complex is moderately well suited to lawn grasses a r horizon
and most kinds of ornamental plants. Not assigned to a Basinger sand (Ba).-This is a nearly level, poorly
capability unit, range site, or woodland group. drained, sandy soil in sloughs of poorly defined drain-
ageways and depressions in the flatwoods. It is occasion-
Basinger Series ally flooded for 2 to 7 days following heavy rains. In
most years the water table is within a depth of 10 inches
The Basinger series consists of nearly level, poorly for 2 to 6 months of the year, and between 10 and 40
drained sandy soils in sloughs and depressions in the inches for 6 months or more. In the dry seasons it is
flatwoods. These soils formed in sandy marine sediments. below a depth of 40 inches for short periods.
In a representative profile the surface layer is sand Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
about 8 inches thick. The upper 2 inches is very dark St. Johns sand and some small areas of fine sands.. Also
gray and the lower 6 inches is grayish brown. Below this included are small areas where this Basinger sand lacks
is about 12 inches of gray sand. The next layer is 7
inches of dark-brown sand that has brownish-yellow and brownish-stained layers below the surface layers.
inches of dark-brown sand that has brownish-yellow and Most of the acreage is in natural vegetation of pine-
light brownish-gray mottles. Below this, to a depth of 80 land three-awn and thinly scattered pine. The lowest
inches, is brown sand. land three-awn and thinly scattered p The lowest
Permeability is very rapid and the available water areas are covered with maidencane and St.-Johnswort.
capacity is very low to low m all layers. Natural fertility Some areas are used for range.
and organic-matter content are low. If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil is
Representative profile of Basinger sand in a grassy moderately well suited to vegetables and well suited to
slough about 1.75 miles west of U.S. Highway No. 1 on improved pasture grasses and clover. It is poorly suited to
the road leading to Canaveral Grove Estates and about citrus, lawn grasses, and most kinds of ornamental plants
100 yards south of a poor motor road, NE1/4NE1/4 sec. Capability unit IVw-1; Slough range site; woodland
2, T. 24 5., R. 35 E.: group 6.








BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 15

Bradenton Series, Shallow Variant and is 5 to 14 inches thick. Few to common streaks of the Ap
horizon are in the A2 horizon in most places.
The Bradenton series, shallow variant, consists of The B2tg horizon is dark grayish brown to grayish brown
nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils on low marine or dark gray to gray and is 5 to 19 inches thick. It has few
to common, yellowish and brownish mottles and in some
terraces. These soils formed in sandy and loamy marine places a few lighter colored sandy streaks. It is sandy loam
sediments over limestone, or sandy clay loam.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark- The Oca horizon is pale-brown to white loamy sand to
gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. Below this is 9 inches sandy clay loam and is 0 to 16 inches thick. It is absent in
some profiles, and the B2tg horizon rests directly on hard
of light brownish-gray to grayish-brown fine sand. The limestone. The Cca horizon begins between depths of 15 and
subsoil is sandy clay loam about 6 inches thick. The up- 35 inches. It ranges from loamy sand to sandy clay loam.
per half is dark gray and has dark yellowish-brown mot- Hard limestone begins between depths of 20 and 40 inches.
tles, and the lower half is gray and has yellowish-brown Bradenton soils, shallow variant, are associated with Cope-
tland, Felda, Myakka, Parkwood moderately fine subsoil vari-
and gray mottles and light-gray calcareous nodules. The ant, Wabasso, and Winder soils. They are better drained than
next 16 inches is white sandy clay loam. At a depth of Copeland soils and lack the thick, black Al horizon that is
about 34 inches is hard limestone, typical of those soils. They have a loamy B2tg horizon that
is closer to the surface than that in Felda soils and a lime-
Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and moderate stone substratum, in contrast with the sandy and loamy C
to moderately rapid in the loamy layers. The underlying horizon in those soils. They have a loamy B2tg horizon,
limestone layer is porous, and water moves through it whereas Myakka and Wabasso soils have a weakly cemented
freely. The available water capacity is low in the surface B2h horizon. They differ from the Parkwood moderately fine
and subsurface layers and high in the loamy layers. Nat- subsoil variant and Winder soils in having a limestone sub-
ural fertility is medium, and organic-matter content is stratum.
low. Bradenton fine sand, shallow variant (Br).-This is a
Representative profile of Bradenton fine sand, shallow nearly level, poorly drained soil that has limestone within
variant, in a citrus grove about 1.5 miles southeast of a depth of 40 inches. In most years the water table is within
Mims and about 150 feet east of a poor motor road, a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6 months and between depths
NE/NW sec. 21, T. 21 S., R. 35 E.: of 10 and 30 inches for 6 months or more each year. In
N I NW sec. 21 dry seasons it is below a depth of 30 inches for short pe-
p- to inches, dark-gray (1sR 4y fiablne sandc weak, riods. This soil is flooded for 2 to 7 days once in 1 to 5 years.
fine, granular structure; very friable; common fine,
medium and large roots; few, common, distinct, light Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; slightly acid; similar soils that have limestone within a depth of 20
A21-3 toa 7 i es, t ownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine inches and small areas of soils that have fine sand instead
sand; common, very fine, faint, gray streaks and of sandy clay loam and rock beneath the subsoil. Also in-
mottles; single grain; loose; common fine roots; few eluded are a few areas where the upper part of the sub-
medium and large roots; slightly acid; gradual, wavy soil is somewhat darker colored than that described as
boundary.
A22-7 to 12 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; representative of the series.
single grain; loose; common fine and few medium Most areas are drained through ditches and are planted
roots; slightly acid; abrupt, smooth boundary. to citrus. The undeveloped areas have a natural vegeta-
B21tg-12 to 15 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
loam; few, fine and medium, faint, dark yellowish- tion of mixed pine, palm, and live oak and an understory
brown (10YR 4/4) mottles in lower 1 inch; weak, of grasses, bushes, and vines. If drainage and water con-
medium, granular structure; friable, slightly sticky; trol are adequate, this soil is well suited to vegetables,
many fine and few medium roots; many fine pores;
sand grains coated and bridged with clay; neutral; citrus, improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses,
clear, wavy boundary, and most kind of ornamental plants. Capability unit
B22tg-15 to 18 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; IIIw-3; Hammock range site; woodland group 13.
common, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR
5/6) mottles; common, medium, faint, gray mottles;
few, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) Canaveral Series
mottles and few, fine, distinct, light-gray (10YR 7/2),
soft calcium carbonate nodules; weak, medium, sub- The Canaveral series consists of nearly level and gently
angular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky; undulating moderately well drained sandy soils mixed
common fine roots and pores; sand grains coated and undulating, moderately well drained sandy sos mixe
bridged with silicate clay; mildly alkaline; clear, with shell fragments. These soils are on low dunelike
wavy boundary, ridges bordering depressions and sloughs along the At-
Cca-18 to 34 inches, white (N 8/0) sandy clay loam; few, lantic Coast. They formed in marine sands and shell
medium, faint, very pale brown mottles in upper 4 to
5 inches; massive in place, parts to weak, medium, fragments.
subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine, In a representative profile the surface layer is sand
medium, and coarse calcium carbonate nodules; sand about 12 inches thick. The upper half is very dark gray-
grains coated and bridged with carbonates; mod-
erately alkaline; calcareous; abrupt, wavy boundary, ish brown and contains a very few shell fragments, and
R---34 inches, hard limestone, the lower half is dark grayish brown and contains a few
Bradenton soils, shallow variant, are slightly acid or neu- shell fragments. Between depths of 12 and 38 inches is
tral in the A horizon, slightly acid to moderately alkaline in pale-brown sand that contains many shell fragments.
the B horizon, and moderately alkaline in the Cca horizon. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches, is gray coarse sand
The Ap horizon Is black to dark grayish brown and is 3 to this, depth inches, gray
6 inches thick. The A2 horizon is grayish brown to light gray and many shell fragments.








BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 15

Bradenton Series, Shallow Variant and is 5 to 14 inches thick. Few to common streaks of the Ap
horizon are in the A2 horizon in most places.
The Bradenton series, shallow variant, consists of The B2tg horizon is dark grayish brown to grayish brown
nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils on low marine or dark gray to gray and is 5 to 19 inches thick. It has few
to common, yellowish and brownish mottles and in some
terraces. These soils formed in sandy and loamy marine places a few lighter colored sandy streaks. It is sandy loam
sediments over limestone, or sandy clay loam.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark- The Oca horizon is pale-brown to white loamy sand to
gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. Below this is 9 inches sandy clay loam and is 0 to 16 inches thick. It is absent in
some profiles, and the B2tg horizon rests directly on hard
of light brownish-gray to grayish-brown fine sand. The limestone. The Cca horizon begins between depths of 15 and
subsoil is sandy clay loam about 6 inches thick. The up- 35 inches. It ranges from loamy sand to sandy clay loam.
per half is dark gray and has dark yellowish-brown mot- Hard limestone begins between depths of 20 and 40 inches.
tles, and the lower half is gray and has yellowish-brown Bradenton soils, shallow variant, are associated with Cope-
tland, Felda, Myakka, Parkwood moderately fine subsoil vari-
and gray mottles and light-gray calcareous nodules. The ant, Wabasso, and Winder soils. They are better drained than
next 16 inches is white sandy clay loam. At a depth of Copeland soils and lack the thick, black Al horizon that is
about 34 inches is hard limestone, typical of those soils. They have a loamy B2tg horizon that
is closer to the surface than that in Felda soils and a lime-
Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and moderate stone substratum, in contrast with the sandy and loamy C
to moderately rapid in the loamy layers. The underlying horizon in those soils. They have a loamy B2tg horizon,
limestone layer is porous, and water moves through it whereas Myakka and Wabasso soils have a weakly cemented
freely. The available water capacity is low in the surface B2h horizon. They differ from the Parkwood moderately fine
and subsurface layers and high in the loamy layers. Nat- subsoil variant and Winder soils in having a limestone sub-
ural fertility is medium, and organic-matter content is stratum.
low. Bradenton fine sand, shallow variant (Br).-This is a
Representative profile of Bradenton fine sand, shallow nearly level, poorly drained soil that has limestone within
variant, in a citrus grove about 1.5 miles southeast of a depth of 40 inches. In most years the water table is within
Mims and about 150 feet east of a poor motor road, a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6 months and between depths
NE/NW sec. 21, T. 21 S., R. 35 E.: of 10 and 30 inches for 6 months or more each year. In
N I NW sec. 21 dry seasons it is below a depth of 30 inches for short pe-
p- to inches, dark-gray (1sR 4y fiablne sandc weak, riods. This soil is flooded for 2 to 7 days once in 1 to 5 years.
fine, granular structure; very friable; common fine,
medium and large roots; few, common, distinct, light Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; slightly acid; similar soils that have limestone within a depth of 20
A21-3 toa 7 i es, t ownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine inches and small areas of soils that have fine sand instead
sand; common, very fine, faint, gray streaks and of sandy clay loam and rock beneath the subsoil. Also in-
mottles; single grain; loose; common fine roots; few eluded are a few areas where the upper part of the sub-
medium and large roots; slightly acid; gradual, wavy soil is somewhat darker colored than that described as
boundary.
A22-7 to 12 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; representative of the series.
single grain; loose; common fine and few medium Most areas are drained through ditches and are planted
roots; slightly acid; abrupt, smooth boundary. to citrus. The undeveloped areas have a natural vegeta-
B21tg-12 to 15 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
loam; few, fine and medium, faint, dark yellowish- tion of mixed pine, palm, and live oak and an understory
brown (10YR 4/4) mottles in lower 1 inch; weak, of grasses, bushes, and vines. If drainage and water con-
medium, granular structure; friable, slightly sticky; trol are adequate, this soil is well suited to vegetables,
many fine and few medium roots; many fine pores;
sand grains coated and bridged with clay; neutral; citrus, improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses,
clear, wavy boundary, and most kind of ornamental plants. Capability unit
B22tg-15 to 18 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; IIIw-3; Hammock range site; woodland group 13.
common, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR
5/6) mottles; common, medium, faint, gray mottles;
few, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) Canaveral Series
mottles and few, fine, distinct, light-gray (10YR 7/2),
soft calcium carbonate nodules; weak, medium, sub- The Canaveral series consists of nearly level and gently
angular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky; undulating moderately well drained sandy soils mixed
common fine roots and pores; sand grains coated and undulating, moderately well drained sandy sos mixe
bridged with silicate clay; mildly alkaline; clear, with shell fragments. These soils are on low dunelike
wavy boundary, ridges bordering depressions and sloughs along the At-
Cca-18 to 34 inches, white (N 8/0) sandy clay loam; few, lantic Coast. They formed in marine sands and shell
medium, faint, very pale brown mottles in upper 4 to
5 inches; massive in place, parts to weak, medium, fragments.
subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine, In a representative profile the surface layer is sand
medium, and coarse calcium carbonate nodules; sand about 12 inches thick. The upper half is very dark gray-
grains coated and bridged with carbonates; mod-
erately alkaline; calcareous; abrupt, wavy boundary, ish brown and contains a very few shell fragments, and
R---34 inches, hard limestone, the lower half is dark grayish brown and contains a few
Bradenton soils, shallow variant, are slightly acid or neu- shell fragments. Between depths of 12 and 38 inches is
tral in the A horizon, slightly acid to moderately alkaline in pale-brown sand that contains many shell fragments.
the B horizon, and moderately alkaline in the Cca horizon. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches, is gray coarse sand
The Ap horizon Is black to dark grayish brown and is 3 to this, depth inches, gray
6 inches thick. The A2 horizon is grayish brown to light gray and many shell fragments.







16 SOIL SURVEY

Permeability is very rapid and the available water The individual soils of this complex are so intermixed
capacity is very low in all layers. Ogranilc-imatter- con- that it was impractical to map them separately. About
tent and natural fertility are low. 60 percent of this complex is a Canaveral sand on long,
Representative profile of Canaveral sand in a semi- narrow, 50- to 500-feet wide ridges that roughly parallel
wooded area in Floridana Beach, about 1/4 mile west of the Atlantic Coast. About 30 percent is a poorly drained
State Route No. AlA and about 50 feet south of C'a man Canaveral soil in sloughs that are 25 to 350 feet wide be-
Street: tween ridges. This soil has a profile similar to the one
All-0 to 6 inches, very dark grn.vyih-rown (10YR 3/2) described as representative of the Canaveral series, but
sand; single grain; loose: wany fine roots and corn- its surface layer generally is darker and thicker, and the
mon medium and large roots; about 5 percent pale- water table is nearer the surface for longer periods.
brown. fine shell fragments; moderately alkaline: Included with this complex in mapping in a few places
gradual, wavy boundary.
A12-6 to 12 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4. 2. sand; on ridges are small areas of Pomello, Palm Beach, and
few, niedium faint, very dark grayish-brown (10YR Welaka soils. Also included in a few narrow sloughs are
3, 2) streaks along root channels; single grain; loose; areas of an Anclote soil and the Parkwood moderately
common fine roots and few medium and large roots; fine subsoil variant.
about 10 percent sand-size shell fragments and few, The natural vegetation is saw-palmetto and scrub live
pale-brown shell fragments up to one-fourth inch in
diameter; moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear, oak on ridges and sand cordgrass in sloughs.
smooth Iolnda ry. These soils are not suited to vegetables and citrus. They
01-12 to 32 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/8) sand; few, me- are poorly suited to improved pasture grasses, lawn
dium, faint, dark grayil.l-rn iIYR 4/2) streaks; rae and most kin of ornamental nts Capabilit
about 30 percent Biiltit..:.I.ird -.1ll fragments the grasses, and most kinds of ornamental plants. Capability
size of sand grains or larger; single grain; loose; unit VIs-4; Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 4.
moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear, wavy bound- Canaveral-Urban land complex (Cc).-This complex
ary. consists of Canaveral sand and Urban land. About 20
02-32 to 38 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) coarse sand and to 40 percent of the acreage is covered with houses,
multicolored shell fragments; few, medium, distinct,
very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) streaks and streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and other con-
yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; single grain; struction related to urban use. About 70 percent of the
loose; about 55 percent shell fragments sand-size to area not covered by buildings and pavement is a mixture
one-fourth inch in diameter; yellowish-brown color is of sand and shells that have been dredged from the
mostly shell fragments; moderately alkaline; cal-
careous; clear, wavy boundary. Indian and Banana Rivers, deposited on tidal marshes
03--38 to 80 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) coarse sand and multi- and swamps, and then leveled and smoothed. Soils in
colored shell fragments; single grain; loose; few, these areas have properties similar enough to Canaveral
fine and medium, decaying roots; few, coarse, dis- soils to be called Canaveral sand. Shells make up 10 to
tinct, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4) mottles in upper 3
inches and a few, medium, distinct, dark-gray (10YR 80 percent of the fill material. The percentage of sand
4/1) streaks along old root channels; about 35 to 45 and shells varies from place to place. The sand is fine to
percent shell fragments sand-size to one-fourth inch coarse. In some places there are balls of clayey or loamy
in diameter; moderately alkaline; calcareous. material. About 15 percent of the openland is former low
Canaveral soils are neutral to moderately alkaline in all wetland that has been filled with sand from higher areas.
layers. They are moderately well drained to somewhat poorly Undisturbed areas of Anclote, Canaveral, Myakka, and
drained.
The A horizon is dark grayish brown to very dark grayish Pompano soils make up about 10 to 20 percent of some
brown or black and is 6 to 12 inches thick. The part of the A areas.
horizon that is darker than dark grayish brown is less than Most areas of this complex are artificially drained. In
10 inches thick. This horizon contains very few to many fine wet seasons the water table is between depths of 40 to 60
she super art of the C horizon, to a depth of about 38 inches, and the rest of the year it is below a depth of 60
inches, is pale brown, brown, or light gray to gray and con- inches. The fill material ranges from about 12 to 72
tains few to common streaks of darker color along many root inches or more in thickness but averages about 45 inches.
channels. The lower part of the C horizon is stratified or a In most places this Canaveral-Urban land complex is
mixture of sand and shell fragments and extends to a depth poorly suited to lawn grasses and most kinds of ornamen-
of 80 inches or more. The C horizon is 15 to 90 percent shell tal plants. Not assigned to a capability unit, range site,
fragments as much as a half inch in diameter.r woodland rou
Canaveral soils are associated with Anclote, Palm Beach, or wooden group.
Pompano, and Welaka soils and Coastal beaches. They are
better drained than Anclote soils. They lack the thick, black Canova Series
Al horizon that is typical of Anclote soils, and they contain
shell fragments. In contrast with Coastal beaches, they are The Canova series consists of nearly level, very poorly
not flooded by tides. They are more poorly drained than Palm drained soils that have an organic surface layer and a
Beach sand. In contrast with Pompano soils, they contain loamy subsoil. These soils are in broad areas on flood
shell fragments and are not so poorly drained. They lack the plains. They formed in thin deposits of herbaceous or-
B2ir horizon that is typical of Welaka soils.ains. hey ormed in thin deposits o herbaceous or
anaveral complex, gently undulating (s ganic materials and underlying loamy marine sediment.
Canaveral complex, gently undulating (Ca).-This In a representative profile a layer of dark reddish-
complex consists of nearly level and gently sloping soils brown peat about 9 inches thick is at the surface. The
that are mixturen- of sa nd and shell fragments. It is along mineral surface layer is grayish-brown sand about 7
parallel narrow sldughs. Thl water table is between depths 'Sand. Below this is 21 inches of gray sandy clay loam
of 10 and -40 inches for 2 'to 4 months a )ear. In dry sea- that has yellowish-biown and dark yellowish-brown mot-
sons it is below a deptlh of 60 inches. ties; 18 inches of gray, mottled sandy clay loam that has







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 17

lenses and pockets of sandy loam and loamy sand; and 5 Canova peat (Cd).-This is a nearly level, very poorly
inches of light-gray sandy clay loam that has a few yel- drained soil that has a peat surface layer and a loamy
lowish-brown mottles. subsoil. It is on broad flood plains. In most years the
Permeability is rapid in the organic and sandy layers water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 9 to 12
and moderate in the loamy layers. The available water months and many areas are continuously flooded for 3 to
capacity is high in the surface layer, very low in the 6 months. In dry seasons the water table is below a depth
sandy layers, and moderate in the loamy layers. Organic- of 10 inches for short periods.
matter content is very high in the surface layer, and nat- Included with this soil in mapping in some areas are
ural fertility is moderate, spots of Micco and Tomoka soils, a few areas of soils that
Representative profile of Canova peat in a field about have a thin, dark-colored, organic-stained layer above
5 miles south of State Route No. 514 and 325 feet south- the subsoil, and small areas of Canova muck.
west of ditch, NE1/NE1/ sec. 32, T. 29 S., R. 36 E.: A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation of
Oi-9 inches to 0, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2, unrubbed maidencane, flags, and other herbaceous plants and scat-
and rubbed) peat; about 80 percent fiber, 65 percent tered woody button bush. Some areas are used for range.
fiber, rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophosphate ex- Because this soil is naturally subject to frequent flooding,
tract color is light gray (10YR 7/1); many fine most areas are now protected by dikes.
Al-0 tot nchs, ighyai abrupt tooth undry.single If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil is
grain; loose; few fine roots; few, medium, distinct, well suited to vegetables, improved pasture grasses and
very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) streaks; slight- clover, lawn grasses, and most kinds of ornamental
ly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. plants. It is not suited to citrus. Capability unit IIIw-4;
A2-7 to 13 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) sand; few, medium, Fresh Marsh (organic) range site; not assigned to a
distinct, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; single
grain; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid; abrupt, woodland group.
irregular boundary.
B21tg-13 to 23 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; Chobee Se
few, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) Chobee series
and dark yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; T C i i ,
weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure; friable; The Chobe series consists of nearly level, very poorly
few, coarse, distinct tongues of dark-gray (10YR drained soils in marshy depressions and low areas of the
4/1) sand; sand grains coated and bridged with flood plains. These soils formed in loamy marine sedi-
clay; slightly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. ments.
B22tg-23 to 34 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; In representatives profile the surface layer i sand
common, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR In a representative profile the surface layer is sandy
5/8) and dark yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; loam about 14 inches thick. It is black in the upper 4
weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure; friable; inches and very dark gray in the lower 10 inches. The
sand grains coated and bridged with clay; neutral; upper 11 inches of the next layer is dark-gray sandy clay
g- aain gay (YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; loam that has olive-brown and gray mottles. The lower
common, fine, faint, light-gray carbonatic mottles and 13 inches is gray sandy clay loam, mottled with shades of
few, fine, distinct, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4) brown, that contains some hard calcareous nodules. Be-
mottles; massive; friable; lenses and pockets of low this, to a depth of 63 inches, is light-gray sandy clay
sandy loam and loany sand; moderately alkaline; loam that has brownish mottles.and dark-gray sand
calcareous; clear, wavy boundary.
B32g-52 to 57 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay streaks.
loam; massive; friable; many, fine, medium and Permeability is moderately rapid to a depth of about
coarse, distinct, light-gray (10YR 7/2) carbonatic 14 inches and moderate below that depth. The available
bottles and few, medium, distinct, dark yellowish- water capacity is moderate, and organic-matter content is
brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; moderately alkaline;
calcareous. high. Natural fertility is moderate.
.. Representative profile of Chobee sandy loam in a na-
Canova soils are slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the Representative profile of Chobee sandy loam in a na-
Oi, A, and B2tg horizons and mildly alkaline or moderately tive pasture about 175 feet north of U.S. Highway No.
alkaline in the B3g horizon. 192 and about 0.6 mile west of the junction of Interstate
The Oi horizon is 5 to 16 inches thick. The Al horizon is Highway No. 95 and U.S. Highway No. 192, SW1/4
gray to very dark gray or grayish brown and is 3 to 11 inches NW14 sec. 3, T. 28 S., R. 36 E.:
thick. The A2 horizon, 4 to 9 inches thick, is grayish brown
to white, and is mottled with lighter or darker colors in most A11-0 to 4 inches, black (SYR 2/1, rubbed) sandy loam;
places. The A horizon ranges from 7 to 16 inches in thickness. moderate, medium, granular structure; friable; corn-
The B2tg horizon is dark gray to gray and has few to mon fine roots and few medium roots; mildly alka-
common yellowish mottles. It is 6 to 24 inches thick, is sandy line; gradual, wavy boundary.
loam or sandy clay loam, and contains few to common verti- A12-4 to 9 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy loam;
cal sandy streaks or tongues. The B3g horizon is dark gray to common, medium, faint, dark-gray streaks and pock-
light gray and is mottled. It contains common, fine to me- ets; moderate, medium, granular structure; few fine
dium, soft to hard, light-gray to white fragments of carbo- roots; friable; mildly alkaline; gradual, wavy boun-
natic material. It is sandy loam or sandy clay loam and con- dary.
tains common lenses and pockets of sandy loam, loamy sand, A13-9 to 14 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy loam;
or sand. It is calcareous and in some places contains shell moderate, medium, granular structure; friable; few
fragments. fine roots; mildly alkaline; clear, irregular boundary.
Canova soils are associated with Felda, Micco, Montverde, B21tg-14 to 25 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
Terra Ceia, Tomoka, and Winder soils. In contrast with loam; common, fine, distinct, olive-brown (2.5Y 4/4)
Felda and Winder soils, they are more poorly drained and mottles and common, medium, faint, gray mottles;
have an organic surface layer. They have much thinner or- weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure; friable,
ganic layers than Micco, Montverde, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka slightly sticky; common, fine, decaying roots; sand
soils. grains coated and bridged with clay; few, medium,







18 SOIL SURVEY

distinct streaks of loamy sand; mildly alkaline; Coastal Beaches
clear, wavy boundary.
B22tgca-25 to 38 inches, gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam; Coastal beaches (Ck) consists of narrow strips of
many, medium and coarse, distinct, light olive-brown nearly level or gently sloping sand, along the Atlantic
(2.5Y 5/4), calcareous mottles; common, medium nearly level or gently sloping sand, along the Atlantic
and coarse, light olive-brown, moderately hard, cal- Ocean, that is covered with salt water at daily high tides
careous nodules and few, medium, distinct, yellowish- and of low dunes adjacent to the tide-washed sands. This
brown (10YR 5/6), moderately hard, calcareous nod- material is a mixture of quartz sand and fragments of
rules; weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure; sea shells. It is subject to movement by the wind and the
friable, slightly sticky; common fine decaying roots;
few, coarse, distinct streaks of loamy sand and tide and is bare of vegetation. In places clay balls are im-
sandy loam; sand grains coated and bridged with bedded in the sand.'
silicate clay in gray matrix; moderately alkaline; Coastal beaches is associated with Palm Beach, Ca-
calcareous; gradual, wavy boundary. naveral, and Welaka soils. In contrast with those soils it
Cg--88 to 63 inches, light-gray (N 6/0) sandy clay loam;
few, coarse, distinct, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand is subject to wave action.
streaks and common, fine and medium, distinct, Coastal beaches is used intensively for recreation dur-
slightly calcareous, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4) ing the warmer months. Homes, beach cottages, motels,
mottles; few, fine, decaying roots; massive; friable, and apartment buildings have been built on the fringes
lightly sticky; moderately alkaline; calcareous; of the beaches in many places. The only vegetation is
Gradual wavyCapabilit unit VIIIw-1; not as-boundary.
Chobee soils are slightly acid to mildly alkaline in the A salt-tolerant plants. Capability unit VIIw-1; not as-
horizon and mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline in the B signed to a range site or woodland group.
and C horizons.
The A horizon is black or very dark gray, is 10 to 18 inches Cocoa Series
thick, and has an organic-matter content of about 5 to 15
percent. The Cocoa series consists of nearly level and getly
The B21tg horizon begins within a depth of 20 inches and The Cocoa sees consists of nearly level and gently
is dark-gray to black sandy loam or sandy clay 4 to 12 inches sloping, well-drained sandy soils underlain by coquina
thick. It has few to common mottles of other colors and few rock. These are undulating soils on low ridges. They
to common streaks of loamy sand. The B22tgca horizon is formed in thin to moderately thick deposits of sandy
dark grayish-brown to gray sandy loam or sandy clay loam marine or eolian sediments overlying coquina rock.
that has common to many mottles in shades of brown and
yellow. It is 8 to 18 inches thick and has few to common In a representative profile the surface layer is dark-
sandy streaks, brown sand about 6 inches thick. Below this is 14 inches
The Cg horizon is dark grayish-brown to light-gray loamy of strong-brown sand. The next layer is yellowish-red to
sand to sandy clay loam. It has mottles of other colors and red sand about 12 inches thick. The subsoil is 6 inches of
few to common lenses of sand. Shell fragments are below a r sand a 12 ih t T 1 i s 6 n of
depth of 38 nchnes in m any places. red loamy sand. Hard coquina rock is at a depth of 38
Chobee soils are associated with Anclote, Felda, Floridana, inches. Deep solution holes occur in the rock in many
Pineda, Pompano, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka soils. They are places.
loamy in all layers. In contrast, Anclote soils are sandy in Permeability is rapid in all layers. The coquina rock is
all layers and Floridana soils have a sandy surface layer and
a loamy subsoil. Chobee soils are more poorly drained than porous and permeable. The available water capacity is
Felda, Pineda, and Pompano soils, all of which lack the thick very low in the sand surface layer and low in the loamy
dark-colored Al horizon characteristic of Chobee soils. They sand layer. Organic-matter content and natural fertility
are mineral soils, and Terra Cela and Tomoka soils are or- are low.
ganic soils. Representative profile of Cocoa sand in an old citrus
Chobee sandy loam (Ch).-This is a nearly level, very grove about 250 feet south of a poor motor road that
poorly drained, loamy soil that has a thick black surface begins about 11/4 miles north of the intersection of U.S.
layer. It is in marshy depressions and on flood plains Highway 1 and State Route No. 515, NW1/4NE/4 sec.
along streams. In most years the water table is within a 26, T. 25 S., R. 36 E.:
depth of 10 inches for 6 to 9 months and between 10 to Ap-0 to 6 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand; weak, fine,
40 inches for 3 to 6 months. In very dry seasons the water granular structure; very friable; many fine and few
table is below a depth of 40 inches for short periods. This A2-6 to0 ihoots; ntronga abruo, sYR th 5 sandar.gle
soil is continuously flooded for 1 to 6 months in many grain; loose; few fine and medium roots; few, me-
places. dium, distinct, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2)
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of streaks along old root channels; sand grains coated
with oxides; slightly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
Floridana sand. Also included are small areas of soils A31-20 to 27 inches, yellowish-red (SYR 5/8) sand; single
that have a finer textured surface layer and small areas grain; loose; few fine and medium roots; common
of Terra Ceia muck. coated sand grains; medium acid; gradual, wavy
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation of A32-27 to nches, red (2.5YR 4/6) sand; weak, ine, gran-
sand cordgrass, and some areas are covered with swamp ular structure; very friable; many coated sand
hardwoods. Some areas are used for range, and a few are grains; medium acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
in improved pastures. B2t-32 to 38 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) loamy sand; weak,
SI roed pastures medium, granular structure; friable; sand grains
If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil is coated and bridged with clay; slightly acid; abrupt,
well suited to vegetables, improved pasture grasses and wavy boundary.
clover, lawn grasses, and most kinds of ornamental IIR--38 inches, pale-brown hard coquina rock.
plants. It is poorly suited to citrus. Capability unit Cocoa soils are medium acid to mildly alkaline in all layers.
IIIw-2; Fresh Marsh (mineral) range site; woodland The Ap horizon is mainly dark brown to very dark gray,
IIIw-2; Fresh Marsh (mineral) range site; woodland but in a few places ranges to gray or brown. It is 3 to 8
group 14. inches thick. The A2 horizon ranges from brown through







18 SOIL SURVEY

distinct streaks of loamy sand; mildly alkaline; Coastal Beaches
clear, wavy boundary.
B22tgca-25 to 38 inches, gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam; Coastal beaches (Ck) consists of narrow strips of
many, medium and coarse, distinct, light olive-brown nearly level or gently sloping sand, along the Atlantic
(2.5Y 5/4), calcareous mottles; common, medium nearly level or gently sloping sand, along the Atlantic
and coarse, light olive-brown, moderately hard, cal- Ocean, that is covered with salt water at daily high tides
careous nodules and few, medium, distinct, yellowish- and of low dunes adjacent to the tide-washed sands. This
brown (10YR 5/6), moderately hard, calcareous nod- material is a mixture of quartz sand and fragments of
rules; weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure; sea shells. It is subject to movement by the wind and the
friable, slightly sticky; common fine decaying roots;
few, coarse, distinct streaks of loamy sand and tide and is bare of vegetation. In places clay balls are im-
sandy loam; sand grains coated and bridged with bedded in the sand.'
silicate clay in gray matrix; moderately alkaline; Coastal beaches is associated with Palm Beach, Ca-
calcareous; gradual, wavy boundary. naveral, and Welaka soils. In contrast with those soils it
Cg--88 to 63 inches, light-gray (N 6/0) sandy clay loam;
few, coarse, distinct, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand is subject to wave action.
streaks and common, fine and medium, distinct, Coastal beaches is used intensively for recreation dur-
slightly calcareous, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4) ing the warmer months. Homes, beach cottages, motels,
mottles; few, fine, decaying roots; massive; friable, and apartment buildings have been built on the fringes
lightly sticky; moderately alkaline; calcareous; of the beaches in many places. The only vegetation is
Gradual wavyCapabilit unit VIIIw-1; not as-boundary.
Chobee soils are slightly acid to mildly alkaline in the A salt-tolerant plants. Capability unit VIIw-1; not as-
horizon and mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline in the B signed to a range site or woodland group.
and C horizons.
The A horizon is black or very dark gray, is 10 to 18 inches Cocoa Series
thick, and has an organic-matter content of about 5 to 15
percent. The Cocoa series consists of nearly level and getly
The B21tg horizon begins within a depth of 20 inches and The Cocoa sees consists of nearly level and gently
is dark-gray to black sandy loam or sandy clay 4 to 12 inches sloping, well-drained sandy soils underlain by coquina
thick. It has few to common mottles of other colors and few rock. These are undulating soils on low ridges. They
to common streaks of loamy sand. The B22tgca horizon is formed in thin to moderately thick deposits of sandy
dark grayish-brown to gray sandy loam or sandy clay loam marine or eolian sediments overlying coquina rock.
that has common to many mottles in shades of brown and
yellow. It is 8 to 18 inches thick and has few to common In a representative profile the surface layer is dark-
sandy streaks, brown sand about 6 inches thick. Below this is 14 inches
The Cg horizon is dark grayish-brown to light-gray loamy of strong-brown sand. The next layer is yellowish-red to
sand to sandy clay loam. It has mottles of other colors and red sand about 12 inches thick. The subsoil is 6 inches of
few to common lenses of sand. Shell fragments are below a r sand a 12 ih t T 1 i s 6 n of
depth of 38 nchnes in m any places. red loamy sand. Hard coquina rock is at a depth of 38
Chobee soils are associated with Anclote, Felda, Floridana, inches. Deep solution holes occur in the rock in many
Pineda, Pompano, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka soils. They are places.
loamy in all layers. In contrast, Anclote soils are sandy in Permeability is rapid in all layers. The coquina rock is
all layers and Floridana soils have a sandy surface layer and
a loamy subsoil. Chobee soils are more poorly drained than porous and permeable. The available water capacity is
Felda, Pineda, and Pompano soils, all of which lack the thick very low in the sand surface layer and low in the loamy
dark-colored Al horizon characteristic of Chobee soils. They sand layer. Organic-matter content and natural fertility
are mineral soils, and Terra Cela and Tomoka soils are or- are low.
ganic soils. Representative profile of Cocoa sand in an old citrus
Chobee sandy loam (Ch).-This is a nearly level, very grove about 250 feet south of a poor motor road that
poorly drained, loamy soil that has a thick black surface begins about 11/4 miles north of the intersection of U.S.
layer. It is in marshy depressions and on flood plains Highway 1 and State Route No. 515, NW1/4NE/4 sec.
along streams. In most years the water table is within a 26, T. 25 S., R. 36 E.:
depth of 10 inches for 6 to 9 months and between 10 to Ap-0 to 6 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand; weak, fine,
40 inches for 3 to 6 months. In very dry seasons the water granular structure; very friable; many fine and few
table is below a depth of 40 inches for short periods. This A2-6 to0 ihoots; ntronga abruo, sYR th 5 sandar.gle
soil is continuously flooded for 1 to 6 months in many grain; loose; few fine and medium roots; few, me-
places. dium, distinct, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2)
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of streaks along old root channels; sand grains coated
with oxides; slightly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
Floridana sand. Also included are small areas of soils A31-20 to 27 inches, yellowish-red (SYR 5/8) sand; single
that have a finer textured surface layer and small areas grain; loose; few fine and medium roots; common
of Terra Ceia muck. coated sand grains; medium acid; gradual, wavy
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation of A32-27 to nches, red (2.5YR 4/6) sand; weak, ine, gran-
sand cordgrass, and some areas are covered with swamp ular structure; very friable; many coated sand
hardwoods. Some areas are used for range, and a few are grains; medium acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
in improved pastures. B2t-32 to 38 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) loamy sand; weak,
SI roed pastures medium, granular structure; friable; sand grains
If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil is coated and bridged with clay; slightly acid; abrupt,
well suited to vegetables, improved pasture grasses and wavy boundary.
clover, lawn grasses, and most kinds of ornamental IIR--38 inches, pale-brown hard coquina rock.
plants. It is poorly suited to citrus. Capability unit Cocoa soils are medium acid to mildly alkaline in all layers.
IIIw-2; Fresh Marsh (mineral) range site; woodland The Ap horizon is mainly dark brown to very dark gray,
IIIw-2; Fresh Marsh (mineral) range site; woodland but in a few places ranges to gray or brown. It is 3 to 8
group 14. inches thick. The A2 horizon ranges from brown through







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 19

yellowish brown to reddish yellow, is 8 to 16 inches thick, mon fine, medium, and large roots; mildly alkaline;
and contains fragments of coquina rock in places. The A3 abrupt, wavy boundary.
horizon is yellowish red to red and is 4 to 20 inches thick. B2tg-15 to 22 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam;
The B2t horizon is dark brown to red loamy sand, loamy moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure; fri-
fine sand, or sand that is at least 3 percent more clay than able; common fine, medium, and large roots; few fine
the layer above it. It is 5 to 16 inches thick, pores; sand grains coated and bridged with clay and
The depth to multicolored coquina rock ranges from 20 to clay-size carbonates; moderately alkaline; gradual,
54 inches, but averages about 38 inches. wavy boundary.
Cocoa soils are associated with Anclote, Astatula, Paola, IIC-22 to 30 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) marl; weak,
Pomello, and St. Lucie soils. They are underlain by coquina coarse, subangular blocky structure; friable; sand
rock and the others are not. They are better drained than grains coated with clay and silt-size carbonates;
Anclote soils and do not have the thick black Al horizon about 20 percent hard limestone fragments 1/ to 1
characteristic of those soils. They are redder in all layers inch in diameter; moderately alkaline; calcareous;
than the associated soils. They do not have the white A2 hori- abrupt, wavy boundary.
zon that is typical of Paola soils nor the thick white C IIR-30 inches, limestone.
horizon typical of St. Lucie soils. Cocoa soils are better Copeland soils are slightly acid to mildly alkaline in the A
drained than Pomello soils and do not have the weakly ce- horizon and mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline in the
mented B2h horizon that is typical of those soils. B2tg horizon.
Cocoa sand (Co).-This is a nearly level and gently The Al horizon is black to very dark gray and is 10 to 17
sloping, well-drained, sandy soil over coquina rock. It is inches thick. The A2 horizon is dark gray to grayish brown
and is 2 to 5 inches thick.
on low undulating ridges. The water table is below a The B2tg horizon is light-gray to grayish-brown sandy clay
depth of 6 feet all the time. loam or sandy loam 4 to 10 inches thick.
Included with this soil in mapping are several areas of The IIC horizon is white or light gray, is 4 to 8 inches
soils that are fine sand in texture, areas where the co- thick, and has few to many fragments of limestone.
uina rock is at a depth of less than 20 inches or more Depth to limestone is 20 to 40 inches.
quina rock is at a depth of less than 20 inches or more soils are associated with Bradenton shallow vari-
than 54 inches, and a few areas where the subsoil is sandy ant, Felda, Myakka, and Wabasso soils. They are more poorly
clay loam. drained than any of those soils, and they have a thick black
Most areas are in citrus groves or abandoned citrus surface layer that the other soils lack. Copeland soils are
groves, but a few are in natural vegetation of mixed oak, shallower than Felda, Myakka, and Wabasso soils. They have
es, t a few a in n l v a thicker darker colored surface layer than the Bradenton
pine, and a few hickory. soils, shallow variant. Copeland soils do not have a weakly
This soil is well suited to citrus. It is poorly suited to cemented Bh horizon that is typical of Myakka and Wabasso
vegetables, but is moderately well suited to watermelons, soils.
It is moderately well suited to improved pasture grasses, Copeland complex (Cp).-This complex consists of
lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental plants. In a several nearly level, very poorly drained soils on low
few places the coquina rock is mined and used in bitumi- flats. In most years the water table is within a depth of
nous mixtures for road surfaces. Capability unit IVs-3; 10 inches for more than 6 months. In dry seasons it is be-
Sandhill range site; woodland group 9. tween 10 and 30 inches. This soil is flooded for 7 days to
a month once in 5 to 20 years. Some areas are underlain
Copeland Series by coquina rock instead of limestone.
The Copeland series consists of nearly level, very poor- The soils in this complex are so intermixed that it was
ly drained soils on low flats. These soils formed in mod- impractical to map them separately. About 6 percent is
erately thick beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments Copeland loamy fine sand; 55 percent is a soil that is
over limestone. similar to Copeland loamy fine sand, but has limestone at
In a representative profile the surface layer is black a depth of about 20 inches and a subsoil of sandy loam;
loamy fine sand about 12 inches thick. Below this is 3 about 8 percent is an area where the black surface layer
inches of dark-gray loamy fine sand. The subsoil is about is underlain by hard limestone, generally within a depth
7 inches of gray sandy clay loam. Below this is about 8 of 10 inches; about 5 percent is a Wabasso soil; 10 per-
inches of light-gray marl. Hard limestone is at a depth cent is a soil similar to the Wabasso soil, but has lime-
of about 30 inches. stone beneath the loamy layers; and 16 percent is scat-
Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and moderate tered spots of Bradenton shallow variant, Chobee, Felda,
in the loamy layer. The available water capacity is mod- Myakka, and St. Johns soils.
rate in all layers. Organic-matter content is high, and The natural vegetation is typically a few pines and a
natural fertility is moderate. thick growth of cabbage palm and hardwoods, such as
Representative profile of Copeland loamy fine sand in live oaks, magnolia, bay, and sweetgum. These soils are
a wooded area about 100 feet south of a good motor road, poorly suited to vegetables and other cultivated crops.
SE1/SE1/4 sec. 23, T. 23 S., R. 36 E. They are also poorly suited to citrus, but some areas have
been cleared of the thick growth and citrus trees have
A--0 tratinchedi, black lYR 2/1)r lotay fine ad; maon been planted. Bedding and water control have altered the
fine, medium, and large roots; high organic-matter soils enough in these places to make them moderately
content; mildly alkaline; gradual, smooth boundary. well suited to citrus.
A12-6 to 12 inches, black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; com- If drainage and water control are adequate, these soils
mon, fine, distinct, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) streaks;
moderate, medium, granular structure; friable; com- are well suited to improved pasture grasses and clover,
mon fine, medium, and large roots; mildly alkaline; lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental shrubs.
clear, wavy boundary. Capability unit IVw-3; Hammock range site; woodland
A2-12 to 15 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) loamy fine sand;
moderate, medium, granular structure; friable; com- group 12.







20 SOIL SURVEY

EauGallie Series 0-61 to 84 inches, lenses and pockets of light brownish-gray
(10YR 6/2) sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam; few,
The EauGallie series consists of nearly level, poorly fine, distinct, yellowish-brown mottles; massive;
drained sandy soils in the flatwoods. These soils are loose to firm; slightly acid.
mainly on broad, low ridges. Some are in sloughs and EauGallie soils are extremely acid to strongly acid in the A
shallow ponds. All formed in beds of sandy and loamy horizon. The Bh, B3, and A'2g horizons are strongly acid to
marine sediments. neutral. The B'2tg and C horizons are medium acid to mod-
marine sedim erately alkaline.
In a representative profile the surface layer, about 5 The A horizon is sand or fine sand and is less than 30
inches thick, is black sand that is underlain by 17 inches inches thick. The Al horizon is dark gray to black when
of gray to li ght-cgra y sand. The subsoil extends to a depth rui'bbedl. Where this layer is dark gray, it is 4 to 10 inches
of ch. T per 10 inches is black sand. The next hik. Where it is very dark gray or black, it is no more than
of 50 inches. The ui)per 10 inches is black sand. The next 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray to light gray and is 8
3 inches is dark reddish-brown sand. These layers are to 26 inches thick. Few to many streaks of the Al horizon
weakly cemented, and the sand grains are coated with extend along root channels into the A2 horizon.
organic matter. The lower 15 inches is dark-brown sand The B2h horizon is black to dark reddish-brown sand or
that contains common, dark reddish-brown, weakly ce- fine sand 11 to 18 inches thick. It has an organic-matter con-
that contains common, dark reddish-brown, weakly ce- tent of 1 to 6 percent. The B3 horizon is brown to dark gray-
mented fragments. Below this is 5 inches of dark-gray ish-brown sand or fine sand 6 to 18 inches thick. It contains
sand and 6 inches of light brownish-gray sandy clay few to many, dark reddish-brown fragments that are similar
loam. Between depths of 61 and 84 inches are lenses and to the materials in the B2h horizon.
pockets of light brownish-gray sand, loamy sand, and The A'2g horizon of gray to dark-gray sand or fine sand
g does not occur in all profiles, and the Bh horizon rests di-
sandy loam. A few yellowish-brown mottles are in this rectly on the B'2tg horizon.
layer. The B'2tg horizon begins at a depth of 40 to 60 inches. It
Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 22 inches, is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam and is
moderate to moderately rapid from 22 to 35 inches, rapid light gray, and light brownish gray to light yellowish brown
and has few to common yellowish, reddish, or brownish mot-
from 35 to 55 inches, moderate to moderately rapid from ties. In most profiles this horizon has few to many streaks
65 to 61 inches, and rapid below 61 inches. The available of sand, fine sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand.
water capacity is very low in the upper sandy layers, low The C horizon is a layer of many lenses and pockets of
in the layers from a depth of 22 to 55 inches, and mediuin sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam, or fine sand, loamy fine
in the layers below 55 inches. Organic-matter content and audalie sane ociated with elda, loridana, I
Hau allie soils are associated with Felda, Floridana, Im-
natural fertility are low. mokalee, Malabar, Myakka, Oldsmar, Pineda, Pompano, and
Representative profile of EauGallie sand in a wooded Wabasso soils. They have a B2h horizon that is lacking in
area about 75 feet west of Wickham Road and about 0.3 Felda, Floridana, Malabar, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Pompano
mile south of junction of Wickham Road and Kennedy soils. They are better drained than Floridana soils and lack
ile south of nation of Wic am Road and enned the thick, black Al horizon of those soils. They are similar
Airport Road, SEI4NE t sec. 36, T. 27 S., R. 36 E.: to Immokalee and Myakka soils, but in contrast have a
Al-0 to 5 inches, black (N 2/0, rubbed) sand; weak, fine, loamy B't horizon between depths of 40 and 60 inches. Depth
granular structure; very friable; many fine and few to B2h horizon is less than 30 inches in EauGallie soils, but
medium roots; very strongly acid; smooth boundary. more than 30 inches in Oldsmar soils. Depth to the B't hori-
A21-5 to 14 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain; zon is less than 60 inches in EauGallie soils, but more than
loose; few fine and medium roots; very strongly 40 inches in Wabasso soils.
acid; gradual, wavy boundary. EauGallie sand (Eg).-This is a nearly level, poorly
A22-14 to 22 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single drained soil on broad, low ridges in the flatwoods. It has
grain; looseaid; abrupt,few fineand medium roots; very the profile described as representative of the series. In
strongly acid; abrupt, wav-y hoilind r.y.
B21h-22 to 26 inches, black (N 2 1 s anud: moderate, me- most years the water table is within a depth of 10 inches
dium, granular structure; weakly cemented; com- for 1 to 4 months and between 10 and 40 inches for more
mon fine roots; coatings of organic matter on sand than 6 months. In dry seasons it is below a depth of 40
grains; medium acid; clear, wavy boundary. inches. This soil is flooded for 7 days to a month once in
B22h-26 to 32 inches, black (5YR 2/1) sand; moderate,is soil is flooded for 7 days to a month once in
medium, granular structure; firm, weakly cemented; 5 years to 20.
few fine and medium roots; coatings of organic mat- Included with this soil in mapping are areas where the
ter on sand grains; medium acid; clear, wavy boun- organic-stained layers are lighter colored and more weak-
dary.
B23h-32 to 35 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/8) sand; ly cemented than is typical. Also included are a few areas
moderate, medium, granular structure; friable; cor- of EauGallie fine sand and small areas of Malabar,
mon, fine and medium, distinct. weakly cemented, Myakka, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Wabasso soils.
black (SYR 2/1) fragments; co:,tings of organic The natural vegetation is open forest of second-growth
matter on sand grains; medium acid; gradual, wavye natura vegetation is open forest of second-growth
boundary. slash pine and an understory of saw-palmetto, runner
B3-35 to 50 inches, dark-brown (10YR 3/3) sand; weak, fine, oak, native grass, some gallberry, and scattered cabbage
granular structure; friable; common, fine and me- palm. Much of the acreage is still in natural vegetation
dium, distinct, weakly cemented, dark reddish-brown
(bYR 2/2) fragments; slightly acid; many uncoated and commonly is used for range. Areas near the flood
sand grains; gradual, wavy boundary, plains of the river generally are covered with scattered
A'2g-50 to 55 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; common, live oak and dense stands of pine and cabbage palm. The
medium and coarse, faint, light brownish-gray (10YR hammocks of dense pine and cabbage palm make good
6/2) mottles; single grain; loose; slightly acid; o o dene ine and
abrupt, wavy boundary, shelter for cattle and wildlife.
B'2tg-55 to 61 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6 2) sandy Unless drained, bedded, irrigated, and properly man-
clay loam; weak, medium, subangular cky struc- aged, this soil is poorly suited to citrus. If drainagean
ture; friable; sand grains coated and bridged with aged ths so s poorly suited to citrus. If drainage and
clay; few, fine, faint, light-gray sand streaks; slight- water control are adequate, it is well suited to improved
ly acid; gradual, wavy boundary, pasture grasses and clover, vegetable crops, lawn grasses,







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 21

and many kinds of ornamental plants. Capability unit is dark-gray sandy loam that has dark yellowish-brown
IVw-2; Acid Flatwoods range site; woodland group 10. mottles and common light brownish-gray sand streaks.
EauGallie sand, bedded (Eu).-This is a low, nearly Below this layer, to a depth of 62 inches, is gray sandy
level, poorly drained soil that has been bedded for citrus. loam that has common yellowish-brown and dark yellow-
The water table has been lowered by drainage and is at a ish-brown mottles in the lower part and streaks and
depth of about 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months a year. lenses of sand and loamy sand.
This soil is similar to EauGallie sand, but it has been Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and moderate
reshaped into beds and ditches. On about half the acreage to moderately rapid in the loamy layers. The available
the sandy layers above the weakly cemented layers are a water capacity is very low in the sandy layers and mod-
few inches thicker than is typical of EauGallie soils be- rate in the loamy layers. Organic-matter content is low,
cause material from ditches has been spread over the soil and natural fertility is moderately low.
surface. The bed tops are about 30 feet wide. They are Representative profile of Felda sand in a pasture on
separated by shallow ditches that have sloping sides. The the Duda Ranch about 190 feet north of a farm road,
ditches are about 30 feet wide and 28 to 30 inches deep. SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 35, T. 25 S., R. 35 E.:
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 11--0 to 2 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) sand; mod-
Floridana, Malabar, Pineda, and Wabasso soils that have erate, fine, granular structure; friable; many fine
been bedded, roots; high organic-matter content; slightly acid;
The natural vegetation of open forest of pine and an clear, smooth boundary.
understory of saw-palmetto and grasses was destroyed 12--2 to 5 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; many, medium,
understory of saw-palmetto and grasses was destroyed distinct, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) streaks and lenses;
when this soil was bedded. Complex drainage systems weak, fine, granular structure; friable; many fine
have been installed, and almost all areas are in citrus. roots; slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
Capability unit IVw-2; not assigned to range site or A21-5 to 15 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; common,
woodland group. medium, faint, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) mot-
woouan group.so ties; single grain; loose; common fine roots; slightly
EauGallie, Winder, and Felda soils, pounded (Ew) acid; clear, wavy boundary.
This mapping unit is about 40 percent EauGallie soils, A22-15 to 30 inches, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) sand; com-
20 percent Winder soils, 20 percent Felda soils, and 20 mon, medium, distinct, gray (10YR 6/1) mottles and
percent other soils. One or more of these soils occupies at streaks and few, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown
(10YR 5/4) mottles; single grain; loose; few fine
least 70 percent of any particular area, but the propor- roots; neutral; abrupt, wavy boundary.
tion varies from place to place. These soils are in shallow B2tg-30 to 41 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sandy loam; com-
ponds and sloughs in the flatwoods. mon, medium, distinct, dark yellowish-brown (10YR
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of 4/4) mottles; weak, coarse, subangular blocky struc-
ture; slightly sticky; few fine roots; few medium
Chobee, Floridana, Holopaw, and organic soils, pores; sand grains coated and bridged with silicate
The depressions or shallow ponds and sloughs receive clays; common, coarse, prominent light brownish-
runoff from the surrounding soils and are flooded for gray (10YR 6/2) sand streaks; mildly alkaline;
more than 6 months in most years. Some areas are flooded B clear, wavy boundary.
the entire year if rainfall is heavy. In the lowest places B3g-41 to 49 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; massive;
the entire year if rainfall is heavy. In the lowest places friable, slightly sticky; common lenses and streaks
water is 2 or more feet deep. of'sand and loamy sand; mildly alkaline; clear, wavy
Most areas are in natural vegetation of cypress and boundary.
water-tolerant grasses, such as maidencane and St.-Johns- Cg-49 to 62 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; massive;
wort. Many are us ang ing. friable; common, medium, distinct mottles of yellow-
wort. Many are used for range during the drier periods. ish brown (10YR 5/4) and dark yellowish brown
These soils are not suited to citrus, vegetable crops, im- (10YR 4/4); many streaks and lenses of sand and
proved pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses, and most loamy sand; mildly alkaline.
kinds of ornamental plants. Felda soils are slightly acid to moderately alkaline through-
An adequate drainage system is difficult to establish out the profile, with the exception of the Al horizon that is
because in most places suitable outlets are not available, strongly acid to mildly alkaline.
n their native state, these soils provide watering places The Al horizon is very dark brown or black to gray, and is
In their native state, these soils provide watering places to 6 inches thick. The A2 horizon is dark grayish brown to
and some grazing for cattle. They are important feeding grayish brown or dark gray to light gray and is 17 to 34
grounds for many kinds of wading birds and other wild- inches thick. It has common mottles in shades of brown or
life. Capability unit VIw-1; Sand Pond range site; gray and contains streaks of material from the Al horizon.
woodland group 7. The entire A horizon is 20 to 40 inches thick.
The B2tg horizon is dark-gray, dark grayish-brown, olive-
gray, or light-gray sandy loam to sandy clay loam 6 to 18
Felda Series inches thick. It contains few to common sand streaks and few
to common yellow or brown mottles. The B3g horizon is simi-
The Felda series consists of nearly level, poorly lar to the B2tg horizon in color, but contains more lenses and
inpockets of sand or loamy sand. In some places it is mottled.
drained sandy soils on broad low flats and in sloughs, The Cg horizon generally is gray or light-gray sand to
poorly defined drainageways, depressions, and cypress sandy loam. Where it is a sandy loam it contains many pockets
ponds. These soils formed in stratified, sandy and loamy and lenses of sand and loamy sand. It contains shell frag-
marine materials. ments in some places. The fragments are more numerous in
the lower part.
In a representative profile the surface layer is sand Felda soils are associated with Anclote, EauGallie, Mont-
about 5 inches thick. The upper 2 inches is very dark verde, Pineda, Pompano, Terra Ceia, Wabasso, and Winder
brown, and the next 3 inches is black. Below this is 10 soils. They are better drained than Anclote, Montverde, and
inches of dark-gray sand that has common dark grayish- Terra Cela soils. They lack the thick black Ai horizon of
brown mottles and 15 inches of mottled grayish-brown Anlotsoils the B2r horizon n pof inuGalle and hWlae a
sand. The next layer, between depths of 30 and 41 inches, horizon, which Anclote or Pompano soils lack. Felda soils are







22 SOIL SURVEY
mineral soils, and Montverde and Terra Ceia soils are or- plants. Capability unit IIIw-1; Fresh Marsh (mineral)
ganic. Depth to the B horizon is between 20 and 40 inches in range site; woodland group 11.
Felda soils and less than 20 inches in Winder soils. Felda sand, bedded (Fd).-This is a nearly level, poorly
Felda sand (Fa).-This is a nearly level, poorly drained drained soil that has been bedded for citrus. It is in low-
soil on broad, low flats and in sloughs, depressions, and lying areas. The water table has been lowered by drain-
poorly drained drainageways. It has the profile described age and is between depths of 10 and 40 inches for 2 to 6
as representative of the series. The water table is within a months a year. This soil is similar to Felda sand, but has
depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years and is been reshaped and reworked into beds and wide ditches
typically between 10 and 40 inches the rest of the year. (fig. 4). On about 20 percent of the acreage the sandy
Water rises above the surface for 2 to 7 days in 1 to 3 layers above the loamy subsoil are a few inches thicker
months of each year. Depressions are flooded for more than is typical of Felda soils because material from
than 6 months in most years, ditches has been spread over the original soil surface.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas where The bed tops are about 30 feet wide. They are separated
the texture is fine sand and small areas of Floridana, by shallow ditches that have sloping sides. The ditches
Holopaw, and Winder soils. Also included are a few are about 30 feet wide and 28 to 30 inches deep.
areas, at slightly higher elevations that have a weak are about 30 feet wide and 28 to 30 inches deep.
areas, at slightly higher elevations, that have a weak Included with this soil in mapping are many small
Large art te acreage s rural vegetation of areas of Floridana, Pineda, and Winder soils that have
sand cordgrass and few to common, scattered cabbage been bedded.
palms. Slightly higher areas are in a forest of mixed pine The natural vegetation of sand cordgrass and scattered
and cabbage palm. Many areas in natural vegetation are cabbage palm was destroyed when the beds were built.
used for range. Drainage systems have been installed, and this soil is well
If drainage and water control is adequate, this soil is suited to citrus. Almost all areas are in citrus. Capability
well suited to citrus, vegetables, improved pasture grasses unit IIIw-1; not assigned to a range site or woodland
and clover, lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental group.






















7,: I
--i











,,. "" Al.



'. + .





Figure 4-A grove of orange trees planted on Felda sand, bedded. Ditches facilitate drainage of this poorly drained soil. Bedding
increases the distance above the water table so that the root zone is enlarged.








BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 23

Felda and Winder soils (Fe).-These are poorly drained flood plains and broad flats. These soils formed in sandy
soils in low, broad, grassy sloughs that have many slight- and loamy marine sediments.
ly higher hammocks ranging from a few feet in diameter In a representative profile the surface layer is about 12
to about 15 acres in size. inches of black sand. It is underlain by about 17 inches
About 65 percent of the mapping unit is sloughs and of grayish-brown sand that has a few brownish-yellow
35 percent is hammocks, but this proportion is variable and gray mottles. The subsoil between depths of 29 and
and in some places is reversed. The overall composition 43 inches is dark-gray sandy clay loam mottled in shades
of the sloughs is about 35 percent Felda soils and 30 per- of gray and brown. Below this, to a depth of 62 inches,
cent Winder soils. Chobee, Floridana, Wabasso, and other it is gray sandy loam that contains common lenses and
soils are also in the sloughs, but no one soil makes up pockets of sandy clay loam, loamy sand, and sand.
more than 20 percent of an area. Permeability is moderately rapid to a depth of about
Hammocks are about 55 percent of a soil that is similar 12 inches, rapid from 12 to 29 inches, and moderate from
to Wabasso soils, but has a thick dark-colored surface 29 to 62 inches. The available water capacity is moderate
layer and the loamy layers overlie limestone. Other sig- in the surface layer, low in the next layer, and moderate
nificant soils in the hammocks are similar to Copeland in the loamy subsoil. Natural fertility and organic-mat-
soils. All of the soils in the sloughs and hammocks occur ter content are moderate.
without regular pattern and are so intricately intermixed Representative profile of Floridana sand in a marsh
that it was impractical to map them separately. about 1 mile north of State Route No. 50 and about 13/4
The water table in the sloughs is within a depth of 10 miles west of the junction of Interstate Highway No. 95
inches for 2 to 6 months in most years and is typically and State Route No. 50, NW1/4SW/4 sec. 24, T. 22 S.,
between depths of 10 and 40 inches the rest of the year. R. 34 E.:
The water table is slightly deeper in the hammocks than A1l-0 to 7 inches, black (N 2/0) sand; weak, medium,
in the sloughs. Water rises above the surface for 2 to 7 granular structure; friable; common fine and few
days in 1 to 3 months of each year. medium roots; sand grains coated with organic
The natural vegetation is marshgrass in the sloughs material; slightly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
and cabbage palm, saw-palmetto, pine, and live oak in A12-7 to 12 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak, fine,
and cabbage palm, saw-palmetto, pine, and live oak in granular structure; friable; common fine roots;
the hammocks. Almost all areas are in natural vegetation many, fine and medium, faint, gray (10YR 5/1) sand
and are used mainly as range and wildlife habitat. pockets and streaks; slightly acid; clear, wavy
If drainage and water control are adequate, these soils boundary.
are well suited to citrus, vegetables, improved pasture A2-12 to 29 inches, prominent, brownish- (2.5Y 5/2) sand; few,ellow ( 6/6)
medium, prominent, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6)
grasses and clover, lawn grasses, and many kinds of orna- mottles and common, coarse, faint, gray (10YR 5/1)
mental plants. Capability unit IIIw-1; Slough range mottles; single grain; loose; common medium roots;
site; woodland group 11. slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
Felda and Winder soils, ponded (Fg).-These soils are B2tg-29 to38 inches, dark-gray (1R 4/1) sandy clay
in landward areas of former high tidal marsh and are (10YR 6/2) mottles and few, medium, faint, gray
now inside perimeter dikes built for water and mosquito (10YR 5/1) mottles; weak, coarse, subangular
control in wildlife management areas. Tidal influence has blocky structure; firm, slightly plastic; common
been eliminated, and during rainy periods fresh water fine and medium roots; few medium and fine pores;
sand grains coated and bridged with clay; mildly
accumulates in these areas. These soils are continuously alkalne; gradual, wavy boundary.
flooded for 6 months or more in most years. Water be- B31g-38 to 43 inches, dark-gray (N 4/0) sandy clay loam;
comes 12 inches deep or deeper in many areas, but com- weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure; slightly
only recedes to several inches below the surface in dry firm; common fine and medium roots; common fine
money ces to and medium lenses of gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam;
periods. channels filled with light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2)
This mapping unit is about 50 percent Felda soils and sand; few fine and medium pores; many uncoated
25 percent Winder soils, but the proportions vary from sand grains; mildly alkaline; clear, wavy boundary.
place to place. The other 25 percent is mainly small areas B32g--43 to 62 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; com-
of Bradenton shallow variant, Floridana, Parkwood mod- mon pockets of coarse, faint, dark-gray (N 4/0)
of Bradenton shallow variant, da sandy clay loam; massive; friable; common medium
erately fine subsoil variant, and Pineda soils. and coarse lenses and pockets of sand and loamy
The natural vegetation is salt-tolerant grasses, sedges, sand; mildly alkaline.
and ferns, but because areas have been diked, freshwater Floridana soils are slightly acid or neutral in the Al ho-
species, such as cattails, are becoming established. These rizon, slightly acid to mildly alkaline in the A2 horizon, and
soils are in natural vegetation. They are not suited to neutral to moderately alkaline in the B horizon.
citrus, vegetables, improved pasture grasses and clover, The Al horizon is black or very dark gray, is 10 to 22
lawn grasses, and most kinds of ornamental plants. An inches thick, and has an organic-mattter content of 2 to 18
adequate drainage system is difficult to establish. No suit- percent. In most profiles it contains light-colored pockets
adequate drainage system is difficult to establish. No sut- or streaks of sand. The A2 horizon is grayish brown to light
able outlets are available in most places. These soils are gray and contains a few mottles in gray and yellow in most
important feeding grounds for many kinds of wading places. Some profiles have no A2 horizon, and the Al horizon
birds and other wildlife. Capability unit VIw-1; Salt rests directly on the B2tg horizon. Thickness of the entire
Marsh (mineral) range site; woodland group 7. A horizon ranges from 20 to 40 inches.
The B2tg horizon is dark-gray to light-gray sandy loam to
sandy clay loam but is dominantly sandy clay loam. In
Floridana Series most profiles it contains common mottles of lighter gray,
yellow, and brown. Depth to the B2tg horizon is 20 to 40
The Floridana series consists of nearly level, very inches. The B3g horizon is dark-gray to light-gray sandy
poorly drained soils in marshy depressions and on broad loam or sandy clay loam that contains lenses and pockets







24 so8lL SURVEY
of sand, loamy sand, or sandy loam. It contains few to many spersed with long narrow sloughs. These soils formed in
shells in some places. sandy marine sediments that have been reworked by wind
Floridana soils are associated with Anclote, Felda, Mala- and wave action.
bar, Pineda, Pompano, Terra Ceia, and Winder soils. They
have a loamy B2tg horizon, and Anclote and Pompano soils In a representative profile the surface layer is gray
are sandy to a depth of SI) inches or more. They are more sand about 5 inches thick. The next layer is pale-brown
poorly drained tian Feldn, Malabar, Pineda, Pompano, and sand to a depth of 33 inches and light-gray sand to a
Winder soils and have a thick, dark-colored Al horizon, depth of 80 inches. All layers contain a few marine shell
which those soils lack. Depth to the loamy B2tg horizon is
within 20 to 40 inches in Floridana soils but less than 20 fragments.
inches in Winder soils. Fl..ri.lann soils lack the B21r horizon Permeability is very rapid throughout, and the avail-
of Mall.la; r and Pineda soils. They are mineral soils, and able water capacity is very low in all layers. Organic-
Terra Ceia soils are organic. matter content and natural fertility are low.
Floridana sand (Fn).-This is a nearly level, very poorly Representative profile of Galveston sand in an area
drained soil that Iicn a surface layer of thick black sand. within the city limits of Satellite Beach and along the
It is in broad areas on flood plains and in small to large west side of State Route No. A1A:
marshy depressions. This soil has the profile described as Al--0 to 5 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single grain;
representative of the series. The water table is within a loose; few fine and medium roots; few multicolored
depth of 10 inches for 6 to 9 months in most years and is shell fragments; mildly alkaline; gradual, smooth
typically between 10 and 30 inches the rest of the year. boundary.
Water rises above the surface 2 to 7 days in 1 to 6 months 1--5 togr inooese; pale-brow (0um oos; few tsicole
of each year. shell fragments; mildly alkaline; gradual, wavy
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of soils boundary.
similar to Floridana sand, but are black or very dark C2-38 to 80 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single
grain; loose; few fine shell fragments; mildly alka-
gray to depths of 24 to 50 inches. These areas are in cyp- line.e she agents; mildly alka-
ress ponds and grassy marshes and are higher,' in organic-
matter content than this Floridana soil. Also included Galveston soils generally are neutral to moderately alka-
matter content than this Floridana soil. Also included line throughout the profile, but in some areas affected by
are small areas of Felda sad, Tomoka muck, and Chobee salt spray from the ocean, they are strongly alkaline. A
sandy loam and areas of a soil similar to this Floridana few multicolored shell fragments occur throughout the pro-
soil, but its subsoil begins at a depth below 40 inches. file, and the silt and clay content is very low.
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation of The Al horizon is gray to pale brown and is 2 to 8 inches
thick. The C horizon is pale brown to white to a depth of 80
sand cordgrass and is used for range. A few areas are inches or more.
covered with yv[r.'ii or hardwoods. Galveston soils are associated with Palm Beach and We-
If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil laka soils. They have a water table nearer the surface, are
is well suited to vegetables, improved pasture grasses and lighter colored, and contain fewer shell fragments than Palm
Beacli soils. They do not have the B2ir horizon that is
clover, lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental typical of Welaka soils.
plants. It is poorly suited to citrus. Capability unit IIIw- Galveston-Urban land complex (G.-The soils in this
2; Fresh Marsh (mineral) range site; woodland group complex are w Gaveston-Urbn land complex (Ga).-Thend sandy soils this
14. complex are well-draed Galveston sand and sandy soils
Floridana, Chobee, and Felda soils, flooded (Fo).- that consist of reworked and leveled sandy materials that
These soils are on broad flats of flood plains that are fre- resemble Galveston sand. The water table generally is
quently flooded. The water table is within a depth of 10 below a depth of 60 inches; it is between 40 and 60 inches
inches most of the time. Most areas are continuously for short periods during the rainy season.
flooded for 3 to 6 months or more each year. Most of this complex is in urban areas where 25 to 40
Floridana, Chobee, and Felda soils make up about 80 percent of the surface area is covered with buildings or
percent of any one area. The average composition of the pavement. Originally the areas were long narrow ridges
mapping unit is about 36 percent Floridana soils, 27 per- of Galveston sand, as described in the representative pro-
cent Chobee soils, and 17 percent Felda soils, but the pro- file, interspersed with long narrow parallel sloughs of
portion of each varies considerably from place to place. poorly draped and vry poorly drained soils. The
About 20 percent is Anclote, Holopaw, Pompano, and sloughs have been filled with a variety of sandy materials
Tomoka soils and soils that are similar to Chobee soils, and leveled. Some fill material was brought in by dredge
but have a clayey texture, or truck, and some came from bulldozing the upper lay-
Most areas are in natural vegetation of sand cordgrass. ers of adjacent Galveston soils into the low places.
Woody bushes, such as wax myrtle, are growing in places. Included with this complex in mapping are small areas
These soils are not suited to citrus, vegetables, improved of Canaveral, Pomello, and Welaka soils that, if corn-
pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses, and most kinds bined, are seldom more than 15 percent of any area.
of ornamental phlntc without major reclamation works Galveston-Urban land complex is poorly suited to
that remove the hazard of flooding. Many areas are used lawn grasses and most kinds of ornamental plants. Not
for native pasture and range. Capability unit VIIw-1, assigned to a capability unit, range site, or woodland
Fresh Marsh (mineral) range site; not assigned to a group.
woodland group.
Holopaw Series
Galveston Series The Holopaw series consists of nearly level, poorly
The Galveston series consists of nearly level, well- drained soils on broad river flood plains and low-lying
drained sandy soils on moderately broad ridges inter- flats and in poorly defined drainageways and small de-







24 so8lL SURVEY
of sand, loamy sand, or sandy loam. It contains few to many spersed with long narrow sloughs. These soils formed in
shells in some places. sandy marine sediments that have been reworked by wind
Floridana soils are associated with Anclote, Felda, Mala- and wave action.
bar, Pineda, Pompano, Terra Ceia, and Winder soils. They
have a loamy B2tg horizon, and Anclote and Pompano soils In a representative profile the surface layer is gray
are sandy to a depth of SI) inches or more. They are more sand about 5 inches thick. The next layer is pale-brown
poorly drained tian Feldn, Malabar, Pineda, Pompano, and sand to a depth of 33 inches and light-gray sand to a
Winder soils and have a thick, dark-colored Al horizon, depth of 80 inches. All layers contain a few marine shell
which those soils lack. Depth to the loamy B2tg horizon is
within 20 to 40 inches in Floridana soils but less than 20 fragments.
inches in Winder soils. Fl..ri.lann soils lack the B21r horizon Permeability is very rapid throughout, and the avail-
of Mall.la; r and Pineda soils. They are mineral soils, and able water capacity is very low in all layers. Organic-
Terra Ceia soils are organic. matter content and natural fertility are low.
Floridana sand (Fn).-This is a nearly level, very poorly Representative profile of Galveston sand in an area
drained soil that Iicn a surface layer of thick black sand. within the city limits of Satellite Beach and along the
It is in broad areas on flood plains and in small to large west side of State Route No. A1A:
marshy depressions. This soil has the profile described as Al--0 to 5 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single grain;
representative of the series. The water table is within a loose; few fine and medium roots; few multicolored
depth of 10 inches for 6 to 9 months in most years and is shell fragments; mildly alkaline; gradual, smooth
typically between 10 and 30 inches the rest of the year. boundary.
Water rises above the surface 2 to 7 days in 1 to 6 months 1--5 togr inooese; pale-brow (0um oos; few tsicole
of each year. shell fragments; mildly alkaline; gradual, wavy
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of soils boundary.
similar to Floridana sand, but are black or very dark C2-38 to 80 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single
grain; loose; few fine shell fragments; mildly alka-
gray to depths of 24 to 50 inches. These areas are in cyp- line.e she agents; mildly alka-
ress ponds and grassy marshes and are higher,' in organic-
matter content than this Floridana soil. Also included Galveston soils generally are neutral to moderately alka-
matter content than this Floridana soil. Also included line throughout the profile, but in some areas affected by
are small areas of Felda sad, Tomoka muck, and Chobee salt spray from the ocean, they are strongly alkaline. A
sandy loam and areas of a soil similar to this Floridana few multicolored shell fragments occur throughout the pro-
soil, but its subsoil begins at a depth below 40 inches. file, and the silt and clay content is very low.
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation of The Al horizon is gray to pale brown and is 2 to 8 inches
thick. The C horizon is pale brown to white to a depth of 80
sand cordgrass and is used for range. A few areas are inches or more.
covered with yv[r.'ii or hardwoods. Galveston soils are associated with Palm Beach and We-
If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil laka soils. They have a water table nearer the surface, are
is well suited to vegetables, improved pasture grasses and lighter colored, and contain fewer shell fragments than Palm
Beacli soils. They do not have the B2ir horizon that is
clover, lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental typical of Welaka soils.
plants. It is poorly suited to citrus. Capability unit IIIw- Galveston-Urban land complex (G.-The soils in this
2; Fresh Marsh (mineral) range site; woodland group complex are w Gaveston-Urbn land complex (Ga).-Thend sandy soils this
14. complex are well-draed Galveston sand and sandy soils
Floridana, Chobee, and Felda soils, flooded (Fo).- that consist of reworked and leveled sandy materials that
These soils are on broad flats of flood plains that are fre- resemble Galveston sand. The water table generally is
quently flooded. The water table is within a depth of 10 below a depth of 60 inches; it is between 40 and 60 inches
inches most of the time. Most areas are continuously for short periods during the rainy season.
flooded for 3 to 6 months or more each year. Most of this complex is in urban areas where 25 to 40
Floridana, Chobee, and Felda soils make up about 80 percent of the surface area is covered with buildings or
percent of any one area. The average composition of the pavement. Originally the areas were long narrow ridges
mapping unit is about 36 percent Floridana soils, 27 per- of Galveston sand, as described in the representative pro-
cent Chobee soils, and 17 percent Felda soils, but the pro- file, interspersed with long narrow parallel sloughs of
portion of each varies considerably from place to place. poorly draped and vry poorly drained soils. The
About 20 percent is Anclote, Holopaw, Pompano, and sloughs have been filled with a variety of sandy materials
Tomoka soils and soils that are similar to Chobee soils, and leveled. Some fill material was brought in by dredge
but have a clayey texture, or truck, and some came from bulldozing the upper lay-
Most areas are in natural vegetation of sand cordgrass. ers of adjacent Galveston soils into the low places.
Woody bushes, such as wax myrtle, are growing in places. Included with this complex in mapping are small areas
These soils are not suited to citrus, vegetables, improved of Canaveral, Pomello, and Welaka soils that, if corn-
pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses, and most kinds bined, are seldom more than 15 percent of any area.
of ornamental phlntc without major reclamation works Galveston-Urban land complex is poorly suited to
that remove the hazard of flooding. Many areas are used lawn grasses and most kinds of ornamental plants. Not
for native pasture and range. Capability unit VIIw-1, assigned to a capability unit, range site, or woodland
Fresh Marsh (mineral) range site; not assigned to a group.
woodland group.
Holopaw Series
Galveston Series The Holopaw series consists of nearly level, poorly
The Galveston series consists of nearly level, well- drained soils on broad river flood plains and low-lying
drained sandy soils on moderately broad ridges inter- flats and in poorly defined drainageways and small de-







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 25

pressions. These soils formed in stratified, sandy and It ranges from 40 to 70 inches in thickness, but is commonly
loamy marine materials. 40 to 50 inches thick.
a are atie rile e raelaera The B2tg horizon is dark grayish-brown or gray to light-
In a representative profile the surface layer, about 7 gray sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam 7 to
inches thick, is sand that is very dark gray in the upper 18 inches thick. It has mottles in shades of brown and yel-
2 inches and dark gray in the next 5 inches. The next low. Some profiles contain pockets, streaks, or lenses of sand
layer is sand about 38 inches thick. The upper 11 inches and loamy sand, or fine sand and loamy fine sand. The B3g
is grayish brown th gray and yellowish horizon is similar to the B2tg horizon in color and contains
is grayish brown and is mottled with gray and yellowish streaks and pockets of loamy fine sand or loamy sand and
brown; the next 17 inches is mottled in shades of gray sandy clay loam.
and brown; and the lower 10 inches is gray. The subsoil, The Cg horizon is gray sand to loamy fine sand and con-
about 17 inches thick, is gray sandy loam that is mottled tains shell fragments in some places.
with shades of gray and brown and contains pockets and Holopaw soils are associated with Anclote, Eauallie,
Felda, Pineda, and Tomoka soils. In contrast with the sandy
streaks of loamy sand and sandy clay loam in the lower Anclote soils, they are better drained, they do not have a
part. Below this, to a depth.of 71 inches, is gray loamy thick, dark-colored Al horizon, and they have a loamy B2tg
sand that contains pockets and lenses of sand. horizon. They lack the B2h horizon that is typical of Eau-
Permeabilit is rapid to a depth of about 45 inches, Gallie soils and the B2ir horizon typical of Pineda soils.
Permeablity is rapid to a dept inches, a oIn contrast with Tomoka soils, they are mineral and those
moderately rapid from 45 to 62 inches, and rapid from soils are organic. Depth to the B2tg horizon is below 40
62 to 71 inches. The available water capacity is very low inches in Holopaw soils and between 20 and 40 inches in
in the upper sandy layers, moderate in the loamy layers, Felda soils.
and low to very low in the lower 9-inch sandy layer. Nat- Holopaw sand (Ho).-This is a nearly level, poorly
ural fertility and organic-matter content are low. drained soil in broad flat areas on river flood plains and
Representative profile of Holopaw sand in a native in small depressions and poorly defined drainageways.
pasture about 30 feet west of a poor motor road and The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6
about 3.5 miles north of State Route No. 520, NW1/4 months in most years and is typically between 10 and 30
NW1/4 sec. 9, T. 24 S., R. 35 E.: inches the rest of the year. Many areas are continuously
All-0 to 2 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; weak, flooded for 1 to 3 months each year.
fine, granular structure; very friable; many fine Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and medium roots; color is mixture of light-gray Felda sand and in some places areas of similar soils that
sand grains and black organic matter; slightly have a light-gray surface layer. Also included are a few
acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
A12-2 to 7 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak, fine, scattered areas of fine sand.
granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; 'A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation of
slightly acid; gradual, smooth boundary. sand cordgrass and scattered cabbage palm. In a few
A21g-7 to 18 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; places there are many cabbage palms. Some areas are used
common, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR
5/6) mottles and many, fine and medium, faint, gray for range.
to light gray (10YR 6/1) streaks; single grain; If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil
loose; common fine roots; slightly acid; gradual, is moderately well suited to vegetables and well suited to
smooth boundary. pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses, and many kinds
A22g-18 to 35 inches, coarsely mottled gray (10YR 6/1) of ornamental plants. It is poorly suid to citrus. Ca -
and grayish brown (10YR 5/2)sand; few, fine, dis- ornamental plants It is poorly suited to citrus. Capa
tinct, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) mottles and few, ability unit IVw-1; Fresh Marsh (mineral) range site;
medium, distinct, black (10YR 2/1) streaks along woodland group 11.
root channels; single grain; loose; few fine roots;
slightly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
A23g-35 to 45 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single grain; Immokalee Series
loose; few fine roots; neutral; abrupt, wavy
boundary. The Immokalee series consists of nearly level, poorly
B2tg-45 to 58 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; com- drained sandy soils in broad areas in the flatwoods, on
mon, fine, faint, light-gray mottles and common, low ridges between sloughs, and in low narrow areas be-
medium, distinct, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4) tween sand ridges and lakes and ponds. These soils formed
mottles; weak, medium, subangular blocky struc-
ture; firm; few fine roots; clay bridging between in beds of marine sands.
sand grains; mildly alkaline; gradual, wavy In a representative profile the surface layer, about 11
boundary. inches thick, is sand that is very dark gray in the upper
B3g-58 to 62 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; few, 4 inches and dark gray in the next 7 inches. It is under-
medium, distinct, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4) lain by a layer of gray to light-gray sand 22 inches thick.
mottles; massive; friable; common pockets and The subsoil extends to a depth of 65 inches. The upper
streaks of loamy sand and sandy clay loam; mildly 16 inches is black sand; the next 6 inches is dark reddish-
alkaline; gradual, wavy boundary.
Cg-62 to 71 inches, gray (5YR 5/1) loamy sand; massive; brown sand that is weakly cemented and contains sand
friable; common pockets and lenses of sand; mildly grains well coated or stained with organic matter; and
alkaline, the lower 10 inches is dark-brown sand. Below this is
Holopaw soils are medium acid to neutral in the A horizon yellowish-brown sand that extends to a depth of 80
and neutral or mildly alkaline in the B and C horizons, inches.
The Al horizon is black or very dark gray to dark brown- Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid in the
ish gray and is 3 to 10 inches thick. The part of the Al weakly cemented layers and rapid in all other layers. The
horizon that is very dark gray to black is less than 6 inches available water capacity is moderate in the weakly ce-
thick. The A2 horizon is gryish brown or gray to light gray mented layers and very low in the surface and subsurface
and is 37 to 60 inches thick. It is mottled with shades of
brown, gray, and yellow and contains streaks of material layers and from a depth of 55 to 80 inches. Organic-
from the Al horizon. The A horizon is sand or fine sand. matter content and natural fertility are low.







26 SOIL SURVEY

Representative profile of Immokalee sand in a wooded Immokalee sand (Im).-This is a nearly level, poorly
area about 100 feet east of a poor motor road and about drained sandy soil in broad areas in the flatwoods, on
0.9 mile west of the Florida East Coast Railroad, SE1/4 low ridges between sloughs, and in low, narrow areas be-
SE1/4 sec. 25, T. 23 S., R. 35 E.: tween sand ridges and lakes and ponds. It has a dark-col-
All-0 to 4 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1, rubbed) sand; ored, weakly cemented layer below a depth of 30 inches.
weak, fine, granular structure; very friable; many This layer is dark colored because the sand grains are
fine and few medium roots; color caused by mixing coated with organic matter. In most years the water table
of light-gray sand grains and black organic matter; is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 2 months. It is
12- very strongly acid; gradual, mooth boundaryfine, between 10 and 40 inches more than half the time, and
A12--4 to 8 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak, fine,
granular structure; loose; common fine and few during short, dry periods it is below 40 inches. The soil
medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy is flooded for 2 to 7 days once in 1 to 5 years.
boundary. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
A13--8 to 11 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; common, St. Johns, Myakka, and Oldsmar soils and a few areas
medium, faint, light-gray (10YR 6/1) splotches;
single grain; loose; few fine and medium roots; very of Basinger and Pompano soils in low places. Also in-
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary. clouded are a few areas of gently sloping Immokalee sand
A21-11 to 15 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sand; common, me- and some areas where the texture is fine sand.
dium, prominent, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) The natural vegetation is saw-palmetto, gallberry,
streaks along old root channels and decaying roots The natural vegetation is saw-palmetto gallery,
single grain; loose; few fine and medium roots; longleaf and slash pine, and wiregrass (pineland three-
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, awn). Much of the acreage is in natural vegetation and
A22-15 to 33 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sand; common, commonly is used for range.
medium, prominent, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil
vertical streaks along old root channels and decay-
ing roots; single grain; loose; few fine and medium is well suited to vegetables, improved pasture grasses
roots; very strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary. and clover, lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental
B21h-33 to 43 inches, black (N 2/0, unrubbed and 5YR plants. It is poorly suited to citrus, but under the most
2/1, rubbed) sand; weak, coarse, subangular blocky favorable conditions and good management citrus can be
structure; firm, weakly cemented; many to common
fine and medium decaying roots; common uncoated grown. Some areas are in urban development. Capability
sand grains; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary, unit IVw-2; Acid Flatwoods range site; woodland group
B22h-43 to 49 inches, black (N 2/0, unrubbed) and very 5.
dark brown (10YR 2/2, rubbed) sand; weak, medium,
subangular blocky structure; firm, weakly cemented;
few fine roots; very few uncoated sand grains; Malabar Series
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B28h-49 to 55 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) sand; The Malabar series consists of nearly level, poorly
weak, medium, granular structure; firm, weakly ce- drained sandy soils. These soils are in broad low areas
mented; sand grains coated with organic matter; and in sloughs, low depressions, and poorly defined
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B3-55 to 65 inches, dark-brown (10YR 3/3) sand; common, drainageways. All formed in sandy and loamy marine
medium, distinct, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2), sediments.
thinly coated fragments; single grain; loose; strong- In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
ly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. grayish-brown sand about 5 inches thick. Below this
C-65 to 80 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) sand; is 9 inches of light brownish-gray to pale-brown sand.
single grain; loose ; strongly ad. The subsoil extends to a depth of 35 inches. The upper
Immokalee soils are dominantly strongly icid and very 4 inches is yellow sand that has common strong-brown
strongly acid in all horizons. They are slightly acid to 4 inces s yellow sand 6 h common ro -n
mildly alkaline, however, in pastures and groves where mottles, the middle 6 inches is strong-brown sand, and
alkaline artesian water has been used for irrigation, the lower 11 inches is pale-brown sand. Below this is
The Al horizon is dark-gray to black and is 2 to 12 inches olive-gray sand to a depth of 45 inches, gray sandy clay
thick. Where this layer is very dark gray or black, it is no loam that has common brownish mottles to a depth of 54
more than 6 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray to light inches, gray sandy loam to a depth of 61 inches, and
gray and is 20 to 40 inches thick. Streaks of the Al horizon grayish-brown sand to a depth of 65 inches.
extend into the A2 horizon. The entire A horizon ranges graysh-brown sand to a depth of 65 inches.
from 30 to 50 inches in thickness. Permeability is rapid in all sandy layers and moderate
The B2 horizon is black to dark reddish-brown sand 4 to in the loamy layers that extend from a depth of 45 to 61
24 inches thick. It has an organic-matter content of about inches. The available water capacity is very low in the
1 to 6 percent. The B3 horizon is brown or dark brown to sandy layers and moderate in the loamy layers. Natural
dark grayish brown and is 6 to 12 inches thick. It contains
common to few, reddish-brown, weakly cemented fragments. fertility and organic-matter content are low.
The C horizon is yellowish-brown to white sand to a Representative profile of Malabar sand in a wooded
depth of 80 inches or more. In some profiles it has mottles area about 11/4 miles south of junction of Interstate
or streaks of other colors. Highway No. 95 and U.S. Highway No. 192, SW1/4SW4
Immokalee soils are associated with Bradenton shallow see. 11, T. 28 S., R. 36 E.:
variant, EauGallie, Felda, Myakka, Pomello, St. Johns, Sat-
ellite, and Wabasso soils. They are similar to EauGallie, A1-0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
Myakka, St. Johns, and Wabasso soils, but are more than weak, fine, granular structure; friable; many fine
30 inches deep over the dark-colored B2h horizon. They lack and few medium roots; slightly acid; gradual,
the loamy B't horizon that is typical of EauGallie and Wa- smooth boundary.
basso soils. In contrast with Felda soils and the Bradenton shal- A21-5 to 11 inches, light-brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sand;
low variant, they are sandy to a depth of 80 inches and common, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR
do not have a loamy B2tg horizon. They are more poorly 5/6) mottles and strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6) streaks
drained than Pomello and Satellite soils, along old root channels; single grain; friable; few







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 27

fine and medium roots; iron coatings on sand grains; resentative of the series. In most years the water table
slightly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 2 months. It is
A22-11 to 14 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sand; common, 10 to 40 inches below the surface most of the time.
medium, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) mottles; to 40 inches below the surface most of the time.
single grain; loose; few fine roots; medium acid; Sloughs, however, are flooded for 1 to 3 months in most
clear, wavy boundary. years, and the water table is within a depth of 10 inches
Blir-14 to 18 inches, yellow (10YR 7/6) sand; common, for 2 to 6 months. Other areas are flooded for 7 days
coarse, distinct, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; toa month once in 1 to 5 years.
weak, fine, granular structure; friable; few fine
roots; many uncoated sand grains; iron coatings on Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
sand grains; medium acid; clear, wavy boundary, of Pineda or Holopaw soils and a few places where
B2ir-18 to 24 inches, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) sand; calcareous streaks are evident in the yellow layers of
common, coarse, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) this Malabar sand. Also included are small areas where
mottles; weak, medium, granular structure; friable;
iron coatings on sand grains; medium acid; clear, the surface layer is slightly darker colored and thicker
wavy boundary. and small areas where the yellow layer is below a depth
B3ir-24 to 35 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sand; common, of 30 inches.
coarse, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) mottles; Many of the broad low areas are open forest of scat-
single grain; loose; nonsticky; iron coatings on
sand grains; medium acid; clear, wavy boundary. tered pine and cabbage palm and a ground cover of
A'2-35 to 45 inches, olive-gray (5Y 5/2) sand; common, native grasses. Sloughs are in wetland grasses. Other
coarse, distinct, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) areas are covered with thick stands of pine, some cabbage
mottles; single grain; loose; uncoated sand grains; palm, and a few live oaks. Many areas are used for native
slightly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary.
B'2tg-45 to 54 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; range.
common, medium, distinct, dark yellowish-brown If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil
(10YR 4/4) mottles; weak, coarse, subangular is moderately well suited to vegetables. If water control
blocky structure; friable; sand grains coated and is adequate, it is well suited to pasture grasses and clover,
bridged with clay; neutral; gradual, wavy boundary lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental plants This
B'3g-54 to 61 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; few, lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental plants. This
medium, distinct, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4) soil is poorly suited to citrus. Capability unit IVw-1;
mottles; common, coarse pockets of sand and sandy Sweet Fatwoods range site; woodland group 11.
clay loam; massive; friable; neutral; clear, wavy Malabar, Holopaw, and Pineda soils (Mb).-This map-
boundary.
C-61 to 65 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; single ping unit is about 33 percent Malabar soils, 28 percent
grain; loose; few, coarse, distinct pockets of gray Holopaw soils, 20 percent Pineda soils, and 19 percent
(10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; neutral, other soils. The proportion varies from place to place.
Malabar soils are medium acid to moderately alkaline These nearly level, poorly drained soils are in an intri-
throughout. cately interwoven pattern of sloughs, low depressions,
The Al horizon is black to dark grayish brown and is 4 and low ridges. They are so intermixed, both in the
to 8 inches thick. Where this layer is dark gray or black, it loughs and on the low ridges, that it is impractical to
is less than 7 inches thick. The A2 horizon is pale brown to sloughs
brown or light brownish gray to light gray and is 8 to 18 map them separately. Each is described under the head-
inches thick. Common mottles and streaks in shades of brown ing of its respective series.
and yellow are in this horizon. The entire A horizon is 12 to Included with these soils in mapping are areas of Eau-
26 inches thick. Gallie, Felda, and Oldsmar soils.
The Blir horizon is very pale brown to yellow or reddish Gallie, Felda and Oldsmar soils.
yellow and is 2 to 6 inches thick. The B2ir horizon is strong Sloughs and low depressions are flooded for 1 to 3
brown to yellow and is 4 to 12 inches thick. Few to common months of the year, and the water table is within a depth
mottles in shades of yellow, red, and brown are in this ho- of 10 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. On the
rizon in many places. The B3ir horizon is light yellowish low ridges the water table generally is within a depth
brown to very pale brown sand, 10 to 15 inches thick. g n yd i
The A'2 horizon is 9 to 24 inches thick and is dark grayish of 10 inches for 1 to 2 months of the year and between
brown to olive gray. / 10 and 40 inches the rest of the time.
The B'2tg horizon is at a depth of more than 40 inches. Most areas are in natural vegetation. On low ridges the
It is light gray to dark gray, contains few to common
yellowish or brownish mottles, and ranges from sandy loam vegetation generally is an open forest of scattered pine
to clay loam. Pockets or leises of sand or loamy sand are and cabbage palm and an understory of saw-palmetto
in some places. The B'3g horizon is sandy loam to sandy clay and native grasses. Other areas are in thick stands of
loam and generally contains more lenses and pockets of mixed pine, some palm, and a few live oaks. The sloughs
coarser or finer material than the B'2tg horizon.
The C horizon is gray or brownish-gray to grayish-brown are in wetland grasses.
sand that has few to many pockets or lenses of sandy loam If water control and drainage are adequate, these
and sandy clay loam. It contains shell fragments in places. soils are well suited to improved pasture, clover and
Malabar soils are associated with EauGallie, Felda, Flori-
dana, Holopaw, Pineda, Pompano, Valkaria, and Wabasso lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental plants and
Ssoils. They have a B2ir horizon that is lacking in EauGallie, are moderately well suited to vegetables. They are poorly
Felda, Floridana, Holopaw, Pompano, and Wabasso soils. suited to citrus. A large part of the acreage is used for
They have a B'2tg horizon that is lacking in Pompano and iit it Vw1 w t ltw s rane
Valkaria soils. They lack the B2h horizon that is typical of range. Capability unit Vw-1; Sweet Fatwoods range
the EauGallie and Wabasso soils. They are better drained site; woodland group 11.
than Floridana soils. Depth to the B'2tg horizon is more
than 40 inches in Malabar soils, but less than 40 inches in Micco Series
Pineda soils.
Malabar sand (Ma).-This is a nearly level, poorly The Micco series consists of nearly level, very poorly
drained soil in broad low areas, in sloughs, and in poorly drained peat soils in broad depressions and in fresh-
defined drainageways. It has the profile described as rep- water marshes and swamps. These soils formed in the







28 SOIL SURVEY

remains of fibrous nonwoody materials over sandy and water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 9 to 12
loamy marine sediments. months in most years, and water is above the surface
In a representative profile the upper 30 inches is dark each year for more than 6 months. During dry periods
reddish-brown peat. The underlying material extends the water table is lower, but seldom falls below 30 inches.
to a depth of 55 inches. The upper 8 inches is very dark Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
gray sand, the middle 9 inches is dark-gray sandy clay Canova peat. Also included are a few areas where the
loam that generally has yellow and brown mottles, and peat is 52 inches or more thick and a few areas where
the lower 8 inches is gray sandy clay loam that contains the surface layer is muck.
lenses and pockets of sand and loamy sand. Most of the acreage is in natural vegetation of maiden-
Permeability is rapid in the organic layers and the cane, sawgrass, cattails, flags, and spare to dense thickets
sandy layer and moderate to moderately rapid in the of woody button bush. Some areas are used for range
loamy layers. The available water capacity is very high and improved pasture.
in the organic layers, low in the sandy layer, and high If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil
in the loamy layers. Organic-matter content is very high, is well suited to vegetables, improved pasture grasses and
and natural fertility is high. clover, lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental
Representative profile of Micco peat in a pasture about plants. It is not suited to citrus. Capability unit IIIw-4;
6.3 miles west of the point where State Route No. 507 Fresh Marsh (organic) range site; not assigned to a
intersects with the Brevard-Indian River County line woodland group.
about 2 miles north of the county line and about 1.5
miles west of a farm road that is on a drainage canal Montverde Series
in T. 30 S., R. 36 E.:
Oil--0 to 21 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2, unrubbed The Montverde series consists of nearly level, very
and rubbed) fibric material; about 80 percent fiber, poorly drained organic soils in depressions and fresh-
45 percent rubbed; massive; many fine roots; her- water marshes and swamps. These soils formed in her-
baceous fiber; sodium pyrophosphate extract white baceous organic material more than 52 inches thick.
(10YR 8/2); very strongly acid (pH 4.5 in 0.01
M CaCl) ; gradual, smooth boundary. In a representative profile the upper 48 inches is peat
0i2-21 to 30 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) and It is black in the upper 9 inches, dark reddish brown in
very dark brown (10YR 2/2, rubbed) fibric ma- the next 22 inches, and black in the lower 17 inches.
trial; about 70 percent fiber, 45 percent rubbed; Between depths of 48 and 54 inches is very dark gray
massive; common fine roots; herbaceous fiber; sod-
ium pyrophosphate extract light gray (10YR 7/2); mucky peat. Below this is very dark gray sand to a
estimated mineral content 15 percent; extremely depth of 61 inches and very dark gray sandy clay loam
acid (pH 4.2 in 0.01 M CaCla) ; clear, wavy boundary. to a depth of 77 inches.
IIC1--30 to 38 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1, crushed) Permeability is rapid in the organic and sandy layers
sand; weak, medium, granular structure; friable; n m r in m r. T i r
slightly acid: abrupt, wavy boundary. and moderate in the loamy layer. The available water
III2g--38 to 47 inches, dark-gray (N 4/0) sandy clay loam; capacity is very high in the organic layer, low in the
many, coarse, distinct, dark yellowish-brown (10YR sandy layer, and medium in the loamy layers. Organic-
4/4) and common, coarse, distinct, grayish-brown natter content is very high, and natural fertility is high.
(10YR 5/2) mottles; weak, medium, subangular
blocky structure; friable; few loamy sand streaks Representative profile of Montverde peat in a drained
and pockets; mildly alkaline; gradual, wavy bound- but undeveloped freshwater marsh about 1 mile north
ary. of the junction of Micco Road and State Route No. 507
IIC03g--47 to 55 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; and about 6.5 miles west on Sottile Farm Road, SE/4
many, medium, faint, light-gray (10YR 7/1) mottles
and common, medium, faint, white (10YR 8/1) NW1/4 sec. 12, T. 30 S., R. 36 E.:
calcareous mottles and streaks; massive; friable; Oil--0 to 9 inches, black (SYR 2/1, rubbed and unrubbed)
common sand and loamy sand pockets and lenses; fibrous peat; massive; friable; many fine roots in
moderately alkaline. upper 5 inches; estimated fiber content 80 percent
Micco soils are extremely acid or very strongly acid in the unrubbed and 55 percent rubbed; sodium pyrophos-
01 horizon. They are medium acid to mildly alkaline in the phate extract white (10YR 8/2); strongly acid;
II1 horizon. They are slightly acid to moderately alkaline gradual, wavy boundary.
in the IIIC2g and the IIIC3g horizons. 012-9 to 31 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2, un-
The Oi horizon is black, dark reddish brown, very dark rubbed) black (5YR 2/1, rubbed) fibrous peat; mas-
brown or dark brown and is 16 to 40 inches thick. Sixty- sive; friable; new fine roots; estimated fiber content
five to 90 percent'of the layer is fiber before rubbing, and 80 percent unrubbed and 75 percent rubbed; sodium
40 to 80 percent is fiber after rubbing.
4The mineral cent1 horizon below the organic layers is gray pyrophosphate extract white (10YR 8/1); medium
to black and is 4 to 10 inches thick. Few to many organic acid;gradual, wavy boundary.
pockets or balls are in this horizon in some profiles. The Oi3-31 to 48 inches, black (10YR 2/1, rubbed and un-
IIICg horizon is dark-gray to light-gray sandy loam or rubbed) fibrous peat; massive; friable; few medium
sandy clay loam. Streaks, pockets, and lenses of sand or roots; estimated fiber content 80 percent unrubbed
loamy sand are in many profiles, and 75 percent rubbed; sodium pyrophosphate ex-
Micco soils are associated with Canova, Felda, Floridana, tract white (10YR 8/2) ; medium acid; clear, wavy
Montverde, Terra Ceia, and Winder soils. They have thicker boundary.
organic layers than Canova soils and thinner organic layers Oel-48 to 54 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1, unrubbed)
than Montverde and Terra Ceia soils. They are organic soils, black (10YR 2/1, rubbed) partly decomposed or-
but Felda, Floridana, and Winder soils are mineral soils. ganic material; massive; friable, slightly sticky;
Micco peat (Mc).-This is a nearly level, very poorly estimated 40 percent fiber unrubbed and 25 percent
drained peat underlain by mineral soil layers. It is in phosphate extract pale brown (10YR 6/8); slightly
broad depressions, freshwater marshes, and swamps. The acid; clear, wavy boundary.








BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 29

IIClg-54 to 61 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; rapid from about 46 to 63 inches. Available water capac-
many, coarse, distinct, gray (10YR 4/1) mottles; ity is very low to low to a depth of about 22 inches and
single grain; friable; neutral; clear, wavy boundary. moderate from about 22 to 46 inches. Organic-matter
IIC2g--61 to 77 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy
clay loam; massive; firm, sticky; mildly alkaline, content and natural fertility are low.
Montverde soils are very strongly acid to slightly acid in Representative profile of Myakka sand in a wooded
the Oi and Oe horizons and medium acid to mildly alkaline area about 100 yards southwest of a poor motor subdivi-
in the IICg horizon. sion road and about 1 mile east of Interstate Highway
The Oi horizon is black, very dark gray, dark reddish No. 95 and the EauGallie interchange, NE1/4NE1/4 sec.
brown, very dark brown, or dark brown and is 41 to 52 23 T. 27 S., R. 36 E.
inches thick. Sixty-five to 90 percent of the layer is fibrous
before rubbing and 40 to 80 percent after rubbing. The A11-0 to 4 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1, rubbed) sand;
Oe horizon has colors similar to the Oi horizon and is 3 weak, fine, granular structure; common fine and
to more than 30 inches thick. Combined thickness of the Oi few medium roots; mixture of light-gray sand grains
and Oe horizons is 52 to more than 80 inches. In some and black organic matter gives a salt-and-pepper
profiles the Oe horizon is underlain by other Oi horizons, appearance; very strongly acid; gradual, smooth
The IIClg horizon is very dark gray to black and is 0 boundary.
to 16 inches thick. It is underlain by the IIC2g horizon. A12-4 to 8 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1, rubbed) sand;
This horizon is gray to black sandy loam to sandy clay weak, fine, granular structure; very friable; common
loam. Some of the mineral layers contain shell fragments. fine and few medium roots; very strongly acid;
Montverde soils are associated with Canova, Felda, Florida- gradual, smooth boundary.
na, Micco, Terra Cela, and Winder soils. They have thicker A21-8 to 12 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; few, medium,
layers of peat than Micco soils and much thicker layers than distinct, light-gray (10YR 6/1) sand pockets; single
Canova soils. They are organic soils, but Felda, Floridana, grain; loose; common fine and few medium roots;
and Winder soils are mineral soils. Their organic material very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
is fibric, and that of Terra Ceia soils is sapric. A22-12 to 22 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) sand; common,
Montverde peat (Me).-This is a nearly level, very medium, distinct, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) vertical
Montverde peat (Me).This is a nearly level, very streaks along old root channels; single grain; loose;
poorly drained, thick organic soil in depressions, few medium and fine roots; very strongly acid;
marshes, and swamps. The water table is within a depth clear, wavy boundary.
of 10 inches for 9 to 12 months in most years, and water B21h-22 to 28 inches, black (5YR 2/1) sand; weak, medium,
stands on the surface each year for more than 6 months. granular structure; firm, weakly cemented, non-
stands on the srae ea ear or more ta mo ssticky; common fine roots; sand grains coated with
In dry seasons the water table is lower, but seldom falls organic matter; many clear sand grains; upper 2 to
below a depth of 30 inches. 1 inch is transitional with many, medium, distinct,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of dark-gray (10YR 4/1) streaks; strongly acid; clear,
Micco soils. 'Also included are areas that have a mucky B22h-wavy boundary reddish-brown (YR 3/2) sand;
surface 1 B22h-28 to 35 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) sand;
surface layer. weak, fine, granular structure; firm to friable,
Most of the acreage is in natural vegetation of maiden- weakly cemented; sand grains coated with organic
cane, sawgrass, cattails, flags, and sparse to dense thickets matter; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
of woody button bush. A few areas are used for range B3-35 to 46 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2)
and for improved pasture. sand; few, medium, distinct, dark reddish-brown
and for improved pasture. (5YR 3/3), weakly cemented fragments; single
If reclaimed from the native state by drainage and grain; loose; many uncoated sand grains; strongly
water control, this soil is well suited to vegetables, im- acid; clear, wavy boundary.
proved pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses, and C1--46 to 51 inches, light brownish-gray (2.5Y 6/2) sand;
common, coarse, distinct, very dark grayish-brown
many kinds of ornamental plants. It is not suited to (10YR 3/2) sand streaks in old root channels; single
citrus. Capability unit IIIw-4; Fresh Marsh (organic) grain; loose; many uncoated sand grains'in dark
range site; not assigned to a woodland group. streaks; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
assigned 2-51 to 57 inches, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) sand; single
grain; loose; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
Myakka Series 03-57 to 63 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
grain; loose; strongly acid.
The Myakka series consists of nearly level, poorly Myakka soils are strongly acid to extremely acid in the
drained sandy soils in broad areas in the flatwoods, in A and Bh horizons. In pastures and groves where alkaline
depressions, and in areas between sand ridges and ponds artesian water is used for irrigation, these horizons are
and sloughs. These soils formed in beds of marine sands. slightly acid to mildly alkaline. The B3 and C horizons are
In a representative profile the surface layer is sand slightly acid to ver strongly acid. black and s 4 to 8
The Al horizon Is dark gray to black and is 4 to 8
about 8 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is very dark inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray to light gray and is
gray, and the next 4 inches is dark gray. Beneath this 2 to 22 inches thick. Few to many streaks of the Al horizon
is 14 inches of gray to light-gray sand. The upper part extend into the A2 horizon. The entire A horizon is 8 to 30
of the subsoil is weakly cemented sand 13 inches thick A transitional horizon 1/ inch to 11/ inches
thick is common between the A and Bh horizons. This
It is black in the upper part and dark reddish brown horizon is grayish brown, brown, or black and has many
in the lower part. The sand grains in this layer are coated uncoated sand grains.
with organic matter. The lower part of the subsoil is The B2h horizon is black to dark reddish brown and is
very dark grayish-brown sand about 11 inches thick. It 6 to 20 inches thick. The organic-matter content of the B2h
contains few slightly cemented, dark reddish-brown frag- horizon is 1 to 7 percent. The B3 horizon is 6 to 12 inches
contains few slightly cemented, dark reddish-brown frag- thick and is brown to very dark grayish brown. It contains
ments. Between depths of 46 and 57 inches is light few to many dark reddish-brown, weakly cemented fragments.
brownish-gray to grayish-brown sand. Below that is The C horizon is grayish brown, yellowish brown, and
light-gray sand to a depth of 63 inches. light brownish gray to white. Mottles or streaks of other
light-gray colors are in this horizon in some profiles.
Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers to a depth of Myakka soils are associated with EauGallie, Holopaw, Im-
about 22 inches, moderate from about 22 to 46 inches, and mokalee, Pineda, Pomello, St. Johns, and Wabasso soils.








30 SOIL SURVEY

They do not have the loamy B horizon that is characteristic If drainage, water control, and irrigation are adequate,
of EauGallie and Wabasso soils. Their B2h horizon is at this soil is moderately-well suited to vegetables. Unless
a depth of less than 30 inches, whereas the B2h horizon in o itios orable, management is good, and
Immokalee and Pomello soils is lower than 30 inches. In conditions are favorable, management is good, and a
contrast with Holopaw soils, they have a B2h horizon, but water control system is properly designed, it is poorly
do not have a loamy B2tg horizon. In contrast with Pineda suited to citrus. If water control is adequate, it is well
soils, they have a B2h horizon but do not have a B2ir suited to improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn
horizon. They have a thinner Al horizon than St. Johns
soison. n grasses, and many kinds of ornamental plants. Some
My a s d (s is a narly areas near expanding population centers have been de-
Myakka sand (Mk).--This is a nearly level, poorly veloped for urban uses. Capability unit IVw-2; Acid
drained sandy soil in broad areas in the flatwoods and Flatwoods range site; woodland group 5.
in areas between sand ridges and sloughs and ponds. It has Myakka sand, ponded (Mp).-This is a nearly level,
the profile described as representative of the series. In poorly drained, sandy soil in shallow depressions in the
most years the water table is within a depth of 10 inches flatwoods. Most areas are small; only a few are larger
for 1 to 4 months and between 10 and 40 inches for more than 50 acres. This soil is similar to Myakka sand, but
than 6 months. In dry seasons it is below a depth of 40 it is in low places where water accumulates. In most
inches. The soil is flooded for 2 to 7 days once in 1 to 5 years it is flooded (fig. 5) for 6 to 12 months.
years. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas Basinger, St. Johns, EauGallie, and Holopaw soils.
of Immokalee and St. Johns sands; some areas of Myakka Most areas are still in natural vegetation of maiden-
fine sand; a few areas that contain loamy material be- cane or St.-Johnswort. Clumps of water-tolerant trees
low the weakly cemented layer; and small areas where ca or S.onsor l s f ater-tlerant tree
the substratum is coquina rock. Also included are areas are in some places. Water lilies and flags are in places
on the coastal ridge where sand and shells are below the where standing water is deepest.
weakly cemented layers. This soil is not suited to citrus, vegetables, improved
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation of pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses, or most kinds
open forest of second-growth longleaf or slash pine and of ornamental plants. An adequate drainage system is
an understory of saw-palmetto, runner oak, native grass, difficult to establish because in most places suitable outlets
and, in places, gallberry. Some areas are used for range. are not available. In their native state these soils pro-
























Fire 5.-An area of yakka sandonded. This soil is flooded for 6 to 12 months of most years.






Figure 5.An area of Myakka sand, ponded. This soil is flooded for 6 to 12 months of most years.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 31

vide watering places and some grazing for cattle. They and few medium roots; strongly acid; clear, smooth
are important feeding grounds for many kinds of wad- 4 boundary.
birds and other wetland wildlife. Capability uni A12-4 to 11 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single
ing birds and other wetland wildlife. Capability unit grain; loose; common fine roots; few medium roots;
VIIw-2; Sand Pond range site; woodland group 7. strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
Myakka-Urban land complex (Mu).-This complex is A21-11 to 19 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain;
40 to 55 percent Myakka soil, 25 percent a Myakka soil loose; few fine roots; few, medium, faint, dark-
gray streaks; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
that has been altered for use as building sites or covered A22-19 to 36 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
by streets and buildings, and 20 to 45 percent Urban grain; loose; few fine roots; few, medium, distinct,
land or areas covered by houses, streets, driveways, build- dark-gray (10YR 4/1) streaks; strongly acid; ab-
ings, parking lots, and othe- related construction. The B2 up, av boundary.(5Y 2/1) sand; moderate, me-
B2h--36 to 44 inches, black (SYR 2/1) sand; moderate, me-
open areas of Myakka soils -re mostly in lawns, vacant dium, granular structure; friable, weakly cemented;
lots, or playgrounds. These areas generally are so small common fine and medium roots; sand grains coated
and interspersed with Urban land that it was impractical with organic matter; strongly acid; clear, wavy
to map them separately, boundary.
to m them e teB3&Bh-44 to 51 inches, dark-brown (10YR 3/3) sand; single
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas grain; loose; very few fine roots; common, weakly
of Immokalee, Pomello, EauGallie, and Tavares soils. cemented, black (10YR 2/1) fragments; many clean
These areas make up about 15 percent of mapped areas. sand grains; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
Also included are a few small areas that are as much as B3--51 to 55 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single grain;
60 percent or as little as 15 percent Urban land. loose; common, medium, distinct, very dark brown
60 percent or as little as 15 percent Urban land. (10YR 2/2) fragments; sand grains uncoated; slight-
The soil has not been reworked as much in the older ly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary.
communities as in the newer, more densely populated B'2t-55 to 66 inches, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy clay
ones. Streets that have been excavated below the original loam; few, medium, distinct, olive-brown (2.5Y 4/4)
land surface and that have spread the soil material over friable; sand grains coated suban bridged with clay;
friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
adjacent areas are common. Most low areas have been few, medium, distinct, gray (10YR 6/1) pockets of
filled with material from ditches or with material that uncoated sand; slightly acid; gradual, wavy boun-
has been hauled in. dary.
This complex is well suited to lawn grasses and many B'3-66 to 78 inches, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy clay
loam; few, medium, distinct, olive-brown (2.5Y 4/4)
kinds of ornamental plants. Most areas have had per- mottles; massive; friable, slightly sticky; many
manent drainage systems installed. In these areas the pockets of sandy loam; many uncoated sand grains;
water table generally is between depths of about 20 and slightly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
more than 40 inches. Not assigned to a capability unit, 0-78 to 93 inches, stratified and mixed pockets and lenses of
grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy clay loam, sandy
range site, or woodland group. loam, and loamy sand; massive; friable; slightly
sticky; many uncoated sand grains; slightly acid;
Oldsmar Series gradual, wavy boundary.
Oldsmar soils are very strongly acid to medium acid in the
The Oldsmar series consists of nearly level, poorly A, the Bh, and the B3&Bh horizons and slightly acid to
drained sandy soils on low ridges in the flatwoods and mildly alkaline in all other horizons.
The Al horizon is dark gray to black and is 4 to 12
on low knolls on the flood plains. These soils formed inches thick. Where this layer is very dark gray or black,
in sandy marine sediments over loamy material. it is 4 to 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray to light
In a representative profile the surface layer is sand gray and is 18 to 36 inches thick. Streaks of the Al horizon
about 11 inches thick; the upper 4 inches is black, and extend into the A2 horizon. The entire A horizon is 30 to 50
the next 7 inches is dark gray. Below this is 25 inches Tihe 2h horizon is black to dark reddish-brown sand or
of gray to light-gray sand. The subsoil extends to a fine sand 4 to 14 inches thick. It has an organic-matter
depth of 78 inches. The upper 8 inches is black sand. content of 1 to 6 percent. The B3&Bh horizon is brown,
This layer is weakly cemented, and the sand grains are dark-brown to dark grayish-brown sand or fine sand 6 to
18 inches thick. It contains common black or dark reddish-
coated with organic matter. The next layer is about 7 brown fragments. The B3 horizon is brown or dark-brown
inches of dark-brown sand that has common, weakly sand or fine sand. The B'2t horizon begins at a depth of
cemented, black fragments. The next 4 inches is brown more than 40 inches but less than 60 inches. It is light-
gray, grayish-brown to dark yellowish-brown sandy loam
sand, and the next 23 inches is grayish-brown sandy clay to sandy clay loam and has few to common yellowish, red-
loam. Below this, to a depth of 93 inches, is stratified dish, or brownish mottles. In many places it contains lenses
and mixed pockets and lenses of grayish-brown loamy or pockets of sand or loamy sand. The B'3 horizon is similar
to the B'2t horizon, but it contains many more lenses and
sand, sandy loam, and sandy clay loam. pockets of coarse material.
Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 36 inches The C horizon is stratified coarse-textured and fine-textured
and moderately rapid from about 36 to 93 inches. The material.
available water capacity is very low to a depth of Oldsmar soils are associated with EauGallie, Felda, Immo-
kalee, Malabar, Myakka, Pineda, and Wabasso soils. They
about 36 inches and moderate in all other layers. Or- have a Bh horizon that is lacking in Felda, Malabar, and
ganic-matter content and natural fertility are low. Pineda soils. They are underlain by loamy materials at a
Representative profile of Oldsmar sand in a wooded depth of 40 to 60 inches, and Immokalee soils are sandy to
a depth of more than 60 inches. Depth to the Bh horizon
area about 100 feet east of State Route 507 and about is more than 30 inches in Oldsmar soils but less than 30
0.3 mile north of the junction of State Route 507 and inches in EauGallie, Myakka, and Wabasso soils.
State Route 514, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 34, T. 28 S., R. 37 E.: Oldsmar sand (Od).-This is a nearly level, poorly
All-0 to 4 inches, black (10YR 2/1, rubbed) sand; weak, drained, sandy soil that is on low ridges in the flatwoods
fine, granular structure; very friable; common fine and on low knolls on the flood plains. In most years the








32 SOIL SURVEY

water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3 (10YR 7/1), 1 inch to 5 inches in diameter, with
months and between 10 and 40 inches for more than 6 weakly cemented very dark grayish-brown (10YR
months. In dry seasons it is below a depth of 40 inches. 3/2) exteriors; discontinuous, weakly cemented,
very dark grayish-brown, dark-brown (10YR 3/3),
This soil generally is flooded for 2 to 7 days once in 1 and brown (10YR 4/3) lenses, 0.5 inch to 3 inches
to 5 years, wide, at upper-contact of horizon; medium acid;
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas gradual, wavy boundary.
of EauGallie and Wabasso soils, a few areas of Oldsmar B22- omm28 to 37 in e, faint, brownish-yellow R /) mottles; sand;
common, fine, faint, brownish-yellow mottles; single
sand that have strongly acid loamy layers, and a few grain; loose; common medium roots; common
areas where the surface layer is peat 4 to 12 inches thick. tongues of light gray (10YR 7/1), 1 to 5 inches in
Also included are a few areas that are wetter for longer diameter, with discontinuous, weakly cemented, very
periods and are flooded for 1 to 2 months in most years. dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) exteriors, 0.25 to
inch wide; common, medium, prominent, dark-brown
Much of the acreage in the flatwoods is in natural (10YR 3/3) mottles in tongues; medium acid; grad-
vegetation of open forest of second-growth longleaf ual, wavy boundary.
or slash pine and an understory of saw-palmetto, runner B3-37 to 69 inches, yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; common,
oak, and native grasses. Much of this acreage is used medium, distinct, strong-brown (7.SYR 5/8) mottles,
common, fine, prominent, red (2.5YR 5/6) mottles,
for range. Most of the acreage on low knolls on the river and common, coarse, faint, very pale brown (10YR
flood plains has been cleared and is in pasture. 7/3) mottles; single grain; loose; few tongues of
Unless conditions are favorable, management is good, light gray (10YR 7/1), 1 to 5 inches in diameter,
and a water control system is properly designed, this soil with discontinuous, weakly cemented, very dark
grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) exteriors 0.25 to 1 inch
is poorly suited to citrus. If drainage and water control wide; medium acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
are adequate, it is well suited to vegetables, improved 0-69 to 81 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand;
pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses, and many kinds single grain; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
of ornamental plants. Capability unit IVw-2; Acid Flat- medium acid; clear, wavy boundary.
woods range site; woodland group 10. Orsino soils are very strongly acid to medium acid through-
out.
The Al horizon is dark grayish brown, dark gray, or gray
Orsino Series and is 2 to 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon is light gray to
white and is 6 to 34 inches thick.
The Orsino series consists of nearly level, moderately The B2 horizon is pale brown, strong brown, brownish
well drained sandy soils on moderately low ridges and yellow, yellowish brown, or yellow and is 12 to 50 inches
between high ridges and poorly drained areas. These thick. Few to common tongues of the A horizon extend into
between high ridges and poorly drained areas. These the B horizon in most profiles. These tongues have black
soils formed in thick deposits of sandy marine or eolian to reddish-brown exteriors and light-gray to white interiors.
sand. Thin layers of brown or dark yellowish-brown fine sand are
In a representative profile the surface layer is sand between the A2 and B horizons in some profiles. The B3
about inches thick. The upper 4 inches is dark gray, horizon is lighter colored than the B2 horizon and is reddish
about 7 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is dark gray, yellow to yellow. It contains common to many light-gray
and the lower 3 inches is gray. Below this is about 15 and very pale brown mottles or streaks.
inches of light-gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to a The C horizon is light yellowish brown or very pale brown.
depth of 69 inches. The upper 15 inches is yellowish- This horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is
brown and brownish-yellow fine sand that has common mottled in some places.
Orsino soils are associated with Astatula, Cocoa, Immo-
light-gray tongues with very dark grayish-brown exter- kalee, Myakka, Paola, Pomello, and St. Lucie soils. They
iors. The lower 32 inches is yellow fine sand that has are more poorly drained than Astatula, Cocoa, Paola, and St.
strong-brown and very pale brown mottles. Below this, Lucie soils. They have a light-colored A2 horizon that is
to a depth of 81 inches, is very pale brown fine sand. lacking in Astatula soils. In contrast with Cocoa soils, they
are sandy to a depth of 80 inches and are not underlain by
Permeability is very rapid in all layers. The available coquina rock. They have a yellowish B horizon instead of the
water capacity is very low in all layers. The organic- white C horizon typical of St. Lucie soils. They differ from
matter content and natural fertility are low. Immokalee, Myakka, and Pomello soils in not having a Bh
Representative profile of Orsino fine sand in a forested horizon.
area about 200 feet northwest of the junction of U.S. Orsino fine sand (Or).-This is a nearly level, mod-
Highway No. 1 and State Route 5A, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 2, erately well drained sandy soil on moderately low ridges
T. 20 S., R. 34 E.: and between high ridges and poorly drained areas. In
A11-0 to 4 ine, dR 4) fe s ; sg most years the water table is at a depth of 40 to 60
All--o to 4 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single inches for 6 months or more. During prolonged dry pe-
grain; loose; many fine, medium, and large roots; inches for 6 months or more During prolonged dry pe-
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary. riods it is below a depth of 60 inches, and during wet
A12-4 to 7 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grain; periods it is between 20 and 40 inches for 7 days to 1
loose; common fine, medium, and large roots; strong- month.
ly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. Included with this soil in mapping are small spots of
A21-7 to 16 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; single Included with tis soil in mapping are small spots
grain; loose; common fine, medium, and large roots Paola and Pomello soils. Also included are a few areas
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. of Orsino fine sand that have slopes of 2 to 5 percent and
A22-16 to 22 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; com- a few areas that have a sand texture.
mon, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) Many areas are in natural vegetation of sand pine and
and light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) mottles; sin-
gle grain; loose; common medium roots and few scattered blackjack, turkey, and post oak, and an under-
large roots; strongly acid; tongues extend to a depth story of palmetto, rosemary, and native grasses.
of 69 inches; abrupt, irregular boundary. This soil is very poorly suited tb most vegetables,
B21-22 to 28 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) fine sand; moderately well suited to citrus and deep-rooted im-
single grain; loose; common medium roots, few finesuited to cit
and large roots; common tongues of light gray proved pasture grasses, and poorly suited to lawn







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 33

grasses and most kinds of ornamental plants. Capability Palm Beach sand (Pb).-This is a nearly level and
unit IVs-2; Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 4. gently sloping excessively drained soil on dunelike ridges
that roughly parallel the Atlantic Ocean. It consists of
Palm Beach Series mixed sand and shell fragments. Slopes are ,mostly 2 to
5 percent. The water table is at a depth of more than 10
The Palm Beach series consists of nearly level and feet.
gently sloping, excessively drained soils on dunelike Included with this soil in mapping are narrow areas
ridges, generally parallel to the Atlantic Ocean. These that have slopes of 5 to 8 percent and lead to included
soils formed in thick deposits of marine sand and shell narrow low sloughs. Also included are areas of soils
fragments. that contain only a very few shells in the upper 20 to 40
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark inches and that are brownish yellow to strong brown, a
grayish-brown sand and shell fragments about 3 inches few areas that have a slightly thicker surface layer, and
thck The next layer is brown sand and shell fragments some areas of coarse sand.
about 12 inches thick. The underlyig material to a Most areas are still in natural vegetation of saw-pal-
depth of 54 inches, is light brownish-gray and light-gray metto, scattered cactus, scrub live oak, sea grapes, and
sand and shell fragments. Below this, to a depth of 105 clumps of sea oats.
inches, is white to yellowish-brown shells and shell This soil is not suited to vegetables, citrus, or im-
fragments. proved pasture grasses. It is poorly suited to lawn grasses
Permeability is very rapid throughout. The available and most kinds of ornamental plants. Some areas are
water capacity is very low throughout. Organic-matter used for.recreation. Capability unit VIIs-2; Sand Scrub
content and natural fertility are low. range site; woodland group 1.
Representative profile of Palm Beach sand within the
city limits of Satellite Beach, about 200 feet north of
Lum's Restaurant and about halfway between the At- Paola Series
lantic Ocean and State Route A1A: The Paola series consists of nearly level to strongly
Al-O to 3 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand sloping, excessively drained sandy soils on the tops and
and shell fragments; single grain; loose; many fine, sides of ridges. These soils formed in thick beds of eolian
medium, and large roots; about 30 percent white sands.
to yellowish-brown, sand-size shell fragments; mod-
erately alkaline; clear, smooth boundary. In a representative profile the surface layer is dark-
AC-3 to 15 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) sand mixed with gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. Below this, to a
white and pale-brown shell fragments; single grain; depth of 24 inches, is light-gray fine sand. The subsoil,
loose; common fine, medium, and large roots; about about 36 inches thick, is also fine sand. The upper 24
20 percent sand-size shell fragments; moderately
alkaline; gradual, wavy boundary. inches is strong brown and contains a few tongues of
01-15 to 24 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sand white sand that have dark reddish-brown cemented ex-
mixed with white to light yellowish-brown shell teriors. The lower 12 inches is very pale brown and has
fragments; single grain; loose; many medium roots a few brownish reddish, and white mottles and streaks.
and common fine roots; about 20 percent sand-size
shell fragments; moderately alkaline; abrupt, wavy Between depths of 60 and 90 inches is very pale brown
boundary, fine sand.
02-24 to 32 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sand Permeability is very rapid, and the available water
mixed with multicolored sand-size shell fragments; capacity is very low. Organic-matter content and natural
single grain; loose; many medium roots; about 40
percent sand-size shell fragments; moderately al- fertility are low.
kaline; gradual, wavy boundary. Representative profile of Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
03-32 to 54 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) sand mixed with slopes, about 25 feet west of a good motor road and
multicolored shell fragments; single grain; loose; about 0.2 mile south of State Route 46, NE1/4SE1/4 sec.
common medium roots; moderately alkaline; abrupt, 13, T. 21 S. R. 34 E.:
irregular boundary.
04-54 to 105 inches, white (10YR 8/1) to yellowish-brown A1-0 to 5 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1, rubbed), fine sand;
(10YR 5/4) shells and shell fragments mixed with single grain; loose; abundant fine and medium roots;
light-gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single grain; loose; low organic-matter content; uncoated sand grains;
about 90 to 95 percent shells and shell fragments; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
upper 2 to 3 inches is a lens of shells and shell frag- A2-5 to 24 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; few, fine,
ments as much as 4 inches in diameter, distinct, brown (10YR 5/3) stains and black (10YR
Palm Beach soils are mildly alkaline to strongly alkaline 2/1) splotches along root channels; single grain;
throughout. loose; few flakes of charcoal; common fine and me-
The Al horizon is dark brown to dark grayish brown and dium roots; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
is 2 to 10 inches thick. The AC horizon is brown to grayish B2-24 to 48 inches, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) fine sand;
brown and is 10 to 20 inches thick. The horizon is absent few distinct tongues, 2 inches wide and 18 inches
in some profiles. The content of shell fragments in the A long, that have slightly cemented dark reddish-brown
and AC horizons ranges from 5 to 35 percent. (5YR 3/2) exteriors and white (10YR 8/1) finesand
The C horizon is light brownish gray to light gray. The interiors; few, slightly cemented, reddish-brown
color depends largely on shell fragments that make up (5YR 4/2) nodules; single grain; loose; common fine
15 to 90 percent of the volume of the C horizon. Stratified and medium roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
layers of shell and sand are common in this horizon. nd ry
Palm Beach soils are associated with Canaveral, Pomello, boundary.
and Welaka soils and Coastal beaches. They are better B3-48 to 60 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand;
drained than all of those soils. They contain shell fragments few, fine, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) and
in all horizons, in contrast with Pomello and Welaka soils, white (10YR 8/2) mottles; dark reddish-brown
which do not have shells in the A horizon. Compared with (5YR 3/4) slightly cemented spots; strong-brown
Coastal beaches, they are not subject to tidal flooding. (7.5YR 5/6) exteriors on root channels; single grain;







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 33

grasses and most kinds of ornamental plants. Capability Palm Beach sand (Pb).-This is a nearly level and
unit IVs-2; Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 4. gently sloping excessively drained soil on dunelike ridges
that roughly parallel the Atlantic Ocean. It consists of
Palm Beach Series mixed sand and shell fragments. Slopes are ,mostly 2 to
5 percent. The water table is at a depth of more than 10
The Palm Beach series consists of nearly level and feet.
gently sloping, excessively drained soils on dunelike Included with this soil in mapping are narrow areas
ridges, generally parallel to the Atlantic Ocean. These that have slopes of 5 to 8 percent and lead to included
soils formed in thick deposits of marine sand and shell narrow low sloughs. Also included are areas of soils
fragments. that contain only a very few shells in the upper 20 to 40
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark inches and that are brownish yellow to strong brown, a
grayish-brown sand and shell fragments about 3 inches few areas that have a slightly thicker surface layer, and
thck The next layer is brown sand and shell fragments some areas of coarse sand.
about 12 inches thick. The underlyig material to a Most areas are still in natural vegetation of saw-pal-
depth of 54 inches, is light brownish-gray and light-gray metto, scattered cactus, scrub live oak, sea grapes, and
sand and shell fragments. Below this, to a depth of 105 clumps of sea oats.
inches, is white to yellowish-brown shells and shell This soil is not suited to vegetables, citrus, or im-
fragments. proved pasture grasses. It is poorly suited to lawn grasses
Permeability is very rapid throughout. The available and most kinds of ornamental plants. Some areas are
water capacity is very low throughout. Organic-matter used for.recreation. Capability unit VIIs-2; Sand Scrub
content and natural fertility are low. range site; woodland group 1.
Representative profile of Palm Beach sand within the
city limits of Satellite Beach, about 200 feet north of
Lum's Restaurant and about halfway between the At- Paola Series
lantic Ocean and State Route A1A: The Paola series consists of nearly level to strongly
Al-O to 3 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand sloping, excessively drained sandy soils on the tops and
and shell fragments; single grain; loose; many fine, sides of ridges. These soils formed in thick beds of eolian
medium, and large roots; about 30 percent white sands.
to yellowish-brown, sand-size shell fragments; mod-
erately alkaline; clear, smooth boundary. In a representative profile the surface layer is dark-
AC-3 to 15 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) sand mixed with gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. Below this, to a
white and pale-brown shell fragments; single grain; depth of 24 inches, is light-gray fine sand. The subsoil,
loose; common fine, medium, and large roots; about about 36 inches thick, is also fine sand. The upper 24
20 percent sand-size shell fragments; moderately
alkaline; gradual, wavy boundary. inches is strong brown and contains a few tongues of
01-15 to 24 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sand white sand that have dark reddish-brown cemented ex-
mixed with white to light yellowish-brown shell teriors. The lower 12 inches is very pale brown and has
fragments; single grain; loose; many medium roots a few brownish reddish, and white mottles and streaks.
and common fine roots; about 20 percent sand-size
shell fragments; moderately alkaline; abrupt, wavy Between depths of 60 and 90 inches is very pale brown
boundary, fine sand.
02-24 to 32 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sand Permeability is very rapid, and the available water
mixed with multicolored sand-size shell fragments; capacity is very low. Organic-matter content and natural
single grain; loose; many medium roots; about 40
percent sand-size shell fragments; moderately al- fertility are low.
kaline; gradual, wavy boundary. Representative profile of Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
03-32 to 54 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) sand mixed with slopes, about 25 feet west of a good motor road and
multicolored shell fragments; single grain; loose; about 0.2 mile south of State Route 46, NE1/4SE1/4 sec.
common medium roots; moderately alkaline; abrupt, 13, T. 21 S. R. 34 E.:
irregular boundary.
04-54 to 105 inches, white (10YR 8/1) to yellowish-brown A1-0 to 5 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1, rubbed), fine sand;
(10YR 5/4) shells and shell fragments mixed with single grain; loose; abundant fine and medium roots;
light-gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single grain; loose; low organic-matter content; uncoated sand grains;
about 90 to 95 percent shells and shell fragments; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
upper 2 to 3 inches is a lens of shells and shell frag- A2-5 to 24 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; few, fine,
ments as much as 4 inches in diameter, distinct, brown (10YR 5/3) stains and black (10YR
Palm Beach soils are mildly alkaline to strongly alkaline 2/1) splotches along root channels; single grain;
throughout. loose; few flakes of charcoal; common fine and me-
The Al horizon is dark brown to dark grayish brown and dium roots; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
is 2 to 10 inches thick. The AC horizon is brown to grayish B2-24 to 48 inches, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) fine sand;
brown and is 10 to 20 inches thick. The horizon is absent few distinct tongues, 2 inches wide and 18 inches
in some profiles. The content of shell fragments in the A long, that have slightly cemented dark reddish-brown
and AC horizons ranges from 5 to 35 percent. (5YR 3/2) exteriors and white (10YR 8/1) finesand
The C horizon is light brownish gray to light gray. The interiors; few, slightly cemented, reddish-brown
color depends largely on shell fragments that make up (5YR 4/2) nodules; single grain; loose; common fine
15 to 90 percent of the volume of the C horizon. Stratified and medium roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
layers of shell and sand are common in this horizon. nd ry
Palm Beach soils are associated with Canaveral, Pomello, boundary.
and Welaka soils and Coastal beaches. They are better B3-48 to 60 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand;
drained than all of those soils. They contain shell fragments few, fine, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) and
in all horizons, in contrast with Pomello and Welaka soils, white (10YR 8/2) mottles; dark reddish-brown
which do not have shells in the A horizon. Compared with (5YR 3/4) slightly cemented spots; strong-brown
Coastal beaches, they are not subject to tidal flooding. (7.5YR 5/6) exteriors on root channels; single grain;







34 SOIL SURVEY
loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly acid; They are so small and so intermixed with Urban land
gradual,a ve wn ( R 7) dIta ry. that it is impractical to map the two separately.
C--60 to 90 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; Included with this complex in mapping are small
few, fine, faint, yellowish-brown and white specks; Included ith this complex mappg are small
single grain; loose; very few fine roots; strongly areas of Cocoa, St. Lucie, Tavares, and Pomello soils
acid. and of Quartzipsamments, smoothed. One or more of
Paola soils are very strongly acid to medium acid through- those soils make up as much as 25 percent of some areas.
out and are sand or fine sand in all horizons. Also included are small areas where the soils are sloping
The Al horizon is 2 to 5 inches thick and is dark grayish to moderately steep.
brown to light gray. The A2 horizon is light gray to whitey
and is 6 to 40 inches thick. Few to common tongues of the Areas are nearly level to gently sloping. Many have
A horizon extend into the B horizon in most profiles. The been modified by grading and shaping, and many have
tongues have black to reddish-brown exteriors and light-gray thin layers of dark topsoil spread over the surface.
or white interiors. Streets excavated below the original land surface and
The B horizon has redidsh mottles in some profiles. The teeth excavated a teral se over aden land s areas anr
B2 horizon is strong brown to yellow and is 12 to 60 the excavated material spread over adjacent land areas are
inches thick. The B3 horizon i- lighter colored than the B2 common. This excavated material is sometimes used to
horizon and is typically pale brown or very pale brown. It fill low places in other areas. Reworking of the soil has
has yellow, red, and brown mottles. not been so great in the older communities as in the
The C horizon Is light yellowish brown or pale brown
to white. It is mottled in places with darker or lighter colors. newer, more densely populated ones.
Paola soils are associated with Astatula, Cocoa, Immoka- Paola-Urban land complex is poorly suited to lawn
lee, Myakka, Orsino, and St. Lucle soils. They differ from grasses and most ornamental plants. The water table is
Astatula soils in having a A2 horizon. In contrast with Cocoa below a depth of 10 feet. Not assigned to a capability
soils, they have a light-gray or white A2 horizon and are sand dp t
to a depth of 80 inches or more whereas Cocoa soils have unit, range site, or woodland group.
a strong-brown A2 horizon and are underlain by coquina
rock at a depth of 38 inches. They differ from St. Lucie Parkwood Series Moderately Fine
soils in having a B horizon. They are better drained thanwoo eres eraely ine
Orsino soils. They are much better drained than Immokalee Subsoil Variant
and Myakka soils, and tiey have a B horizon instead of a
Bh horizon. The Parkwood series, moderately fine subsoil variant,
Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (PfB).-This is an consists of nearly level, poorly drained soils that have
excessively drained soil on ridges. It has the profile de- a loamy subsoil. These soils are in small hammocks
scribed as representative of the series. The water table that border streams, poorly defined drainageways, and
is below a depth of 10 feet. depressions. They formed in beds of unconsolidated sandy
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas and loamy marine material influenced by underlying
of Astatula and St. Lucie soils, a few areas where co- calcareous material.
quina rock is at a depth of 45 inches, and a few steeper In a representative profile the surface layer is black
areas where the texture is sand. and is about 7 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is fine
Many areas are in woods of sand pine and an under- sand, and the lower 3 inches is loamy fine sand. The
story of scattered palmetto, rosemary, and cactus. subsoil extends to a depth of 30 inches. It is mainly gray
This soil is not suited to vegetables and is only mod- and light-gray sandy clay loam. Common to many hard
erately well suited to citrus. It is poorly suited to im- limestone fragments are in the lower part. Below is gray
proved pasture grasses, lawn grasses, and most kinds of loamy fine sand to a depth of 43 inches and light brownish-
ornamental plants. Capability unit VIs-1; Sand Scrub gray fine sand that contains lenses and streaks of gray and
range site; woodland group 1. dark brown to a depth of 65 inches.
Paola fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (PfD).-This is Permeability is very rapid in the surface layer and
an excessively drained sandy soil on the sides of high deep sandy layers and moderate in the loamy layers. The
ridges. The water table is at a depth of more than 10 available water capacity is moderate to a depth of about
feet. 30 inches and low between 30 and 65 inches. Organic-
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of matter content is moderate in the surface layer. Natural
St. Lucie soils and small areas that are moderately steep fertility is high.
and steep. Representative profile of Parkwood fine sand, moder-
Most areas are in natural vegetation of sand pine and ately fine subsoil variant, in a wooded area about 150
an understory of scattered saw-palmetto, rosemary, and feet south of a good motor road and about 1.3 miles
cactus. east of U.S. Highway No. 1, NW/4SE/4 sec. 32, T. 20 S.,
This soil is not suited to vegetables, citrus, or im- R. 35 E.:
proved pasture grasses. It is poorly suited to lawn grasses
and many kinds of ornamental plants. Capability unit All-- to 4 inches, black (N 2/0, rubbed) fine sand; mod-
VIIs-1. Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 1. rate, fine, granular structure; friable; many me-
dium and fine roots; neutral; gradual, smooth
Paola-Urban land complex (Ph).-This mapping unit is boundary.
about 55 to 70 percent Paola fine sand, 10 percent Paola A12--4 to 7 inches, black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand;
fine sand that has been altered by earthmoving machines, common, ne, distin tct, gray (10YR 5/1) streaks;
moderate, medium, granular structure; friable; many
and generally 20 to 45 percent Urban land, or areas medium and fine roots; common medium pores;
covered with pavement and buildings. Urban land makes mildly alkaline; very slightly calcareous; clear,
up as much as 60 percent of a few mapped areas and smooth boundary.
Sas 5 percent of a few n areas of Paoa fine Bltg-7 to 10 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy loam,
as little as 15 percent of a few: Open areas of Paola fine weak, medium, subangular blocky structure; friable,
sand are mostly lawns, vacant lots, and playgrounds. slightly sticky; common fine roots and pores; few







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 35

marl fragments; moderately alkaline; calcareous; undergrowth of shrubs, vines, and grasses. These areas
gradual, smooth boundary.
B21tgca- l to 15 inches, gray (YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; are difficult to clear, and few have been cleared.
weak, medium, subangular blocky structure; friable, This soil is moderately well suited to citrus if it has
slightly sticky; common fine roots and pores; sand been bedded, drained, and provided with good water
grains coated and bridged with clay and carbonates; control. If drainage and water control are adequate, it
few shell fragments; secondary accumulations of is well suited to vegetables, improved pasture grasses and
carbonates in few root chanlkalinels; few calcareous; clear, clover, lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental
smooth boundary. plants. In its native state this soil provides shelter
B22tgca-15 to 22 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay for cattle and wildlife. Capability unit IIIw-1; Ham-
loam; weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure; mock range site; woodland group 12.
friable, sticky; few fine roots; common medium
pores; few, coarse, distinct, gray (10YR 5/1), and
common, fine, distinct, white (N 8/0), moderately Pineda Series
hard limestone fragments; sand grains coated and
bridged with clay and carbonates; moderately alka- The Pineda series consists of nearly level, poorly
line; calcareous; gradual, wavy boundary, drained, sandy soils on broad hammocks and in low
B23tgca-22 to 30 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay
loam; massive; friable; few fine roots; about 40 per- sloughs. These soils formed in sandy and loamy marine
cent white (N 8/0) hard limestone fragments % to material.
/2 inch in size; sand grains coated and bridged with In a representative profile the surface layer is black
clay and carbonates; moderately alkaline; calcar- sand in the upper 5 inches and dark-gray sand in the
eous; abrupt, wavy boundary.
Clg-30 to 35 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) loamy fine sand; lower 8 inches. Below this is 6 inches of light brownish-
common, medium, prominent, brownish-yellow (10YR gray sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 60 inches.
6/6) and light yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/4) mottles; The upper 10 inches is yellowish-brown sand and the
massive; friable; common fine roots and pores; mod- next 6 inches is light yellowish-brown sand that has
erately alkaline; clear, wavy boundary.
C2g-35 to 43 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single distinct, yellowish mottles. Between depths of 35 and
grain; loose; moderately alkaline; gradual, wavy 60 inches, the subsoil is gray sandy loam that has
boundary. yellowish-brown mottles. Below this is gray loamy sand
C3g-43 to 65 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine that contains small lenses and pockets of sandy loam or
sand; few, moderately thick, gray (5YR 6/1) lenses
and dark-brown (10YR 3/3) streaks; single grain; sandy clay loam.
loose; mildly alkaline. Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers that extend
Parkwood variant soils are neutral to mildly alkaline in the to a depth of about 38 inches, moderately rapid in the
Al horizon and mildly alkaline to moderately alkaline in the loamy layers that extend from a depth of 38 to 60 inches,
B and C horizons. and rapid from a depth of 60 to 64 inches. The available
0 he Al hrion is black or very dark gray and is 6 to water capacity is low in all the sandy layers and mod-
The Bltg horizon is dark-gray to light-gray fine sandy loam rate in the loamy layers. Organic-matter content is low,
or sandy clay loam 2 to 6 inches thick. The B2tgca horizon is and natural fertility is moderate.
dark gray, gray, grayish brown, light brownish gray, light Representative profile of Pineda sand in a sparsely
gray, or white and is 15 to 50 inches thick. Few to common wooded area about 0.4 mile northwest of State Route 528,
hard pieces of gray to white limestone are in the lower part
of the B horizon. NW1/SE/4 sec. 28, T. 24 S., R. 35 E.:
The Cg horizon is gray, light brownish-gray, or light-gray A1-0 to 5 inches, black (10YR 2/1 rubbed) sand; weak,
loamy fine sand to fine sand. It is mottled in places fine, granular structure; friable; many fine and
Parkwood variant soils are commonly associated with Brad- common medium roots; medium acid; clear, wavy
enton shallow variant, Felda, Immokalee, Myakka, Pompano, boundary.
and Wabasso soils. Compared with the Bradenton shallow vari- A12-5 to 13 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; common,
ant, they have a sandy C horizon beneath the subsoil instead of fine, faint, very dark gray streaks and light-gray
hard limestone. They have a loamy Btca horizon, in contrast mottles; weak, fine, granular structure; friable; few
wtih the Immokalee, Myakka, and Wabasso soils, all of which fine and medium roots; slightly acid; clear, wavy
have a B2h horizon. They differ from Pompano soils in boundary.
having a B horizon. Depth to the subsoil is about 10 inches A2-13 to 19 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sand;
in the Parkwood moderately fine subsoil variant, but is more few, coarse, faint, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) mottles;
than 20 inches in Felda soils, single grain; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid;
Parkwood fine sand, moderately fine subsoil variant clear, irregular boundary.
(Pkl.-This is a nearly level, poorly drained soil that has a B2ir-19 to 29 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) sand;
common, coarse, distinct, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8)
loamy subsoil. It is in hammocks that border streams, mottles and common, fine, distinct, very pale brown
poorly defined drainageways, and depressions. Most areas streaks along old root channels; single grain; loose;
are less than 40 acres in size. The water table is generally few fine roots; yellowish-brown coatings of iron
at a depth of 10 to 30 inches. During wet periods, it is oxides on sand grains; slightly acid; clear, wavy
within a depth of 10 inches for as long as 2 to 4 months. B3ir-29 to 35 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4)
This soil generally is flooded for 7 days to 1 month sand; many, coarse, faint, brownish-yellow (10YR
once in 1 to 5 years. 6/6) mottles; single grain; loose; few fine roots;
This soil is not uniform, and any area can contain neutral; abrupt, wavy boundary.
the entire range of characteristics described for the series. ltg and;35 to 38 inches, gr faint, brown (10YR 5/) mot-
sand; common, coarse, faint, brown (10YR 5/3) mot-
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of ties; weak, coarse, granular structure; friable; few
other soils and areas where the subsoil is weakly de- fine roots; neutral; clear, wavy boundary.
veloped and is underlain by shelly sand. B'2tg-38 to 55 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; many,
medium and coarse, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR
Most areas have a dense canopy of cabbage palm, live 5/4) mottles; weak, medium, subangular blocky
oak, water oak, magnolia, and bay trees and a thick structure; friable; few fine roots; common medium







36 SKOL SURVEY
pores; sand grains coated and bridged with clay; Sloughs are covered with wetland grasses. Many areas
few coarse crayfish burrows filled with loamy sand are frequently used for range.
and sandy loam; mildly alkaline; gradual, wavy re en ed fr ran
boundary. If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil
B'3g-55 to 60 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; many, is well suited to citrus, vegetables, improved pasture
medium and coarse, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR grasses and, clover, lawn grasses, and many kinds of
5/4) mottles and few, fine, distinct, dark yellowish- ornamental plants. Capability unit IIIw-1; Sweet Flat-
brown mottles; massive; friable; few fine roots; few woods range site; woodland group 11.
lenses of loamy sand and sandy clay loam; mildly woods range site; woodland group 11
alkaline; gradual, wavy boundary. Pineda sand, bedded (Po).-This is a nearly level, poorly
Cg-60 to 64 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) loamy sand; common, drained soil that has been bedded for citrus. The water
coarse, faint, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) and few, fine, table has been lowered by drainage and generally is at
distinct, dark yellowish-brown mottles; massive; a depth of about 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months of
friable; few fine roots; small lenses and pockets of ep
sandy loam or sandy clay loam; mildly alkaline, the year. This soil is similar to Pineda sand, but it
Pineda soils are strongly acid to slightly acid in the, A has been reshaped and reworked into beds. The bed
horizon, slightly acid to mildly alkaline in the Bir horizon, tops are about 30 feet wide. They are separated by
and neutral to moderately alkaline in the B' and C horizons. shallow ditches that have sloping sides. The ditches
The All horizon is black or very dark gray and is less are about 30 feet wide and 28 to 30 inches deep at the
than 6 inches thick. The A12 horizon is dark gray or dark
grayish brown and is 4 to 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon is deepest point. The surface layer of the beds is the
grayish brown to light brownish gray and light gray and original surface layer that was removed when the
is 4 to 6 inches thick. Common mottles of other colors or ditches were installed.
streaks of the horizon are in the A2 horizon. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
The B2ir horizon is strong-brown, yellowish-brown, or Of Felda, Winder, Valkaria, and Floridana soils.
yellow sand or fine sand 6 to 16 inches thick. Lighter or of Felda, Winder, Valkara, and Flordana soils.
darker mottles are in the B2ir horizon in most profiles. The Complex drainage systems have been installed, and
B3ir horizon is light yellowish-brown to very pale brown almost all areas are in citrus, for which this soil is
sand or fine sand 0 to 6 inches thick. The A and Bir well suited. Capability unit IIIw-1; not assigned to a
horizons combined are 20 to 40 inches thick. The B'tg horizon
is light gray to dark gray or light brownish gray to dark range site or woodland group.
grayish brown and contains few to common yellowish or
l lliwiili mottles. The B'ltg horizon is loamy sand or Pineda Series, Dark Surface Variant
arnn.ly Iam. The B'2tg horizon is sandy loam or sandy clay
loam. Lenses or pockets of loamy sand or sandy loam are The Pineda series, dark surface variant, consists of
in the B'2tg horizon in most profiles. The B'3g horizon is he da series, dark surface variant, consists of
sandy loam or fine sandy loam that contains lenses of loamy nearly level, poorly drained soils on broad palm ham-
sand and sandy clay loam. Many profiles have a black to mocks and in low sloughs. These soils formed in sandy
dark-brown sandy layer 1 to 4 inches thick on top of the and loamy marine sediments.
The Cg horizon is gray, grayish-brown, or light grayish- In a representative profile the surface layer is sand
brown sand to sandy loam that contains few to many pockets about 20 inches thick. The upper 15 inches is black,
or lenses of loamy sand, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. and the next 5 inches is very dark grayish brown. Below
The lower part of the Cg horizon in many places contains this is about 4 inches of mottled light brownish-gray
shell fragments. The fragments are at a depth of 55 inches and very pale brown sand. The next layer, between
in some profiles.
Pineda soils are associated with EauGallie, Felda, Flori- depths of 24 and 40 inches, is yellow and brownish-
dana, Holopaw, Malabar, Pompano, Valkaria, and Wabasso yellow sand. Between depths of 40 and 52 inches is
soils. They have a B2ir horizon, whereas EauGallie and brownish-yellow sandy loam that has gray and white
Wabasso soils have a B2h horizon. They differ from Felda, mottles. Below a depth of 52 inches is gray sandy loam
Floridana, Holopaw, and Pompano soils in having a B2ir. Below a depth of 52 chess is gray sandy loam
horizon. They are not so poorly drained as Floridana soils, that is mottled with yellow and white.
They are loamy below the B2ir horizon, whereas Valkaria Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and mod-
soils are sandy. The depth to the B'2tg horizon is less than erately rapid in the loamy layers and low in the sand
40 inches in Pineda soils, but more than 40 inches in Mala-
bar soils. layer that extends from a depth of about 20 to 40
Pineda sand (Pn).-This is a nearly level poorly drained inches. Organic-matter content is moderate, and natural
sandy soil on broad hammocks and in low sloughs. It fertility is high.
has the profile described as representative of the series. Representative profile of Pineda sand, dark surface
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to variant, in a wooded area about 0.5 mile south of Lough-
2 months in most years and between 10 and 40 inches man Lake and 1.75 miles east of Hatbill County Park,
for more than 6 months. In dry periods it is at a depth NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 5, T. 22 S., R. 34 E.:
of more than 40 inches. This soil generally is flooded for All-0 to 15 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak, fine,
2 to 7 days once in 1 to 5 years. granular structure; very friable; many fine and
Included with this soil in mapping are some areas medium roots; slightly acid; gradual, wavy bound-
ary.
of Malabar, Wabasso, or Felda soils. Also included A12-15 ro 20 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/3)
are a few areas where the surface layer is thicker and sand; weak, fine, granular structure; very friable;
darker colored than is typical, and a few areas that are many fine roots; slightly acid; clear, wavy bound-
fine sand instead of sand. Also included are a few areas ary.
fwhie the loamy yes a l included are a A2-20 to 24 inches, coarsely mottled light brownish-gray
where the loamy layers are calcareous. (10YR 6/2) and very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand;
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation single grain; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid;
of open forest of scattered pine and cabbage palm and an clear, wavy boundary.
understory of native grasses. Some areas are covered with B21ir-24 to 3 inches, yellow (YR 7/6) sand; common,
stands o mixed pine and alm and a few live oak. tes distinct, yellowish-brown (rainsR 5/4) coated
thick stands of mixed pine and palm and a few live oak. ties; single grain; loose; sand grains well coated








sREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 37

with iron oxide; slightly acid; clear, wavy bound- shelter for cattle. Capability unit IIIw-1; Hammock
ary. range site; woodland group 11.
B22ir-33 to 40 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) sand; range site; woodland group 11.
single grain; loose; few, fine, distinct, white (10YR
8/1) and common, medium, faint, very pale brown Pomello Series
(10YR 7/4) uncoated sand streaks; brownish-yellow
iron oxides coat the sand grains; neutral; abrupt, The Pomello series consists of nearly level, moderately
wavy boundary. well drained sandy soils on broad low ridges and low
B't-40 to 52 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy well drained sandy soils on broad low ridges and low
loam; many, medium, distinct, gray (10YR 5/1) knolls in the flatwoods. These soils formed in thick
mottles; weak, medium, subangular blocky struc- beds of marine sand.
ture; friable; few, medium, distinct, white (10YR In a representative profile the surface layer is about
8/1) sand pockets and few, fine, distinct, very dark 3 inches thick. Below this is light-gray sand to a depth
gray (10YR 3/1) streaks along root channels; mildly inches thick. Below this is light-gray sand to a depth
alkaline; sand grains coated and bridged with clay; of 50 inches. The next layer is black, weakly cemented
clear, wavy boundary. sand in the upper 7 inches, dark reddish-brown, weakly
Cg-52 to 60 inches, gray (N 6/0) sandy clay loam; common, cemented sand in the next 5 inches, and dark yellowish-
prominent, yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles; massive; brown sand that contains common, weakly cemented,
friable; common, medium, distinct, white (10YR 8/2)
carbonitic sand streaks; few, dark grayish-brown dark reddish-brown fragments in the lower 8 inches.
(10YR 4/2) decaying roots; mildly alkaline. Brown sand is below a depth of 70 inches.
Pineda soils, dark surface variant, are medium acid to Permeability is very rapid to a depth of about 50
mildly alkaline in all horizons. inches, moderately rapid between 50 and 62 inches, and
The Al horizon is black, very dark gray, or very dark rapid between 62 and 80 inches. The available water
is grayish brown to light gray, is 4 to 6 inches thick, and capacity is very low as far down as 50 inches and is
is typically mottled. The entire A horizon is less than 30 moderate below. Organic-matter content and natural
inches thick. fertility are low.
The B2ir horizon is strong-brown, yellowish-brown, brown- Representative profile of Pomello sand in a wooded
sh-yellow, or yellow sand or fine sand, is 4 to 18 inches area about 0.4 mile east of Satellite Boulevard, NE1/4
thick, and is typically mottled with lighter or darker colors.
Some profiles have a transitional layer, between the B2ir and SE1/4 see. 8, T. 24 S., R. 35 E.:
B't horizons, that is light yellowish-brown to very pale brown A1-- to 3 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain;
sand or fine sand and is as much as 6 inches thick in places. loose; many fine and few medium and large roots;
The B't horizon is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches. It varies strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
in color and ranges from light gray, gray, or dark gray to A21-3 to 27 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single
brownish yellow and has few to many mottles of other colors, grain; loose; many fine and medium and common
It is sandy loam or sandy clay loam and contains common large roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
streaks of sand or loamy sand. A22-27 to 38 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sand; few,
The Cg horizon is gray, grayish-brown, or light grayish- coarse, distinct, gray (10YR 5/1) splotches and
brown sand to sandy clay loam that contains few to many streaks; single grain; loose; many fine and medium
pockets or lenses of loamy sand or sandy clay loam. Streaks roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
of calcium carbonate have accumulated in the Cg horizon A23-38 to 50 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sand; common,
in many plans, dark coarse, prominent, very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
ne Sil d surface variant, are associated ith streaks along old root channels; single grain; loose;
EauGallie, Floridana, Malabar, Pompano, Valkaria, and Wa- many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; abrupt,
basso soils. They have a thicker, dark-colored Al horizon wavy boundary.
than all but Floridana soils. They are not so poorly drained B21h-50 to 57 inches, black (5YR 2/1) sand; weak, coarse,
as Floridana soils and have a B2ir horizon that is lacking subangular blocky structure; firm, weakly cemented;
in those soils. In contrast with EauGallie and Wabasso many fine and medium roots; few pores; few un-
soils, they have a B2ir horizon instead of a B2h horizon, coated sand grains; few, fine, distinct, gray to light-
They have a sandy loam B't horizon at a depth of about gray streaks; strongly acid; gradual, wavy bound-
40 inches, whereas Pompano and Valkaria soils are sandy ary.
to a depth of 80 inches. B22h-57 to 62 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) sand;
Pineda sand, dark surface variant (Pp).-This is a weak, medium, subangular blocky structure; firm,
nearly level, poorly drained sandy soil on broad ham- weakly cemented; common fine and medium roots;
nearly lel, poorly drained sandy soil on broad ham- few uncoated sand grains; common, medium, dis-
mocks and in low sloughs. It has a loamy subsoil at a tinct, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) and dark-
depth of about 40 inches. The water table is within a brown (10YR 3/3) fragments and few, medium, dis-
depth of 10 inches for 1 to 2 months in most years and tinct, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fragments; strong-
is between 10 and 40 inches for more than 6 months. In ly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
dry periods it is at a depth of more than 40 inches. B3&Bh-62 to 70 inches, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4)
dry periods it is at a depth of more than 40 inches. sand; single grain; loose, friable; few fine roots;
This soil is flooded for 2 to 7 days once in 1 to 5 years. sand grains thinly coated; common, medium and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of coarse, distinct, dark reddis'hbrown (5YR 3/3), weak-
Pineda sand. Also included are a few areas where this ly cemented fragments decreasing in number with
variant has a browner loamy subsoil and a few areas depth; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
where the texture is fine sand. 01-70 to 80 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; common, me-
dium, pale-brown and dark-brown mottles; single
Most areas are still in natural vegetation of thick grain; loose; strongly acid.
hammock stands of cabbage palm and pine and a few Pomello soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid
scattered live oak. throughout the profile.
If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil The Al horizon is dark gray to light gray and is 1 to 6
is well suited to citrus, vegetables, improved grasses and inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray to white and contains
clove, lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental streaks and splotches of gray, very dark gray, very dark
clover, awn gasses and many kinds of ornamental grayish brown, or very dark brown. The entire A horizon
plants. In its native state it provides limited grazing and ranges from 30 to 60 inches in thickness.








38 8SOIL SURVEY

The B2h horizon is black to dark reddish brown, is 2 to Pompano Series
14 inches thick, and has an organic-matter content of about
1 to 6 percent. The B3&Bh horizon is brown to dark yellow- The Pompano series consists of nearly level, poorly
sh brown, is 4 to 8 inches thick, and contains common drained soils on broad flats, in shallow depressions, and
black to dark reddish-brown, weakly cemented fragments.
The C horizon is brown, dark grayish brown, to light in sloughs. These soils formed in thick beds of marine
gray. It extends to a delpth of 80 inches or more. sand.
Pomello soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka, Sat- In a representative profile the surface layer is sand
elite, and St. Lucie soils. They are better drained than about 7 inches thick. The upper 2 inches is very dark
Immokalee, Myakka, and Satellite soils, but are not so well
drained as St. Lucie soils. They have a B2h horizon that is \brown, and the next 5 inches is dark gray. The next
lacking in St. Lucie and Satellite soils. The depth to the layer is light brownish-gray to very pale brown sand
B2h horizon is 30 to 60 inches in Pomello soils but is 8 to about 15 inches thick. Below this is 8 inches of brown
30 inches in Myakka soils, sand and 20 inches of grayish-brown sand. Below this,
Pomello sand (Ps).-This is a nearly level, moderately to a depth of 90 inches, is gray sand.
well drained sandy soil on broad low ridges and low Permeability is very rapid, and the available water
knolls. The water table is 30 to 40 inches below the capacity is low to very low in all layers. Organic-matter
surface for 2 to 4 months in most years and between 40 content and natural fertility are low.
and 60 inches for more than 6 months. During dry pe- Representative profile of Pompano sand south of Rock-
riods, it is below 60 inches for short periods, ledge on the Duda Ranch, about 0.25 mile east of farm
Included with this soil in mapping are a few areas road, 135 feet south of canal, and 70 feet west of fence,
of Myakka and Immokalee soils. Also included are areas SWI/4SE1/ sec. 8, T. 26 S., R. 36 E.:
of fine sand, small sloping areas, and areas on the At- All--0 to 2 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2); sand;
lantic Coastal Ridge where shell fragments are mixed weak, fine, granular structure; many fine roots; very
with the sand beneath the weakly cemented layers. Also friable; medium organic matter; slightly acid; clear,
included are a few areas where the weakly cemented, A122 smooth boundary. 4 s f, f,
A12-2 to 7 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; few, fine,
dark-colored layer is within a depth of 30 inches. distinct, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) vertical streaks;
Most areas are in natural vegetation of a few, scat- single grain; loose; many fine roots; slightly acid;
tered, second-growth longleaf pine and an undergrowth gradual, wavy boundary.
Ssc o ap e and n e gr C1-7 to 12 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sand;
of scrubby live oak, saw-palmetto, and native grasses. many, fine and medium, distinct, dark-gray (10YR
This soil is not suited to most vegetables and is poorly 4/1) and very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks and
suited to citrus. It is poorly suited to improved pasture lenses; single grain; loose; common fine roots;
S awn m t f rnam a slightly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
grasses, lawn grasses, and most kinds of ornamental 02-12 to 22 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand; few,
plants. Capability unit VIs-3; Sand Scrub range site; fine, faint, pale-brown mottles; single grain; loose;
woodland group 3. common fine roots; slightly acid; gradual, wavy
Pomello-Urban land complex (Pu).-This complex is 3-22bo hes, brown (1YR 5/3) sand; few, fine,
about 45 to 60 percent Pomello sand, 20 percent Pomello faint, yellowish-brown mottles; single grain; loose;
sand that has been altered for use as building sites, and few fine roots; mildly alkaline; gradual, wavy bound-
about 20 to 45 percent Urban land or areas covered by 4- t inches, gryish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; com-
houses, streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and mon, medium, distinct, gray (1OYR 5/1) and light
other related uses. The open areas of Pomello sand are brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; single grain;
mostly in lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds. These areas loose; mildly alkaline; gradual, wavy boundary.
slc5-50 to 90 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single grain;
are usually so small and intermixed that it was im- loose; mildly alkaline.
practical to map them separately. Pompano soils are very strongly acid to mildly alkaline
Included with this complex in mapping are small in all horizons.
areas of Myakka and Immokalee soils that make up The A horizon is gray to very dark grayish brown and
about 15 percent of some areas. Also included are a few black and is 5 to 12 inches thick. The part of the A horizon
that is very dark grayish brown to black is less than 6
small areas that are as much as 60 percent or as little as inches thick.
15 percent Urban land. The C horizon ranges from brown or olive to light gray
Many areas have been modified by grading and shap- or very pale brown and has few to common yellowish or
f te sil hs nt bn s g in t brownish mottles. Streaks of the A horizon are in the upper
ing. Reworking of the soil has not been so great in the part of the 0 horizon. The content of silt and clay in the
older communities as in the newer, more densely popu- upper 40 inches is below 10 percent.
lated ones. Streets excavated below the original land Pompano soils are associated with Anclote, Felda, Holo-
surface and excavated soil material spread over ad- paw, Malabar, Pineda, and Valkaria soils. They are better
Strained than Anclote soils and do not have the thick black
jacent land areas are common. Soil material from local surface layer that is typical of those soils. They are sandy
drainage ditches or hauled in from elsewhere has been to a depth of 80 inches and lack the loamy layers of Felda,
used to fill low places. Holopaw, Malabar, and Pineda soils. They lack the Bir hori-
Pomello-Urban land complex is poorly suited to lawn zon of Malabar, Pineda, and Valkaria soils.
grasses and most kinds of ornamental shrubs. In most Pompano sand (Pw).-This is a nearly level, poorly
years the water table is at a depth of 30 to 40 inches for drained sandy soil on broad flats, in shallow depres-
2 to 4 months and between 40 and 60 inches for more sions, and in sloughs. In most years the water table is
than 6 months. In dry seasons it is below 60 inches for within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months, and
short periods. Not assigned to a capability unit, range occasionally following heavy rain it rises above the
site, or woodland group, surface for 2 to 7 days. It is ordinarily between depths of







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

10 and 40 inches for 6 months or more. During dry Satellite Series
seasons it drops below 40 inches for brief periods.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The Satellite series consists of nearly level, somewhat
Basinger sand and Valkaria sand. Also included are poorly drained, sandy soils on broad low ridges in the
small areas of soils similar to this Pompano soil, but flatwoods. These soils formed in thick beds of marine
better drained, and a few areas where the texture is sand.
fine sand. In a representative profile the surface layer is dark-
The natural vegetation is mostly native grasses and gray sand about 6 inches thick. The next layer is sand
scattered pine and cabbage palm. A few small areas that extends to a depth of 80 inches. The upper 39 inches
are dense hardwood forest. Large areas are used for is light gray to light brownish gray, the next 22 inches is
pasture. grayish brown to dark grayish brown, and the lower
If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil paermeaiity i ery rapid throughout the profile.
is suited to improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn Permeability is very rapid throughout the profile.
is suited to improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn Available water capacity is very low in all layers. Natu-
grasses, and many kinds of ornamental plants and is ral fertility and organic-matter content are low.
moderately well suited to vegetables. It is poorly suited Representative profile of Satellite sand in a wooded
to citrus. Capability unit IVw-1; Slough range site, area about 0.15 mile east of the junction of Wickham
woodland group 6. Road and Post Road and about 200 feet south of Post
Road, NW1/4NW/4 sec. 6, T. 27 S., R. 37 E.:
Quartzipsamments, Smoothed Al-0 to 6 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1, rubbed) sand; single
grain; loose; common fine roots; few medium roots;
Quartzipsamments, smoothed (Qr) are nearly level to color caused by mixing of light-gray coarse' sand
steep sandy soils that have been reworked and shaped by grains and organic matter; very strongly acid;
earthmoving equipment. They are commonly near urban toclear, smooth boundary.R 6/1) sand single grain;
C1-6 to 13 inches, light-gray. (10YR 6/1) sand;, single grain;
centers or along major highways on the mainland. Many loose; common fine roots; clean sand grains; very
areas are former sloughs, marshes, or shallow ponds that strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
have been filled with various soil material to surrounding C2-13 to 45 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sand;
ave een lled wit vaios soil mateal to surrounding single grain; loose; few medium and fine roots;
ground level or to elevations above natural ground many, medium, faint, gray (10YR 5/1) vertical
level. Some areas were originally high ridges that have streaks and pockets; clean sand grains mostly
been excavated to below natural ground level and re- quartz; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy bound-
worked. In a few places soils have been reworked in C3-45 to 53 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; single
place and not moved. Drainage is variable. Most ex- grain; loose; clean sand grains; very strongly acid;
cavated areas are well drained, but the water table is 4- clear, avy boundary.YR 4/2) sand;
won53 to 67 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
generally within a depth of 50 inches in filled areas. common, coarse, distinct, very dark brown (10YR
Permeability is variable but generally is very rapid. 2/2) and grayish brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; single
Available water capacity is also variable but generally is grain; loose; very dark brown mottles caused by
v il atr ity i ai t ne i concentration of small pellets of organic matter; very
very low. Natural fertility and organic-matter content strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
are low. 05-67 to 80 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; single
Soil material used to fill low areas has been taken grain; loose; clean sand grains; very strongly acid.
from a wide variety of soils, but mostly from sandy Satellite soils are very strongly acid to medium acid in
soils, such as St. Lucie, Astatula, Paola, Cocoa, Myakka, ll horizon is dark gray, gray, dark grayish brown,
The Al horizon is dark gray, gray, dark grayish brown,
Immokalee, and Pomello soils. Any one area can have or grayish brown when rubbed and is 2 to 8 inches thick.
material from one or several of these soils. Quartzipsam- In places it is very dark gray and is only 1 to 4 inches thick.
ments smoothed do not have an orderly sequence of The upper part of the C horizon is white, light gray, or
light brownish gray. The color increases with increasing
layers, but are a variable mixture of lenses, streaks, depth to grayish brown or dark grayish brown mottled with
and pockets within short distances. An individual area very dark brown and grayish brown and in some places
can be black, grayish, yellowish, brownish, or white, with gray.
Satellite soils are associated with EauGallie, Immokalee,
or a mixture of several of these colors. Seldom are two Myakka, and Pomello soils. They differ from those soils in
areas alike. Filled areas range from about 1 to 6 feet not having a B2h horizon. They are better drained than
thick, but in highway overpasses they are many feet EauGallie, Immokalee, and Myakka soils and are more poorly
thick. Most excavated areas are in high ridges of St. drained than Pomelo soils.
Lucie, Paola, Astatula, or Cocoa soils. Some areas have Satellite sand (Sa).-This is a nearly level, somewhat
been excavated as much as 15 to 20 feet below natural poorly drained sandy soil on broad low ridges in the flat-
woods. The water table is 10 to 40 inches below the
ground levels into a white to yellowish sandy substratum. surface for 2 to 6 months in most years. Most of the
Excavated areas and filled areas commonly occur to- time it is within a depth of 60 inches. During prolonged
gether, the excavated material used as fill. dry periods it is below 60 inches.
Smoothing and shaping has made these areas better Included with this soil in mapping are areas of soils
suited to use as building sites, roadways, recreational that are darker colored in some layers below the surface
areas, and related uses. These soils are poorly suited to layer and areas where the texture is coarse sand instead
most plants and require special treatment for lawn of sand.
grasses and ornamental plants. Not assigned to a capa- Most areas have a natural vegetation of longleaf or
ability unit, range site, or woodland group. slash pine and scattered scrub live oak and an under-







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

10 and 40 inches for 6 months or more. During dry Satellite Series
seasons it drops below 40 inches for brief periods.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The Satellite series consists of nearly level, somewhat
Basinger sand and Valkaria sand. Also included are poorly drained, sandy soils on broad low ridges in the
small areas of soils similar to this Pompano soil, but flatwoods. These soils formed in thick beds of marine
better drained, and a few areas where the texture is sand.
fine sand. In a representative profile the surface layer is dark-
The natural vegetation is mostly native grasses and gray sand about 6 inches thick. The next layer is sand
scattered pine and cabbage palm. A few small areas that extends to a depth of 80 inches. The upper 39 inches
are dense hardwood forest. Large areas are used for is light gray to light brownish gray, the next 22 inches is
pasture. grayish brown to dark grayish brown, and the lower
If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil paermeaiity i ery rapid throughout the profile.
is suited to improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn Permeability is very rapid throughout the profile.
is suited to improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn Available water capacity is very low in all layers. Natu-
grasses, and many kinds of ornamental plants and is ral fertility and organic-matter content are low.
moderately well suited to vegetables. It is poorly suited Representative profile of Satellite sand in a wooded
to citrus. Capability unit IVw-1; Slough range site, area about 0.15 mile east of the junction of Wickham
woodland group 6. Road and Post Road and about 200 feet south of Post
Road, NW1/4NW/4 sec. 6, T. 27 S., R. 37 E.:
Quartzipsamments, Smoothed Al-0 to 6 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1, rubbed) sand; single
grain; loose; common fine roots; few medium roots;
Quartzipsamments, smoothed (Qr) are nearly level to color caused by mixing of light-gray coarse' sand
steep sandy soils that have been reworked and shaped by grains and organic matter; very strongly acid;
earthmoving equipment. They are commonly near urban toclear, smooth boundary.R 6/1) sand single grain;
C1-6 to 13 inches, light-gray. (10YR 6/1) sand;, single grain;
centers or along major highways on the mainland. Many loose; common fine roots; clean sand grains; very
areas are former sloughs, marshes, or shallow ponds that strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
have been filled with various soil material to surrounding C2-13 to 45 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sand;
ave een lled wit vaios soil mateal to surrounding single grain; loose; few medium and fine roots;
ground level or to elevations above natural ground many, medium, faint, gray (10YR 5/1) vertical
level. Some areas were originally high ridges that have streaks and pockets; clean sand grains mostly
been excavated to below natural ground level and re- quartz; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy bound-
worked. In a few places soils have been reworked in C3-45 to 53 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; single
place and not moved. Drainage is variable. Most ex- grain; loose; clean sand grains; very strongly acid;
cavated areas are well drained, but the water table is 4- clear, avy boundary.YR 4/2) sand;
won53 to 67 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
generally within a depth of 50 inches in filled areas. common, coarse, distinct, very dark brown (10YR
Permeability is variable but generally is very rapid. 2/2) and grayish brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; single
Available water capacity is also variable but generally is grain; loose; very dark brown mottles caused by
v il atr ity i ai t ne i concentration of small pellets of organic matter; very
very low. Natural fertility and organic-matter content strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
are low. 05-67 to 80 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; single
Soil material used to fill low areas has been taken grain; loose; clean sand grains; very strongly acid.
from a wide variety of soils, but mostly from sandy Satellite soils are very strongly acid to medium acid in
soils, such as St. Lucie, Astatula, Paola, Cocoa, Myakka, ll horizon is dark gray, gray, dark grayish brown,
The Al horizon is dark gray, gray, dark grayish brown,
Immokalee, and Pomello soils. Any one area can have or grayish brown when rubbed and is 2 to 8 inches thick.
material from one or several of these soils. Quartzipsam- In places it is very dark gray and is only 1 to 4 inches thick.
ments smoothed do not have an orderly sequence of The upper part of the C horizon is white, light gray, or
light brownish gray. The color increases with increasing
layers, but are a variable mixture of lenses, streaks, depth to grayish brown or dark grayish brown mottled with
and pockets within short distances. An individual area very dark brown and grayish brown and in some places
can be black, grayish, yellowish, brownish, or white, with gray.
Satellite soils are associated with EauGallie, Immokalee,
or a mixture of several of these colors. Seldom are two Myakka, and Pomello soils. They differ from those soils in
areas alike. Filled areas range from about 1 to 6 feet not having a B2h horizon. They are better drained than
thick, but in highway overpasses they are many feet EauGallie, Immokalee, and Myakka soils and are more poorly
thick. Most excavated areas are in high ridges of St. drained than Pomelo soils.
Lucie, Paola, Astatula, or Cocoa soils. Some areas have Satellite sand (Sa).-This is a nearly level, somewhat
been excavated as much as 15 to 20 feet below natural poorly drained sandy soil on broad low ridges in the flat-
woods. The water table is 10 to 40 inches below the
ground levels into a white to yellowish sandy substratum. surface for 2 to 6 months in most years. Most of the
Excavated areas and filled areas commonly occur to- time it is within a depth of 60 inches. During prolonged
gether, the excavated material used as fill. dry periods it is below 60 inches.
Smoothing and shaping has made these areas better Included with this soil in mapping are areas of soils
suited to use as building sites, roadways, recreational that are darker colored in some layers below the surface
areas, and related uses. These soils are poorly suited to layer and areas where the texture is coarse sand instead
most plants and require special treatment for lawn of sand.
grasses and ornamental plants. Not assigned to a capa- Most areas have a natural vegetation of longleaf or
ability unit, range site, or woodland group. slash pine and scattered scrub live oak and an under-







40 SOI SURVEY

story of saw-palmetto, runner oak, native grasses, and and is 6 to 20 inches thick. Few to many streaks of the Al
gallberry. Some areas are used for range. horizon extend into the A2 horizon. The entire A horizon
This soil is not suited to most vegetables and is poorly is es tha i s ck or very dark brown and is 2
The B21h horizon is black or very dark brown and is 2
suited to citrus. It is poorly suited to improved pasture to 6 inches thick. The B22h horizon is black to dark red-
grasses and clover, lawn grasses, and most kinds of orna- dish brown and is 4 to 20 inches thick. The B3 horizon
mental plants. Capability unit VIs-3; Acid Flatwoods is brown or dark brown to dark grayish brown and is 4 to
range site; woodland group 3. 26 inches thick. It contains common, dark reddish-brown,
range weakly cemented fragments.
The C horizon is brown to pale brown in the upper part
St. Johns Series and pale brown to white in the lower part. In some pro-
files is has mottles or streaks of other colors.
The St. Johns series consists of nearly level, poorly st. Johns soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka,
Pomello, and Wabasso soils. They have a thicker black or
drained sandy soils on broad low ridges, in sloughs, in very dark gray Al horizon than those soils. They are more
poorly defined drainageways, and in shallow intermit- poorly drained than Pomello soils. They are sandy below
tent ponds in the flatwoods. These soils formed in marine the B2h horizon, and Wabasso soils are loamy. The depth
sands. to the B2h horizon is less than 30 inches in St. Johns soils,
In a representative profile the surface layer is black but is more than 30 inches in Immokalee and Pomello soils.
sand about 11 inches thick. Below this is gray sand St. Johns sand (Sb).-This is a nearly level, poorly
about 8 inches thick. 'The subsoil extends to a depth of drained sandy soil on broad low ridges in the flatwoods.
36 inches. The upper 12 inches is black sand that is This soil has the profile described as representative of
weakly cemented with organic matter that coats the the series. The water table is within a depth of 10 inches
sand grains. Next is about 5 inches of dark-brown sand for 2 to 6 months in most years and typically between
that contains some weakly cemented, dark reddish-brown 10 and 40 inches the rest of the time. During extended
fragments. Below this, to a depth of 44 inches, is brown dry periods it is below 40 inches. This soil is occasionally
sand and, to a depth of 70 inches, pale-brown sand. flooded for 2 to 7 days following heavy rains.
Permeability is moderate in the weakly cemented layers Included with this soil in mapping are a few areas of
and very rapid in all other layers. The available water fine sand, small areas where the weakly cemented layer
capacity is moderate in the surface layer and weakly is below a depth of 30 inches, and a few areas where
cemented layers and very low to low in all other layers. the weakly cemented layer is underlain by loamy ma-
Organic-matter content is moderate in the surface layer trial.
and weakly cemented layers and low in other layers. Most areas are in natural vegetation of second-growth
Natural fertility is low. pond pine and slash pine and a dense understory of saw-
Representative profile of St. Johns sand south of palmetto and native grasses. A few areas are used for
Scottsmoor on McCollough Road, 0.3 mile west of U.S. range.
Highway No. 1 and 50 feet north of road, SE1/4SE1/4 If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil
sec. 36, T. 20 S., R. 34 E.: is well suited to vegetables, improved pasture grasses and
--0 t 1 in b ( 2, r s w me- clover, lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental
Al-0 to 11 inches, black (N 2/0, rubbed) sand; weak, me- plants. It is moderately well suited to citrus. Capability
dium, granular structure'; very friable; many fine plants. It is moderately well suited to citrus. Capability
and common medium and large roots; color caused unit IIIw-1; Acid Flatwoods range site; woodland
by mixing of black organic matter and gray sand group 10.
grains and gives a dark salt-and-pepper effect when St. Johns soils, ponded (Sc).-These soils are in sloughs,
A2- dry; very strongly acid gradual, wavy boundar poorly defined drainageways; and shallow intermittent
A2-11 to 19 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain,
loose; common, medium and fine roots; common, ponds in the flatwoods. Individual areas are generally
faint, dark-gray and very dark gray streaks; very long and narrow, but some cover 40 acres or more.
strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary. They consist of St. Johns soils and soils that are similar
B21h-19 to 22 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; moderate, but have a weakly cemented layer at a depth of 40 to
medium, granular structure; firm to friable, weakly
cemented; common fine and few medium roots; many 45 inches. The water table is within a depth of 10 inches
uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid; clear, wavy for 6 to 12 months in most years. Most areas are con-
boundary. tinuously flooded for 6 months or more in most years.
B22h-22 to 31 inches, black (YR 2/1); sand; moderate, Included in mapping are soils that have a dark-colored
medium, granular structure; firm, weakly cemented;
few fine roots; very strongly acid'; clear, wavy surface layer more than 20 inches thick and a weakly
boundary. cemented layer at a depth of 40 to 45 inches. Also in-
B3-31 to 36 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand; single eluded are small areas of Myakka, Micco, and Tomoka
grain; loose; common, medium, distinct, dark red- soils The proportion of included soils varies from place
dish-brown (5YR 2/2), weakly cemented fragments;e proportion o included soils varies rom place
few fine roots; common, medium, decaying roots; to place. Individual soils could not be mapped separately
very strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. because of prolonged wetness and, in some places, dense
01-36 to 44 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) sand; few, medium, vegetation.
faint, dark yellowish-brown mottles; single grain; These soils are very wet, and drainage is generally not
loose; few medium roots; very strongly acid; grad- These sols ae very wet, and drainage is generally not
ual, wavy boundary, feasible because no suitable outlets are available. Almost
02-44 to 70 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sand; single all areas are in natural vegetation of marsh grasses,
grain; loose; very few roots; very strongly acid. sedges, and St.-Johnswort. Some are wooded with water-
St. Johns soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid in tolerant hardwoods and pond pine.
all horizons. These soils are not suited to cultivated crops, citrus,
The Al horizon is black or very dark gray when rubbed, lawn grasses, or most kinds of ornamental plants. They
It ranges from 8 to 20 inches in thickness but is mostly lawn grasses, or most kinds of ornamental plants. They
10 to 14 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray to light gray are poorly suited to improved pasture grasses and clover.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 41

Capability unit Vw-1; Slough range site; woodland Spoil Banks
group 7.
Spoil banks (Sp) are piles of soil material dug from
St. Lucie Series large ditches and canals or dredged from ship channels
in the Indian River. On the mainland Spoil banks occur
The St. Lucie series consists of deep, nearly level to as long, harrow areas adjacent to the ditches and canals
strongly sloping, excessively drained sandy soils on high, from which they were dug. In the Indian River they
dunelike ridges and isolated knolls. These soils formed in occur as scattered islands near the ship channel from
thick beds of marine or eolian sand. which they were dredged. One area south of Patrick Air
In a representative profile the surface layer is gray fine Force Base consists of alternating low ridges of sand
sand about 3 inches thick. Below this, to a depth of 120 and shells dredged from the Indian River and tidal
inches, is white fine sand. swamp.
Permeability is very rapid throughout. The available The physical properties of Spoil banks vary, depend-
water capacity is very low in all layers. Organic-matter ing on the nature of the soils or soil material from
content and natural fertility are low. which they were taken. The texture in most areas adja-
Representative profile of St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 cent to ditches and canals is a mixture of sand and loamy
percent slopes, in a wooded area about 75 feet east of sand or sandy clay loam, but some areas are entirely
Clearlake Road, NW1/NW1/ sec. 20, T. 24 S., R. 36 E.: sand. Shells and marl are common, particularly where
A-o to 3 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grain; canals were dug into deep substrata. The islands of
loose; common fine and few medium roots; very dredged material consist mostly of mixed sand and shells.
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. In some places this material contains lumps of clay and
C-3 to 120 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grain; in a few places, layers or pockets of peat or muck. Most
loose; common medium and few fine roots to a
depth of 30 inches, few grading to none below; clean areas on the mainland are nearly level to steep and do
sand grains; few, fine, distinct, gray (10YR 5/1) not have a water table within the spoil. Areas on the
streaks in upper 12 inches; strongly acid. islands are nearly level or gently sloping and generally
St. Lucie soils are very strongly acid to slightly acid. The have a water table that fluctuates between depths of 30
content of silt and clay is less than 5 percent in the upper and 60 inches.
The A horizon is gray or light-gray fine sand 1 to 3 inches Permeability varies but generally is very rapid. The
thick. available water capacity generally is low or very low.
The C horizon is light gray to white and extends to a Organic-matter content and natural fertility generally
depth of 80 inches or more. are low.
St. Lucie soils are associated with Astatula, Immokalee, Spoil banks have little use in their natural state. Cab-
Myakka, Paola, Pomello, and Satellite soils. They differ from
all those soils in not having a B horizon. They are better bage palms and pines grow in some areas. Some islands
drained than all but Paola and Astatula soils, are used for recreation. Some support Australian pine.
St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (SfB).-This is Many are barren, except for a few weeds. Not assigned to
an excessively drained sandy soil on high dunelike ridges a capability unit, range site, or woodland group.
and isolated knolls. It has the profile described as rep-
resentative of the series. The water table is below a depth Swamp
of 10 feet.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of St. Swamp (Sw) consists of nearly level, poorly drained
Lucie soils that have a sand rather than a fine sand and very poorly drained areas of soils that have a dense
texture. Also included are small areas of Pomello soils. cover of wetland hardwoods, cypress trees, vines, and
Most areas are still in natural vegetation of sand pine shrubs. Swamp is in poorly defined natural drainage-
and an understory of scattered saw-palmetto, rosemary, ways, in depressions, and in large bay heads. It is flooded
and cactus. with fresh water most of the time.
This soil is not suited to vegetables, citrus, or im- The soil pattern in the swamps is intricate and varied.
proved pasture. It is poorly suited to lawn grasses and The dense vegetation makes it impractical to map the
most kinds of ornamental shrubs. Capability unit soils separately. In the northern and central parts of the
VIIs-1; Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 1. county and on Merritt Island are the deep sandy Anclote,
St. Lucie fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (SfD).-This Pompano, Basinger, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka soils. In the
is an excessively drained sandy soil on the sides of high southern part of the county soils are the Floridana,
dunelike ridges. It is similar to St. Lucie fine sand, Chobee, Felda, Holopaw, Winder, Montverde, Tomoka,
0 to 5 percent slopes, but has stronger slopes. The water and other soils that have a loamy subsoil.
table is below a depth of 10 feet. Swamp is kept in its natural state and used mainly as
Included with this soil in mapping are some areas woodland and wildlife habitat. Though identifiable soils
where the texture is sand instead of fine sand and a few in the mapping unit have higher capability, the dense
areas that are steep and very steep. vegetation makes reclamation impractical in most places.
Most areas are still in natural vegetation of sand Capability unit VIIw-1; Swamp range site; not assigned
pine and an understory of scattered saw-palmetto, rose- to a woodland group.
mary, and cactus.
This soil is not suited to vegetables, citrus, or improved Tavares Series
pasture grasses. It is poorly suited to lawn grasses and
most kinds of ornamental plants. Capability unit VIIs-1; The Tavares series consists of nearly level and gently
Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 1. sloping, moderately well drained soils on narrow to







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 41

Capability unit Vw-1; Slough range site; woodland Spoil Banks
group 7.
Spoil banks (Sp) are piles of soil material dug from
St. Lucie Series large ditches and canals or dredged from ship channels
in the Indian River. On the mainland Spoil banks occur
The St. Lucie series consists of deep, nearly level to as long, harrow areas adjacent to the ditches and canals
strongly sloping, excessively drained sandy soils on high, from which they were dug. In the Indian River they
dunelike ridges and isolated knolls. These soils formed in occur as scattered islands near the ship channel from
thick beds of marine or eolian sand. which they were dredged. One area south of Patrick Air
In a representative profile the surface layer is gray fine Force Base consists of alternating low ridges of sand
sand about 3 inches thick. Below this, to a depth of 120 and shells dredged from the Indian River and tidal
inches, is white fine sand. swamp.
Permeability is very rapid throughout. The available The physical properties of Spoil banks vary, depend-
water capacity is very low in all layers. Organic-matter ing on the nature of the soils or soil material from
content and natural fertility are low. which they were taken. The texture in most areas adja-
Representative profile of St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 cent to ditches and canals is a mixture of sand and loamy
percent slopes, in a wooded area about 75 feet east of sand or sandy clay loam, but some areas are entirely
Clearlake Road, NW1/NW1/ sec. 20, T. 24 S., R. 36 E.: sand. Shells and marl are common, particularly where
A-o to 3 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grain; canals were dug into deep substrata. The islands of
loose; common fine and few medium roots; very dredged material consist mostly of mixed sand and shells.
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. In some places this material contains lumps of clay and
C-3 to 120 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grain; in a few places, layers or pockets of peat or muck. Most
loose; common medium and few fine roots to a
depth of 30 inches, few grading to none below; clean areas on the mainland are nearly level to steep and do
sand grains; few, fine, distinct, gray (10YR 5/1) not have a water table within the spoil. Areas on the
streaks in upper 12 inches; strongly acid. islands are nearly level or gently sloping and generally
St. Lucie soils are very strongly acid to slightly acid. The have a water table that fluctuates between depths of 30
content of silt and clay is less than 5 percent in the upper and 60 inches.
The A horizon is gray or light-gray fine sand 1 to 3 inches Permeability varies but generally is very rapid. The
thick. available water capacity generally is low or very low.
The C horizon is light gray to white and extends to a Organic-matter content and natural fertility generally
depth of 80 inches or more. are low.
St. Lucie soils are associated with Astatula, Immokalee, Spoil banks have little use in their natural state. Cab-
Myakka, Paola, Pomello, and Satellite soils. They differ from
all those soils in not having a B horizon. They are better bage palms and pines grow in some areas. Some islands
drained than all but Paola and Astatula soils, are used for recreation. Some support Australian pine.
St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (SfB).-This is Many are barren, except for a few weeds. Not assigned to
an excessively drained sandy soil on high dunelike ridges a capability unit, range site, or woodland group.
and isolated knolls. It has the profile described as rep-
resentative of the series. The water table is below a depth Swamp
of 10 feet.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of St. Swamp (Sw) consists of nearly level, poorly drained
Lucie soils that have a sand rather than a fine sand and very poorly drained areas of soils that have a dense
texture. Also included are small areas of Pomello soils. cover of wetland hardwoods, cypress trees, vines, and
Most areas are still in natural vegetation of sand pine shrubs. Swamp is in poorly defined natural drainage-
and an understory of scattered saw-palmetto, rosemary, ways, in depressions, and in large bay heads. It is flooded
and cactus. with fresh water most of the time.
This soil is not suited to vegetables, citrus, or im- The soil pattern in the swamps is intricate and varied.
proved pasture. It is poorly suited to lawn grasses and The dense vegetation makes it impractical to map the
most kinds of ornamental shrubs. Capability unit soils separately. In the northern and central parts of the
VIIs-1; Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 1. county and on Merritt Island are the deep sandy Anclote,
St. Lucie fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (SfD).-This Pompano, Basinger, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka soils. In the
is an excessively drained sandy soil on the sides of high southern part of the county soils are the Floridana,
dunelike ridges. It is similar to St. Lucie fine sand, Chobee, Felda, Holopaw, Winder, Montverde, Tomoka,
0 to 5 percent slopes, but has stronger slopes. The water and other soils that have a loamy subsoil.
table is below a depth of 10 feet. Swamp is kept in its natural state and used mainly as
Included with this soil in mapping are some areas woodland and wildlife habitat. Though identifiable soils
where the texture is sand instead of fine sand and a few in the mapping unit have higher capability, the dense
areas that are steep and very steep. vegetation makes reclamation impractical in most places.
Most areas are still in natural vegetation of sand Capability unit VIIw-1; Swamp range site; not assigned
pine and an understory of scattered saw-palmetto, rose- to a woodland group.
mary, and cactus.
This soil is not suited to vegetables, citrus, or improved Tavares Series
pasture grasses. It is poorly suited to lawn grasses and
most kinds of ornamental plants. Capability unit VIIs-1; The Tavares series consists of nearly level and gently
Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 1. sloping, moderately well drained soils on narrow to







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 41

Capability unit Vw-1; Slough range site; woodland Spoil Banks
group 7.
Spoil banks (Sp) are piles of soil material dug from
St. Lucie Series large ditches and canals or dredged from ship channels
in the Indian River. On the mainland Spoil banks occur
The St. Lucie series consists of deep, nearly level to as long, harrow areas adjacent to the ditches and canals
strongly sloping, excessively drained sandy soils on high, from which they were dug. In the Indian River they
dunelike ridges and isolated knolls. These soils formed in occur as scattered islands near the ship channel from
thick beds of marine or eolian sand. which they were dredged. One area south of Patrick Air
In a representative profile the surface layer is gray fine Force Base consists of alternating low ridges of sand
sand about 3 inches thick. Below this, to a depth of 120 and shells dredged from the Indian River and tidal
inches, is white fine sand. swamp.
Permeability is very rapid throughout. The available The physical properties of Spoil banks vary, depend-
water capacity is very low in all layers. Organic-matter ing on the nature of the soils or soil material from
content and natural fertility are low. which they were taken. The texture in most areas adja-
Representative profile of St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 cent to ditches and canals is a mixture of sand and loamy
percent slopes, in a wooded area about 75 feet east of sand or sandy clay loam, but some areas are entirely
Clearlake Road, NW1/NW1/ sec. 20, T. 24 S., R. 36 E.: sand. Shells and marl are common, particularly where
A-o to 3 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grain; canals were dug into deep substrata. The islands of
loose; common fine and few medium roots; very dredged material consist mostly of mixed sand and shells.
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. In some places this material contains lumps of clay and
C-3 to 120 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grain; in a few places, layers or pockets of peat or muck. Most
loose; common medium and few fine roots to a
depth of 30 inches, few grading to none below; clean areas on the mainland are nearly level to steep and do
sand grains; few, fine, distinct, gray (10YR 5/1) not have a water table within the spoil. Areas on the
streaks in upper 12 inches; strongly acid. islands are nearly level or gently sloping and generally
St. Lucie soils are very strongly acid to slightly acid. The have a water table that fluctuates between depths of 30
content of silt and clay is less than 5 percent in the upper and 60 inches.
The A horizon is gray or light-gray fine sand 1 to 3 inches Permeability varies but generally is very rapid. The
thick. available water capacity generally is low or very low.
The C horizon is light gray to white and extends to a Organic-matter content and natural fertility generally
depth of 80 inches or more. are low.
St. Lucie soils are associated with Astatula, Immokalee, Spoil banks have little use in their natural state. Cab-
Myakka, Paola, Pomello, and Satellite soils. They differ from
all those soils in not having a B horizon. They are better bage palms and pines grow in some areas. Some islands
drained than all but Paola and Astatula soils, are used for recreation. Some support Australian pine.
St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (SfB).-This is Many are barren, except for a few weeds. Not assigned to
an excessively drained sandy soil on high dunelike ridges a capability unit, range site, or woodland group.
and isolated knolls. It has the profile described as rep-
resentative of the series. The water table is below a depth Swamp
of 10 feet.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of St. Swamp (Sw) consists of nearly level, poorly drained
Lucie soils that have a sand rather than a fine sand and very poorly drained areas of soils that have a dense
texture. Also included are small areas of Pomello soils. cover of wetland hardwoods, cypress trees, vines, and
Most areas are still in natural vegetation of sand pine shrubs. Swamp is in poorly defined natural drainage-
and an understory of scattered saw-palmetto, rosemary, ways, in depressions, and in large bay heads. It is flooded
and cactus. with fresh water most of the time.
This soil is not suited to vegetables, citrus, or im- The soil pattern in the swamps is intricate and varied.
proved pasture. It is poorly suited to lawn grasses and The dense vegetation makes it impractical to map the
most kinds of ornamental shrubs. Capability unit soils separately. In the northern and central parts of the
VIIs-1; Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 1. county and on Merritt Island are the deep sandy Anclote,
St. Lucie fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (SfD).-This Pompano, Basinger, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka soils. In the
is an excessively drained sandy soil on the sides of high southern part of the county soils are the Floridana,
dunelike ridges. It is similar to St. Lucie fine sand, Chobee, Felda, Holopaw, Winder, Montverde, Tomoka,
0 to 5 percent slopes, but has stronger slopes. The water and other soils that have a loamy subsoil.
table is below a depth of 10 feet. Swamp is kept in its natural state and used mainly as
Included with this soil in mapping are some areas woodland and wildlife habitat. Though identifiable soils
where the texture is sand instead of fine sand and a few in the mapping unit have higher capability, the dense
areas that are steep and very steep. vegetation makes reclamation impractical in most places.
Most areas are still in natural vegetation of sand Capability unit VIIw-1; Swamp range site; not assigned
pine and an understory of scattered saw-palmetto, rose- to a woodland group.
mary, and cactus.
This soil is not suited to vegetables, citrus, or improved Tavares Series
pasture grasses. It is poorly suited to lawn grasses and
most kinds of ornamental plants. Capability unit VIIs-1; The Tavares series consists of nearly level and gently
Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 1. sloping, moderately well drained soils on narrow to







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 41

Capability unit Vw-1; Slough range site; woodland Spoil Banks
group 7.
Spoil banks (Sp) are piles of soil material dug from
St. Lucie Series large ditches and canals or dredged from ship channels
in the Indian River. On the mainland Spoil banks occur
The St. Lucie series consists of deep, nearly level to as long, harrow areas adjacent to the ditches and canals
strongly sloping, excessively drained sandy soils on high, from which they were dug. In the Indian River they
dunelike ridges and isolated knolls. These soils formed in occur as scattered islands near the ship channel from
thick beds of marine or eolian sand. which they were dredged. One area south of Patrick Air
In a representative profile the surface layer is gray fine Force Base consists of alternating low ridges of sand
sand about 3 inches thick. Below this, to a depth of 120 and shells dredged from the Indian River and tidal
inches, is white fine sand. swamp.
Permeability is very rapid throughout. The available The physical properties of Spoil banks vary, depend-
water capacity is very low in all layers. Organic-matter ing on the nature of the soils or soil material from
content and natural fertility are low. which they were taken. The texture in most areas adja-
Representative profile of St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 cent to ditches and canals is a mixture of sand and loamy
percent slopes, in a wooded area about 75 feet east of sand or sandy clay loam, but some areas are entirely
Clearlake Road, NW1/NW1/ sec. 20, T. 24 S., R. 36 E.: sand. Shells and marl are common, particularly where
A-o to 3 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grain; canals were dug into deep substrata. The islands of
loose; common fine and few medium roots; very dredged material consist mostly of mixed sand and shells.
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. In some places this material contains lumps of clay and
C-3 to 120 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grain; in a few places, layers or pockets of peat or muck. Most
loose; common medium and few fine roots to a
depth of 30 inches, few grading to none below; clean areas on the mainland are nearly level to steep and do
sand grains; few, fine, distinct, gray (10YR 5/1) not have a water table within the spoil. Areas on the
streaks in upper 12 inches; strongly acid. islands are nearly level or gently sloping and generally
St. Lucie soils are very strongly acid to slightly acid. The have a water table that fluctuates between depths of 30
content of silt and clay is less than 5 percent in the upper and 60 inches.
The A horizon is gray or light-gray fine sand 1 to 3 inches Permeability varies but generally is very rapid. The
thick. available water capacity generally is low or very low.
The C horizon is light gray to white and extends to a Organic-matter content and natural fertility generally
depth of 80 inches or more. are low.
St. Lucie soils are associated with Astatula, Immokalee, Spoil banks have little use in their natural state. Cab-
Myakka, Paola, Pomello, and Satellite soils. They differ from
all those soils in not having a B horizon. They are better bage palms and pines grow in some areas. Some islands
drained than all but Paola and Astatula soils, are used for recreation. Some support Australian pine.
St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (SfB).-This is Many are barren, except for a few weeds. Not assigned to
an excessively drained sandy soil on high dunelike ridges a capability unit, range site, or woodland group.
and isolated knolls. It has the profile described as rep-
resentative of the series. The water table is below a depth Swamp
of 10 feet.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of St. Swamp (Sw) consists of nearly level, poorly drained
Lucie soils that have a sand rather than a fine sand and very poorly drained areas of soils that have a dense
texture. Also included are small areas of Pomello soils. cover of wetland hardwoods, cypress trees, vines, and
Most areas are still in natural vegetation of sand pine shrubs. Swamp is in poorly defined natural drainage-
and an understory of scattered saw-palmetto, rosemary, ways, in depressions, and in large bay heads. It is flooded
and cactus. with fresh water most of the time.
This soil is not suited to vegetables, citrus, or im- The soil pattern in the swamps is intricate and varied.
proved pasture. It is poorly suited to lawn grasses and The dense vegetation makes it impractical to map the
most kinds of ornamental shrubs. Capability unit soils separately. In the northern and central parts of the
VIIs-1; Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 1. county and on Merritt Island are the deep sandy Anclote,
St. Lucie fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (SfD).-This Pompano, Basinger, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka soils. In the
is an excessively drained sandy soil on the sides of high southern part of the county soils are the Floridana,
dunelike ridges. It is similar to St. Lucie fine sand, Chobee, Felda, Holopaw, Winder, Montverde, Tomoka,
0 to 5 percent slopes, but has stronger slopes. The water and other soils that have a loamy subsoil.
table is below a depth of 10 feet. Swamp is kept in its natural state and used mainly as
Included with this soil in mapping are some areas woodland and wildlife habitat. Though identifiable soils
where the texture is sand instead of fine sand and a few in the mapping unit have higher capability, the dense
areas that are steep and very steep. vegetation makes reclamation impractical in most places.
Most areas are still in natural vegetation of sand Capability unit VIIw-1; Swamp range site; not assigned
pine and an understory of scattered saw-palmetto, rose- to a woodland group.
mary, and cactus.
This soil is not suited to vegetables, citrus, or improved Tavares Series
pasture grasses. It is poorly suited to lawn grasses and
most kinds of ornamental plants. Capability unit VIIs-1; The Tavares series consists of nearly level and gently
Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 1. sloping, moderately well drained soils on narrow to








42 SOIL SURVEY

broad, moderately low ridges. These soils formed in thick Included with this soil in mapping are some areas of
beds of sandy marine or eolian deposits. Tavares soils that have a sand texture and a few places
In a representative profile the surface layer is fine sand where the watqr table is below 60 inches most of the time.
about 11 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is very dark Some areas are in natural vegetation of longleaf or
grayish brown, and the lower 5 inches is dark grayish slash pine and scattered oak and hickory. The understory
brown. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches, is sand. The is native grasses. Many areas have been cleared and used
upper 12 inches is brown and yellowish brown, the next for citrus.
16 inches is light yellowish brown and has mottles of This soil is well suited to citrus, improved pasture
light gray and yellowish brown, and the lower part is grasses, lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental
pale brown and has mottles of light gray. plants. It is poorly suited to most vegetables. Capability
Permeability is very rapid throughout. The available unit IIIs-1; Sandhill range site; woodland group 8.
water capacity is low and very low in all layers. Natural
ertility and organic-matter content are low. Terra Ceia Series
Representative profile of Tavares fine sand in a citrus
grove about 2.0 miles south of St. Lukes Episcopal The Terra Ceia series consists of nearly level, very
Church and about 200 yards east of the citrus grove poorly drained, well-decomposed organic soils in broad
headquarters, NW 4SE 1 sec. 3, T. 24 S., R. 36 E.: flat marshes and small depressions. These soils formed in
Ap-0 to 6 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) fine thick, deposits of nonwoody, fibrous, hydrophytic plant
sand; weak, fine, granular structure; very friable; remains.
many fine roots; strongly acid; abrupt, smooth In a representative profile the soil is black muck to a
A boundaryy, r rihrw 1 / f depth of about 54 inches. Below this to a depth of about
A1-6 to 11 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YB 4/2) fine
sand; common, medium, distinct, pale-brown (10YR 70 inches is very dark brown muck. These layers contain
6/3) mottles; single grain; loose; common fine and small amounts of decomposed plant fibers.
many medium and large roots; many fine specks Permeability is rapid and the available water capacity
and particles of charcoal; strongly acid; gradual, is very high throughout the profile. Organic-matter con-
wavy boundary. tent is andnatural is
C1-11 to 15 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; common, tent s very high, and natural fertility is high.
medium, faint, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) streaks along Representative profile of Terra Ceia muck in a native
old root channels; iinzle grain; loose; common fine, pasture about 11 miles southwest of Cocoa on the Duda
medium, and large roots; strongly acid; gradual, Ranch about 0.15 mile east of the west dike and 300 feet
wavy boundary.
02-15 to 23 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand; south of the center dike, NW14NW1A see. 34, T. 25 S., R.
many, very fine, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) flecks; 35 E.:
single grain; loose; uncoated sand grains; common Oal-0 to 9 inches, black (N 2/0, rubbed and unrubbed)
medium roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy bound- muck; moderate, medium, granular structure; fri-
3-23 to 39 inches,y light yellowish-brown (YR /4) e able; many fine and few medium roots;! about 10
-23 to 39 inches, light ye isiih-brown (10YR /4) fine percent fiber unrubbed; brown (10R 5/) sodium
sand; few, c d l y ( R 7) pyrophosphate extract; medium acid;; gradual,
mottles and few, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown smooth boundary.
(10YR 5/8) streaks along old root channels; single to inches, black ( /1, unrubbed and
grain; loose; common medium roots; uncoated sand oa2--9 to 19 inches, black (10YR 2/1, unrubbed and 5YR
grains; ostrn; mon med im r gra s al w uncoar an 2/1, rubbed) muck; weak, coarse, subangular blocky
4 o in schetro nly acid; gradual, wa bondar. fracture faces crush to moderate, medium, granu-
C4-39 to 80 inches, pale-brown (l10YR 6/3) fine sand; com- lar structure; friable; slightly sticky; about 15 per-
mon, coarse, distinct, light-gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; cent fiber unrubbed; few, large, undecomppsed plant
single grain; loose; uncoated sand grains; strongly cent fiber unrubbed; few, large, undecomppsed plant
said; graal wavyose; uncdar nd ra sron fragments; few fine roots; brown (10YR 5/3) so-
acid gradual, wavy boundary. dium pyrophosphate extract; medium acid; gradual,
Tavares soils are very strongly acid to medium acid smooth boundary.
throughout the profile. Oa3-19 to 54 inches, black (N 2/0, unrubbed and 5YR 2/1,
The Al horizon is very dark grayish brown to gray and rubbed) muck; weak, coarse, subangular blocky
Is 4 to 12 inches thick. fracture faces crush to moderate, mediums granular
The 01 horizon is very pale brown to yellowish brown structure; friable, slightly sticky; less than 5 per-
and 4 to 22 inches thick. The 02 and C3 horizons are cent fibers; dark-brown (10YR 3/3) sodium pyro-
yellowish brown or light yellowish brown to very pale brown. phosphate extract; slightly acid; clear, wavy
The C2 horizon is 4 to 12 inches thick, and the C3 horizon boundary.
is 16 to 34 inches thick. Few to common mottles of light Oa4-54 to 70 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2, un-
gray, gray, strong brown, yellowish red, or red are in rubbed), black (5YR 2/1, rubbed) muck; moderate,
these horizons. The C4 horizon is brown or pale brown to medium, granular structure; friable, slightly sticky;
light gray and has lighter or darker mottles, very few fibers; pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sodium
Tavares soils are associated with Astatula, Immokalee, pyrophosphate extract; mildly alkaline.
Myakka, Paola, Pompano, and St. Lucie soils. They are not
so well drained as Astatula, Paola, and St. Lucie soils and Terra Ceia soils are medium acid to moderately alkaline
are better drained than Immokalee, Myakka, and Pompano throughout the profile.
soils. They lack the light-gray A2 horizon that is typical The muck Oa horizon is black, dark reddish brbwn, very
of Paola soils. They have a brownish C horizon instead dark brown, or dark brown and more than 52 inches thick.
of white or light gray as in St. Lucie soils or grayish as in Less than one-third is fiber before rubbing. The mineral
Pompano soils. They differ from Immokalee and Myakka content ranges from about 5 to 40 percent. The deep sub-
soils in not having a B2h horizon, stratum layers range from sand to sandy clay loam.
Tavares fine sand (Ta).-This is a nearly level and Terra Ceia soils are associated with Anclote, Floridana,
r well (ied sny soil on Felda, Holopaw, Pompano, Tomoka, Montverde, and Micco
gently sloping, moderately well ined s y soil on soils. They are organic soils, whereas Anclote, loridana,
narrow to broad, moderately low ridges. The water table Felda, Holopaw, and Pompano are minerals soils. They have
is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for more than 6 months in layers of muck that are 52 inches or more thick, in contrast
most years. In dry seasons it is below 60 inches. with Tomoka, soils, which have less than 52 inches of muck







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

over mineral layers. They are mucks, in contrast with Mont- tesian wells maintain a fairly constant water level with-
verde and Micco soils, which are fibrous peats. in diked areas for mosquito control and wildlife man-
Terra Ceia muck (Tc).-This is a nearly level, very agement. The water is 6 to 36 inches deep within diked
poorly drained muck soil, more than 52 inches thick, in areas and is brackish. Very high storm tides can overflow
broad flat marsh areas and small depressions. The water some of the dikes. Areas outside the dikes are generally
table is within a depth of 10 inches for 9 to 12 months covered with salt water during daily high tides.
in most years, and water stands on the surface for more Tidal swamp has little value except as a feeding and
than 6 months. In dry seasons the water table is lower, nesting ground for wading birds and breeding ground
but seldom falls below a depth of 30 inches, for other wildlife. It is not suited to citrus, vegetable
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of crops, improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses,
Tomoka muck, Montverde peat, or Micco peat. or ornamental plants. Capability unit VIIIw-2; not as-
Most areas are in natural vegetation of maidencane, signed to a range site or woodland group.
sawgrass, cattails, flags, and scattered to dense thickets of
woody button bush. A few areas are wooded with maple, Tomoka Series
bay, gum, and other wetland hardwoods.
If this soil is reclaimed from its native state by drain- The Tomoka series consists of nearly level, very poorly
age and water control, it is well suited to vegetables, drained, well-decomposed organic soils in broad flat
Water-control structures are needed to keep the water marshes, small depressions, and swamps. These soils
level at the proper depth for vegetables and improved formed in moderately thick beds of hydrophytic, non-
pasture grasses and clover, and to reduce the hazard of woody plant remains underlain by sandy and loamy min-
subsidence by oxidation of the organic matter. This soil eral layers.
is not suited to citrus, but if water is controlled, it is In a representative profile the upper 27 inches is muck
well suited to improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn that contains small amounts of undecomposed plant fibers.
grasses, and many kinds of ornamental plants. Capabil- The upper 5 inches is very dark brown, the next 8 inches
ity unit IIIw-4; Fresh Marsh (organic) range site; not is dark reddish brown, and the lower 14 inches is black.
assigned to a woodland group. Below this is 8 inches of very dark gray and gray sand
and 11 inches of dark-gray sandy clay loam. Below this,
Tidal Marsh to a depth of 55 inches, is gray sandy loam.
Permeability is rapid in the organic layers and sandy
Tidal marsh (Tm) consists of nearly level areas of soils layers and moderate to moderately rapid in the loamy
that are regularly covered with salt water or brackish layers. The available water capacity is very high in the
water at high tide. It occurs along the edge of salt water organic layers, low in the sandy layers, and moderate in
in several places. Many areas are isolated by deep, wide the loamy layers. Organic-matter content is very high,
canals. The soils are highly variable. Some are shallow and natural fertility is high.
mucky sands over marl or limestone, some are irregularly Representative profile of Tomoka muck in an improved
stratified mixed sand and shell fragments, some are silty pasture on the Duda Ranch about 1/8 mile south of the
or clayey layers over sand and shells, and some are deep north dike and 3/4 mile east of the west dike, NE1/4NW1/4
organic material. Any one area of Tidal marsh can be sec. 26, T. 25 S., R. 35 E.:
one kind of soil material or a mixture. Oap-0 to 5 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2), very dark
Included with this land type in mapping are a few brown (10YR 2/2, rubbed and pressed) well-decom-
slightly higher areas that are flooded only during storm posed organic material (muck); about 15 percent
tides. fiber, 5 percent rubbed; moderate, medium, granular
Natural vegetation consists of salt-tolerant grasses and structure; friable; many fine roots; brown (10YR
5/3) sodium pyrophosphate; extremely acid, pH 4.2
weeds. Tidal marsh has little or no value for farming in in .01 M calcium chloride; clear, smooth boundary.
its native state, because the salt content is high and flood- Oa2-5 to 13 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2), dark
ing is frequent. It is not suited to citrus, vegetable crops, reddish brown (5YR 2/2, rubbed and pressed) or-
improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses, or ganic material (muck); about 30 percent fiber, 5
ornamental plants. It does provide feeding and nesting percent rubbed; moderate, medium, granular struc-
grounds for wading birds and breeding grounds for other ture; friable; common fine roots; about 10 per-
wildlife. Capability unit VIIIw-2; Salt Marsh (mineral) cent mineral as light gray (10YR 6/1) sand streaks;
Capability brown (10YR 5/3) sodium pyrophosphate; extremely
range site; not assigned to a woodland group. acid, pH 4.2 in .01 M calcium chloride; gradual,
smooth boundary.
Tidal Swamp Oa3-13 to 27 inches, black (10YR 2/1), black (5YR 2/1,
rubbed and pressed) well-decomposed organic mat-
Tidal swamp (Ts) consists of nearly level areas at about ter (muck); about 20 percent fiber, 5 percent fiber,
mean sea level that are covered with a dense, tangled rubbed; weak, coarse, subangular blocky fracture
meangrowth of mangrove trees and roots. It is along the edge faces that break to moderate, medium, granular
growth of mangrove trees and roots. It is along the edge structure; friable; common fine roots; about 10 per-
of the Banana and Indian Rivers and in smaller areas cent mineral material; dark-brown (10YR 3/3)
adjacent to salt water. The dense tangled growth of man- sodium pyrophosphate; extremely acid, pH 4.4 in
grove trees and roots makes investigation of this unit dif- .01 M calcium chloride; abrupt, wavy boundary.
Rcult. The soil material ranges from mixed sand and IIC1-27 to 31 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
shells to organic materials. common, coarse, faint, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) and
light-gray (10YR 6/1) streaks; single grain; loose;
On more than half the acreage in the county low dikes extremely acid, pH 4.3 in .01 M calcium chloride;
have been constructed around the seaward perimeter. Ar- clear, wavy boundary.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

over mineral layers. They are mucks, in contrast with Mont- tesian wells maintain a fairly constant water level with-
verde and Micco soils, which are fibrous peats. in diked areas for mosquito control and wildlife man-
Terra Ceia muck (Tc).-This is a nearly level, very agement. The water is 6 to 36 inches deep within diked
poorly drained muck soil, more than 52 inches thick, in areas and is brackish. Very high storm tides can overflow
broad flat marsh areas and small depressions. The water some of the dikes. Areas outside the dikes are generally
table is within a depth of 10 inches for 9 to 12 months covered with salt water during daily high tides.
in most years, and water stands on the surface for more Tidal swamp has little value except as a feeding and
than 6 months. In dry seasons the water table is lower, nesting ground for wading birds and breeding ground
but seldom falls below a depth of 30 inches, for other wildlife. It is not suited to citrus, vegetable
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of crops, improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses,
Tomoka muck, Montverde peat, or Micco peat. or ornamental plants. Capability unit VIIIw-2; not as-
Most areas are in natural vegetation of maidencane, signed to a range site or woodland group.
sawgrass, cattails, flags, and scattered to dense thickets of
woody button bush. A few areas are wooded with maple, Tomoka Series
bay, gum, and other wetland hardwoods.
If this soil is reclaimed from its native state by drain- The Tomoka series consists of nearly level, very poorly
age and water control, it is well suited to vegetables, drained, well-decomposed organic soils in broad flat
Water-control structures are needed to keep the water marshes, small depressions, and swamps. These soils
level at the proper depth for vegetables and improved formed in moderately thick beds of hydrophytic, non-
pasture grasses and clover, and to reduce the hazard of woody plant remains underlain by sandy and loamy min-
subsidence by oxidation of the organic matter. This soil eral layers.
is not suited to citrus, but if water is controlled, it is In a representative profile the upper 27 inches is muck
well suited to improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn that contains small amounts of undecomposed plant fibers.
grasses, and many kinds of ornamental plants. Capabil- The upper 5 inches is very dark brown, the next 8 inches
ity unit IIIw-4; Fresh Marsh (organic) range site; not is dark reddish brown, and the lower 14 inches is black.
assigned to a woodland group. Below this is 8 inches of very dark gray and gray sand
and 11 inches of dark-gray sandy clay loam. Below this,
Tidal Marsh to a depth of 55 inches, is gray sandy loam.
Permeability is rapid in the organic layers and sandy
Tidal marsh (Tm) consists of nearly level areas of soils layers and moderate to moderately rapid in the loamy
that are regularly covered with salt water or brackish layers. The available water capacity is very high in the
water at high tide. It occurs along the edge of salt water organic layers, low in the sandy layers, and moderate in
in several places. Many areas are isolated by deep, wide the loamy layers. Organic-matter content is very high,
canals. The soils are highly variable. Some are shallow and natural fertility is high.
mucky sands over marl or limestone, some are irregularly Representative profile of Tomoka muck in an improved
stratified mixed sand and shell fragments, some are silty pasture on the Duda Ranch about 1/8 mile south of the
or clayey layers over sand and shells, and some are deep north dike and 3/4 mile east of the west dike, NE1/4NW1/4
organic material. Any one area of Tidal marsh can be sec. 26, T. 25 S., R. 35 E.:
one kind of soil material or a mixture. Oap-0 to 5 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2), very dark
Included with this land type in mapping are a few brown (10YR 2/2, rubbed and pressed) well-decom-
slightly higher areas that are flooded only during storm posed organic material (muck); about 15 percent
tides. fiber, 5 percent rubbed; moderate, medium, granular
Natural vegetation consists of salt-tolerant grasses and structure; friable; many fine roots; brown (10YR
5/3) sodium pyrophosphate; extremely acid, pH 4.2
weeds. Tidal marsh has little or no value for farming in in .01 M calcium chloride; clear, smooth boundary.
its native state, because the salt content is high and flood- Oa2-5 to 13 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2), dark
ing is frequent. It is not suited to citrus, vegetable crops, reddish brown (5YR 2/2, rubbed and pressed) or-
improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses, or ganic material (muck); about 30 percent fiber, 5
ornamental plants. It does provide feeding and nesting percent rubbed; moderate, medium, granular struc-
grounds for wading birds and breeding grounds for other ture; friable; common fine roots; about 10 per-
wildlife. Capability unit VIIIw-2; Salt Marsh (mineral) cent mineral as light gray (10YR 6/1) sand streaks;
Capability brown (10YR 5/3) sodium pyrophosphate; extremely
range site; not assigned to a woodland group. acid, pH 4.2 in .01 M calcium chloride; gradual,
smooth boundary.
Tidal Swamp Oa3-13 to 27 inches, black (10YR 2/1), black (5YR 2/1,
rubbed and pressed) well-decomposed organic mat-
Tidal swamp (Ts) consists of nearly level areas at about ter (muck); about 20 percent fiber, 5 percent fiber,
mean sea level that are covered with a dense, tangled rubbed; weak, coarse, subangular blocky fracture
meangrowth of mangrove trees and roots. It is along the edge faces that break to moderate, medium, granular
growth of mangrove trees and roots. It is along the edge structure; friable; common fine roots; about 10 per-
of the Banana and Indian Rivers and in smaller areas cent mineral material; dark-brown (10YR 3/3)
adjacent to salt water. The dense tangled growth of man- sodium pyrophosphate; extremely acid, pH 4.4 in
grove trees and roots makes investigation of this unit dif- .01 M calcium chloride; abrupt, wavy boundary.
Rcult. The soil material ranges from mixed sand and IIC1-27 to 31 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
shells to organic materials. common, coarse, faint, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) and
light-gray (10YR 6/1) streaks; single grain; loose;
On more than half the acreage in the county low dikes extremely acid, pH 4.3 in .01 M calcium chloride;
have been constructed around the seaward perimeter. Ar- clear, wavy boundary.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

over mineral layers. They are mucks, in contrast with Mont- tesian wells maintain a fairly constant water level with-
verde and Micco soils, which are fibrous peats. in diked areas for mosquito control and wildlife man-
Terra Ceia muck (Tc).-This is a nearly level, very agement. The water is 6 to 36 inches deep within diked
poorly drained muck soil, more than 52 inches thick, in areas and is brackish. Very high storm tides can overflow
broad flat marsh areas and small depressions. The water some of the dikes. Areas outside the dikes are generally
table is within a depth of 10 inches for 9 to 12 months covered with salt water during daily high tides.
in most years, and water stands on the surface for more Tidal swamp has little value except as a feeding and
than 6 months. In dry seasons the water table is lower, nesting ground for wading birds and breeding ground
but seldom falls below a depth of 30 inches, for other wildlife. It is not suited to citrus, vegetable
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of crops, improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses,
Tomoka muck, Montverde peat, or Micco peat. or ornamental plants. Capability unit VIIIw-2; not as-
Most areas are in natural vegetation of maidencane, signed to a range site or woodland group.
sawgrass, cattails, flags, and scattered to dense thickets of
woody button bush. A few areas are wooded with maple, Tomoka Series
bay, gum, and other wetland hardwoods.
If this soil is reclaimed from its native state by drain- The Tomoka series consists of nearly level, very poorly
age and water control, it is well suited to vegetables, drained, well-decomposed organic soils in broad flat
Water-control structures are needed to keep the water marshes, small depressions, and swamps. These soils
level at the proper depth for vegetables and improved formed in moderately thick beds of hydrophytic, non-
pasture grasses and clover, and to reduce the hazard of woody plant remains underlain by sandy and loamy min-
subsidence by oxidation of the organic matter. This soil eral layers.
is not suited to citrus, but if water is controlled, it is In a representative profile the upper 27 inches is muck
well suited to improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn that contains small amounts of undecomposed plant fibers.
grasses, and many kinds of ornamental plants. Capabil- The upper 5 inches is very dark brown, the next 8 inches
ity unit IIIw-4; Fresh Marsh (organic) range site; not is dark reddish brown, and the lower 14 inches is black.
assigned to a woodland group. Below this is 8 inches of very dark gray and gray sand
and 11 inches of dark-gray sandy clay loam. Below this,
Tidal Marsh to a depth of 55 inches, is gray sandy loam.
Permeability is rapid in the organic layers and sandy
Tidal marsh (Tm) consists of nearly level areas of soils layers and moderate to moderately rapid in the loamy
that are regularly covered with salt water or brackish layers. The available water capacity is very high in the
water at high tide. It occurs along the edge of salt water organic layers, low in the sandy layers, and moderate in
in several places. Many areas are isolated by deep, wide the loamy layers. Organic-matter content is very high,
canals. The soils are highly variable. Some are shallow and natural fertility is high.
mucky sands over marl or limestone, some are irregularly Representative profile of Tomoka muck in an improved
stratified mixed sand and shell fragments, some are silty pasture on the Duda Ranch about 1/8 mile south of the
or clayey layers over sand and shells, and some are deep north dike and 3/4 mile east of the west dike, NE1/4NW1/4
organic material. Any one area of Tidal marsh can be sec. 26, T. 25 S., R. 35 E.:
one kind of soil material or a mixture. Oap-0 to 5 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2), very dark
Included with this land type in mapping are a few brown (10YR 2/2, rubbed and pressed) well-decom-
slightly higher areas that are flooded only during storm posed organic material (muck); about 15 percent
tides. fiber, 5 percent rubbed; moderate, medium, granular
Natural vegetation consists of salt-tolerant grasses and structure; friable; many fine roots; brown (10YR
5/3) sodium pyrophosphate; extremely acid, pH 4.2
weeds. Tidal marsh has little or no value for farming in in .01 M calcium chloride; clear, smooth boundary.
its native state, because the salt content is high and flood- Oa2-5 to 13 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2), dark
ing is frequent. It is not suited to citrus, vegetable crops, reddish brown (5YR 2/2, rubbed and pressed) or-
improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses, or ganic material (muck); about 30 percent fiber, 5
ornamental plants. It does provide feeding and nesting percent rubbed; moderate, medium, granular struc-
grounds for wading birds and breeding grounds for other ture; friable; common fine roots; about 10 per-
wildlife. Capability unit VIIIw-2; Salt Marsh (mineral) cent mineral as light gray (10YR 6/1) sand streaks;
Capability brown (10YR 5/3) sodium pyrophosphate; extremely
range site; not assigned to a woodland group. acid, pH 4.2 in .01 M calcium chloride; gradual,
smooth boundary.
Tidal Swamp Oa3-13 to 27 inches, black (10YR 2/1), black (5YR 2/1,
rubbed and pressed) well-decomposed organic mat-
Tidal swamp (Ts) consists of nearly level areas at about ter (muck); about 20 percent fiber, 5 percent fiber,
mean sea level that are covered with a dense, tangled rubbed; weak, coarse, subangular blocky fracture
meangrowth of mangrove trees and roots. It is along the edge faces that break to moderate, medium, granular
growth of mangrove trees and roots. It is along the edge structure; friable; common fine roots; about 10 per-
of the Banana and Indian Rivers and in smaller areas cent mineral material; dark-brown (10YR 3/3)
adjacent to salt water. The dense tangled growth of man- sodium pyrophosphate; extremely acid, pH 4.4 in
grove trees and roots makes investigation of this unit dif- .01 M calcium chloride; abrupt, wavy boundary.
Rcult. The soil material ranges from mixed sand and IIC1-27 to 31 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
shells to organic materials. common, coarse, faint, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) and
light-gray (10YR 6/1) streaks; single grain; loose;
On more than half the acreage in the county low dikes extremely acid, pH 4.3 in .01 M calcium chloride;
have been constructed around the seaward perimeter. Ar- clear, wavy boundary.







44 SOIL SURVEY

IIC2-31 to 35 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain; Tomoka soils are associated with Anclote, EauGallie,
loose; extremely acid, pH 4.3 in .01 calcium chloride; Felda, Floridana, Holopaw, Myakka, Pompano, and Terra
abrupt, wavy boundary. Ceia soils. They are muck soils, whereas all of those soils
IIIC3-35 to 46 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay but Terra Ceia are mineral soils. They differ from Terra Ceia
loam; few, fine, faint, dark grayish-brown mottles; soils in having thinner layers of muck and in having sandy
weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure; friable; and loamy layers at a depth of less than 52 inches.
few crayfish burrows filled with gray sand; ex- Tomoka muck (Tw).-This is a nearly level, very poorly
tremely acid pH 3.4 in.01 M calcium chloride; clear, Tomoka muck (Tw).-This is a nearly level, very poorly
wavy boundary. drained muck soil in broad flat marshes, small depres-
IVC4-46 to 55 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; cor- sions, and swamps. Sandy and loamy layers are at a
mon, coarse, faint, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) mottles; depth of 16 to 40 inches. The water table is within a
massive; friable; common sand and sandy clay loam of 10 inches for 9 to 12 months in most years,
lenses; extremely acid, pH 3.4 in .01 M calcium depth of 10 inches for 9 to 1 months in most years
chloride. and water is frequently above the surface. In dry periods
Tomoka soils are extremely acid in the organic layers it is between 10 and 30 inches.
and strongly acid to extremely acid in the mineral layers. Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Terra-
The muck Oa horizon ranges from 16 to 40 inches in thick- Ceia muck, small areas of Floridana soils, and areas
ness but averages about 27 inches. It is black, dark reddish where the organic material is less than 16 inches thick.
brown, very dark brown, or dark brown. By volume it is 10 Most areas are in natural vegetation of maidencane
to 33 percent fibrous before rubbing. Sodium pyrophosphate maen
extract is pale brown, brown, or dark brown. Mineral con- sawgrass, cattails, flags, and scattered to dense thickets
tent ranges from about 5 to 40 percent of woody button bush. A few areas are wooded with
The IIC horizon is light gray to black and is 6 to 24 inches swamp hardwoods consisting of maple, gum, bay, and
thick. It is sand and loamy sand and commonly contains other wetland hardwoods. Some areas are used for range
pockets of organic material. The IIIC3 horizon is gray to
black sandy loam or sandy clay loam 6 to 18 inches thick. and improved pasture (fig. 6).
The IVC4 horizon is gray to black sandy loam that contains If reclaimed from its native state by drainage and
lenses of sand and sandy loam. Mottles of other colors are water control, this soil is suited to vegetables. Water con-
in the IIIC3 and IVC4 horizons in some profiles. Vertical trol structures are needed to keep the water level at the
streaks or lenses of sand or sandy clay loam are common in
the IIIC3 and IVC4 horizons. Deep substratum layers are proper depth for vegetables and improved pasture grasses
variable and are commonly mixed with shells, and clover, and to reduce the hazard of subsidence by





































Figure 6.-Improved pasture on poorly drained Tomoka muck.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 45

oxidation of the organic matter. The soil is not suited to common, medium, distinct, light-gray (10YR 7/2)
citrus, but if water is controlled properly, it is well mottles; single grain; loose; sand grains thinly
suited to improved pasture rasses and clover, lawn coated with iron oxides; light-gray clean sand grains;
suited to improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
grasses, and many kinds of ornamental plants. Capability B32ir--32 to 41 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single grain;
unit IIIw-4; Fresh Marsh (organic) range site; not as- loose; sand grains thinly coated with iron oxides;
signed to a woodland group. slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
C-41 to 80 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sand; few, coarse, faint,
dark-gray (N 4/0) mottles; single grain; loose; clean
Urban Land sand grains; neutral.
Valkaria soils are sand or fine sand in all horizons.
Urban land (Ur) consists of areas that are 60 to more The Al horizon is dark gray to black and is 4 to 10 inches
than 75 percent covered with streets, buildings, large thick. In areas where it is very dark gray or black, it is less
parking lots, shopping centers, industrial parks, airports, than 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray, grayish brown,
and related facilities. Unoccupied areas, mostly lawns, or light gray and is 6 to 28 inches thick. It has few to com-
mon black or brownish mottles. The A horizon is strongly
parks, vacant lots, and playgrounds, are Astatula, Paola, acid to neutral.
Myakka, St. Lucie, Immokalee, Pomello, Cocoa, and Ca- The Blir horizon is light yellowish brown, brown, very pale
naveral soils in tracts too small to be mapped separately, brown, or pale brown and is 0 to 4 inches thick. The B2ir
Not assigned to a capability unit, range site, or woodland horizon is strong brown to light yellowish brown and brown-
ish yellow to yellow or reddish yellow and is 8 to 20 inches
group. thick. The B3ir horizon is brown, pale brown, very pale
brown, or light yellowish brown and is mottled with lighter
Valkaria Series or darker colors. The B31ir horizon is 4 to 10 inches thick,
and the B32ir horizon is 0 to 12 inches thick.
The Valkaria series consists of nearly level, poorly The C horizon is dark gray to light gray or light brownish
The Valkaria series consists o nearly level, poorly gray and extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The Bir
drained sandy soils in low palm hammocks, grassy and C horizons are strongly acid to moderately alkaline.
sloughs, and broad low areas. These soils formed in sandy Valkaria soils are associated with Anclote, Felda, Immoka-
marine sediments. lee, Malabar, Myakka, Pineda, and Pompano soils. They are
In a representative profile the surface layer is sand better drained than Anclote soils and lack the thick, black
Al horizon typical of those soils. They have a Bir horizon
about 9 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is black, and instead of the grayish C horizon of Anclote and Pompano
the next 4 inches is dark grayish brown. Below this is soils. In contrast with Felda, Malabar, and Pineda soils,
6 inches of light-gray sand. The subsoil is sand and ex- they are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more and do not
tends to a depth of 41 inches. The upper 4 inches is have a B2tg horizon. They differ from Immokalee and Myakka
tends to a depth of 1 inches soils in having a Bir horizon instead of a B2h horizon.
light yellowish brown mottled with gray and yellow, the i i
next 14 inches is mainly brownish yellow mottled with Valkaria sand (Va).-This is a nearly level, poorly
brown and gray, and the lower 9 inches is brown. Below drained sandy soil in grassy sloughs, low palm ham-
this, to a depth of 80 inches, is gray sand mottled with mocks, and broad low areas. It is frequently flooded for
dark gray. periods of 2 to 7 days following heavy rains. The water
Permeability is very rapid, and the available water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6 months of
capacity is very low to low in all layers. The organic- most years. In dry periods it is within a depth of 30 inches
matter content and natural fertility are low. most of the time.
Representative profile of Valkaria sand in a native Included with this soil in mapping are some areas
pasture about 100 feet north of Rector Road, SW1/4 of Valkaria fine sand and a few areas where the yellow-
NW1/4 sec. 14, T. 24 S., R. 35 E.: ish subsoil is calcareous. Also included are a few areas
All--0 to 5 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak, fine, that have a black surface layer 10 inches thick and small
granular structure; friable; common fine and few areas of Malabar and Pineda soils.
medium and large roots; slightly acid; clear, smooth Most areas are still in natural vegetation, and some
boundary.
A12-5 to 9 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand; are in improved pasture. In sloughs this soil is covered
few, fine, distinct, black (10YR 2/1) and few, faint, with marsh grasses. Hammocks are wooded with cabbage
light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; single palm and scattered live oak and pine. Broad low areas
grain; loose; common fine roots; slightly acid; grad- have natural vegetation of almettos, St.-Johnswort,
ual, wavy boundary. have natural vegetation o palmettos, .-Johnswort,
A2-9 to 15 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) sand; common, wax myrtle, and native grasses and widely spaced pine
medium, distinct, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) mottles and cypress trees.
and streaks; single grain; loose; few fine and If drawer troar
medium roots; slightly acid; gradual, wavy drainage and water control are adequate, this soil
boundary. is moderately well suited to vegetables and well suited to
Blir-15 to 19 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses, and
sand; common, medium and coarse, distinct, light- f rm l p Tis sil i i
gray (10YR 7/2) and few, medium, faint, brownish- many kids of ornamental plants. This soil is suited to
yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; single grain; loose; citrus. Capability unit IVw-1; Slough range site; wood-
sand grains coated with iron oxides; light-gray clean land group 6.
sand grains; slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
B2ir-19 to 28 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
few, coarse, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) and Wabasso Series
few, medium and coarse, distinct, light-gray (10YR
7/2) mottles; single grain; loose; light-gray clean The Wabasso series consists of nearly level, poorly
sand grains; sand grains coated with iron oxides; drained soils on broad areas in the flatwoods and on low
slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
B31ir-28 to 32 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sand; few, ridges on the flood plains. These soils formed in sandy
medium, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) and marine sediments over loamy materials.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 45

oxidation of the organic matter. The soil is not suited to common, medium, distinct, light-gray (10YR 7/2)
citrus, but if water is controlled properly, it is well mottles; single grain; loose; sand grains thinly
suited to improved pasture rasses and clover, lawn coated with iron oxides; light-gray clean sand grains;
suited to improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
grasses, and many kinds of ornamental plants. Capability B32ir--32 to 41 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single grain;
unit IIIw-4; Fresh Marsh (organic) range site; not as- loose; sand grains thinly coated with iron oxides;
signed to a woodland group. slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
C-41 to 80 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sand; few, coarse, faint,
dark-gray (N 4/0) mottles; single grain; loose; clean
Urban Land sand grains; neutral.
Valkaria soils are sand or fine sand in all horizons.
Urban land (Ur) consists of areas that are 60 to more The Al horizon is dark gray to black and is 4 to 10 inches
than 75 percent covered with streets, buildings, large thick. In areas where it is very dark gray or black, it is less
parking lots, shopping centers, industrial parks, airports, than 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray, grayish brown,
and related facilities. Unoccupied areas, mostly lawns, or light gray and is 6 to 28 inches thick. It has few to com-
mon black or brownish mottles. The A horizon is strongly
parks, vacant lots, and playgrounds, are Astatula, Paola, acid to neutral.
Myakka, St. Lucie, Immokalee, Pomello, Cocoa, and Ca- The Blir horizon is light yellowish brown, brown, very pale
naveral soils in tracts too small to be mapped separately, brown, or pale brown and is 0 to 4 inches thick. The B2ir
Not assigned to a capability unit, range site, or woodland horizon is strong brown to light yellowish brown and brown-
ish yellow to yellow or reddish yellow and is 8 to 20 inches
group. thick. The B3ir horizon is brown, pale brown, very pale
brown, or light yellowish brown and is mottled with lighter
Valkaria Series or darker colors. The B31ir horizon is 4 to 10 inches thick,
and the B32ir horizon is 0 to 12 inches thick.
The Valkaria series consists of nearly level, poorly The C horizon is dark gray to light gray or light brownish
The Valkaria series consists o nearly level, poorly gray and extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The Bir
drained sandy soils in low palm hammocks, grassy and C horizons are strongly acid to moderately alkaline.
sloughs, and broad low areas. These soils formed in sandy Valkaria soils are associated with Anclote, Felda, Immoka-
marine sediments. lee, Malabar, Myakka, Pineda, and Pompano soils. They are
In a representative profile the surface layer is sand better drained than Anclote soils and lack the thick, black
Al horizon typical of those soils. They have a Bir horizon
about 9 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is black, and instead of the grayish C horizon of Anclote and Pompano
the next 4 inches is dark grayish brown. Below this is soils. In contrast with Felda, Malabar, and Pineda soils,
6 inches of light-gray sand. The subsoil is sand and ex- they are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more and do not
tends to a depth of 41 inches. The upper 4 inches is have a B2tg horizon. They differ from Immokalee and Myakka
tends to a depth of 1 inches soils in having a Bir horizon instead of a B2h horizon.
light yellowish brown mottled with gray and yellow, the i i
next 14 inches is mainly brownish yellow mottled with Valkaria sand (Va).-This is a nearly level, poorly
brown and gray, and the lower 9 inches is brown. Below drained sandy soil in grassy sloughs, low palm ham-
this, to a depth of 80 inches, is gray sand mottled with mocks, and broad low areas. It is frequently flooded for
dark gray. periods of 2 to 7 days following heavy rains. The water
Permeability is very rapid, and the available water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6 months of
capacity is very low to low in all layers. The organic- most years. In dry periods it is within a depth of 30 inches
matter content and natural fertility are low. most of the time.
Representative profile of Valkaria sand in a native Included with this soil in mapping are some areas
pasture about 100 feet north of Rector Road, SW1/4 of Valkaria fine sand and a few areas where the yellow-
NW1/4 sec. 14, T. 24 S., R. 35 E.: ish subsoil is calcareous. Also included are a few areas
All--0 to 5 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak, fine, that have a black surface layer 10 inches thick and small
granular structure; friable; common fine and few areas of Malabar and Pineda soils.
medium and large roots; slightly acid; clear, smooth Most areas are still in natural vegetation, and some
boundary.
A12-5 to 9 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand; are in improved pasture. In sloughs this soil is covered
few, fine, distinct, black (10YR 2/1) and few, faint, with marsh grasses. Hammocks are wooded with cabbage
light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; single palm and scattered live oak and pine. Broad low areas
grain; loose; common fine roots; slightly acid; grad- have natural vegetation of almettos, St.-Johnswort,
ual, wavy boundary. have natural vegetation o palmettos, .-Johnswort,
A2-9 to 15 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) sand; common, wax myrtle, and native grasses and widely spaced pine
medium, distinct, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) mottles and cypress trees.
and streaks; single grain; loose; few fine and If drawer troar
medium roots; slightly acid; gradual, wavy drainage and water control are adequate, this soil
boundary. is moderately well suited to vegetables and well suited to
Blir-15 to 19 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses, and
sand; common, medium and coarse, distinct, light- f rm l p Tis sil i i
gray (10YR 7/2) and few, medium, faint, brownish- many kids of ornamental plants. This soil is suited to
yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; single grain; loose; citrus. Capability unit IVw-1; Slough range site; wood-
sand grains coated with iron oxides; light-gray clean land group 6.
sand grains; slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
B2ir-19 to 28 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
few, coarse, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) and Wabasso Series
few, medium and coarse, distinct, light-gray (10YR
7/2) mottles; single grain; loose; light-gray clean The Wabasso series consists of nearly level, poorly
sand grains; sand grains coated with iron oxides; drained soils on broad areas in the flatwoods and on low
slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
B31ir-28 to 32 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sand; few, ridges on the flood plains. These soils formed in sandy
medium, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) and marine sediments over loamy materials.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 45

oxidation of the organic matter. The soil is not suited to common, medium, distinct, light-gray (10YR 7/2)
citrus, but if water is controlled properly, it is well mottles; single grain; loose; sand grains thinly
suited to improved pasture rasses and clover, lawn coated with iron oxides; light-gray clean sand grains;
suited to improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
grasses, and many kinds of ornamental plants. Capability B32ir--32 to 41 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single grain;
unit IIIw-4; Fresh Marsh (organic) range site; not as- loose; sand grains thinly coated with iron oxides;
signed to a woodland group. slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
C-41 to 80 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sand; few, coarse, faint,
dark-gray (N 4/0) mottles; single grain; loose; clean
Urban Land sand grains; neutral.
Valkaria soils are sand or fine sand in all horizons.
Urban land (Ur) consists of areas that are 60 to more The Al horizon is dark gray to black and is 4 to 10 inches
than 75 percent covered with streets, buildings, large thick. In areas where it is very dark gray or black, it is less
parking lots, shopping centers, industrial parks, airports, than 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray, grayish brown,
and related facilities. Unoccupied areas, mostly lawns, or light gray and is 6 to 28 inches thick. It has few to com-
mon black or brownish mottles. The A horizon is strongly
parks, vacant lots, and playgrounds, are Astatula, Paola, acid to neutral.
Myakka, St. Lucie, Immokalee, Pomello, Cocoa, and Ca- The Blir horizon is light yellowish brown, brown, very pale
naveral soils in tracts too small to be mapped separately, brown, or pale brown and is 0 to 4 inches thick. The B2ir
Not assigned to a capability unit, range site, or woodland horizon is strong brown to light yellowish brown and brown-
ish yellow to yellow or reddish yellow and is 8 to 20 inches
group. thick. The B3ir horizon is brown, pale brown, very pale
brown, or light yellowish brown and is mottled with lighter
Valkaria Series or darker colors. The B31ir horizon is 4 to 10 inches thick,
and the B32ir horizon is 0 to 12 inches thick.
The Valkaria series consists of nearly level, poorly The C horizon is dark gray to light gray or light brownish
The Valkaria series consists o nearly level, poorly gray and extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The Bir
drained sandy soils in low palm hammocks, grassy and C horizons are strongly acid to moderately alkaline.
sloughs, and broad low areas. These soils formed in sandy Valkaria soils are associated with Anclote, Felda, Immoka-
marine sediments. lee, Malabar, Myakka, Pineda, and Pompano soils. They are
In a representative profile the surface layer is sand better drained than Anclote soils and lack the thick, black
Al horizon typical of those soils. They have a Bir horizon
about 9 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is black, and instead of the grayish C horizon of Anclote and Pompano
the next 4 inches is dark grayish brown. Below this is soils. In contrast with Felda, Malabar, and Pineda soils,
6 inches of light-gray sand. The subsoil is sand and ex- they are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more and do not
tends to a depth of 41 inches. The upper 4 inches is have a B2tg horizon. They differ from Immokalee and Myakka
tends to a depth of 1 inches soils in having a Bir horizon instead of a B2h horizon.
light yellowish brown mottled with gray and yellow, the i i
next 14 inches is mainly brownish yellow mottled with Valkaria sand (Va).-This is a nearly level, poorly
brown and gray, and the lower 9 inches is brown. Below drained sandy soil in grassy sloughs, low palm ham-
this, to a depth of 80 inches, is gray sand mottled with mocks, and broad low areas. It is frequently flooded for
dark gray. periods of 2 to 7 days following heavy rains. The water
Permeability is very rapid, and the available water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6 months of
capacity is very low to low in all layers. The organic- most years. In dry periods it is within a depth of 30 inches
matter content and natural fertility are low. most of the time.
Representative profile of Valkaria sand in a native Included with this soil in mapping are some areas
pasture about 100 feet north of Rector Road, SW1/4 of Valkaria fine sand and a few areas where the yellow-
NW1/4 sec. 14, T. 24 S., R. 35 E.: ish subsoil is calcareous. Also included are a few areas
All--0 to 5 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak, fine, that have a black surface layer 10 inches thick and small
granular structure; friable; common fine and few areas of Malabar and Pineda soils.
medium and large roots; slightly acid; clear, smooth Most areas are still in natural vegetation, and some
boundary.
A12-5 to 9 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand; are in improved pasture. In sloughs this soil is covered
few, fine, distinct, black (10YR 2/1) and few, faint, with marsh grasses. Hammocks are wooded with cabbage
light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; single palm and scattered live oak and pine. Broad low areas
grain; loose; common fine roots; slightly acid; grad- have natural vegetation of almettos, St.-Johnswort,
ual, wavy boundary. have natural vegetation o palmettos, .-Johnswort,
A2-9 to 15 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) sand; common, wax myrtle, and native grasses and widely spaced pine
medium, distinct, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) mottles and cypress trees.
and streaks; single grain; loose; few fine and If drawer troar
medium roots; slightly acid; gradual, wavy drainage and water control are adequate, this soil
boundary. is moderately well suited to vegetables and well suited to
Blir-15 to 19 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) improved pasture grasses and clover, lawn grasses, and
sand; common, medium and coarse, distinct, light- f rm l p Tis sil i i
gray (10YR 7/2) and few, medium, faint, brownish- many kids of ornamental plants. This soil is suited to
yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; single grain; loose; citrus. Capability unit IVw-1; Slough range site; wood-
sand grains coated with iron oxides; light-gray clean land group 6.
sand grains; slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
B2ir-19 to 28 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
few, coarse, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) and Wabasso Series
few, medium and coarse, distinct, light-gray (10YR
7/2) mottles; single grain; loose; light-gray clean The Wabasso series consists of nearly level, poorly
sand grains; sand grains coated with iron oxides; drained soils on broad areas in the flatwoods and on low
slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
B31ir-28 to 32 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sand; few, ridges on the flood plains. These soils formed in sandy
medium, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) and marine sediments over loamy materials.







46 SOI8 SURVEY

In a representative profile the surface layer is about The Cg horizon is light gray to light olive gray and ranges
5 inches thick. The upper 3 inches is black, and the next from sand to sandy loam. It contains few to many lenses
2 inches is very dark gray. Below this is 18 inches of gray a a cents s coarser or r mat tEauGallie, Floridana,
and light-gray sand. The next layer, between depths of Holopaw, Myakka, Immokalee, Malabar, Pineda, and Pom-
23 and 34 inches, is black sand. The upper 5 inches is pane soils. They have a loamy B'2t horizon that is lacking
friable and has many uncoated sand grains, and the in Immokalee and Myakka soils. They are better drained
lower part is weakly cemented. The next 16 inches, be- than Floridana soils. They have a B2h hrion that is lacking
in Holopaw and Pompano soils. They lack the Bir horizon
tween depths of 34 and 50 inches, is light brownish-gray that is typical of Malabar and Pineda soils. Depth to the
sandy clay loam that is mottled with gray, yellow, and B'2t horizon is less than 40 inches in Wabasso soils and more
red. Below this, to a depth of 62 inches, is light olive- than 40 inches in EauGallie soils.
gray sandy loam that has reddish and brownish mottles. Wabasso sand (Wa).-This is a nearly level, poorly
Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 28 inches drained, sandy soil on broad areas in the flatwoods and
and moderate between 28 and 62 inches. The available on low ridges on the flood plains. The water table is with-
water capacity is low to very low to a depth of about in a depth of 10 inches for 1 or 2 months in most years
23 inches and moderate from a depth of about 23 to 62 and is within 30 inches most of the time. In dry seasons
inches. Organic-matter content and natural fertility are it falls below 30 inches for short periods. The soil is
low. flooded for 2 to 7 days once in 1 to 5 years.
Representative profile of Wabasso sand in a wooded Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
area about 6.5 miles west northwest of 'Titusville and EauGallie, Myakka, and Pineda soils. Also included are
about 1,000 feet south of a poor motor road, NW/4SE1/4 a few areas where the weakly cemented layer is at a
sec. 34, T. 21 S., R. 34 E.: depth of more than 30 inches, and a few other areas
All--0 to 3 inches, black (10YR 2/1, rubbed) sand; single where the weakly cemented layer is poorly expressed.
grain; loose; many fine and medium roots; very Also included are areas where the texture is fine sand
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary, and a few areas where the loamy layers are underlain
A12-3 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; single by limestone.
grain; loose; common fine and few medium roots; a a a ai i ai
very strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. In the flatwoods natural vegetation is mainly open
A21-5 to 12 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; few, medium, forest of second-growth longleaf or slash pine and an
distinct, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks; single understory of saw-palmetto, runner oak, and native grass
grain; loose; few fine and medium roots; very and a few gallberry and scattered palms. Areas on low
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
A22-12 to 23 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) sand; few, ridges on the flood plain are generally covered with
medium, distinct, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks; dense stands of pine and cabbage palm and scattered live
single grain; loose; few fine roots; very strongly oak. Many areas of Wabasso sand are still in natural veg-
acid; clear, wavy 2/1) sand;boundary station and are commonly used for range. The dense pine
Bh&A2-23 to 28 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; moderate,
medium, granular structure; very friable; common and palm provide good shelter for cattle.
medium roots; many uncoated sand grains; very If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil is
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. well suited to vegetables, improved pasture grasses and
B2h-28 to 34 inches, black (5YR 2/1) sand; moderate, clover, lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental
medium, granular structure; firm, weakly cemented; plants. It is moderately well suited to citrus. Capability
sand grains coated with organic matter; very strong-
ly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary. unit IIIw-1; Acid Flatwoods range site; woodland group
B'2t-34 to 50 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sandy 10.
clay loam; common, medium, distinct, gray (10YR
5/1) and yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) mottles and
few, fine, prominent, yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) Welaka Series
streaks; weak, medium, subangular blocky structure;
friable, slightly sticky; sand grains coated and The Welaka series consists of nearly level, well-drained
bridged with clay; few lenses and pockets of sand sandy soils on moderately broad ridges interspersed with
and loamy sand; slightly acid; gradual, wavy long narrow sloughs. These soils formed in sandy ma-
boundary.
Cg-50 to 62 inches, light olive-gray (5YR 6/2) sandy loam; rine or eolian deposits.
common, medium, prominent, red (2.5YR 4/8) and In a representative profile the surface layer is very
strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) and common, medium, dis- dark gray sand about 3 inches thick. Below this is 15
tinct, dark-brown (7.5YR 4/2) streaks and mottles;
massive; friable; common lenses and pockets of sand inches of light-gray sand. The subsoil is sand and ex-
and loamy sand; neutral. tends to a depth of 55 inches. The upper 10 inches is
Wabasso soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid in brownish yellow, the next 15 inches is yellowish brown
the A and Bh horizons and medium acid to mildly alkaline in mottled with yellowish red and red, and the lower 12
the B'2t and C horizons. inches is brownish yellow that has a few red and strong-
The Al horizon is dark gray to black and is 4 to 8 inches nces s row yellow at as a ew red and trong-
thick. The A2 horizon is gray to light gray and is 8 to 22 brown mottles. Below this is 4 inches of white mixed sand
inches thick. Streaks of the Al horizon extend into the A2 and shell fragments that are weakly cemented. Below
horizon. The entire A horizon is less than 30 inches thick. this, to a depth of 80 inches, is pale-brown mixed sand
The Bh&A2 horizon is black or very dark brown sand or
fine sand 2 to 8 inches thick. The B2h horizon is black to and shells.
dark reddish-brown sand or fine sand 4 to 10 inches thick, Permeability is very rapid in all layers. The available
The B'2t horizon is within a depth of 40 inches and is dark water capacity is very low in all layers. Organic-matter
brown to light brownish gray or light gray mottled with red, content and natural fertility are low
yellow, or brown. It ranges from sandy loam to sandy clay
loam. Few to common lenses of sand to loamy sand are in Representative profile of Welaka sand about 1.5 miles
this horizon. south of junction of State Route 3 and South Patrick







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 47

Drive on EauGallie Beach, about 100 feet east of street, Almost all areas are covered with natural vegetation of
SE/4SW/4 sec. 24, T. 27 S., R. 37 E.: sand pine and an undergrowth of saw-palmetto and rose-
A1-0 to 3 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1, rubbed) sand; mary.
single grain; loose; many medium and large roots; This soil is not suited to vegetables and is poorly suited
very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary. to citrus, improved pasture grasses, lawn grasses, and
A2-3 to 18 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single grain; most kinds of ornamental plants. Capability unit VIs-2;
loose; many medium and large roots; uncoated sand Sand Scrub range site woodland group 4.
grains; very strongly acid; clear, irregular boundary. Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 4.
B21ir-18 to 28 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
common, coarse, faint, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) Winder Series
mottles; single grain; loose; many medium and W er ee
large roots; sand grains coated with iron oxide; The Winder series consists of nearly level, poorly
very strongly acid; clear, irregular boundary.
B22ir-28 to 43 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) sand; drained sandy soils in low areas and on low ridges. These
few, fine, faint, very pale brown streaks, few, medium soils formed in loamy marine material.
and coarse, distinct, yellowish-red and few, fine, In a representative profile the surface layer is very
prominent, red mottles; single grain; loose; few fine dark gray loamy sand about 5 inches thick. Below this is
and large roots; reddish mottles in clusters and more
numerous in lower 12 inches; many, fine, faint, pale- 7 inches of dark-gray loamy sand. The subsoil extends to
brown mottles; sand grains coated with iron oxides; a depth of 31 inches. The upper 5 inches is sandy loam
mottles firm after exposure to air; common, medium that has common brownish mottles and a few sand
coarse, weakly cemented, yellowish-brown (10YR streaks, and the lower 14 inches is gray sandy clay loam
5/8) balls; medium acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B23ir-43 to 55 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) sand; that has a few brownish mottles and streaks of sand and
few, fine, distinct, red, few, medium, distinct, strong- loamy sand. The next 16 inches is mottled yellowish,
brown (7.5YR 5/8), and common, medium and coarse, brownish, and grayish sandy clay loam that is about 30
very pale brown (10YR 8/3) mottles; single grain; percent white shell fragments. Below this, to a depth of
loose; few fine roots; sand grains coated with iron
oxides, slightly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary. about 65 inches, is gray sandy clay loam that is about 15
IIC1-55 to 59 inches, white (10YR 8/2) mixed sand and percent shells.
shell fragments; massive; weakly cemented with Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and moderate
carbonates; few medium roots; few coarse, prom- in the loamy layers. The available water capacity is low
inent, yellow sand streaks; many fine and medium
roots; about 40 percent shell and strongly cemented in the sandy layers and moderate in the loamy layers.
fragments larger than 2 millimeters; moderately al- Organic-matter content is low, and natural fertility is
kaline; calcareous; clear, broken boundary. moderate.
IIC2-59 to 80 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) mixed sand Representative profile of Winder loamy sand in a pas-
and shell fragments; single grain; loose; color
caused by mixing of white sand grains and multi- ture on the Deseret Farms, about 2 miles south of an un-
colored shell fragments; few, medium, distinct yel- improved farm road and 25 feet east of a lateral ditch,
lowish-brown (10YR 5/6) sand streaks; about 45 SE1/4SW1/ sec. 22, T. 27 S., R. 35 E.:
percent shell fragments, about 15 percent larger than
2 millimeters; moderately alkaline; calcareous. Ap-0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1, rubbed) loamy
Welaka soils are extremely acid to slightly acid in the sand; m operate, medium, medigr anular structuarkfriablow
the A and Bir horizons and moderately alkkae ine the IIC (1R m / and streaks; neutral; clear, moo
horizons. (10YR 3/3) sand streaks; neutral; clear, smooth
The Al horizon Is black to dark gray rubbed and is 2 to 4 boundary.
The At horizon is black to dark gray rubbed and is 2 to 4 A2-5 to 12 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) loamy sand; few,
inches thick. The A2 horizon is light gray or white and is 10 medium, distinct, black (N 2/0) sandy loam streaks
to he h lo irand pockets and few, medium, faint, light brownish-
The Bi horon is yellowish-brown, brownish-yellow, yel- gray (10YR 6/2) streaks; moderate, medium, gran-
low, strong-brown, or reddish-yellow sand, fine sand, or coarse ular structure; friable; common fine roots; mildly al-
sand 24 to 42 inches thick. It contains few to common, medium kaline; gradual, irregular boundary.
to coarse mottles in shades of brown and yellow. Mottles of Bltg&A-12 to 17 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; com-
yellowish red to dark red that are segregated iron range from mon, fine, distinct, yellowish-brown ( R 5/6)
few to common and become firm on exposure to air. Total streaks along rot channels; common, coarse, dis-
thickness of the A and Bir horizons ranges from 40 to 60 vertical sandy loam tongues
inches, tinct, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) and few, medium, faint,
heal of Myakka and Pomllo soils, a f c d light brownish-gray (10YR 6//2) sand streaks; weak,
The s IC horizon is pale-brown, light-gray, or white sand, coarse, subangular blocky structure; friable; com-
coarse sand, or fine sand that is 25 to 65 percent shell frag- mon fine roots; few medium pores; clay coatings on
ments. In some places part of the shell is cemented into frag- sand rains ; mildly alkaline ; gradual, irregular
ments larger than 2 millimeters.i e d e boundary.
Welaka soils are associated with Canaveral, Myakka, Palm B2tg&A-17 to 31 inches, gray (Y 5/1) sandy clay loam;
B eah, and Pomellow soils. They are better drained than all few, coarse, prominent, calcareous, yellowish-brown
but Palm Beach soils. They have a Bir horizon below the (10YR 5/8) mottles; common, medium, distinct,
surface layer that is lacking in Palm Beach, Canaveral, Myak- brown (10YR 5/3) mottles; few, coarse, distinct,
ka, and Pomello soils. They lack the Bh horizon that is dark-gray (10YR 4/1), vertical sandy loam tongues


sandy soil on moderately broad ridges interspersed with blcky structure; friable, sticky; common fine roots;
sandy common fine pores; sand grains are coated and
long narrow sloughs. The water table is at a depth of 40 bridged with clay; mildly alkaline; clear, wavy
to 60 inches for brief periods during the rainy season, but boundary.
is usually below 60 inches. IIClg--31 to 47 inches, mottled brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6),
Included with this soil in mapping are some areas that pale-brown (10YR 6/3), and light-gray (10YR 7/2)
are gently sloping and small areas of wetter soils. Also sandy clay loam; massive; friable; few fine roots;
are gently sloping and small areas of wetter soils. Also about 30 percent white and very pale brown, soft and
included are some areas of coarse sand. hard shell or marl fragments as much as 1 inch in







48 SOIL SURVEY

diameter; moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear, main crops. It also explains how the soils can be managed
wavy boundary. for range, woodland, and wildlife and for building high-
IIC2g-47 to 65 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam; range, nd, and ngi
common, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR ways, farm ponds, irrigation systems, and other engineer-
5/6) mottles; massive; friable; about 15 percent ing structures.
white and light-gray shell fragments as much as %
inch in diameter; few lenses and streaks of sandy
loam and loamy sand; moderately alkaline; cal- Cultivated Crops, Citrus Crops, and Pasture
careous.
cares Most of the soils of Brevard County have serious limi-
Winder soils are medium acid to mildly alkaline in the stations or hazards that must be overcome before culti-
A horizon, slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the Btg&A
horizon, and m aderately alkaline in the IICg horizon, vated crops, citrus, and improved pasture can be grown
The Ap or Al horizon is black or very dark gray and is successfully. Under good management, these limitations
3 to 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon is dark gray to light or hazards are considered and adequate measures are pro-
gray and is 4 to 12 inches thick. It contains streaks of ma- vided to correct or eliminate them.
trial from the Ap horizon or Al horizon or other mottles.
The entire A horizon is less than 20 inches thick. A continuous or seasonal high water table affects most
The Bltg&A horizon is dark gray to light gray and is 3 Of the soils. During rainy periods, the excess water in the
to 6 inches thick. The B2tg&A horizon is dark grayish brown, root zone is harmful to crops. In dry seasons, crops grown
olive gray, gray, or light gray. It is sandy clay loam, but in some areas are damaged by a shortage of water. A
contains few to common tongues from the A horizon. It is
12 to 28 inches thick. combined system of drainage and irrigation provides a
The IIC1g horizon is coarsely mottled white, pale brown, high degree of water control by removing excess water in
brownish yellow, and yellowish brown, or gray. It is sandy wet periods and by supplying water in dry periods. A
clay loam or sandy loam and is 6 to 20 inches thick. In subsurface irrigation system similar to the one described
some profiles this horizon has a few tongues of coarser r
material. The shell content in the IIClg horizon varies. The in the section "Engineering Interpretations" is commonly
IIC2g horizon is loamy sand to sandy clay loam, contains used to accomplish good water control. Soils along the St.
few to common lenses and pockets of coarser or finer tex- Johns River must also be protected from flooding or over-
tured material, and is mixed with shells. It is white to gray flow if they are used for cultivated crops, citrus, or im-
and has brownish or yellowish mottles.
Winder soils are associated with Chobee, EauGallie, Felda, proved pasture.
Malabar, Pineda, and Wabasso soils. They are better drained The soils are predominantly nearly level and rapidly
than Ohobee soils and lack the thick black Al horizon of permeable. Erosion, therefore, is not a serious hazard. It
those soils. They lack the B2h horizon that is typical of can occur, however, along ditchbanks and dikes, so these
EauGallie and Wabasso soils and the B2ir horizon typical
of Malabar and Pineda soils. The loamy subsoil is within a areas need the protection of a vegetative cover. Soil blow-
depth of 20 inches in Winder soils and between depths of 20 ing is a hazard on some of the better drained soils. Cul-
and 40 inches in Felda soils. tivated soils should be protected by cover crops that re-
Winder loamy sand (Wn).-This is a nearly level, poorly quire minimum tillage. The root zone in most soils is
drained soil in broad low areas and on low ridges. The sandy and has a low or very low available water capacity
water table is within 30 inches of the surface most of the and low capacity to hold plant nutrients. These proper-
time and is within 10 inches for 2 to 6 months in most ties can be improved if cover and green manure crops,
years. During short, dry periods it is below 30 inches, such as hairy indigo, are grown between crops or in the
This soil is occasionally flooded for 2 to 7 days following citrus groves. Incorporating plant residue into the soil in
heavy rains, cultivated fields is also beneficial. Plant nutrients are
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of rapidly leached from most soils, and natural fertility
Chobee and Felda soils. Also included are a few areas generally is low. The response to fertilizer varies, de-
where the surface layer is sand or fine sand and a few pending on the kind of soil and type of management.
places where the subsoil is sandy loam. Most soils used for crops need heavy applications of fer-
A large part of the acreage is in broad, low areas where tilizer. Despite the poor soil properties, intensive manage-
the natural vegetation is sand cordgrass, maidencane, and ment is generally practical, because the climate is fav-
saw-palmetto. On low ridges the vegetation is pine, live orable.
oak, and native grasses. A large acreage is used for range. About 70,000 acres of the county is improved pasture.
If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil About 80 percent of this acreage is in the St. Johns River
is well suited to vegetables, improved pasture grasses and Basin. Soils in the acid flatwoods are used to a lesser
clover, lawn grasses, many kinds of ornamental plants, extent for improved pasture. Pastures require proper fer-
and, in most areas, to citrus. Capability unit IIIw-1; tilization and liming, good management, and a water
Fresh Marsh (mineral) range site; woodland group 13. control system to remove excess surface water. Soils ad-
jacent to the St. Johns River must also be protected from
overflow if they are used for improved pasture. Subsur-
Use and Management of the Soils face irrigation is used on many areas of improved pas-
ture to provide adequate moisture for grasses and clover
The soils in Brevard County are used extensively for during dry periods. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and im-
pasture, range, woodland, citrus, and to a lesser, but im- proved bermudagrasses are the most widely used pasture
portant extent, for vegetable crops. They are also used grasses. St. Augustinegrass and ryegrass are used for
for homesites and urban facilities and for wildlife. This pasture on the organic soils to a very limited extent.
section discusses the management of the soils for these White clover, Hubam clover, and clover-grass mixtures
uses, explains the capability classification system, defines are used for grazing in winter where irrigation is avail-
the capability units, and shows estimated yields of the able.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 49

Most areas of improved pasture are used for beef cat- sprinkler irrigation. Other high-level management prac-
tie in cow-calf type operations. The two dairies in the tices, such as fertilization and pest control, are also
county also use improved pastures. needed. A small acreage of citrus is planted on well-
In the past few years, the number of light horses in the drained soils that do not need drainage but do need irri-
county for horseback riding and other equestrian activi- gation for good production. A cover crop and minimum
ties has increased. Improved pastures provide good qual- tillage are needed in all groves to prevent erosion.
ity feed and exercise for horses. Subtropical fruits, such as avocado and mango, are
A good pasture not only supplies forage for livestock, grown commercially to a limited extent on the south end
but also protects the soils from soil blowing and water of Merritt Island. Potential damage from cold weather
erosion. It improves the quality of the soil by adding or- limits production. These subtropical fruits are planted on
ganic matter, making a better environment for micro- well-drained soils. Cover crops and minimum tillage are
organisms, and improving tilth. needed to prevent erosion.
Citrus is grown on both acid and alkaline soils (fig. 7). Tomatoes are the main vegetable crop grown on a com-
Some of the soils extensively used for citrus are Astatula mercial basis, but on a very small scale. Most of the to-
fine sand, dark surface layer, Felda sand, bedded, and matoes are grown on mineral soils, such as Anclote sand,
Pineda sand, bedded. The largest citrus-producing areas Floridana sand, and St. Johns sand. Cabbage and sweet
of the county are the Mims area, the central and north- corn are grown on these mineral soils and also on organic
ern parts of Merritt Island, and an area just west of soils, such as Micco peat and Montverde peat. Water-
Micco. Citrus groves occur to some extent throughout the melons are most commonly grown on sandy mineral soils,
county except for the St. Johns River flood plain and such as EauGallie sand and Pomello sand. Potential for
north of Floridana on the Atlantic beaches. Most of the vegetable production in the county is good.
citrus is marketed as fresh fruit under the name Indian For vegetables grown on poorly drained and very poor-
River Fruit and is sold at premium prices. Citrus culture ly drained soils, a complete water control system that
on these soils requires intensive water control that in- maintains uniform moisture conditions is needed. Such
eludes deep drainage, bedding, diking, and subsurface or systems require carefully designed ditching, diking, and




-'_ -





















% .d



E % .1 "


Figure 7.-A 7-year-old orange grove on Tavares fine sand. The ground cover of grasses has been mowed and disked into the
soil in preparation for harvesting.








50 SOIL SURVEY

pumping. They remove excess water in wet seasons and Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
supply water through subsurface irrigation in dry sea- generally unsuitable for cultivation and limit
sons. Heavy applications of lime and fertilizer are their use largely to pasture or range, woodland,
needed. On many of the soils cover and green-manure or wildlife.
crops should be grown to prevent erosion and improve Class VII soils have very severe limitations that
tilth. Strips of tall-growing crops, such as sorghum, pro- make them unsuitable for cultivation and that
tect the soils and young plants from wind damage. restrict their use largely to pasture or range,
General management practices are outlined briefly in woodland, or wildlife.
each capability unit description. Management practices Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that
suggested for different crops on different soils change as preclude their use for commercial crop produc-
more and better information is gained from experience tion and restrict their use to recreation, wildlife,
of workers at experiment stations and from the experi- or water supply, or for esthetic purposes.
ence of growers and ranchers. Current information on CAPABILITY SUBCLASSES are soil groups within one
kinds of crops, improved varieties of plants, and specific class; they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w,
management practices can be obtained from a local rep- 8, or c, to the class numeral, for example, IIe. The letter
resentative of the Soil Conservation Service, the Umver- e shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
sity of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, and close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
the County Extension Service. water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly cor-
Capability Grouping reacted by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
ilit i i i limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the suit- and used in only some parts of the United States, shows
ability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The soils are that the chief limitation is climate that is too cold or
grouped according to their limitations when used for t
field crops, the risk of damage when they are used, and too subclasses, because the soils ofdry.
In class I there are no subclasses, because the soils of
the way they respond to treatment. The grouping does this class have few limitations. Class V can contain, at
not take into account major and generally expensive land- this class have few limitations. Class V can contain, atnd
the most, only the subclasses indicated by w, s, and c,
forming that would change slope, depth, or other charac- because the soils in class V are subject to little or no ero-
teristics of the soils; does not take into consideration pos- son, though they have other limitations that restrict their
sible but unlikely major reclamation projects; and does use largely to pasture or range, woodland, wildlife, or
not apply to rice, cranberries, horticultural crops, or recreation.
other crops requiring special management. For some soils, climate and one of the other kinds of
Those familiar with the capability classification can limitation have about equal importance, and the subclass
infer from it much about the behavior of soils when used symbol shows both kinds; IIce is an example.
for other purposes, but this classification is not a sub- CAPABILITY UNITS are soil groups within the subclasses.
stitute for interpretations designed to show suitability The soils in one capability unit are enough alike to be
and limitations of groups of soils for range, for forest suited to the same crops and pasture plants, to require
trees, or for engineering, similar management, and to have similar productivity
In the capability system, the kinds of soil are grouped and other responses to management. Thus, the capability
at three levels: the capability class, the subclass, and the unit is a convenient grouping for making many state-
unit. These levels are described in the following para- ments about management of soils. Capability units are
graphs. generally designated by adding an Arabic numeral to
CAPABILITY CLASSES, the broadest groups, are desig- the subclass symbol, for example, IIIw-4 or VIs.-1. Thus,
nated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals in one symbol, the Roman numeral designates the capabil-
indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower ity ass or dree of l imitation t small letter ndi
choices for practical use, defined as follows: cates the subclass, or kind of limitation, as defined in
choices for practical use, defined as follows: the foregoing paragraph; and the Arabic numeral spe-
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their cifically identifies the capability unit within each sub-
use. (None in Brevard County.) class.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate Management of soils by capability units
conservation practices. (None in Brevard The following mapping units are not assigned to
County.) capability units: Astatula-Urban land complex, Canav-
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce eral-Urban land complex, Galveston-Urban land complex,
the choice of plants, require special conservation Myakka-Urban land complex, Paola-Urban land complex,
practices, or both. Pomello-Urban land complex, Quartzipsamments,
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that re- smoothed, Spoil banks, and Urban land. None are used
duce the choice of plants, require very careful for crops. With the exception of Quartzipsamments,
management, or both. smoothed, and Spoil banks, all are partly covered with
Class V soils are subject to little or no erosion, but houses and other buildings, streets, parking lots, and re-
have other limitations, impractical to remove, lated structures. Quartzipsamments, smoothed, is an area
that limit their use largely to p.istiur. or range, of sandy soil material that has been reworked and
woodland, or wildlife, shaped by earthmoving equipment primarily for use as








50 SOIL SURVEY

pumping. They remove excess water in wet seasons and Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
supply water through subsurface irrigation in dry sea- generally unsuitable for cultivation and limit
sons. Heavy applications of lime and fertilizer are their use largely to pasture or range, woodland,
needed. On many of the soils cover and green-manure or wildlife.
crops should be grown to prevent erosion and improve Class VII soils have very severe limitations that
tilth. Strips of tall-growing crops, such as sorghum, pro- make them unsuitable for cultivation and that
tect the soils and young plants from wind damage. restrict their use largely to pasture or range,
General management practices are outlined briefly in woodland, or wildlife.
each capability unit description. Management practices Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that
suggested for different crops on different soils change as preclude their use for commercial crop produc-
more and better information is gained from experience tion and restrict their use to recreation, wildlife,
of workers at experiment stations and from the experi- or water supply, or for esthetic purposes.
ence of growers and ranchers. Current information on CAPABILITY SUBCLASSES are soil groups within one
kinds of crops, improved varieties of plants, and specific class; they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w,
management practices can be obtained from a local rep- 8, or c, to the class numeral, for example, IIe. The letter
resentative of the Soil Conservation Service, the Umver- e shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
sity of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, and close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
the County Extension Service. water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly cor-
Capability Grouping reacted by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
ilit i i i limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the suit- and used in only some parts of the United States, shows
ability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The soils are that the chief limitation is climate that is too cold or
grouped according to their limitations when used for t
field crops, the risk of damage when they are used, and too subclasses, because the soils ofdry.
In class I there are no subclasses, because the soils of
the way they respond to treatment. The grouping does this class have few limitations. Class V can contain, at
not take into account major and generally expensive land- this class have few limitations. Class V can contain, atnd
the most, only the subclasses indicated by w, s, and c,
forming that would change slope, depth, or other charac- because the soils in class V are subject to little or no ero-
teristics of the soils; does not take into consideration pos- son, though they have other limitations that restrict their
sible but unlikely major reclamation projects; and does use largely to pasture or range, woodland, wildlife, or
not apply to rice, cranberries, horticultural crops, or recreation.
other crops requiring special management. For some soils, climate and one of the other kinds of
Those familiar with the capability classification can limitation have about equal importance, and the subclass
infer from it much about the behavior of soils when used symbol shows both kinds; IIce is an example.
for other purposes, but this classification is not a sub- CAPABILITY UNITS are soil groups within the subclasses.
stitute for interpretations designed to show suitability The soils in one capability unit are enough alike to be
and limitations of groups of soils for range, for forest suited to the same crops and pasture plants, to require
trees, or for engineering, similar management, and to have similar productivity
In the capability system, the kinds of soil are grouped and other responses to management. Thus, the capability
at three levels: the capability class, the subclass, and the unit is a convenient grouping for making many state-
unit. These levels are described in the following para- ments about management of soils. Capability units are
graphs. generally designated by adding an Arabic numeral to
CAPABILITY CLASSES, the broadest groups, are desig- the subclass symbol, for example, IIIw-4 or VIs.-1. Thus,
nated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals in one symbol, the Roman numeral designates the capabil-
indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower ity ass or dree of l imitation t small letter ndi
choices for practical use, defined as follows: cates the subclass, or kind of limitation, as defined in
choices for practical use, defined as follows: the foregoing paragraph; and the Arabic numeral spe-
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their cifically identifies the capability unit within each sub-
use. (None in Brevard County.) class.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate Management of soils by capability units
conservation practices. (None in Brevard The following mapping units are not assigned to
County.) capability units: Astatula-Urban land complex, Canav-
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce eral-Urban land complex, Galveston-Urban land complex,
the choice of plants, require special conservation Myakka-Urban land complex, Paola-Urban land complex,
practices, or both. Pomello-Urban land complex, Quartzipsamments,
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that re- smoothed, Spoil banks, and Urban land. None are used
duce the choice of plants, require very careful for crops. With the exception of Quartzipsamments,
management, or both. smoothed, and Spoil banks, all are partly covered with
Class V soils are subject to little or no erosion, but houses and other buildings, streets, parking lots, and re-
have other limitations, impractical to remove, lated structures. Quartzipsamments, smoothed, is an area
that limit their use largely to p.istiur. or range, of sandy soil material that has been reworked and
woodland, or wildlife, shaped by earthmoving equipment primarily for use as








BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 51
building sites, roadways, and recreational areas. Spoil excess water in wet seasons and provide for subsurface
banks are piles of soil material dug from ditches and irrigation in dry seasons. In some areas dikes are needed
canals or dredged from the ship channel in the Indian to keep out water from adjacent wet areas.
River. These soils are well suited to a variety of vegetable
CAPABILITY UNIT WIIw-1 crops if a water control system is installed. They are
This unit consists of nearly level, poorly drained sandy best suited in areas that have the least frost hazard. In
soils in broad low areas, on flats and low ridges, in de- addition to drainage and irrigation, growing cover crops
pressions and poorly defined drainageways, and in during fallow periods maintains organic-matter content
sloughs mostly in the flatwoods and hammocks. Most and improves tilth. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
areas are slightly higher than adjacent lowlands. The according to the needs of the crops.
water table is within depths of 10 to 40 inches for as These soils are poorly suited to citrus. If drainage and
much as 6 months or more in most years. It is generally water control are adequate, they are well suited to high-
within 10 inches of the surface in wet seasons, except in quality pasture of improved grasses and clover. Adequate
drained areas. In some areas these soils are subject to applications of fertilizer and lime according to the needs
frost. of the plants and control of grazing are needed to main-
Natural fertility is low to high, and organic-matter tain healthy plant growth.
content is moderate to low. The available water capacity
is very low to moderate in the surface layer; roots of CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-3
shallow-rooted plants are in this layer. Permeability is Bradenton fine sand, shallow variant, the only soil in
moderate to moderately rapid, this unit, is a nearly level, poorly drained soil on low
Simple drainage practices are effective on these soils, marine terraces. It generally is slightly higher than ad-
and a simple water control system is adequate to remove jacent, more poorly drained soils. In most areas hard
excess water after heavy rains and provide for subsur- limestone is within 40 inches of the surface. The water
face irrigation in dry seasons. These soils respond well to table generally is between depths of 10 and 30 inches,
fertilizer, but fertilizer is generally leached out rapidly but rises to within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6
and frequent applications are needed, months in most years.
These soils are well suited to a variety of vegetable Natural fertility is medium, and organic-matter con-
crops if a water control system is installed. They are best tent is low. The available water capacity is high in the
suited in areas that have the least frost hazard. In addi- subsoil, but low in the surface and subsurface layers. Per-
tion to drainage and irrigation, growing cover crops dur- meability is moderate to moderately rapid. This soil re-
ing fallow periods maintains organic-matter content and spends to simple, shallow drainage practices. The under-
improves tilth. Fertilizer and lime should be applied ac- lying hard limestone makes construction of deep drain-
cording to the needs of the crops. age or water control systems difficult to design and in-
These soils are moderately well suited or well suited stall. In some areas this soil is more subject to frost
to citrus if they are well managed. A water control sys- damage than in others.
tem is needed to maintain a constant water table at a This soil is moderately well suited to a number of
depth of 3 feet or more. Bedding is needed where alter- vegetable crops if water control is well established.
nate strips about 30 feet wide are reworked to form wide Crops are best suited in areas that have the least frost
ditches and elevated beds. Maintaining a good vegeta- hazard. In addition to drainage and irrigation, planting
tive cover between the trees and frequent applications of cover crops during fallow periods maintains organic-mat-
fertilizer are other essential management needs. ter content and improves tilth. Fertilizer and lime should
These soils are well suited to high-quality pasture of be applied according to the needs of the crops.
improved grasses and clover. A simple drainage system This soil is well suited to citrus if it is properly
is needed to remove excess surface water during heavy managed. Bedding, drainage, water table control, irri-
rains. A water control system that provides surface drain- nation, and frequent applications of fertilizer are es-
age and subsurface irrigation is needed to improve crop sential management needs.
growth. Adequate applications of fertilizer and lime on If well managed, this soil is suited to high-quality
pastures according to the needs of the plants and careful pasture of improved grasses or grass and clover mixtures.
control of grazing are needed to maintain healthy plant A drainage system designed to remove excess surface
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-2 water, liberal application of fertilizer, and control of
This unit consists of nearly level, very poorly drained grazing are essential needs of management.
sandy or loamy soils on wide flood plains, in low places, CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-4
in sloughs, in marshy depressions, and along poorly de-
fined drainageways. The water table is within a depth of This unit consists of nearly level, very poorly drained,
10 inches more than half the time. Low areas are sub- organic soils in broad, wet areas on flood plains and in
ject to frost damage more frequently than higher areas. freshwater marshes and swamps. The water table is with-
Natural fertility is low to moderate, and organic-matter in 10 inches of the surface for 9 to 12 months of most
content is moderate to high. The available water capacity years, and water stands on the surface in some places for
is moderate. Permeability is moderate to rapid. 3 to 6 months and in many places, for 6 months or
These soils respond readily to simple drainage prac- longer. The soils in this unit are frequently subject to
tices. Drainage is not feasible in isolated small areas that frost damage.
have no natural outlet. Where outlets are available, Natural fertility is moderate to high, and organic-
simple water control systems function well to remove matter content is very high. The available water capacity








52 SOIL SURVEY

is high to very high in the organic layers. Permeability This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Deep-
is moderate to rapid. rooted grasses grow well if they are properly established,
Where drainage outlets are available, simple drainage if enough fertilizer and lime are applied, and if grazing
and irrigation systems can be installed and maintained is controlled. Pasture on this soil is not adversely affected
easily. Because most areas are in the lowest positions on by drought to any great extent.
the landscape, dikes around the perimeter and pumps to
lift the water over the dikes are needed for water control. CAPABILITY UNIT IVw-i
In some areas these soils are more subject to frost damage This unit consists of nearly level, poorly drained sandy
than in others, soils that are very severely limited for cultivated crops.
These soils are well suited to a wide variety of vege- Excessive wetness and poor soil properties reduce the
table crops if a good water control system is established choice of plants, and intensive management is required.
and maintained. They are best suited in areas that have Wetness is the main limitation.
the least frost hazard. In addition to maintaining the Natural fertility and organic-matter content are low.
water control system, saturating the soil during fallow The available water capacity is very low to low in the
periods minimizes oxidation of the organic layers. Also, sandy layers and moderate in the loamy layers. Perme-
wetland cover crops should be grown in fallow periods, ability is very rapid to moderate. Mineral fertilizer is lost
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the rapidly through leaching.
needs of the crops. Unless drained, these soils are not suited to cultivated
These soils are not suited to citrus. They have many crops. If drained and intensively managed, they are mod-
soil properties that are unfavorable to citrus, and the erately well suited to vegetable crops. A well-designed,
drainage needs of this crop cause rapid deterioration of constructed, and maintained water control system that
the soils, maintains the level of the water table and provides sub-
If intensively managed, these soils are well suited to surface irrigation is an important management need.
high-quality pasture of improved grasses and clover Crop rotations that protect and improve the soil and fre-
mixtures. A water control system to remove excess sur- quent applications of fertilizer and lime as needed are
face water and maintain the level of the water table, ade- factors to be considered.
quate applications of fertilizer and lime as required, and These soils are poorly suited to citrus. Because they
careful control of grazing are essential management are in low positions on the landscape and normally have
needs. a high water table, water control is difficult. A well-de-
CAPABILITY UNIT mIs-i signed system of ditches and control structures and bed-
Tavares fine sand, the only soil in this unit, is a nearly ding are needed if citrus is planted. Possible frost dam-
level to gently sloping sandy soil that has severe limita- age should be considered before planting these soils to
tions for cultivated crops. Poor soil properties reduce the citrus. Maintaining fertility is difficult because the soils
choice of plants and require special management, but the are sandy and low in fertility. Frequent applications of
water table is favorable, generally within 40 to 60 inches fertilizer are needed. During dry periods, irrigation is
of the surface. needed to insure good yields.
Natural fertility and organic-matter content are low. If intensively managed, these soils are well suited to
The available water capacity is very low to low. Per- improved pasture of grasses or grass and clover. A
meability is very rapid in the sandy layers, and little or water control system that is less intensive, but is otherwise
no moisture is retained for shallow-rooted plants. The similar to that required for cultivated crops, frequent
water table increases the supply of moisture for deeper applications of fertilizer and lime as required, and care-
rooted plants. This soil is well aerated and porous, and ful control of grazing are essential management needs.
plant nutrients are quickly leached out.
Crops that increase content of organic matter are CAPABILITY UNIT IVw-2
needed. Erosion and soil blowing are active in unpro- This unit consists of nearly level, poorly drained, sandy
tected areas, but the management practices that improve soils that have very severe limitations for cultivated
the soil generally are adequate to control erosion. crops, because periodic excessive wetness and poor soil
This soil is poorly suited to most vegetable crops. Wa- properties reduce the choice of plants and require inten-
termelons can be grown, but they need intensive soil im- sive management.
provement practices for the best yields. Returning all Natural fertility and organic-matter content are low.
crop residue to the soil, planting green-manure crops, and The available water capacity is very low to low in the
applying adequate fertilizer and lime are management sandy layers and moderate in the weakly cemented layers.
practices that help to maintain fertility and organic- Permeability is moderate to very rapid in the least per-
matter content. meable layers. The water table fluctuates within the soil
This soil is well suited to citrus. It is near coastal waters and is at or near the surface during wet periods. These
and generally is not subject to frost damage. Natural soils are normally drought in dry seasons and saturated
drainage generally is adequate for good tree growth, but in wet seasons. Mineral fertilizer is leached out rapidly.
trees are damaged in places by a high water table after These soils are moderately well suited to vegetable
unusually heavy rainfall. Generally, the roots of the crops if other factors make these crops feasible, such as
trees extend into the moist area just above the water table, the availability of irrigation water and freedom from
and therefore the trees are commonly not seriously af- frost hazard. Intensive management is necessary and a
fected by drought. In citrus groves, a cover crop between very careful control of the water table level is essential.
the trees and adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime are Drainage-subirrigation systems that provide rapid re-
needed for good yields, moval of excess water in rainy seasons and a means of







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 53

irrigation in dry seasons should be carefully designed, in- managed, it is moderately well suited to a few special
stalled, and maintained. Use of grass or other close-grow- crops, such as watermelons. Adequate applications of fer-
ing crops three-fourths of the time to protect and im- tilizer and a system of crop rotation that includes soil-
prove the soil and frequent, heavy applications of lime improving cover crops are needed.
and fertilizer are essential management needs. This soil is well suited to citrus. It is near coastal wa-
These soils are poorly suited to citrus. Such factors ters and is not generally affected by frost. Growing a
as poor drainage, susceptibility to freezing temperatures, cover crop between the trees, applying lime and fertilizer,
rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and droughtiness in and irrigating during dry periods are good management
dry periods adversely affect the growth of citrus. If con- practices.
editions are favorable and groves are well managed, citrus If properly managed, this soil is moderately well suit-
treds cal be grown successfully. A properly designed ed to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and other deep-rooted
water control system and a protective vegetative cover improved pasture grasses. Hairy indigo, crotalaria, and
are management needs. A careful study of the site should other deep-rooted legumes can be grown successfully, but
be made before citrus groves are planned, careful management is required to maintain a good vege-
If a drainage system is established to remove excess tative cover.
water during wet seasons, a high-quality pasture of im- CAPABILITY UNIT IVs-2
proved grasses can be maintained on these soils. Large Orsino fine sand, the only soil in this unit, is a nearly
applications of fertilizer and lime are required. Clover level, moderately well drained sandy soil that has very
can be grown successfully with grasses, but irrigation severe limitations for cultivated crops. Poor soil prop-
similar to that used for cultivated crops is required to erties severely reduce the choice of plants. The level of
assure good plant growth, the water table is favorable in some seasons.
Natural fertility and organic-matter content are low.
CAPABILITY UNIT IVw-3 The available water capacity is very low. Permeability is
Copeland complex, the only mapping unit in this unit, rapid because the soil is very porous. The moist zone
consists of very poorly drained, nearly level soils that above the water table increases the supply of moisture
are underlain by limestone. These soils have very severe for deep-rooted plants. Plant nutrients are leached out
limitations for cultivated crops. Wetness and a shallow very quickly. Water erosion is not a hazard, but soil
root zone reduce the choice of plants and require special blowing is a hazard in unprotected areas.
management. 'This soil is very poorly suited to vegetable crops and
Organic-matter content in the surface layer is high. other cultivated crops. If intensively managed, it is mod-
The available water capacity is moderate. The root zone erately well suited to citrus. Irrigation and frequent ap-
is shallow to moderately deep. Permeability is moder- plications of fertilizer are needed.
ately rapid in the surface layer and moderate in the If intensively managed, this soil is moderately well
subsoil. The hard limestone has cracks and crevices, and suited to improved pasture grass. Bahiagrass and other
water moves through it readily, deep-rooted, drought-resistant grasses grow moderately
These soils are poorly suited to vegetables or other well if they are adequately fertilized and limed and if
cultivated crops because they are wet and shallow to grazing is carefully controlled.
moderately deep. The surface layer generally has good
soil properties, but in some places the soil is shallow CAPABILITY UNIT IVs-3
enough for underlying rock to interfere with preparation Cocoa sand, the only soil in this unit, is a nearly level
of the soil. The root zone is limited. The underlying rock to gently sloping, well-drained sandy soil that has very
makes adequate drainage difficult to establish, severe limitations for cultivated crops. Poor soil proper-
These soils are poorly suited to citrus. Management is ties reduce the choice of plants and require special man-
difficult. The underlying limestone makes adequate drain- agement. Coquina rock is at a depth of 20 to 54 inches.
age systems very difficult to establish. Bedding that pro- Natural fertility and organic-matter content are low.
vides a minimum root zone generally is necessary, but is The available water capacity is very low in the sandy
very difficult to accomplish. layers and low in the loamy sand layer. Permeability is
These soils are well suited to improved pasture of grass rapid, and water moves quickly through the soil and the
and clover, but clearing densely forested hammock areas porous coquina rock. Plant nutrients are leached out
is expensive. Good surface drainage, heavy applications quickly. In many places the root zone is shallow. Erosion
of fertilizer, and controlled grazing are needed for good generally is not a serious hazard. Practices that improve
yields PABILITY UNIT s-the retention of water and plant nutrients generally are
CAPABILITY UNIT IVs-1
Astatula fine sand, dark surface, the only soil in this sufficient to control erosion.
unit, is a nearly level and gently sloping sandy soil This soil is poorly suited to most vegetable crops and
that has very severe limitations for cultivated crops. Poor other cultivated crops. It is moderately well suited to
soil properties reduce the choice of plants and require watermelons. Adequate applications of fertilizer and a
special management. system of crop rotation that includes soil-improving
Natural fertility and organic-matter content are low. cover crops are needed.
The available water capacity is low. Permeability is very This soil is well suited to citrus. It is near coastal
rapid. Plant nutrients are quickly leached through the waters and generally is not affected by frost hazard.
porous soil. Erosion generally is not a serious hazard. Growing a cover crop between the trees, applying lime
This soil is very severely limited in its use for most and fertilizer, and irrigating during dry periods are good
vegetable crops or other cultivated crops. If intensively management practices.







54 SOIL SURVEY

This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture This soil generally is not suited to cultivated crops be-
grasses. Shallowness limits root development and makes cause it is drought and has many other poor soil prop-
grasses vulnerable to drought. erties. The main limitations are the very low available
water capacity and the high degree of leaching. This soil
CAPABILITY UNIT Vw-1 is poorly suited to citrus. It is poorly suited to improved
St. Johns soils, ponded, the only mapping unit in this pasture of bahiagrass and other deep-rooted, drought-
unit, are nearly level, very poorly drained sandy soils in resistant grasses. In such pastures, frequent applications
depressions that are covered with water for 6 months or of fertilizer and carefully controlled grazing are needed
more in most years.
Natural fertility is low. Organic-matter content is CAPABILITY UNIT vla-3
moderate in the surface layer and weakly cemented lay- This unit consists of nearly level, moderately well
ers. The available water capacity is moderate in the sur- drained and somewhat poorly drained sandy soils that
face layer. Permeability is very rapid in all but the generally are not suited to cultivation because of poor soil
weakly cemented layer, where it is moderate. properties.
These soils are not suited to citrus or vegetables or These soils are porous, highly leached, and drought,
other cultivated crops because they are continually wet. except in wet periods. Natural fertility and organic-mat-
Drainage is impractical. Lack of available drainage out- ter content are low. The available water capacity is very
lets makes water management very difficult. Reclaiming low. Permeability is very rapid to moderately rapid in
these soils is generally not feasible. the least permeable layers.
These soils are poorly suited to pasture grasses. During The main limitations are the very low available water
very dry years, however, pasture grasses can be estab- capacity and the high degree of leaching. These soils are
lished. not suited to row crops or most vegetable crops and are
CAPABILITY UNIT VIw-1 poorly suited to citrus. They are moderately well suited
This unit consists of nearly level, very poorly drained to watermelons. Adequate applications of fertilizer and a
sandy soils in depressions in the flatwoods. These soils are system of crop rotation that includes soil-improving cover
covered with a few inches of water for 6 months or more crops are needed. Bahiagrass and other deep-rooted,
in most years. drought-resistant grasses are poorly suited, even if large
Natural fertility is low to moderate, and organic- amounts of fertilizer and lime are applied.
matter content is low. Permeability is moderate to rapid.
These soils generally are not suited to vegetables, other CAPABILITY UNIT VIs-4
cultivated crops, or citrus. The main limitation is ex- Canaveral complex, gently undulating, the only map-
cessive wetness. Lack of available drainage outlets in ping unit in this unit, consists of nearly level to gently
many places makes water management difficult and gen- sloping, moderately well drained sandy soils that contain
erally impractical. shell fragments.
These soils are calcareous and occasionally receive salt
CAPABILITY UNIT VIs-1 spray from the ocean. Natural fertility and organic-
Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the only soil in matter content are low. The available water capacity is
this unit, is a nearly level to gently sloping, excessively very low. Permeability is very rapid. The moist zone above
drained soil on high dunelike ridges. It generally is not the water table increases the supply of moisture for deep-
suited to cultivated crops, because it is drought and has rooted plants. Plant nutrients are leached out very quickly.
many other poor soil properties. Water erosion is not a hazard, but soil blowing is active
Natural fertility is low. 'The available water capacity in unprotected areas.
is very low. Permeability is very rapid, and as a result, These soils are not suited to vegetable crops or most
plant nutrients are lost rapidly through leaching. cultivated crops. They are not suited to citrus. They are
This soil is not suited to vegetable crops and most cul- poorly suited to deep-rooted, improved grasses and pro-
tivated crops. Where the climate is favorable, this soil is duce only fair pastures, even under careful management.
moderately well suited to citrus. In citrus groves, a cover
crop or a cover of weeds and grasses between the trees CAPABILITY UNIT VIIw-1
is needed to protect the soil from blowing. Tillage should This unit consists of nearly level, poorly drained and
be kept to a minimum. Sprinkler irrigation is needed to very poorly drained soils on flood plains and in low areas
insure the survival of young trees and a good yield of that are flooded most of the year or for long periods. Soil
fruit from mature trees. properties vary.
This soil is poorly suited to improved pastures of ba- These soils are not suited to vegetable or other culti-
hiagrass and other deep-rooted grasses. In such pastures, vated crops or to citrus or improved pasture grasses and
frequent applications of fertilizer and carefully con- clover. Controlling wetness and flooding would require
trolled grazing are needed. major reclamation. Under existing conditions, major rec-
lamation projects are not feasible.
CAPABILITY UNIT VIs-2
Welaka sand, the only soil in this unit, is a nearly CAPABILITY UNIT VHw-2
level, well-drained soil. Myakka sand, ponded, the only soil in this unit, is a
This soil is porous, highly leached, and drought, nearly level soil in depressions that are flooded for long
Natural fertility and organic-matter content are low. periods.
The available water capacity is very low. Permeability Natural fertility and organic-matter content are low.
is very rapid. The available water capacity is very low to low in the









BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 55

surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the weak- Estimated Yields
ly cemented layers. Permeability is moderate in the least
permeable layer. Table 4 shows the estimated average yields per acre of
This soil is not suited to vegetable crops, other culti- the main crops in the county. These are yields that
vated crops, improved pasture, or citrus, as a result of can be expected under the generally high-level manage-
prolonged flooding. Drainage is difficult. Adequate drain- ment used in the county. On soils used for crops and
age outlets are lacking in most places. groves, these practices include applying adequate
amounts of fertilizer and lime, controlling insects, man-
CAPABILITY UNIT VIIs-1 aging crop residue properly, supplying drainage if
This unit consists of nearly level to strongly sloping, needed, controlling runoff and erosion, and installing
excessively drained sandy soils. properly designed irrigation systems. Management on
Natural fertility and organic-matter content are low. soils used for improved pasture includes applying ade-
The available water capacity is very low. Permeability quate amounts of fertilizer and lime, controlling grazing,
is very rapid, and leaching is high. rotating pasture, using good varieties of plants and plant
These soils are not suited to vegetable crops, other cul- mixtures, controlling undesirable plants, draining excess
tivated crops, improved pasture, or citrus. water, and irrigating if feasible and needed.
The yields in table 4 are based largely on information
CAPABILITY UNIT VIIs-2 obtained from observations, from interviews with farm-
Palm Beach sand, the only soil in this unit, is a nearly ers, from records and experience of the local district con-
level and gently sloping, excessively drained soil that is servationist, from bulletins and other information com-
made up of sand and shell fragments. This soil is piled by the University of Florida Agricultural Experi-
droughty and has many other poor soil properties. ment Stations, from comparison of yields on similar soils
This soil is mildly or moderately alkaline, and it fre- in other counties in central Florida, and from records
quently receives salt spray from the ocean. It is very of crop yields kept by the Florida Crop Reporting Serv-
porous, and water moves very rapidly through it. Only ice. The yield estimates assume optimum weather condi-
a very little water is retained in the root zone. The avail- n
able water capacity is very low. Natural fertility and
organic-matter content are low. Soil blowing is active Range and Grazeable Woodland
in some places. About 190,000 acres on the mainland west of the coastal
Because this soil has very poor soil properties it has ridge is used as native range by domestic livestock. Native
very limited use. It is not suited to vegetable crops, other grasses are an important part of the overall, year-round
cultivated crops, improved pasture, or citrus, supply of forage. This forage is readily available, can
CAPABILITY UNIT VIIIw-1 be grown cheaply, and provides important roughage
needed by cattle. Present day cow-calf operations de-
Coastal beaches, the only soil in this unit, is a nearly pend heavily on these forage resources.
level or gently sloping sandy and shelly soil along the
shoreline. It generally is flooded with salt water during Range sites and condition classes
storms and daily high tides. Range sites are distinctive kinds of range. Each has
This soil generally is bare of vegetation. Adverse water significant differences in the kinds and amounts of climax
relationships, salinity, fertility, and other properties vegetation it produces, and each requires different man-
make its use for plants extremely limited. Native vegeta- agement. Range sites are distinguished by differences in
tion is limited to scattered areas of salt-tolerant plants of climate, topography, and kinds of soil.
little or no economic value. The vegetation that grew originally on a site is called
This soil is not suited to crop production or pasture. It the climax vegetation. It generally is the most productive
is suited mainly to recreation and wildlife habitat. It and most suitable vegetation for that particular site, and
has great esthetic value, and makes up an important part it maintains itself as long as the environment does not
of the waterfront, change. The climax vegetation consists mainly of three
kinds of plants according to their response to grazing-
CAPABILITY UNIT VIIIw-2 decreasers, increases, and invaders.
This unit consists of nearly level areas along the coast Decreasers generally are the most palatable climax
and stream outlets that are covered by brackish water or plants, and they are eliminated if the range is under
daily high tides. These areas generally have a cover of continuous heavy grazing. Increasers are plants less
salt-tolerant and water-tolerant vegetation of limited palatable to livestock; they increase for a while under
economic value. Low position, salinity, flooding by tides, continuous heavy grazing, but are finally eliminated under
and other adverse conditions make them unsuited to com- continual heavy grazing. Invaders are plants native to
mercial crops or pasture. the site in small amounts and have little value for forage,
This unit is suited mainly to wildlife habitat and but they become established after the other vegetation has
recreation. Wildlife habitat is important ecologically been reduced.
and provides essential food, cover, and breeding grounds Range condition is the present state of the vegetation in
for many species. Related recreation is important in some relation to the climax vegetation of the site. A range in
areas, but some areas of this tidal resource are under- excellent condition has 76 to 100 percent, by weight, of
going conversion to other uses. the climax vegetation; one in good condition, 51 to 75









BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 55

surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the weak- Estimated Yields
ly cemented layers. Permeability is moderate in the least
permeable layer. Table 4 shows the estimated average yields per acre of
This soil is not suited to vegetable crops, other culti- the main crops in the county. These are yields that
vated crops, improved pasture, or citrus, as a result of can be expected under the generally high-level manage-
prolonged flooding. Drainage is difficult. Adequate drain- ment used in the county. On soils used for crops and
age outlets are lacking in most places. groves, these practices include applying adequate
amounts of fertilizer and lime, controlling insects, man-
CAPABILITY UNIT VIIs-1 aging crop residue properly, supplying drainage if
This unit consists of nearly level to strongly sloping, needed, controlling runoff and erosion, and installing
excessively drained sandy soils. properly designed irrigation systems. Management on
Natural fertility and organic-matter content are low. soils used for improved pasture includes applying ade-
The available water capacity is very low. Permeability quate amounts of fertilizer and lime, controlling grazing,
is very rapid, and leaching is high. rotating pasture, using good varieties of plants and plant
These soils are not suited to vegetable crops, other cul- mixtures, controlling undesirable plants, draining excess
tivated crops, improved pasture, or citrus. water, and irrigating if feasible and needed.
The yields in table 4 are based largely on information
CAPABILITY UNIT VIIs-2 obtained from observations, from interviews with farm-
Palm Beach sand, the only soil in this unit, is a nearly ers, from records and experience of the local district con-
level and gently sloping, excessively drained soil that is servationist, from bulletins and other information com-
made up of sand and shell fragments. This soil is piled by the University of Florida Agricultural Experi-
droughty and has many other poor soil properties. ment Stations, from comparison of yields on similar soils
This soil is mildly or moderately alkaline, and it fre- in other counties in central Florida, and from records
quently receives salt spray from the ocean. It is very of crop yields kept by the Florida Crop Reporting Serv-
porous, and water moves very rapidly through it. Only ice. The yield estimates assume optimum weather condi-
a very little water is retained in the root zone. The avail- n
able water capacity is very low. Natural fertility and
organic-matter content are low. Soil blowing is active Range and Grazeable Woodland
in some places. About 190,000 acres on the mainland west of the coastal
Because this soil has very poor soil properties it has ridge is used as native range by domestic livestock. Native
very limited use. It is not suited to vegetable crops, other grasses are an important part of the overall, year-round
cultivated crops, improved pasture, or citrus, supply of forage. This forage is readily available, can
CAPABILITY UNIT VIIIw-1 be grown cheaply, and provides important roughage
needed by cattle. Present day cow-calf operations de-
Coastal beaches, the only soil in this unit, is a nearly pend heavily on these forage resources.
level or gently sloping sandy and shelly soil along the
shoreline. It generally is flooded with salt water during Range sites and condition classes
storms and daily high tides. Range sites are distinctive kinds of range. Each has
This soil generally is bare of vegetation. Adverse water significant differences in the kinds and amounts of climax
relationships, salinity, fertility, and other properties vegetation it produces, and each requires different man-
make its use for plants extremely limited. Native vegeta- agement. Range sites are distinguished by differences in
tion is limited to scattered areas of salt-tolerant plants of climate, topography, and kinds of soil.
little or no economic value. The vegetation that grew originally on a site is called
This soil is not suited to crop production or pasture. It the climax vegetation. It generally is the most productive
is suited mainly to recreation and wildlife habitat. It and most suitable vegetation for that particular site, and
has great esthetic value, and makes up an important part it maintains itself as long as the environment does not
of the waterfront, change. The climax vegetation consists mainly of three
kinds of plants according to their response to grazing-
CAPABILITY UNIT VIIIw-2 decreasers, increases, and invaders.
This unit consists of nearly level areas along the coast Decreasers generally are the most palatable climax
and stream outlets that are covered by brackish water or plants, and they are eliminated if the range is under
daily high tides. These areas generally have a cover of continuous heavy grazing. Increasers are plants less
salt-tolerant and water-tolerant vegetation of limited palatable to livestock; they increase for a while under
economic value. Low position, salinity, flooding by tides, continuous heavy grazing, but are finally eliminated under
and other adverse conditions make them unsuited to com- continual heavy grazing. Invaders are plants native to
mercial crops or pasture. the site in small amounts and have little value for forage,
This unit is suited mainly to wildlife habitat and but they become established after the other vegetation has
recreation. Wildlife habitat is important ecologically been reduced.
and provides essential food, cover, and breeding grounds Range condition is the present state of the vegetation in
for many species. Related recreation is important in some relation to the climax vegetation of the site. A range in
areas, but some areas of this tidal resource are under- excellent condition has 76 to 100 percent, by weight, of
going conversion to other uses. the climax vegetation; one in good condition, 51 to 75










56 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 4.-Estimated average yields per acre of citrus crops, vegetable crops, and improved pasture on arable soils under
high level management

[Absence of a yield figure indicates the soil is not suited to the crop specified or data are not available]

Citrus crops Vegetable crops Permanent improved
pasture
Soil
Oranges Grape- Tomatoes Cabbage Sweet- Water- Grass Grass-
fruit corn melons clover

50-lb. crate or 40 to 60-lb. Marketable Animal-ett- Animal-unit-
Boxes Boxes 40-lb. boxes bag crates lb./acre months 1 months 1
Anclotesand---------------------- _-- --------.. --------- 700 480 180 ---------- 9.0 11.0
Astatula fine sand, dark surface --------- 450 650 ----------- --- ---- 7,200 6. 5
Basinger sand-------------------------- 300 550 625 400 160 ------- 7.5 9.5
Bradenton fine sand, shallow variant------ 425 625
Canova peat --------------.---------------.------. --------------- 480 180 --------- 15. 0 20.0
Chobee sandy loam -------------------- ----------------- -------- 480 180 -------- 10.0 15.0
Cocoasand --------------------------- 500 700 ---------------------------- 9,000 7.0
Copeland complex -------------------- 375 575 --- ---_------- ----_----- 8. 0 10.0
EauGalliesand ----------------------- 375 575 625 320 160 10,000 7.0 9.5
EauGallie sand, bedded _---------------- 375 575 -...
Feldasand -------------......-------- 425 625 650 400 160 ---------- 7.5 10.5
Felda sand, bedded--.------------------ 425 625
Felda and Winder soils-----------------. 425 625 650 400 160 ---------- 7. 5 10.5
Floridana sand-------------------- -- ----- ------ 700 480 180 ------- 9. 0 11.0
Holopawsand------------------ ------- 325 375 650 400 160 -------- 7.5 10.5
Immokalee sand -------------_----_---- 350 550 625 320 160 10,000 7.0 9.5
Malabarsand--------------------- --- 325 575 650 400 160 --------- 7.5 10.5
Malabar, Holopaw, and Pineda soils..,.. 325 575 650 400 160 ---------- 7. 5 10. 5
Micco peat-------------------------- ------------------ 480 180 --------- 25.0 30.0
Montverde peat -------------------- --- ---- --------- ----------. 480 180 --------- 25. 0 30.0
Myakka sand------------------------- 350 550 625 320 160 10,000 7.0 9.5
Oldsmar sand--------------------__--- 375 575 625 320 160 10,000 7.0 9.5
Orsino fine sand---.,------------------. 350 450 --------- -------------------------- 5.0
Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes..... 300 400 ---------------------------------------- 3. 5
Parkwood fine sand, moderately fine sub-
soil variant .----------------------. 450 650 700 480 180 -------- 9. 0 11.0
Pineda sand-----------------.-------- 400 600 650 400 160 --------- 7.0 10.5
Pineda sand, bedded------------------- 400 600
Pineda sand, dark surface variant ---._- 400 600 700 480 180 --------- 9. 0 11.0
Pomello sand --_----------------- ------- ------ ------- ------ 10, 000 5. 6
Pompano sand---------------- _------. 300 550 650 400 160 ---- 7.5 10.5
Satellite sand -----------____ -----_____ ---------. .---- --------- ---------- 10, 000 5. 0
St. Johns sand------------------------. 350 550 700 480 180 10,000 9.0 11.0
Tavares fine sand ----------------__--. 425 600 -------- ----------. ------. 8,000 8.0
Terra Ceia muck ---------______-------------____ ----------___ 480 180 ---------- 25.0 30.0
Tomoka muck ------------------------.._...---------- _____ ..---. 480 180 --------- 25.0 30.0
Valkaria sand---------- --______----- 300 550 650 400 160 -------- 7.5 10.5
Wabasso sand ------------------------- 425 650 625 320 160 10, 000 7.0 9.5
Winder loamy sand -------------------- 425 625 650 440 160 -------- 7. 5 10.5

SAnimal-unit--month refers to the number of months during a normal growing season that 1 acre will provide grazing for one animal
unit without injury to the sod. One animal unit is defined as one cow, horse, or steer; five hogs; or seven sheep.


percent; one in fair condition, 26 to 60 percent; and one tion of fallen needles; (d) the influence of time and in-
in poor condition, less than 25 percent. tensity of grazing on the presence or absence of grass
Grazeable woodland species and forage production; and (e) the number,
size and spacing, and method of site preparation of
Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory tree plantings.
of native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory is
an integral part of the forest plant community. The na- Descriptions of sites
tive plants can be grazed without significantly impairing The following mapping units have little, if any, po-
other forest values. On such forest land, grazing is tential for range and are not assigned to range sites:
compatible with timber management if it is controlled Astatula-Urban land complex; Canaveral-Urban land
or managed in such a manner that timber and forage re- complex; Coastal beaches; EauGallie sand, bedded;
sources are maintained or enhanced. Felda sand, bedded; Galveston-Urban land complex; My-
Forage production of grazeable woodland varies ac- akka-Urban land complex; Paola-Urban land complex;
cording to (a) different kinds of grazeable woodland; Pineda sand, bedded; Pomello-Urban land complex;
(b) amount of shade cast by the canopy; (c) accumula- Quartzipsamments, smoothed; Spoil banks; Tidal










56 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 4.-Estimated average yields per acre of citrus crops, vegetable crops, and improved pasture on arable soils under
high level management

[Absence of a yield figure indicates the soil is not suited to the crop specified or data are not available]

Citrus crops Vegetable crops Permanent improved
pasture
Soil
Oranges Grape- Tomatoes Cabbage Sweet- Water- Grass Grass-
fruit corn melons clover

50-lb. crate or 40 to 60-lb. Marketable Animal-ett- Animal-unit-
Boxes Boxes 40-lb. boxes bag crates lb./acre months 1 months 1
Anclotesand---------------------- _-- --------.. --------- 700 480 180 ---------- 9.0 11.0
Astatula fine sand, dark surface --------- 450 650 ----------- --- ---- 7,200 6. 5
Basinger sand-------------------------- 300 550 625 400 160 ------- 7.5 9.5
Bradenton fine sand, shallow variant------ 425 625
Canova peat --------------.---------------.------. --------------- 480 180 --------- 15. 0 20.0
Chobee sandy loam -------------------- ----------------- -------- 480 180 -------- 10.0 15.0
Cocoasand --------------------------- 500 700 ---------------------------- 9,000 7.0
Copeland complex -------------------- 375 575 --- ---_------- ----_----- 8. 0 10.0
EauGalliesand ----------------------- 375 575 625 320 160 10,000 7.0 9.5
EauGallie sand, bedded _---------------- 375 575 -...
Feldasand -------------......-------- 425 625 650 400 160 ---------- 7.5 10.5
Felda sand, bedded--.------------------ 425 625
Felda and Winder soils-----------------. 425 625 650 400 160 ---------- 7. 5 10.5
Floridana sand-------------------- -- ----- ------ 700 480 180 ------- 9. 0 11.0
Holopawsand------------------ ------- 325 375 650 400 160 -------- 7.5 10.5
Immokalee sand -------------_----_---- 350 550 625 320 160 10,000 7.0 9.5
Malabarsand--------------------- --- 325 575 650 400 160 --------- 7.5 10.5
Malabar, Holopaw, and Pineda soils..,.. 325 575 650 400 160 ---------- 7. 5 10. 5
Micco peat-------------------------- ------------------ 480 180 --------- 25.0 30.0
Montverde peat -------------------- --- ---- --------- ----------. 480 180 --------- 25. 0 30.0
Myakka sand------------------------- 350 550 625 320 160 10,000 7.0 9.5
Oldsmar sand--------------------__--- 375 575 625 320 160 10,000 7.0 9.5
Orsino fine sand---.,------------------. 350 450 --------- -------------------------- 5.0
Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes..... 300 400 ---------------------------------------- 3. 5
Parkwood fine sand, moderately fine sub-
soil variant .----------------------. 450 650 700 480 180 -------- 9. 0 11.0
Pineda sand-----------------.-------- 400 600 650 400 160 --------- 7.0 10.5
Pineda sand, bedded------------------- 400 600
Pineda sand, dark surface variant ---._- 400 600 700 480 180 --------- 9. 0 11.0
Pomello sand --_----------------- ------- ------ ------- ------ 10, 000 5. 6
Pompano sand---------------- _------. 300 550 650 400 160 ---- 7.5 10.5
Satellite sand -----------____ -----_____ ---------. .---- --------- ---------- 10, 000 5. 0
St. Johns sand------------------------. 350 550 700 480 180 10,000 9.0 11.0
Tavares fine sand ----------------__--. 425 600 -------- ----------. ------. 8,000 8.0
Terra Ceia muck ---------______-------------____ ----------___ 480 180 ---------- 25.0 30.0
Tomoka muck ------------------------.._...---------- _____ ..---. 480 180 --------- 25.0 30.0
Valkaria sand---------- --______----- 300 550 650 400 160 -------- 7.5 10.5
Wabasso sand ------------------------- 425 650 625 320 160 10, 000 7.0 9.5
Winder loamy sand -------------------- 425 625 650 440 160 -------- 7. 5 10.5

SAnimal-unit--month refers to the number of months during a normal growing season that 1 acre will provide grazing for one animal
unit without injury to the sod. One animal unit is defined as one cow, horse, or steer; five hogs; or seven sheep.


percent; one in fair condition, 26 to 60 percent; and one tion of fallen needles; (d) the influence of time and in-
in poor condition, less than 25 percent. tensity of grazing on the presence or absence of grass
Grazeable woodland species and forage production; and (e) the number,
size and spacing, and method of site preparation of
Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory tree plantings.
of native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory is
an integral part of the forest plant community. The na- Descriptions of sites
tive plants can be grazed without significantly impairing The following mapping units have little, if any, po-
other forest values. On such forest land, grazing is tential for range and are not assigned to range sites:
compatible with timber management if it is controlled Astatula-Urban land complex; Canaveral-Urban land
or managed in such a manner that timber and forage re- complex; Coastal beaches; EauGallie sand, bedded;
sources are maintained or enhanced. Felda sand, bedded; Galveston-Urban land complex; My-
Forage production of grazeable woodland varies ac- akka-Urban land complex; Paola-Urban land complex;
cording to (a) different kinds of grazeable woodland; Pineda sand, bedded; Pomello-Urban land complex;
(b) amount of shade cast by the canopy; (c) accumula- Quartzipsamments, smoothed; Spoil banks; Tidal







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 57

swamp; and Urban land. Quartzipsamments, smoothed; growth of an understory of grasses and forbs. The cli-
Urban land; and the soils that are in Urban land com- max grasses now on this site are creeping bluestem, lop-
plexes are used for houses, roads, commercial buildings, sided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, Florida paspalum,
recreational areas, and related purposes. EauGallie sand, brownseed paspalum, switchgrass, and hairy panicum.
bedded; Felda sand, bedded; and Pineda sand, bedded, are Grassleaf goldaster, deerstongue, and swamp sunflower
used almost exclusively for citrus. Spoil banks are man are among the principal forbs. The main increases are
made. They may occur in association with any range blue maidencane, pineland three-awn, and broomsedge
site. They support a few forage species, but have little bluestem. The most common invaders are carpetgrass,
potential for range. Tidal swamp, at about mean sea bottlebrush three-awn, pineywoods dropseed, and an-
level, is covered with a dense, tangled growth of man- nuals. To some extent, gallberry, saw-palmetto, and wax-
grove trees and roots. It has little potential for range. myrtle were under the canopy of the original pine forest.
They have now increased to the extent that they make
ACID FLATWOODS RANGE SITE up the characteristic vegetation of the site (fig. 8).
This range site consists of nearly level, acid, poorly The production of forage in woodland areas varies, de-
drained or somewhat poorly drained sandy soils. All the pending on the age of the stand, the density of the can-
soils are extremely acid to strongly acid or very strongly opy, and the extent to which needles have accumulated.
acid to medium acid in the surface layer and subsurface If the site is in good to excellent condition, yields, based
layer; some of them are acid in all layers. The soils have on plot clippings, average 3,500 to 6,000 pounds of air-
a sandy surface layer and subsurface layer, and most dry herbage per acre.
of them have a weakly cemented, dark-colored layer with-
in a depth of 50 inches. The water table fluctuates. In FRESH MARSH (MINERAL) RANGE SITE
poorly drained soils it is at the surface during wet This range site consists of nearly level, poorly drained
periods, to very poorly drained soils that are mostly slightly acid
This extensive site originally supported an open forest in the surface layer, but range from strongly acid to
of slash and longleaf pine. An open canopy permitted the mildly alkaline. These soils generally become less acid or
























1'*









Figure 8.-Scattered young pine trees, saw-palmetto, and a variety of native grasses on a typical Acid Flatwoods range site of
Myakka sand.







58 SOIL SURVEY

more alkaline with increasing depth. They have a sandy berry. Decreaser grasses are eastern gamagrass, beaked
or loamy surface layer and a loamy subsoil. They are at a panicums, bluestems, longleaf uniola, and low panicums.
slightly lower elevation than the Acid Flatwoods range Because the canopy is dense, forage production is limited.
site, commonly adjacent to this site. The water table is Soil conditions are favorable, however, and the forage is
within a depth of 10 inches much of the time. These soils of high quality. The site is used extensively for shade,
are subject to flooding, and some are flooded for long shelter, and browsing.
periods. The St. Johns River frequently overflows some Making reliable estimates of actual pounds of air-dry
areas of this site. herbage is difficult. No plot clippings have been taken.
This extensive range site originally supported a climax Based on observation, average yields of total air-dry
vegetation mainly of native maidencane. The climax veg- herbage are high if the tree canopy is less than 50 percent.
etation now is scattered cabbage palms that grow on the
slightly elevated rises within the marsh, sand cordgrass, SALT MARSH (MINERAL) RANGE SITE
giant cutgrass, and perennial sedges and rushes. The This range site consists of nearly level soils that are
main increases are sand cordgrass, field paspalum, and regularly covered by salt water or brackish water at high
broomsedge bluestem. Common invaders are carpetgrass, tide. These soils are inundated to a depth of a few inches
bermudagrass, and many annual grasses and weeds. Other by regular tidal action or flooded with brackish water.
invaders are smartweed, iris, willow primrose, and pick- Storms occasionally cause extremely high tides that cause
erelweed. Waxmyrtle is the main woody invader, flooding as deep as 2 to 3 feet. This range site also in-
If the site is in good to excellent condition, yields, eludes areas of poorly drained soils, formerly covered
based on plot clippings, average 5,000 to 7,000 pounds of with salt water, that are now diked and flooded with
air-dry herbage per acre. fresh water for 6 months or more in most years. Soils are
mainly mineral and have excellent supportability for
FRESH MARSH (ORGANIC) RANGE SITE livestock, equipment, and walkways.
This range site consists of nearly level, very poorly This range site supports a climax vegetation of de-
drained organic soils that are covered by water for long creaser species, mainly marshhay cordgrass, big cord-
periods. The layers of peat or muck are 5 inches to more grass, smooth cordgrass, Olney bulrush, switchgrass, salt-
than 80 inches thick. Organic layers range from extreme- marsh bulrush, and bush seaoxeye. Increasers are sea-
ly acid to moderately alkaline. Underlying materials are shore saltgrass, seashore paspalum, hollowstem spike rush,
sandy and loamy. Most areas are large and occur on the and black needlerush. Decreasers make up about 80 per-
flood plain of the St. Johns River, but smaller areas are cent of this open natural grassland, and increases 20
scattered throughout the county, except on the Atlantic percent. Salt marsh vegetation generally occurs in dis-
Coastal Ridge. tinct zones separated by small differences in elevation
Large areas of this range site originally supported a or degree of salinity. Salt marsh plants are consistent
climax vegetation mainly of native maidencane, giant in their reaction to grazing. Relatively few species of
cutgrass, perennial sedges, and rushes. The principal in- plants are represented in the scale of plant succession
creasers are pickerelweed, duckpotato, and sawgrass. on salt marsh.
Common invaders are annuals, redroot, willow primrose, If the site is in good to excellent condition, the yield,
Ft. Thompson grass, and lizardtail. based on plot clippings, averages 6,000 to 8,000 pounds
If this site is in good or excellent condition, yields of air-dry herbage per acre. If the range is in poor con-
average 8,000 to 10,000 pounds of air-dry herbage per edition, it is dominated by black needlerush that has no
acre. If the site is in poor or fair condition, yields aver- forage value.
age 1,000 to 2,000 pounds of air-dry herbage per acre. SANDHILL RANGE SITE
This range site consists of nearly level and gently slop-
HAMMOCK RANGE SITE ing sands and fine sands on ridges. These soils are mod-
This range site consists of nearly level, poorly drained erately well drained to excessively drained and have low
or very poorly drained, medium acid to moderately alka- to very low available water capacity. In a few places
line soils. These soils have a sandy surface layer and a coquina rock is at a depth of 20 to 54 inches.
loamy subsoil. Moisture conditions are favorable for a This site supports a climax vegetation mostly of open
dense growth of trees, shrubs, vines, and other plants. longleaf pine forest that includes scattered turkey oak,
Where hammocks are in association with marsh, swamp, bluejack oak, other kinds of oak, and an understory of
or slough areas they occupy islandlike positions, slightly decreaser and increase grasses and forbs. Creeping blue-
higher than surrounding areas, and generally are domi- stem, indiangrass, needlegrass, splitbeard bluestem, pur-
nated by cabbage palms. In association with flatwoods pie lovegrass, and forbs are the main decreasers. The
areas, hammocks generally occupy slightly lower posi- principal increases are pineland three-awn, pineland
tions and in some places are dominated by cabbage palm, dropseed, low panicum, broomsedge, turkey oak, blue-
pine, or oak. jack oak, and runner oak. Invaders are natalgrass, prick-
This site is a true forest site and has a climax vegeta- lypear, persimmon, and annuals.
tion of overstory trees including pine, palm, and hard- The production of forage under woodland use varies,
woods. It supports a luxuriant undergrowth of shrubs depending on the age of the stand and the density of
and vines and grasses in the small openings. The main the canopy. If the site is in good to excellent condition,
trees are cabbage palm, live oak, magnolia, fiscus, persim- yields average 2,000 to 4,000 pounds of air-dry herbage
mon, and slash pine. Important shrubs are holly, wax- per acre. If the site is in poor condition, yields average
myrtle, bay, sawbrier, Virginia creeper, and French mul- 1,000 to 2,000 pounds of air-dry herbage per acre.







BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 59
SAND POND RANGE SITE of pickerelweed average 2,000 to 3,000 pounds of air-dry
This range site consists of nearly level, very strongly forage per acre. On sandy soils, yields of maidencane and
acid to mildly alkaline, poorly drained soils in shallow St.-Johnswort average 2,500 to 3,500 pounds of air-dry
ponds, depressions, and sloughs that are flooded for forage per acre.
more than 6 months in most years (fig. 9). Scattered
areas of this range site occur throughout the flatwoods. SAND SCRUB RANGE SITE
Many landowners commonly refer to this site as a This site consists of nearly level to strongly sloping,
grassy pond because the original grass cover was maiden- moderately well drained to excessively drained sandy
cane. Areas that support vegetation occur as circular soils on ridges and knolls. These soils are highly leached.
bands. The vegetation varies somewhat, depending on They have very low available water capacity, and as a
the soils. The small areas of organic soils that occur result they have little value for production of forage.
within the site generally support sawgrass if they are This site supports a climax vegetation mainly of sand
nonacid, or maidencane, cutgrass, and pickerelweed if pine and scattered sand hickory, scrub hickory, turkey
they are acid. The centers of some areas, where the oak, and bluejack oak. The understory consists mainly of
site is flooded for the longest time, support pure stands runner oak, saw-palmetto, yucca, pricklypear, rosemary,
of cypress trees. Outward from the center on the more wild olive, and sand bay. Sparse scattered stands of Flor-
sandy soils, smaller amounts of maidencane and related ida bluestem, pineland three-awn, corkscrew three-awn,
species occur in association with St.-Johnswort, a woody and low panicum occur on this site.
shrub of no grazing value. Increasers include sand cord- Only a small amount of desirable forage is obtained.
grass, low panicum, stiff paspalum, and species of nut Yields are so low that the site should be disregarded
rushes. Invaders are blanketgrass, matchweed, pipeworts, when native forage resources are evaluated.
pickerelweed, and iris.
The production of forage varies greatly, depending on SLOUGH RANGE SITE
the amount of standing water. Little forage, if any, is This range site consists of nearly level, poorly drained
produced from sawgrass or cypress. If the site is in ex- to very poorly drained sandy soils. It is at a lower eleva-
cellent condition, yields of maidencane and small amounts tion than the surrounding Acid Flatwoods site. In places


































Figure 9.-Thick growth of St.-Johnswort on Sand Pond range site. The soil is Myakka sand, ponded.







60 SOIL SURVEY

it is in narrow wet areas and poorly defined drainage- The dense canopy of wetland hardwoods and the ex-
ways that meander through areas of the Acid Flatwoods cess water on this site reduce the production of forage in
site. The soils range from very strongly acid to moder- the understory. Desirable grasses, however, grow along
ately alkaline. The water table is within a depth of 10 the outer edges of the site where the water level is lower
inches for long periods, and during periods of heavy and the canopy'is less dense than in the other areas. The
rainfall the soils are subject to flooding, canopy varies from a pure stand of species, such as cy-
This site originally supported a climax vegetation of press, to a mixed stand made up of many species. The
maidencane. Scattered cabbage palms grew on the knolls main species are baldcypress, pondcypress, planertree,
and in a ring around the outer edges of some areas. Other swamp ash, swamp maple, and several species of gum
climax plants are giant cutgrass, sawgrass, and rushes. and sweetbay. Climax grasses that grow along the outer
The main increases are broomsedge bluestem, shortspike margins of this site include maidencane, blue maidencane,
bluestem, lovegrass, hair-awn muhly, sand cordgrass, and chalky bluestem, and beaked panicum. Pond apple, wax-
pineland three-awn. Common invaders are knotroot myrtle, storax, lizardtail, brackenfern, and pickerelweed
bristlegrass, low panicum, carpetgrass, and annuals (fig. are the main woody plants. Waxmyrtle is a serious in-
10). are the main woody plants. Waxmyrtle is a serious n-
If the site is in good or excellent condition, yields, vader along the outer margins of this site.
based on plot clippings, average 2,000 to 4,000 pounds If this site has a crown canopy of about 40 percent,
of air-dry herbage per acre. yields average 1,500 to 2,500 pounds of air-dry herbage
per acre.
SWAMP RANGE SITE SWEET FLATWOODS RANGE SITE
This site is made up of poorly drained or very poorly This range site consists of nearly level, poorly drained
drained soils that are covered by water most of the year. sandy soils. These soils range from strongly acid to mod-
These soils are in drainageways, in large bay heads, or in erately alkaline in the surface layer and generally become
depressions that have no outlets. Many areas are inacces- less acid or more alkaline with increasing depth.
sible because they are covered by water. This site is interspersed with small sand ponds and


































Figure 10.--An area of Basinger sand in the Slough range site. Heavy grazing has resulted in the invasion of carpetgrass, a common
invader.








BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 61

narrow sloughs. The water table fluctuates. During part This is about 33 percent of the total area of the county.
of the wet season it is within a depth of 10 inches. Not all of this forest is in private ownership.
This extensive site originally supported an open forest The present commercial woodlands, most of which are
of slash and longleaf pine. Most of this has been cut understocked, are dominated by pine. This open wood-
over. An open canopy permits an understory of herba- land is the result of clearcutting, use by wildlife, and
ceous vegetation. About 60 percent of the understory other detrimental or inhibiting causes. About 143,000
consists of decreaser grasses, including creeping blue- acres of woodland is grazed by cattle. Tree growth is
stem, Florida three-awn, Florida paspalum, tall three- suppressed in these areas. These areas could be much
awn, and switchgrass. Deerstongue, grassleaf goldaster, improved as woodland by interplanting and managing
and swamp sunflower are the main climax forbs. Exces- the areas to encourage tree growth.
sive and continued grazing on the more palatable de- The noncommercial forests of the county consist mostly
creasers cause the site to retrogress to a species compo- of cabbage palm hammocks scattered throughout the St.
sition of increases, such as broomsedge bluestem, tooth- Johns River Basin and mangrove swamps along the
achegrass, blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, pineland Indian and Banana Rivers.
three-awn, and species of low panicums. The original extensive pine forests of the county were
The production of forage under woodland use varies, cut about 50 years ago. Only a very few small groves
depending on the age of the stand, the density of the of original pines are still on Merritt Island. rhe forests
crown canopy, and the extent to which needles have are second growth. Cypress and hardwoods now growing
accumulated. If the site is in good to excellent condition, in the county are generally of poor commercial quality
yields, based on plot clippings, average 4,500 to 9,000 and are not being harvested at this time. There are no
pounds of air-dry herbage per acre. If the site is in poor sawmills. Very little pulpwood is shipped out of the
to fair condition, yields average 2,000 to 4,000 pounds county.
of air-dry herbage per acre. General woodland management
Major grazing management practices A well-managed stand of trees helps to prevent soil
Grazing native grass resources means to graze the key deterioration and helps to conserve soil and water re-
forage species at an intensity that maintains or improves sources. One of the primary functions of good trees is to
the quality and quantity of the desirable native grasses protect the soil. Trees slow the fall of raindrops and
and wildlife plants. The best yields of native grasses can allow the soil to absorb more moisture. Erosion is not an
be obtained only if the plants are allowed to accumulate important factor in most of the county, but the ability
a supply of carbohydrates in their roots each season. of tree cover to allow more moisture to enter the soil is
Sufficient top growth must be left, especially in fall, to important to ground water supplies. Properly managed
build up a reserve in the root system, forests could be an important part of the direct and
Proper grazing use.-The number of cattle and the indirect economy of the county. Managed forests total
length of time the range is grazed should be regulated, only about 3,000 acres. Practices to be considered in
so that no more than half the current season's growth achieving proper management are defined briefly in the
of the key species, by weight, is removed. When more following paragraphs.
than half is continually removed, the most desirable Protection from wildfires.-Trees and ground cover
plants are weakened and eventually die out and are are destroyed by uncontrolled wildfires. Trees not killed
replaced by weeds, brush, and other undesirable plants. are slowed in growth and may be scarred, which allows
Deferred grazing.-This conservation practice is de- the entry of insects and diseases. Fire lessens the ability
signed to periodically postpone the grazing or to rest of the soil to absorb water and consume litter that con-
native grazing land for a prescribed period during any tributes organic matter to the soil.
growth period of the year. This promotes the natural There is no countywide fire protection. Individual
increase of desirable forage species and builds up a landowners, however, should observe all rules of fire
supply of emergency feed for drought periods or winter protection. Firebreaks should be constructed and main-
use. trained around and through all woodlands. These fire
Brush control.-By killing or suppressing undesirable breaks can slow or stop a fire under normal conditions.
brush specie on native raz lan the more desirable Water management.-Management of water in wood-
rus species on native grazing lands, the more desirable lands is an important factor in starting and maintaining
grasses are permitted to grow and spread normally. Thus, normal growth of pine trees. Most of the county consists
more efficient use is made of the soil moisture and nu- of nearly level soils that have a high water table. A
trients. Brush control also improves wildlife habitat and properly designed system of shallow ditches to remove
increases food production for wildlife, excess surface water should be installed. The ditches
would provide a suitable outlet and drain all ponded
Woodland areas. An additional consideration should be to establish
new plantings on low "beds" or ridges to provide a zone
This section contains information about the relation- above the water table for optimum root development.
ship between soils and trees. It informs landowners and Tree planting.-Most of the woodland of the county is
operators of the capability of soils to produce trees and understocked and in need of stand improvement (fig.
suggests suitable management. 11). Tree farming is a good land use in many areas.
The 1968 Conservation Needs Inventory shows that Idle land can be profitably utilized by growing desirable
about 193,000 acres of commercial forests and 24,000 trees. Pines can grow on a variety of soils and require
acres of noncommercial forests are in Brevard County. minimum care.








BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 61

narrow sloughs. The water table fluctuates. During part This is about 33 percent of the total area of the county.
of the wet season it is within a depth of 10 inches. Not all of this forest is in private ownership.
This extensive site originally supported an open forest The present commercial woodlands, most of which are
of slash and longleaf pine. Most of this has been cut understocked, are dominated by pine. This open wood-
over. An open canopy permits an understory of herba- land is the result of clearcutting, use by wildlife, and
ceous vegetation. About 60 percent of the understory other detrimental or inhibiting causes. About 143,000
consists of decreaser grasses, including creeping blue- acres of woodland is grazed by cattle. Tree growth is
stem, Florida three-awn, Florida paspalum, tall three- suppressed in these areas. These areas could be much
awn, and switchgrass. Deerstongue, grassleaf goldaster, improved as woodland by interplanting and managing
and swamp sunflower are the main climax forbs. Exces- the areas to encourage tree growth.
sive and continued grazing on the more palatable de- The noncommercial forests of the county consist mostly
creasers cause the site to retrogress to a species compo- of cabbage palm hammocks scattered throughout the St.
sition of increases, such as broomsedge bluestem, tooth- Johns River Basin and mangrove swamps along the
achegrass, blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, pineland Indian and Banana Rivers.
three-awn, and species of low panicums. The original extensive pine forests of the county were
The production of forage under woodland use varies, cut about 50 years ago. Only a very few small groves
depending on the age of the stand, the density of the of original pines are still on Merritt Island. rhe forests
crown canopy, and the extent to which needles have are second growth. Cypress and hardwoods now growing
accumulated. If the site is in good to excellent condition, in the county are generally of poor commercial quality
yields, based on plot clippings, average 4,500 to 9,000 and are not being harvested at this time. There are no
pounds of air-dry herbage per acre. If the site is in poor sawmills. Very little pulpwood is shipped out of the
to fair condition, yields average 2,000 to 4,000 pounds county.
of air-dry herbage per acre. General woodland management
Major grazing management practices A well-managed stand of trees helps to prevent soil
Grazing native grass resources means to graze the key deterioration and helps to conserve soil and water re-
forage species at an intensity that maintains or improves sources. One of the primary functions of good trees is to
the quality and quantity of the desirable native grasses protect the soil. Trees slow the fall of raindrops and
and wildlife plants. The best yields of native grasses can allow the soil to absorb more moisture. Erosion is not an
be obtained only if the plants are allowed to accumulate important factor in most of the county, but the ability
a supply of carbohydrates in their roots each season. of tree cover to allow more moisture to enter the soil is
Sufficient top growth must be left, especially in fall, to important to ground water supplies. Properly managed
build up a reserve in the root system, forests could be an important part of the direct and
Proper grazing use.-The number of cattle and the indirect economy of the county. Managed forests total
length of time the range is grazed should be regulated, only about 3,000 acres. Practices to be considered in
so that no more than half the current season's growth achieving proper management are defined briefly in the
of the key species, by weight, is removed. When more following paragraphs.
than half is continually removed, the most desirable Protection from wildfires.-Trees and ground cover
plants are weakened and eventually die out and are are destroyed by uncontrolled wildfires. Trees not killed
replaced by weeds, brush, and other undesirable plants. are slowed in growth and may be scarred, which allows
Deferred grazing.-This conservation practice is de- the entry of insects and diseases. Fire lessens the ability
signed to periodically postpone the grazing or to rest of the soil to absorb water and consume litter that con-
native grazing land for a prescribed period during any tributes organic matter to the soil.
growth period of the year. This promotes the natural There is no countywide fire protection. Individual
increase of desirable forage species and builds up a landowners, however, should observe all rules of fire
supply of emergency feed for drought periods or winter protection. Firebreaks should be constructed and main-
use. trained around and through all woodlands. These fire
Brush control.-By killing or suppressing undesirable breaks can slow or stop a fire under normal conditions.
brush specie on native raz lan the more desirable Water management.-Management of water in wood-
rus species on native grazing lands, the more desirable lands is an important factor in starting and maintaining
grasses are permitted to grow and spread normally. Thus, normal growth of pine trees. Most of the county consists
more efficient use is made of the soil moisture and nu- of nearly level soils that have a high water table. A
trients. Brush control also improves wildlife habitat and properly designed system of shallow ditches to remove
increases food production for wildlife, excess surface water should be installed. The ditches
would provide a suitable outlet and drain all ponded
Woodland areas. An additional consideration should be to establish
new plantings on low "beds" or ridges to provide a zone
This section contains information about the relation- above the water table for optimum root development.
ship between soils and trees. It informs landowners and Tree planting.-Most of the woodland of the county is
operators of the capability of soils to produce trees and understocked and in need of stand improvement (fig.
suggests suitable management. 11). Tree farming is a good land use in many areas.
The 1968 Conservation Needs Inventory shows that Idle land can be profitably utilized by growing desirable
about 193,000 acres of commercial forests and 24,000 trees. Pines can grow on a variety of soils and require
acres of noncommercial forests are in Brevard County. minimum care.








BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 61

narrow sloughs. The water table fluctuates. During part This is about 33 percent of the total area of the county.
of the wet season it is within a depth of 10 inches. Not all of this forest is in private ownership.
This extensive site originally supported an open forest The present commercial woodlands, most of which are
of slash and longleaf pine. Most of this has been cut understocked, are dominated by pine. This open wood-
over. An open canopy permits an understory of herba- land is the result of clearcutting, use by wildlife, and
ceous vegetation. About 60 percent of the understory other detrimental or inhibiting causes. About 143,000
consists of decreaser grasses, including creeping blue- acres of woodland is grazed by cattle. Tree growth is
stem, Florida three-awn, Florida paspalum, tall three- suppressed in these areas. These areas could be much
awn, and switchgrass. Deerstongue, grassleaf goldaster, improved as woodland by interplanting and managing
and swamp sunflower are the main climax forbs. Exces- the areas to encourage tree growth.
sive and continued grazing on the more palatable de- The noncommercial forests of the county consist mostly
creasers cause the site to retrogress to a species compo- of cabbage palm hammocks scattered throughout the St.
sition of increases, such as broomsedge bluestem, tooth- Johns River Basin and mangrove swamps along the
achegrass, blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, pineland Indian and Banana Rivers.
three-awn, and species of low panicums. The original extensive pine forests of the county were
The production of forage under woodland use varies, cut about 50 years ago. Only a very few small groves
depending on the age of the stand, the density of the of original pines are still on Merritt Island. rhe forests
crown canopy, and the extent to which needles have are second growth. Cypress and hardwoods now growing
accumulated. If the site is in good to excellent condition, in the county are generally of poor commercial quality
yields, based on plot clippings, average 4,500 to 9,000 and are not being harvested at this time. There are no
pounds of air-dry herbage per acre. If the site is in poor sawmills. Very little pulpwood is shipped out of the
to fair condition, yields average 2,000 to 4,000 pounds county.
of air-dry herbage per acre. General woodland management
Major grazing management practices A well-managed stand of trees helps to prevent soil
Grazing native grass resources means to graze the key deterioration and helps to conserve soil and water re-
forage species at an intensity that maintains or improves sources. One of the primary functions of good trees is to
the quality and quantity of the desirable native grasses protect the soil. Trees slow the fall of raindrops and
and wildlife plants. The best yields of native grasses can allow the soil to absorb more moisture. Erosion is not an
be obtained only if the plants are allowed to accumulate important factor in most of the county, but the ability
a supply of carbohydrates in their roots each season. of tree cover to allow more moisture to enter the soil is
Sufficient top growth must be left, especially in fall, to important to ground water supplies. Properly managed
build up a reserve in the root system, forests could be an important part of the direct and
Proper grazing use.-The number of cattle and the indirect economy of the county. Managed forests total
length of time the range is grazed should be regulated, only about 3,000 acres. Practices to be considered in
so that no more than half the current season's growth achieving proper management are defined briefly in the
of the key species, by weight, is removed. When more following paragraphs.
than half is continually removed, the most desirable Protection from wildfires.-Trees and ground cover
plants are weakened and eventually die out and are are destroyed by uncontrolled wildfires. Trees not killed
replaced by weeds, brush, and other undesirable plants. are slowed in growth and may be scarred, which allows
Deferred grazing.-This conservation practice is de- the entry of insects and diseases. Fire lessens the ability
signed to periodically postpone the grazing or to rest of the soil to absorb water and consume litter that con-
native grazing land for a prescribed period during any tributes organic matter to the soil.
growth period of the year. This promotes the natural There is no countywide fire protection. Individual
increase of desirable forage species and builds up a landowners, however, should observe all rules of fire
supply of emergency feed for drought periods or winter protection. Firebreaks should be constructed and main-
use. trained around and through all woodlands. These fire
Brush control.-By killing or suppressing undesirable breaks can slow or stop a fire under normal conditions.
brush specie on native raz lan the more desirable Water management.-Management of water in wood-
rus species on native grazing lands, the more desirable lands is an important factor in starting and maintaining
grasses are permitted to grow and spread normally. Thus, normal growth of pine trees. Most of the county consists
more efficient use is made of the soil moisture and nu- of nearly level soils that have a high water table. A
trients. Brush control also improves wildlife habitat and properly designed system of shallow ditches to remove
increases food production for wildlife, excess surface water should be installed. The ditches
would provide a suitable outlet and drain all ponded
Woodland areas. An additional consideration should be to establish
new plantings on low "beds" or ridges to provide a zone
This section contains information about the relation- above the water table for optimum root development.
ship between soils and trees. It informs landowners and Tree planting.-Most of the woodland of the county is
operators of the capability of soils to produce trees and understocked and in need of stand improvement (fig.
suggests suitable management. 11). Tree farming is a good land use in many areas.
The 1968 Conservation Needs Inventory shows that Idle land can be profitably utilized by growing desirable
about 193,000 acres of commercial forests and 24,000 trees. Pines can grow on a variety of soils and require
acres of noncommercial forests are in Brevard County. minimum care.







62 SOIL SURVEY

































Figure 11.-Open stand of longleaf pine and scattered oaks on Astatula fine sand, dark surface. Sites such as this can support
denser stands of pine.

Proper cutting practices.-To profit most from good peat, Micco peat, Montverde peat, Terra Ceia muck, To-
woodland, a forest owner should use proper cutting prac- moka muck, and Floridana, Chobee, and Felda soils,
tices. Proper practices vary as the condition of the wood- flooded, are all very poorly drained soils that have a
land varies. Landowners should seek the advice of local water table -at or near the surface most of the time and
soil conservationists, Soil Conservation Service, or repre- are subject to flooding. These soils are not suited to pine
sentatives of the Florida Forest Service. trees, mainly because wetness is excessive. Coastal beaches
Woodland suitability groups occur as narrow strips along the Atlantic Ocean that are
regularly covered by salt water at high tides or during
Soils vary greatly in their suitability for trees. The storms. These areas are not suited to pine trees. The
capability of a soil to grow trees is affected by the effec- EauGallie, Felda, and Pineda sands, bedded, are used al-
tive depth of the root zone and the ability of the soil most exclusively for citrus. They are suited to pine trees,
to supply moisture. Other significant soil characteristics but will probably always be used for high-value crops.
are thickness and texture of the surface layer, amount of Quartzipsamments, smoothed, is sandy soil material
organic matter, depth to fine-textured material, aeration that has been reworked and shaped by earthmoving
of the soil, and depth to the water table, equipment. These areas are most common near urban
To assist owners in planning woodland management, centers or along major highways and will probably be
most of the soils of Brevard County suitable for trees used for building sites, roadways, recreational areas, and
have been assigned to woodland suitability groups. Each related uses. Spoil banks consists of piles of soil material
group consists of soils that have about the same suitabil- dug from ditches and canals on land dredged from the
ity for wood crops, require about the same management, ship channel in the Indian River. Because the soil char-
and have about the same potential productivity. acteristics of both Quartzipsamments, smoothed, and
Some areas mapped in the county are not assigned to Spoil banks are highly variable within short distances,
woodland groups. The uses of Urban land, for example, these areas cannot be adequately rated for pine tree pro-
and of soils in the Urban land complexes preclude their duction. Swamp is very poorly drained and poorly
use for the commercial production of pine trees. Canova drained, is commonly covered with water most of the








BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA 63

time, and consequently is not suited to pine trees. Tidal for a given soil is the height, in feet, that a specified
marsh and Tidal swamp are regularly covered with salt kind of tree on that soil will reach in 50 years. The site
or brackish water at high tide and for this reason are index of a soil is determined mainly by the capacity of
not suited to pine trees, the soil to provide moisture and growing space for tree
The 14 woodland groups in the county are described in roots. A site index in table 5 is an average for all the
table 5. The average site index of slash, longleaf, sand, soils in the suitability group. The site index for any one
and pond pines are listed for each suitability group. Also soil in the group may be slightly more or less than
shown are ratings of the hazards and limitations that average.
affect management. The ratings in table 5 are based Each woodland suitability group has, in varying de-
largely on the experience and judgment of local soil gree, limitations that affect its management. In the de-
scientists, foresters, and landowners. Only pines are con- scriptions of the suitability groups, some of these limi-
sidered in table 5. Some soils in low areas and along stations are expressed in relative terms, slight, moderate,
streams are suited to hardwoods. Foresters should be or severe. The relative term expresses the degree of limi-
consulted before extensive hardwood management is un- station.
dertaken. The terms used in the table are explained in Seedling mortality.-Even when healthy seedlings of
the following paragraphs. a suitable tree are correctly planted or occur naturally
The potential productivity of a soil for a specified in adequate numbers, some of them do not survive if
kind of tree is expressed as a site index. The site index characteristics of the soil are unfavorable.


TABLE 5.-Wood crops and factors in management

Potential productivity
Preferred
Seedling Plant Equipment species
Woodland group and map symbols Site Average mortality competition limitation for
Pine in- annual planting
species dex growth to
age 30

Cords/acre
Group 1: Excessively drained sandy Sand--- ---_. 50 0. 5-0. 9 Severe------- Moderate ..- Severe------- Sand.
soils that have a water table below a
depth of 120 inches. Potential pro-
ductivity is low. Pb, PfB, PfD, SfB,
SfD.
Group 2: Excessively drained sandy Slash-------- 70 1. 0-1.5 Moderate---- Moderate---- Moderate--..- Slash.
soils that have a water table below a Longleaf----- 60 0. 8-1. 3
depth of 120 inches. Potential pro-
ductivity is moderate. As.
Group 3: Moderately well drained to Sand-.----. 70 0. 7-1. 0 Severe------- Moderate--- M Moderate--. Slash.
somewhat poorly drained sandy soils Slash-------- 60 1.0-1. 5
that have a water table within a depth
of 10 to 60 inches most of the time.
Potential productivity is low. Ps, Sa.
Group 4: Well drained to moderately Sand -------- 70 0.7-1.0 Severe------- Moderate---- Severe ------ Sand.
well drained sandy soils that have a Slash ---_--- 70 0. 8-1. 2
water table within a depth of 20 to 60
inches or more. Potential productivity
is moderate. Ca, Or, We.
Group 5: Poorly drained sandy soils Slash -------- 70 1.0-1.5 Moderate--- Moderate---- Moderate- ..- Slash.
that have a water table within a Longleaf ----- 60 0. 5-0. 9
depth of 40 inches or more. Poten-
tial productivity is moderate. Im, M k.
Group 6: Poorly drained sandy soils Slash-------- 70 1.0-1.5 Moderate---- Severe------- Severe ------ Slash.
that have a water table within a depth Longleaf ---- 60 0. 5-0. 9
of 40 inches most of the time. Potential
productivity is moderate. Ba, Pw,
Va.
Group 7: Poorly drained sandy soils Slash-------- 70 1.0-1.5 Severe------- Severe------- Severe------- Slash.
that are flooded for 6 months or more Longleaf- -- 60 0. 4-0. 8
in most years. Potential productivity Pond -------- 50 0. 6-1. 0
is moderate. Ew, Fg, Mp, Sc.
Group 8: Moderately well drained Slash-------- 80 1.3-1.8 Moderate---- Moderate---- Moderate-..- Slash.
sandy soils that have a water table Longleaf----. 70 0. 8-1. 2
below a depth of 40 inches. Potential
productivity is moderately high. Ta.









64 sOIL SURVEY

TABLE 5.-Wood crops and factors in management-Continued

Potential productivity
Preferred
Seedling Plant Equipment species
Woodland group and map symbols Site Average mortality competition limitation for
Pine in- annual planting
species dex growth to
age 30

Cordslacre
Group 9: Well-drained sandy soils, Slash-------- 80 1. 0-1. 5 Moderate-.-- Moderate---- Moderate---- Slash.
underlain by bedrock at a depth of 20 Longleaf ----- 70 0. 6-1. 0
to 54 inches, that have a water table
estimated to be below a depth of 72
inches. Potential productivity is
moderately high. Co.

Group 10: Poorly drained sandy soils Slash-------- 80 1. 3-1. 7 Moderate----- Moderate--.-- Moderate---- Slash.
that have a water table within a depth Longleaf ----. 70 0. 5-1. 0
of about 40 inches. Potential pro-
ductivity is moderately high. Eg, Od,
Sb, Wa.
Group 11: Poorly drained sandy soils Slash-------- 80 1. 2-1. 7 Severe------- Severe------- Moderate--- Slash.
that have a water table within a Longleaf ----- 70 0. 8-1. 1
depth of 40 inches most of the time.
Potential productivity is moderately
high. Fa, Fe, Ho, Ma, Mb, Pn, Pp.
Group 12: Poorly drained to very Slash-------- 80 0.8-1.2 Moderate----- Severe------ Severe------- Slash.
poorly drained sandy soils that have Longleaf ----- 70 0. 5-1. 0
a water table within a depth of 30
inches. Potential productivity is
moderately high. Cp, Pk.
Group 13: Poorly drained sandy soils Slash-------- 90 1. 3-1. 8 Moderate---. Severe------- Moderate.--- Slash.
that have a water table within a Longleaf----- 80 0.9-1.2
depth of about 30 inches. Potential
productivity is high. Br, Wn.
Group 14: Very poorly drained sandy Slash -------- 90 1. 3-1.8 Severe------- Severe------- Severe------- Slash.
and loamy soils that have a water Longleaf ----- 80 0. 9-1. 2
table within a depth of 40 inches most
of the time. Potential productivity is
high. An, Ch, Fn.


Mortality is slight if not more than 25 percent of the methods can be used to prevent undesirable plants from
planted seedlings die, or if trees ordinarily regenerate invading. Competition is severe if trees cannot regenerate
naturally in places where there are enough seeds. Mor- naturally. Where competition is severe, careful site prep-
tality is moderate if 25 to 50 percent of the seedlings aration, controlled burning, spraying with chemicals, and
die, or if trees do not regenerate naturally in numbers girdling are essential.
needed for adequate restocking. In some places replant- Equipment limitation.-Drainage, slope, flooding, soil
ing to fill open spaces is necessary. Mortality is severe texture, or other soil characteristics can restrict or pro-
if more than 50 percent of the planted seedlings die, or hibit the use of ordinary equipment in pruning, thinning,
if trees do not ordinarily reseed naturally in places where harvesting, or other woodland management. Different
there are enough seeds. If mortality is severe, seedlings soils require different kinds of equipment, methods of
should be planted where seeds do not grow and special operation, or seasons when equipment can be used.
seedbeds should be prepared. Good methods of planting The limitation is slight if there are no restrictions on
are essential to insure a full stand of trees, the type of equipment or on the time of year that the
Plant competition.-When a woodland is disturbed by equipment can be used. It is moderate if slopes are mod-
fire, cutting, grazing, or some other means, undesirable erately steep, if heavy equipment is restricted by wetness,
brush, trees, and plants invade. The invading growth or if the use of equipment damages the tree roots to
competes with the desirable trees and hinders their some extent. Equipment limitation is severe if many types
establishment and growth. of equipment cannot be used, if the time equipment can-
Competition is slight if unwanted plants present no not be used is more than 3 months a year, and if the
special problem. It is moderate if the invaders delay, use of equipment severely damages the roots of trees and
but do not prevent the establishment of a normal, fully the structure and stability of the soil. The limitation is
stocked stand. Where plant competition is moderate, severe on moderately steep and steep soils and on very
seedbed preparation is generally not needed and simple wet and very sandy soils.




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