• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Location map - National forests...
 Table of Contents
 How to use this soil survey
 Introduction
 Part I: The landscape
 Part II: The soils
 Part III: Soil interpretive tables...
 Tables
 Glossary, references, index...






Title: Soils and vegetation of the Apalachicola National Forest
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026070/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soils and vegetation of the Apalachicola National Forest
Alternate Title: National forests in Florida, soils and vegetation of the Apalachicola National Forest
Physical Description: viii, 165 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Forest Service. -- Southern Region
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Forest soils -- Florida -- Apalachicola National Forest   ( lcsh )
Forest plants -- Florida -- Apalachicola National Forest   ( lcsh )
Apalachicola National Forest (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 164).
General Note: Cover title: National forests in Florida, Soils and vegetation of the Apalachicola National Forest.
General Note: "August 1984."
Funding: (Florida Environments Online)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026070
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001297975
oclc - 11674194
notis - AGE8700
lccn - 85600809
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Location map - National forests in Florida
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    How to use this soil survey
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Part I: The landscape
        Page 3
        Physiography and geology
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Guide to physiographic divisions of the Apalachicola National Forest
            Page 7
            Page 8
        Physiographic map
            Page 9
        Geology map legend
            Page 10
        Geology map
            Page 11
        Drainage
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
        Climate
            Page 18
        Vegetation types
            Page 19
            Page 20
        List of vegetation types
            Page 21
            Page 22
            High pineland
                Page 23
                Page 24
            Pine-palmetto flatwoods
                Page 25
                Page 26
                Page 27
                Page 28
            High pineland depressions
                Page 29
            Titi swamps
                Page 29
                Page 30
                Page 31
            Bay swamps
                Page 32
                Page 33
            Cypress swamps
                Page 34
                Page 35
            River swamps
                Page 36
                Page 37
            Loblolly pine forests
                Page 38
                Page 39
            Southern mixed hardwood
                Page 40
                Page 41
            Savannah
                Page 42
                Page 43
                Page 44
                Page 45
                Page 46
                Page 47
                Page 48
                Page 49
                Page 50
                Page 51
            Longleaf pine flats
                Page 52
                Page 53
                Page 54
            Slash pine flat
                Page 55
                Page 56
    Part II: The soils
        Page 57
        General soil map units
            Page 58
        General soil map
            Page 59
        General soils legend
            Page 60
        Rutlege-Dorovan soils
            Page 61
        Leon-Rutlege-Scranton soils
            Page 62
        Leon-Blanton-Mandarin soils
            Page 63
        Chipley-Blanton-Foxworth soils
            Page 64
        Kershaw-Ortega-Alpin soils
            Page 65
        Rutlege-Meggett soils
            Page 66
        Meggett-Surrency soils
            Page 67
        Bladen-Plummer soils
            Page 68
        Leefield-Dothan soils
            Page 69
            Page 70
        Soil series and their morphology
            Page 71
            Albany series
                Page 72
            Alpin series
                Page 73
            Bladen series
                Page 74
            Blanton series
                Page 75
                Page 76
            Chipley series
                Page 77
            Dorovan series
                Page 78
            Dothan series
                Page 79
            Dunbar series
                Page 80
            Foxworth series
                Page 81
            Fuquay series
                Page 82
            Kershaw series
                Page 83
            Leefield series
                Page 84
                Page 85
            Leon series
                Page 86
            Mandarin series
                Page 87
            Meggett series
                Page 88
            Ortega series
                Page 89
            Plummer series
                Page 90
            Rutlege series
                Page 91
            Sapelo series
                Page 92
                Page 93
            Scranton series
                Page 94
            Surrency series
                Page 95
            Troup series
                Page 96
        Soil mapping units
            Page 97
            Page 98
        Soil mapping units legend
            Page 99
            Page 112
            Rutlege soils, occasionally flooded
                Page 100
            Surrency loamy sand
                Page 100
            Dorovan-Pamlico complex
                Page 101
            Meggett soils, frequently flooded
                Page 102
            Scranton fine sand
                Page 103
            Plummer fine sand
                Page 103
            Bladen fine sand
                Page 103
            Chipley fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
                Page 104
            Leon sand
                Page 104
            Mandarin fine sand
                Page 105
            Albany loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
                Page 106
            Leefield loamy sand
                Page 106
            Dunbar loamy sand
                Page 107
            Sapelo fine sand
                Page 107
            Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
                Page 107
            Ortega sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
                Page 108
            Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
                Page 108
            Kershaw sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
                Page 109
            Troup fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
                Page 109
            Fuquay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
                Page 110
            Dothan loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
                Page 110
            Alpin sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
                Page 111
            Kershaw sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
                Page 111
    Part III: Soil interpretive tables use and management
        Page 113
        Formation of the soils
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 117
        Recreation
            Page 118
        Engineering
            Page 119
            Page 120
        Water management
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
    Tables
        Table 1: Woodland management and productivity
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
        Table 2: Recreational development
            Page 128
            Page 129
        Table 3: Engineering index properties
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
        Table 4: Physical and chemical properties
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
        Table 5: Water features
            Page 138
            Page 139
        Table 6: Construction materials
            Page 140
            Page 141
        Table 7: Acreage and proportionate extent of soils
            Page 142
            Page 143
        Table 8: Fertilizer recommendations
            Page 144
        Table 9: Soil classification
            Page 145
        Table 10: Guide for management type and site preparation
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
    Glossary, references, index map
        Page 149
        Glossary
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
        References
            Page 164
        Index to soil map sheets
            Page 165
Full Text

UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE
FOREST SERVICE
SOTERN REGION
NATIONAL FORESTS
IN FLORIDA


SOILS and
VEGETATION
of the
APALACHICOLA
NATIONAL FOREST









F. 401. 1















SOILS AND VEGETATION
OF THE
APALACHICOLA NATIONAL FOREST



AUGUST 1984







UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOREST SERVICE















OSCEOLA


PENSACOLA PA-NM A LAKE CITY
PANAMA CITY L\..- \ --, ,E V,
SGAINESVILL \
APALACHICOLA NaNe, OAa
OCALA Naaenal
OCALA




L. 4-
0i
TAMPA
ST. PETERSBURG


4

FT.MYERS 1'


LOCATION MAP

NATIONAL FORESTS

IN FLORIDA


DAYTONA BEACH


MELBOURNE


FT. PIERCE





FT.
LAUDERDALE
MIAMI










CONTENTS

Page

How to Use This Soil Survey.........................................vii

Introduction.......................................................... 1

Part I The Landscape ... ............................................ 3

Physiography and Geology........................................
Guide to Physiographic Divisions of the Apalachicola
National Forest............................................7
Physiographic Map................................................9
Geology Map Legend ................................ ............. 10
Geology Map.....................................................11
Drainage ........................... ............................. 12
Climate ... ................................ .................... 18
Vegetation Types.............................................. 19
List of Vegetation Types ........................................21
High Pineland.............................................23
Pine-Palmetto Flatwoods ...................................25
High Pineland Depressions.............. ......... ....... 29
Titi Swamps...............................................29
Bay Swamps.................................................32
Cypress Swamps.............................................34
River Swamps ...... ............... ....... ............... 36
Loblolly Pine Forests......................................38
Southern Mixed Hardwood....................................40
Savannah .... ...........................................42
Longleaf Pine Flats....................................... 52
Slash Pine Flat.............................................55

Part II The Soils ..... ..... .......... ........... ....................57

General Soil Map Units....................................... 58
General Soil Map..............................................59
General Soils Legend............................................. 60
Rutlege-Dorovan Soils.. ........ ........... ...... ............61
Leon-Rutlege-Scranton Soils....................................62
Leon-Blanton-Mandarin Soils......................................63
Chipley-Blanton-Foxworth Soils..................................64
Kershaw-Ortega-Alpin Soils.....................................65
Rutlege-Meggett Soils...........................................66
Meggett-Surrency Soils..........................................67
Bladen-Plummer Soils................ ......... ............ .........68
Leefield-Dothan Soils... ... ......... ................. ............ 69
Classification of the Soils................... ..................70
Soil Series and Their Morphology..............................71
Albany Series..... ......................... ..... ........... 72
Alpin Series .................................. ............ 73
Bladen Series.............. ......... ........................74
Blanton Series.................... ....................... 75









Page


Chipley Series .......................................... 77
Dorovan Series............................................78
Dothan Series............................................79
Dunbar Series...................................80
Foxworth Series.................................81
Fuquay Series..............................................82
Kershaw Series...........................................83
Leefield Series........................................ ..84
Leon Series.............................................. 86
Mandarin Series.........................................87
Meggett Series ............................................ 88
Ortega Series................................ .. .. 89
SPlummer Series ............................................90
Rutlege Series............................................ 91
Sapelo Series.............................................92
Scranton Series................................... ......94
Surrency Series ...........................................95
Troup Series...............................................96
Soil Mapping Units...................................... 97
Soil Mapping Units Legend........................................99
Rutlege soils, occasionally flooded......................100
Surrency loamy sand ................. .................. 100
Dorovan-Pamlico complex ...................................101
Meggett soils, frequently flooded........................102
Scranton fine sand........................................103
Plummer fine sand .........................................103
Bladen fine sand..........................................103
Chipley fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes...................104
Leon sand ................................................ 104
Mandarin fine sand .......................................105
Albany loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes...................106
Leefield loamy sand..... ...................................106
Dunbar loamy sand.........................................107
Sapelo fine sand............. ......................... 107
SBlanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes..................107
Ortega sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........................108
Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......................108
Kershaw sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........................109
Troup fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes....................109
Fuquay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...................110
Dothan loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes .............110
Alpin sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.........................111
Kershaw sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes........................111

Part III Soil Interpretive Tables

Use and Management...... ................. ....... ............ ........ 113
Formation of the Soils .............................................114
Woodland Management and Productivity ...............................117
Recreation........................................ ............... 118
Engineering...... ............... ......................... ............119









Page
Water Management....... ...... ....... .......... ..... ................ 121


LIST OF TABLES


Table 1. Woodland Management and Productivity......................124

Table 2. Recreational Development...................................128

Table 3. Engineering Index Properties.............................130

Table 4. Physical and Chemical Properties........................135

Table 5. Water Features........................................... 138

Table 6. Construction Materials................................... 140

Table 7. Acreage and Proportionate Extent of Soils.................142

Table 8. Fertilizer Recommendations...............................144

Table 9. Soil Classification..................................... ..145

Table 10. Guide for Management Type and Site Preparation............146


LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 1. Location Map... ....................................iii

Figure 2. Physiographic Divisions Map.................................9

Figure 3. Geology Map ........................................ ........ 11

Figure 4. Watershed Map...................................................13

Figure 5. Water Table Graph...................................... ..15

Figure 6. Water Table Graph........................................16

Figure 7. Average Monthly Precipitation...........................17

Figure 8. Index Map.................................................165









How To Use This Soil Survey


This soil survey for the Apalachicola National Forest consists of three
parts. Part I contains a description of the landscape including the vegetation.
Part II contains mapping unit descriptions plus detailed descriptions of each
soil in the survey. Part III contains the soil interpretation tables.

Locating Soils. All of the soils in the Apalachicola National Forest are shown
on the detailed maps. There are 26 maps covering the Forest. The location of
each map sheet is shown on the Map Index. On each of the map sheets, soil areas
are outlined and identified by symbols.

Finding and Using Information. The "Description of Mapping Units" in Part II
and the Interpretive Tables in Part III can be used to find information. The
description of mapping units and tables list all soils in numeric-alphabetical
sequence.

The ratings of the soils in the tables are based on soil criteria. A rating of
slight means that soil properties are generally favorable for the rated use, or
limitations are minor and easy to overcome. Moderate means that some soil pro-
perties are unfavorable but can be overcome or modified by special planning and
design. Severe indicates soil properties so unfavorable and so difficult to
correct or overcome, that major soil reclamation, special design or intensive
maintenance is required.

In applying these ratings it is important to remember that these ratings:

--Do not eliminate the need for detailed, onsite investigation of the soil and
site before designing, grading, or construction.

--Apply to soil in the undisturbed state, not soil altered through grading,
compaction, or other manipulation.

--Take into account limitations only for the soil, which is one of several
factors to be considered in determining land use.


viii









Introduction


The Apalachicola National Forest (558,735 acres) is located in Franklin,
Leon, Liberty and Wakulla Counties. Its terrain is flat to gently rolling
and pocked by numerous sinkholes. The soils range from excessively drained
to very poorly drained. Natural fertility ranges from low to high but is
generally low.

The fieldwork for the soil vegetation survey began in 1970 and was
completed in 1982. The survey, using 22 mapping units was recorded on 26
aerial photographs, with a scale of 2.64 inches/mile. The minimum size
mapping unit is about five acres. Copies of the soil-vegetation maps can
be obtained from the District Ranger's Office or Supervisor's Office. The
soils were surveyed by the following Forest Service personnel: Mike Jones,
Dennis Law, John Vann, Bobby Scott, Jim Harrisman, James Hart, Pete Avers
and Earl Van Atta, an individual contractor. This report was assembled by
William R. Waite.





















PART I-THE LANDSCAPE









PHYSIOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY


Some of the prominent physiographic features of the Apalachicola National
Forest are seen in Figure 2. Figure 3 shows the geologic formation for
the area. These maps were copied from maps prepared by Dr. H.K. Brooks
(1981). Other data from Clewell (1971), Hendry and Sproul (1966), McNeil
(1949), and Puri and Vernon (1964) were used in this report.

The panhandle of Florida is comprised of the Southern Pine Hills District,
the Dougherty Karst District, the Apalachicola Delta District, the Tifton
Uplands and the Ocala Uplift District. The Apalachicola National Forest
lies wholly within the Ocala Uplift District (5) and the Apalachicola Delta
District (8). The Ocala Uplift District is represented by the State Line
Hills (5a) and the Big Bend Karst (5b). The State Line Hills are further
subdivided and include the Tallahassee Red Hills (5al). The Big Ben Karst
(5b) is further divided into the Lake Munson Hills (5bl) and the Woodville
Karst (5b2). The Tallahassee Hills are separated from the Big Bend Karst
(5b) and the Apalachicola Delta District (8) by an escarpment, the Cody
Scarp. This escarpment contains the so-called Okefenokee shoreline of an
early, Pleistocene sea of the Yarmouth interglacial period. The melting of
polar ice caps forced a rise in sea level to a point about 150 feet in ele-
vation above the present sea level. Pleistocene seas never advanced north-
ward beyond the Cody Scarp except in river valleys.

Additional Pleistocene shorelines have been identified in the Apalachicola
National Forest within the Apalachicola Delta District. One is the
Wicomico shoreline of the Sangamon interglacial period which lies at 100
feet elevation, and the other is the Pamlico shoreline at 30 feet eleva-
tion. The first Pleistocene-interglacial sea was the deepest and reached
further inland than each succeeding interglacial sea. A theory of a gra-
dual, coastal uplift has been advanced to explain why the shoreline of each
succeeding interglacial sea is closer to the present shoreline than the pre-
ceding interglacial shoreline. This uplift has been the result of the up-
warping of continental edges as the interiors sagged under the weight of
advancing glaciers.

The area formerly known as the Gulf Coastal Lowlands has been divided into
physiographic units based on topography. One of these units, the
Apalachicola Delta District, lies primarily west of a line drawn from
Tallahassee through Crawfordville, and the Woodville Karst Plain, which
lies eastward. This line is essentially identical to the Pamlico shore-
line. Its course in Wakulla County has not been determined, but C.W.
Hendry, Jr. (personal communication) agrees that it might continue along
the Pamlico shoreline south to Medart and west to Sopchoppy or even near
Panacea (where limestone lies near the surface). The Apalachicola Delta
District occurs at elevations upwards to 150 feet, while the Woodville
Karst Plain is distinctly lower, lying mostly below 60 feet.

That portion of the Apalachicola Delta District that lies between the
Okefenokee and Wicomico shorelines forms a gentle slope which drops 50 feet
in elevation. This land formerly known as the Beacon Slope has been sub-
divided by Brooks (1981) into the Fountain Delta (8a2), the Hosford Delta
(8a3), and the Norfleet Ridge (8a4). It is dissected by streams which









drain the Cody Scarp; however, these streams are small and mostly fade into
swamps below the Wicomico shoreline.

The entire Big Bend of Florida is underlain by a bedrock of limestone which
dates no later than to the early Miocene age. This limestone is overlain
by plastic materials of sands, silts, clays, shell beds, and even some
limestone which does not form a continuous stratum or bedrock. The
Tallahassee Hills are formed by clastics which represent old, Miocene deltas
and which include much clay and silt. These clastics are not homogeneous;
phosphatic and clacareous deposits, for example, are scattered seemingly at
random.

The limestone in the Woodville Karst Plain probably lies within 10-30 feet
of the soil surface in most places and is exposed along the Wakulla and
lower Sopchoppy Rivers. (Limestone exposures occur along the ravine of the
Sopchoppy River, 20 feet beneath overlying sands, at Southwest Quarter,
Section 13, Township 14 South, Range 3 West, at the bridge of Forest
Service Road 373.) This limestone is overlain by the sands of Pamlico seas
rather than by the heavier Miocene clastics. Subsequently, organic acids
have percolated unobstructed through these sands and have eroded the sur-
face of the limestone beneath at a rate estimated to be as much as one foot
in every five or six thousand years. As a result, the entire Karst plain
has been lowered during recent milennia, perhaps explaining the dramatic
relief along the southern edge of Tallahassee.

This erosion by solution of the limestone has dissolved the roofs of
limestone caverns which are generally filled with water. When the water
level drops, these roofs sometimes are unable to support the overburden of
Pleistocene sands and cave in, forming a sandy depression or even a sink
hole with exposed limestone walls.

To the west of Woodville Karst Plain, the limestone becomes progressively
deeper and reaches a depth of about 200 feet near the Apalachicola River.
Above this limestone lies an assortment of various Miocene clastics and
above them a veneer of Pleistocene sands. The depth of the limestone and
the impermeability of the heavier clastics have prevented acids from per-
colating to the limestone and eroding it. Therefore, the Apalachicola
Delta District is much higher in elevation than the Woodville Karst Plain.

On the other hand, the impermeable strata perch groundwater near the sur-
face in the Apalachicola Delta District, making this elevated region swampy
compared to the lower but xeric Woodville Karst Plain. In general, the
Apalachicola Delta District is very gently undulating and poorly drained by
very few, permanent streams. The many hundreds of swamps of these lowlands
occupy irregularly-shaped, shallow depressions that mostly do not join to
form drainages. Most of these depressions lie no more than 6-10 feet below
the level of the surrounding pineland. They range in area from less than
an acre to many sections. The largest is Bradwell Bay.

These depressions are likely the result of gentle undulations of a former
Pleistocene sea-bottom. They may have been accentuated, though, by more
recent, localized slumping of the surface. Slumping would follow if shell
beds, marls, or other sub-surface calcareous deposits within the upper









layers of the Miocene clastics were dissolved by acids of decomposition
which leached from the pinelands above. Such slumping would slowly form a
depression, having a higher water table than surrounding lands. The water
table, in turn, would promote succession from pineland to titi swamp, bay
swamp, or even to cypress swamp, depending on the amount of slumping.

The remains of what was once an offshore bar during Pleistocene times runs
between a point just south of Clear Lake to Smith Creek. This bar is too
low to be discerned while driving along Forest Service Road 13, which was
constructed on top of the bar west of the Sopchoppy River. Aerial photo-
graphs reveal, though, a notably greater amount of pineland on this bar
compared to the more swampy lands on either side of the bar.

The northwestern portion of the Woodville Karst Plain, lying within Leon
County, has been designated as the Lake Munson Hills. Almost the entire
area of the Lake Munson Hills lies within the Apalachicola National Forest
and comprises the sand hill region which extends westward just beyond
Silver Lake and Clear Lake. The land lies 30-50 feet higher than adjacent
portion of the Woodville Karst Plain and includes Pleistocene dunes and
offshore bars which are related to the Wicomico shoreline and which rise
80-100 feet above sea level. Sub-surface silts and clays of the adjacent
Apalachicola Delta District interfinger with the sands, retarding per-
colation and, therefore, preventing solution of the limestone beneath and
the resultant slumping of the surface.

The surface materials of the entire Apalachicola National Forest are
generally sandy. Alluvium along major rivers may include heavier sedi-
ments. Some rather irregular and often large areas of heavy loam soils
occur near the Apalachicola River, mostly west of a line between Camel Lake
and Sumatra. These loams likely represent Pleistocene alluvial deposits.









GUIDE TO THE PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS OF THE
APALACHICOLA NATIONAL FOREST.


5. The Ocala Uplift District

This is the "Lime Sink Region" of the
pioneers. Early Tertiary limestones
are at or near the surface in most
places. Structurally, this is a
broad uplift that occurred in Middle
and Late Tertiary time. The most
distinctive features are the low
rolling limestone plains, but the
landscape is varied.

a. State Line Hills: Orginally
sculptured by southward flowing
streams; they are now being modified
by solution of the underlying
limestone, especially in the valleys
and lowlands.

1. Tallahassee Red Hills:
Subsurface drainage has captured most
of the surface runoff and there are
large solution basins containing
lakes, marshes and swamps. Clayey
sands have weathered to a thick, red
residual soil. Three hills reach
elevations of 245 feet. The native
vegetation is mixed forest.

b. Big Bend Karst: An erosional
limestone plain with some low hills
consisting of surficial sand.
Beaches are rare; salt marshes give
way to the open water of the Gulf of
Mexico. Some mangroves occur south-
ward of the Cedar Keys. The low
coastal plain is predominantly flat-
woods and swamps:

1. Lake Munson Hills: An
anomalous area of xeric sand hills
with internal drainage. This divi-
sion is probably genetically related
to the paleodeltas of the
Apalachicola River. It is not
included with the Tallahassee Hills
because it is coastward of an


extension of the Cody Scarp. The
elevation is in the range of 50 to
100 feet.

2. Woodville Karst: Largely
a plain, but with some low sand and
limestone hills. Many karst features,
including a very large spring, occur.
There are relic coastal features and
a paleodune field. All elevations
are less than 50 feet. Flatwoods
predominate.

8. Apalachicola Delta District

The river terraces and the cuspate
deltas, past and present, of the
Apalachicola River are the base
for distinguishing this district.
It is a plastic terrain with no
karst, thus is atypical of the
Florida Section.

a. Paleodelta Relics: Weathered
and partially eroded relics of Upper
Miocene and Pliocene accretion from
the initial development of a
depositional cuspate foreland. The
deposits are sand and silt with
subordinate amounts of clay and
gravel.

3. Hosford Delta: An incre-
ment of beach ridges overlying
fossiliferous silty sand and silts of
Pilocene age. Elevations between
80 and 150 feet occur. The beach
ridge plain of this delta is cons-
picuously warped downward toward the
present cuspate foreland, which is
the depo-center of a considerable
thickness of sediments of Miocene,
Pliocene and Pleistocene age.

b. River Terraces: Alluvial
plains now somewhat modified by
erosion. Terraces with elevations








200 to 220 feet and 130 to 140 feet
can readily be distinguished.

c. Delta Plain: A very poorly
drained, gently sloping plain. All
elevations are less than 90 feet.
Surficial deposits are sand and silt.
The recent floodplain is swamp. Flat-
woods and swamp forests exist else-
where.

d. Coastal Strip: Seaward of a
scarp with a toe at about 18 feet in
elevation is a relic lagoon-barrier
island complex that forms the present
margin of the existing cuspate fore-
land. Offshore barrier islands and
St. Joseph's Spit have formed during
Recent time. The Apalachicola River
is now building a bay head delta;
whereas, the drowned valley system to
the west which is St. Andrew's Bay,
is receiving little land derived
plastic sediment.















8a3


8c


8c


Physiographic
Adapted from H.K. Brooks,
Guide to Physiographic
Divisions of Florida


Divisions


APALACHICOLA Na~onaU 4i


BRISTOL








GEOLOGY MAP LEGEND


PQr = beach and dune sand deeply weathered, coarse to fine sands with
some clay lenses.

Pjb = Jackson Bluff Formation, sand, silty sand and shelly silty sand,
unlithified, gray, blue, green and black, estuarine faces is a
pyritiferous silt.

Qad = Apalachicola paleo-cuspate delta and alluvial plain, fine sand and
silt with lenses of gravel and clay.

Qh = undifferentiated sand, shell, clay, marl and peat.

Qb = Biloxi Formation, beach and dune sand with silty sand, silt and
clay representing estuarine faces.

Mc = Citronelle Formation, gravel, sand and micaceous kaolinitic clay,
sandy ironstone concretions, gray, orange, red, mottled, residual
sandy soil.

Mch = Chattachoochee Formation, argillaceous to sandy impure limestone,
some green clay and sandy claystone partings and beds, zones of
hard rubbly limestone in marl matrix occur, silicified fossils,
especially corals and oysters are common as are shells of
terrestrial snails, medium to coarse beds interfinger from the
north.

Mh3 = Hawthorne Formation, Statenville type, sand silty sand and clay
with phosphate pebbles, granules, clast concentrations and replace-
ments, oyster bars commons, clays may be siliceous but are typi-
cally mixed montmorillovite and palygorskite.










12 Pjb PQr
319

Pjb
-h P/ Mch
Pjb
Qad Qad 267


Qad
CRAWFORDVILLE


Oad Qad


SQb a SOPCHOPPY
Oh
67


Ob geology Map
ADAPTED FROM H.K. BROOKS, GEOLOGIC MAP
Qh OF FLORIDA.
APALACHICOLA Nam.entIint









DRAINAGE


The Apalachicola National Forest lies within six administrative watersheds:
Wakulla River, Lost Creek, Sopchoppy River, Ochlockonee River, New River,
and Apalachicola River. (See map of Administrative Watersheds.) The head-
waters of Lost Creek and Sopchoppy River lie entirely within Forest boun-
daries. New River's source area is also almost entirely within Forest
bounds. The Apalachicola and Ochlockonee Rivers' sources are in Georgia
and Alabama. Both have been impounded prior to reaching National Forest
boundaries (Apalachicola Lake Seminole, Ochlockonee River Lake
Talquin).

The geology and soils of the Forest provide a variety of drainage con-
ditions whose characteristics range from the well drained sands of the
Woodville Karst Plain to the poorly drained Apalachicola Lowlands, which
dominate the Forest. The Woodville Karst Plain is characterized by gently
undulating, loose, quartz sands which veneer the limestone substrata. This
region contains numerous sinkholes but very few streams. Two large
streams, Fisher Creek and Lost Creek, disappear into sinkholes after
draining large areas of the eastern Wakulla District.

Like the Woodville Karst Plain, the more typical flat, sandy, and fre-
quently swampy areas of the Apalachicola Lowlands region are not highly
dissected by streams, however, sinkholes are not common in this region.
Only the Okeefenokee Dunes region, near Lake Talquin, contain numerous
streams per unit of area.

Peak flows on streams of the Apalachicola National Forest can occur in any
season, but are most likely to occur in early spring (March and April),
late summer (August and September), or winter (November to January). May,
June and October are the months during which annual peak flows are least
likely to occur.

Streamflow varies widely throughout the year and from month to month on the
Apalachicola National Forest. Minimum flows are likely to occur during
May, June and July. November also experiences low flows as a result of
usually-dry October. Within-month variability is demonstrated by the
Sopchoppy River, whose flow has increased from less than 10 cubic feet per
second (CFS) to more than 2000 CFS within the same month on numerous occa-
sions.

The Forest contains approximately 2735 Acres of lakes, most of which occur
in the Lake Munson Hills region of the Woodville Karst Plain. As is typi-
cal of sandhill lakes, few have stream inlets or outlets. Lakes on the
Apalachicola Ranger District occur very near the Apalachicola River, in the
western part of the District. These are found in broad, shallow depressions
surrounded by wetland soils and vegetation. All lakes on the Forest are
acidic, softwater, and low in plant nutrients; conditions which reflect the
soil conditions of their watersheds.

One spring occurs on the Forest. It is located within the Morrison Hammock
Scenic Area on the Wakulla Ranger District. The spring's discharge has not
been measured, but is estimated to be less than 1 million gallons per day.







BRISTOL


SOPCHOPPY
RIVER


NEW
RIVER


APALACHICOLA
RIVER


Watershed Map


APALACHICOLA Nlt, fhmt









Water Table Characteristics


Water table elevation varies according to the season of the year, rainfall,
and soil characteristics. Given similar seasons and rainfall amounts,
depth of water table varies predictably among soil drainage classifica-
tions. Such characteristics were measured between 1971 and 1978 on repre-
sentative soils from the five drainage classes occurring on the
Apalachicola National Forest. Results are summarized graphically in
Figures 5 and 6. Average monthly rainfall for a 30-year period (1941-1970)
is shown in Figure 7.

These data show a consistent link between water table elevation and soil
drainage classification. Very Poorly Drained (VPD) soils remained within
ten (10) inches of the surface for an average of six months per year, and
averaged 11.2 inches overall. Other annual aver-ages were: Poorly Drained
(PD) 16 inches; Somewhat Poorly Drained (SWP) 22 inches; Moderately
Well Drained (MWD) 114 inches; Well Drained (WD) 137 inches.

Highest water tables within the VPD, PD, and SPD soils occur during the
winter months when plants are dormant, and during the rainy summer months.
Their water tables are affected by evapotranspiration patterns because they
extend into the root zone. Those associated with MWD and WD soils are
influenced less by evapotranspiration, and varied only slightly throughout
the years monitored. Seasonal patterns were not distinct. Neither of the
latter groups' water tables rose to within 104 inches (monthly average) of
the soil surface during the sampling period.












o-- -- -SOIL SURFACE-


L1I



U-

I-


I-


4


o
I-



UJ


JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER
Figure -Average Water Table Profiles of Rutledge Series (Very Poorly Drained), Leon Series (Poorly Drained), and Mandarin Series (Somewhat Poorly Drained)
at three sites on ANF for Period 6/71-12/75.











SOIL SURFACE


0


w

S80
UJ
--I
S100

I-
9120


S140
Lu
0

160


180


200


JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER
Figure -Average Water Table Profiles of Foxworth Series (Moderately Well Drained) and Ortega Series (Well Drained) at two sites on the Anf. Period of Record
was 3/75-8/78 and 5/76-8/78 respectively.

















8.0


7.0


f 6.0
z


- 5.0
,,J


S4.0


3.0


2.0


1.0


0
JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER
Figure -Average monthly precipitation occurring on ANF. Source: Climatological Data-Florida (NOAA). Period of Record: 1941-1970.









CLIMATE


The Apalachicola National Forest lies amidst six weather stations operated
by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Weather
data obtained from them provides a representative view of the Forest.
These stations are located at Blountstown, Smith Creek, Wewahitchka,
Quincy, St. Marks, and Tallahassee. Though slight variations exist between
the two Ranger Districts, overall averages will be used to represent the
Forest as a whole.

The Forest receives about 60 inches of precipitation per year. Summer is
the wettest season due to the frequent and widely scattered convectional
storms common during that time of year in Florida. Summer averages 20
inches of rain. July is the wettest month, during which eight inches of
rainfall occur. Fal'l is the driest season, averaging 12 inches, but winter
and spring are only slightly wetter. They average 12.4 and 14 inches of
rainfall, respectively. October and November experience three inches of
rainfall each, and are the driest months of the year. Rainfall in winter
results from frontal depressions which originate in the northern United
States and Canada. Except for rare snowfalls, virtually all precipitation
occurs as rainfall.

Average air temperature on the Apalachicola National Forest is 680F.
Summer high temperatures average 910F, lows 660, and overall 800F. July
and August average 810F. Their ordinary high temperatures are 910F and
lows 680F. The coolest month is January. Its low temperature averages
330F; 500F overall. This is slightly lower than the 520 overall winter
average. The frontal depressions common in winter are accompanied by two
to three days of cool temperatures which usually become progressively milder
until the next front arrives. Spring and fall temperatures average about
670. Both of these seasons average 800F as high temperatures and 510F and
540F as lows, respectively.

The growing season is estimated to be 210 days. Freezing temperatures
normally do not occur from March 1 to December 1. Soil freezing does not
occur.









VEGETATION TYPES
OF THE APALACHICOLA NATIONAL FOREST

The vegetation of the Apalachicola National Forest cannot be conceptualized
into vegetation types or communities without obscuring many of the
seemingly infinite patterns of growth. As a result, any listing of com-
munities must be somewhat arbitrary. The twelve vegetation types
recognized in this report were selected to facilitate vegetation mapping
and management; different variations of this list could be presented, each
with equal botanical validity.

These vegetation types are not always easily distinguishable in the field
and may overlap with each other, forming ecotones. In other places, they
are typified by unusual combinations or densities of dominant species. In
an attempt to recognize the more important ecotones and variants, most
vegetation types themselves, are called zones when they form concentric
bands along an environmental gradient.

The conceptualization of vegetation types is complicated by having to con-
sider the dimension of time. Most vegetation types are maintained and
regulated by fire, which sweeps through them every few years or decades.
The appearance of the vegetation often changes drastically shortly after a
fire and gradually resumes its original aspect later. Fire does not lead
to community replacement in the sense of plant succession. Instead, nearly
all plants survive the fires, at least as rootstocks, and the few species
killed by fire are adapted to seeding in successfully after fire. The initial
floristic composition is thereby maintained, but the physiognomy (growth form)
notably changes with time.

The twelve natural vegetation types have been grouped into four "systems":
Pineland, Bay, River, and Savannah. The Pineland Systems are characterized
by grassy ground covers. Included with the Pineland System are the diverse
zones of vegetation forming around lime sinks and sandy depressions, some
of which contain ponds that are located primarily within the Woodville
Karst Plain. These depressions are generally small, ranging in size from a
fraction of an acre to half a section in the case of Lake Munson. Almost
all lie within high pineland and are regular features of this pineland.

The Bay Systems form in poorly drained depressions within the pine-palmetto
flatwoods of the Pineland System. Bay vegetation typically grows in
bayheads, along bay-branches, and in depressions or "ponds" having no sur-
face drainage. Cypress swamps often are enclosed by bays and are not
always distinct from them. As a result, such swamps have been included
with Bay Systems. Cypress communities are distinctive and deserve to be
recognized as a separate system. On the other hand, these communities
occur on a variety of sites (savannahs, creeks, floodplains, ponds),
posing severe problems in devising a rigid system of vegetational classifi-
cation. These problems have been resolved arbitrarily in this report by
creating cypress phases of other communities.








River Systems include all vegetation growing along permanently flowing
water. River vegetation is extremely variable and difficult to categorize
because the river basins have had a complicated recent history. This
history includes the formation of floodplains, bars and levees, stream
capture, the formation of bluffs and their subsequent dissection by creeks,
the exposure of previously buried geological formations, the isolation of
oxbows, and the modification caused by the seepage of groundwater at the
bases of bluffs. Savannah have subtle relationships with the other three
systems, and the relationships are discussed along with the descriptions
of the appropriate vegetation types.

A standardized format has been used to describe each vegetation type con-
cisely and to allow rapid comparisons with other vegetation types. The
sometimes lenghty discussions of each type are isolated under the heading,
Additional Comments. The heading, Overstory, applies to the trees forming
the uppermost layer of vegetation in forested areas. Ground cover denoted
herbaceous and low, shrubby vegetation which is generally less than head
high. Understory denotes those plants occupying the space between the
ground cover and overstory. Overstory, understory, and ground cover are
not always easily distinguishable from each other and sometimes have been
applied arbitrarily.

The terms, frequent, periodic, irregular and rare, have been used after the
heading of Fire. Frequent denotes surface fires which occur two or three
times a decade. Periodic fires are those which occur once every 10-25
years or so; irregular fires occur perhaps once or twice a century. Rare
denotes fires that occur perhaps once during the lifetime of the dominant
species, which might span centuries. These intervals of time are not abso-
lute. Furthermore, an intense but periodic fire may have the same effect
on vegetational processes as frequent fires. Intensity depends upon many
factors, including the abundance, distribution, flammability and moisture
content of the fuel, atmospheric temperature and humidity, and wind.

All photographs were taken within the Apalachicola National Forest.










LIST OF VEGETATION TYPES

MAP CODE
PINELAND SYSTEMS

1. HIGH PINELAND
a. Turkey Oak Phase 11
b. Bluejack Oak Phase 12
c. Mixed Oak Phase 13
2. PINE-PALMETTO FLATWOODS
a. Longleaf Pine Phase 21
b. Slash Pine Phase 22
3. HIGH-PINELAND DEPRESSION
a. Hardwood Phase 51
b. Holly Phase 52
c. Cypress-Blackgum Phase 53
d. Black Gum Phase 54

BAY SYSTEMS

4. TITI SWAMP
a. Titi Phase 61
b. Pine Titi Phase 62
5. BAY SWAMP
a. Sweet Bay Phase 71
b. Mixed Bay Swamp Phase 72
6. CYPRESS SWAMPS
a. Cypress Domes 81
b. Cypress Black Gum Phase 82
c. Cypress Stringers 83

RIVER SYSTEMS

7. RIVER SWAMPS
a. Hydric Hardwood Swamp 101
b. Cypress Gum Swamps 102
8. LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST 120
9. SOUTHERN MIXED HARDWOOD FOREST 90

SAVANNAH SYSTEMS

10. SAVANNAHS
a. Verbesina Phase 31
b. Pleea Phase 32
11. LONGLEAF PINE FLATS 130
12. SLASH PINE FLAT 140














1. HIGH PINELAND. Turkey oak phase, with some palmetto, indicating
a transition to pine-palmetto flatwoods.








1. HIGH PINELAND

la) Turkey Oak Phase. Understory mainly of turkey oaks, scattered to
dense and sometimes forming a closed canopy in patches. Blue-
jack oaks and sometimes sand-post oaks or other hardwoods are
conspicuous but uncommon. Most or all trees of the understory are
less than 20 feet tall.

Ib) Bluejack Oak Phase. Understory comprised primarily of bluejack
oaks, scattered to dense.

Ic) Mixed Oak Phase. Similar to the turkey oak phase but including
low, bushy myrtle oaks and sand-live oaks.


Overstory: Longleaf Pine.

Understory: The understory oaks listed above and live oak, red oak, persim-
mon, and rarely other hardwoods such as dogwood and sourgum.

Ground Cover: Dense wiregrass and bracken and more than 200 species of
legumes, composites and other herbaceous and low-growing woody species,
some of which are listed below. These species bloom profusely after fire,
especially during wet years.

Soil: Deep, dry sands with some organic matter in the upper few inches in
association with dense wiregrass roots. The surface is covered by a thin
veneer of white sand. Soil Series include Kershaw, Ortega and Alpin.

Soil Moisture: Dry during much of the year. Depth to seasonal water table
is more than 80 inches.

Fire: Frequent, although the growth of wiregrass on the drier sites may be
retarded, thus depressing the frequency of fire.

Distribution: Occurs on high ground throughout the Forest and is the
dominant vegetation in the Woodville Karst Plain. The bluejack oak phase
occurs exclusively in the Woodville Karst Plain and comprises the most
spectacular high pineland in the Forest. The coastal scrub oak phase is
uncommon and scattered in the Apalachicola Coastal Lowlands, especially
near river systems.

Ecotones: Grades imperceptibly with pine-palmetto flatwoods (2). When
turkey oak and saw palmetto grow intermixed in such ecotones, the
herbaceous vegetation resembles that of high pineland, rather than that of
flatwoods. Such ecotones are thus classified as high pineland.

Representative Locations: The turkey oak phase is so abundant that no
locations need be given. The bluejack oak phase is seen along Forest
Service Road 305, Township 1 South, Range 1 West, Section 32, and along
Forest Service Road 379, Township 1 South, Range 1 West, Sections 35 and
36.









Wells and Shrunk (1931) demonstrated that the reflection from the white
sand of high pineland caused much higher rates of evaporation than over
nearby shrub bog and lake. They demonstrated that the vertical orientation
characteristic of turkey oak leaves prevents this reflection, as well as
sunlight, from striking the surface of the leaf directly, thereby
minimizing heat damage and transpiration.


ADDITIONAL SPECIES:

COMPOSITES


Green-Eyes
Golden-Aster
Dog-Fennel
Rose-Rush
Black-Root
Elephant's-Foot
White-Topped Aster
Ironweed
Aster
Hawkweed
Blazing Star
Thoroughwort

LEGUMES

Partridge-Pea
Rattlebox
Bush-Clover
Sensitive-Brier
Goat's Rue
Hoary-Pea
Butterfly-Pea
Blue-Pea
Pencil-Flower
Summer-Farewell
Dollar-Weed


Berlandiera pumila
Heterotheca graminifolia
Eupatorium compositifolium
Lygodesmia aphylla
Pterocaulon pycnostachyum
Elephantopus elatus
Sericocarpus tortifolius
Vernonia augustifolia
Aster adnatus
Hieracium gronovii
Liatris chapmanii, L. tenuifolia
Eupatorium album, E. linearifolium



Cassia fasciculata, C. nictitans
Crotalaria angulata
Lespedeza hirta, L. repens
Schrankia microphylla
Tephrosia virginica
Tephrosia spicata
Centrocema virginiana
Clitoria mariana
Stylosanthes biflora
Petalostemum pinnatum
Rhynchosia reniformis


OTHERS


Dwarf Huckleberry
Dangleberry
Yellow Jessamine
Winged-Sumac
Squaw-Huckleberry
Runner Oak
Colic-Root
Pawpaw
Tread-Softly
Dog-Tongue
Phlox


Gaylussacia dumosa
Gaylussacia frondosa
Gelsemium sempervirens
Rhus copallina
Vaccinium floridanum
Quercus pumila
Aletris obovata
Asimina longifolia Kral
Cnidoscolus stimulosus
Eriogonum tomentosum
Phlox floridana Benth.









Wild-Bamboo
Poison-Oak
Beardgrass
Red-Root
Sweet-Rush
Rattlesnake Master
Gerardia
Indian Grass
Yellow-Foxglove
Bear-Grass
Gopher Apples


Smilax auriculata
Rhus toxicodendron
Gymnopogon ambiguus
Cenaothus microcephalus
Cyperus plukenettii
Eryngium yuccifolium
Agalinis divaricata, A. fasciculata
Sorghastrum nutans
Aureolaria pectinanta
Yucca filamentosa
Chrysobalanaus oblongifolius, Dyschoriste
oblongifolia


2. PINE-PALMETTO FLATWOODS


2a) Longleaf Pine Phase. Overstory exclusively (or nearly so) of
longleaf pine.

2b) Slash Pine Phase. Overstory exclusively or predominately of
slash pine.


Overstory: As noted above; rarely other species.

Understory: Absent.

Ground Cover: Wiregrass and saw palmetto are dominant; gallberry, runner
oak, a low blueberry (Vaccinium myrsinites), and bracken are also generally
dominants. Perhaps 200 or more species comprise the ground cover, with 75
or more present in any given stand of one or few acres.

Soil: Primarily sandy, with much organic matter associated with the grass
roots in the upper few inches and with an organic pan a foot or two deep.
Soil Series: Leon and Talquin.

Soil Moisture: The water table is at depths of 10 to 40 inches for periods
of nine months during most years. It is at depths less than 10 inches for
one to four months during periods of high rainfall and recedes to depths of
more than 40 inches during the dry season.

Fire: Frequent.

Distribution: Perhaps the single most abundant vegetation type in the
Apalachicola National Forest. Rare only in the Woodville Karst Plain and
only locally common as islands in the large bay regions, including Bradwell
Bay, the Juniper Creek Islands, and Mud Swamp along New River.

Ecotones: Grades into high pineland, titi swamps, and longleaf pine flats.













2. PINE-PALMETTO FLATWOODS.








ADDITIONAL SPECIES:

COMPOSITES
Asters


Golen-Aster
Yellow-Thistle
Elephant's-Foot
Dog-Fennel
Thoroughwort
Sunflower
Sweet-Goldenrod
Blazing Star
White-Topped Aster



LEGUMES
False Indigo
Partridge-Pea
Beggars-Lice
Pencil-Flower
Bush-Clover
Sensitive-Brier


OTHERS
Orange-Grass
Dwarf-Huckleberry
Dangleberry
Dwarf-Live Oak
Wax-Myrtle
Wild-Olive
Cinnamon Fern
Wicky
Colic-Root
Angelica
Milkweed
Rattlesnake Master
Rose-Mallow
St. John's-Wort
Bog-Buttons
Royal Fern
Milkwort
Bachelor's-Button
Meadow-Beauty
Blackberry
Cenna Seymeria
Saw-Brier
Yellow-Eyed Grass
Crow-Poison


Aster linariifolius, A. concolor, A.
dumosus, A. eryngiifolius, A. reticula-
tus, A. adnatus
Heterotheca graminifolia, H. mariana
Cirsium horridulum
Elephantopus elatus
Eupatorium compositifolium
Eupatorium rotundifolium
Helianthus radula
Solidago odora
Liatris gracilis
Sericocarpus tortifolius
Phoebanthus tenuifolia
Balduina uniflora


Baptisia lanceolata
Cassia fasciculata
Desmodium ciliare
Stylosanthes biflora
Lespedeza repens
Schrankia microphylla



Ctenium aromaticum
Gaylussacia dumosa
Gaylussacia frondosa
Quercus luarifolia
Myrica cerifera
Osmanthus americana
Osmunda cinnamomea
Kalmia hirsuta
Aletris lutea
Angelica dentata
Asclepias cinerea, A. michauxii
Eryngium yuccifolium
Hibiscus aculeatus
Hypericum stands, H. hypericoides
Lacnocaulon anceps
Osmunda regalis
Polygala grandiflora
Polygala nana, P. lutea
Rhexia alifanus
Rubus cuneifolius
Seymeria cassioides
Smilax glauca
Xyris caroliniana
Zigadenus densus, Z. glaberrimus
Onosmodium virginianum












3. HIGH PINELAND DEPRESSION. Showing the herbaceous phase (4d) on a
dry lake bed, incompletely circled by cypress (4g), with a dense
zone of live oak (4b) in the background.


ny ~~~` 'w'-;~ :r;








3. HIGH PINELAND DEPRESSIONS

3a) Hardwood Phase. Southern mixed hardwoods line the steep slopes of
lime sink holes; all other phases occur in sandy depressions.
Overstory of mockernut hickory, pignut hickory, persimmon and red
oak on drier sites; laurel oak, white oak, water oak, southern
magnolia, sweetgum, basswood, beech, sweetbay, and sourgum grow
on the mesic sites and are probably favored by the lack of fire,
the seepage of groundwater along the slopes, and the proximity of
nutrient-bearing limestone outcrops. Permanent seepage sites bear
willows and buttonbush. Understory of sparkleberry,
squaw-huckleberry, muscadine, dogwood, horse-sugar, trumpet vine,
and Virginia creeper. Ground cover sparse; partridge-berry is
often conspicuous. Limited in distribution to the vicinity of
Township 2 South, Range 1 West, Section 17, Compartment 248, west
of State Road 319 near the Leon-Wakulla County Line, and including
Big and Little Dismal Sinks.

3b) Holly Phase. Some depressions are ringed or covered by
myrtle-leaf holly, rather than live oak, especially in the
northwestern Apalachicola District.

3c) Cypress-Blackyum Phase. Blackgum either forms a tall understory
beneath cypress or it is a sub-dominant in the overstory. Rarely
are both species of near-equal importance in the same stand.

3d) Blackgum Phase. Blackgum, sometimes with slash pine and sweet
pepperbush.


Soil: Rutlege, Kershaw and Chipley Series.

Distribution: Woodville Karst Plain; otherwise widely scattered and
including Camel Lake, Wright Lake, and very few other ponds.

Ecotones: None.

Representative Locations: Lost Lake, Township 1 South, Range 1 West,
Southwest One-Quarter, Section 30, Compartment 226. Pond at Township 3
South, Range 2 West, Southeast One-Quarter of Section 28, Compartment 333.
Several small depressions are along State Road 12 within three miles of
Wilma. Trout Pond, Township 2 West, Range 2 West, Southeast One-Quarter of
Section 1, Compartment 248.

Additional Comments: The water table may drop (or rise) more than ten feet
in depressions, due to changing conditions of rainfall, evaporation, and
drainage. Most lakes are connected with aquifers by way of sink holes.
Others are simply perched on impermeable clastics.


4. TITI SWAMPS

4a) Titi Phase. Pines essentially absent; overstory absent.








3. HIGH PINELAND DEPRESSIONS

3a) Hardwood Phase. Southern mixed hardwoods line the steep slopes of
lime sink holes; all other phases occur in sandy depressions.
Overstory of mockernut hickory, pignut hickory, persimmon and red
oak on drier sites; laurel oak, white oak, water oak, southern
magnolia, sweetgum, basswood, beech, sweetbay, and sourgum grow
on the mesic sites and are probably favored by the lack of fire,
the seepage of groundwater along the slopes, and the proximity of
nutrient-bearing limestone outcrops. Permanent seepage sites bear
willows and buttonbush. Understory of sparkleberry,
squaw-huckleberry, muscadine, dogwood, horse-sugar, trumpet vine,
and Virginia creeper. Ground cover sparse; partridge-berry is
often conspicuous. Limited in distribution to the vicinity of
Township 2 South, Range 1 West, Section 17, Compartment 248, west
of State Road 319 near the Leon-Wakulla County Line, and including
Big and Little Dismal Sinks.

3b) Holly Phase. Some depressions are ringed or covered by
myrtle-leaf holly, rather than live oak, especially in the
northwestern Apalachicola District.

3c) Cypress-Blackyum Phase. Blackgum either forms a tall understory
beneath cypress or it is a sub-dominant in the overstory. Rarely
are both species of near-equal importance in the same stand.

3d) Blackgum Phase. Blackgum, sometimes with slash pine and sweet
pepperbush.


Soil: Rutlege, Kershaw and Chipley Series.

Distribution: Woodville Karst Plain; otherwise widely scattered and
including Camel Lake, Wright Lake, and very few other ponds.

Ecotones: None.

Representative Locations: Lost Lake, Township 1 South, Range 1 West,
Southwest One-Quarter, Section 30, Compartment 226. Pond at Township 3
South, Range 2 West, Southeast One-Quarter of Section 28, Compartment 333.
Several small depressions are along State Road 12 within three miles of
Wilma. Trout Pond, Township 2 West, Range 2 West, Southeast One-Quarter of
Section 1, Compartment 248.

Additional Comments: The water table may drop (or rise) more than ten feet
in depressions, due to changing conditions of rainfall, evaporation, and
drainage. Most lakes are connected with aquifers by way of sink holes.
Others are simply perched on impermeable clastics.


4. TITI SWAMPS

4a) Titi Phase. Pines essentially absent; overstory absent.














4. TITI SWAMP. A typical scene near the center
of Bradwell Bay, showing pond pines.


-u


'.,
i Z-ja.4


4- A


i c .








4b) Pine-Titi Phase. Slash pines or sometimes pond pines and moderate
or dense growths of black titi, cypress, sweetbay, bayberry,
fetterbush, myrtle-leaved holly, swamp cyrilla, and large
gallberry.


Overstory: As noted above with Atlantic white-cedar locally common. The
canopy is generally open.

Understory: Dense and shrubby, mostly 6-20 feet high, and dominated by one
or more of the three species of titi or uncommonly by myrtle-leaf holly.
Black titi is usually much more abundant than the two cyrillas and tends to
occupy slightly higher sites than swamp cyrilla. Little-leaf cyrilla and
myrtle-leaf holly tend to grow together.

Ground Cover: Continuous with the understory. Wiregrass and other
herbaceous species are absent, except where titi swamps are invading
bordering flatwoods, following extended suppression of fire.

Soil: Highly organic sand, sometimes overlain with peat which may
accumulate to a foot or so deep. Roots of shrubs bind the peat, but
surface water may cut erosional channels to the mineral horizon between
bushes, making the soil surface uneven. The Rutlege, Dorovan and Surrency
Series are major soils.

Soil Moisture: The water table is generally near the soil surface except
during droughts. Temporary inundations are frequent during rainy periods.

Fire: Titi swamps generally border on pine flatwoods which burn
frequently. Titi is a poor fuel, compared to wiregrass and other,
flammable components of the pinelands. The frequent flatwoods fires
generally do not burn more than the outer fringes of titi swamps. These
swamps, therefore, serve as a buffer, preventing fires from reaching the
highly fire-tender vegetation of bay swamps and river swamps.
Occasionally, titi swamps border cypress or blackgum swamps protecting them
from fire.

Titi swamps will burn during prolonged droughts on windy, hot summer days
of exceedingly low humidity. The prerequisities are satisfied perhaps
every five or ten years, but ignition is not guaranteed, therefore, fires
are periodic. Once ignited, such fires are hot and difficult to contain.
All aerial stems are killed, except for those of the larger pines. Some,
or all, of the peat may also burn.

Subsequent to a fire, the titi and other shrubby species resprout from
their root crowns, regenerating the stand without intervening, successional
stages. Scorched pond pines sprout adventitiously from their trunks.
Usually, several sprouts arise from each crown, giving rise to bushes and
trees with multiple trunks. If these trees and shrubs regularly resprout
from root crowns after fires, the possibility is high that many plants of
titi swamps could be centuries old.

Distribution: Titi swamps are common everywhere in the Forest, except in
the Woodville Karst Plain. Bradwell Bay alone contains over 15 square








miles of titi swamps, much of it being composed of black titi and
fetterbush with widely scattered pond pines.

Ecotones: The borders between titi' swamps and pine-palmetto flatwoods are
brushy after prolonged exclusion'of fire., Titi swamps grade imperceptibly
into savannahs and bay swamps. Swamp cyrilla and other dominants of titi
swamps are often dominant in the understory of bay swamps. When a fire
consumes a bay swamp, these understory species appear to grow faster from
their root crowns than do the overstory species, including sweetbay. As a
result, the site becomes essentially a-titi swamp for perhaps 10-25 years,
until the overstory of bay trees begins to form. Titi swamps, therefore,
seem to be successional to bay swamps. Actually, they are not, in that the
living, well-developed root systems of overstory. bay species are
continually present.

Representative Locations: Since titi swamps are so abundant, the noting of
locations is unnecessary. One unusual stand, though, occurs in the Juniper
Creek area along Forest Service Road 125, Township 5 South, Range 5 West,
where exceptionally large, black,titi (25 feet tall) grows beneath rather
dense slash pines (40 feet tall), with Atlantic white-cedar being locally
common.

5. BAY SWAMPS

5a) Sweetbay Phase. Sweetbay is the only important tree in the
overstory. A few slash pines may be conspicuous but not dominant.
Swampbay and loblolly-bay may be present in the overstory
regularly but in small numbers.

5b) Mixed Bay Swamp Phase. Dominance is shared between sweetbay and
other species, especially blackgum and/or cypress and less
frequently with sweetgum, red maple, water oak, and diamond-leaf
oak.

Overstory: As noted above.

Understory: Bamboo, bayberry, swamp cyrilla, sweet pepperbush and
Virginia willow are common, along with saplings of the overstory species.
Other species include azalea, fetterbush, large gallberry, muscadine,
myrtle-leaf holly, odorless wax-myrtle, Pieris phillyreifolia (an epiphytic
shrub on pine and cypress), red chokeberry, Vaccinium arkansanum (a
blueberry), Gelsemium rankini (the odorless yellow jessamine), and poison
ivy. The understory is usually dense, at least in patches.

Ground Cover: Continuous with the understory or else sparse and patchy.
Beds of peat moss (Sphagnum spp.) are often conspicuous. The Virginia and
netted chain-ferns are usually present. Sedges (e.g., Carex glaucescens)
and grasses (e.g., Panicum teneraum) may be scattered. Cane may be
prominent in openings.

Soil: Highly organic sands, often overlain by peat which becomes eroded
into hummocks and hollows as in titi swamps. Peat four feet thick was once
observed. Rutledge, Dorovan, Pamlico and Surrency are the major soils.










5, BAY SWAMP. Sweetbay phase with a large slash pine along SR 267.

F; a









Soil Moisture: Moist and sometimes inundated several inches; the water
table within 30 inches of the soil surface at all times.

Fire: Periodic or irregular. An outer border of titi swamp protects bay
swamps from the frequent fires in pine-palmetto flatwoods. The conditions
required for the burning of titi swamps also hold for igniting bay swamps.

Ecotones: See the discussion of the ecotones of titi swamps for the
developmental relationships and intergradations with that vegetation
type. The mixed swamp phase may represent intergradations with cypress
swamps, blackyum swamps, river swamps, southern mixed hardwood com-
munities, or savannah swamps.

Representative Locations: Two of the best developed and accessible sweet-
bay swamps lie along State Road 267, 0.5-mile on either side of junction
Forest Service Road 369, Township 2 South, Range 2 West, Northwest
One-Quarter of Section 16 and the Southwest One-Quarter of Section 8,
Compartments 247-8 and 246-10. Mixed swamps are common south of Telogia
along Forest Service Roads 103 and 105.


6. CYPRESS SWAMPS


6a) Cypress Domes. Cypress is the only dominant; blackgum, slash
pine, or the other overstory species common in bay swamps (5) are
incidental or absent. The dome-like appearance of the canopy is
obscured in the elongated cypress strands along bay-branches and
in the many recently logged stands.

6b) Cypress-Blackgum Phase. Blackgum either forms a tall understory
beneath cypress or it is a subdominant in the overstory. Rarely
are both species of near-equal importance in the same stand.

6c) Cypress Stringers. Cypress, usually with blackgum as a tall
understory; all other woody species are unimportant.


Overstory: As noted above.

Understory: None or tree saplings or scattered shrubs common to bay
swamps which grow on hummocks.

Ground Cover: None or scattered plants common to bay swamps which grow on
hummocks.

Soil: Mucky sands belonging to the Dorovan, Pamlico, and Rutlege Series.

Soil Moisture: Fluctuating above and below the soil surface. High water
marks are generally about four feet high on the trunks. The soil sometimes
becomes dry and cracked during dry periods.













6. CYPRESS SWAMP. With an understory of blackgum
along SR 267.
"""" w f1 'B~il~fi^111









Fire: Irregular. Charcoal is common on cypress trunks, indicating that
fires that burn through bay swamps also reach cypress swamps. The scarcity
of undergrowth that could serve as fuel for fires probably is restrictive.

Distribution: Cypress swamps occur commonly within bay swamps, both as
stringers along bay-branches and as domes or doughnuts around very small
ponds.

Ecotones: The separation between cypress and bay swamps is not always
sharp. The cypress communities along bay-branches are continuous with
those along creeks and rivers and those of savannah swamps. The savannah
swamps tend to be more open and contain patches of nut-rush.

Representative Locations: State Road 65, northwest of the junction of
Forest Service Road 105, Township 2 South, Range 6 West, Northwest
One-Quarter of Section 28, Compartments 8-17. A large swamp with a tall
understory of blackgum lies along State Road 267, 0.5-mile southeast of
junction Forest Service Road 322, Township 2 West, Northwest One-Quarter of
Section 16, Compartments 247 and 248. A smaller swamp with a titi border
occurs along Forest Service Road 322, Township 2 South, Range 1 West, North
One-Half of Section 7, Compartments 225-333 and 248-314. The cypress
stringers seen along Forest Service Road 122 have much slash pine in them,
Township 3 South, Range 6 West.


7. RIVER SWAMPS

7a) Hydric Hardwood Swamps. (Floodplains, seepage areas at the
bases of bluffs, and low terraces between bluffs and the more
frequently inundated floodplains.) Floodplains contain many
species with river birch perhaps being the most consistently
prominent tree. Others include water hickory, snowbell,
honey-locust, American elm, stiffcornel dogwood, pop ash, alder,
ogeechee-lime, blackgum, water tupelo, sweetgum, water oak, red
maple, black willow, eastern and swamp cottonwoods, diamond-leaf
oak, loblolly pine, cypress and over-cup oak. Seepage areas are
bay-like with blackgum and sweetbay often dominating. Other
common species are alder, swamp cyrilla, red maple, pop ash,
Virginia willow, ogeechee-lime, and sometimes loblolly-bay. Low
terraces include species common both to floodplains and to
southern mixed hardwood forests, such as sweetgum and
diamond-leaf oak. Understory sparse or dense in patches and
including bottonbush, wax-myrtle, muscadine, trumpet-vine,
possum-haw, wisteria, Sabal minor, Lyonia ligustrina and Viburnum
obovatum.

7b) Cypress-Gum Swamps. (Poorly drained depressions on floodplains
and low terraces, including severed oxbows and flats between
levees.) Cypress and ogeechee-lime; understory absent.


Overstory: As noted above.
















7, RIVER SWAMP. Creek swamp phase.




















.M








Ground Cover: Variable and inconspicuous. Chain fern and cinnamon fern
are often present. Floodplains may have showy patches of spider-lily
(Hymenocallis spp.) and ladies' tresses (Spiranthes aff. ovalis).

Soil: Variable, including the Plummer, Meggett, Surrency, and Bladen.
Floodplains along the Apalachicola and Ochlockonee Rivers contain silty
alluvium; although the soils of all river systems are mostly sandy or of
loamy sands. Accumulations of leaf litter are usually washed away at flood
stage.

Soil Moisture: Variable, but rarely dry, except perhaps on the surfaces of
sand bars. Cypress-gum swamps may remain inundated most of the year.
Seepage areas may rarely be inundated by flood waters but the soils are
near saturation most of the year.

Fire: Periodic or irregular in creek swamps and irregular or rare
elsewhere.

Ecotones: Titi and bay swamps often border and grade into creek swamps.
Bayheads with permanent seepage zones and without a single definite channel
sometimes contain mixtures of species from bay swamps and creek swamps,
such as sweetbay, slash pine, ogeechee-lime, red maple, sweetgum and water
oak. Creek swamps and hydric hardwood swamps may grade into southern mixed
hardwood forests or loblolly pine forests.

Representative Locations: Floodplains and low terraces are seen at the
Porter Lake Bridge (Township 3 South, Range 4 West, Section 31) where
Forest Service Road 13 crosses the Ochlockonee River, in the Rock
Bluff-to-Stoutamire's Landing area along the Ochlockonee River (Township 1
South, Range 4 West, Section 5) and at Syfrett Creek where State Road 22
dead ends (Township 5 South, Range 4 West, Southwest One-Quarter of Section
12). Phases 7a and 7b and their intergradations are seen in these areas.
Floodplains are observed at Hickory and Cotton Landing along the
Apalachicola River; however, the vegetation is better differentiated at
nearby Ft. Gadsen State Park. The Hathcock Bay-Big Cypress Swamp area
south of White Oak Landing (Township 4 South, Range 9 West) is a vast
region of hydric hardwoods, cypress-gum swamps, moist southern mixed
hardwood forests, and loblolly forests.


8. LOBLOLLY PINE FORESTS


Overstory: Loblolly pine, usually dense.

Understory: Understory may be sparse or absent or consist of hardwoods
such as water oak, sweetgum and southern magnolia.

Ground Cover: Usually sparse and consisting of muscadine, greenbriers, and
young saplings of hardwoods, more than of grasses and forbs. Wiregrass may
be present near the borders of adjacent pine-palmetto flatwoods.

Soil: Sands and loams of the Leefield and Dothan Series, often with a
developing leaf litter.



















8. LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST. Hardwood phase.


va.


14 A


"^
'"f








Soil Moisture: Usually moist year-round. Water table at depths of 10 to
50 inches for periods of nine months during most years.

Fire: Periodic or irregular.

Distribution: Higher sites in river basins and commonly bordering creek
swamps.

Ecotones: The hardwood understory likely develops from the open understory
in the absence of fire. In the continued absence of fire, the loblolly
pine forest likely would be replaced by a southern mixed hardwood forest.
Loblolly pine forests tend to grade into creek swamps. Loblolly pines are
remarkably absent from pine-palmetto flatwoods and bays but may
occasionally invade high pineland under artificial conditions of fire
suppression.

Representative Locations: An example of the open understory occurs on
either side of the Sopchoppy River along Forest Service Road 13, Township 3
South, Range 3 West, Section 9. The hardwood understory occurs on the east
side of Lost Creek along Forest Service Road 13 (Township 3 South, Range 3
West, Section 17) and along the road to Cotton Landing within one-half-mile
of the Apalachicola River (Township 5 South, Range 8 West, Section 18).
Both phases are common in the Big Cypress Swamp-Hathcock Bay area, 2 to 4
miles northwest of Cotton Landing.


9. SOUTHERN MIXED HARDWOOD FORESTS


Overstory: Southern magnolia is perhaps the most characteristic species,
but usually several species are dominant at any one site, including any of
the following: loblolly pine, spruce pine, white oak, diamond-leaved oak,
water oak, bluff oak, swamp-chestnut oak, sweetgum, pignut hickory,
mockernut hickory, red maple, Florida maple, sweetbay, tulip-tree,
basswood, beech, and pyramid magnolia.

Understory: Dogwood, horse-sugar, redbud, American holly, wild-olive,
witch-hazel, yaupon, sparkleberry, wax-myrtle, ironwood, blue-beech,
parsley haw, Sabal minor, Lyonia ligustrina, and Leucothoe ligustrina.

Ground Cover: Sparse or patchy. Partridge-berry is often conspicuous, and
the little sweet Betsy (Trillum cuneatum) is spectacular in the late
winter.

Soil: Sands and loams of the Dothan Series, covered with leaf litter.
Closely associated with limestone outcrops or sub-surface limestone or with
exposed, calcium-bearing Miocene clastics along river bluffs.

Soil Moisture: Moist year-round due to combinations of seepage along
bluffs, proximity of the water table, and insulation provided by the canopy
and leaf litter.

















9. Sc;:';". MIXED HARDWOOD FOREST.
beech tree at Rock Bluff,
Aomm -mi.


Showing a


". 4I


!Lm >
L








Fire: Irregular or rare. Fast-moving fires in the Big Bend have been
known to consume the undergrowth without harming the overstory trees, other
than a few fire scars.

Distribution: These forests occur on bluffs and high terraces in river
systems and on flat uplands in the Woodville Karst Plain in the
Sopchoppy-to-Wood Lake area. Elsewhere, an occasional zone of mesic
hardwoods can be seen growing between creek swamps and bay swamps near
creeks with gently sloping basins.

Ecotones: Grades with creek swamps and bay swamps along creeks, also
grades with hydric hardwood forests on floodplains and low river terraces.
It is likely that loblolly pine forests would develop into mixed hardwood
forests, if left fire-free. Fire-suppressed pine-palmetto flatwoods
eventually develop a scattered, tall understory of southern magnolias,
sweetgums, and other hardwoods, suggesting a slow succession towards
southern mixed hardwoods. The abundance of southern magnolias and other
hardwoods in the slash pine-scrub community suggests a succession towards
mixed hardwoods, if fire is suppressed indefinitely.

Representative Locations: Prime examples occur on the bluffs of the
Ochlockonee River, especially in the Rock Bluff-to-Drake's Landing area.
Rock Bluff lies at the end of Forest Road 390, Township 1 South, Range 4
West, Section 30. The scenic area at Morrison Hammock and vicinity
(Township 5 South, Range 3 West) is rich in southern mixed hardwoods.
Other stands occur on low bluffs at Mack Landing and especially at Wood
Lake along the Ochlockonee River and at Hickory Landing near the
Apalachicola River.

Additional Comments: The southern mixed hardwood forest is considered to
be the climax of regional vegetation (Quarterman and Kever, 1962; Monk,
1968). Such an opinion ignores the fact that longleaf pinelands are extre-
mely stable, self-reproducing communities, which are adjusted to lightning-
set fires, and that lightning is a predictable, meteorological phenomenon.
Several vegetation types easily fit a rigid definition of climax, including
longleaf pinelands bays, savannahs, and perhaps others.

Kurz (1944) and Blaisdell (1966) have demonstrated that beech and southern
magnolia are the most important dominants in the southern mixed hardwood
forests of the Tallahassee Hills. Mature forests at Wakulla Springs indi-
cate that beech and southern magnolia are also important in the Woodville
Karst Plain. Mature southern mixed hardwood forests along the Ochlockonee
River are rich in southern magnolia, and beech is common in places, par-
ticularly near Rock Bluff. Nonetheless, white oaks and perhaps other spe-
cies are important, suggesting that the bluffs support a greater variety of
dominants than simply beech and magnolia.


10. SAVANNAHS

lOa) Verbesina Phase. Open savannahs with heavy loam surface soils
and with Verbesina warei (a composite) being common and conspi-
cuous.











10. SAVANNAH. Verbesina phase.








lOb) Pleea Phase. Open savannahs with sandy surface soils and with
Pleea tenuifolia (rush-featherling) being common and conspi-
cuous.


Overstory: Absent, except for the scattered pines in the pine-titi phase.

Understory: Though technically not an understory, stunted "hat rack" pines
are of understory height. The broad leaved species of the pine-titi phase
often form an understory.

Ground Cover: A dense growth of grasses and sedges interspersed with a
spectacular array of wildflowers numbering well over one hundred species,
including many orchids and insectivorous plants. Wiregrass is usually the
dominant grass; however, it is not always present in the Pleea phase.
Orange grass and species of Panicum are also important. Beak rush
(Rhynchospora chapmanii, R. plumosa) are perhaps the most important sedges,
although several nut rushes may be abundant.

The herbaceous vegetation, which is mostly a foot or two tall, is often
covered by a nearly solid canopy of hypericum, upwards to about five feet
tall. Hypericum is a single stemmed, woody, tree-like plant with an
adbrupt, flat-topped crown and needle-like leaves which allow ample light to
penetrate the herbaceous stratum beneath.

Soil: Heavy loams or highly organic sands belonging to the Bladen,
Plummer, and Rutlege Series.

Soil Moisture: The water table is perched close to the soil surface except
during droughts. The soil may be inundated for several days after heavy
rains. The levels of moisture are consistently higher than in pine-
palmetto flatwoods or probably many bays.

Fire: Frequent. The length of time since the previous fire can be esti-
mated by the height of the hypericum, which is killed outright by fire and
must seed in the following year. By the end of the third year after a
fire, it is about as high as the wiregrass.

Distribution: The Verbesina phase occupies some rather large areas west of
a line between Camel Lake and Sumatra. Only two stands are known east of
this line, both lying between Sumatra and Magnolia Landing.

The Pleea phase occurs east of this line and also south of Sumatra. This
phase is particularly common in the southern portion of the Apalachicola
District, e.g., in the Juniper Creek Islands area, but it is scattered
throughout the rest of the District. In the Wakulla District, the Pleea
phase is restricted virtually to the western edge of Bradwell Bay, with the
notable exception of a hillside seepage bog about two miles south of
Bloxham.

Ecotones: Open savannahs, particularly of the Verbesina phase sometimes
have scattered longleaf pines. Upon close examination, they invariably are
growing on slightly elevated, sandy sites, and have the typical ground
cover of longleaf pine flats around them.









Representative Locations: The open areas of Compartment 71 (Township 4
South, Range 8 West, Sections 21, 22, 27 and 28) are all Verbesina savan-
nahs. Also along Forest Service Road 113, Township 4 South, Range 8 West,
Northwest One-Quarter of Section 3. Pleea phases occur along Forest
Service Road 314, Township 4 South, Range 4 West, Section 11. Forest
Service Road 13, Township 4 South, Range 5 West, Southeast One-Quarter of
Section 7 and Southwest One-Quarter of Section 8.

Additional Comments: The Verbesina phase grades into the Pleea phase, both
floristically and in the amount of clay in the soil. The two species for
which these phases are named serve as remarkably good indicators of soil
and floristic conditions. Verbesina warei grows only in heavy soils and
Pleea tenuifolia only in sands or sandy loams; they do not grow together.
Barbar's-buttons (Marshallia graminifolia [Walt.] Small) may also be a good
indicator of the Pleea phase, and several other species seem only to be
associated with Verbesina savannahs. The Verbesina phase is generally
freer of shrubs and does not contain black titi, fetterbush, and large
gallberry.

The clays underlying the Verbesina phase extend downwards at least eight
feet. Adjacent longleaf pine flats occupy much sandier soils, and the
sharp contrast in soils is reflected significantly in the floristic com-
position. The proximity of these clays to the Apalachicola River suggests
that they represent alluvial deposits, which accumulated as the river
shifted course during the Pleistocene. Ripples of sand on top of these
clays provide the elevated knolls, mentioned above, upon which longleaf
pines grow.

The curious hat rack pines may have become established during periods of
fire suppression. The poorly adapted pines were able to grow sufficiently
to withstand the next fire. Pritchett (1969) studied slash pine growth in
a savannah having a Weston fine sandy loam. He found that poor drainage,
due to a sandy clay substrate within 25 cm of the surface, reduced the
aeration needed for growth of pine roots. He also found that low levels of
phosphorus restricted growth. Applications of phosphorus on an unditched
site with minimal site preparation raised the site index from 28 to 68
feet.

Additional Species: Some of the more notable species of savannahs are the
following:

Club-Moss Lycopodium alopecuroides, L. prostratum
Trumpets Sarracenia flava
Parrot Pitcher-Plant Sarracenia psittacina Michx.
Meadow-Beauty Rhexia lutea
Sundew Drosera filiformis, D. capilaris
Red-Root Lachnanthes caroliniana
Fleabane Erigeron vernus
Grass-Pink Calopogon pulchellus, C. pallidus
Ettercap Pogonia ophioglossoides











Polygala ramosa Ell.,
MILKWORT (left), and

Marshallia graminifolia

(Walt.) Small (below).

Both common in moist

pinelands and savannahs.

Marshallia seems to be

closely associated with

savannahs of the Pleea

phase.































Lachnanthes caroliniana (Lam.) Dandy, RED-ROOT.

Common in wet pinelands and savannahs.


Polygala cruciata L., MILKWORT. Common in savannahs.











Liatris spicata (L.)

Willd., BLAZING STAR

(left), and Helenium

pinnatifidum (Nutt.)

Rydb., SNEEZE-WEED

(below). Both common

in moist pinelands

and savannahs.




















Rudbeckia mohrii

A. Gray, BLACK-EYED

SUSAN (left), and

Sabatia bartramii

Wilbur, a gentian,

(below). Both

common in savannahs.


r -- '
















Two SUNFLOWERSs
Helianthus hetero-
Phyllus Nutt. (left),
common in savannahs of
the Verbesina phase.
Helianthus radula
(Pursh) T. & G. (below),
abundant in pinelands.
Helianthus radula is
unusual in that it
lacks the yellow rays
typical of sunflowers.
Its basal rosette, seen
in this photo, is
conspicuous year-round.






















Eupatorium album L.,

THOROUGHWORT (left),

and Rhexia alifanus

Walt., MEADOW-BEAUTY.

Both common in pine-

lands. The meadow-

beauty is also common

in savannahs.









Quadrat data showed the following to be the most frequent in a Verbesina
phase savannah at Township 4 South, Range 8 West, Northwest One-Quarter of
Section 3:


Colic-Root
Gerardia
Three-Awn Grass
Aster
A composite
Coreopsis
Pipewort
A Spurge
Sneeze-Weed
Sunflower
A Grass
Milkwort
Meadow-Beauty
Beak Rush
Cone Flower
Nut Rush
Senna Seymeria
A Composite


Aletris aurea
Agalinis aphylla, A. filicaulis
Aristida affinis
Aster chapmanii
Chaptalia tomentosa
Coreopsis gladiata
Eriocaulon compressum, E. decangulare
Euphorbia inundata
Helenium pinnatifidum
Helianthus heterophyllus
Panicum leucothrix, P. longiligulatum
Polygala cruciata
Rhexia alifanus
Rhynchospora chapmanii, R. plumosa
Rudbeckia graminifolia
Scleria bladwinii, S. reticularis
Seymeria cassioides
Verbesina warei


11. LONGLEAF PINE FLATS


Overstory: Longleaf pine.

Understory: Absent.

Ground Cover: Wiregrass, bracken, runner oak, and a large variety of herbs
which are usually associated with pine-palmetto flatwoods and a few with
savannahs. Saw palmetto is essentially absent. Several species are at
least locally common in longleaf pine flats, which are rare or absent
elsewhere in the Apalachicola National Forest, e.g., Nolina atrocarpa (a
lily) and Lespedeza capitata (bush-clover).

Soil: Sands or loamy sands of the Leefield Series.

Soil Moisture: Usually moist year-round. Water table at depth of 10 to 50
inches for periods of nine months during most years, within ten inches
during wet periods.

Fire: Frequent.

Distribution: Western portion of the Apalachicola Ranger District, bor-
dering savannahs of the Verbesina phase.

Ecotones: Longleaf pine flats are sharply differentiated from the savan-
nahs of the Verbesina phase because of a sharp change in soil type.
Longleaf pine flats grade gradually into pine-palmetto flatwoods, or some-
times high pineland. The near-absence of saw palmetto and the presence of





















IF


1<.


11, LONGLEAF PINE FLAT.


-*J %.


41


t" .I-.p'l


BCIvmwi.#.





























Hibiscus aculeatus Walt. A mallow often seen in longleaf
pine flats and near bridges over creeks.


Crotalaria purshii DC., RATTLE-BOX, an occasional of

longleaf pine flats.








scattered hypericum bushes generally delimit longleaf pine flats from other
pinelands.

Representative Locations: Along Forest Service 113, Township 3 South,
Range 8 West, Southeast One-Quarter of Section 33. Along State Road 379,
Township 4 South, Range 8 West, Northwest One-Quarter of Section 17.


12. SLASH PINE FLAT


Overstory: Many stunted slash pines with spindly trunks and abbreviated
crowns, resembling old-fashioned hat racks.

Understory: "Shrubby" sweet bay, blackgum and cypress.

Ground Cover: A dense growth of grasses and sedges interspersed with a
spectacular array of wildflowers. Wiregrass is usually the dominant grass.
Orange grass and species of Panicum are also important.

Soil: Heavy loams or highly organic sands belonging to Bladen or Plummer
Series.

Soil Moisture: The water table is perched close to the surface except
during droughts. The soil may be inundated for several days after heavy
rains. The levels of moisture are consistently higher than in pine-
palmetto flatwoods.

Fire: Frequent.

Distribution: Western portion of the Apalachicola Ranger District, bor-
dering savannahs of the Pleea phase and particularly the Verbesina phase.

Ecotones: Slash pine flat grade gradually into pine-palmetto flatwoods.

Representative Locations: The open areas of Compartment 71 (Township 4
South, Range 8 West, Sections 21, 22, 27 and 28).












11.. LONGLEAF PINE FLATS. Wild flowers in a ditch next to a longleaf pine flat.




















PART II-THE SOILS









General Soil Map Units


Soils have specific positions and geographic patterns on the landscape. By
grouping soils that normally are associated geographically, a generalized
map useful in planning and management of large areas is produced. The
soils of the Apalachicola National Forest have been placed into nine
groups. These areas are shown on the map in Part II of this report.

Each soil association area has a distinctive pattern dominated by one to
three soil series. Each association area is named for the dominant soils.
Soils may be similar or they may differ markedly from each other. Soil
patterns are not uniform in each part of the association, but the same
soils are similarly arranged. Identical soils may occur in various areas
but will have different patterns and amounts.

Soil association areas cannot be used effectively for intensive planning or
for planning management of small areas. (It is useful in planning for low
intensity uses.) The General Soil Map Units are discussed in the following
pages. For more soil information see the detailed soil map and the section
entitled "Descriptions of the Soils."

























































z 22







GENERAL SOILS AND VEGEflATlON MAAP

LJMW.- -D.
WM-







1r EL II Ilo
ur A 3J.. .A.Q411 WJC







'-A --'-:r .. j ___
.-1E

a DPMSCQW
fi, ; ~ 71
i C ~ OE9U YL5 LO VTE1I* YI
i : 1.ME
9 LAEN
,1 UEMUW LOt R AU1
~(1~1 '~RIIIlcft NMI1F


~I1P~ri~Y1Li~














Soils

1. Rutlege-Dorovan



2. Leon-Rutlege-Scranton


3. Leon-Blanton-Mandarin


4. Chipley-Blanton-Foxworth


5. Kershaw-Ortega-Alpin


6. Rutlege-Meggett

7. Meggett-Surrency


8. Bladen-Plummer


9. Leefield-Dothan


LEGEND

Percent
of
Forest

15-35



20-15


15-15


10-8


10-6


2-5

5-6


10-5


5


Landform
and
Plant Community

a. Titi Swamps
b. Cypress Swamps
c. Bay Swamps

Pine Flatwoods with many
Swamp

Pine Flatwoods with common
Swamp

Sandhills and Pine
Flatwoods

Sandhills with Depressions
and Sinkholes

Hydric Hardwood Swamps

a. River Swamp
b. Cypress Stringers

Savannahs and Slash Pine
Flatwoods

a. Longleaf Pine
Flatwoods
b. Loblolly Pine and
Hardwoods









1. RUTLEGE-DOROVAN SOILS TITI, BAY AND CYPRESS SWAMPS


This association is characterized by flat to slightly concave landforms
commonly called bays, bayheads or swamps. Many of these are stringered or
landlocked. This unit makes up about 35 percent of the Forest and it
occurs as large areas throughout the Wakulla Ranger District and in the
southeastern part of the Apalachicola Ranger District. Runoff from sur-
rounding areas, surface and subsurface, collects in these areas and mucky
ponds are common. Where there are no ponds, water is on or near the sur-
face most of the year. Water moves over broad areas as sheet flow because
stream channels are absent or poorly defined due to the low elevation and
flatness.

Rutlege soils have a thick black sandy surface underlain by gray sands.
These soils are very poorly drained, high in organic matter, extremely acid
and medium in fertility. The water table can drop to two or three feet
below the surface during dry periods.

Dorovan soils have a thick muck surface underlain by very dark gray to
black sands. These soils are very poorly drained, high in organic matter
extremely acid and medium in fertility. The water table can drop to two or
three feet below the surface during dry periods.

With proper site preparation and fertilization the Rutlege portion of this
area can be made highly productive of slash pine. At present most of this
unit is managed in its native or natural succession without much site modi-
fication. Trees have been selectively cut, but not replanted. The areas
are important habitat for many species of wildlife, especially as cover for
bear, deer and turkey. Also, many non-consumptive species of wildlife,
including birds and alligators, have homes in these swamps.

Apiary sites are located near these swamps to take advantage mainly of titi
which blooms profusely in spring. These swamps act as reservoirs that hold
rainfall and gradually transmit fresh water to streams and the underground
reservoir. In many places, the stringered swamps and bays provide aesthe-
tically pleasing vegetative diversity contrasting with the adjacent flat-
woods.

There are three general kinds of plant communities that occur with these
soils depending mainly on degree of wetness or length of time after fire.

Titi swamps. This is the dominant community in the unit. The overstory
consists of titi, pond pine, slash pine and myrtle-leaf holly. The
understory is dense and shrubby, mostly 6-20 feet high, and dominated

Bay swamps. These swamps are fairly common is this unit and often occur
within or adjacent to titi swamps. It has been suggested that titi swamps
eventually become bay swamps if fire is omitted. The overstory in bay
swamps consists of mainly sweetbay, slash pine and blackgum. Less frequent
components are sweetgum, red maple, water oak, diamond leaf oak, loblolly
bay, swamp bay and cypress. The understory is dense with bamboo, bayberry
swamp cyrila, sweet pepperbush, virginia willow, and saplings of the










fetterbush, large gallberry, muscadine, myrtle-leaf holly, odorless wax-
myrtle, red chokeberry, and poison ivy. The ground cover is sparse and
patchy with peat moss, ferns, sedges and some grasses.

Cypress swamps. These swamps make up a small portion of this unit and
occur in the wetter places, generally near a series of ponds or open water.
Mud swamps on the New River are an example. Cypress is the only dominant
tree and blackgum either is absent or forms a tall understory or it is sub-
dominant in the overstory. The understory is absent or scattered with
shrubs similar to those in bay swamps. The ground cover is generally
absent because of the usual ponded condition.


2. Leon Rutlege Scranton Soils Pine Flatwoods with Many Swamps

This association consists of nearly level flatwoods ridges interwoven with
many titi and bay swamps. The unit makes up about 15 percent of the Forest
and occurs as large segments in the central part of each ranger district.
Runoff from Leon and Scranton soils collects on the Rutlege soils and
associated ponds. Runoff is very slow and the drainage network is poorly
defined.

Leon soils have a thin black and gray surface layer and firm organic layer
within two feet of the surface. The organic layer slows internal drainage
somewhat, depending on firmness. This soil is poorly drained, low in ferti-
lity, very strongly acid and low in organic matter. The water table fluc-
tuates from a few inches below the surface to four feet deep. Leon soils
make up about 45 percent of the unit.

Rutlege soils have a thick black sandy surface underlain by gray sands.
These soils are very poorly drained, high in organic matter, extremely acid
and medium in fertility. The water table can drop to two or three feet
below the surface during dry periods. Rutlege soils make up about 35 per-
cent of the unit.

Scranton soils have a black sandy surface underlain by grayish brown sands.
These soils are poorly drained, low in fertility, very strongly acid and
low in organic matter. The water table fluctuates from a few inches below
the surface to about two feet deep. Scranton soils make up about 20 per-
cent of the unit.

Leon and Scranton soils are managed for slash pine production thru site
preparation, and in some cases, fertilization. Immature stands are often
managed by thinning and fertilizing. Grasses are common on both soils.
Rutlege soils have dense swampy vegetation and they are generally not
intensively managed. They provide necessary diversity and cover for
aesthetics and wildlife particularly near clearcut or regeneration areas.
Because of the dense vegetation, intensive site preparation would be
necessary to grow slash pine successfully.

There are three different plant communities in this unit.










Pine Palmetto Flatwoods. This community is on Leon and Scranton soils and
has an overstory of longleaf pine and or slash pine. It covers 75 percent
of the unit. The understory varies in density but always consists domi-
nantly of saw palmetto and gallberry. Other common associates are fetter-
bush in the wetter areas and staggerbush on the better drained places.
Occasionally, bluejack or rarely turkey oak, are on dry knolls. Large
gallberry and wax myrtle are other shrubs that may occur. The ground vege-
tation is dominated by wire grass, runner oak, St. Johns wort, blueberry,
and braken fern. The ground cover may contain up to 100 additional species
mainly form the broad groupings of composites, legumes and grasses.

Titi Swamps and Bay Swamps

Rutlege soils are blanketed with either Titi or Bay Swamps. Refer to Unit
1 for a description of the vegetation in these swamps. Generally this unit
contains more titi swamps than bay swamps. These swamps makeup about 35
percent of the unit.

3. Leon Blanton Mandarin Soils Pine Flatwoods with Common Swamps

This association is similar to unit 2 in many respects but differs by
having more flatwoods ridges and less swamps. The unit makes up about 15
percent of the Forest and is characterized by nearly level to slightly con-
vex flatwoods interlaced with bay and titi swamps. Runoff from the ridges
collects in the narrow swamps and moves to poorly defined stream channels
or sloughs. The ridge subsoils stay saturated for long periods after heavy
rainfall.

Leon soils have a thin black and gray surface layer and firm organic layer
within two feet of the surface. This soil is poorly drained, low in ferti-
lity, strongly acid and low in organic matter. The water table fluctuates
from a few inches below the surface to four feet deep. Leon soils make up
about 40 percent of the unit.

Blanton soils are on the slightly convex ridges and they are somewhat
poorly drained. The surface layer is dark grayish brown sand overlying a
brown sandy subsoil. Runoff is slow and internal drainage is rapid.
Organic matter is low, reaction is strongly acid and fertility is low.
About 30 percent of the unit is Blanton soils.

Mandarin soils have a thick black and gray surface and a weakly cemented
organic layer. This soil is somewhat poorly drained, low in fertility,
strongly acid and low in organic matter. The water table fluctuates from
20 inches below the surface to four feet deep. Mandarin soils make up
about 20 percent of this unit.

Rutlege soil is the dominant inclusion and it makes up about 10 percent of
the unit.

Leon soils are managed mainly for slash pine thru site preparation and in
some cases fertilization. Blanton and Mandarin are managed mainly for
longleaf pine. Both soils have dense native grass cover. Rutlege soils
have dense swampy vegetation and they are generally not intensively










managed. They provide diversity to the forest environment that is valuable
for aesthetics and wildlife. Because of the dense vegetation, intensive
site preparation would be necessary to grow slash pine successfully on
Rutlege soils.

There are three different plant communities in this unit.

Pine-Palmetto Flatwoods. This community is on Leon, Blanton and Mandarin
soils and has an overstory dominated by longleaf pine. Slash pine is on
the wetter Leon soils. The understory is dominated by saw palmetto.
Gallberry is common on Leon soils but is a minor component of the under-
story on Blanton and Mandarin soils. Wax myrtle occurs occasionally on
both soils. Some fetterbush is on the wetter Leon soils and staggerbush,
bluejack and turkey oak occur in small numbers on the Blanton and Mandarin
soils. The ground vegetation is dominated by wiregrass, runner oak,
blueberry and braken fern. Previous site prepared areas have a significant
amount of bluestream grass. There are an additional 100 or more species
that can occur in this layer. This community makes up about 75 percent of
the unit.

Bay Swamps and Titi Swamps

Rutlege soils in this unit are generally covered with the Bay Swamp plant
community but titi swamps are also common. Refer to Unit 1 for descrip-
tions of these communities. These swamps cover about 25 percent of the
unit.


4. Chipley Blanton Foxworth Soils Sandhills and Pine Flatwoods with a
Few Swamps

This association consists of convex ridges and knolls with stringers of
swamps and bayheads. The unit makes up about 8 percent of the Forest and
occurs around the perimeter of the Wakulla Ranger District and in the
northern part of the Apalachicola Ranger District. Runoff from the ridges
collects in the stringers and bayheads of Rutlege-Dorovan soils and grad-
ually moves to streams.

Chipley soils have a thin gray sand surface soil underlain by a yellow sand
subsoil that extends to seven feet or more. The lower subsoil has common
light gray mottles. This soil is moderately well drained, low in fer-
tility, strongly acid and very low in organic matter. The water table
fluctuates from about 30 inches to 6 feet or more. Chipley makes up about
40 percent of the unit.

Blanton soils have a six inch gray sand surface layer overlying a brown
sand subsoil to a depth of about two feet. Underlying this is a gray and
yellow sand layer to 6 feet or more. These soils are moderately well
drained, low in fertility, strongly acid and low in organic matter. The
water table fluctuates from about 60 inches to 6 or more feet. Blanton
soils make up about 30 percent of the unit.









Foxworth soils have a grayish brown sand surface layer overlying a
yellowish brown to light gray subsoil that extends to 6 feet or more. This
soil is moderately well drained, low in fertility, strongly acid and low in
organic matter. The water table fluctuates from about 30 inches to 6 or
more feet. Foxworth soils make up about 20 percent of the unit.

The dominant inclusion is Rutlege soils and it makes up about 10 percent of
the association.

Chipley, Blanton and Foxworth soils are managed mainly for longleaf pine,
but some areas have been planted to slash pine. Rutlege soils are
generally not managed for timber production because of their dense vegeta-
tion and wetness. This unit serves as recharge areas for the deep aquifer.
Grasses and forbs are generally abundant in the ground cover.

There are three different plant communities in this unit.

Sandhills. This community is on Chipley soils and has an overstory of
longleaf pine. The understory consists of turkey oak, bluejack oak and an
occasional clump of saw palmetto and wax myrtle. The ground vegetation is
dominated by wiregrass but includes runner oak, braken fern, blueberry,
bluesterm and many other forbs and flowers. Sandhills make up about 45
percent of the unit.

Pine Palmetto Flatwoods. This community is on Blanton and Foxworth
soils. The overstory is mostly longleaf pine but slash pine has been
planted in some areas. The understory consists of saw palmetto, bluejack
oak, water oak, staggerbush and low growing gallberry. The ground vegeta-
tion consists of wiregrass, runner oak, gallberry, bluestem and many forbs.
This community makes up about 35 percent of the unit.

Bay Swamps and Titi Swamps. These communities occur on Rutlege soils and
they are described in Unit 1. There are more Bay swamps than Titi swamps
in this unit. These swamps make up about 20 percent of the unit.


5. Kershaw Ortega Alpin Sandhills with Depressions and Sinkholes

This association is characterized by rolling sand hill ridges with wet
depressional areas, sinkholes and a few lakes. The slopes break sharply
adjacent to lakes and sinks but are gradual next to wet depressions. There
is very little stream runoff from this area because rainfall enters the
soil about as fast as it falls and depressions and sinkholes transmit water
directly into the aquifer. In areas where there are intermittent running
streams and permanent lakes, the soil is underlain by a nearly impermeable
clayey formation at depths greater than ten feet. Occasionally this layer
is breached with a sinkhole filled with sand which allows the downward per-
colation of water.

This unit occurs immediately southwest of Tallahassee and in the northern
part of Liberty County and makes up about 6 percent of the Forest.









Kershaw soils are excessively drained. Typically, the surface layer is
grayish brown sand about 7 inches thick. Below this is very pale brown and
yellow sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.

Ortega soils are moderately well drained. Typically, the surface layer is
gray sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying layers to about 80 inches
are light brownish gray sand, very pale brown sand, yellow sand, yellow
fine sand that has brown mottles and white fine sand that has yellow
mottles.

Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, the surface layer is dark
gray sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is very pale brown
sand about 55 inches thick. Below this is white sand that has thin
brownish yellow loamy sand or sandy loam lenses or bands. This layer
extends to a depth of 90 inches or more.

These soils are generally managed for longleaf pine. There are several
recreation sites in this unit adjacent to lakes and there are several sce-
nic sinkholes and depressions. These units serve as deep aquifer recharge
areas.

There is only one extensive plant community in this unit. Longleaf
sandhills blanket the area but is interrupted by an occasional hardwood
hammock, wet depressional prairie, or swampy high pineland depression.

Sandhills. This community is on Kershaw, Ortega and Alpin soils and is
characterized by an overstory of longleaf pine, and understory of turkey
and bluejack oak and a sparse ground cover of wiregrass. The understory
includes some saw plametto, blueberry and live oak. The ground vegetation
includes wiregrass, gopher apple, prickly pear, runner oaks, partridge pea,
panic grasses, bluestems, smilax, and a variety of other species.

Hardwood hammocks are variable and reflect micro site or soil differences.
Generally, live and water oaks are adjacent to wet depressions and magno-
lia, sweet gum, sweet bay and water oak are adjacent to sinkholes. Other
hardwood species include hickory, persimmon and red oak on drier ridges.
Wet depressional prairies consist of a vegetative cover of dog fennel,
meadow beauty, bulrushes, bog-buttons, yellow-eyed grass, rushfoils and
hypericum. Swampy depressions consist of cypress, blackgum and sweetbay
and otherwise resemble bay swamps or cypress swamps described in Unit 1.


6. Rutlege Meggett Hydric Hardwood River Swamps

This association is basically the floodplain of the Ochlochonee River and
New River. There are narrow strips along the Sopchoppy River and Lost
Creek that do not appear on the map because of the small scale. The nearly
level landform is subject to occasional flooding from adjacent rivers.
This unit makes up about 5 percent of the Forest.

Rutlege soils have a thick black sandy surface underlain by gray sands.
These soils are very poorly drained high in organic matter, extremely acid









and medium in fertility. The water table can drop to two or three feet
below the surface during dry periods.

Meggett soils have a dark gray sandy loam surface underlain by a mottled
red and yellow gray clay. Beneath the subsoil is gray and light gray loam
to a depth of 80 inches or more. This soil is poorly drained, medium in
fertility, very strongly acid and low in organic matter. The water table
fluctuates from several feet on the surface during flooding to about 2 feet
below the surface during dry periods. Meggett soils make up about 35 per-
cent of this association.

Several recreation areas are in these units near the Rivers on the high
better drained soils. The unit in managed for hardwoods on an extensive
scale. Water in the rivers is generally of high quality. These areas have
high quality wildlife habitat for many species because of soil productivity
and diverse vegetation.

The dominant vegetative community is hydric hardwood swamps but along Lost
Creek and the Sopchoppy River the Creek Swamp community dominates. In
addition there are cypress-gum swamps and willow bars mixed with the hydric
hardwood swamps.

Hydric Hardwood Swamps. The overstory consists of river birch, water hick-
ory, elm, pop ash, ogeechee-lime, blackgum, sweetgum, water oak, red maple
cottonwood and cypress among others. Shrubs include older, swamp cyrilla,
buttonbush, trumpet-vine, wisteria, wax myrtle and fetterbush. The ground
cover includes chain fern, cinnamon fern, spider lily and ladies tresses.

Creek Swamp Community. Overstory species include ogeechee-lime, loblolly
pine, cypress tulip tree, red maple, sweet bay and atlantic white cedar.
The understory is dense and includes viburnum, pinckneya, black titi, swamp
cyrilla, sweet pepperbush, botton bush, azalea, cane, bamboo, trumpet vine
and blackberry.

Cypress-Gum Swamps occur in depressional areas on the floodplain and are
dominated by cypress and blackgum.

Willow bars are sand bars that occur as islands or levels along the river
bank and are so-called because willow trees and shrubs dominate.


7. Meggett-Surrency Soils Hydric Hardwood River Swamps and Cypress
Swamps

This association occurs mostly along the Apalachicola River but a small
area exists along the Ochlochonee River near State Route 20. The landform
is a nearly level floodplain that frequently floods. There are small
stream terrace inclusions that are on slightly higher elevations and have
better drained soils. This association makes up about 6 percent of the
Forest.

Meggett soils have a dark gray sandy loam surface underlain by a mottled
red and yellow gray clay. Beneath the subsoil is gray and light gray loam










to a depth of 80 inches or more. This soil is poorly drained, medium in
fertility, very strongly acid and low in organic matter. The water table
fluctuates from several feet on the surface during flooding to about 2 feet
below the surface during dry periods. Meggett soils make up about 35 per-
cent of this association.

Surrency soils have a thick black loamy sand surface soil overlying a dark
gray sand clay loam subsoil that extends to 6 feet or more. This soil is
very poorly drained, medium in fertility, extremely acid and high in or-
ganic matter. The water table fluctuates from on the surface to 3 or more
feet. Surrency soils make up about 30 percent of this association.

Inclusions are drier soils on terraces or ridges near the rivers or
streams.

This association is productive of hardwoods and loblolly pine. However,
the pine is generally badly infected with fusiform rust. The level of
management is low because of the wetness. There are many wildlife foods
available along with the dense cover and it is excellent wildlife habitat
for squirrel, deer, and turkey.

The dominant vegetation community is Hydric hardwood swamps but the drier
stream terrace inclusions are southern mixed hardwoods. Also Cypress
strands are dominant along some tributary streams.

Hydric Hardwoods River Swamps. The overstory consists of water hickory,
ogeechee-lime, elm, blackgum, sweetgum, water oak, red maple and cypress.
Understory species includes sweet pepperbush, buttonbush, trumpet vine,
muscadine, wisteria, smilax, blackberry and others. Ground vegetation
includes ferns, lillies, mosses and sedges.

Southern Mixed Hardwoods. The overstory consists of southern magnolia,
spruce pine, white oak, water oak, sweetgum, hickory, red maple, tulip
tree, beech, and basswood. The understory includes dogwood, red bud,
American holly, witch-hazel, yaupon, sparkleberry, ironwood and blue beech.
The ground cover is patchy with partridge-berry, trillium, panic grasses,
ferns and many wildflowers.

Cypress Strands. These are very wet areas and cypress is the dominant tree
but blackgum is common. Shrubs include fetterbush, large gallberry, and
sweet pepperbush. Ground vegetation is sparse but includes smilax, lilies
and ferns.


8. Bladen Plummer Soils Savannas and Slash Pine Flats

This association occurs along the western side of the forest, mostly west
of State Route 65. The landform is a nearly level to slightly concave flat
that ponds water on the surface during wet seasons. Inclusions of per-
manently ponded cypress domes and stringers are common. This association
makes up about 5 percent of the Forest.









Bladen soils have a dark gray silt loam surface underlain by gray silty
clay mottled with yellowish red and yellowish brown. The mottled subsoil
extends to 6 feet or more. This soil is poorly drained, low in fertility,
extremely acid and low in organic matter. The water table fluctuates from
about 6 inches on the surface during wet seasons to three or four feet deep
for short periods during dry seasons. Bladen soil makes up about 40 per-
cent of this unit.

Plummer soils have a dark gray sand surface soil and a gray sand subsoil to
about 4 feet. Under this is a light gray sandy clay loam mottled with
strong brown and yellowish red. This clay enriched layer extends to 6 feet
or more. Plummer soils are poorly drained, low in fertility, very strongly
acid and medium in organic matter. The water table fluctuates from on the
surface to five feet or more deep. Plummer soil makes up about 30 percent
of this association.

Inclusions of Rutlege, Dunbar and Leefield make up the remainder of the
association.

The soils in this association are highly productive of slash pine provided
they are prepared and/or fertilized. Many areas are savannas with only a
few scattered trees and a multitude of wildflowers. Some of these savannas
will be permanently maintained in their treeless condition by repeated
program burning.

The dominant plant communities are savannas and slash pine flats.

Savannas. These areas are open with only a scattered small slash pine,
sweet bay, blackgum or cypress. The ground is densely covered with wire-
grass, many conspicuous wildflowers, orange grass, panic grasses, pitcher
plants and sedges.

Slash pine flats. These areas have "hat rack" stands of slash pine, and
"shrubby", sweet bay, blackgum and cypress. Other common plants are smi-
lax, pitcher plants, ferns, wiregrass, wildflowers, sedges, etc.



9. Leefield Dothan Soils Longleaf Pine Ridges and Flatwoods Intermixed
with Hardwoods

This association occurs in the western portion of Liberty and Franklin
Counties and makes up about 5 percent of the Forest. The landscape is
characterized by convex ridges that can be narrow or very broad. Surface
drainage is good as water drains readily to adjacent cypress ponds and
stringers. Some savannas, slash pine flats and cypress domes with soils of
association No. 8 are included.

Leefield soils have a thin dark brown loamy sand surface underlain by a
brownish yellow sand layer to three feet. Underlying this is a yellowish
brown sandy clay loam with light gray and yellowish red mottles. Leefield
soils are somewhat poorly drained, low in fertility, strongly acid and low
in organic matter. The water table fluctuates from about one foot below









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National Cooperative Soil
Survey has six categories. Beginning with the broadest, these categories
are the order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series.
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the field or
inferred from those observations or from laboratory measurements. In Table
7, the soils of the survey area are classified according to the system.
The categories are defined in the following paragraphs.

ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The differences among orders
reflect the dominant soil forming processes and the degree of soil for-
mation. Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An example is
Ultisol.

SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders primarily on the basis of
properties that influence soil genesis and are important to plant growth or
properties that reflect the most important variables within the orders.
The last syllable in the name of a suborder indicates the order. An
example is Udult (Ud, meaning humid, plus ult, from Ultisol).

GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great groups on the basis of
close similarities in kind, arrangement, and degree of development of pedo-
genic horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and base status.
Each great group is identified by the name of a suborder and by a prefix
that indicates a property of the soil. An example is Paleudults (Pale,
meaning old or excessive development, plus udult, the suborder of the
Ultisols that have an udic moisture regime).

SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. Other subgroups are
intergrades or extragrades. The typic is the central concept of the great
group; it is not necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are tran-
sitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Extragrades have some
properties that are not representative of the great group but do not indi-
cate tranistions to any other known kind of soil. Each subgroup is iden-
tified by one or more adjectives preceding the name of the great group.
The adjective Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great group.
An example is Typic Paleudults.

FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on the basis of physi-
cal and chemical properties and other characteristics that affect manage-
ment. Mostly the properties are those of horizons below plow depth where
there is much biological activity. Among the properties and charac-
teristics considered are particle-size class, mineral content, temperature
regime, depth of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope,
and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name of a subgroup
preceded by terms that indicate soil properties. An example is fine-loamy,
siliceous, thermic, Typic Paleudults.

SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar horizons in their
profile. The horizons are similar in color, texture, structure, reaction,
consistence, mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in the pro-
file. The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can differ
within a series.








Soil Series and Their Morphology


In this section, each soil series recognized in the survey area is
described. The descriptions are arranged in alphabetic order.

Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it formed are iden-
tified for each series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil,
that is typical of the series in the survey area is described. The
detailed description of each soil horizon follows standards in the Soil
Survey Manual. Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in Soil Taxonomy. Unless otherwise stated, colors in the descrip-
tions are for the moist soil.

The map units of each soil series are described in the section "Detailed
soil map units."









ALBANY SERIES


Classification: Loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleudults.

The Albany series consists of somewhat poorly drained, sandy and loamy
soils of marine origin. A water table is 12 to 30 inches below the sur-
face for one to two months in most years. Albany soils have a gray sandy
surface horizon about four inches thick and light yellowish brown to gray
subsoil. Albany soils occur on nearly level lower positions on uplands.

Typical pedon of Albany loamy sand in a wooded area 4.5 miles west of
Silver Lake Road, on Forest Service Road 301, which is 2.5 miles south of
Florida Highway 20, NW'4 SE/4, Section 13, Township 1 South, Range 3 West.


A1--0 to 4 inches;



A21--4 to 21 inches;



A22--21 to 36 inches;




A23--36 to 50 inches;



B21t--50 to 63 inches;




B22t--63 to 78 inches;






C--78 to 100 inches;


very dark grayish brown (10 YR 3/2) loamy sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many
fine and medium roots; extremely acid; clear wavy
boundary.

pale brown (10 YR 6/3) loamy sand; weak fine granu-
lar structure; very friable; strongly acid; gra-
dual wavy boundary.

very pale brown (10 YR 7/4) loamy sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; common medium
distinct light gray (10 YR 7/1) and reddish yellow
(7.5 YR 7/8) mottles; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.

mottled very pale brown (10 YR 7/3), yellow (10 YR
7/6) and brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6) loamy sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

mottled light gray (10 YR 7/1) and yellowish brown
(10 YR 5/8) sandy loam; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; very friable; sand grains coated
and bridged with clay; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.

light yellowish brown (10 YR 6/4) sandy clay loam;
many coarse distinct reddish brown (7.5 YR 5/6)
and few medium distinct reddish brown (5 YR 5/4)
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; sand grains well coated and
bridged with clay; strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.

light gray (10 YR 7/1) very fine sandy loam; com-
mon medium distinct yellow (10 YR 7/6) and few fine
prominent reddish yellow (7.5 YR 6/6) mottles;
weak medium subangular blocky structure: very
friable, strongly acid.









ALPIN SERIES


Classification: Thermic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments.

The Alpin series consists of excessively drained sandy soils of marine or
eolian deposits. The water table is more than 80 inches deep. Alpin soils
have a dark grayish brown sandy surface about four inches thick and a light
yellowish brown to very pale brown subsoil. Alpin soils occur on nearly
level to moderately steep upland and stream terrace landscapes.

Typical pedon of Alpin fine sand in Leon County, Florida, Section 30,
Township 1 South, Range 2 West.


A1--0 to 4 inches;



A21--4 to 20 inches;



A22--20 to 60 inches;


A2&B2--60 to 80 inches;


dark grayish brown (10 YR 4/2) sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

light yellowish brown (10 YR 6/4) sand; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.

very pale brown (10 YR 7/4) sand; single grained;
loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

very pale brown (10 YR 7/4) sand; brown (7.5 YR
5/4) lamella 2mm 6cm in thickness; texture of
lamella loamy sand weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; very friable; very strongly acid.









BLADEN SERIES


Classification: Clayey, mixed, thermic Typic Albaquults.

The Bladen series consists of poorly drained sandy loam over clayey soils
of fluvial or marine origin. The water table is within 0 to 15 inches for
two to six months each year. Bladen soils have a black fine sandy loam
surface about five inches thick and a gray mottled subsoil. Bladen soils
occur on low flat fluvial or marine terraces that are waterlogged or
flooded at some season.

Typical pedon of Bladen fine sandy loam located in Liberty County, Section
10, Township 5 South, Range 8 West.


A1--0 to 5 inches;



A2g--5 to 14 inches;



B21ty--14 to 40 inches;




B22tg--40 to 53+ inches;


black (10 YR 2/1) fine sandy loam; weak subangular
blocky structure; sticky; many fine and medium
roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.

grayish brown (2.5 Y 5/2) fine sandy loam; weak
subangular blocky structure; very strongly acid;
gradual smooth boundary.

dark gray (N4/) clay; common medium faint
yellowish brown (10 YR 5/8) mottles; strong
subangular blocky structure; very sticky; few
roots; extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.

gray (N5/) clay; common medium distinct yellowish
brown (10 YR 5/8) mottles; strong subangular
blocky structure; very sticky; extremely acid.









BLANTON SERIES


Classification: Loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleudults.

The Blanton series consists of moderately well drained sandy over sandy
clay loam soils formed in marine or eolian deposits. A perched water table
above the B2t horizon is within depths of 60 to 72 inches for one to three
months in most years and below 72 inches the remainder of the year.
Blanton soils have a grayish brown to pale brown sandy surface layer about
seven inches thick over a very pale brown to brownish yellow sandy to sandy
clay loam subsoil. Blanton soils occur on nearly level to strongly sloping
upland and stream terrace landscapes.

Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand in Liberty County, Florida; 2/4 miles
east of State Road 12 and 200 yards north of Forest Service Road 108 in a
longleaf pine stand.


All--0 to 2 inches;


A12--2 to 7 inches;



A21--7 to 23 inches;


A22--23 to 36 inches;





A23--36 to 48 inches;





B1t--48 to 55 inches;




B21t--55 to 76 inches;


grayish brown (10 YR 5/2) fine sand; single
grained; loose; many fine roots; very strongly
acid; abrupt smooth boundary.

pale brown (10 YR 6/3) fine sand; single grained;
loose; many fine roots; very strongly acid; gra-
dual wavy boundary.

light yellowish brown (10 YR 6/4) fine sand; few
fine faint light gray (10 YR 7/1) and few fine
faint yellowish brown (10 YR 5/6) mottles; single
grained; loose; many fine roots; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.

very pale brown (10 YR 7/4) fine sand; few fine
faint yellowish brown (10 YR 5/4), coarse medium
distinct yellowish brown (10 YR 5/6) and coarse
medium distinct light gray (10 YR 7/1) mottles;
single grained; loose; common roots; very strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.

white (10 YR 8/2) fine sand; few fine faint
yellowish brown (10 YR 5/6), coarse medium
distinct light yellowish brown (10 YR 6/4), and
few fine faint light gray (10 YR 7/1) mottles;
single grained; loose; common roots; very strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.

very pale brown(10 YR 7/3) sandy loam; common
medium distinct light yellowish brown (10 YR 7/1)
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
very friable; few roots; very strongly acid; gra-
dual wavy boundary.

yellowish brown (10 YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; com-
mon medium distinct brownish yellow (10 YR 6/8)














B22t--76 to 96 inches;


and few fine faint very pale brown (10 YR 7/3)
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; few roots; very strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.

brownish yellow (10 YR 6/8) sandy clay loam; com-
mon medium distinct yellowish brown (10 YR 5/8)
and common medium distinct light gray (10 YR 7/1)
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; few roots; very strongly acid.









CHIPLEY SERIES


Classification: Sandy, coated, thermic Aquic Quartzipsamments.

The Chipley series consists of somewhat poorly drained soils formed in
sandy marine sediments. The water table is within a depth of 20 to 40
inches for two to four months during most years. Chipley soils have a very
dark gray sand surface layer about six inches thick over a brownish yellow
to gray sandy subsoil. Chipley soils occur on moderately low uplands.

Typical pedon of Chipley fine sand 2.0 miles northeast of State Road 267 on
Forest Road 305 and 75 yards north of road, Section 25, Township 1 South,
Range 3 West.


All--0 to 6 inches;




C1--6 to 24 inches;


grayish brown (10 YR 5/2) sand; with few medium
distinct (10 YR 7/2) stains; single grained;
loose; many fine common roots; strongly acid;
abrupt smooth boundary.

yellowish brown (10 YR 5/4) sand; few fine faint,
very pale brown (10 YR 7/4) mottles; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid;
abrupt smooth boundary.


C2--24 to 38 inches;


very pale brown (10
distinct, yellowish
yellowish brown (10
grained; loose; few
wavy boundary.


YR 7/4) sand; few medium
brown (10 YR 5/4) and light
YR 6/4) mottles; single
roots; strongly acid; gradual


C3--38 to 50 inches;




C4--50 to 60 inches;




C5--60 to 80+ inches;


very pale brown (10 YR 7/3) sand; few medium
distinct light yellowish brown (10 YR 6/4)
mottles; single grained; loose; few roots; strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.

light gray (10 YR 7/2) loamy sand; few medium
distinct light yellowish brown (10 YR 6/4) and
many medium distinct pale brown (10 YR 6/3)
mottles; single grained structure; loose; strongly
acid; abrupt smooth boundary.

grayish brown (10 YR 5/2) sand; massive structure;
friable; strongly acid.









DOROVAN SERIES


Classification: Dysic, thermic Typic Medisaprists.

The Dorovan series consists of very poorly drained organic soils. The
water table is at or near the surface during most of the year. Dorovan
soils have black, highly decomposed organic materials more than 51 inches
thick over sand subsoil. Dorovan soils occur in titi, cypress, blackgum and
bay swamps.

Typical pedon of Dorovan mucky peat about 100 yards, west of 354 and
0.3-mile north of 369, Section 9, Township 2 South, Range 2 West.


Oe--O to 5 inches;




Oal--5 to 25 inches;






0a2--25 to 60 inches;






IIc--60 to 72+ inches;


black (10 YR 2/1) mucky peat consisting of par-
tially decomposed moss, leaves, roots and twigs; 50
percent fiber after rubbing; slightly sticky; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

black (10 YR 2/1) muck that remains black (10 YR
2/1) when rubbed; about 20 percent fiber unrubbed
and less than 10 percent rubbed; fibers remaining
after rubbing are partially decomposed wood 1 to
2mm in size; massive; non-sticky; many roots and
partially decomposed limbs; very strongly acid;
diffuse wavy boundary.

very dark brown (10 YR 2/2) muck that remains very
dark brown (10 YR 2/2) when rubbed; abut 20 per-
cent fiber unrubbed and less than 10 percent
rubbed; fibers remianing after rubbing are par-
tially decmposed wood 1 to 2mm in size; massive;
non-sticky; many roots; very strongly acid; gra-
dual wavy boundary.

very dark grayish brown (10 YR 3/2) clay, massive;
few roots; very strongly acid.









DOTHAN SERIES


Classification: Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthic Paleudults.

The Dothan series consists of well drained sandy over sandy clay loam soils
formed in marine sediments. The water table fluctuates from about three
feet during wet seasons to six feet or more during dry seasons. Dothan
soils have a dark grayish brown to olive brown sandy loam surface horizon
about nine inches thick over a yellowish brown to yellow subsoil. Dothan
soils occur on broad nearly level to sloping upland ridges.

Typical pedon of Dothan sandy loam, 100 feet south of Forest Service 115,
Liberty County, Florida.


All--0 to 4 inches;




A12--4 to 9 inches;



B1--9 to 13 inches;




B21t--13 to 37 inches;





B22t--37 to 62 inches;




B23t--62 to 72 inches;


dark grayish (2.5 Y 4/2) fine sandy loam; moderate
medium granular structure; very friable; common
fine and medium roots; very strong acid; clear
smooth boundary.

olive brown (2.5 Y 4/4) fine sandy loam; moderate
medium granular structure; very friable; common
fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual
smooth boundary.


light olive brown (2.5 Y 5/6) fine sandy
moderate medium granular structure; very
common medium roots; very strongly acid;
wavy boundary.


loam;
friable;
gradual


yellowish brown (10 YR 5/8) fine sandy clay loam,
few common distinct light reddish brown (2.5 YR
6/4) and few common distinct yellowish red (5 YR
4/8) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; few roots; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.

olive yellow (2.5 Y 6/6) sandy clay; common medium
distinct yellowish red (5 YR 4/8) and few fine
faint brownish yellow (10 YR 6/8) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
firm; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

pale yellow (2.5 Y 7/4) sandy clay; common medium
distinct red (2.5 YR 4/8) and few medium distinct
brownish yellow (10 YR 6/8) mottles; moderate
medium subangular blocky structure, firm, very
strongly acid.










DUNBAR SERIES


Classification: Clayey kaolinitic, thermic Aeric Paleaquults.

The Dunbar series consists of somewhat poorly drained sandy loam over sandy
clay soils that have formed in clayey sediments of marine origin. The water
table is within 1 to 2.5 feet of the soil surface for significant periods
of the year. Dunbar soils have a dark gray loamy sand surface over a gray
sandy clay loam subsoil. Dunbar soils occur on broad, smooth interstream
divides.

Typical pedon of Dunbar loamy sand, 150 yards east of State Road 12 and 250
yards north of 105 in Compartment No. 4, Liberty County, Section 26,
Township 2 South, Range 8 West.


All--0 to 2 inches;


A12-- 2 to 8 inches;



Blt--8 to 24 inches;






B21t--24 to 46 inches;







B22t--46 to 62 inches;







B3t--62 to 68 inches;


dark gray (10 YR 4/1) loamy sand; weak fine
granular; friable; many fine and medium roots;
very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.

gray (10 YR 5/1) loamy sand; weak medium granular
structure; friable; many fine and medium roots;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6) sandy loam; few fine
faint gray (10 YR 5/1), common medium distinct
pale brown (10 YR 6/3), common medium distinct
brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6) and few fine distinct
red (2.5 YR 4/8) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable, common fine and medium
roots; very strongly acid gradual wavy boundary.

yellowish brown (10 YR 5/6) sandy clay loam; com-
mon medium distinct gray (10 YR 6/1); common
medium distinct brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6), com-
mon medium distinct red (2.5 YR 4/8) and common
medium distinct yellowish brown (10 YR 5/8)
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; few roots; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.

yellowish brown (10 YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; com-
mon medium distinct yellowish brown (10 YR 5/6);
common medium distinct gray (10 YR 6/1), common
medium distinct red (2.5 YR 4/8) and common medium
distinct brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm;
few roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy bound-
ary.


gray (10
distinct
distinct


YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; few fine
yellowish brown (10 YR 5/6), few fine
red (2.5 YR 4/8), common medium distinct









FOXWORTH SERIES


Classification: Thermic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments.

The Foxworth series consists of moderately well drained sandy soils of
marine or aeolian origin. A water table is between depths of 40 to 72
inches for one to three months in most years. Foxworth soils have a gray
sandy surface about four inches thick and a pale brown to white subsoil.
Foxworth soils occur on nearly level to gently sloping uplands and sloping
sideslopes leading to drainageways.

Typical pedon of Foxworth sand in a wooded area 0.45-mile east of Forest
Road 305A, 200 feet north of Forest Road 305, NEy4NE 4, Section 28, Township
1 South, Range 2 West.


A1--0 to 4 inches;



C1--4 to 9 inches;



C2--9 to 36 inches;




C3--36 to 46 inches;




C4--46 to 54 inches;



C5--54 to 64 inches;





C6--64 to 80 inches;


gray (10 YR 5/1) sand; single grained; loose; many
fine, medium and coarse roots; strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.

pale brown (10 YR 6/3) sand; single grained;
loose; many fine, medium, and coarse roots;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

very pale brown (10 YR 7/4) sand; white (10 YR
8/2) sand stripping; single grained; loose; many
fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.

very pale brown (10 YR 8/4) sand; common medium
distinct white (10 YR 8/2) and common fine
distinct yellow (10 YR 7/6) mottles; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.

white (10 YR 8/1) sand; common medium distinct
very pale brown (10 YR 8/4) and few fine distinct
strong brown (7.5 YR 5/8) mottles; single grained;
loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6) sand; common medium
white (10 YR 8/1), few fine distinct yellowish red
(5 YR 5/8) and few fine distinct yellowish red (5
YR 5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; strongly
acid; abrupt wavy boundary.

brown (10 YR 5/3) sand; few fine distinct
yellowish red (5 YR 5/6) and few fine faint dark
reddish gray mottles; weak fine granular
structure; slight increase in clay content; very
friable; very strongly acid.









FUQUAY SERIES


Classification: Loamy, siliceous, thermic Arenic Plinthic Paleudults.

The Fuquay series consists of well-drained sandy over sandy clay loam
soils that have formed in loamy marine sediments. A perched water table
occurs above the reticulately mottled Bt horizon briefly during wet
periods. Fuquay soils have a gray sandy surface about three inches thick
over a reddish yellow mottled subsoil. Fuquay soils occur on nearly level
to sloping uplands.

Typical pedon of Fuquay sand two miles south of Sumatra and 250 yards west
of State Route 65, Franklin County, Section 31, Township 5 South, Range 7
West.


A1--0 to 3 inches;


A2--3 to 28 inches;



B1t--28 to 38 inches;




B21t--38 to 52 inches;







B22t--52 to 57 inches;







B23t--57 to 80 inches;


gray (10 YR 5/1) sand; single grained; loose; many
fine and medium roots; strongly acid; abrupt
smooth boundary.

pale yellow (2.5 Y 7/4) sand; few fine faint
light gray (10 YR 7/1) bodies of clean sand;
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

reddish yellow (7.5 YR 6/8) sandy loam; few fine
faint very pale brown (10 YR 7/4) and few medium
distinct light gray mottles; weak medium subangu-
lar blocky structure; very friable; many fine and
medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

reddish yellow (7.5 YR 6/6) sandy clay loam; com-
mon medium distinct brownish yellow (10 YR 6/8);
few fine faint very pale brown (10 YR 7/4); common
medium distinct light gray (10 YR 7/1), few medium
distinct strong brown (7.5 YR 5/8) mottles; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many
fine and medium roots; strongly acid gradual wavy
boundary.

brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6) sandy clay loam; com-
mon medium distinct brownish yellow (10 YR 6/8),
common medium distinct very pale brown (10 YR
7/4), common medium distinct light gray (10 YR
7/1), common medium strong brown mottles; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; com-
mon fine and medium roots; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.

reddish yellow (7.5 YR 6/8) sandy clay loam; com-
mon coarse distinct light gray (5 Y 7/1), common
medium distinct strong brown (7.5 YR 5/8), common
medium distinct brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6), few
medium distinct yellowish red (5 YR 4/8) mottles;
weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
few roots; very strongly acid.









KERSHAW SERIES


Classification: Thermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments.

The Kershaw series consists of excessively drained sandy soils that formed
in deep beds of sand of marine origin. The depth to the water table is
more than 120 inches. Kershaw soils have a dark gray sandy surface layer
about two inches thick over a light yellowish brown to very pale brown sub-
soil. Kershaw soils occur on gently sloping to rolling landscapes.

Typical pedon of Kershaw sand 3/4-mile north of Forest Road 362 and one
mile east of State Road 373.


A1--0 to 2 inches;



C&A--2 to 8 inches;



C1--8 to 32 inches;



C2--32 to 56 inches;


C3--56 to 78 inches;


dark gray (10 YR 4/1) sand; single grained; loose;
common fine roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth
boundary.

pale brown (10 YR 6/3) sand; single grained;
loose; common fine roots; very strongly acid; gra-
dual wavy boundary.

light yellowish brown (10 YR 6/4) sand; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; very strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.

very pale brown (10 YR 7/4) sand; single grained;
loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

very pale brown (10 YR 7/3) sand; single grained;
loose; very strongly acid.









LEEFIELD SERIES


Classification: Loamy, siliceous, thermic Arenic Plinthaquic Paleudults.

The Leefield series consists of somewhat poorly drained loamy sand over
sandy clay loam formed in thick sandy and loamy marine sediments. A
perched water table at depths of 18 to 30 inches is present for about four
months during the year. Leefield soils have a dark gray to gray fine sand
surface layer about 30 inches thick over a gray to brownish yellow sandy
clay loam mottled subsoil. Leefield soils are on level uplands of the
Coastal Plain.

Typical pedon of Leefield loamy sand, near Hitchcock Lake Camp, Liberty
County, Florida, Section 32, Township 4 South, Range 4 West.


All--0 to 9 inches;



A12--9 to 17 inches;




A3--17 to 30 inches;





Blt--30 to 36 inches;




B21t--36 to 44 inches;





B22t--44 to 54 inches;




B23t--54 to 60 inches;


dark gray (10 YR 4/1) loamy fine sand; weak fine
granular structure; loose; many fine and large
roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.

gray (10 YR 5/1) loamy fine sand; few fine faint
yellowish brown (10 YR 5/6) mottles; weak fine
granular structure; loose; many fine and large
roots; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.

gray (10 YR 5/1) loamy fine sand; moderate medium
distinct pale brown (10 YR 6/3) and few fine
distinct dark yellowish brown (10 YR 4/6) mottles;
weak fine granular structure; loose; many to few
fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.

pale brown (10 YR 6/3) fine sandy loam; moderate
medium distinct brown (10 YR 5/3) and few fine
common yellowish brown (10 YR 5/8) mottles; weak
fine subangular blocky structure, sticky, few
roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6) fine sandy loam; com-
mon medium distinct gray (10 YR 5/1) mottles; weak
fine subangular blocky structure; sticky; 5 per
cent plinthite; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.

gray (10 YR 6/1) fine sandy loam; fine medium
distinct yellow (10 YR 7/6) mottles; weak fine
subangular blocky structure; sticky; 10 percent
plinthite; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.

brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6) fine sandy clay loam;
common medium distinct yellowish brown (10 YR 5/6)
mottles; moderate fine subangular blocky
structure; sticky; 15 percent plinthite; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.


84







B24t--60 to 66 inches;


pale brown (10 YR 6/3) fine sandy clay loam; reti-
culately mottled dark yellowish brown (10 YR 4/8),
gray (10 YR 6/1) and yellowish red (5 YR 5/8);
moderate fine subangular blocky structure; sticky;
very strongly acid.









LEON SERIES


Classification: Sandy, siliceous, thermic Aeric Haplaquods.

The Leon series consists of poorly drained sandy soils formed in marine
sediments. The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than
nine months and at a depth of less than ten inches for one to four months
during periods of high rainfall. Leon series have a dark gray sandy sur-
face about six inches thick and a black to dark yellowish brown subsoil.
Leon soils occur on broad flatwood areas and, in some places along drainage-
ways.

Typical pedon of Leon sand about two miles southeast of Wilma on Forest
Service Road 13 and 200 yards northwest of Forest Service Road 13, Section
9, Township 4 South, Range 7 West.


A1--0 to 2 inches;





A21--2 to 4 inches;



A22--4 to 14 inches;



B21h--14 to 18 inches;



B22h--18 to 24 inches;




B23h--24 to 32 inches;





A'21--32 to 42 inches;





B'h--60 to 80 inches;


very dark gray (10 YR 3/1) and white (10 YR 8/1)
sand; weak fine crumb structure; very friable; many
medium and fine roots, many clean sand grains give
a salt-and-pepper appearance; very strongly acid;
clear smooth boundary.

gray (10 YR 6/1) sand; single grained; loose; many
medium and fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.

light gray (10 YR 7/1) sand; single grained;
loose; many medium and fine roots; very strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.

black (5 YR 2/1) sand; weak fine granular
structure; friable; weakly cemented; very strongly
acid; abrupt wavy boundary.

very dark brown (7.5 YR 2/2) sand; common medium
faint reddish brown (5 YR 4/4) mottles; weak fine
subangular blocky structure; friable; weakly
cemented; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

dark brown (7.5 YR 3/2) sand; common medium
distinct dark reddish brown (5 YR 2/2) mottles,
weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
common roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.

grayish brown (10 YR 5/2) and pale brown (10 YR
6/3) sand; common medium distinct very dark
grayish brown (10 YR 3/2) mottles; single
grained; loose; common roots; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.

very dark grayish brown (10 YR 3/2) sand; common
medium distinct light brownish gray (10 YR 6/2) and
common medium distinct brown (7.5 YR 5/2) mottles;
weak fine granular structure; friable; few roots;
very strongly acid.
86










MANDARIN SERIES


Classification: Sandy, siliceous, hermic Typic Haplohumods.

The Mandarin series consists of somewhat poorly drained soils of marine
origin. The water table is at depths of 20 to 40 inches four to six
months, and at depths of more than 40 inches for six to eight months during
most years. It is at depths of 10 to 20 inches for up to two weeks in some
years. Mandarin soils have a black surface about seven inches thick over a
black to light gray subsoil. Mandarin soils occur on nearly level land-
scapes and on positions slightly higher than the adjacent flatwoods.

Typical pedon of Mandarin fine sand near Sopchoppy in Wakulla County,
Section 29, Township 4 South, Range 2 West.


A1--0 to 7 inches;



A21--7 to 10 inches;




A22--10 to 18 inches;




B2h--18 to 20 inches;




B3--20 to 23 inches;




A'21--23 to 50 inches;




A'22--50 to 66 inches;


B'2h--66 to 80 inches;


black (10 YR 2/1) fine sand; weak medium granular
structure; very friable; many fine and medium
roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.

gray (10 YR 5/1) fine sand; very dark gray (10 YR
3/1) fine streaks and patches along old root
channels; single grained; loose; common medium
roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.

white (10 YR 8/1) fine sand; dark gray (10 YR 4/1)
and very dark gray (10 YR 3/1) medium streaks and
patches single grained; loose; few medium roots;
very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.

black (10 YR 2/1) fine sand; weak medium granular
structure; friable weakly cemented; many fine and
medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.

dark brown (10 YR 3/3) fine sand; few fine very
dark gray (10 YR 3/1) fragments; weak fine granu-
lar structure; loose; few medium and fine roots;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

pale brown (10 YR 6/3) fine sand; few medium to
large brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6) mottles; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.

light gray (10 YR 7/2) fine sand; single grained;
loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

very dark gray (10 YR 3/1) fine sand; wet single
grained; very strongly acid.









MEGGETT SERIES


Classification: Fine, mixed, thermic Typic Albaqualfs.

The Meggett series consists of poorly drained clayey soils of marine and
alluvial origin. A water table is at or near'the surface in winter and
early spring. Meggett soils are frequently flooded, primarily in the
winter. Meggett soils have a black and dark yray loam surface layer about
16 inches thick and a gray clay subsoil. Meggett soils occur on broad
level and nearly level floodplains and low terraces.

Typical pedon of Meggett very fine sandy loam in wooded area about 380
yards west of National Forest boundary, 2.5 miles south of Forest Service
Road 305, SEY4SEY4, Section 11, Township 2 South, Range 5 West.


A1--0 to 6 inches;




A2g--6 to 12 inches;






B21tg--12 to 28 inches;




B22tg--28 to 35 inches;




B23tg--35 to 50 inches;





831g--50 to 64 inches;




C32g--64 to 80 inches;


dark gray (10 YR 4/1) very fine sandy loam; few
fine distinct yellowish brown (10 YR 5/4) mottles;
weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
many fine, medium and coarse roots; strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.

gray (10 YR 5/1) loam; common fine distinct strong
brown (7.5 YR 5/6) and many medium distinct strong
brown (7.5 YR 5/6) and many medium distinct
yellowish brown (10 YR 5/6) mottles; strong medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine
medium and coarse roots; very strongly acid;
abrupt wavy boundary.

gray (10 YR 5/1) clay; many fine distinct red (2.5
YR 4/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure parting to weak fine angular blocky;
firm; few fine and medium roots; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.

gray (N5/0) clay; common medium distinct red (2.5
YR 4/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure parting to weak fine angular blocky
structure; firm; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.

gray (N5/0) clay; many fine distinct brownish
yellow (10 YR 6/8) and common fine distinct
yellowish red (5 YR 4/6) mottles; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine
angular blocky structure; firm; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.

gray (10 YR 5/1) clay loam; many fine distinct
yellowish red (5 YR 4/6) and common medium
distinct light reddish brown (2.5 YR 6/4) mottles;
weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
light gray (5 Y 6/1) clay loam; common medium
distinct light olive brown (2.5 Y 5/6) and
brownish yellow (10 YR 6/8) mottles; weak medium
subangular blocky structure; firm; slightly acid.
88










ORTEGA SERIES


Classification: Thermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments.

The Orteya series consists of moderately well drained sandy soils of marine
or aoelian deposits. A water table is from 60 to 72 inches below, the sur-
face generally and is from 40 to 60 inches occasionally during heavy rain-
fall. Orteya soils have a gray sandy surface layer about four inches thick
and a light brownish gray to white sand subsoil. Ortega soils occur on
nearly level to gently sloping ridges on the uplands.

Typical pedon of Ortega sand in a wooded area 1V2 miles south of intersection
Florida Highway 369 and Capital Circle, V2-mile east of Florida Highway 369
on SWV4NW14, Section 36, Township 1 South, Range 1 West.


A1--0 to 4 inches;


C1--4 to 10 inches;



C2--10 to 28 inches;



C3--28 to 44 inches;



C4--44 to 72 inches;



C5--72 to 80 inches;


gray (10 YR 5/1) sand; single grained; loose; many
fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

light brownish gray (10 YR 6/2) sand; single
grained; loose; many fine roots; strongly acid;
gradual irregular boundary.

very pale brown (10 YR 7/4) sand; single grained;
loose; common fine roots; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.

yellow (10 YR 7/6) sand; single grained; loose;
few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.

yellow (10 YR 7/6) fine sand; single grained;
loose; few faint brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6)
mottles; medium acid; gradual irregular boundary.

white (10 YR 8/1) fine sand; single grained;
loose; common medium distinct light yellowish
brown (10 YR 6/4) mottles; slightly acid.










PLUMMER SERIES


Classification: Loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleaquults.

The Plummer series consists of poorly drained sandy soils formed in marine
or fluvial sediments. The water table is at the surface or within a depth
of 15 inches for three to six months in most years. Depressional areas are
ponded for six months or more. Plummer soils have a very dark gray sandy
surface layer about five inches thick over a gray to light gray sandy sub-
soil. Plummer soils occur on level to depressional landscapes and along
poorly defined drains.

Typical pedon of Plummer fine sand located on National Forest land in
Wakulla County, Section 12, Township 3 South, Range 3 West.


A1--0 to 5 inches;



A21--5 to 20 inches;





A22--20 to 37 inches;




B21tg--37 to 48 inches;




B22tg--48 to 75 inches;


very dark gray (10 YR 3/1) fine sand; weak medium
crumb structure; very friable; many fine and
medium roots; extremely acid, clear wavy boundary.

light gray (10 YR 7/1) fine sand; many coarse
distinct very dark gray (10 YR 3/1) streaks;
single grain structure; loose; common fine and
medium roots; extremely acid; gradual wavy bound-
ary.

light brownish gray (10 YR 6/2) sand; few common
distinct grayish brown (10 YR 5/2) mottles; single
grain structure; loose; common fine and medium
roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

gray (10 YR 5/1) sandy loam; few common distinct
very dark yrayish brown (10 YR 3/2) mottles;
massive structure; very friable; few medium roots;
very strongly acid; gradual irregular boundary.

gray (10 YR 6/1) sandy loam; massive structure;
very friable; few medium roots; strongly acid.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs