• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Broward County, eastern...
 General nature of the survey...
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Soil descriptions
 Use and management of the...
 Classification of the soils
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Broward County, Florida, eastern part
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026069/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Broward County, Florida, eastern part
Physical Description: vii, 1, 123 p., 38 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (1 col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Florida -- Broward County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Broward County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Broward County   ( lcsh )
Land use -- Planning -- Florida -- Broward County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 69.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Issued May 1984"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes glossary and indexes to map sheets and units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026069
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001285193
oclc - 10945780
notis - AGD5856

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Broward County, eastern part, in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the survey area
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    How this survey was made
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    General soil map units
        Page 7
        Descriptions of associations
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
    Soil descriptions
        Page 15
        Arents
            Page 16
            Page 17
        Basinger series
            Page 18
        Beaches
            Page 19
        Boca series
            Page 19
        Canaveral series
            Page 20
        Dade series
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Dania series
            Page 23
        Duette series
            Page 24
        Hallandale series
            Page 25
        Immokalee series
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Lauderhill series
            Page 29
        Margate series
            Page 30
            Page 31
        Okeelanta series
            Page 32
        Palm Beach series
            Page 33
            Page 34
        Paola series
            Page 35
        Pennsuco series
            Page 36
            Page 37
        Perrine series
            Page 38
        Perrine variant
            Page 39
        Plantation series
            Page 40
        Pomello series
            Page 41
        Pompano series
            Page 42
        Sanibel series
            Page 43
        St. Lucie series
            Page 44
        Terra Ceia series
            Page 44
        Udorthents series
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
        Urban land
            Page 48
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 49
        Crops and pasture
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Recreation
            Page 52
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 53
        Engineering
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
        Soil properties
            Page 59
        Engineering index properties
            Page 59
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 60
        Soil and water features
            Page 61
        Physical and chemical analyses of selected soils
            Page 62
        Engineering index test data
            Page 63
            Page 64
    Classification of the soils
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Formation of the soils
        Page 67
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 67
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 68
    Reference
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Glossary
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Tables
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    General soil map
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Index to map sheets
        Page 127
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
Full Text


OnI,o sonSoil Survey of
Department University of Florida
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agculture Agricultural Sciences,
Soil Agricultural Experiment B row ard C ounty
Conservation Stations and Soil Science
service Department, and the Florida K
Department of Agriculture FIOrid
and Consumer Services

Eastern Part




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*'"*:i r


s -' "

4 ''AVCKL
-- .

> s ..'-



;';."-^ ^It






HOW TO US


Locate your area of interest on
S the "Index to Map Sheets" (the
last page of this publication).

Kokomo




i 13 ,14

S Note the number of the map
.. 2. sheet and turn to that sheet.




Locate your area of interest
S on the map sheet.














List the map unit symbols
4. tat are in your area. -
Symbols

wa AsB
FBaC
Fa BaCBBac-
AsB -Ce
Fa
Ha
_a L- k WaF





THIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5 which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. -- -

















See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6. Contents) for location of additional data
on a specific soil use.














Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or
students; to specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1979-80. Soil names
and descriptions were approved in 1981. Unless otherwise indicated,
statements in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1980.
This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service, the
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and the Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance
furnished to the Broward Soil and Water Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.
A soil survey of Broward County, Florida, was published in 1976 (8). This
survey supersedes that older survey. It covers a larger area and provides
additional information.

Cover: Areas of Beaches and the adjacent Palm Beach-Urban land complex have been
developed to make use of the ocean-front setting. Groins are used to control beach erosion.
















Contents


Index to map units................................................... iv Pomello series ............................................................. 41
Summary of tables................................................... v Pompano series ........................................................... 42
Foreword.................................................................. v Sanibel series ............................. .................................. 43
General nature of the survey area................................ 1 St. Lucie series ........................................... .......... 44
How this survey was made.......................................... 4 Terra Ceia series ......................................................... 44
General soil map units................................................. 7 Udorthents 45
Descriptions of associations ...................................... 7 Urban land. 48
Soil descriptions ............................................................ 15 Urban .............................................................
Parents ................................................................ 16 Use and management of the soils............................ 49
Basinger series ...................................................... 18 Crops and pasture.......................................................... 49
Beaches........................................................................ 19 R creation .................................................................... 52
Boca series ..................... ............................................ 19 Wildlife habitat ............................................................. 53
Canaveral series.................................................... 20 Engineering .................................................................. 54
Dade series .................................................................. 21 Soil properties .............................................................. 59
Dania series ............................................................... 23 Engineering index properties...................................... 59
Duette series.............................................................. 24 Physical and chemical properties.............................. 60
Hallandale series....................................................... 25 Soil and water features............................................. 61
Immokalee series ...................................................... 26 Physical and chemical analyses of selected soils... 62
Lauderhill series................................................. 29 Engineering index test data........................................ 63
Margate series ............................................................. 30soi...................................... 6
Okeelanta series......................................... .......... 32 Classification of the soils.................. 65
Palm Beach series ...................................................... 33 Formation of the soils ................. 67
Paola series............................................. 35 Factors of soil formation........................................... 67
Pennsuco series ..................................... 36 Processes of soil formation........................... 68
Perrine series ............................................................... 38 References ................................................................... 69
Perrine Variant ..................... ..................................... 39 Glossary .......................................................................... 71
Plantation series ...................... ................................. 40 Tables ....................................................................... 77
Issued May 1984


















iii
















Index to Map Units


Ae-Arents-Urban land complex................................... 16 Pa-Paola fine sand .................................................. 36
Ao-Arents, organic substratum-Urban land complex 17 Pb-Paola-Urban land complex................................... 36
Ba-Basinger fine sand................................................. 19 Pc-Palm Beach sand............................................... 34
Bc-Boca fine sand ...................................................... 20 Pe-Pennsuco silty clay loam........................................ 37
Be-Beaches...................................... 19 Pf-Pennsuco silty clay loam, tidal............................... 37
Ca-Canaveral-Urban land complex........................... 21 Pm-Plantation muck................................ ............ 41
Da- Dania m uck.............................................................. 23 Po- Pom ello fine sand ................................................... 42
Dd-Dade fine sand........................................................ 22 Pp Pompano fine sand 42
Df-Duette-Urban land complex.................................... 24 P-Pine s ................. 42
Du-Dade-Urban land complex ................................ 22 Ps-Perrine silty clay loa.... ....................... 38
Ha-Hallandale fine sand.............................................. 25 Pu-Palm Beach-Urban land complex ........................ 34
Hb-Hallandale-Urban land complex............................ 26 Pv-Perrine Variant silt loam......................................... 39
Hm-Hallandale and Margate soils............................. 26 Sa-Sanibel muck.................................................. 43
la-Immokalee fine sand.............................................. 27 St-St. Lucie fine sand................................................. 44
Ir-lmmokalee, limestone substratum-Urban land Tc-Terra Ceia muck, tidal ........................................... 45
com plex......................................................... 27 Ud- Udorthents ............................................................... 45
lu-Immokalee-Urban land complex........................... 28 Um-Udorthents, marly substratum-Urban land
La- Lauderhill m uck ................................................ 30 com plex..................................................................... 46
Ma-Margate fine sand ................................................ 31 Un-Udorthents, shaped ................................................ 47
Mu-Margate-Urban land complex ............................. 32 Uo-Udorthents-Urban land complex....................... 48
Ok-Okeelanta muck............................................... 33 Ur-Urban land ................................................................ 48
























iv
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)....................................... ......... 78
Comparison of weather records in Broward County (table 2)..................... 79
Record of low temperatures at Davie in Broward County (table 3).............. 79
Ratings and limitations of associations on the general soil map (table 4).. 80
Percent of survey area. Degree and kind of limitations
for-Urban uses, Recreation areas. Suitability for-Citrus,
Vegetables, Improved pasture.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 5).............................. 81
Acres. Percent.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 6) ...................................... 82
Tomatoes. Sweet corn. Cabbage. Oranges. Grapefruit.
Grass. Grass-clover.
Recreational development (table 7)............................................... ........... 83
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 8) ....................................................... .................... 86
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 9) ............................................. ........... 89
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 10)............................................................................. 92
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 11) .................................................. ............ 96
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
W ater management (table 12)........................................................................ 99
Limitations for-Embankments, dikes, and levees; Aquifer-
fed excavated ponds. Features affecting-Drainage,
Irrigation, Terraces and diversions, Grassed waterways.
Engineering index properties (table 13) ..................... .................................... 103
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.



v



















Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 14) ............................. 107
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell potential.
Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.
Soil and water features (table 15)..................................... .............. 111
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bedrock
depth. Cemented pan. Initial subsidence. Risk of
corrosion.
Particle-size distribution analysis of selected soils (table 16) ....................... 114
Horizon. Depth. Particle-size distribution.
Chemical properties of selected soils (table 17)...................................... 116
Horizon. Depth. Reaction. Extractable bases. Titratable
acidity. Cation exchange capacity. Base saturation.
Organic matter. Total nitrogen.
Physical properties of selected soils (table 18)....................................... 118
Horizon. Depth. Resistivity. Corrosion potential. Bulk
density. Saturated hydraulic conductivity Water content.
Water retention difference.
Engineering index test data (table 19) ........................................................... 120
Parent material. FDOT report number. Depth. Moisture
density. Mechanical analysis. Classification.
Classification of the soils (table 20).................................................................. 123
Family or higher taxonomic class.


















vi
















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Broward County, Eastern Part. It contains predictions of soil
behavior for selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and
hazards inherent in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations,
and the impact of selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers and
agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the
management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






es W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service







vii



























TALLAHASSEE

ACKSONVILLE
PENSACOLA ]_


I GAINESVIL E






APPROXIMATE SCALES
ORLAN O'
0 50 100 TAMPA
I 1 I *
MILES

0 100 200
KILOMETERS




FORT LAUDERDALE



MIAMI


State Agricultural Experiment Station


Location of Broward County, Eastern Part, n Florida.

Location of Broward County, Eastern Part, In Florida.









Soil Survey of

Broward County, Florida

Eastern Part

By Robert F. Pendleton, Hershel D. Dollar, Lloyd Law, Jr.,
Samuel H. McCollum, and David J. Belz, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services



Broward County, Eastern Part, is in the southeastern Climate
part of Florida. It has a total land area of 265,273 acres,
or about 414.5 square miles. Fort Lauderdale is the This section was prepared by James T. Bradley, climatologist for
county seat of Broward County. The survey area is Florida, National Weather Service, U.S. Department of Commerce. For
bounded by Dade County on the south, a conservation convenience in presentation this section includes climate data for all of
area on the west, and Palm Beach County on the north. Broward county.
Most of the survey area is low, nearly level land at an The climate of Broward County, Eastern Part, is
elevation of 2 to 10 feet above sea level. Two dominant characterized by long, warm, humid summers and mild
sand ridges are in the area. One is the Atlantic Coastal winters and is considered one of the most important
Ridge, which extends from Palm Beach County and ends natural resources of the county. The moderating
south of Pompano. The other is known as Pine Island influence of the waters of the Atlantic on maximum
and is west of Davie and north of Cooper City. This ridge temperatures in summer and minimum temperatures in
consists of only about 400 acres but is at the highest winter is quite strong along the immediate coast but
elevation, 29 feet, in the survey area. The average diminishes noticeably a few miles inland. The moderation
temperature in the survey area is 75.4* F. Rainfall is of the coastal winter temperatures gives this section of
abundant, but is unevenly distributed, the survey area a tropical climate (temperatures of
The county has a population of 1,005,315. Almost all coldest month higher than 64.4* F), while the rest is
of the people live east of the conservation area. designated as humid subtropical.
Generally, farm activity has diminished, but some Rainfall also has a much greater variation in an east-
citrus crops, winter truck crops, and cattle are produced, west direction than it has in a north-south direction.
Broward County, Eastern Part, is very popular with Precipitation occurs during all seasons, but on the basis
tourists and retired people because of the warm climate of mean monthly totals of precipitation, a rainy season of
in winter and the various recreational facilities. 5 months from June through October brings nearly 65
percent of the annual rainfall and a relatively dry season
G l N u of te S y Area of 5 months from November through March produces
General Nature f the Survey Area only about 20 percent of the annual total. Average
Soil is intimately associated with its environment. The annual rainfall totals range from 60 inches along the
interaction of all factors determines the overall behavior coastal sections to nearly 64 inches a few miles inland,
of a soil for a given use. This section discusses briefly and then diminish to 50 inches along the western border
the major factors of the environment other than those of Broward County.
that affect the use and management of soils. The factors Most summer rainfall comes from showers and
discussed are climate; transportation, markets, and thunderstorms of short duration. They are sometimes
farming; water supply; and physiography and drainage, heavy, with 2 or 3 inches of rain falling within a period of
1







2 Soil Survey



1 to 2 hours. Daylong rains in summer are rare, and for the other months. Wind velocity generally ranges
when they occur, they are almost always associated with from 12 to 20 miles per hour during the day and usually
tropical storms. Winter and spring rains are not generally drops below 10 miles per hour at night. The average
so intense as summer thundershowers. A 24-hour rainfall relative humidity ranges from about 87 percent early in
of almost 9 inches may be expected to occur sometime the morning to about 60 percent early in the afternoon.
during the year in about 1 year in 10 on the average.
Hail falls occasionally during thunderstorms, but the Transportation, Markets, and Farmin
hailstones are generally small and seldom cause much Transportation, Markets, and Farming
damage. Fourteen tornadoes were reported in Broward Broward County, Eastern Part, is served by several
County during the 12-year period 1959-71. major highways. U.S. Highway 1 is in the eastern part of
Temperature and precipitation data for the period the area, U.S. Highway 441 in the central part, and U.S.
1962-71 are shown in table 1. The data recorded at the Highway 27 in the western part. These highways run
Fort Lauderdale Experiment Station are representative of north-south. The Florida Sunshine State Parkway also
weather conditions in the eastern part of Broward runs north-south through the area. Numerous roads run
County, but away from the immediate influences of the east-west, but the most important is State Route 84,
Atlantic. Table 2 gives a comparison with other weather which connects Fort Lauderdale with Naples on the west
stations within Broward County. The Experiment Station coast. State Route 84 and U.S. Highway 27 are the only
is located 5 miles southwest of the Fort Lauderdale Post roads that go through the Everglades from the survey
Office, and the Dixie Water Plant is within the city limits, area.
2 miles southwest of the Post Office. The Bahia Mar Rail service is provided by the Florida East Coast
observations are taken at the Yacht Club on the ocean, Railroad and the Seaboarovd the orida East Railroad. Both run
3 miles east of the Post Office. North New River Canal nroad and the
No. 2 is a weather station that collects rainfall data only. nortand south.
It is located on the northern border of the county, Transportation by water is available through Port
midway between the eastern and western borders. Everglades. This port can accommodate large ships.
Summer temperatures have few day-to-day variations, Four airports are available-Fort Lauderdale-
and temperatures as high as 98* F are rare. In 45 years Hollywood International Airport, Fort Lauderdale
of record at the Dixie Water Plant, only one reading of Executive Airport, Pompano Beach Airport, and North
100 has been recorded. Twenty years of observation Perry Airport. Only Fort Lauderdale International Airport
show a record high of 98 at the Experiment Station and has scheduled commercial airline flights. The other
960 at Bahia Mar. airports are mostly for private planes.
Winter minimum temperatures have considerable day- The largest state owned fresh vegetable market in
to-day variations due largely to periodic invasions of Florida is the Pompano State Farmers' Market. This
cold, dry air that has moved southward from Canada. At market handles vegetables from the survey area and
the Experiment Station, temperatures of 32" or below from the southern part of Palm Beach County. Most of
have been observed on only 11 days during the past 10 the citrus is processed in other counties. More grapefruit
years. In 3 of the 10 years, no freezing temperatures is consumed than is produced in the county.
have been observed. Data from stations run by the Not much farming was practiced in Broward County
Federal-State Frost Warning Service show that in the 30- before 1910. Drainage was established with the
year period 1937-67, there were 25 nights on which the formation of the Napoleon B. Broward Drainage District.
temperatures reached 32" or below along the coast, and After drainage was established, citrus groves were
75 nights inland along the western edge of Broward planted between the New River and South New River
County. Calculations show that in the same period there Canals. Most of the winter vegetable crops were grown
were 100 hours with temperatures of 32 or below along in the same area, but planting soon spread primarily to
the coast, increasing to 300 hours inland. The lowest the north as the area was developed (9). According to
temperature reported in the Fort Lauderdale area during the 1950 Census of Agriculture, approximately 700 farms
the last 45 years was 28*. Table 3 gives the record of and 45 dairies were in Broward County in 1950. By 1969,
low temperatures at Davie, a Frost Warning Station the number had decreased to 291 farms and 8 dairies.
located in the interior southeastern section of Broward Farming in the survey area generally is still on the
County. This temperature record can be considered decrease.
representative of the climate for truck farming in the This is one of the few places in the United States that
eastern sections of the survey area. has either a tropical or humid subtropical climate. A large
Tropical storms bring hazardous conditions at irregular percentage of the soils are nearly level, poorly drained,
intervals. On the average, hurricane-force winds occur 1 and infertile. Another fairly large group of soils are
year in 7. organic and nearly level, very poorly drained, and
The prevailing wind direction is southeasterly from relatively fertile. If drained and properly fertilized, all of
March through September and northwesterly to easterly these soils produce excellent winter truck crops.







Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 3












































Figure 1.-The New River is an important docking area for pleasure craft in Ft Lauderdale. The land area is part of the Immokalee,
limestone substratum-Urban land complex.


The coastal areas have excellent facilities for fishing laterally for long distances. The water in the canals can
and boating (fig. 1). be regulated to help recharge the ground water during
dry periods.
Water Supply Although most of the survey area receives about 60
inches of rainfall annually, this amount may not be
The water supply for the cities in the survey area sufficient to provide water needs in the future. The main
comes primarily from municipal wells. Many private wells alternate source could be Lake Okeechobee to the north
are used, mostly for watering lawns. Because porous of the survey area.
limestone is below most of the soils, water can move






4 Soil Survey



Physiography and Drainage These systems are the Hillsboro Canal at the Palm
Beach-Broward County line, the Pompano Canal at
Broward County, Eastern Part, can be divided into Margate, the Midriver Canal at Lauderhill, the North New
three general regions based on differences in River Canal at Davie, and C-9 at the Dade County line.
physiography and soils. These canals are under the control of the South Florida
The western part is a nearly level, generally treeless Water Management District.
sawgrass plain that appears to be flat The soils are
organic and overlie limestone. In many places the soils
are shallow. Under natural conditions, water stood on How This Survey Was Made
these soils for months and only during extremely dry
seasons was the surface exposed. Today, these soils This survey was made to provide information about the
have been drained, and water stands on the surface for soils in the survey area. The information includes a
only short periods. With drainage, the organic soils are description of the soils and their location and a
subject to oxidation and subsidence. When exposed to discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management
air, organic matter is oxidized or slowly decomposed, of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed
and this gradual loss of organic matter results in the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general
subsidence or a lowering of surface elevation. Also, pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants
during dry seasons, wildfires have burned some of the growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug
organic surface soil and decreased the thickness of the many holes to study the soil profile, which is the
organic material, sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The
Very little acreage of the organic soils is farmed at profile extends from the surface down into the
present A few acres are in improved pasture. In recent unconsolidated material in which the soil formed. The
years, after some drainage, several types of trees have unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other
become established. These trees are melaleuca, living organisms and has not been changed by other
Australian pine, and waxmyrtle. One method used for biologic activity.
developing the organic soils for urban use removes the The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern
organic material and adds fill consisting of rock or sand. that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief,
The central part of the survey area consists of nearly climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each
level, grassy areas interspersed with small ponds. The kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
soils here are wet and sandy and are underlain by landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
limestone. Before drainage, water stood on these soils observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
for several months each year. The original vegetation position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
was water-tolerant grasses and a few cypress stands. In scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
the higher areas, pine and palmetto were common. were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
These areas are now farmed and produce excellent the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy
pasture and truck crops. the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
The central part is also an area of rapid urban Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
development The underlying limestone is mostly porous, into one another as their characteristics gradually
and water moves through it laterally for long distances. change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil
Water-control ditches can be farther apart in these soils scientists must determine the boundaries between the
than in soils underlain by sand or loamy material. For soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
urban development, fill is commonly added to raise the profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented
elevation to such a level that water does not cover the by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
soil surface. are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in
The eastern part of the survey area is made up of low, an area and to determine the boundaries.
sandy ridges, a part of which is commonly referred to as Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
flatwoods. The vegetation is mostly pine, palmetto, and profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
native grasses. The flatwoods part is made up of deep, size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
poorly drained, nearly level, sandy soils. These soils rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and
have been used mostly for truck crops and pasture, but other features that enable them to identify soils. After
are rapidly being developed for urban uses. They require describing the soils in the survey area and determining
drainage, and fill is added to low areas so that the entire their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
acreage can be developed. The other part is made up of taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
deep, excessively drained or well drained, sandy soils, concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
many of which have been developed for urban uses. characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
The major drainage systems in the survey area flow are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
from west to east and drain into the Atlantic Ocean. systematically. The system of taxonomic classification






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 5



used in the United States is based mainly on the kind Map Unit Composition
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
classified and named the soils in the survey area they area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could identified and named according to the taxonomic
confirm data and assemble additional data based on classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
experience and research. taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the
ie a s sre s rress sa es se properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
the soils in the area generally are collected for laboratory objects, they have a characteristic variability in their
analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties
interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if
properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of
under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit
were field tested through observation of the soils in is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and
different uses under different levels of management, some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes.
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, These latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
sources, such as research information, production the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
records, and field experience of specialists. For example, management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
data on crop yields under defined levels of management inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
were assembled from farm records and from field or plot map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
experiments on the same kinds of soil. properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on or require different management. These are contrasting
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and (dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy smallareas
biologic activity. Soil conditions are predictable over and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
a high water table within certain depths in most years, descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
but they cannot assure that a high water table will complex that it was impractical to make enough
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
date. landscape.
After soil scientists located and identified the The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit. taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, landscape into segments that have similar use and
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries management requirements. The delineation of such
accurately. landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.










7







General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication including the wave-washed beaches, are a mixture of
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of sand and fine shell fragments.
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit, or association,
on the general soil map is a unique natural landscape. 1. Paola-Urban land-St. Lucie Association
Typically, an association consists of one or more major
soils and some minor soils. It is named for the major Excessively drained, nearly level, sandy soils that are
soils. The soils making up one association can occur in more than 80 inches deep; large areas have been
other associations but in a different pattern, modified for urban use
The general soil map can be used to compare the In this association the landscape consists of knolls
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of and ridges that are part of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge.
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, Most of the acreage of this association is in the
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. northeastern part of the survey area. Very little natural
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for vegetation remains, except in the vicinity of Pompano
planning the management of a farm or field or for Beach and Deerfield. What remains is sand pine and
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. scrub oak and an undergrowth of native grasses, cacti,
The soils in any one association differ from place to and, in places, some sawpalmetto.
place in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics This association makes up about 2.7 percent of the
that affect management. survey area. About 50 percent of the association is
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their Paola soils and Urban land, about 11 percent is St. Lucie
suitability for major land uses. Table 4 shows the extent soils, and about 39 percent is minor soils.
of the associations shown on the general soil map. It Paola soils are excessively drained and nearly level.
lists the suitability of each, in relation to that of the other Typically they have a thin surface layer of gray fine sand,
associations, for agricultural uses and shows soil a subsurface layer of white fine sand, and a subsoil of
properties that limit use. The suitability ratings are based yellow fine sand. These soils are more than 80 inches
on the practices commonly used in the survey area to deep. Most of them have been modified by grading and
overcome soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease shaping or otherwise generally altered for community or
of overcoming the limitations. They also reflect the urban development.
problems that will persist even if such practices are Urban land consists of areas that are more than 70
used. The table also lists for each association the percent covered by houses, streets, driveways, buildings,
degree and kind of soil limitations for urban uses and for parking lots, and other structures. Consequently, the
recreation uses. natural soil in these areas is not readily observable.
Each map unit is rated for citrus, vegetables, improved St. Lucie soils are excessively drained and nearly
pasture, urban uses, and recreation areas. Urban uses level. Typically they have a thin surface layer of gray fine
include residential, commercial, and industrial sand that overlies white fine sand, which extends to a
developments. Recreation areas are campsites, picnic depth of more than 80 inches.
areas, ballfields, and other areas that are subject to The minor soils in this association are Duette,
heavy foot traffic. Immokalee, Pomello, and Basinger soils. Most of these
soils have been modified by grading and shaping or
Descriptis of As otherwise generally altered.
Descriptions f Associations Much of the acreage of this association is used for
homes, airports, and related urban purposes. Farming
Soils of the coastal ridges has no importance because of extensive urban
The two associations in this group consist of nearly development; and at any rate, the major soils generally
level to sloping, dominantly excessively drained soils. All are not suited or are poorly suited to most kinds of
of the soils are sandy throughout. Most of the soils along farming.
the Atlantic Coastal Ridge on the mainland have a The soils of this association have slight limitations for
yellow subsoil. All of the soils on the offshore island, most nonfarm uses. The sandiness of the major soils







7







General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication including the wave-washed beaches, are a mixture of
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of sand and fine shell fragments.
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit, or association,
on the general soil map is a unique natural landscape. 1. Paola-Urban land-St. Lucie Association
Typically, an association consists of one or more major
soils and some minor soils. It is named for the major Excessively drained, nearly level, sandy soils that are
soils. The soils making up one association can occur in more than 80 inches deep; large areas have been
other associations but in a different pattern, modified for urban use
The general soil map can be used to compare the In this association the landscape consists of knolls
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of and ridges that are part of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge.
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, Most of the acreage of this association is in the
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. northeastern part of the survey area. Very little natural
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for vegetation remains, except in the vicinity of Pompano
planning the management of a farm or field or for Beach and Deerfield. What remains is sand pine and
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. scrub oak and an undergrowth of native grasses, cacti,
The soils in any one association differ from place to and, in places, some sawpalmetto.
place in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics This association makes up about 2.7 percent of the
that affect management. survey area. About 50 percent of the association is
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their Paola soils and Urban land, about 11 percent is St. Lucie
suitability for major land uses. Table 4 shows the extent soils, and about 39 percent is minor soils.
of the associations shown on the general soil map. It Paola soils are excessively drained and nearly level.
lists the suitability of each, in relation to that of the other Typically they have a thin surface layer of gray fine sand,
associations, for agricultural uses and shows soil a subsurface layer of white fine sand, and a subsoil of
properties that limit use. The suitability ratings are based yellow fine sand. These soils are more than 80 inches
on the practices commonly used in the survey area to deep. Most of them have been modified by grading and
overcome soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease shaping or otherwise generally altered for community or
of overcoming the limitations. They also reflect the urban development.
problems that will persist even if such practices are Urban land consists of areas that are more than 70
used. The table also lists for each association the percent covered by houses, streets, driveways, buildings,
degree and kind of soil limitations for urban uses and for parking lots, and other structures. Consequently, the
recreation uses. natural soil in these areas is not readily observable.
Each map unit is rated for citrus, vegetables, improved St. Lucie soils are excessively drained and nearly
pasture, urban uses, and recreation areas. Urban uses level. Typically they have a thin surface layer of gray fine
include residential, commercial, and industrial sand that overlies white fine sand, which extends to a
developments. Recreation areas are campsites, picnic depth of more than 80 inches.
areas, ballfields, and other areas that are subject to The minor soils in this association are Duette,
heavy foot traffic. Immokalee, Pomello, and Basinger soils. Most of these
soils have been modified by grading and shaping or
Descriptis of As otherwise generally altered.
Descriptions f Associations Much of the acreage of this association is used for
homes, airports, and related urban purposes. Farming
Soils of the coastal ridges has no importance because of extensive urban
The two associations in this group consist of nearly development; and at any rate, the major soils generally
level to sloping, dominantly excessively drained soils. All are not suited or are poorly suited to most kinds of
of the soils are sandy throughout. Most of the soils along farming.
the Atlantic Coastal Ridge on the mainland have a The soils of this association have slight limitations for
yellow subsoil. All of the soils on the offshore island, most nonfarm uses. The sandiness of the major soils







8 Soil Survey



severely limits their use as sites for structures designed side slopes of excavations in these soils are unstable
to hold water, and must be shored.
2. Palm Beach-Urban land-Beaches Association Soils of the low ridges, knolls, and flatwoods
Excessively drained, nearly level to sloping, deep, sandy The four associations in this group consist of nearly
soils that have fine shell fragments throughout, andlimestone at
Beaches; most areas have been modified for urban use level, well drained, sandy soils over soft limestone at
S variable depths; nearly level, moderately well drained,
This association makes up most of the barrier island sandy soils that have a dark, sandy subsoil below 50
that extends along the coastline and is broken only by inches; and nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that
the Hillsboro Inlet and Port Everglades. It is on a long, have a dark, sandy subsoil above 50 inches, which is
narrow ridge that slopes abruptly towards the beach and underlain by soft limestone in some areas. These
more gently towards the Intracoastal Waterway. The associations are entirely in the eastern half of the survey
natural vegetation, where it remains, consists of area, where they make up the major part of the land
seagrape, cabbage palm, sawpalmetto, scrub oak and area.
other oak species, sea-oats, railroad vine, beach sun
flower and other shrubs, vines, and grasses. Coastal 3. D -U n ln iin
hammocks occur in a few places and have live oak,
cabbage palm, strangler fig, and a variety of subtropical Well drained, nearly level, sandy soils that vary greatly in
hardwoods, shrubs, and vines. depth to soft limestone, generally between 20 and 40
This association makes up about 1.4 percent of the inches; most areas have been modified for urban use
survey area. About 60 percent of the association is Palm I t a t l
Beach soils and Urban land, about 14 percent is In this association the landscape is made up of the
Beaches, and about 26 percent is minor soils. coastal ridge south of Middle River and other broad,
Palm Beach soils are excessively drained and nearly slightly elevated areas separated by broad low sloughs
level to sloping. Typically they have a thin, black, sandy and drainageways. This association occurs only in the
surface layer over a thin, very dark grayish brown, sandy southeastern part of the survey area. The natural
subsurface layer. Below this, mixed sand and vegetation, where it remains, is slash pine, live and laurel
multicolored shell fragments extend to a depth of more oak, scrub live oak, sawpalmetto, low cycads, pineland
than 80 inches. Most of these soils have been modified threeawn and other grasses.
by grading or shaping or otherwise generally altered for This association makes up about 5.3 percent of the
community development, survey area. It is about 70 percent Dade soils and Urban
Urban land consists of areas that are more than 70 land, and about 30 percent minor soils.
percent covered by houses, streets, parking lots, Dade soils are well drained and nearly level. They are
buildings, and other structures. Consequently, the natural sandy throughout and typically have a dark gray surface
soil in these areas is not readily observable. layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white
Beaches are nearly level to sloping, narrow sandy and light gray and extends to a depth of about 27
strips along the ocean shoreline. They consist of sand inches. The subsoil is reddish brown in the upper 5
and shell fragments that are constantly overwashed and inches and brown in the lower 3 inches. Soft limestone is
reworked by wave action. at a depth of about 35 inches, but depth to the limestone
The minor soils in this association are primarily is highly variable within short distances.
Canaveral soils and Arents. Most of these soils have Urban land consists of areas that are more than 70
been modified by grading or shaping or otherwise percent covered by houses, streets, driveways, buildings,
generally altered for urban uses. parking lots and other structures. Consequently, the
Most of the acreage of this association is being used natural soil in these areas is not readily observable.
for homes, condominiums, shopping centers, and other The minor soils in this association are primarily Arents.
urban and recreational purposes. Some areas from Other minor soils are Basinger, Duette, Immokalee, and
Dania Beach to south of Deerfield Beach remain in Margate soils. Most of the latter soils, except Duette,
natural vegetation. have been modified for urban development by spreading
Farming has no importance in this association sandy fill material over the surface to an average
because of extensive urban development. In addition, thickness of about 12 inches.
the major soils are generally unsuited or are poorly Most of the acreage of this association is used for
suited to most agricultural uses. homes, large buildings, shopping centers, golf courses,
The soils of this association have slight limitations for and related urban uses. Natural vegetation remains only
most urban uses. Their favorable location near the in small areas scattered throughout the association.
ocean and lack of wetness make them highly desirable Farming is of no importance because of the extensive
for homesites. These sandy soils are severely limited for urban development, but there are numerous nurseries
use as sites for structures designed to hold water. The that produce plants for landscaping.






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 9


The soils of this association have slight limitations for The soils of this association have moderate to severe
most urban uses. These sandy soils are severely limited, limitations for sanitary facilities, excavations, and below-
however, for use as sites for structures designed to hold ground installations. Wetness, unstable side slopes of
water. excavations, and rapid permeability are limitations
requiring special measures to overcome. Limitations to
4. Duette-Urban land-Pomello Association the development of homes, roads, and small buildings
Moderately well drained, nearly level and gently sloping, are slight to moderate.
sandy soils that have a dark subsoil generally more than
50 inches deep; most areas have been modified for 5. Immokalee-Urban land-Pompano Association
urban use
S Poorly drained, nearly level, sandy soils that are more
This association takes in slightly elevated broad knolls than 80 inches deep; most have a dark, organic coated
and ridges in the eastern part of the survey area. It also subsoil; some areas have been modified for urban use
takes in the narrow ridge that makes up Pine Island, In this association the landscape is made up of broad,
west of Davie. The natural vegetation, where it remains, low ridges interspersed with sloughs and broad flats.
is slash pine, sand pine, laurel oak, scrub oak, This association is in the eastern part of the survey area.
sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, and other grasses. The natural vegetation, where it remains, is either slash
This association makes up about 3.2 percent of the pine, sawpalmetto, and native grasses, or pepper, slash
survey area. It is about 75 percent Duette soils and p g t raises
pine, guava trees, and native grasses.
Urban land, about 10 percent Pomello soils, and 15 This association makes up about 14 percent of the
percent minor soils. survey area. It is about 62 percent Immokalee soils and
Duette soils are moderately well drained and nearly Urban land, 8 percent Pompano soils, and 30 percent
level. They are sandy throughout and typically have a minor soils.
very dark gray surface layer about 3 inches thick. The Immokalee soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
subsurface layer is white and 47 inches thick. The
subsoiurfe lar s wto a d epth of mre thn nche. The They are sandy throughout and typically have a dark
subsoil extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. The gray surface layer, a light gray subsurface layer, and a
upper 15 inches is light brownish gray, and the lower dark, organic coated subsoil that begins at a depth of
part is black. Sand grains in the lower part are well' more than 30 inches. These soils are more than 80
coated with organic matter. Most of these soils have inches The e been disturbed or modified in
been modified for urban development by spreading a
been modified for urban development by spreading a most places by sandy materials spread on the surface to
thin layer of gravelly sand over the surface to give it
greater stability, an average thickness of about 12 inches.
greater stability. Urban land consists of areas that are 70 to more than
Urban land consists of areas that are more than 70 rban land co t oe7 t
percent covered by houses, buildings, shopping centers, 75 percent covered by houses, shopping centers,
percent covered by houses, buildings, shopping centers, parking lots, large buildings, and streets and sidewalks.
streets, parking lots and similar structures. Consequently, parking lots large buildings, and streets and sidewalks.
the natural soil in these areas is not readily observable. Consequently, the natural soil in these areas is not
Pomello soils are moderately well drained and nearly readily observable.
Pompano soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
level and gently sloping. They are sandy throughout and piall ae r r rine sand
Typically they have a surface layer of gray fine sand
typically have a dark gray surface layer about 5 inches mixed with organic matter. Light colored fine sand
thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of about extends below this to a depth of 80 inches or more.
38 inches. The upper 3 inches is light gray, and the rest The minor soils in this association are Basinger,
The minor soils in this association are Basinger,
is white. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or e the
more. The upper 14 inches is black, and the rest is dark minor soils also have been altered or filled.
reddish brown. Most of these soils have been modified Much of this association is used or homes, large
Much of this association is used for homes, large
for urban development, but some of the soils on Pine buildings, shopping centers, and related urban uses.
Island are in citrus groves or remain in natural Most of the natural vegetation has been removed.
vegetation. Farming is of no importance, because of the extensive
The minor soils in this association are Dade, urban development. Drainage and water control have
Immokalee, and St. Lucie soils. Some of these soils been established over most of the association and help
have been modified for urban development by spreading to reduce the wetness limitation for most nonfarm uses.
a layer of fill material over the surface.
a layer of fill material over the surface. In undeveloped areas that do not have adequate water
Most of the acreage of this association is used for In undeveloped areas that do not have adequate water
control, wetness is a limitation of the soils for most uses,
homes, large buildings, shopping centers, golf courses,
and related urban uses. Natural vegetation remains only and in some places flooding is a hazard.
in a few areas in this association. Farming is of little 6. Immokalee-Urban land Association
importance because of the extensive urban development
and because the major soils are drought and poorly Poorly drained, nearly level, sandy soils that have a dark
suited to most kinds of farming. subsoil that is underlain by limestone at a depth of more







10 Soil Survey


than 40 inches; most areas have been modified for 7. Hallandale-Margate Association
urban use
In this association the landscape is made up of broad, Poorly drained, nearly level, sandy soils that are less
low ridges interspersed with grassy sloughs. This than 60 inches deep to hard limestone
association occurs in the southeastern part of the survey This association consists of soils on broad flats and
area. The natural vegetation, where it remains, consists low terraces interspersed with drainageways and ponds
of slash pine, laurel oak, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, or depressions. It is east of the Everglades and west of
pineland threeawn, and other grasses. the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. The natural vegetation is
This association makes up about 3.5 percent of the native grasses, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, and a few slash
survey area. It is about 65 percent Immokalee soils and pine and cypress trees. Cypress trees are common in
Urban land, and 35 percent minor soils. the drainageways and depressions.
The Immokalee soils in this association are poorly This association makes up about 39.2 percent of the
drained and nearly level. They are sandy throughout and survey area. About 35 percent of the association is
drained and nearly evel. They aresandy throughout and Hallandale soils, about 30 percent is Margate soils, and
typically have a very dark gray surface layer about 5 about 35 percent is soils and miscellaneous areas of
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray and white minor extent.
and extends to a depth of about 48 inches. The subsoil Hallandale soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
is black and about 10 inches thick. In this layer the sand Typically they have a thin surface layer of black fine
grains are well coated with organic matter. At a depth of sand, a subsurface layer of light brownish gray fine sand,
about 58 inches is soft, porous limestone with solution and a subsoil of brown and yellowish brown fine sand
holes filled with sand and rock fragments. These soils that has slightly more clay than the subsurface layer.
have been modified in most places by sandy material Beneath the subsoil is hard limestone. Depth to hard
spread on the surface to an average thickness of about limestone ranges from 7 to 20 inches but is typically 16
12 inches, inches.
Urban land consists of areas that are 70 to 75 percent Margate soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
or more covered by houses, shopping centers, parking Typically they have a surface layer of very dark gray fine
lots, large buildings, streets, and sidewalks. sand and a subsurface layer of light brownish gray fine
Consequently, the natural soil in these areas is not sand. The subsoil is brown fine sand that is slightly more
readily observable, clayey than the subsurface layer. It has a layer, about 4
The minor soils in this association are Immokalee soils inches thick, of brown fine sandy loam mixed with
that are not underlain by limestone and Basinger, fragments of limestone. Hard limestone is at a depth of
Margate, Pompano, and Sanibel soils. In most areas, the about 32 inches. Depth to hard limestone ranges from
minor soils have been modified for urban uses by fill 20 to 40 inches.
material spread on the surface. Of minor extent in this association are areas of Dania,
Much of this association is used for homes, buildings, Lauderhill, and Sanibel soils and areas of Urban land.
shopping centers, and related urban uses. Most of the Also of minor extent are areas of Hallandale and
natural vegetation has been removed. Farming is of no Margate soils that have been modified by grading,
importance because of the extensive urban shaping, and filling.
development. Drainage and water control have been Much of the acreage of this association is used for
development. Drainage and water control have been improved pasture (fig. 2) or is in natural vegetation. A
established in most areas of this association and help to few areas are used for truck crops. Urban development
reduce the wetness limitation for most urban uses. In is rapidly encroaching upon this association;
undeveloped areas that do not have adequate water consequently, farming has diminishing importance.
control, wetness is a limitation for all uses. Filling with Drainage and water control have been established over
suitable soil material to raise the site above natural most of the association. The major soils are poorly
ground level will help to overcome this limitation, suited to cultivated crops.
The soils of this association are severely limited for
Soils of the low flatwoods, sloughs, and marshes most nonfarm uses. Because of wetness, water control
The two associations in this group consist of nearly is necessary for most uses, and commonly fill material
level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils. Some has to be added to the surface of the soil to make areas
of these soils are sandy throughout, and others are higher for use as building sites The hard limestone
made up entirely of organic materials. All of these soils provides an excellent base for foundations.
are underlain by limestone. These associations cover all 8. L-D
of the western half of the survey area and occur in 8. Lauderhill-Dania Association
drainageways dissecting the eastern part in several Very poorly drained, nearly level, organic soils that are
places. less than 40 inches deep to hard limestone







Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part







_- "- u I I ml- 'I- -. ii.-
eastern part of the Everglades. The natural vegetation is sandy marl mixed with limestone fragments. Hard







4



















Figure 2.-Typical area of improved grass pasture in the Hallandale-Margate association. The soil is Margate fine sand. Umestone is
exposed on the bank of the drainage ditch in the foreground.



This association is made up of soils on broad flats. It material). Below this is dark reddish brown muck; a thin
is mostly in the western part of the survey area and the layer of brown fine sand; and a thin layer of light gray,
eastern part of the Everglades. The natural vegetation is sandy marl mixed with limestone fragments. Hard
mainly sawgrass; and where the sawgrass has been limestone is at a depth of about 18 inches. Depth to
burned, melaleuca trees have become established (fig. hard limestone varies from 14 to 20 inches.
3). The minor soils in this association are the Plantation
This association makes up about 24.4 percent of the and Sanibel soils.
survey area. It is about 52 percent Lauderhill soils, 23 Most of this association is still in its natural vegetation.
percent Dania soils, and 25 percent minor soils. Several small areas are in improved pasture and some
Lauderhill soils are very poorly drained and nearly ll sod farm. With adequate drainage and water control,
TLaudehivll ty hae va surface layer of black muck (sthe soils are well suited to farming. For community
level. Typically they have a surface layer of black muck development or other nonfarm uses, wetness and
(sapric material). Below this is dark reddish brown muck; organic material are limitations. The organic material has
and hard limestone is at a depth of about 31 inches. low strength and is subject to oxidation and subsidence
Depth to hard limestone varies from 20 to 40 inches, when not saturated with water. For houses or other
Dania soils are very poorly drained and nearly level, urban developments, the organic material needs to be
Typically they have a surface layer of black muck (sapric removed and replaced by fill (fig. 4).







12 Soil Survey







4#



















Figure 3.-Area of sawgrass and scattered malaleuca trees in the Lauderhil-Danla association. The soil is Dania muck.


Soils of the coastal lowlands and tidal swamps land, about 25 percent is Pennsuco soils, and about 30
The two associations in this group are dominated by percent is minor soils.
soils formed by man and machinery. Some of these soils The Udorthents in this association consist of about 20
consist of sandy fill material spread over natural sandy to 50 inches of mixed limestone fragments, sand, and
or organic soils. Others consist of gravelly fill material shell fill material spread over the natural soils, which
spread over natural marl soils that are underlain by were mostly Perrine or Pennsuco soils. The water table
limestone. Some tidal areas south of Port Everglades in these soils is generally near the base of the fill
consist of the natural marl soils resting on limestone. material.
Most of the Udorthents have been developed for
9. Udorthents-Urban land-Pennsuco Association urban uses and are intermingled with Urban land. Urban
land is covered by streets, sidewalks, parking lots, and
Soils that have been modified by spreading mixed buildings and other structures that so obscure the soil
limestone fragments, sand, and shell fill material over the that identification of the soil is not feasible.
natural surface, Urban land, and very poorly drained, Pennsuco soils are very poorly drained. They are
loamy soils underlain by limestone; in swamps and made up of thick layers of calcareous silt loam or silty
lolandsclay loam (marl) of variable color that are underlain by
This association takes in coastal lowlands and limestone at a depth of more than 40 inches. A layer of
swamps. It occurs in the southeastern part of the county muck or sand may be present above the limestone.
and extends from Port Everglades south to the county The minor soils in this association are Perrine, Perrine
line. The natural vegetation consists of bushy sea-oxeye, Variant, and Terra Ceia soils. Some areas of these minor
glasswort, ferns, sedges, and sawgrass and other tall soils have been filled or otherwise generally altered for
grasses. Scattered cabbage palms are in some areas. In urban development.
swamp areas the vegetation is dominantly mangrove Much of this association is used for homes, large
trees with giant leather fern in places. buildings, commercial centers, and related urban uses.
This association makes up about 3 percent of the Most of the natural vegetation has been removed, but
survey area. About 45 percent is Udorthents and Urban there are several large areas of mangrove swamp







Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 13

































Figure 4.-Trailer park development in an area of the Lauderhill-Dania association. The soils are Lauderhill muck and Dania muck. Organic
material is being removed and replaced by fill. A high water table limits these soils for septic tanks.


remaining, and these areas are subject to flooding. This association makes up about 3.3 percent of the
Farming is of little importance because of the extensive survey area. About 85 percent of the association is
urban development, but a few hundred acres is still Arents and Urban land, and about 15 percent is minor
being used for truck and nursery crops. Drainage ditches soils.
and fill have helped to overcome the wetness limitation Generally, Arents are nearly level and somewhat
for most nonfarm uses. poorly drained to moderately well drained. The surface
layer is commonly a mixture of brownish sand and
10. Arents-Urban land Association limestone fragments. It is 8 to 10 inches thick, and the
upper 4 inches or so may be mostly black, sandy topsoil
Soils that have been modified for urban use by material that has been applied for landscaping. The
spreading sandy fill material over the natural soil surface, subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 32 inches.
and Urban land; in low coastal areas It is a variable mixture of brownish and grayish sands
This association is made up of soils that have been with lenses and pockets of black sand, mucky sand, or
filled, graded, and shaped for urban development. It is in muck, and, in some places, weakly cemented fragments
the eastern part of the survey area and north of Port of black or dark reddish brown sand. Below this is the
Everglades, where the natural soils have been natural soil, which in most areas is sandy, but in some
extensively modified by excavation for canals and open areas is muck over sand or is dominantly muck. Because
water areas and filling in of adjacent areas. There is little Arents were created for urban development, they are
natural vegetation, intricately mixed with Urban land.






14



Urban land is covered by streets, sidewalks, parking Farming is of no importance because of the extensive
lots, and buildings and other structures that so obscure urban development. Established drainage and filling have
the soil that identification of the soil is not feasible. helped to overcome the wetness limitation for most
The minor soils in this association are Basinger, nonfarm uses. Arents that overlie organic material are
Canaveral, Immokalee, Okeelanta, and Sanibel soils. severely limited for roads and buildings. The organic
Some areas of these minor soils have been partly filled material is compressible and will not support mobile or
or otherwise generally altered for urban development static loads. This limitation can be overcome by
Almost all of this association is used for urban or excavating the organic material and replacing it with
recreational purposes. A few small areas of mangrove stable fill material, or by constructing foundations on
swamp remain along the Intracoastal Waterway, and one pilings.
large area remains in Hugh Taylor Birch State Park.







15







Soil Descriptions


This section describes the soil series and the detailed and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
soil map units in Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part. basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil
Each soil series is described in detail, and then, briefly, phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil
each map unit in that series. Unless it is specifically maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
mentioned otherwise, it is to be assumed that what is phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
stated about the soil series holds true for the map units management. For example, Immokalee fine sand is a
in that series. Thus, to get full information about any one phase in the Immokalee series.
map unit, it is necessary to read both the description of Some map units are made up of two or more major
the map unit and the description of the soil series to soils. These map units are called soil complexes or
which it belongs. undifferentiated groups.
A soil series is made up of all soils that have profiles A soil complex consists of two or more soils, or one or
that are almost alike. Except for differences in texture of more soils and a miscellaneous area, in such an intricate
the surface layer or of the underlying material, all the pattern or in such small areas that they cannot be shown
soils of a series have major horizons that are similar in separately on the soil maps. The pattern and proportion
composition, thickness, and arrangement. of the soils and miscellaneous area are somewhat
An important part of the description of each soil series similar in all areas. Paola-Urban land complex is an
is the soil profile; that is, the sequence of layers from the example.
surface downward to rock or other underlying material. An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
Each series contains two descriptions of this profile. The soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
first is brief and in terms familiar to the layman. The as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
second is much more detailed and is for those who need for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
to make thorough and precise studies of soils. The the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
detailed description follows standards in the Soil Survey be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
Manual (5). Many of the technical terms used in the made up of all of them. Hallandale and Margate soils is
description are defined in Soil Taxonomy (7). Unless an undifferentiated group in this survey area.
otherwise stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
soil. Following the pedon description is the range of other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
important characteristics of the soils in the series, of these included soils have properties that differ
The profile described for the series is typical of the substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
map units in that series. If the profile of a given map unit differences could significantly affect use and
is different from the one described for the series, these management of the soils in the map unit. The included
differences are stated in describing the map unit or they soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
are differences that are apparent in the name of the map small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
unit. a special symbol on the soil maps.
Each series description is followed by a description of Not all map units are members of a soil series.
one or more detailed soil map units. Each map unit Udorthents, for example, do not belong to a soil series,
represents an area on the landscape and consists of but nevertheless they are listed in alphabetic order along
one or more soils for which the unit is named. with the series.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes have little or no soil material and support little or no
general facts about the soil and gives the principal vegetation. Beaches is an example. Miscellaneous areas
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to
specific uses. More information on each map unit, or soil, be shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
is given under "Use and Management of the Soils." maps.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface Table 5 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, give properties of the soils and the limitations,







16 Soil Survey



capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary weakly cemented fragments; slightly acid; clear
defines many of the terms used in describing the soils. smooth boundary.
IIA-32 to 36 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; single
Arents grained; loose; neutral.
IIC-36 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
Arents are nearly level or gently sloping soils made up sand, common medium dark grayish brown (10YR
of heterogeneous overburden material that has been 4/2) mottles; single grained; loose; streaks of black
removed from areas of other soils and used primarily for in old root channels; neutral.
land leveling, as fill, or as final cover for sanitary landfill.
This material is mixed sand or fine sand and fragments Reaction ranges from medium acid to moderately
from the subsoil of the soil from which the Arents were alkaline. Texture of the overburden material is sand or
removed. Arents are scattered throughout the survey fine sand with or without limerock fragments or shell
area, but areas of Arents are quite extensive along the fragments.
Intracoastal Waterway. The IIA horizon is black to gray sand or fine sand. This
In many areas, the upper 4 inches is a black mixture layer is variable in thickness and is absent in many
of sand and organic matter that has been spread over pedons.
the surface as topsoil to support plant growth. Below this The IIC horizon consists of the natural underlying soil,
to a depth of about 32 inches is a variable mixture of and its colors and texture depend on where the pedon is
pale brown and dark brown sand that has discontinuous located.
lenses and pockets of black sand and occasional In places, the buried soil is organic. It consists of black
fragments of weakly cemented, dark reddish brown to dark reddish brown muck.
sand. The upper 8 to 10 inches of this layer has some
gravel and cobblestones that help to stabilize the loose, Ae-Arents-Urban land complex. This complex
sandy surface material. Below a depth of 32 inches is consists of Arents in open areas and of Urban land, or
the original soil, which generally has the profile of a areas covered by concrete and buildings. About 50 to 70
Basinger soil, an Immokalee soil, or a wet sandy or percent is Arents, and about 30 to 50 percent is Urban
organic soil common to swampy areas. In some places, land. The areas of these components are so intermixed
this underlying soil has been truncated and mixed with or so small ha o a these omponents atre so iterxe
the overburden material. or so sma that to map them separately at the scale
Permeability and available water capacity are variable, used was impractical. Slopes are 0 to 5 percent.
but permeability is generally rapid and available water The Arents part of this map unit is in open areas that
capacity is generally low or very low. Natural fertility and are used for lawns, vacant lots, parks, and playgrounds
organic matter content are low. The water table or are unused. Urban land consists of streets, sidewalks,
fluctuates between depths of 20 and 50 inches most of parking lots, buildings, and other construction areas
each year and commonly is at the base of the where the soil is covered and cannot be readily
overburden material, observed.
Some areas of Arents are in spoil mounds along the Arents are nearly level or gently sloping, somewhat
Intracoastal Waterway. These areas generally have a poorly drained to moderately well drained,
dense growth of Australian pine and are idle. Most heterogeneous sandy materials about 20 to 50 inches
Arents were created in low coastal areas to make the thick that have been spread over the natural soils to
land suitable for building sites or other urban purposes. make them suitable for urban development (fig. 5). The
Reference pedon of Arents alongside a street in Ft. underlying natural soil can generally be identified in
Lauderdale, about 1.0 mile north of Sunrise Boulevard, 1 places where the overburden material is less than about
block east of Bayview Drive and 1 long block west of the 30 inches thick.
Intracoastal Waterway, SE1/4SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 25, T. Depth to the water table depends on the established
49 S., R. 42 E.: drainage in the area, but is generally between depths of
20 and 50 inches most of each year. The permeability is
A-O to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand, mixed with variable, but generally it is rapid. Available water capacity
gray sand; single grained; loose; common limerock is generally low. Natural fertility and organic matter
fragments up to about 2 inches in diameter; slightly content are low.
acid; clear smooth boundary. Included with this complex in mapping are small areas
C1-4 to 9 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand mixed in which the sandy overburden material rests on organic
with dark brown, gray, and white sand; single (muck) soils or on silt loam (marl) soils. In some areas,
grained; loose; few rock fragments; slightly acid; the overburden material has a high percentage of coarse
irregular boundary. rock fragments. Below a depth of 2 or 3 feet in a few
C2-9 to 32 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) sand with areas are large cells of garbage and refuse, which range
black, gray, and white sand streaks and pockets; in thickness from 5 to 20 feet. These areas of sanitary
single grained; loose; few small dark reddish brown landfill are identified on the soil map by the words







Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 17


































Figure 5.-Large areas of mangrove swamps have been completely altered for urban development and waterways. Soils in these areas are
now mapped as Arents-Urban land complex.


"sanitary landfill" in addition to the map symbol. Also 50 percent is Urban land. The areas of these
included in this map unit are small areas of Arents in components are so intermixed or so small that to map
spoil mounds or other idle areas that are not being them separately at the scale used is impractical. Areas
urbanized or are not in close association with urban are nearly level.
development. Arents, organic substratum, are in open areas that are
Under proper management, which includes spreading used for lawns, vacant lots, parks, and playgrounds, or
a thin layer of good topsoil over the surface and timely are idle. Urban land consists of streets, sidewalks,
applications of water and fertilizer, the commonly grown parking lots, buildings, and other construction areas
lawn grasses and ornamentals can be produced where the soil is covered and cannot be readily
successfully on the soil. observed.
The determined use of this map unit for the observed.
foreseeable future is urban related. Most of the acreage of this map unit is in the eastern
This complex is not assigned to a capability subclass, part of the survey area near the Intracoastal Waterway.
Thickness and color of the layers of this soil vary from
Ao-Arents, organic substratum-Urban land place to place, but in a representative profile, the upper
complex. This complex consists of Arents, organic 38 inches is very pale brown sand that has pockets,
substratum, in open areas and of Urban land, or areas streaks, and lenses of gray and brown sand. About 15 to
covered by concrete and buildings. About 50 to 70 20 percent of the upper 12 inches is made up of gravel
percent is Arents, organic substratum, and about 30 to and cobblestones that range to 2 or 3 inches in






18 Soil Survey


diameter. Between depths of 38 and 52 inches is black about 11 inches of light gray fine sand. Underlying this to
muck that contains lenses and pockets of dark reddish a depth of 60 inches is pale brown fine sand.
brown, fibrous muck. Dark grayish brown sand that has Permeability is very rapid in all layers of these soils.
light gray and very pale brown mottles extends below the Available water capacity is very low to a depth of 23
muck to a depth of 72 inches or more. inches, medium in the subsoil, and low in the
Included with this complex in mapping are small areas substratum. Natural fertility and content of organic matter
of soils that have a higher percentage of limestone are low.
fragments in the overburden material and scattered Where adequate water control and intensive
areas of soils that do not have organic layers in the management practices are in use, Basinger soils are
underlying natural soil. Also included are scattered open suited to winter truck crops and improved pasture
areas that have not been developed for urban use at this grasses.
time. Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand, about 50 feet
Depth to the water table depends on the established west of University Drive and 0.9 mile north of Orange
drainage in the area, but in most areas it is between 24 Drive, SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 50 S., R. 41 E.:
and 50 inches and averages about 40 inches.
Permeability is rapid throughout these soils, though in A1-0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
some places the weight of the overburden has fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
compressed the organic layer and reduced its strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
permeability. Available water capacity is generally low in A21-6 to 13 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
the overburden and very high in the underlying organic streaks of very dark gray (10YR 3/1) in root
materials. The natural fertility is low. channels; single grained; loose; strongly acid;
Most of the Arents, organic substratum, part of this gradual wavy boundary.
map unit is used for lawns and ornamentals. The soil is A22-13 to 17 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
poorly suited to most plants, but satisfactory plant A22single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual
growth can be achieved by spreading a layer of good single gained loose very strongly acid gradual
topsoil over the surface and applying water and fertilizer wavy boundary.
son a rlar asis.r ad A3-17 to 23 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; few
on a regular basis. medium distinct black (10YR 2/1) mottles in root
The soils in this complex are not used for crops or medium dstint black (10YR 2/1) mottles in root
improved pasture. They were created to make the land channels; single grained; loose; some uncoated
suitable for urban development and are fairly well suited sand grains; sand grains turn white on ignition; very
to many urban uses. They are severely limited for strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
foundations for roads or buildings. The organic C&Bh23 to 35 inches brown (YR 4/3) fine sand;
substratum material is compressible under mobile or black (10YR 2/1) streaks in root channels; single
static loads. The severity of the limitation varies grained; loose; some clean and some partly coated
according to the degree of drainage provided, the sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
thickness of the overburden, and the thickness of the C-35 to 60 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
underlying organic material. For major roads, the organic single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
material should be removed. All building foundations very strongly acid.
sh d e pned u is map unit for he Basinger soils range from slightly acid to very strongly
foreseeable future is urban related. acid throughout.
This complex is not assigned to a capability subclass. The Al horizon is black, very dark gray, dark gray, or
very dark grayish brown and ranges from 2 to 8 inches in
thickness. The A21 horizon is light brownish gray, gray,
Basinger Series or light gray and is 5 to 18 inches thick. The A22 horizon
The Basinger series consists of nearly level, poorly is white, light gray, very pale brown, or light brownish
drained soils in broad sloughs and flats. These soils gray and is 3 to 6 inches thick. The A3 horizon is brown
formed in unconsolidated marine sediment. In most or dark brown and is 2 to 8 inches thick.
years the water table is at a depth of 10 inches or less The CBh horizon is brown, dark brown, or dark
for 2 to 6 months and between 10 and 40 inches for 6 grayish brown and ranges from 6 to 18 inches in
months or more. In dry seasons it is below a depth of 40 thickness. This horizon has a slight increase in clay
inches for short periods. Under natural conditions these content over the A2 horizon. The C horizon is brown or
soils are covered by shallow water for 1 or 2 months pale brown and extends to a depth of 60 inches or more.
each year; where drainage has been improved, however, Basinger soils are associated with Immokalee,
they are not. Margate, and Pompano soils. They do not have the
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown strong Bh horizon of Immokalee soils. They differ from
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is Margate soils in not having limestone within a depth of






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part
19

40 inches. They have a C&Bh horizon that is not present This miscellaneous area is not assigned to a capability
in Pompano soils. subclass.

Ba-Basinger fine sand. This is a nearly level, deep, Boca Series
poorly drained, sandy soil in broad sloughs and flats.
Included in mapping are small areas of Immokalee fine The Boca series consists of nearly level, poorly
sand, Pompano fine sand, and Margate fine sand, drained soils in low, broad, wet areas and along grassy,
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation poorly defined drainageways. These soils formed in
that consists of pepper trees, myrtle, pine, and native moderately thick beds of marine sandy and loamy
grasses. Scattered cypress trees are in lower areas. sediment over limestone. In most years the water table
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops by is at a depth of 10 inches or less for 2 to 6 months, and
wetness and other adverse properties. To grow any between 10 and 30 inches for 6 months or more. During
crops and pasture plants on this soil, a water-control dry seasons it remains in cavities of the limestone.
system is needed that provides subsurface irrigation by Under natural conditions, some areas of these soils are
controlling the water table. Truck crops, other specialized covered by shallow water 1 to 2 months each year.
crops, and improved pasture consisting of a mixture of Where there is improved drainage, however, they are
grass and clover can be grown with adequate water not.
control and intensive management. This soil is severely Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
limited for citrus. Where citrus is grown, very intensive about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
management practices and adequate water control are fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is about 19
needed. The soil responds well to applications of inches thick. The upper 12 inches of the subsoil is very
fertilizer and lime. pale brown fine sand mottled with brownish yellow and
This soil is in capability subclass IVw in areas where yellowish brown, and the lower 7 inches is grayish brown
drainage outlets are available and in capability subclass sandy clay loam mottled with yellowish brown. Below this
Vllw in areas where drainage outlets are not available, is about 2 inches of white to yellowish brown marl,
decomposed rock, sandy clay loam, and sand mixed with
Beaches limestone fragments. Hard limestone that contains
solution holes filled with sandy clay loam is at a depth of
34 inches.
Be-Beaches. Beaches are nearly level to sloping, Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers of these soils
narrow, sandy strips along the Atlantic Ocean. Seawater and moderate in the loamy part of the subsoil. Available
regularly overwashes the larger part of the beaches at water capacity is low in the surface layer, very low
high tide, and these areas are barren. The slightly higher between depths of 7 and 25 inches, and medium in the
areas away from normal wave action are inundated only loamy part of the subsoil. Natural fertility and content of
during seasonal and storm tides. These areas normally organic matter are low.
have only sparse vegetation that is fragile and easily Where adequate water control and intensive
destroyed. Some beaches change in width and shape management practices are used, Boca soils are suited to
every time a major storm occurs. Slopes are 0 to 8 most winter truck crops and improved pasture grasses.
percent. Typical pedon of Boca fine sand, 0.25 mile south of
Beaches are fine to coarse sand mixed with State Road 827 and about 0.7 mile west of U.S. Highway
multicolored shells and shell fragments. This material is 441, SW1/4SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 36, T. 48 S., R. 41 E.:
constantly reworked by wave action. Soil reaction is
moderately alkaline, and shell fragments are calcareous. Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
Beaches are used extensively for swimming, single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
sunbathing, strolling, fishing, and other recreational medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
purposes. They have great esthetic value. Most beaches A2-7 to 13 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
remain in their natural condition, but many beaches, many medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
especially those near urban developments, have been mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid; clear
altered. Groins, jetties, and seawalls have been wavy boundary.
constructed to protect the beaches from erosion. Rocks B1-13 to 25 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
and sandy fill material have been brought onto the sand; few fine distinct, brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
beaches to control erosion or to extend the higher land and common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
on the beach ridge to nearer the water's edge, thus 5/4) mottles; single grained; loose; neutral; abrupt
protecting homes or other buildings there, smooth boundary. This horizon has a slight increase
Because of the unique location of Beaches and their in clay.
value for recreation activities, other uses are not B2tg-25 to 32 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
practical. clay loam; common fine and medium distinct






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part
19

40 inches. They have a C&Bh horizon that is not present This miscellaneous area is not assigned to a capability
in Pompano soils. subclass.

Ba-Basinger fine sand. This is a nearly level, deep, Boca Series
poorly drained, sandy soil in broad sloughs and flats.
Included in mapping are small areas of Immokalee fine The Boca series consists of nearly level, poorly
sand, Pompano fine sand, and Margate fine sand, drained soils in low, broad, wet areas and along grassy,
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation poorly defined drainageways. These soils formed in
that consists of pepper trees, myrtle, pine, and native moderately thick beds of marine sandy and loamy
grasses. Scattered cypress trees are in lower areas. sediment over limestone. In most years the water table
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops by is at a depth of 10 inches or less for 2 to 6 months, and
wetness and other adverse properties. To grow any between 10 and 30 inches for 6 months or more. During
crops and pasture plants on this soil, a water-control dry seasons it remains in cavities of the limestone.
system is needed that provides subsurface irrigation by Under natural conditions, some areas of these soils are
controlling the water table. Truck crops, other specialized covered by shallow water 1 to 2 months each year.
crops, and improved pasture consisting of a mixture of Where there is improved drainage, however, they are
grass and clover can be grown with adequate water not.
control and intensive management. This soil is severely Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
limited for citrus. Where citrus is grown, very intensive about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
management practices and adequate water control are fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is about 19
needed. The soil responds well to applications of inches thick. The upper 12 inches of the subsoil is very
fertilizer and lime. pale brown fine sand mottled with brownish yellow and
This soil is in capability subclass IVw in areas where yellowish brown, and the lower 7 inches is grayish brown
drainage outlets are available and in capability subclass sandy clay loam mottled with yellowish brown. Below this
Vllw in areas where drainage outlets are not available, is about 2 inches of white to yellowish brown marl,
decomposed rock, sandy clay loam, and sand mixed with
Beaches limestone fragments. Hard limestone that contains
solution holes filled with sandy clay loam is at a depth of
34 inches.
Be-Beaches. Beaches are nearly level to sloping, Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers of these soils
narrow, sandy strips along the Atlantic Ocean. Seawater and moderate in the loamy part of the subsoil. Available
regularly overwashes the larger part of the beaches at water capacity is low in the surface layer, very low
high tide, and these areas are barren. The slightly higher between depths of 7 and 25 inches, and medium in the
areas away from normal wave action are inundated only loamy part of the subsoil. Natural fertility and content of
during seasonal and storm tides. These areas normally organic matter are low.
have only sparse vegetation that is fragile and easily Where adequate water control and intensive
destroyed. Some beaches change in width and shape management practices are used, Boca soils are suited to
every time a major storm occurs. Slopes are 0 to 8 most winter truck crops and improved pasture grasses.
percent. Typical pedon of Boca fine sand, 0.25 mile south of
Beaches are fine to coarse sand mixed with State Road 827 and about 0.7 mile west of U.S. Highway
multicolored shells and shell fragments. This material is 441, SW1/4SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 36, T. 48 S., R. 41 E.:
constantly reworked by wave action. Soil reaction is
moderately alkaline, and shell fragments are calcareous. Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
Beaches are used extensively for swimming, single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
sunbathing, strolling, fishing, and other recreational medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
purposes. They have great esthetic value. Most beaches A2-7 to 13 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
remain in their natural condition, but many beaches, many medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
especially those near urban developments, have been mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid; clear
altered. Groins, jetties, and seawalls have been wavy boundary.
constructed to protect the beaches from erosion. Rocks B1-13 to 25 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
and sandy fill material have been brought onto the sand; few fine distinct, brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
beaches to control erosion or to extend the higher land and common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
on the beach ridge to nearer the water's edge, thus 5/4) mottles; single grained; loose; neutral; abrupt
protecting homes or other buildings there, smooth boundary. This horizon has a slight increase
Because of the unique location of Beaches and their in clay.
value for recreation activities, other uses are not B2tg-25 to 32 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
practical. clay loam; common fine and medium distinct







20 Soil Survey



yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation that
subangular blocky structure; friable; moderately consists of gallberry, sawpalmetto, cabbage palmetto,
alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary. slash pine, and an understory of pineland threeawn.
IIC-32 to 34 inches; white (10YR 8/1) to yellowish Some areas are used for truck crops, improved pasture,
brown (10YR 5/8) decomposed rock, marl, sandy and citrus.
clay loam, and sand mixed with limestone This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops by
fragments; massive in places; friable; moderately excessive wetness. To grow any crops and pasture
alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary, plants on this soil, a water-control system is needed that
IIIR-34 inches; hard fractured limestone. This horizon provides subsurface irrigation by controlling the water
has two solution holes approximately 15 inches in table. Truck crops and improved pasture consisting of a
diameter and extending from 40 to 82 inches below mixture of grass and clover can be grown with adequate
the surface. These holes contain sandy clay loam. water control and intensive management that includes
adequate fertilization and lime if needed. With very
The Al or Ap horizon is black, very dark gray, dark intensive management and adequate water control,
gray, very dark grayish brown, dark grayish brown, or citrus can be grown on this soil.
grayish brown and ranges from 4 to 9 inches in This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
thickness. Where the Al or Ap horizon is black, very
dark gray, or very dark grayish brown, it is less than 6 Canaveral Series
inches thick. The A2 horizon is grayish brown, dark Canaveral series
grayish brown, light gray, or gray. Reaction is strongly The Canaveral series consists of nearly level and
acid to neutral. Total thickness of the A horizon is more gently sloping, moderately well drained to somewhat
than 20 inches unless a B1 horizon begins within this poorly drained soils on the barrier island along the coast.
depth. These soils formed in thick deposits of marine sands and
The B1 horizon, where present, is brown, pale brown, shell fragments and are on gentle lower slopes on the
very pale brown, dark brown, yellowish brown, or light western side of the narrow dunelike ridge. Under natural
yellowish brown fine sand. This horizon has at least a 3 conditions, the water table is between depths of 12 and
percent increase in clay content from the overlying 36 inches most of each year, though in dry seasons it
horizon. The B1 horizon is 0 to 15 inches thick. Reaction may drop to 60 inches. In the lowest areas adjacent to
ranges from strongly acid to neutral. In some places the Intracoastal Waterway, the height of the water table
there are mottles in shades of brown, yellow, or gray. depends partly on tidal fluctuations.
The B2tg horizon is light brownish gray, grayish brown, Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
dark grayish brown, gray, or dark gray sandy loam or sand about 6 inches thick. Between 6 and 50 inches is
sandy clay loam. It averages from 16 to 23 percent clay. brown sand. Below this is light olive gray sand that
In some places there are mottles in shades of gray, extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. About 5 to 50
yellow, or brown. Reaction is neutral to moderately percent of the sand is derived from shell.
alkaline. This horizon is 3 to 7 inches thick. Permeability is very rapid in all layers of these soils.
The 11C horizon is decomposed rock, marl, sandy clay The available water capacity is very low. Natural fertility
loam, and sand mixed with broken pieces of limerock. and organic matter content are also very low.
The color of this material is white to very dark gray and These soils are unsuited to cultivated crops or citrus.
in places includes shades of yellowish brown. This They are only fairly suited to improved pasture.
horizon is 1 to 3 inches thick. Reaction is neutral to Canaveral soils are in the part of the county highly
moderately alkaline. valued for urban development and are well suited to
Limestone is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches, and most urban uses.
solution holes extend to a depth of 50 inches or more Typical pedon of Canaveral sand in a small wooded
and are filled with sandy clay loam. area along Highway A1A, about 150 feet east of the
Boca soils are associated with Hallandale, Margate, Intracoastal Waterway and about 0.35 mile north of the
and Plantation soils. They have a B2t horizon above the Hillsboro Inlet, SE1/4NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 20, T. 48 S., R.
rock, whereas Margate and Hallandale soils do not. They 43 E.:
do not have the organic surface layer of Plantation soils.
A-0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
Bc-Boca fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
drained, sandy soil underlain by limestone at a depth of medium roots; about 5 percent multicolored fine
24 to 40 inches. It is in low, broad, wet areas and along fragments of shell; moderately alkaline; calcareous;
grassy, poorly defined drainageways. gradual wavy boundary.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of C1--6 to 50 inches; brown (O1YR 5/3) sand; single
Basinger fine sand, Margate fine sand, and Hallandale grained; loose; about 10 percent multicolored sand
fine sand. size fragments of shell; few small pockets or lumps






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 21



of cemented fragments of shell in lower part; communities, the streets commonly are excavated below
moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear smooth the level of the original land surface and serve as
boundary. drainageways. The excavated material is spread over
C2-50 to 80 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) sand; adjacent land areas.
single grained; loose; about 40 to 50 percent sand Included with this complex in mapping are small areas
size fragments of shell with little color; few pockets of Arents and Palm Beach soils. Also included are small
of strongly gleyed silt loam or silty clay loam marl; areas of soils bordering the Intracoastal Waterway that
moderately alkaline; calcareous. are similar to the Canaveral soils but are more poorly
drained. In scattered spots within areas of these wetter
Reaction ranges from mildly to moderately alkaline in soils, a thin to thick layer of muck is in or below the
all layers. Shell fragments are calcareous. Texture is profile.
sand throughout, except in a few pedons that contain a Present land use precludes the use of this map unit
discontinuous layer of fine sand or in pedons that for crops, pasture, or trees. Most areas of the Canaveral
contain discontinuous layers of almost pure shell and soils in this unit are used for lawn grasses and
coarse fragments of shell. ornamentals. For satisfactory plant growth, regular
The A horizon is black, very dark gray, very dark applications of water and fertilizer are needed.
brown, very dark grayish brown, dark brown, dark gray, This complex is not assigned to a capability subclass.
or dark grayish brown. Fragments of shell range from
about 5 to 15 percent. Thickness of the A horizon
ranges from 4 to 9 inches. Dade Series
The C1 horizon is grayish brown, brown, yellowish The Dade series consists of nearly level, well drained
brown, light brownish gray, pale brown, light yellowish soils on slightly elevated pine and palmetto flatlands in
brown, light gray, or very pale brown. In some pedons, the southeastern part of the county. These soils formed
discontinuous lenses or pockets of loose shell and in sandy marine deposits of variable thickness over soft,
fragments of shell or cemented fragments of shell are in porous limestone. These soils are drought, and the
this horizon. Content of multicolored, sand size water table is at a depth of 60 to 72 inches for 1 to 2
fragments of shell in the C1 horizon ranges from about ater table is at a depth of 72 inches r f to
10 to 60 percent. Thickness of the horizon ranges from a e a e e
30 to 60 inches or more. year.
The C2 horizon is gray or light olive gray. Pockets or Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
The C2 horizon is gray or light olive gray. Pockets or about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine
lenses of almost pure shell, cemented fragments of sand about 17 inches thick over light gray fin e sand
shell, or marl are in some pedons. about inches thick. At a depth of 27 inches, the subsoil
Canaveral soils are associated with Arents and Palm is reddish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick over 3
Beach soils. Canaveral soils do not have fragments of inches of brown fine sand. Soft limestone is at a depth
diagnostic horizons that are in fill materials that make up of about 35 inches.
Parents. They are less well drained than Palm Beach Permeability is very rapid in all layers of these soils.

Available water capacity, organic matter content, and
Ca-Canaveral-Urban land complex. This nearly natural fertility are very low.
level to gently sloping complex consists of 50 to 70 These soils are unsuited to cultivated crops or citrus,
percent Canaveral soils and 30 to 50 percent Urban and they are poorly suited to improved pasture. They are
land. The areas of these components are so intermixed found only in areas that are being developed for urban
or so small that separation at the scale of mapping is uses.
impractical. The Canaveral soils are in open areas used Typical pedon of Dade fine sand in an area of grassy
for lawns, vacant lots, parks, and playgrounds. The idle land about 1.5 miles east of U.S. Highway 441 and
Urban land part is covered by streets, sidewalks, parking about 200 feet north of Pembroke Road,
lots, buildings, or other construction to such a degree SE1/4SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 19, T. 51 S., R. 42 E.:
that the natural soil is not readily observable. Slopes are Ap- to 6 inches; dark gray (1YR 4/1) fine sand; weak
0 to 5 percent. Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak
Most areas of the Canaveral soils have been modified fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and
by grading or shaping or have been otherwise altered for medium roots; mildly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
community development, and although the soils can be A21-6 to 23 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single
recognized and are the same as those described as grained; loose; few fine roots; mildly alkaline;
typical for the Canaveral series, close investigation is gradual wavy boundary.
difficult in most areas. In older communities, alteration A22-23 to 27 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
has generally not been as extensive as in the newer, single grained; loose; few fine roots; mildly alkaline;
more densely developed communities. In the newer clear wavy boundary.







22 Soil Survey



B2h-27 to 32 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/3) fine limestone substratum, soils are poorly drained and have
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; few a spodic horizon. Margate soils are similar to Dade soils
pockets or lenses of dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3); but are poorly drained. Perrine and Plantation soils are
mildly alkaline; gradual irregular boundary. also associated with Dade soils in a few places.
B3-32 to 35 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; few pockets or Dd-Dade fine sand. This is a nearly level, well
lenses of very pale brown (10YR 8/4) and yellow drained sandy soil on slightly elevated flatlands in the
(10YR 7/6); moderately alkaline; clear irregular southeastern part of the county. Soft limestone is at
boundary. depths that average between 20 and 40 inches. Included
llCr-35 inches; soft limestone with numerous solution with this soil in mapping are small areas of similar soils
holes and cavities filled with pale brown fine sand that do not have a subsoil horizon but in which white fine
and fragments of limestone and common pinnacles sand rests directly on limestone. Also included are small
of limestone extending toward the surface. areas of similar soils that are moderately well drained;
small areas of Basinger, Duette, and Margate soils; and
On the average, solum thickness and depth to small areas of Immokalee, limestone substratum soils.
limestone range from 20 to 40 inches; however, the Loamy sand and sandy loam Bt horizons are in the
depth to limestone is highly variable. Commonly, rock is bottom of some of the deeper solution holes.
exposed on the surface or is within the plow layer, and Under natural conditions this soil is unsuited to crops
solution holes are below 60 inches within each pedon. or citrus. It is poorly suited to pasture. Irrigation and
All horizon boundaries below the Ap horizon tend to regular applications of fertilizers are needed to overcome
follow the contour of the rock surface, and lower droughtiness and infertility.
horizons are discontinuous because of columns of rock Most of the acreage of this soil lies within areas that
projecting toward the surface. Rock outcroppings are are being developed for urban uses, to which this soil is
none to common. Soil reaction commonly is slightly acid well suited. What little natural vegetation remains
to moderately alkaline in all horizons, but the range consists of slash pine, scrub oak, live oak, laurel oak,
includes medium acid in the A horizon. sawpalmetto, coontie, gopher apple, and pineland
The Ap or Al horizon is very dark gray, very dark threeawn.
grayish brown, dark grayish brown, dark gray, gray, This soil is in capability subclass Vis.
grayish brown, or light brownish gray. The A2 horizon is
light brownish gray, light gray, white, pale brown, very Du-Dade-Urban land complex. This complex
pale brown, or yellow. Texture of the A2 horizon is fine consists of Dade fine sand, which makes up the open
sand or sand. Total thickness of the A horizon ranges areas, and of Urban land, which is covered by concrete
from 16 to 36 inches, and buildings. The areas of these components are so
The B2h horizon is dark reddish brown, reddish brown, intermixed or so small that separation at the scale of
dark brown, brown, pale brown, grayish brown, dark mapping is impractical. The water table is below a depth
grayish brown, or very dark grayish brown. Texture is fine of 60 inches.
sand or sand. Thickness ranges from 0 to 12 inches, and About 50 to 70 percent of the complex is open land,
the horizon is discontinuous in most pedons. such as lawns, vacant lots and playgrounds, and about
The B3 horizon, where present, is pale brown, light 30 to 50 percent is Urban land. The rest is made up of
yellowish brown, brown, yellowish brown, dark yellowish small areas of Basinger; Immokalee, limestone
brown, or dark brown. Texture is fine sand or sand. substratum; and Margate soils that have been modified
Thickness ranges from 0 to 8 inches. by filling to overcome wetness.
Some pedons have a Bir horizon in place of a Bh The Dade soil in the open areas, is nearly level, well
horizon. Where present it is very pale brown, yellow, light drained, and sandy and has limestone at varying depths.
yellowish brown, yellowish brown, brownish yellow, It is similar to the soil described as typical of the series.
brown, or strong brown. Texture is sand or fine sand. In most places, a thin layer of gravelly sand has been
Thickness ranges from 0 to 36 inches, but is commonly spread over the surface of these soils to stabilize the
less than 10 inches. The horizon is discontinuous in loose, dry 3ands of the natural surface. This mantle is
most pedons. commonly less than 8 inches thick, but it may range up
The underlying limestone is soft, porous, and very to 18 inches thick.
thick. Depth to the limestone is highly irregular and may The Urban land part is covered by streets, sidewalks,
vary as much as 5 feet within short distances, parking lots, buildings, and other structures which
Dade soils are geographically closely associated with obscure or alter the soil to such a degree that
Basinger; Duette; Immokalee, limestone substratum; and identification is not feasible.
Margate soils. Basinger soils are poorly drained and do In the older communities, the soil has generally not
not have limestone within 80 inches. Duette soils have a been altered as much as it has in the newer, more
spodic horizon and do not have limestone. Immokalee, densely populated communities. In the newer






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 23


communities, the streets commonly are excavated below IIC-14 to 16 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
the level of the original land surface and serve as grained; loose; slightly acid; abrupt irregular
drainageways. The excavated material is spread over boundary.
adjacent areas. IIIC-16 to 18 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy marl;
This map unit is used exclusively for urban purposes. single grained; loose; about 50 percent limestone
The Dade soil in this map unit is used for lawns, parks, fragments; moderately alkaline; abrupt irregular
playgrounds, golf courses, cemeteries, or open space. boundary.
Irrigation and regular applications of fertilizers are R-18 inches; hard fractured limestone that can be
needed before lawns and ornamental shrubs can be excavated using power equipment.
grown successfully. The profile ranges from 14 to 20 inches in thickness,
This complex is not assigned to a capability subclass. and the Oa horizon, or the organic material, is 12 to 20

inches in thickness. The organic material is more than
Dania Series twice as thick as the mineral material. Fiber content
ranges from 5 to 16 percent. Reaction is strongly acid to
The Dania series consists of nearly level, very poorly slightly acid in 0.01M calcium chloride.
drained soils in broad flats along the eastern part of the The Oal horizon is black, dark reddish brown, or very
Everglades. These soils formed in thin beds of dark brown rubbed. Unrubbed colors are black and dark
hydrophytic nonwoody plant remains. Under natural reddish brown. Sodium pyrophosphate extract is pale
conditions they are covered by water most of the year. brown, light yellowish brown, yellowish brown, or brown.
Where drainage has been improved, water stands on the This horizon is 4 to 10 inches in total thickness. The Oa2
surface for 2 to 6 months each year. When water is not horizon is black or dark reddish brown rubbed and
standing on the surface, the water table is at a depth of unrubbed. Sodium pyrophosphate extract for this horizon
less than 10 inches. is light yellowish brown, yellowish brown, brown, or dark
Typically, the upper 14 inches is sapric material, or brown. The thickness of the Oa2 horizon is 8 to 10
muck. It is black in the upper 6 inches and dark reddish inches.
brown in the lower 8 inches. Below this is brown fine The IIC horizon is brown, pale brown, dark gray, dark
sand to a depth of 16 inches and light gray sandy marl grayish brown, or very dark gray. This horizon has
that is about 50 percent limestone fragments to a depth mottles of any of these colors in some areas. It is fine
of 18 inches. Limestone is at a depth of 18 inches. sand or sand that is mixed with some organic matter and
Permeability is rapid in all layers of these soils. is 1 to 4 inches thick. Reaction is slightly acid to mildly
Available water capacity is very high in the organic layers alkaline. The IIIC horizon is white or light gray. It is mixed
and low in the mineral layers. Content of organic matter with about 40 to 60 percent limestone fragments and is
is very high, and natural fertility is moderate. 1 to 5 inches thick. Reaction is mildly alkaline to
Dania soils are suited to improved pasture grasses but moderately alkaline.
because of excessive wetness are not suited to Dania soils are associated with Hallandale, Lauderhill,
cultivated crops or citrus. and Plantation soils. They are organic soils, whereas
Typical pedon of Dania muck, about 10 miles west of Hallandale soils are mineral soils. Also they have
University Drive in Davie, about 1.5 miles east of the limestone at a depth of less than 20 inches, whereas
intersection of Orange Drive and U.S. Highway 27 on Lauderhill and Plantation soils have limestone at a depth
Orange Drive, and 0.3 mile north, NE1/4NE1/4SE1/4 of more than 20 inches.
sec. 26, T. 50 S., R. 39 E.: Da-Dania muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly
Oal-0 to 6 inches; black (N 2/0), rubbed and drained, organic soil underlain by limestone at a depth of
unrubbed, sapric material; 7 percent fiber, 2 percent 14 to 20 inches. It is in broad flats along the eastern
rubbed; 65 percent organic material; moderate edge of the Everglades.
medium granular structure; friable; many medium Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and fine roots; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sodium Lauderhill muck and Plantation muck. Also included are
pyrophosphate extract; slightly acid (pH 6.1 in 0.01M some soils that have solution holes in the limestone that
calcium chloride); gradual smooth boundary. extend to a depth of more than 50 inches.
Oa2-6 to 14 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2), Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
rubbed and unrubbed, sapric material; about 8 that consists of sawgrass, lilies, and sedges. In some
percent fiber; about 64 percent organic material; areas where the sawgrass has been burned, melaleuca
moderate medium granular structure; friable; few has become established. A few areas are used for
coarse and fine roots; light yellowish brown (10YR improved pasture.
6/4) sodium pyrophosphate extract; slightly acid (pH This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops or citrus
6.1 in 0.01M calcium chloride); clear wavy boundary. because of the thin layer of organic material above the







24 Soil Survey


limestone and because of wetness and ponding. Good grains; few large pockets weakly cemented; slightly
pasture of improved grasses or grass and clover can be acid.
produced with intensive management. Some water
control is needed to keep water from standing on the Duette soils are 80 inches or more in thickness. Soil
surface most of the year. Nitrogen fertilizer is not reaction ranges from very strongly acid to mildly alkaline
needed, but the soil responds to fertilizer containing in the A horizon and from extremely acid to neutral in the
potassium and phosphorus. Grazing should be carefully Bh horizon. Texture is sand or fine sand throughout.
controlled. The Al horizon is very dark gray, dark gray, light
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. brownish gray, gray, very dark grayish brown, dark
grayish brown, or grayish brown. The A2 horizon is gray,
Duette Series grayish brown, light brownish gray, light gray, or white.
Total thickness of the A horizon ranges from 50 to 80
The Duette series consists of nearly level, moderately inches.
well drained soils on low ridges and knolls in the eastern The B1h horizon is dark grayish brown, dark gray,
part of the survey area. These soils formed in deep gray, or grayish brown. It is 0 to 16 inches thick.
deposits of marine sands. In most years, the water table The B2h horizon is black, very dark brown, very dark
is at a depth of 48 to 72 inches for 2 to 4 months and gray, dark brown, or dark reddish brown. Some pedons
below this for most of the rest of the year. contain pockets or fragments that are weakly cemented.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand Duette soils are geographically associated with
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white sand Basinger; Dade; Immokalee, limestone substratum;
47 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of more Margate; Pomello; and Pompano soils. Basinger,
than 80 inches. In the upper 16 inches it is light brownish Immokalee, and Pompano soils are poorly drained.
gray sand, and in the lower part it is black sand in which Immokalee, limestone substratum, soils and Margate
the sand grains are well coated with organic matter. soils are poorly drained and overlie limestone. Dade soils
Permeability is very rapid to a depth of 66 inches and are well drained and overlie limestone. Pomello soils
moderately rapid below this depth. Available water are well drained and eeerle limestone. Pomello soils
capacity is very low in the upper 66 inches and medium have a Bh horizon between depths of 30 and 50 inches.
between depths of 66 and 80 inches. Natural fertility and D Duette-Urban land complex. This complex
organic matter content are low. Df-Duette-Urban land complex. This complex
These soils are unsuited to cultivated crops or citrus consists of 50 to 70 percent Duette soils, commonly in
They are poorly suited to improved pasture open areas of lawns, vacant lots, and playgrounds; and
They are poorly suited to improved pasture. 30 to 50 percent Urban land, in which the natural soil is
Typical pedon of Duette sand in an area of partly mostly covered by pavement or buildings and cannot be
cleared land 0.5 mile west of 1-95, one block south of mostlyy covered by pavement or buildings and cannot be
Broward Boulevard and 150 feet west of SW 27th readily observed. The Duette soils and Urban land are so
Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, NE1/4NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 8, T intermixed or areas of each are so small that to map
50 S., R. 42 E.: them separately at the scale of mapping used is
impractical.

A1-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; The Duette soils are nearly level, moderately well
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine drained, deep, and sandy. The profile is the same as that
roots; mildly alkaline; clear wavy boundary. described as typical of the series. Most areas of Duette
A21-3 to 8 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single soils have been modified or altered for community
grained; loose; common fine to coarse roots; many development, and the extent of the changes is generally
small pockets of gray (10YR 5/1) and white (10YR greater in newer, more densely developed communities
8/1) sand; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. than in the older communities. In the newer
A22-8 to 50 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single communities, the streets commonly are excavated below
grained; loose; few fine to coarse roots; few to the level of the original land surface and serve as
common very dark gray (10YR 3/1) to gray (10YR drainageways. The excavated material is spread over
5/1) streaks in old root channels; neutral; gradual adjacent areas. This overburden material is generally
wavy boundary. between 4 and 12 inches thick and consists primarily of
Bl h-50 to 66 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand or gravelly sand. Urbanized areas of Pomello soils,
sand; single grained; loose; few medium roots; sand which have a black, sandy subsoil at a depth of 30 to 50
grains thinly coated with organic matter; few darker inches, were considered as part of this complex in
streaks in old root channels neutral; abrupt wavy mapping. They are so similar in behavior to the Duette
boundary. soils that to map them separately would serve no
B2h-66 to 80 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; massive; purpose.
very friable; few medium roots; most sand grains Included with this complex in mapping are small areas
well coated with organic matter; common clean sand of Basinger, Dade, Immokalee, and St. Lucie soils. Also






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 25


included are small areas of soils similar to Duette soils B2-14 to 16 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
that rest on limestone. sand and very pale brown (10YR 8/4) decomposed
Present land use prevents the use of this map unit for limestone fragments; common medium distinct
crops, pasture, or commercial trees. The Duette part of grayish brown (10YR 5/2) and yellowish brown
this map unit is used for lawns, parks, playgrounds, (10YR 5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; slight
cemeteries, or open space. Irrigation and regular increase in clay content; common clean sand grains;
applications of fertilizer are needed before lawns and discontinuous; cyclic thickness of 0 to 8 inches;
ornamental shrubs can be grown successfully. neutral; abrupt irregular boundary.
This complex is not assigned to a capability subclass. IIR-16 inches; hard, fractured limestone that can be
Hallandale Series excavated using power equipment.
Hallandale Series
The Hallandale series consists of nearly level, poorly Thickness of the solum and depth to limestone are
drained, sandy soils in broad flats east of the Everglades commonly 7 to 20 inches, but solution holes as deep as
and west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. These soils 50nches or moreare wthin the profile.
formed in sandy marine sediment over limestone. Under The Al horizon is black, very dark gray, dark gray, or
natural conditions ponding may occur after heavy rains, gray. The A2 horizon is light brownish gray, gray, or
In most years the water table is at a depth of 10 inches grayish brown. The A horizon ranges from 4 to 14 inches
or less for 4 to 6 months and between depths of 10 and in thickness and from strongly acid to slightly acid in
20 inches for 6 months or more. During very dry periods reaction.
water remains briefly in solution holes in the limestone. The B1 horizon is brown, pale brown, dark brown, or
Near large drainage canals the water table fluctuates grayish brown. Reaction ranges from medium acid to
with the water level in the canals, and much of the time mildly alkaline. In some profiles the B1 horizon is absent,
it is below a depth of 20 inches, but, where present, it ranges from 1 to 20 inches in
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4 thickness. The B2 horizon is yellowish brown, dark
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray yellowish brown, or brown fine sand 0 to 8 inches thick.
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is brown fine This horizon has an average of about 1 to 3 percent
sand about 4 inches thick over 2 inches of yellowish more clay than the B1 horizon. Sandy clay loam or
brown fine sand that contains decomposed limestone sandy loam is discontinuous where the B2 horizon
fragments. Limestone is at a depth of 16 inches. contacts the limestone. Grayish marly material containing
Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid small fragments of weathered rock or carbonatic material
throughout. Available water capacity is low in the surface is also present at the surface of the limestone. Reaction
layer and the layer above the limestone and very low in the B2 horizon is neutral to moderately alkaline.
between depths of 4 and 14 inches. Content of organic The IIR horizon is hard, fractured limestone that has
matter and natural fertility are low. many solution holes. These holes range from about 4
Hallandale soils are suited to improved pasture, but inches to 3 feet in diameter and are at intervals of 1 to 6
because of excessive wetness and shallowness to feet. They are filled with gray (10YR 5/1), light brownish
limestone, they are not suited to cultivated crops or gray (10YR 6/2), pale brown (10YR 6/3), or very pale
citrus. brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand. Solution holes are 50
Typical pedon of Hallandale fine sand about 0.5 mile inches or more in depth.
north of Stirling Road and 0.2 mile east of Hunter Lane Hallandale soils are associated with Boca, Dania,
and Holatee Trail Junction, NE1/4NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 34, Margate, and Plantation soils. They differ from Boca,
T. 50 S., R. 40 E.: Margate, and Plantation soils by having limestone at a
A1-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak depth of 20 inches or less. Also, they do not have the
fine granular structure; very friable; many medium loamy B horizon of Boca soils. Hallandale soils do not
and fine roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary, have the layers of muck or organic matter of Dania and
A2-4 to 10 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine Plantation soils.
sand; few fine faint very dark gray mottles and
streaks along root channels; single grained; loose; Ha-Hallandale fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
few fine roots; cyclic thickness of 2 to 8 inches; drained, sandy soil is underlain by limestone at a depth
medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. of 7 to 20 inches. It is in broad flats east of the
B1-10 to 14 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; few Everglades and west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. This
faint very dark grayish brown mottles; single grained; soil has the profile described as typical of the series.
loose; many uncoated, few well coated, and some Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
thinly coated or partly coated sand grains; cyclic Margate fine sand, Dania muck, and Plantation muck. In
thickness of 1 to 20 inches; medium acid; gradual some areas a thin layer, 4 inches thick or less, of
wavy boundary. organic material is on the surface.







26 Soil Survey



Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation been modified by spreading fill on the surface of the
or improved pasture. The natural vegetation consists of original soil.
scattered slash pine and sawpalmetto, pineland Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of
threeawn, paspalum, bluejoint panicum, blue Urban land.
maidencane, and bluestem. The fill material on these soils consists of sand, shell
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops or citrus. fragments, and limestone fragments. About 80 percent of
Good pasture of improved grasses or grass and clover the fill is mixed shell and limestone fragments ranging
can be produced under intensive management. Some from sand size to 3 inches in diameter. The average
water control and fertilization with trace elements are thickness of the fill on these soils is about 12 inches, but
needed. some areas that originally were the lower areas in the
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. landscape are covered by as much as 5 feet of fill
material.
Hb-Hallandale-Urban land complex. This complex Planned use of these soils is for urban development
consists mainly of Hallandale fine sand and Urban land. only.
The areas of these components are so intermixed or so These soils are not assigned to a capability subclass.
small that separation at the scale of mapping is
impractical. Depth to the water table depends on the Immokalee Series
established drainage in the area.
About 20 to 45 percent of the complex is open land, The Immokalee series consists of nearly level, poorly
such as lawns and vacant lots, and about 40 to 70 drained soils on broad, low ridges in the eastern part of
percent is Urban land. The rest is modified areas of the survey area. These soils formed in unconsolidated
Margate, Pompano, and Basinger soils and filled ponds. marine sediment. Under natural conditions they have a
The open land consists of nearly level, poorly drained water table at a depth of 10 inches or less for 1 to 4
Hallandale soil that has been modified in most places by months in most years, and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches
spreading fill material on the surface of the original soil for most of the rest of the year. In some years these
to an average thickness of about 12 inches. The original soils are covered with shallow water for a few days.
soil below the fill material is Hallandale fine sand. About Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
80 percent of the fill material consists of a mixture of about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 34 inches
sand, limestone, and shell fragments that range from of fine sand. The upper 14 inches is light gray, and the
sand size to about 3 inches in diameter. The remaining lower 20 inches is white. The subsoil extends to a depth
20 percent is sand. of 80 inches. The upper 22 inches is black fine sand that
The Urban land consists of areas covered by is coated with organic matter. The next 3 inches is dark
sidewalks, streets, patios, driveways, buildings, and other reddish brown fine sand that has black mottles and is
construction related to urban use. coated with organic matter. The lower 15 inches is dark
The Margate soils have also been modified by brown fine sand.
spreading fill material on the surface of the original soil Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid in the
to an average thickness of about 12 inches, and the subsoil and rapid in all other layers. Available water
Pompano and Basinger soils have been modified by capacity is medium to high in the subsoil and very low in
spreading fill material on the surface of the original soil. all other layers. Content of organic matter and natural
The determined use of the soils for the foreseeable fertility are low.
future is urban related. Where adequate water control and good management
This complex is not assigned to a capability subclass practices are in use, Immokalee soils are suited to winter
This complex is not assigned to a capability subclass truck crops and improved pasture grasses.
Hm-Halandale and Margate soils. These are nearly Typical pedon of Immokalee fine sand, 350 feet west
Hm-lHallandale and Margate soils. These are nearly of railroad and 1.25 miles south of Hillsborough
level, poorly drained soils that have been modified by Boulevard, SE1/4NW1/4 sec. 11, T. 48 S., R. 42 E.:
grading, shaping, and covering with 8 to 20 inches of fill
material. These alterations were made to provide a base A1--0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1), rubbed, fine
for construction of homes, streets, and industrial sand; light gray (10YR 7/1), unrubbed and dry, sand
buildings. Depth to the water table in these soils is grains mixed with some organic matter; single
variable and depends on the established drainage in the grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
area. strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Hallandale soil covered by fill material makes up about A21-6 to 20 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
45 percent of the total acreage, and Margate soil single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
covered with fill makes up about 35 percent. The strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
remaining 20 percent is mostly filled ponds, areas of A22-20 to 40 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few
Pompano soils, and areas of Basinger soils that have fine distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks along






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 27



root channels; single grained; loose; strongly acid; la-Immokalee fine sand. This is a nearly level,
clear wavy boundary. deep, poorly drained, sandy soil that has a layer well
B21h-40 to 62 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; few coated with organic matter at a depth of 30 inches or
medium faint dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) mottles; more. It is on broad, low ridges in the eastern part of the
weak medium granular structure; firm; most sand survey area. This soil has the profile described as typical
grains coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; of the series.
gradual smooth boundary. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
B22h-62 to 65 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) Basinger fine sand, Pompano fine sand, and Margate
fine sand; many medium faint black (5YR 2/1) fine sand. Also included are a few areas of soils that
mottles that are weakly cemented; weak medium have a thin subsoil that has an accumulation of some
granular structure; friable; most sand grains coated organic matter and some areas where the surface layer
with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual is gray.
smooth boundary. A large part of the acreage of this soil is in natural
B3-65 to 80 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sand; vegetation that consists of slash pine, sawpalmetto, and
common fine faint dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) native grasses (fig. 6).
weakly cemented Bh bodies; weak medium granular This soil is limited for cultivated crops and improved
structure; friable; strongly acid. pasture by wetness, very low available water capacity in
the upper 40 inches, low content of organic matter, and
Thickness of the solum is 40 inches of more. Depth to low natural fertility. Where adequate water control and
the Bh horizon ranges from 30 to 50 inches. Reaction intensive management are in use, this soil is suited to
ranges from very strongly acid to strongly acid most truck crops (fig. 7) and to improved pasture
throughout. grasses and clover. A water-control system that provides
The Al or Ap horizon is very dark gray, very dark subsurface irrigation by controlling the water table is
grayish brown, or dark gray and is 4 to 8 inches thick. needed. This soil is poorly suited to citrus. Where
The A21 horizon is gray, light brownish gray, light gray, adequate water control and intensive management and
or white and is 4 to 28 inches thick. The A22 horizon is fertilization are in use, however, some citrus can be
white, gray, or light brownish gray with very dark gray or grown. The soil responds well to application of complete
very dark grayish brown streaks and is 15 to 30 inches fertilizer and lime. This soil is in capability subclass IVw.
thick. An A23 horizon that is light brownish gray, light Ir-immokalee, limestone substratum-Urban land
gray, or white and has very dark grayish brown or dark complex. This complex consists of Immokalee,
gray streaks is present in places. It is 0 to 15 inches limestone substratum, and Urban land. The areas of
thick. The entire A horizon is 30 to 50 inches thick.
thick. The entire A horizon is 30 to 50 inches thic these components are so intermixed or so small that
The B21h horizon is black, very dark brown, or dark mapping them separately was not practical. Depth to the
reddish brown and in places has a few mottles of light water table depends on the established drainage in the
brownish gray to light gray. It is 4 to 24 inches thick. The area and the amount of fill material that has been added,
B21h horizon is well coated with organic matter. The but the water table is deeper in most areas than is
B22h horizon is dark reddish brown or dark brown and in normal for undrained Immokalee soils.
places has a few black mottles that are weakly About 30 to 50 percent of the complex is open land,
cemented. Most sand grains are well coated to thinly such as lawns, vacant lots, and playgrounds; and about
coated with organic matter. The B22h horizon is 3 to 15 40 to 70 percent is Urban land, or areas covered by
inches thick. The B3 horizon is dark brown or dark sidewalks, streets, parking lots, and buildings, where the
yellowish brown and has a few to common dark reddish natural soil cannot be observed.
brown, weakly cemented Bh bodies. The B3 horizon is 0 The open land consists of nearly level, poorly drained
to 16 inches thic. Immokalee, limestone substratum, soils. Typically, the
In a few places a dark grayish brown C horizon is surface layer is very dark gray sand about 5 inches thick.
present. The subsurface layer is light gray and white sand to a
Some pedons have soft, porous limestone containing depth of about 48 inches. The subsoil is black sand
solution holes filled with sand and rock fragments. Depth about 10 inches thick. The sand grains are well coated
to the limestone ranges from 40 to 72 inches. with organic matter in this layer. Soft, porous limestone
Immokalee soils are associated with Basinger, containing solution holes filled with sand and rock
Pomello, and Pompano soils. They have a well coated fragments is at a depth of about 58 inches. Most areas
Bh horizon, whereas Basinger soils have a C&Bh horizon of these soils are covered by 4 to 20 inches of gravelly
that is thinly coated with organic matter. They are similar sand fill material.
to Pomello soils but are poorly drained, whereas Pomello In the older communities, the soil has generally not
soils are moderately well drained. They have a Bh been altered as much as it has in newer, more densely
horizon that Pompano soils do not have. developed communities. In the newer communities, the






28 Soil Survey








































Figure 6.-Typical vegetation of slash pine, sawpaknetto, and native grasses in an area of Immokalee fine sand.


streets commonly are excavated below the level of This complex is not assigned to a capability subclass.
original land surface and serve as drainageways. The
excavated material is spread over adjacent areas. lu-lmmokalee-Urban land complex. This complex
Included with this complex in mapping are small areas consists of Immokalee fine sand and Urban land. The
of Basinger, Immokalee, Margate, and Pompano soils. areas of these components are so intermixed or so small
These soils have been altered by having had fill material that separation at the scale of mapping is impractical.
up to 20 inches thick spread over the surface of the Depth to the water table depends on the established
original soil. Also included are Arents and Udorthents. drainage in the area.
Present land use precludes the use of this map unit About 20 to 45 percent of the complex is open land,
for crops, pasture, or commercial trees. Most of the such as lawns and vacant lots; and about 40 to 70
Immokalee, limestone substratum, part of this unit is percent is Urban land, or areas covered by sidewalks,
used for grasses and ornamentals. Adequate surface streets, patios, driveways, and buildings, where the
drainage, proper watering, and regular applications of natural soil cannot be observed.
fertilizer are needed for satisfactory plant growth.






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 29



































Figure 7.-Eggplant in an area of Immokalee fine sand where water control measures and Intensive management are In use.


The open land consists of nearly level, poorly drained The determined use of these soils for the foreseeable
Immokalee soils that have been modified in most places future is urban related.
by spreading sandy material on the surface of the soil to The complex is not assigned to a capability subclass.
an average thickness of about 12 inches, but ranging
from about 6 to 20 inches. About 10 percent of the Lauderhill Series
Immokalee soils have not been modified. The original
soil below the fill material is Immokalee fine sand. The Lauderhill series consists of nearly level, very
Included with this complex in mapping are small areas poorly drained soils in broad flats in the Everglades.
of Basinger, Pompano, Margate, and Hallandale soils. These soils formed in hydrophytic plant remains mixed
These soils have been modified by spreading fill material with a small amount of mineral material. Under natural
on the surface of the original soil. conditions these soils are covered with water most of the
About 80 percent of the fill material on the Immokalee year. Even where drainage has been improved, water
soils is sand. The rest of the fill material on the stands on the surface for 6 to 12 months each year.
Immokalee soils and most of the fill material on the other Typically, the upper 9 inches is black sapric material,
soils consist of a mixture of shell fragments and or muck. Below this, to a depth of about 27 inches, is
limestone fragments ranging from sand size to about 3 dark reddish brown sapric material. Between depths of
inches in diameter. 27 and 31 inches is dark reddish brown sapric material
that is about 77 percent mineral material, of which 15






30 Soil Survey



percent is clay. Hard limestone is at a depth of 31 dark reddish brown sapric material that is high in content
inches. of mineral material. It is 0 to 10 inches thick.
Permeability is rapid in these soils. Available water In many places, the Oa3 horizon is absent, and a IIC
capacity is very high throughout. Content of organic horizon is in the soil between the organic material and
matter is very high, and natural fertility is high. These the limestone. Where present, this horizon is black, very
soils are subject to oxidation, which decreases the dark gray, gray, or dark gray sand, loamy sand, or sandy
amount of their organic material each year. loam with or without carbonatic material, or gray or white
Where adequate water control is in use, Lauderhill marl that is mixed with fragments of limestone in some
soils are well suited to winter truck crops and improved areas. This horizon ranges to about 6 inches in
pasture. thickness.
Typical pedon of Lauderhill muck, approximately 700 Lauderhill soils are associated with Dania, Hallandale,
feet west of U.S. Highway 27 and 1.75 miles south of and Margate soils. They have limestone bedrock
Andytown, SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 4, T. 50 S., R. 39 E.: between depths of 20 and 40 inches, whereas Dania
soils have limestone bedrock at a depth of less than 20
Oal-0 to 9 inches; black (10YR 2/1), rubbed and inches. They are organic soils, whereas Margate and
unrubbed, sapric material; 4 percent fiber; 67 Hallandale soils are mineral soils.
percent organic material; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine and La-Lauderhill muck. This is a nearly level, very
medium roots; brown (10YR 5/3) sodium poorly drained, organic soil underlain by limestone at a
pyrophosphate extract; neutral (pH 6/6) in 0.01M depth of 20 to 40 inches. It is in broad flats in the
calcium chloride); clear wavy boundary. Everglades.
Oa2-9 to 27 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2), Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
rubbed and unrubbed, sapric material; 6 percent Dania muck and small areas of soils that have organic
fiber; weak medium subangular blocky structure; material 36 to 51 inches thick over limestone. Also
friable; 60 percent organic material; few fine roots; included are small areas of Okeelanta muck.
brown (10YR 5/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract; Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
slightly acid (pH 6.5 in 0.01M calcium chloride); that consists of sawgrass. In some places where the
gradual wavy boundary. sawgrass has been burned, melaleuca has become
Oa3-27 to 31 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2), established. A few acres are in improved pasture.
rubbed and unrubbed, sapric material; 20 percent This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops by
fiber, 5 percent rubbed; 23 percent organic material; excessive wetness. Where it is properly drained, it is well
about 77 percent mineral material of which 15 suited to winter truck crops. After drainage and the initial
percent is clay; moderate medium granular structure; subsidence caused by compaction, subsidence by
friable; few large roots; brown (10YR 5/3) sodium oxidation is a continual hazard. Thus, structures are
pyrophosphate extract; neutral (pH 6.6 in 0.01M needed that hold the water level at the proper depth for
calcium chloride); abrupt irregular boundary. crops and permit flooding when the soil is left idle. In
IIR-31 inches, hard fractured limestone that can be crops and permit flooding when the soil is left idle. In
excavated using power equipment. addition, fertilizer that is high in all plant nutrients except
excavated using power equipment. nitrogen should be applied frequently. Lime is needed in
Thickness of the organic material ranges from 20 to places.
40 inches. Hard limestone rock is below the soil at a This soil is unsuited to citrus; however, high quality
depth of 20 to 40 inches. Where the organic material is pasture consisting of improved grasses or grass and
less than 20 inches thick, a mineral layer up to 6 inches clover can be produced under intensive management. A
thick is between the organic material and limestone, drainage system is needed for removing excess surface
Reaction ranges from medium acid to neutral in 0.01M water and for maintaining the water table at shallow
calcium chloride. depths. Fertilizer and lime should be applied where
The Oal horizon is black or dark reddish brown needed. Grazing needs to be controlled.
unrubbed. Rubbed colors are black, very dark brown, This soil is in capability subclass IIIw in areas where
dark brown, or dark reddish brown. Sodium drainage outlets are available and reclamation is
pyrophosphate extract for this horizon is pale brown, feasible. Small areas without drainage outlets are in
brown, light yellowish brown, or dark brown. Thickness of capability sublcass VIIw.
this horizon is 6 to 12 inches. The Oa2 horizon is black
or dark reddish brown unrubbed. Rubbed colors are Margate Series
black, very dark brown, dark brown, or dark reddish
brown. Sodium pyrophosphate extract for this horizon is The Margate series consists of nearly level, poorly
light yellowish brown, very pale brown, very dark grayish drained soils on low terraces between the Everglades
brown, or brown. The thickness of this horizon is 10 to and the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. These soils formed in
20 inches. The Oa3 horizon is black, very dark gray, or sandy marine sediment over limestone. Under natural






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 31


conditions they are covered by shallow water for 1 to 4 Depth to limestone is variable within short distances
months. Where drainage has been improved, however, because of the irregular surface of the limestone and
they are not. The water table is at a depth of 10 inches numerous solution holes. The profile commonly ranges
for 2 to 6 months in most years and at a depth of 10 to from 20 to 40 inches in thickness over limestone, but in
30 inches most of the rest of the year. In very dry many pedons it ranges up to 60 inches or more.
periods water remains briefly in solution holes in the The Al or Ap horizon is black, very dark gray, or dark
limestone, gray and is 6 to 10 inches thick. Reaction in this horizon
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand is very strongly acid to medium acid. The A2 horizon is
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray, light brownish gray, or grayish brown and is 8 to 30
brownish gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The inches thick. Reaction is strongly acid to slightly acid.
subsoil extends to a depth of 28 inches. The upper 10 The B1 horizon is brown, grayish brown, or pale brown
inches of the subsoil is brown fine sand, and the lower 2 and is 2 to 10 inches thick. The B2 horizon is dark
inches is brown fine sand mottled with black streaks in grayish brown, brown, or grayish brown and is 2 to 8
root channels. The lower part of the subsoil has about inches thick. Texture is fine sand with a 1- to 3-percent
2.5 percent more clay than the upper part. It is underlain increase in clay content. Reaction in the B1 and B2
by 4 inches of brown fine sandy loam and decomposed horizons is slightly acid to mildly alkaline.
limestone fragments. Hard limestone rock is at a depth The C horizon is brown or yellowish brown fine sand
of 32 inches. or loamy fine sand mixed with fragments of hard
Permeability is rapid in all layers of these soils. limestone, soft carbonatic material, or both. Reaction is
Available water capacity is low in the surface layer and mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline. This horizon is 0 to
very low or low in all other layers. Natural fertility and 5 inches thick.
content f ranic attaThe IIR horizon is hard limestone that ranges from 20
Where deqte e l an ood management to 60 inches or more in depth of the solution holes. The
Where adequate water control and good management 3 diameter
practices are in use, these soils are suited to citrus, truck holes range from about 6 inches to 3 feet in diameter
cropsand improved pasture grasses. and occur at intervals of about 2 to 6 feet. They are filled
crops and iprod pasre grasses, with gray, grayish brown, light brownish gray, brown, very
Typical pedon of Margate fine sand, about 1,980 feet pale brown, or pale brown fine sand.
south of Griffin Road and 2,640 feet west of 106th Margate soils are associated with Dania, Hallandale,
Avenue, on Cherry Road, SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 31, T. 50 Immokalee, and Lauderhill soils. They are mineral soils,
S., R. 41 E.: whereas Dania and Lauderhill soils are organic. Margate
Ap-- to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; soils have limestone at a depth of 20 to 60 inches,
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; whereas Hallandale soils have limestone at a depth of
single graind; loose; many fine and medium roots; less than 20 inches. Margate soils do not have a Bh
very strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
A2-8 to 16 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine horizon, and Immokalee soils do.
sand; few streaks of very dark gray (10YR 3/1) in Ma-Margate fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
root channels; single grained; loose; few fine roots; drained, sandy soil that is underlain by limestone at a
cyclic thickness of 2 to 8 inches; medium acid; depth of 20 to 40 inches but has solution holes as deep
gradual wavy boundary, as 60 inches. It is on nearly level, low terraces between
B1-16 to 26 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand, brown the Everglades and the low, sandy Atlantic Coastal
(10YR 4/3) in root channels; single grained; loose; Ridge.
few medium and fine roots; few clean sand grains, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
some partly coated; cyclic thickness of 2 to 10 Basinger fine sand and Plantation muck, and small areas
inches; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary, of soils that have up to 8 inches of organic material on
B2-26 to 28 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; the surface. Also included are some areas of soils that
common medium distinct black (10YR 2/1) mottles; are similar to Margate fine sand but have a very dark
single grained; loose; few medium and fine roots; gray or black surface layer less than 6 inches thick to a
about 2.5 percent increase in clay content from dark gray or gray surface layer 3 to 6 inches thick.
overlying horizon; many partly coated and common The natural vegetation consists of native grasses,
clean sand grains; cyclic thickness of 2 to 8 inches; waxmyrtle, and a few cypress trees. Most areas of this
neutral; abrupt irregular boundary. soil are in improved pasture and some citrus.
C-28 to 32 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly fine This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops by
sand; single grained; loose; about 50 percent very excessive wetness and other poor soil properties. Truck
pale brown (10YR 7/4) fragments of limestone; crops and improved pasture grasses can be grown
moderately alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary, where water control, fertilization with a complete fertilizer
IIR-32 inches; hard fractured limestone that can be and lime, and proper management practices are in use.
excavated using power equipment. Under very intensive management and adequate water






32 Soil Survey

























Figure 8.-Well managed citrus grove on Margate fine sand.





control, citrus can be grown on this soil (fig. 8). For all limestone, and shell fragments that range from sand size
crops and pasture, a complete water-control system is to about 3 inches in diameter. About 65 to 95 percent of
needed that provides subsurface irrigation by controlling this material is sand.
the water table. Urban land consists of areas covered by streets,
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. sidewalks, parking lots, buildings, and other
constructions related to urban uses.
Mu--Margate-Urban land complex. This complex The determined use of these soils for the foreseeable
consists of Margate fine sand and Urban land. The areas
of these components are so intermixed or so small that ur s urban related.
to separate them at the scale used in mapping is This complex is not assigned to a capability subclass.
impractical. Depth to the water table depends on the
established drainage in the area. Okeelanta Series
About 50 to 70 percent of the complex is open land,
such as lawns, vacant lots, parks, and playgrounds; and The Okeelanta series consists of nearly level, very
about 30 to 50 percent is Urban land. The rest is made poorly drained organic soils in narrow to broad
up of small areas of Basinger; Immokalee, limestone drainageways and swamps. These soils formed in thick
substratum; and Pompano soils that have been modified deposits of hydrophytic plant remains over sandy marine
by spreading gravelly sand fill material over the surface sediments. Under natural conditions they are covered by
of the original soil. shallow water most of the time. Even where drainage
The open land consists of nearly level, poorly drained has been improved, these soils are periodically flooded
Margate soil that has been modified in most places by for a few days. The water table is within a depth of 10
spreading fill material over the surface of the original soil inches for 2 to 6 months in most years and within a
to an average thickness of about 12 inches. The soil depth of 20 inches most of the rest of the time.
covered over by the fill material is Margate fine sand, Typically, the surface layer is black muck (sapric
which is similar to that described as typical of the material) about 14 inches thick. Between depths of 14
Margate series. The fill material is a mixture of sand, and 40 inches is dark reddish brown muck. Below this is






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 33



sand to a depth of 60 inches or more. This sand is black brown to very pale brown or white. Mineral content
in the upper 4 inches and gray in the lower 16 inches, ranges from about 10 to 40 percent.
Permeability is rapid in these soils. The available water The IIC1 horizon is black, very dark gray, or dark gray.
capacity is very high in the organic materials and low in Organic matter content ranges from about 2 to 20
the underlying sands. Natural fertility is moderate. When percent. Texture is sand or fine sand. Thickness of this
these soils are not covered by water they oxidize, which horizon ranges from 0 to 15 inches.
results in subsidence or a decrease in the amount of The IIC2 horizon is dark gray, dark grayish brown,
organic material each year. gray, grayish brown, light grayish brown, or light gray.
Where water is adequately controlled, Okeelanta soils Texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy sand that may or
are well suited to winter truck crops and improved may not contain shell fragments.
pasture. Okeelanta soils are associated with Basinger,
Typical pedon of Okeelanta muck in an area of fresh Lauderhill, Margate, Plantation, and Sanibel soils. All of
water swamp on the west side of U.S. Highway 441, these except Lauderhill are mineral soils, although
about 0.5 mile south of Griffin Road, Plantation and Sanibel soils have a thin organic surface
SE1/4SE1/4NW1/4 sec. 36, T. 50 S., R. 41 E.: layer. Lauderhill soils are organic soils that overlie
limestone rather than sand.
Oal-0 to 14 inches; black (5YR 2/1) sapric material;
less than 5 percent fiber unrubbed and rubbed; Ok-Okeelanta muck. This is a nearly level, very
massive; sodium pyrophosphate extract dark poorly drained organic soil underlain by sand at a depth
yellowish brown (10YR 4/4); mildly alkaline (pH 7.6 of 16 to 40 inches. The soil is found in small to large,
in 0.01M calcium chloride); clear smooth boundary. freshwater marshes, swamps, and drainageways in the
Oa2-14 to 22 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) broad flatlands east of the Everglades.
sapric material; about 30 percent fiber, less than 5 Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
percent rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophosphate soil that contain less decomposed organic material
extract very pale brown (10YR 7/3); many pockets below the surface layer; soils that contain organic
or lenses of black; mildly alakaline (pH 7.5 in 0.01M material 40 to 51 inches thick; and soils that are
calcium chloride); gradual wavy boundary, underlain by limestone at a depth of more than 51
Oa3-22 to 40 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) inches. Also included are small areas of Basinger,
sapric material; about 45 percent fiber, 10 to 15 Lauderhill, Margate, Plantation, and Sanibel soils.
percent rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophosphate A few areas of this soil have been cleared and are
extract very pale brown (10YR 7/3); mildly alkaline used for truck crops and pasture, but most areas remain
(pH 7.8 in 0.01M calcium chloride); clear smooth in natural vegetation consisting of cypress, sawgrass,
boundary. ferns, sedges, and other water-tolerant plants. A few
IIC1-40 to 44 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky sand; areas are dominated by willow, Brazilian pepper, and
massive; few streaks of grayish brown (10YR 5/2) melaleuca trees.
sand; estimated 15 percent organic matter content; Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
neutral; clear wavy boundary. cultivated crops, pasture, or woodland. If water is
IIC2-44 to 60 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single adequately controlled, the soil is well suited to truck
grained; loose; few coarse faint light brownish gray crops, sugarcane, and pasture. A well designed and
(10YR 6/2) small streaks or mottles; few darker maintained water-control system should remove excess
streaks; neutral. water during periods that crops are grown and should
keep the soil saturated at all other times to prevent
Thickness of the control section is 51 inches. Soil excessive oxidation of the organic soil material.
reaction ranges from medium acid to moderately alkaline Fertilizers containing phosphates, potash, and minor
by Hellige-Truog test. Thickness of organic material elements are needed. For pastures, Pangolagrass,
ranges from 16 to 40 inches. bahiagrass, and white clovers produce well.
The Oal horizon is black, very dark brown, or dark This soil is unsuited to urban uses. Excessive wetness
reddish brown. Fiber content ranges from 5 to 20 and low bearing capacity are the major limiting factors.
percent unrubbed, but is less than 5 percent rubbed. Water control, removal of the organic material, and filling
Sodium pyrophosphate extract ranges from very dark with stable soil material are needed to make this soil
grayish brown to brown or yellowish brown. Mineral suitable for such uses.
content is very low. Thickness ranges from 6 to 20 This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
inches.
The Oa2 and Oa3 horizons are very dark brown or Palm Beach Series
dark reddish brown. Fiber content ranges from 20 to 60
percent unrubbed, but is less than 15 percent rubbed. The Palm Beach series consists of nearly level to
Sodium pyrophosphate extract ranges from yellowish sloping, excessively drained soils on long, narrow ridges






34 Soil Survey


adjacent to the coast. These soils formed in thick or light gray. The color of the horizon depends primarily
deposits of marine sand and shell fragments. The water on the color of the shell fragments. The content of shell
table is below a depth of 80 inches. fragments ranges from about 20 to 70 percent by
Typically, the surface layer is sand and fragments of volume. Thin, discontinuous layers of darker colored
shell. The upper 3 inches is black, and the lower 4 sands are in some pedons. These are remnants of old
inches is very dark grayish brown. Below this, mixed surfaces that developed during the formative stages of
sand and fragments of shell extend to a depth of 80 the beach ridge.
inches or more. The sand grains are colorless quartz Palm Beach soils are geographically associated with
grains, but multicolored fragments of shell give this layer Beaches and Canaveral soils. Beaches are on the
a color of light yellowish brown or very pale brown. shoreline and are flooded by wave action. Canaveral
Permeability is very rapid in all layers. The available shoreline and are flooded by wave action. Canavera
water capacity is very low. Natural fertility and organic soils are similar to Palm Beach soils, but are at lower
matter content are also very low. elevations and have a water table within a depth of 40
These soils are unsuited to cultivated crops, citrus, or inches most of the time.
improved pasture. They are in areas being developed for
urban uses and are well suited to most urban uses. Pc-Palm Beach sand. This is a nearly level to
Typical pedon of Palm Beach sand, in a vacant lot sloping, excessively drained soil on narrow ridges along
near the crest of the beach ridge, about one block west the coast. It has the profile described as typical of the
of the beach on the south side of Oakland Park series. Slopes are 0 to 8 percent.
Boulevard, NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 30, T. 49 S., R. 43 E.: Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Canaveral soil and Urban land. Also included are soils
A11-0 to 3 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand, mixture of along the lower slopes of the ridges that are similar to
black organic matter and light colored sand; weak Palm Beach but are moderately well drained or well
fine granular structure; very friable; common fine drained.
and medium roots; about 15 percent sand size Small areas of this map unit are used for homes or
fragments of shell; moderately alkaline; calcareous; other urban uses. Most areas remain in native vegetation
clear smooth boundary.
clear smooth boundary. consisting of cabbage palm, seagrape, sawpalmetto,
A12-3 to 7 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) consisting of cabbage palm, seagrape, sawpalmetto,
sand, mixture of organic matter and sand; single cactus, and sea-oats and other grasses. This soil is not
grained; loose; about 20 percent sand size suited to cultivated crops or improved pasture. It is
fragments of shell; moderately alkaline; calcareous; doughty, and plant nutrients are rapidly lost through
clear wavy boundary. leaching. This soil is well suited to home and building
C1-7 to 58 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) sites, but maintaining lawns and landscaping plants
sand; single grained; loose; sand grains are clean; requires regular applications of water and fertilizers.
about 45 percent sand size fragments of shell; This soil is in capability subclass Vlls.
moderately alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy
boundary. Pu-Palm Beach-Urban land complex. This complex
C2-58 to 68 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand; consists of about 50 to 70 percent Palm Beach soils and
single grained; loose; about 45 percent sand size 30 to 50 percent Urban land. The areas of these
fragments of shell; moderately alkaline; calcareous; components are so intermixed or so small that mapping
gradual wavy boundary. them separately was not practical. The Palm Beach soils
C3-68 to 80 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) are in open areas made up of lawns, vacant lots, parks,
sand; single grained; loose; about 45 percent sand and playgrounds. The Urban land part is covered by
size fragments of shell; moderately alkaline; streets, sidewalks, parking lots, and buildings to such a
calcareous. degree that the natural soil is not observable. Slopes are
Texture of the soil is sand throughout. All horizons 0 to 8 percent.
effervesce weakly to strongly with dilute HCI. There are Most of the acreage of the Palm Beach soils has been
no subsurface diagnostic horizons within a depth of 80 modified by grading or shaping or generally has been
inches. Some pedons have thin layers or pockets altered for community development (fig. 9). Although the
consisting primarily of shell fragments in the C horizon, soil can be recognized and is similar to that described as
The A horizon is black, very dark gray, dark gray, dark typical of the Palm Beach series, close investigation is
grayish brown, very dark grayish brown, or gray. This difficult in most areas. In the older communities, the soil
horizon is 3 to 8 inches thick. The content of sand size, has generally not been altered as extensively as in the
multicolored shell fragments ranges from about 5 to 35 newer, more densely developed communities. The
percent by volume. excavation of streets below the level of the original land
The C horizon is grayish brown, brown, yellowish surface and the spreading of the soil material over
brown, light brownish gray, pale brown, very pale brown, adjacent land areas is a common practice.






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 35
































Figure 9.-Bridges lace the many miles of waterways that connect the mainland and the barrier Islands. Palm Beach-Urban land complex is
dominant on the Islands.


Included with this complex in mapping are small areas Permeability is very rapid in all layers of these soils.
of Arents and Canaveral soils. Available water capacity is very low in all layers. Natural
Present land use precludes the use of the soils for fertility and content of organic matter are low.
crops, pasture, or trees. Most of the Palm Beach part of These soils are unsuited to cultivated crops or citrus.
this map unit is used for lawn grasses and ornamentals. They are poorly suited to improved pasture.
For satisfactory plant growth, regular applications of both Typical pedon of Paola fine sand, 1,200 feet west of
water and fertilizer are needed. the east-west runway of Pompano Beach Airport,
This complex is not assigned to a capability subclass. NW1/4NW1/4 sec. 36, T. 48 S., R. 42 E.:

Paola Series A1-0 to 4 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; very
The Paola series consists of nearly level, excessively strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
drained soils on low knolls and ridges that are part of the A2-4 to 26 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few
Atlantic Coastal Ridge in the northeastern part of the coarse distinct gray (10YR 5/1) and dark gray
county. These soils formed in unconsolidated marine (10YR 4/1) mottles in root channels; single grained;
sediment. The water table is below a depth of 80 inches loose; few coarse roots; very strongly acid; abrupt
throughout the year. wavy boundary.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4 B2-26 to 62 inches; yellow (10YR 7/8) fine sand; single
inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand grained; loose; few tongues filled with light colored
about 22 inches thick. The subsoil, about 36 inches sand from the A2 horizon; outer edges of the
thick, is yellow fine sand. Light yellowish brown fine sand tongues stained with very dark grayish brown (10YR
is between depths of 62 and 83 inches. 3/2) organic material that in places is weakly







36 Soil Survey



cemented; outer edges of the tongues are less than investigation is difficult, and mapping them separately
2 inches thick; few coarse roots; very strongly acid; from Urban land is not feasible. In older communities,
gradual wavy boundary. alteration of the soil has not been great; but more
C-62 to 83 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) reworking and reshaping has taken place in the newer,
fine sand; many coarse distinct yellowish brown more densely developed communities. Excavation of
(10YR 5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; very streets below the original land surface and the spreading
strongly acid. of this excavated material over adjacent land areas,
particularly narrow strips near roads, is a common
Paola soils are 80 inches or more in thickness. practice.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to strongly acid Included with this complex in mapping are small areas
throughout. The Al horizon is 2 to 5 inches thick and is of St Lucie fine sand and Pomello fine sand.
dark gray, gray, or dark grayish brown. The A2 horizon is The determined use of the soils in this complex for the
gray, light gray, or white and is 6 to 40 inches thick. The foreseeable future is urban related.
B horizon is yellow, brownish yellow, yellowish brown, or This complex is not assigned to a capability subclass.
strong brown and is 12 to 40 inches thick. The tongues
filled with A2 material are absent in some places. The C
horizon is light yellowish brown, brown, pale brown, or Pennsuco Series
very pale brown. It is mottled with darker or lighter colors The uco ri coit of level
in places. The Pennsuco series consists of nearly level, poorly
Paolo soils are associated with Pomello and St. Lucie drained and very poorly drained soils on coastal
soils. They are better drained than Pomello soils and do lowlands and in tidal swamps. These soils formed in
not have the Bh horizon of those soils. They have a B calcareous, loamy sediment of marine or freshwater
horizon that is not present in St. Lucie soils. origin over porous limestone. Under natural conditions,
tidal areas are flooded daily or periodically by tidal
Pa-Paola fine sand. This nearly level, deep, waters. In other areas, the water table is within a depth
excessively drained, sandy soil is on low knolls and of 10 inches for 4 to 6 months in most years. It is at a
ridges that make up the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in the depth of 10 to 30 inches most of the rest of the year.
northeastern part of the county. It has the profile During very dry seasons it is within cavities in the
described as typical of the series. limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown silty clay
Immokalee fine sand, Pomello fine sand, and St. Lucie loam about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is silt loam or silt
fine sand. to a depth of 38 inches. It is light brownish gray in the
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation upper 6 inches, olive gray in the next 10 inches, and
that consists of sand pine, scrub live oak, and an very pale brown in the next 7 inches. The lower 10
undergrowth of cactus and native grasses. inches is a mixture of dark grayish brown and very pale
This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops or citrus brown. The upper 3 inches of the substratum is black
because it is drought and has many other poor soil fine sand, and the lower 12 inches is very dark gray fine
properties. Plant nutrients are lost rapidly through sand. Soft, porous limestone is at a depth of about 53
leaching. Improved pasture of fair quality can be inches.
produced under intensive management. Deep-rooted Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid in the
grasses that resist drought should be planted. In subsoil and rapid below. Available water capacity is high
addition, large amounts of fertilizer and lime need to be to very high in the loamy layers and medium in the sandy
applied frequently. Grazing should be delayed during layers. Natural fertility and organic matter content are
initial development and controlled carefully thereafter. low to moderate. Tidal areas are slightly to moderately
This soil is in capability subclass VIs. affected by salinity.
Where adequate water control and intensive
Pb-Paola-Urban land complex. About 55 to 75 management practices are in use, Pennsuco soils are
percent of this complex consists of Paola soils, which suited to some nursery and truck crops. These soils are
are commonly in lawns, vacant lots, and playgrounds; in areas that are under urban development and are not
and 20 to 45 percent consists of Urban land. The areas used for pasture. Tidal areas are unsuited to any
of Urban land are more than 70 percent covered by agricultural use.
houses, streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and Typical pedon of Pennsuco silty clay loam, about 0.5
similar constructions; therefore, the natural soil in these mile east of U.S. Highway 1 and 0.5 mile north of Dania
areas is not readily observable. Cut-Off Canal, about 100 feet south of paved road,
The Paola soils have been modified by grading and NW /4SW1/4SW1/4, sec. 26, T. 50 S., R. 42 E.:
shaping or generally altered for community development,
and although they can be recognized and are similar to Ap-0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty clay
the soil described as typical of the Paola series, close loam; moderate fine to coarse granular structure;






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 37



friable; few fine and medium roots; few snail shells; sequence of the subhorizons. In some pedons many
strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear high chroma mottles in the upper B horizon tend to mask
wavy boundary, the matrix color.
B21-5 to 11 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silt Some pedons have a C horizon. Where present, it is
loam; few fine distinct light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) very similar to the lower part of the B horizon but does
mottles; moderate coarse subangular blocky not have structure. Thickness ranges from 10 to 42
structure; firm to friable; few fine and medium roots; inches. Some pedons have masses or thin,
strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear discontinuous lenses of muck or mucky silt loam in or
wavy boundary. below the C horizon.
B22-11 to 21 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) silt loam; The IIC horizon is black, very dark brown, very dark
moderate coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; gray, very dark grayish brown, dark grayish brown, gray,
few fine roots; common vertical black streaks in old or grayish brown. Texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy
root channels; common discontinuous lenses of very sand. Thickness ranges from 0 to 18 inches.
dark gray (5Y 3/1) and dark olive gray (5Y 3/2); The IICr horizon is limestone that ranges from soft to
common fine white fragments of shell; strongly hard and is many feet thick. The surface is smooth to
effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear wavy wavy or irregular. Solution holes are few to common and
boundary. extend less than 2 to 3 feet into the rock. Sand, silt
B23-21 to 28 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) silt; loam, or soft marl (carbonatic material) fills the solution
many medium and coarse light brownish gray (10YR holes and cavities in the limestone.
6/2) mottles in upper few inches; few medium Pennsuco soils are associated with Dade, Perrine, and
distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles; Perrine Variant soils. Dade soils are well drained, sandy
moderate coarse subangular blocky structure; soils on higher lying terrain. Perrine soils have limestone
friable; common coarse vertical root channels 1 to 2 at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Perrine Variant soils
inches apart; strongly effervescent; moderately overlie thick layers of organic materials.
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
B3-28 to 38 inches; coarsely mixed dark grayish brown Pe-Pennsuco silty clay loam. This is a nearly level,
(2.5Y 4/2) and very pale brown (10YR 7/3) silt poorly drained and very poorly drained, loamy soil
loam; weak medium to coarse subangular blocky underlain by limestone at a depth of more than 40
structure; friable; common medium black vertical inches. It is primarily on coastal lowlands east of the
roots; many thin discontinuous lenses of grayish Atlantic Coastal Ridge and extending south from Ft.
brown (10YR 5/2); common fine white fragments of Lauderdale.
shell; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
abrupt smooth boundary, similar soils that have less than 20 inches of fill material
IIC1-38 to 41 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; on the surface, and similar soils that do not have
massive; friable; many medium roots; moderately limestone within a depth of 72 inches. Also included are
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. small areas of Pennsuco tidal, Perrine, and Perrine
IIC2-41 to 53 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine Variant soils.
sand; massive; very friable; common medium roots; The natural vegetation consists of American
common clean sand grains; moderately alkaline; mangrove, white mangrove, sawgrass, giant leatherfern,
abrupt wavy boundary. bushy sea-oxeye, and glasswort. Some areas have a
IICr-53 to 80 inches; very pale brown, soft, porous dense cover of Brazilian pepper. Some areas are used
limestone that has a thin mat of roots on the for vegetable and nursery crops.
surface. Under natural conditions, this soil is severely limited
for cultivated crops by excessive wetness and other poor
The thickness of the soil ranges from 40 to 72 inches soil qualities. If water control, proper fertilization, and
or more. The A and B horizons are moderately alkaline good management are used, this soil is moderately well
and calcareous, and the IIC horizon is neutral to suited to vegetable crops and other special crops.
moderately alkaline. This soil is found in areas where land use is primarily
The A or Ap horizon is very dark gray, very dark urban. This soil is severely limited for such uses unless it
grayish brown, dark grayish brown, and grayish brown. is adequately drained and filled with stable soil material.
Thickness ranges from 2 to 10 inches. A thin layer of This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
organic material covers the A horizon in some pedons.
The B horizon ranges in color from light gray to very Pf-Pennsuco silty clay loam, tidal. This is a nearly
dark gray, very dark grayish brown to brown, or yellowish level, very poorly drained, loamy soil that is underlain by
brown to olive brown with or without mottles. Many limestone at a depth of more than 40 inches. It is found
pedons do not have one or more of the subhorizons in tidal swamps in southeastern Broward County from
present in the typifying pedon, and there is no orderly Port Everglades southward.






38 Soil Survey



Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of blocky structure; slightly sticky; few fine roots; few
similar soils with a thin covering of organic material or small pockets of very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2)
gravelly sand fill material. Also included are small spots and grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silt loam; few fine
of Pennsuco, Perrine, and Perrine Variant soils. fragments of shell; strongly effervescent; moderately
The natural vegetation consists mainly of American alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
mangrove, white mangrove, and scattered areas of giant C-20 to 26 inches; very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2)
leatherfern, sawgrass, bushy sea-oxeye, and glasswort. silt; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) in part; massive;
Australian pine is scattered through areas that have thin slightly sticky; few small pockets and streaks of
coverings of fill materials. black; few to common fine fragments of shell and
This soil is adversely affected by daily or frequent tidal small white carbonate nodules; strongly
flooding and low to moderate salinity. This soil is effervescent; moderately alkaline; abrupt irregular
unsuited to either agricultural or urban uses. It is best boundary.
used in its natural condition as habitat for marine life and IICr-26 to 30 inches; soft to hard very pale brown
waterfowl. limestone with a few inches of limestone fragments
This soil is in capability subclass VIIIw. mixed with a matrix of almost liquid carbonates on
Perrine Series the rock surface.
Perrine Series
Soil thickness ranges from 20 to 40 inches. Soil
The Perrine series consists of nearly level, poorly reaction is moderately alkaline.
drained soils on coastal lowlands. These soils formed in The A or Ap horizon ranges in color from very dark
calcareous, loamy sediment of marine or freshwater The gray to gray horizon ranges in fromcolor from very dark grayish brown to brown. It
origin over limestone, which is at a depth of 20 to 40 gray to gray orfrom very dark grayish brown to brown. It
inches. Under natural conditions, the water table is within may or may not have mottles in shades of gray, brown,
10 inches of the surface about 30 to 50 percent of the or yellow. Thickness ranges from 4 to 12 inches.
time. The level is probably highest from June to The B horizon ranges from very dark gray to gray or
November. The water table is within a depth of 10 from very dark grayish brown to very pale brown. It may
inches for 2 to 6 months in most years, and at a depth or may not have mottles in shades of gray, brown, or
of 10 to 30 inches for most of the rest of each year. yellow. Texture is silt loam or silt. Thickness ranges from
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown silty to 20nches
clay loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is 10 inches The C horizon has about the same coor range as the
of light brownish gray silt loam. Next is 6 inches of B horizon, and differs mainly by not having structure.
grayish brown silt. Limestone is at a depth of about 26 Texture is silt loam or silt. Thickness of the C horizon
inches. ranges from 5 to 10 inches. Some pedons have a thin
Permeability is moderate to moderately slow in the layer of black muck or fine sand ranging from black to
surface layer and moderate to moderately rapid in other brown or dark gray at the base of the C horizon.
horizons. The available water capacity is high to very The IICr horizon is soft to hard, pale brown or very
high. Organic matter content and natural fertility are low pale brown limestone that has a wavy or irregular
to medium. surface. Solution holes are few to common. They extend
Where adequate water control and intensive 1 to 2 feet below the rock surface and are filled with
management practices are used, Perrine soils are suited sand, silt loam, or soft carbonatic material.
to some truck crops and nursery stock. Perrine soils are associated with Pennsuco and
Typical pedon of Perrine silty clay loam in a cleared Perrine Variant soils. They are similar to the Pennsuco
powerline right-of-way about 0.7 mile east of U.S. soils, but have limestone at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Highway 1 and Ft. Lauderdale International Airport; 0.2 They do not have underlying layers of organic materials
mile north of the Dania Cutoff Canal and about 200 feet as do the Perrine Variant soils.
north of boat yard and 200 feet west of the paved
entrance road, NE1/4NW1/4NW1/4, sec. 35, T. 50 S., Ps-Perrine silty clay loam. This is a nearly level,
T. 50 S., R. 42 E.: poorly drained, loamy soil underlain by limestone at a
depth of 20 to 40 inches. It is on coastal lowlands and in
A-0 to 10 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) silty brackish swamps in the southeastern part of the survey
clay loam; few medium distinct very dark grayish area.
brown (2.5Y 3/2) mottles; moderate medium Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
granular structure; friable; common fine and medium similar soils that have a thin layer of organic material on
roots; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; the surface or that have limestone at a depth of less
gradual wavy boundary. than 20 inches. Also included are small areas of
B-10 to 20 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silt Pennsuco and Perrine Variant soils.
loam; few fine and medium distinct light olive brown The natural vegetation includes sawgrass, sedges,
(2.5Y 5/4, 5/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular reeds, various grasses, and scattered palm trees. Areas






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 39



nearest the coast include American mangrove and white C-17 to 26 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
mangrove trees. Some areas are used for truck crops silt loam; massive; slightly sticky; few fine fragments
and plant nurseries. of shell; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline;
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops by abrupt wavy boundary.
excessive wetness and poor soil qualities. If water is IIOal-26 to 32 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck;
adequately controlled and the soil is managed at a high massive; estimated 10 to 15 percent fiber unrubbed,
level, it is moderately well suited to locally grown less than 5 percent rubbed; sodium pyrophosphate
vegetable crops and ornamentals. This soil is poorly extract color very dark brown (10YR 3/3);
suited to most urban uses unless it is adequately drained moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
and filled with stable soil material. IIOa2-32 to 70 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
This soil is in capability subclass Illw. muck; massive; estimated 50 to 60 percent fiber
unrubbed, 15 percent rubbed; sodium
Perrine Variant pyrophosphate extract color brown (10YR 5/3);
moderately alkaline; diffuse boundary.
The Perrine Variant consists of nearly level, very Imoderatey alkaine; bladiffe bn murck
poorly drained soils in flatlands and swamps near the 1a3-70sto 8 0 inches; black (iYR 2/1)
coast in the southeastern part of the survey area. These massive; estimated 50 percent fiber unrubbed less
soils formed in loamy marine sediment deposited over than 10perent rubbe; sodm pyrophosphae
thick beds of decomposed, hydrophytic plant remains. extract color brown (10YR 4/3); common coarse
Under natural conditions, these soils are flooded by vertical fibers or old roots; moderately alkaline.
shallow water for long periods. The water table is within Soil reaction is moderately alkaline in all horizons.
a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. It Mineral horizons are 20 to 48 inches thick and are
is within a depth of 10 to 30 inches for most of the rest calcareous. The IIOa horizon is at a depth of more than
of each year. 20 inches
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown The Ap or A horizon ranges in color from very dark
silt loam about 8 inches thick. Between depths of 8 and
26 inches are layers of grayish brown and very dark brown to grayish brown or from very dark gray to gray.
grayish brown silt loam. Below this, to a depth of 80 Texture is silt loam or silty clay loam. Thickness ranges
grayish brown silt loam. Below this, to a depth of 80 from 4 to 12 inches.
inches or more, are layers of black and dark reddish Trom d to b inches.p
brown, well decomposed organic materials. The B horizon ranges in color from dark brown to pale
Permeability is moderately slow to moderate in the brown or from very dark gray to light gray. It may or may
surface layer, moderate to moderately rapid between not have mottles in shades of gray, brown, or yellow.
depths of 8 and 26 inches, and rapid in the organic Texture is silt loam or silt. Thickness ranges from 8 to 20
layers. Available water capacity is very high to high. inches.
Natural fertility is moderate. Some of these soils have The C horizon has about the same characteristics as
slight to moderate salinity. the B horizon and differs mainly by not having structure.
Where adequate water control and intensive Texture is silt loam or silt. Thickness ranges from 8 to 24
management practices are used, Perrine Variant soils inches.
are suited to some nursery and vegetable crops. These The 110a horizon is black, very dark gray, very dark
soils are in areas that are under urban development and grayish brown, or dark reddish brown. In some pedons,
are not used for pasture. this horizon has a high fiber content in some parts.
Typical pedon of Perrine Variant silt loam on the south Thickness of the Oa horizon ranges from 15 to more
side of a paved road, about 500 feet east of motel on than 60 inches.
U.S. Highway 1 near Ft. Lauderdale International Airport, Some pedons have a IIIC horizon consisting of sand
NE1 /4 sec. 27, T. 50 S., R. 42 E.: or silt loam at a depth of more than 60 inches. If the
horizon is sandy, colors are black, very dark brown, dark
Ap-0 to 8 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) grayish brown, or dark gray. If it is silty, colors are similar
silt loam; moderate coarse granular structure; friable; to those of the B horizon.
common fine and medium roots; strongly Perrine Variant soils are geographically closely
effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear wavy associated with Pennsuco soils. Pennsuco soils do not
boundary, overlie organic materials and have limestone at a depth
B-8 to 17 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silt loam; of more than 40 inches. Perrine Variant soils are also
few coarse faint dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and associated with Dade soils, which are much better
few medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) drained and do not have organic materials.
mottles; moderate coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable; few fine and medium roots; Pv-Perrine Variant silt loam. This is a nearly level,
strongly effervescent; moderately alklaine; abrupt very poorly drained soil that has 18.to 48 inches of
wavy boundary. calcareous silt loam (marl) over well decomposed






40 Soil Survey


organic materials. This soil is on coastal lowlands and in Oal-10 to 6 inches; black (N 2/0), rubbed and
swamps in the southeastern part of the county. unrubbed, sapric material; 6 percent fiber; 50
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of percent mineral material; weak fine subangular
soils similar to Perrine Variant soils that have limestone blocky structure; friable; few fine and medium roots;
at a depth of more than 40 inches. Also included are pale brown (10YR 6/3) sodium pyrophosphate
small areas of Pennsuco and Perrine soils. extract; strongly acid (pH 5.3 in 0.01M calcium
The natural vegetation consists of red mangrove, white chloride); clear smooth boundary.
mangrove, giant leatherfern, bushy sea-oxeye, glasswort, Oa2-6 inches to 0; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2),
and salt-tolerant grasses. Some areas of this soil have rubbed and unrubbed, sapric material; 10 percent
been drained and protected from flooding and are used fiber; 37 percent mineral material; weak medium
for nursery and truck crops. subangular blocky structure; friable; few medium
Under natural conditions, this soil is severely limited roots; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) sodium
for cultivated crops by excessive wetness and alkalinity. pyrophosphate extract; strongly acid (pH 5.4 in
If adequately drained and protected from flooding, and 0.01M calcium chloride); clear wavy boundary.
properly fertilized, this soil is moderately well suited to IIA1-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
some vegetable crops and special crops. many coarse distinct gray (10YR 6/1) mottles and
This soil is in coastal areas under urban development, streaks; single grained; loose; many uncoated sand
Adequate drainage and filling with stable soil material are grains; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
needed to make the soil suited to some urban uses. IIA2-6 to 18 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
This soil is in capability subclass Vlllw. common medium distinct black (10YR 2/1) mottles;
single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
Plantation Series cyclic thickness of 7 to 28 inches; slightly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
The Plantation series consists of nearly level, very IIC1-18 to 23 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
poorly drained soils in broad flats along the eastern edge common medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
of the Everglades. These soils formed in unconsolidated and common coarse distinct light gray (10YR 7/2)
sandy marine sediment. Under natural conditions they mottles; single grained; loose; some partly coated
are covered by water most of the year. Even where and very thinly coated and common clean sand
drainage has been improved, there are times when water grains; mildly alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary.
stands on the surface for a few days. During most years IIC2-23 to 25 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sandy
the water table is at a depth of 10 inches or less for 2 to loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
6 months and at a depth of 20 inches or less the rest of about 50 percent limestone fragments that are very
the year. pale brown (10YR 7/3) and yellow (10YR 8/6);
Typically, a layer of sapric material, or muck, about 10 moderately alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary.
inches thick covers the surface. It is black in the upper 4 IIIR-25 inches; hard fractured limestone that can be
inches and dark reddish brown in the lower 6 inches. excavated using power equipment.
The mineral surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 6
inches thick. Below this is a layer of light gray fine sand Above the limestone the profile ranges from 28 to 56
about 12 inches thick that has black mottles, 5 inches of inches in thickness, but solution pits are more than 60
pale brown fine sand that has mottles of very dark gray inches deep. Reaction is strongly acid to slightly acid in
and light gray, and 2 inches of pale brown fine sandy the organic material, in 0.01M calcium chloride, and
loam that is about 50 percent limestone fragments, slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the mineral
Limestone rock is 35 inches below the surface of the material.
muck and 25 inches below the top of the mineral surface The Oal horizon is black or dark reddish brown and is
layer. 1 to 12 inches thick. The Oa2 horizon is dark reddish
Permeability is rapid in all layers of these soils. brown or very dark brown and is 4 to 12 inches thick.
Available water capacity is very high in the muck layers The IIA1 horizon is dark gray, black, very dark gray, or
and very low in the sandy layers. Natural fertility is gray and is 4 to 8 inches thick. The IIA2 horizon is light
moderate. Content of organic matter is very high in the gray, gray, dark gray, or light brownish gray and is 8 to
muck layers and low in the mineral surface layer. 20 inches thick.
Where adequate water control and good management The IIC1 horizon is brown, yellowish brown, pale
practices are in use, Plantation soils are suited to winter brown, or very pale brown and is 5 to 10 inches thick. In
truck crops and improved pasture. many places this horizon has very dark gray, black, or
Typical pedon of Plantation muck, about 520 feet west dark gray mottles or black, very dark brown, or dark
of Snake Creek Road and 1.1 miles north of Canal reddish brown weakly cemented fragments. The IlC2
number 9, NW1/4SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 26, T. 51 S., R. 40 horizon is pale brown, brown, or yellowish brown and is
E.: 0 to 4 inches thick. It is fine sand to fine sandy loam,






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 41



and is about 40 to 60 percent pale brown or yellow lower 30 inches is white. The subsoil extends to a depth
limestone fragments. of 80 inches. The upper 14 inches is black fine sand, the
The IIIR horizon is limestone that has solution pits of next 20 inches is dark reddish brown fine sand, and the
varying depth and width. lower 8 inches is dark reddish brown fine sand.
Plantation soils are associated with Boca, Dania, Permeability is very rapid to a depth of about 38
Hallandale, and Margate soils. They have an organic inches, moderate between depths of 38 and 72 inches,
surface layer that is not present in Boca, Hallandale, and and rapid between depths of 72 and 80 inches. Available
Margate soils. They do not have the loamy B horizon of water capacity is very low to a depth of 38 inches,
Boca soils. They are deeper to limestone than Dania and medium or high between depths of 38 and 72 inches,
Hallandale soils. and very low between depths of 72 and 80 inches.
Natural fertility and content of organic matter are low.
Pm-Plantation muck. This is a nearly level, very These soils are unsuited to cultivated crops or citrus.
poorly drained soil that has a muck surface layer over They are poorly suited to improved pasture.
sandy mineral material. It is in broad flats along the Typical pedon of Pomello fine sand, 0.9 mile south of
eastern edge of the Everglades. The organic surface Typical pedon of Pomello fine sand, 0.9 mile south of
layer is subject to oxidation, which decreases its amount StateRoad84and 0.85 mile west of Pine Island Road,
of organic material each year. SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 17, T. 50 S., R. 41 E.:
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small A 0 to 5 inches; dark gray (YR 4/1) fine sand;
areas of Dania muck, Lauderhill muck, Margate fine A1-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (YR 4/1) fine sand;
sand, and Hallanidale fine sand. single grained; loose; many fine and medium and
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation that few large roots; very strongly acid; smooth wavy
consists of sawgrass, paspalum, maidencane, and boundary.
cutthroat grass. In some areas that have been burned, A21-5 to 8 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; few
melaleuca and myrtle have become established. Some fine faint dark gray (10YR 4/1) mottles in root
areas that have adequate water control are used for channels; single grained; loose; few fine and
improved pasture. medium roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth
In its natural condition, this soil is very severely limited boundary.
for cultivated crops and pasture because of excessive A22-8 to 38 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few
wetness and ponding. It is unsuited to citrus. The water fine faint gray (10YR 6/1) streaks in root channels;
table is generally controlled by existing ditches. Where single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
adequate water control and proper management are in very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
use, this soil is well suited to winter truck crops and B21h-38 to 52 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
improved pasture grasses or to grass and clover. After many light gray (10YR 7/1) uncoated sand grains;
drainage and the initial subsidence caused by massive in place, parting to weak medium granular
compaction, subsidence by oxidation is a continual structure; friable; few fine and medium roots; very
hazard. Thus, structures are needed that hold the water strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
level at the proper depth for crops and that permit B22h-52 to 72 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
flooding of the soil when it is left idle. In addition, fine sand; common distinct black (10YR 2/1)
fertilizer that is high in all plant nutrients except nitrogen organic coated sand grains; massive in place,
should be applied frequently. Lime is needed in some parting to weak fine granular structure; friable; very
places. Grazing needs to be controlled on improved strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
pasture. B3-72 to 80 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) fine
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw in areas where sand; common black (10YR 2/1) organic coated
drainage outlets are available and reclamation is sand grains; single grained; loose; very strongly
feasible. Small areas without drainage outlets are in acid.
capability subclass Vllw.
The solum is 80 inches or more in thickness. Reaction
Pomello Series ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid throughout.
The Pomello series consists of nearly level to gently The A1 horizon is black, dark gray, or very dark gray
sloping, moderately well drained soils on low ridges east and is 3 to 6 inches thick. The A21 and A22 horizons are
of the Everglades. These soils formed in unconsolidated gray, light gray, or white and have a combined thickness
marine sands. In most years the water table is at a depth of 24 to 46 inches.
of 24 to 40 inches for 2 to 4 months and between The B2h horizon is black or dark reddish brown. The
depths of 40 and 60 inches most of the rest of the year. B21h horizon is 6 to 16 inches thiok, and the B22h
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand horizon is 8 to 24 inches thick. The B3 horizon is dark
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 33 inches brown or dark reddish brown or dark yellowish brown
of fine sand. The upper 3 inches is light gray and the and extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.







42 Soil Survey


Pomello soils are associated with Duette, Immokalee, A1-0 to 7 inches; gray (10YR 5/1), crushed and
Margate, Paola, and St. Lucie soils. They have a Bh rubbed, fine sand; organic matter and gray fine sand
horizon at a depth of 30 to 50 inches, whereas in the have a salt-and-pepper appearance; weak fine
Duette soils this horizon is at a depth of 50 to 80 inches. granular structure; very friable; many fine and
They are better drained than Immokalee soils. They have medium roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth
a Bh horizon, whereas Margate, Paola, and St. Lucie boundary.
soils do not. In addition, Paola and St. Lucie soils are C1-7 to 17 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; few fine
excessively drained. faint white (10YR 8/1) mottles; single grained; loose;
few fine and medium roots; very strongly acid;
Po-Pomello fine sand. This is a nearly level to gradual smooth boundary.
gently sloping, deep, moderately well drained, sandy soil C2-17 to 35 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
that has a layer well coated with organic matter at a common medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
depth of 30 to 50 inches. It is on low ridges east of the streaks in root channels; single grained; loose; few
Everglades. Slopes are 0 to 5 percent, coarse roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of a boundary.
moderately well drained soil that does not have a subsoil C3-35 to 43 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
that has an accumulation of organic matter. Also many medium distinct very dark grayish brown
included are small areas of Duette, Immokalee, and St. (10YR 3/2) mottles in root channels and few fine
Lucie soils. faint white (10YR 8/1) mottles; single grained; loose;
The natural vegetation consists of pine, palmetto, live very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
oak, and native grasses. C4-43 to 80 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; many
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops or citrus. medium distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
Even under intensive management, it is too drought and mottles in root channels; single grained; loose; very
leaches too rapidly for good growth of most crops, strongly acid.
Where intensive management practices are in use,
improved deep-rooted pasture grasses and citrus of fair Pompano soils are more than 80 inches thick.
quality can be produced. Large amounts of fertilizer Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to strongly acid
should be applied frequently, and lime is also needed. throughout.
Grazing should be delayed during initial development The Al or Ap horizon is black, dark gray, very dark
and controlled carefully thereafter. Good yields of citrus gray, or gray and is 2 to 8 inches thick.
can be obtained some years without irrigation, but for The C1 horizon is gray, grayish brown, light brownish
best yields irrigation is needed. gray, or dark grayish brown and is 8 to 20 inches thick.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis. The C2 horizon is light brownish gray, grayish brown,
brown, or light gray and is 2 to 20 inches thick. The C3
Pompano Series and C4 horizons are light brownish gray, pale brown,
brown, grayish brown, or light gray. The C3 horizon is 8
The Pompano series consists of nearly level, poorly to 20 inches thick, and the C4 horizon is 15 to 40 inches
drained soils in sloughs and broad flats. These soils thick or more.
formed in thick beds of marine sand. Under natural Pompano soils are associated with Basinger,
conditions they may be covered with shallow water after Immokalee, Margate, and Sanibel soils. They do not
heavy rains. Under improved drainage they are not. have the C&Bh horizon of Basinger soils or the Bh
During most years, the water table is at a depth of 10 horizon of Immokalee soils. They are more than 80
inches or less for 2 to 6 months and at a depth of 30 inches deep, whereas Margate soils have limestone
inches or less most of the rest of the year. bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. They do not have
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 7 the organic surface layer of Sanibel soils.
inches thick. Below this is gray and light gray fine sand
to a depth of 43 inches. Brown fine sand is at a depth of Pp-Pompano fine sand. This is a nearly level, deep,
43 to 80 inches. poorly drained, sandy soil in sloughs and broad flats in
Permeability is very rapid in all layers of these soils. the eastern part of the survey area. Included in mapping
Available water capacity is very low in all layers. Natural are small areas of Immokalee fine sand, Basinger fine
fertility and content of organic matter are low. sand, and Margate fine sand.
Where adequate water control and good management The natural vegetation consists of pepper, slash pine,
practices are in use, Pompano soils are suited to winter and guava trees and native grasses. Cypress is
truck crops and improved pasture grasses. scattered in some lower lying areas.
Typical pedon of Pompano fine sand, 1.25 miles east This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops by
of the Turnpike and 0.5 mile north of Prospect Road, wetness and other adverse soil properties. Winter truck
SWl/4NE1/4 sec. 8, T. 49 S., R. 48 E.: crops and improved pasture grasses or a mixture of






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 43



grass and clover can be grown where adequate water crumb structure; very friable; few fine roots; medium
control and fertilization and intensive management are in acid; gradual wavy boundary.
use. This soil responds well to applications of complete IIC1-1 to 9 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
fertilizer, including minor elements, and lime. It is few fine faint dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
severely limited for citrus. If it is used for citrus, very mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
intensive management practices and adequate water medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
control are needed. IIC2-9 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. common medium distinct dark brown (10YR 3/3)
mottles in root channels; single grained; loose;
Sanibel Series medium acid.
The Sanibel series consists of nearly level, very poorly Sanibel soils are 60 inches or more in thickness.
drained soils in ponds, drainageways, and low, broad Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral throughout.
flats. These soils formed in thick beds of sand beneath a The Oa horizon is 8 to 16 inches thick. The Oal
thin mantle of organic material. Under natural conditions horizon is black sapric material. The Oa2 horizon is dark
they are covered by shallow water for 2 to 6 months, but reddish brown or black sapric material. This horizon is
where drainage has been improved they are not. The absent in some places.
water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 6 to The IIA horizon is grayish brown, dark grayish brown,
12 months during most years, gray, dark gray, or black. This horizon is 1 to 4 inches
Typically, a layer of sapric material, or muck, about 9 thick.
inches thick covers the surface. It is black in the upper 2 The IIC horizon is gray, light gray, white, light brownish
inches and dark reddish brown in the lower 7 inches, gray, or grayish brown. The IIC1 horizon is 7 to 20
The mineral surface layer is black fine sand mixed with inches thick. The IIC2 horizon extends to a depth of 60
organic material and is about 1 inch thick. The next layer inches or more below the surface of mineral soil.
is grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick, and Sanibel soils are associated with Basinger, Immokalee,
below this is a layer of light gray fine sand about 51 Margate, Plantation, and Pompano soils. They have an
inches thick or more. organic surface layer that Basinger, Immokalee, Margate,
Permeability is rapid in all layers of these soils. and Pompano soils do not have. Sanibel soils do not
Available water capacity is very high in the muck layers have the C&Bh horizon of Basinger soils or the Bh
and medium in the sandy layers. Content of organic horizon of Immokalee soils, nor do they have limestone
matter is very high in the muck layers and low in the bedrock as do Margate and Plantation soils.
sandy mineral surface layer. Natural fertility is moderate.
Where adequate water control and good management Sa-Sanibel muck. This is a nearly level, deep, very
practices are used, the Sanibel soils are suited to winter poorly drained soil that has a muck surface layer over
truck crops, improved pasture grasses and clover, and sandy mineral material. It is in ponds, drainageways, and
citrus. low, broad flats in the eastern part of the county.
Typical pedon of Sanibel muck, 1.5 miles north of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Hollywood Boulevard and 0.1 mile west of WGMA Radio Dania muck, Lauderhill muck, Plantation muck,
Station on Palm Avenue, SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 5, T. 51 S., Okeelanta muck, and Margate fine sand. Also included
R. 41 E.: are a few small areas of soils that are similar to Sanibel
muck but have a dark grayish brown underlying layer.
Oal-9 to 7 inches; black (N 2/0) sapric material; 5 The natural vegetation consists of sawgrass. In some
percent fiber; weak medium granular structure; areas where the sawgrass has been burned, melaleuca
friable; many fine and medium roots; about 55 and myrtle have become established. About 75 percent
percent mineral material; light yellowish brown of the acreage of this soil has adequate water control
(10YR 6/4) sodium pyrophosphate extract; medium and is used for citrus production and improved pasture.
acid (pH 5.8 in 0.01M calcium chloride); clear In its native state, this soil is unsuited to cultivated
smooth boundary, crops, citrus, or improved pasture grasses because of
Oa2-7 inches to 0; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) wetness and flooding. Where adequate water control
sapric material; 5 percent fiber; weak medium and good management practices are in use, this soil is
subangular blocky structure; very friable; few fine suited to winter truck crops, citrus, and improved pasture
roots; about 48 percent mineral material; light grasses and clover. After drainage, subsidence caused
yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) sodium pyrophosphate by oxidation is a continual hazard. Structures are needed
extract; strongly acid (pH 5.5 in 0.01M calcium that hold the water level at the proper depth for crops
chloride); gradual wavy boundary. and that permit flooding of the soil when it is idle. In
IIA-0 to 1 inch; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand mixed with addition, large amounts of fertilizer that is high in all
well decomposed organic material; weak medium plant nutrients except nitrogen should be applied






44 Soil Survey



frequently. Lime is needed in places. Grazing needs to The natural vegetation consists of sand pine, scrub
be controlled in pasture areas. oak, a few palmetto, and cactus.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw. This soil has properties that make it unsuited to
cultivated crops and citrus and very limited for use as
St. Lucie Series improved pasture. Pasture grasses are hard to maintain
and grow poorly because of droughtiness and infertility.
The St. Lucie series consists of nearly level, Fertilizers leach rapidly.
excessively drained soils on low knolls and ridges in the This soil is in capability subclass VIls.
eastern part of the county. These soils formed in thick
beds of marine sand. The water table is below a depth Terra Ceia Series
of 80 inches.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4 The Terra Ceia series consists of nearly level, very
inches thick. White fine sand is between depths of 4 and poorly drained organic soils in coastal swamps in the
82 inches. Below this to a depth of 94 inches is white southeastern part of the survey area. These soils formed
fine sand mottled with brown. in thick deposits of hydrophytic plant remains. Under
Permeability is very rapid throughout these soils, natural conditions, these soils are flooded daily or
Available water capacity is very low in all layers. Natural periodically by salty or brackish water.
fertility and content of organic matter are low. Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 12
St. Lucie soils are unsuited to cultivated crops or citrus inches thick. Between depths of 12 and 66 inches is
and have only limited suitability for improved pasture, dark reddish brown muck that has more fibrous material
Typical pedon of St. Lucie fine sand, 400 feet south of and in which the sand content increases in the lower few
Cypress Creek Road and 3,320 feet west of NW 12th inches. Below this is grayish brown sand to a depth of
Avenue, NE1/4NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 9, T. 49 S., R 42 E.: 80 inches or more.
A1-0 to 4 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single Permeability is rapid in these soils. Available water
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly capacity is very high. Natural fertility is moderate, but the
acid; clear wavy boundary. soil is affected by salinity. If drained, these soils oxidize,
C1-4 to 9 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; common which causes the amount of organic material to
medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1) and dark gray decrease each year.
(10YR 4/1) streaks along root channels; single Under natural conditions, these soils are unsuited to
grained; loose; few coarse roots; strongly acid; agricultural or urban uses. They are best used as habitat
gradual wavy boundary. for marine wildlife and waterfowl.
C2-9 to 82 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single Typical pedon of Terra Ceia muck, tidal, on the barrier
grained; loose; few coarse roots; strongly acid; island in the State Recreation Area, on the east side of
gradual wavy boundary. the entrance road, about 1.1 miles south of the inlet at
C3-82 to 94 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few Port Everglades, NE1/4NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 25, T. 50 S.,
fine faint brown (10YR 4/3) and dark yellowish R. 42 E.:
brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; single grained; loose;
strongly acid. Oal-0 to 12 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sapric material;
15 percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent
St. Lucie soils are 80 or more inches deep. Reaction rubbed; massive; dark brown (10YR 3/3) sodium
ranges from very strongly acid to strongly acid pyrophosphate extract; moderately alkaline; gradual
throughout. The Al horizon is gray or light gray and is 2 wavy boundary.
to 5 inches thick. The C horizon is white or light gray. Oa2-12 to 66 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
This horizon has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, or sapric material; about 45 percent fiber unrubbed,
brown below a depth of 40 inches in some places, less than 15 percent rubbed; massive; brown (10YR
St. Lucie soils are associated with Paola and Pomello 5/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract; moderately
soils. They do not have the B horizon of Paola soils or alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
the Bh horizon of Pomello soils. They are excessively IIC-66 to 80 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sand;
drained, whereas Pomello soils are moderately well single grained; loose; streaks and pockets of black
drained. muck in upper few inches; moderately alkaline.
St-St. Lucie fine sand. This is a nearly level, deep, The thickness of the organic material and the depth to
excessively drained, sandy soil on low knolls and ridges mineral material are more than 51 inches. Depth is
in the eastern part of the county. Included in mapping commonly more than 60 inches. Soil reaction ranges
are small areas of Immokalee fine sand, Pomello fine from neutral to moderately alkaline in 0.01M calcium
sand, and Paola fine sand. chloride.






44 Soil Survey



frequently. Lime is needed in places. Grazing needs to The natural vegetation consists of sand pine, scrub
be controlled in pasture areas. oak, a few palmetto, and cactus.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw. This soil has properties that make it unsuited to
cultivated crops and citrus and very limited for use as
St. Lucie Series improved pasture. Pasture grasses are hard to maintain
and grow poorly because of droughtiness and infertility.
The St. Lucie series consists of nearly level, Fertilizers leach rapidly.
excessively drained soils on low knolls and ridges in the This soil is in capability subclass VIls.
eastern part of the county. These soils formed in thick
beds of marine sand. The water table is below a depth Terra Ceia Series
of 80 inches.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4 The Terra Ceia series consists of nearly level, very
inches thick. White fine sand is between depths of 4 and poorly drained organic soils in coastal swamps in the
82 inches. Below this to a depth of 94 inches is white southeastern part of the survey area. These soils formed
fine sand mottled with brown. in thick deposits of hydrophytic plant remains. Under
Permeability is very rapid throughout these soils, natural conditions, these soils are flooded daily or
Available water capacity is very low in all layers. Natural periodically by salty or brackish water.
fertility and content of organic matter are low. Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 12
St. Lucie soils are unsuited to cultivated crops or citrus inches thick. Between depths of 12 and 66 inches is
and have only limited suitability for improved pasture, dark reddish brown muck that has more fibrous material
Typical pedon of St. Lucie fine sand, 400 feet south of and in which the sand content increases in the lower few
Cypress Creek Road and 3,320 feet west of NW 12th inches. Below this is grayish brown sand to a depth of
Avenue, NE1/4NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 9, T. 49 S., R 42 E.: 80 inches or more.
A1-0 to 4 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single Permeability is rapid in these soils. Available water
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly capacity is very high. Natural fertility is moderate, but the
acid; clear wavy boundary. soil is affected by salinity. If drained, these soils oxidize,
C1-4 to 9 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; common which causes the amount of organic material to
medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1) and dark gray decrease each year.
(10YR 4/1) streaks along root channels; single Under natural conditions, these soils are unsuited to
grained; loose; few coarse roots; strongly acid; agricultural or urban uses. They are best used as habitat
gradual wavy boundary. for marine wildlife and waterfowl.
C2-9 to 82 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single Typical pedon of Terra Ceia muck, tidal, on the barrier
grained; loose; few coarse roots; strongly acid; island in the State Recreation Area, on the east side of
gradual wavy boundary. the entrance road, about 1.1 miles south of the inlet at
C3-82 to 94 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few Port Everglades, NE1/4NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 25, T. 50 S.,
fine faint brown (10YR 4/3) and dark yellowish R. 42 E.:
brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; single grained; loose;
strongly acid. Oal-0 to 12 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sapric material;
15 percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent
St. Lucie soils are 80 or more inches deep. Reaction rubbed; massive; dark brown (10YR 3/3) sodium
ranges from very strongly acid to strongly acid pyrophosphate extract; moderately alkaline; gradual
throughout. The Al horizon is gray or light gray and is 2 wavy boundary.
to 5 inches thick. The C horizon is white or light gray. Oa2-12 to 66 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
This horizon has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, or sapric material; about 45 percent fiber unrubbed,
brown below a depth of 40 inches in some places, less than 15 percent rubbed; massive; brown (10YR
St. Lucie soils are associated with Paola and Pomello 5/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract; moderately
soils. They do not have the B horizon of Paola soils or alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
the Bh horizon of Pomello soils. They are excessively IIC-66 to 80 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sand;
drained, whereas Pomello soils are moderately well single grained; loose; streaks and pockets of black
drained. muck in upper few inches; moderately alkaline.
St-St. Lucie fine sand. This is a nearly level, deep, The thickness of the organic material and the depth to
excessively drained, sandy soil on low knolls and ridges mineral material are more than 51 inches. Depth is
in the eastern part of the county. Included in mapping commonly more than 60 inches. Soil reaction ranges
are small areas of Immokalee fine sand, Pomello fine from neutral to moderately alkaline in 0.01M calcium
sand, and Paola fine sand. chloride.






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 45



The Oal horizon is black, very dark brown, or dark Udorthents
reddish brown. Fiber content in this horizon is less than
10 to 20 percent unrubbed and less than 5 percent Udorthents consist of heterogeneous geologic material
rubbed. Mineral content in most pedons is less than 10 that has been excavated from canals and deposited
percent, but in areas where these soils are adjacent to along the bank or that has been hauled in from other
spoil deposited from dredging of the Intracoastal locations and spread over natural soil. Where this
Waterway, the mineral content may range to 40 percent. material occurs as spoil mounds along canals or as
Thickness of the Oal horizon ranges from 4 to 18 embankments in highway interchanges and overpasses,
inches. the soil is well drained to excessively drained, has slopes
The Oa2 horizon has nearly the same color range as of 2 to 40 percent, and has no water table within 80
inches. In other areas where this material has been
the Oal horizon. Fiber content ranges from 25 to 50
the al horizon. Fiber content ranges from 25 to 50 spread smoothly over the natural soil and shaped for the
percent unrubbed but is less than 15 percent after sired use the soll mewhat poorly
rubbing. Mineral content ranges from about 10 to 40 desired use, the soil is generally somewhat poorly
rubbing. Mineral content ranges from about 10 to 40 drained to moderately well drained, has slopes that are
percent. Commonly marl content increases considerably nearly level, and has a water table that is generally at a
in the lower part of this horizon. Thickness of the Oa2 depth of 20 to 50 inches.
horizon ranges from 40 to 60 inches. Udorthents vary greatly in their properties. In one of
The IIC horizon is black, very dark gray, very dark the more common profiles, light gray to white
grayish brown, dark gray, gray, or grayish brown. Texture unconsolidated material extends from the surface to a
is sand, loamy sand, or marl, and may contain fragments depth of 57 inches. This material is 65 percent limestone
of shell. In some pedons, limestone is below a depth of fragments and broken shell, 30 percent sand, and 5
51 inches, percent loamy carbonatic material.
Terra Ceia soils are associated with Canaveral, Permeability is generally rapid, and available water
Pennsuco, Perrine, and Perrine Variant soils. Canaveral content is very low or low. Natural fertility and organic
soils are of mineral origin and are better drained, matter content are also low.
Pennsuco soils are loamy and have limestone at a depth Unused spoil areas commonly are covered by
of more than 40 inches. Perrine soils are loamy and Australian pine, Brazilian pepper trees, and an
have limestone at a depth of less than 40 inches. assortment of grasses, weeds, and shrubs. Some areas
Perrine Variant soils have a thick layer of loamy material are used as a source of fill material. Most of these
over organic materials. unused spoil areas are severely eroded. Areas of
Udorthents that have been shaped and contoured are
Tc-Terra Cela muck, tidal. This is a nearly level, used for highways, golf courses, sanitary landfills, and
very poorly drained organic soil in tidal mangrove other urban and recreational purposes.
swamps near the coast. This soil has organic materials Reference pedon of Udorthents, about 0.6 mile west
more than 51 inches thick and is subject to daily or of University Drive and 0.3 mile north of State Highway
periodic tidal flooding. 84, SE1/4SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 16, T. 50 S., R. 41 E.:
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Arents, Pennsuco, and Perrine Variant soils. Also C-0 to 57 inches; mixed light gray (10YR 7/1) and
included are small areas of soils similar to Terra Ceia white (10YR 8/1) unconsolidated material; 65
that have slightly less than 51 inches of organic material percent broken shell rock and limerock fragments,
and soils that have 6 to 20 inches of gravelly sand fill 30 percent sand mixed with shell, and 5 percent
material on the surface. loamy carbonatic material; few fine faint very dark
All areas o this soil remain in natural vegetation mottles; massive; friable; moderately alkaline.
All areas of this soil remain in natural vegetation
consisting of American mangrove, white mangrove, and,
in places, a few giant leatherfern. Some Australian pine Reaction ranges from moderately alkaline to strongly
is in fringe areas where thin layers of spoil materials alkaline. The material is mainly gray, white, dark gray,
cover the surface. brown, yellow, dark yellowish brown, and pale brown. It
This soil is severely limited for all uses because of is a mixture of shell rock and limerock fragments, sand,
tidal flooding and excessive wetness. In addition, the shell, loamy sand, and sandy loam or loamy carbonatic
organic material that makes up this soil has low load- material.
bearing capacity, which severely limits the construction Associated with Udorthents are Urban land and areas
of a stable foundation. This soil is best used in its natural of manmade lakes and canals.
condition as habitat for many kinds of marine life. It is a
major breeding and spawning area for shellfish and other Ud-Udorthents. This soil consists of unconsolidated
marine life. or heterogeneous geologic material removed in the
This soil is in capability subclass VIIIw. excavation of ditches, canals, lakes, and ponds. It is






46 Soil Survey
46





























Figure 10.-Year-round golf on numerous courses is a major recreational attraction. The soils are Udorthents, shaped.




commonly piled along banks and has slopes of 2 to 40 lawns, vacant lots, parks, playgrounds, and idle areas.
percent. Few if any other soils are included in mapping. Urban land consists of streets, sidewalks, parking lots,
The soil is moderately well drained, and buildings or other constructions where the soil is
Weeds and native grasses have become established covered and cannot be readily observed.
on some areas of Udorthents. Other areas have little or This map unit occurs only in the southeastern part of
no vegetation. The soil material is erodible, especially the survey area. It is made up of a layer of mixed
where slopes are steep and where areas are bare or limestone fragments, sand, and shell about 20 to 50
sparsely vegetated. inches thick over the natural soil, which is predominantly
This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops, citrus, or calcareous silt loam (marl). The overburden material is
improved pasture. It is frequently used as a source of mostly in shades of gray, brown, and white and has
roadbuilding material and as a source of fill for new occasional pockets or lenses of black. The natural marl
homesites, golf courses, and other purposes. soil below is similar to that described as representative
This soil is not assigned to a capability subclass, for the Perrine or Pennsuco series.
The water table depends on the established drainage
in the area, but in most areas it is at a depth of about 30
Um-Udorthents, marly substratum-Urban land to 40 inches. Commonly, depth to the water table is the
complex. About 50 to 75 percent of this complex same as the depth to the natural soil in any particular
consists of Udorthents, marly substratum, which are in area. In general, the rocky sand mixture of overburden
open land areas; and 25 to 45 percent consists of Urban material is rapidly permeable and the available water
land, or areas covered by concrete and buildings. The capacity is low. Natural fertility is also low.
areas of these components are so intermixed or so small Included with this complex in mapping are small areas
that to map them separately at the scale of mapping in which the overburden material is dominantly sand and
used is impractical. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. other small areas in which the fill material overlies 12 to
The open areas of Udorthents, marly substratum, are 48 inches of muck.







Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 47



To properly establish and maintain lawns and foundations for major roads, buildings, or large homes.
ornamentals on the soil in this complex, a layer of good The determined use of this map unit for the
topsoil about 6 inches thick is needed. In addition, foreseeable future is urban related.
proper watering and regular applications of fertilizer are This complex is not placed in a capability subclass.
needed.
The soil is well suited to many urban uses, but has
moderate to severe limitations as a foundation for roads
or buildings. The marl substratum, when wet, is Un-Udorthents, shaped. This map unit consists of a
compressible under mobile or static loads. The severity mixture of soil and geologic soil materials that has been
of the limitation depends upon the degree of drainage shaped and contoured mainly for golf courses and major
provided and the thickness of the overburden. Areas of highways. This mixed material is commonly obtained
this unit that are inadequately drained and have less from nearby excavations and spread over the natural soil
than 3 feet of fill material are poorly suited to use as to a depth of 20 inches or more. It consists primarily of


















SaI














ure .-A area of Urba lad. More tha 70 percent of the natural soil is covered by budi and pavement







48


limestone fragments and sand. Slope is commonly nearly thick over natural soils. This mixed soil material has
level to gently sloping (0 to 5 percent) but ranges to been placed over wet, sandy soils in low areas to make
steep (20 to 45 percent) on the short side slopes of them suitable for building sites or other uses. The
highway interchanges. This soil is somewhat poorly underlying natural soil can generally be identified in
drained to moderately well drained in most areas. places where the fill material is less than about 30
Where the mixed fill material is less than about 30 inches thick.
inches thick, most of the underlying natural soils can be Included with this complex in mapping are small areas
identified. Of these, Hallandale and Margate soils are of sandier Arents soils and scattered areas of
dominant and the others include Immokalee soils, Udorthents which are not presently being developed for
Basinger soils, and other poorly drained and very poorly urban uses. Also included are similar soils that have less
drained soils. than 20 inches of overburden material and scattered
Included with Udorthents, shaped, in mapping are small areas in which the overburden material rests on
small areas of Urban land and Arents. Also included are organic soils.
small areas that have less than 20 inches of fill material Depth to the water able in the Udorthents depends on
and areas in which the fill material rests on layers of the established drainage in the area, but is commonly 20
organic material ranging from thin to thick. to 50 inches most of each year. Permeability is variable
Depth to the water table depends somewhat on the to 50 inches most of each rapid. The available water capacity is
established drainage in the area, but it is generally 20 to but generally is rapid. The available water capacity is
50 inches most of each year. Permeability is variable but generally low. Also, natural fertility and organic matter
generally is rapid. The available water capacity is content are low. Under good management, which
commonly low. Also, natural fertility and organic matter includes proper watering and fertilization, commonly
content are low. Under good management, which grown lawn grasses and ornamentals can be produced
includes proper fertilization and irrigation, grasses and satisfactorily.
landscaping ornamentals can be grown satisfactorily. The determined use of this map unit for the
The determined use of this soil for the foreseeable foreseeable future is urban related.
future is for recreation (fig. 10) and other urban This complex is not assigned to a capability subclass.
purposes.
This soil is not assigned to a capability subclass. Urban land
Uo-Udorthents-Urban land complex. About 50 to
70 percent of this complex consists of Udorthents, which Ur-Urban land. This map unit consists of areas that
are in open areas; and about 30 to 50 percent consists are more than 70 percent covered by airports, shopping
of Urban land, or areas covered by concrete and centers, parking lots, large buildings, streets and
buildings. The areas of these components are so sidewalks, and other structures, so that the natural soil is
intermixed or so small that to map them separately at not readily observable (fig. 11).
the scale of mapping used is impractical. Unoccupied areas of this land type, mostly lawns,
The open areas of Udorthents are lawns, vacant lots, parks, vacant lots, and playgrounds, consist of soils in
parks, and playgrounds. Urban land consists of streets, the Hallandale, Margate, Immokalee, and Basinger series
sidewalks, parking lots, and buildings or other that have been altered by fill material spread on the
construction where the soil is covered and cannot be surface to an average thickness of about 12 inches.
readily observed. These unoccupied areas are in tracts too small to be
Udorthents are nearly level, somewhat poorly drained mapped separately. The fill is mostly sandy material,
or moderately well drained soils consisting of a mixture some of which contains limestone and shell fragments.
of sand, rock fragments, and shell more than 20 inches This map unit is not assigned to a capability subclass.







49







Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Most of the soils in Broward County, Eastern Part, are
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses suited to farming only if water is controlled. The soils
and management. Field experience and collected data most commonly used for truck crops, citrus, and pasture
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis are poorly drained and have a sandy surface layer and a
in predicting soil behavior, sandy or loamy subsoil that extends to limestone.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use In many fields, preparing a good seedbed and tilling
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as sites are difficult because of shallowness to limestone. The
for buildings, sanitary facilities, highways and other soils that have organic surface layers are also used for
transportation systems, and parks and other recreation pasture and some truck crops. These soils are very
facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It can be used to poorly drained, and most of them have limestone at a
identify the potentials and limitations of each soil for depth of less than 50 inches. If not completely saturated,
specific land uses and to help prevent construction the organic layers oxidize or subside at the rate of about
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties. 1 inch per year.
Planners and others using soil survey information can About 36,000 acres is used as pasture for beef or
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity dairy cattle. Several dairies are in the area. On most of
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. the land used for pasture, water-control measures are
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a used and improved grasses, such as pangola, bahia, and
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. St. Augustine, are grown. Approximately 7,000 acres is
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of used for truck crops, mostly snap beans, sweet corn,
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to eggplant, squash, and tomatoes. Citrus, mostly oranges,
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil is grown on about 3,000 acres. About 1,300 acres is
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, used for sod and nursery products.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and Urban development is expanding rapidly in the survey
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can area, and the acreage of land used for farming is
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate decreasing. It is estimated that the decrease is about
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, 5,000 acres per year. The use of this soil survey to help
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. make land use decisions that will influence the future
role of farming in the county is discussed in the section
Crops and Pasture' "General Soil Map Units."
drops an sure Wind erosion is a major hazard on unprotected soils in
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, and Adam G. Hyde, the survey area, because most of the soils are sandy or
assistant state soil scientist, Soil Conservation Service, assisted in mucky and are subject to soil blowing. Wind erosion can
preparing this section. damage soils and tender crops in a few hours if the
General management needed for crops and pasture is winds are strong and the soil is dry and bare of
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants vegetation and surface mulch. Maintaining vegetative
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly cover and surface mulch minimizes wind erosion.
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It
land capability classification used by the Soil reduces soil fertility by removing fine soil particles and
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated organic matter; it damages or destroys crops by







49







Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Most of the soils in Broward County, Eastern Part, are
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses suited to farming only if water is controlled. The soils
and management. Field experience and collected data most commonly used for truck crops, citrus, and pasture
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis are poorly drained and have a sandy surface layer and a
in predicting soil behavior, sandy or loamy subsoil that extends to limestone.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use In many fields, preparing a good seedbed and tilling
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as sites are difficult because of shallowness to limestone. The
for buildings, sanitary facilities, highways and other soils that have organic surface layers are also used for
transportation systems, and parks and other recreation pasture and some truck crops. These soils are very
facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It can be used to poorly drained, and most of them have limestone at a
identify the potentials and limitations of each soil for depth of less than 50 inches. If not completely saturated,
specific land uses and to help prevent construction the organic layers oxidize or subside at the rate of about
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties. 1 inch per year.
Planners and others using soil survey information can About 36,000 acres is used as pasture for beef or
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity dairy cattle. Several dairies are in the area. On most of
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. the land used for pasture, water-control measures are
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a used and improved grasses, such as pangola, bahia, and
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. St. Augustine, are grown. Approximately 7,000 acres is
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of used for truck crops, mostly snap beans, sweet corn,
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to eggplant, squash, and tomatoes. Citrus, mostly oranges,
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil is grown on about 3,000 acres. About 1,300 acres is
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, used for sod and nursery products.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and Urban development is expanding rapidly in the survey
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can area, and the acreage of land used for farming is
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate decreasing. It is estimated that the decrease is about
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, 5,000 acres per year. The use of this soil survey to help
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. make land use decisions that will influence the future
role of farming in the county is discussed in the section
Crops and Pasture' "General Soil Map Units."
drops an sure Wind erosion is a major hazard on unprotected soils in
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, and Adam G. Hyde, the survey area, because most of the soils are sandy or
assistant state soil scientist, Soil Conservation Service, assisted in mucky and are subject to soil blowing. Wind erosion can
preparing this section. damage soils and tender crops in a few hours if the
General management needed for crops and pasture is winds are strong and the soil is dry and bare of
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants vegetation and surface mulch. Maintaining vegetative
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly cover and surface mulch minimizes wind erosion.
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It
land capability classification used by the Soil reduces soil fertility by removing fine soil particles and
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated organic matter; it damages or destroys crops by







50 Soil Survey


sandblasting; it spreads diseases, insects, and weed Artificial drainage is also needed on the poorly drained
seeds; and it creates health hazards and cleaning soils to prevent damage to pasture plants during the wet
problems. Control of wind erosion minimizes duststorms seasons. These are mainly the Basinger, Hallandale,
and improves air quality. Immokalee, Margate, and Pompano soils. These soils
Field windbreaks of suitable trees and shrubs such as also have a low water-holding capacity and are drought
Carolina laurelcherry, slash pine, southern redcedar, and during dry periods. Subsurface irrigation of these soils is
Japanese privet, and strip crops of small grain are needed for maximum pasture production.
effective in reducing wind erosion and crop damage. The very poorly drained soils are very wet during rainy
Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow plantings periods and in most areas have water standing on the
made at right angles to the prevailing wind and at surface. On these soils, artificial drainage is needed to
specific intervals across the field. The intervals depend produce pastures of high quality. Some of these very
on the erodibility of the soil and the susceptibility of the poorly drained soils are the Lauderhill, Okeelanta,
crop to damage from sandblasting. Plantation, and Sanibel soils.
Water erosion is a hazard in areas where slope is The design of both surface drainage and subsurface
greater than 2 percent-about one-tenth of the cropland irrigation systems varies according to the kind of soil and
and pastureland in the survey area. Water erosion can the pastures grown. A combination of surface drainage
damage soils if rains are intense and soils are bare of and subsurface irrigation systems is needed on these
vegetation and surface mulch. soils for intensive pasture production. Information on
Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging drainage and irrigation for each kind of soil is contained
for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the in the "Technical Guide" available in the local offices of
surface layer is lost, and organic matter content is the Soil Conservation Service.
reduced as part of the subsurface layer is incorporated Soil fertility is naturally low on most soils in the survey
into the plow layer. Second, the soil that erodes from area. Most of the soils have sandy surfaces and are light
farmland enters streams as sediment. Controlling erosion colored. The Boca, Dade, and Hallandale soils range
minimizes the pollution of streams by sediment and from acid to neutral in the surface layer and are
improves the quality of water for municipal use, for underlain by neutral to moderately alkaline limestone. A
recreation, and for fish and wildlife. few of the soils, for example the Perrine soils, have a
Erosion control practices provide protective surface loamy subsoil. The Canaveral, Paola, and St. Lucie soils
cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. A cropping have sandy material to a depth of 80 inches or more.
system that keeps vegetative cover on the soil for The Duette, Immokalee, and Pomello soils have an
extended periods can hold soil erosion losses to organically stained subsoil layer. In most of the soils,
amounts that will not reduce the productive capacity of reaction in the surface layer ranges from strongly acid to
the soils. On livestock farms, which require pasture and very strongly acid. If the soils have never been limed,
the soils. On livestock farms, which require pasture and ground limestone is needed to raise the pH levels
hay, the legume and grass forage crops in the cropping ground limestone go needed to raose te NiH levels
system reduce erosion on erodible sloping land, provide suh affently for good growth of crlls are natural lo
nitrogen, and improve tilth for the following crop. potash and available phosphorus levels are naturally low
nitrogen, and improve tilth for the following crop. in most of these soils. On all soils, additions of lime and
minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the fertilizer should be based on the results of soil tests, on
surface help to increase infiltration and reduce the the needs of the crops, and on the expected level of
hazards of runoff and erosion. These practices can be yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can help in
adapted to most soils in the survey area. determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime
Information for the design of erosion control practices to apply.
for each kind of soil is contained in the "Water and Wind Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
Erosion Control Handbook-Florida," which is available seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils that
in local offices of the Soil Conservation Service. have good tilth are granular and porous.
S os o?^ ^^ ^have good tilth are granular and porous.
Drainage is a major management need on about 90 Most of the soils in the survey area have a sandy
percent of the acreage used for crops and pasture in the surface layer that is light in color and low to moderate in
survey area. Some soils are naturally so wet that the organic matter content. The exceptions are the Dania,
production of crops common to the area is generally not Lauderhill, Okeelanta, Perrine, Plantation, and Sanibel
practical without extensive water control. Such soils are soils.
the poorly drained Basinger, Boca, Hallandale, Most soils in the survey area have weak structure in
Immokalee, Margate, and Pompano soils and the very the surface layer. In dry soils that have low organic
poorly drained Dania, Lauderhill, and Sanibel soils. matter content, intense rainfall causes the colloidal
Unless artificially drained, the moderately well drained matter to cement, forming a slight crust. The crust is
soils are wet enough in the rooting zone during the wet slightly hard and slightly impervious to water when dry,
seasons to cause damage to some crops in most years. thus it reduces infiltration and increases runoff. Regular
Included in this category are Pomello soils. additions of crop residue, manure, and other organic






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 51



material can help to improve soil structure and reduce pasture plants, lime, fertilizer, moisture, and grazing
crust formation. practices.
Special crops grown include citrus, tomatoes, sweet Latest information and suggestions for growing
corn, snap beans, cucumbers, pepper, squash, eggplant, pastures can be obtained from local offices of the
cauliflower, nursery plants, and sod. If economic Cooperative Extension Service and the Soil Conservation
conditions are favorable, the production of blueberries, Service.
grapes, blackberries, nursery plants, sod, cabbage, Predicted yields of hay and pasture for varieties of
cauliflower, turnips, and mustard could be increased, grasses and legumes commonly grown are shown in
Deep soils that have good natural drainage are table 6. The yields are in animal-unit-months (AUM). An
especially well suited to citrus. In the survey area these animal-unit-month is the amount of forage needed for
are the Paola and St. Lucie soils, and they total about one cow and her calf for 30 days.
1,500 acres. With water control the Basinger, Boca,
Hallandale, Margate, Okeelanta, Pennsuco, Plantation, Yields Per Acre
and Pompano soils are suited to vegetables and small The average yields per acre that can be expected of
fruit. the principal crops under a high level of management
Most of the well drained and moderately well drained are shown in table 6. In any given year, yields may be
soils in the survey area are suited to orchards and higher or lower than those indicated in the table because
nursery plants. Soils in areas where air drainage is poor of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
and frost pockets frequently occur are generally poorly The yields are based mainly on the experience and
suited to early vegetables, small fruits, and orchards. records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
Latest information and suggestions for growing special agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
crops can be obtained from local offices of the results of field trials and demonstrations are also
Cooperative Extension Service and the Soil Conservation considered.
Service. The management needed to obtain the indicated
Pastures in the survey area produce forage for beef yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and dairy cattle. Beef cattle cow-calf operations are the and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion
major cattle systems. Bahiagrass, pangolagrass, control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
limpograss (Hermathria latissina), and bermudagrass are and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
the most commonly grown pasture plants in the survey appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
area. Grass seeds or vegetative material could be diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction
harvested from these grasses for improved pasture and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
plantings as well as for commercial purposes. Many and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop
cattlemen overseed ryegrass on pastures in the fall for residue, barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; and
winter and spring grazing. In summer, excess grass is harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss.
harvested from pangolagrass and bermudagrass for use For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
as hay during the winter months. irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
The moderately well drained soils such as Duette and grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
Pomello soils are moderately suited to bahiagrass and applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum.
improved bermudagrass. Under good management, hairy The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of
indigo and alyceclover can be grown during the summer each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely
and fall. to increase as new production technology is developed.
If properly drained, the Basinger, Boca, Hallandale, The productivity of a given soil compared with that of
Immokalee, Margate, and Pompano soils are well suited othersols however, is not likely to change.
to bahiagrass and limpograss pasture. Using subsurface Crops other than those shown in table 6 are grown in
irrigation in areas of these soils where it is needed the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
increases the length of growing season and the total because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
increases the length of growing season and the total ofeof the Soil Conservation Service or of the
forage production. If adequately limed and fertilized, office of the Soil Cons erv ice or of the
these soils are well suited to legumes such as white Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
ee re e e e e e about the management and productivity of the soils for
clover, those crops.
Pasture in many parts of the county has been greatly
depleted by continuous excessive grazing. Yields of Land Capabilit Classification
pasture can be increased by liming, fertilization, planting Land Capability Classification
legumes, irrigation, and other management practices. Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
Differences in the amount and kind of pasture yields the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops
are related closely to the kind of soil. Management of that require special management are excluded. The soils
pasture is based on the relationship between soils, are grouped according to their limitations for field crops,







52 Soil Survey


the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the Recreation
way they respond to management. The grouping does
not take into account major and generally expensive The soils of the survey area are rated in table 7
landforming that would change slope, depth, or other according to limitations that affect their suitability for
characteristics of the soils, nor does it consider possible recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
classification is not a substitute for interpretations surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
designed to show suitability and limitations of groups of considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
soils for rangeland, for woodland, and for engineering site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
purposes. size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at vegetation, access to water, potential water
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
are defined in the following paragraphs, ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
defined as follows: duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. In table 7, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
practices. minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
Class I soils have severe limitations that reduce the limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
choice of plants or that require special cons ration design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
practice of plants or that require special conservation properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
Class IV soils have ver severe limitations that reduce offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
the choice soils hav e very severe limitations that reduce intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
management, of plants or that require very careful of these measures.
Management, or bot ih. to ro t ha hr The information in table 7 can be supplemented by
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other other information in this survey, for example,
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use. interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them 10 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
generally unsuitable for cultivation, and for local roads and streets in table 9.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
them unsuitable for cultivation. and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
crop production. heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class. soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to
They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or
c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or constructing campsites.
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
limit d mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony; areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
and c, used in only some parts of the United States, are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold during the period of use, and do not have slopes or
Sere re e stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation, and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 53



depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
considered. following paragraphs.
Paths and trails for hiking, horseback riding, and Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
bicycling should require little or no cutting and filling. The producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
best soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
once a year during the period of use. They have available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
the surface. moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and seed crops are corn, browntop millet, and grain sorghum.
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard,
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
not considered in rating the soils. considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
bahiagrass, Florida beggarweed, clover, and sesbania.
Wildlife Habitat Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped properties and features that affect the growth of these
prepare this section, plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod,
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can beggarweed, partridge pea, and bristlegrass.
be created or improved by planting appropriate Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants. properties and features that affect the growth of
In table 8, the soils in the survey area are rated hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
according to their potential for providing habitat for the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in these plants are oak, red maple, sweetgum, wild grape,
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and palmetto, and greenbriar. Examples of fruit-producing
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are shrubs that are suitable for planting on soils rated good
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining are firethorn, wild plum, and crabapple.
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
the intensity of management needed for each element of properties and features that affect the growth of
the habitat. coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar,
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or and juniper.
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, Wetlandplants are annual and perennial wild
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
established, improved, or maintained in most places, properties and features affecting wetland plants are
Moderately intensive management is required for texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind plants are smartweed, wild millet, wildrice, saltgrass,
of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
maintained in most places, but management is difficult Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are created by dams, levees, or other water-control
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
impractical or impossible, stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow







54 Soil Survey


water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and not considered in preparing the information in this
ponds. section. Local ordinances and regulations need to be
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
the following paragraphs. Soil properties, site features, and observed
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland, performance were considered in determining the ratings
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the
include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow, surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
and cottontail. table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-
turkey, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox, raccoon, and swell potential, available water capacity, and other
deer. behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or This information can be used to (1) evaluate the
swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
attracted to such areas are ducks, herons, shore birds, and recreation uses; (2) make preliminary estimates of
otters, and alligators. construction conditions; (3) evaluate alternative routes
Most of the survey area is urbanized or closely for roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
associated with urban development. As a result, the only cables; (4) evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
potential for wildlife in the future is for species that are septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; (5)
suited to south Florida residential areas. These are plan detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
mostly bird species, such as house sparrows, grackles, (6) locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
sea gulls, mockingbirds, cardinals, and mourning doves, topsoil; (7) plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
Egrets and herons are found along drainage canals and ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
golf course ponds. Gray squirrels and a few raccoons conservation; and (8) predict performance of proposed
are in the few wooded areas that remain, small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same or
Engineering similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
This section provides information for planning land the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
uses related to urban development and to water survey can be used to make additional interpretations.
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
given in the following tables: Building site development, Glossary.
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and Building Site Development
test data in the "Soil Properties" section. Table 9 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
Information in this section is intended for land use that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for without basements, small commercial buildings, local
planning site investigations prior to design and roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
construction. The information, however, has limitations, limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
For example, estimates and other data generally apply features are generally favorable for the indicated use
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils if soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific indicated use and special planning, design, or
soil. maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
The information is not site specific and does not limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the special design, significant increases in construction
design and construction of engineering works. costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict Special feasibility studies may be required where the soil
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were limitations are severe.






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 55



Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a area needed for construction. In areas to be landscaped,
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves, constructing diversions and contouring help reduce the
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The length of slopes and thus reduce runoff and soil blowing.
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and These methods are most practical on soils that have
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging, uniform slopes.
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to Grading removes topsoil and, in the Boca, Pennsuco,
bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer; and Perrine soils, may expose the loamy subsoil. Ripping
stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the these exposed subsoils and covering them with less
year that excavations can be made is affected by the erodible topsoil helps to reduce erosion.
depth to a seasonal high water table and the On sandy soils, soil blowing is a major hazard. Blowing
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of the soil can affect drainage ditches, roads, fences, and
excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is equipment. The air pollution caused by blowing soil can
affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table, create health problems.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are Wind erosion can be minimized by maintaining
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed vegetative cover and surface mulch and by planting
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family windbreaks of shrubs and trees and strip crops of small
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made grains. Mulching helps to reduce damage from water
for small commercial buildings without basements, for runoff and soil blowing and improves moisture conditions
dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without for seedlings.
basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site Information on the design of erosion control practices
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high for each kind of soil is available in local offices of the
water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic Soil Conservation Service.
layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water
table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large Sanitary Facilities
stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts Table 10 shows the degree and the kind of soil
and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered. limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They are considered slight if soil properties and site features
have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of are generally favorable for the indicated use and
gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil indicated use and special planning, design, or
properties, site features, and observed performance of maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as special design, significant increases in construction
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil), costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high water table Table 10 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
affect the traffic supporting capacity. as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and and good performance and low maintenance can be
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
reaction, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a more soil properties or site features make the soil less
cemented pan, the available water capacity in the upper desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic that one or more soil properties or site features are
materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
matter in the surface layer affect trafficability after costly alteration.
vegetation is established. Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
Controlling Erosion on Building Sites through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
Disturbing soil by landscaping or construction part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
operations removes vegetation and leaves the soil evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
vulnerable to erosion. Wind and water erosion can be features, and observed performance of the soils.
reduced by clearing and disturbing only the minimum Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a







56 Soil Survey



cemented pan, and flooding affect absorption of the Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a
effluent. Large stones and bedrock or a cemented pan high water table, slope, and flooding affect both types of
interfere with installation. landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly organic
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and sodium
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent, affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if is needed.
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
the absorption field to filter the effluent effectively. Many landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
local ordinances require that this material be of a certain to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
thickness. Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly and seepage.
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is After soil material has been removed, the soil material
required to minimize seepage and contamination of remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over
ground water, bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit
Table 10 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The and the best potential for plant growth. Therefore,
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and material from the surface layer should be stockpiled for
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the use as the final cover.
ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth
to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones, Construction Materials
and content of organic matter.
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the Table 11 gives information about the soils as a source
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
organic matter in the soil is detrimental to proper properties and site features that affect the removal of
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
activity. Slope, bedrock, and cemented pans can cause compaction, minor processing, and other standard
construction problems, and large stones can hinder construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
compaction of the lagoon floor, evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of and used in road embankments in another place. In this
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an exacting in design than higher embankments.
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted, layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
away from the site. Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy their profile. The table showing engineering index
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground properties provides detailed information about each soil
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation layer. This information can help determine the suitability
needs to be considered. of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
The ratings in table 10 are based on soil properties, after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered
site features, and observed performance of the soils. in the ratings.






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 57



The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a depth
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less
excavation is affected by large stones, a high water than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
after it has been compacted and drained is determined not so wet that excavation is difficult.
by its strength (as inferred from the engineering Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential. relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the not so wet that excavation is difficult.
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet. near the surface.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10, The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of
of suitable material, but thaterterial is less than 3 feet moisture and nutrients for plant growth.
thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for Water Management
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and Table 12 gives information on the soil properties and
gravel are used in many kinds of construction. site features that affect water management. The degree
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 11, only and kind of soil limitations are given for embankments,
the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is dikes, and levees and for aquifer-fed ponds. The
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect features are generally favorable for the indicated use
excavation of the material. and limitations are minor and are easily overcome;
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of moderate if soil properties or site features are not
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
by the engineering classification of the soil), the design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
sickness of suitable material, and the content of rock minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification aresite features are so unfavorable or so difficult to
given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain overcome that special design, significant increase in
sizes is given in the table on engineering index construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
properties.
properties, are required.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean This table also gives for each soil the restritive
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to features table affect drainage, irrigation, the restrictive
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3 features that affect drainage, irrigation, terraces and
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large diversions, and grassed waterways.
stones. All other soils are rated asan improbable Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel, constructed to impound water or to protect land against
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
the reclamation potential of the borrow area. feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such and compacted during construction.
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil depth even greater than the height of the embankment
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation can affect performance and safety of the embankment.
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material, determine these properties.






58


Soil material in embankments must be resistant to salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable not considered in the ratings.
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium. and management of an irrigation system are affected by
A high water table affects the amount of usable material, depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
It also affects trafficability. available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a is affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or
impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface. sodium, and soil reaction.
Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanenterraces and diversions are embankments or a
water ta prme ty of the aie and q o t combination of channels and ridges constructed across
water table, permeability of the aquifer, depth a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
water as inferred from the salinity of the soil. Depth to i ter o oe, tnesae ves a
bedrock and the content of large stones affect the ease itepth t o bdrok or wetness, o a ceented pn ect t
of excavation. depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the
of excavDrainage is the removal of excess surface and construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or water erosion,
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and an excessively coarse texture, and restricted permeability
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to adversely affect maintenance.
bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth to channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding; and stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
subsidence of organic layers. Excavating and grading cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
and the stability of ditchbanks are affected by depth to waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
bedrock or to a cemented pan, large stones, slope, and capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
the hazard of cutbanks caving. The productivity of the as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
soil after drainage is adversely affected by extreme affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
acidity or by toxic substances in the root zone, such as construction.






59








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
table 19. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
accurately by field observation, and help characterize of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
key soils. grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Indx Pr rties groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Engineering Index Properties 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
or 6 feet. for soils tested, with group index numbers in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer parentheses, is given in table 18.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.






59








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
table 19. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
accurately by field observation, and help characterize of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
key soils. grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Indx Pr rties groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Engineering Index Properties 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
or 6 feet. for soils tested, with group index numbers in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer parentheses, is given in table 18.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.






60 Soil Survey


Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies,
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The depending on soil properties that affect the retention of
estimates are based on test data from the survey area or water and the depth of the root zone. The most
from nearby areas and on field examination, important properties are the content of organic matter,
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available
plasticity index are rounded to the nearest 5 percent. water capacity is an important factor in the choice of
Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg limits plants or crops to be grown and in the design and
extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points) management of irrigation systems. Available water
across classification boundaries, the classification in the capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
marginal zone is omitted in the table. actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
Physical and Chemical Properties expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
Table 14 shows estimates of some characteristics and many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
The estimates are based on field observations and on fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
test data for these and similar soils, corrosion.
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter, saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. laboratory measurements at representative sites of
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
moisture. They influence shrink-swell potential, soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
a soil also affect tillage and earth-moving operations, construction material, and the potential of the soil to
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per corrode metal and concrete.
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field Shrink-swellpotential is the potential for volume
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
the soil at 105 C. In this table, the estimated moist bulk minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
density of each major soil horizon is expressed in grams of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
per cubic centimeter of soil material that is less than 2 soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
millimeters in diameter. Bulk density data are used to content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
compute shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
total pore space, and other soil properties. The moist undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
bulk density of a soil indicates the pore space available swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
for water and roots. A bulk density of more than 1.6 can amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
restrict water storage and root penetration. Moist bulk measurements of similar soils.
density is influenced by texture, kind of clay, content of If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
organic matter, and soil structure, high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward often needed.
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
based on soil characteristics observed in the field, change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
is considered in the design of soil drainage systems, change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
septic tank absorption fields, and construction where the millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
rate of water movement under saturated conditions less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
affects behavior, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water is sometimes used.
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 61



factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) In table 14, the estimated content of organic matter of
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet the plow layer is expressed as a percentage, by weight,
and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in
are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and diameter.
organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure The content of organic matter of a soil can be
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69. maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
The higher the value the more susceptible the soil is to soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
sheet and rill erosion by water, infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum other nutrients for crops.
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
can occur without affecting crop productivity over a Soil and Water Features
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have Table 15 gives estimates of various soil and water
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind features. The estimates are used in land use planning
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the that involves engineering considerations.
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
distinctions: assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine according to the intake of water when the soils are
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops, thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to duration storms.
establish. The four hydrologic soil groups are:
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
erosion are used. gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy transmission.
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
control wind erosion are used. or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can transmission.
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
are used. thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
control wind erosion are used. Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
control wind erosion are used. These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and In table 15, some soils are assigned to two hydrologic
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, soil groups. Soils that have a seasonal high water table
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly but can be drained are assigned first to a hydrologic
erodible. Crops can easily be grown. group that denotes the drained condition and then to a
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay hydrologic group that denotes the undrained condition;
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate. for example, B/D. Because there are different degrees
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily of drainage and water table control, onsite investigation
be grown. is needed to determine the hydrolpgic group of the soil
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject in a particular location.
to wind erosion. Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
soil at various stages of decomposition. slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after






62 Soil Survey



rainfall is not considered flooding, nor is water in Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth
swamps and marshes. of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and
Table 15 gives the frequency and duration of flooding on observations during soil mapping. The rock is
and the time of year when flooding is most likely, specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence fractured, excavations can be made with trenching
are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, rare, machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard
common, occasional, and frequent. None means that or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is
flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but needed for excavation.
possible under unusual weather conditions; common that Cementedpans are cemented or indurated subsurface
it is likely under normal conditions; occasional that it layers within a depth of 5 feet. Such pans cause difficulty
occurs, on the average, no more than once in 2 years; in excavation. Pans are classified as thin or thick. A thin
and frequent that it occurs, on the average, more than pan is less than 3 inches thick if continuously indurated
once in 2 years. Duration is expressed as very brief if or less than 18 inches thick if discontinuous or fractured.
less than 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, and long if more Excavations can be made by trenching machines,
than 7 days. Probable dates are expressed in months; backhoes, or small rippers. A thick pan is more than 3
November-May, for example, means that flooding can inches thick if continuously indurated or more than 18
occur during the period November through May. inches thick if discontinuous or fractured. Such a pan is
The information is based on evidence in the soil so thick or massive that blasting or special equipment is
profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay needed in excavation.
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
distinctive horizons that form in soils that are not subject results from either desiccation and shrinkage or oxidation
to flooding, of organic material, or both, following drainage.
Also considered are local information about the extent Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on of several years. Table 15 shows the expected initial
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage.
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that Physical and Chemical Analyses of
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency Selected Soils
levels.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a Dr. F. Calhoun, Jr., Dr. R. E. Caldwell, and Dr. V. W. Carlisle, Soil
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a Science Department, University of Florida, prepared this section.
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The Particle-size distribution of eleven soil series is shown
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a in table 16, chemical properties of twelve soil series are
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the shown in table 17, and physical properties of eleven soil
soil. Indicated in table 15 are the depth to the seasonal shown in table 17, and physical properties of eleven soil
series are shown in table 18. These analyses were
high water table; the kind of water table-that is, series are shown in table 18. These analyses were
che, atesa r appta;end of wand tahe moths of the conducted and coordinated by the Soil Characterization
perched, artesian, or apparent; and the months of the
Laboratory, Soil Science Department, University of
year that the water table commonly is high. A water table L
year that the water table commonly is high. A water table Florida. Detailed descriptions of the soils, including their
that is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not
indicated in table 15. location, are given in the section "Soil Descriptions."
An arewater table is a thick zone of free water In addition to the data presented in tables 16, 17, and
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water 18, the results of laboratory analyses for other soils
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water 18, the results of laboratory analyses for other soils
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is identfied an the rroiles sampled in other
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. An counties) areon file in the Soil Science Department
artesian water table is under hydrostatic head, generally University of Florida. Data of this nature are useful in
beneath an impermeable layer. When this layer is classification, determination of potential productivity, and
penetrated, the water level rises in an uncased borehole. understanding the genesis of soils.
A perched water table is water standing above an
unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water Laboratory Methods
table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone. Most of the data were obtained using methods
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet outlined in Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 1 (6).
are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth Where such methods are mentioned in this section, the
indicates that the water table is above the surface of the symbols identifying the specific procedures in the report
soil. The first numeral in the range indicates how high are given.
the water rises above the surface. The second numeral Soil samples collected from carefully selected sites
indicates the depth below the surface. were air-dried, rolled or crushed, and sieved through a 2-






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 63


millimeter screen. Particle-size distribution data were values range from 1 to 10, and pipe life ranges
obtained by the hydrometer method after dispersion and accordingly from 20 to 2 years.
shaking with sodium hexametaphosphate (3). The sand Bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and
fractions were obtained by dry-sieving through a nest of water retention at 0.10 and 0.33 bar were measured on
sieves for at least 15 minutes and expressed on an 3.0 by 5.4 centimeter cylindrical (undisturbed) soil cores.
oven-dry weight basis. The percentage of silt was Water retention at 15-bar suction was determined on
determined by difference. disturbed or loose soil samples by procedure 4B2.
Measurements of soil reaction (pH) were made by Water retention difference was calculated using
procedure 8C1 of Soil Survey Investigations Report No. procedures 4C1 and 4C2. For sandy soils, 1/10 bar was
1 using a glass electrode. Extractable bases were used; and for organic soils, 1/3 bar. Water retention
obtained by leaching a soil sample with ammonium difference is considered by many to closely approximate
acetate buffered at pH 7.0 as outlined in procedure 581. available water capacity.
These cations were then determined separately using a
Beckman DU flame spectrophotometer. Titratable acidity,
which is roughly equivalent to the exchangeable acidity Engineering Index Test Data
of procedure 6H2a (6), was determined by potentiometric r iri r
titrations with 0.05N barium hydroxide using a Sargent Table 19 presents engineering test data for some of
Model D Recording Titrator after immersing 10 grams of the major soil series in the survey area. These tests
soil in 50 milliliters of neutral 1N KCI (10). Cation were made to help evaluate the soils for engineering
exchange capacity was calculated by summing the purposes. The engineering classifications given are
exchangeable bases and titratable acidity. Base based on data obtained by mechanical analyses and by
saturation was derived by dividing the sum of tests to determine liquid limits and plastic limits. The
exchangeable bases by the cation exchange capacity mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve and
and then multiplying by 100. hydrometer methods.
Organic matter was determined by a modification of Moisture-density (or compaction) data are important in
the Walkley-Black wet combustion method as outlined in earthwork. If a soil material is compacted at successively
procedure 6Ala. Total nitrogen was obtained by the higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive
semi-micro Kjeldahl method as shown in procedure effort remains constant, the density of the compacted
6B2a. material increases until the maximum dry density is
Resistivity (ohms/cm) or an "R" value was obtained reached. After that, density decreases with increase in
using a Model 100 Corrosion Tester. The corrosion moisture content. The moisture content at the point of
potential or a "C" value that was obtained from the maximum dry density is termed the optimum moisture
manufacturer's tables is directly related to the "R" value, content. As a rule, maximum strength of earthwork is
The smaller the "C" value, the less the corrosion and obtained if the soil is compacted to the maximum dry
the greater the expectancy of pipe life. Generally, C density.









65








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (7). Beginning Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
with the broadest, these categories are the order, typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series, necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
field or inferred from those observations or from Extragrades have some properties that are not
laboratory measurements. Table 20 shows the representative of the great group but do not indicate
classification of the soils in the survey area. The transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
forming processes and the degree of soil formation, group. An example is Typic Haplaquents.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
example is Entisol. the basis of physical and chemical properties and other
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil properties are those of horizons below plow depth where
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties there is much biological activity. Among the properties
that reflect the most important variables within the and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
water, plus ent, from Entisol). permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, properties. An example is fine-loamy, mixed, nonacid,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic mesic Typic Haplaquents.
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
base status. Each great group is identified by the name horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
the soil. An example is Haplaquents (Hapl, meaning chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
minimal horizonation, plus aquent, the suborder of the The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
Entisols that have an aquic moisture regime). differ within a series.









67








Formation of the Soils


This section describes the factors affecting soil are Hallandale soils that are sandy and shallow and
formation and morphology of the soils of the survey extend into the porous limestone in solution holes. In
area. It also describes the processes of soil formation, other places, such as the area around Andytown, there
is a thin layer of organic material over limestone that
Factors of Soil Formation gives rise to the Dania soils.
Soil is formed by weathering and other processes that Climate
act on the parent material. The characteristics of the
soil, at any given point, are determined by parent The survey area has a tropical climate near the coast
material, climate, plants and animals, relief, and time. and a subtropical climate west of the coastal area. The
Climate and plants and animals are the active forces relatively high year-round temperature and large amount
of soil formation. They act on the parent material that of rainfall have hastened soil development. Because the
has accumulated through the weathering of rocks and abundant rainfall continuously leaches and translocates
s soluble minerals, the soils contain only small amounts of
slowly change it into soil. All five factors come into play soluble minerals, the soils contain only small amounts of
in the formation of every soil. The relative importance of organic matter and soluble plant nutrients. Only the soils
each differs from place to place; sometimes one is more that were once covered with organic material have fairly
important and sometimes another. In extreme cases one high amounts of organic material in the surface layer.
factor may dominate in the formation of a soil and fix Although the climate changes from tropical to humid
most of it properties. In general, however, it is the subtropical, this has caused few differences among the
combined action of the five factors that determines the soils.
present character of each soil. Plants and Animals
Plants and Animals
Parent Material Plants have been the principal biological factor in the
Parent material is the unconsolidated mass from which formation of soils in the area, but animals, insects,
a soil is formed. It determines the limits of the chemical bacteria, and fungi also have been important. Two of the
and mineralogical composition of the soil. All of the soils chief functions of plant and animal life are to furnish
in the survey area formed in material of Pleistocene or organic matter and to bring plant nutrients from the lower
Recent ages. Slightly over 75 percent of the area is to the upper horizons. Differences in the amount of
covered by the Pamlico Terrace, and the rest by organic organic matter, nitrogen, and plant nutrients in the soils
material of Recent age (4). and differences in soil structure and porosity are among
The Pamlico Terrace consists mostly of sand and those caused by plants and animals.
ranges from less than 1 foot to about 8 feet or more in R f
thickness. Near the Executive Airport, the Pamlico Relief
Terrace is made up of thick deposits of sand that give Relief has affected the formation of soils in the area,
rise to the Paola soils. primarily through its influence on soil-water relationships.
The survey area is generally underlain by the Miami Other factors of soil formation normally associated with
Oolite Formation, a porous limestone formed from small relief, such as erosion, temperature, and plant cover, are
spherules of carbonate of lime. To the north, the oolite of minor importance.
merges laterally into the Anastasia Formation (a The survey area is a nearly level plain with an
coquinoid limestone, sand, and clay) near the Hillsboro elevation of 2 to 10 feet except.for several ridges which
Canal. The northern part of the Everglades in the survey are slightly higher. It comprises three general types of
area is underlain by the Fort Thompson Formation (a areas-flatwoods; wet, grassy flats or Everglades; and
shell hash of alternating marine- and fresh-water coastal ridges. Differences in the soils of these general
mollusks, clay, and sand) that grades into the Miami areas are directly related to differences in relief.
Oolite in the southern part. The soils in the flatwoods area have a higher water
Near the conservation area the Pamlico Terrace is thin table and are periodically wet to the surface. These soils,
over the Miami Oolite limestone. Common in this area therefore, are not so highly leached as some on the






67








Formation of the Soils


This section describes the factors affecting soil are Hallandale soils that are sandy and shallow and
formation and morphology of the soils of the survey extend into the porous limestone in solution holes. In
area. It also describes the processes of soil formation, other places, such as the area around Andytown, there
is a thin layer of organic material over limestone that
Factors of Soil Formation gives rise to the Dania soils.
Soil is formed by weathering and other processes that Climate
act on the parent material. The characteristics of the
soil, at any given point, are determined by parent The survey area has a tropical climate near the coast
material, climate, plants and animals, relief, and time. and a subtropical climate west of the coastal area. The
Climate and plants and animals are the active forces relatively high year-round temperature and large amount
of soil formation. They act on the parent material that of rainfall have hastened soil development. Because the
has accumulated through the weathering of rocks and abundant rainfall continuously leaches and translocates
s soluble minerals, the soils contain only small amounts of
slowly change it into soil. All five factors come into play soluble minerals, the soils contain only small amounts of
in the formation of every soil. The relative importance of organic matter and soluble plant nutrients. Only the soils
each differs from place to place; sometimes one is more that were once covered with organic material have fairly
important and sometimes another. In extreme cases one high amounts of organic material in the surface layer.
factor may dominate in the formation of a soil and fix Although the climate changes from tropical to humid
most of it properties. In general, however, it is the subtropical, this has caused few differences among the
combined action of the five factors that determines the soils.
present character of each soil. Plants and Animals
Plants and Animals
Parent Material Plants have been the principal biological factor in the
Parent material is the unconsolidated mass from which formation of soils in the area, but animals, insects,
a soil is formed. It determines the limits of the chemical bacteria, and fungi also have been important. Two of the
and mineralogical composition of the soil. All of the soils chief functions of plant and animal life are to furnish
in the survey area formed in material of Pleistocene or organic matter and to bring plant nutrients from the lower
Recent ages. Slightly over 75 percent of the area is to the upper horizons. Differences in the amount of
covered by the Pamlico Terrace, and the rest by organic organic matter, nitrogen, and plant nutrients in the soils
material of Recent age (4). and differences in soil structure and porosity are among
The Pamlico Terrace consists mostly of sand and those caused by plants and animals.
ranges from less than 1 foot to about 8 feet or more in R f
thickness. Near the Executive Airport, the Pamlico Relief
Terrace is made up of thick deposits of sand that give Relief has affected the formation of soils in the area,
rise to the Paola soils. primarily through its influence on soil-water relationships.
The survey area is generally underlain by the Miami Other factors of soil formation normally associated with
Oolite Formation, a porous limestone formed from small relief, such as erosion, temperature, and plant cover, are
spherules of carbonate of lime. To the north, the oolite of minor importance.
merges laterally into the Anastasia Formation (a The survey area is a nearly level plain with an
coquinoid limestone, sand, and clay) near the Hillsboro elevation of 2 to 10 feet except.for several ridges which
Canal. The northern part of the Everglades in the survey are slightly higher. It comprises three general types of
area is underlain by the Fort Thompson Formation (a areas-flatwoods; wet, grassy flats or Everglades; and
shell hash of alternating marine- and fresh-water coastal ridges. Differences in the soils of these general
mollusks, clay, and sand) that grades into the Miami areas are directly related to differences in relief.
Oolite in the southern part. The soils in the flatwoods area have a higher water
Near the conservation area the Pamlico Terrace is thin table and are periodically wet to the surface. These soils,
over the Miami Oolite limestone. Common in this area therefore, are not so highly leached as some on the






68



coastal ridges. The soils in the Everglades or wet, grassy place through the process of weathering. An example is
flats are covered with water for long periods and have a the Boca soils. A distinct genetic horizon, such as the
high content of organic matter on the surface. The soils spodic horizon, has formed in the Immokalee and
on the coastal ridges are at higher elevations than those Pomello soils; however, the time required for its
of the flatwoods or Everglades areas, are mostly development is relatively short.
excessively drained or well drained, and are not
influenced by a ground-water table. Processes of Soil Formation

Time The main processes involved in the formation of soil
Time is an important factor in the formation of soils. horizons are accumulation of organic matter, leaching of
Normally, a long time is required for formation of soils calcium carbonate and bases, reduction and transfer of
that have distinct horizons. The difference in length of iron, and formation and translocation of silicate clay
time that parent materials have been in place commonly minerals. These processes can occur in combination or
is reflected in the degree of development of the soil. singly, depending on the integration of the factors of soil
Some basic minerals from which soils are formed formation.
weather fairly rapidly, but other minerals change slowly Some organic matter has accumulated in the upper
even though weathering has taken place over a long layers of most of the soils to form an Al horizon. The
period. The translocation of fine particles within soils to quantity of organic matter is small in some of the soils
form the various horizons varies under different but fairly large in others. Leaching of carbonates and
conditions. All of the soil forming processes, however, salts has occurred in nearly all of the soils. The effects
require a relatively long period. Almost pure quartz sand of leaching have been indirect, in that the leaching
that is highly resistant to weathering is the dominant permitted the subsequent translocation of silicate clay
geologic material in the survey area. Only one soil in the materials in some soils. Most of the soils of the county
area contains enough fine-textured material to be are leached to varying degrees.
classified in a loamy family rather than a sandy or The reduction and transfer of iron has occurred in
coarse-silty family. The organic soils of the Everglades most of the soils of the survey area but not in the
were formed by decayed organic material that built up organic soils. In some of the wet soils, iron has been
over the years in shallow water, segregated within the deeper horizons to form reddish
In terms of geologic time, the soil material that makes brown mottles and concretions.
up most of the soils of the area is young. Not enough In the Boca soil, evidence of weathering and clay
time has elapsed since the material was laid down or movement, or alteration, is present in the form of a light
emerged from the sea for pronounced genetic horizons colored, leached A2 horizon and a loamy Bt horizon that
to develop. Some thin, loamy horizons have formed in has sand grains coated and bridged with clay material.






69








References


(1) American Association of State Highway [and (6) United States Department of Agriculture. 1972. Soil
Transportation] Officials. 1970. Standard survey laboratory methods and procedures for
specifications for highway materials and methods of collecting soil samples. Soil Surv. Invest. Rep. 1, 63
sampling and testing. Ed. 10, 2 vols., illus. pp., illus.

(2) American Society for Testing and Materials. 1974. (7) United States Department of Agriculture. 1975. Soil
Method for classification of soils for engineering taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for
purposes. ASTM Standards, pt. 19, 464 pp., illus. making and interpreting soil surveys. Soil Conserv.
Serv., U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 436, 754 pp., illus.
(3) Bouyoucos, G. J. 1962. Hydrometer method
improved for making particle size analyses of soils. (8) United States Department of Agriculture, Soil
Agron. J. 54: 464-465. Conservation Service. 1976. Soil survey of Broward
County Area, Florida. 47 pp., illus., tables, maps.
(4) Cooke, C. Wythe. 1945. Geology of Florida. Fla.
State Dep. Conserv. & Fla. Geol. Surv. Geol. Bull. (9) Weidling, Philip, and August Burghard. 1966.
29, 339 pp., illus. Checkered sunshine: the story of Fort Lauderdale,
1793-1955. Gainesville: Univ. Fla. Press, 296 pp.,
(5) United States Department of Agriculture. 1951. Soil illus.
survey manual. U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 18, 503 pp., (10) Zelazny, L. W., and J. G. A. Fiskell. 1972. Acidic
illus. [Supplements replacing pp. 173-188 issued properties of some Florida soils II. Exchangeable
May 1962.] and titratable acidity. Soil & Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc.
31: 149-154.










71









Glossary


Association, soil. A group of soils geographically diameter; if flat, mineral or rock particles (flagstone)
associated in a characteristic repeating pattern and 15 to 38 centimeters (6 to 15 inches) long.
defined and delineated as a single map unit. Coarse textured soil. Sand or loamy sand.
Available water capacity (available moisture Complex, soil. A map unit of two or more kinds of soil in
capacity). The capacity of soils to hold water such an intricate pattern or so small in area that it is
available for use by most plants. It is commonly not practical to map them separately at the selected
defined as the difference between the amount of scale of mapping. The pattern and proportion of the
soil water at field moisture capacity and the amount soils are somewhat similar in all areas.
at wilting point. It is commonly expressed as inches Consistence, soil. The feel of the soil and the ease with
of water per inch of soil. The capacity, in inches, in which a lump can be crushed by the fingers. Terms
a 60-inch profile or to a limiting layer is expressed commonly used to describe consistence are-
as- Loose.-Noncoherent when dry or moist; does not
Inches hold together in a mass.
Very low...........................................................o to 3 Friable.- W hen moist, crushes easily under gentle
Low........................................... .............. 3 to 6 pressure between thumb and forefinger and can be
Medium............................... 6 to 9 pressed together into a lump.
High....................... ........................................... to 12 Firm.- W hen moist, crushes under moderate
Very high................................................... more than 12 pressure between thumb and forefinger, but
Base saturation. The degree to which material having resistance is distinctly noticeable.
cation exchange properties is saturated with Plastic.-When wet, readily deformed by moderate
exchangeable bases (sum of Ca, Mg, Na, K), pressure but can be pressed into a lump; will form a
expressed as a percentage of the total cation "wire" when rolled between thumb and forefinger.
exchange capacity. Sticky.-When wet, adheres to other material and
Bedrock. The solid rock that underlies the soil and other tends to stretch somewhat and pull apart rather than
unconsolidated material or that is exposed at the to pull free from other material.
surface. Hard.-When dry, moderately resistant to pressure;
Calcareous soil. A soil containing enough calcium can be broken with difficulty between thumb and
carbonate (commonly combined with magnesium forefinger.
carbonate) to effervesce visibly when treated with Soft.-When dry, breaks into powder or individual
cold, dilute hydrochloric acid. grains under very slight pressure.
Cation. An ion carrying a positive charge of electricity. Cemented.-Hard; little affected by moistening.
The common soil cations are calcium, potassium, Control section. The part of the soil on which
magnesium, sodium, and hydrogen, classification is based. The thickness varies among
Cation-exchange capacity. The total amount of different kinds of soil, but for many it is that part of
exchangeable cations that can be held by the soil, the soil profile between depths of 10 inches and 40
expressed in terms of milliequivalents per 100 grams or 80 inches.
of soil at neutrality (pH 7.0) or at some other stated Corrosive. High risk of corrosion to uncoated steel or
pH value. The term, as applied to soils, is deterioration of concrete.
synonymous with base-exchange capacity, but is Cutbanks cave (in tables). The walls of excavations
more precise in meaning, tend to cave in or slough.
Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less Depth to rock (in tables). Bedrock is too near the
than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural surface for the specified use.
class, soil material that is 40 percent or more clay, Drainage class (natural). Refers to the frequency and
less than 45 percent sand, and less than 40 percent duration of periods of saturation or partial saturation
silt. during soil formation, as opposed to altered
Coarse fragments. If round, mineral or rock particles 2 drainage, which is commonly the result of artificial
millimeters to 25 centimeters (10 inches) in drainage or irrigation but may be caused by the







72 Soil Survey



sudden deepening of channels or the blocking of continuous, they can have moderate or high slope
drainage outlets. Seven classes of natural soil gradients.
drainage are recognized: Drainage, surface. Runoff, or surface flow of water,
Excessively drained.-Water is removed from the from an area.
soil very rapidly. Excessively drained soils are Erosion. The wearing away of the land surface by water,
commonly very coarse textured, rocky, or shallow, wind, ice, or other geologic agents and by such
Some are steep. All are free of the mottling related processes as gravitational creep.
to wetness. Erosion (geologic). Erosion caused by geologic
Somewhat excessively drained-Water is removed processes acting over long geologic periods and
from the soil rapidly. Many somewhat excessively resulting in the wearing away of mountains and the
drained soils are sandy and rapidly pervious. Some building up of such landscape features as flood
are shallow. Some are so steep that much of the plains and coastal plains. Synonym: natural erosion.
water they receive is lost as runoff. All are free of Erosion (accelerated). Erosion much more rapid
the mottling related to wetness. than geologic erosion, mainly as a result of the
Well drained.-Water is removed from the soil activities of man or other animals or of a
readily, but not rapidly. It is available to plants catastrophe in nature, for example, fire, that
throughout most of the growing season, and exposes the surface.
wetness does not inhibit growth of roots for Excess fines (in tables). Excess silt and clay in the soil.
significant periods during most growing seasons. The soil is not a source of gravel or sand for
Well drained soils are commonly medium textured. construction purposes.
They are mainly free of mottling. Fast intake (in tables). The rapid movement of water
Moderately well drained.-Water is removed from into the soil.
the soil somewhat slowly during some periods. Fertility, soil. The quality that enables a soil to provide
Moderately well drained soils are wet for only a plant nutrients, in adequate amounts and in proper
short time during the growing season, but balance, for the growth of specified plants when
periodically they are wet long enough that most light, moisture, temperature, tilth, and other growth
mesophytic crops are affected. They commonly factors are favorable.
have a slowly pervious layer within or directly below
the solum, or periodically receive high rainfall, or Gleyed soil. Soil that formed under poor drainage,
both. resulting in the reduction of iron and other elements
Somewhat poorly drained.-Water is removed slowly in the profile and in gray colors and mottles.
enough that the soil is wet for significant periods Grassed waterway. A natural or constructed waterway,
during the growing season. Wetness markedly typically broad and shallow, seeded to grass as
restricts the growth of mesophytic crops unless protection against erosion. Conducts surface water
artificial drainage is provided. Somewhat poorly away from cropland.
drained soils commonly have a slowly pervious Ground water (geology). Water filling all the unblocked
layer, a high water table, additional water from pores of underlying material below the water table.
seepage, nearly continuous rainfall, or a combination Hardpan. A hardened or cemented soil horizon, or layer.
of these. The soil material is sandy, loamy, or clayey and is
Poorly drained.-Water is removed so slowly that cemented by iron oxide, silica, calcium carbonate, or
the soil is saturated periodically during the growing other substance.
season or remains *et for long periods. Free water Horizon, soil. A layer of soil, approximately parallel to
is commonly at or near the surface for long enough the surface, having distinct characteristics produced
during the growing season that most mesophytic by soil-forming processes. In the identification of soil
crops cannot be grown unless the soil is artificially horizons, an upper case letter represents the major
drained. The soil is not continuously saturated in horizons. Numbers or lower case letters that follow
layers directly below plow depth. Poor drainage represent subdivisions of the major horizons. An
results from a high water table, a slowly pervious explanation of the subdivisions is given in the Soil
layer within the profile, seepage, nearly continuous Survey Manual. The major horizons of mineral soil
rainfall, or a combination of these. are as follows:
Very poorly drained.-Water is removed from the 0 horizon.-An organic layer of fresh and decaying
soil so slowly that free water remains at or on the plant residue at the surface of a mineral soil.
surface during most of the growing season. Unless A orA 1 horizon.-The mineral horizon at or near the
the soil is artificially drained, most mesophytic crops surface in which an accumulation of humified
cannot be grown. Very poorly drained soils are organic matter is mixed with the mineral material.
commonly level or depressed and are frequently Also, a plowed surface horizon, most of which was
ponded. Yet, where rainfall is high and nearly originally part of a B horizon.






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 73



A2 horizon.-The mineral horizon in which the main limited by the infiltration capacity of the soil or the
feature is loss of silicate clay, iron, aluminum, or rate at which water is applied at the surface.
some combination of these. Irrigation. Application of water to soils to assist in
B horizon.-The mineral horizon below an A horizon, production of crops. Methods of irrigation are-
The B horizon is in part a layer of transition from the Border.-Water is applied at the upper end of a strip
overlying horizon to the underlying C horizon. The B in which the lateral flow of water is controlled by
horizon also has distinctive characteristics such as small earth ridges called border dikes, or borders.
(1) accumulation of clay, sesquioxides, humus, or a Basin.-Water is applied rapidly to nearly level
combination of these; (2) prismatic or blocky plains surrounded by levees or dikes.
structure; (3) redder or browner colors than those in Controlled flooding.-Water is released at intervals
the A horizon; or (4) a combination of these. The from closely spaced field ditches and distributed
combined A and B horizons are generally called the uniformly over the field.
solum, or true soil. If a soil does not have a B Corrugation.-Water is applied to small, closely
horizon, the A horizon alone is the solum. spaced furrows or ditches in fields of close-growing
C horizon.-The mineral horizon or layer, excluding crops or in orchards so that it flows in only one
indurated bedrock, that is little affected by soil- direction.
forming processes and does not have the properties Drip (or trickle).-Water is applied slowly and under
typical of the A or B horizon. The material of a C low pressure to the surface of the soil or into the
horizon may be either like or unlike that in which the soil through such applicators as emitters, porous
solum formed. If the material is known to differ from tubing, or perforated pipe.
that in the solum, a Roman numeral precedes the Furrow.-Water is applied in small ditches made by
letter C. cultivation implements. Furrows are used for tree
R layer.-Consolidated rock beneath the soil. The and row crops.
rock commonly underlies a C horizon, but can be Sprinkler.-Water is sprayed over the soil surface
directly below an A or a B horizon. through pipes or nozzles from a pressure system.
Humus. The well decomposed, more or less stable part Subirrigation.-Water is applied in open ditches or
of the organic matter in mineral soils. tile lines until the water table is raised enough to wet
the soil.
Hydrologic soil groups. Refers to soils grouped Wild fooding.-Water, released at high points, is
according to their runoff-producing characteristics. allowed to flow onto an area without controlled
The chief consideration is the inherent capacity of distribution.
soil bare of vegetation to permit infiltration. The Large stones (in tables). Rock fragments 3 inches (7.5
slope and the kind of plant cover are not considered centimeters) or more across. Large stones adversely
but are separate factors in predicting runoff. Soils affect the specified use of the soil.
are assigned to four groups. In group A are soils Leaching. The removal of soluble material from soil or
having a high infiltration rate when thoroughly wet other material by percolating water.
and having a low runoff potential. They are mainly Liquid limit. The moisture content at which the soil
deep, well drained, and sandy or gravelly. In group passes from a plastic to a liquid state.
D, at the other extreme, are soils having a very slow Loam. Soil material that is 7 to 27 percent clay particles,
infiltration rate and thus a high runoff potential. They 28 to 50 percent silt particles, and less than 52
have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, percent sand particles.
have a permanent high water table, or are shallow Low strength. The soil is not strong enough to support
over nearly impervious bedrock or other material. A loads.
soil is assigned to two hydrologic groups if part of Marl. An unconsolidated mineral material deposited in
the acreage is artificially drained and part is marine or fresh water. It consists chiefly of silt- and
undrained. clay-size particles of calcium carbonate.
Illuviation. The movement of soil material from one Medium textured soil. Very fine sandy loam, loam, silt
horizon to.another in the soil profile. Generally, loam, or silt.
material is removed from an upper horizon and Mineral soil. Soil that is mainly mineral material and low
deposited in a lower horizon. in organic material. Its bulk density is more than that
Infiltration. The downward entry of water into the of organic soil.
immediate surface of soil or other material, as Miscellaneous area. An area that has little or no natural
contrasted with percolation, which is movement of soil and supports little or no vegetation.
water through soil layers or material. Moderately coarse textured soil. Sandy loam and fine
Infiltration rate. The rate at which water penetrates the sandy loam.
surface of the soil at any given instant, usually Moderately fine textured soil. Clay loam, sandy clay
expressed in inches per hour. The rate can be loam, and silty clay loam.






74 Soil Survey



Morphology, soil. The physical makeup of the soil, Rapid.................................................. 6.0 to 20 inches
including the texture, structure, porosity, Very rapid................................... more than 20 inches
consistence, color, and other physical, mineral, and Phase, soil. A subdivision of a soil series based on
biological properties of the various horizons, and the features that affect its use and management. For
thickness and arrangement of those horizons in the example, slope, stoniness, and thickness.
soil profile. pH value. A numerical designation of acidity and
Mottling, soil. Irregular spots of different colors that vary alkalinity in soil. (See Reaction, soil.)
in number and size. Mottling generally indicates poor Piping (in tables). Formation of subsurface tunnels or
aeration and impeded drainage. Descriptive terms pipelike cavities by water moving through the soil.
are as follows: abundance-few, common, and Plasticity index. The numerical difference between the
many, size-fine, medium, and coarse; and liquid limit and the plastic limit; the range of moisture
contrast-faint, distinct, and prominent. The size content within which the soil remains plastic.
measurements are of the diameter along the Plastic limit. The moisture content at which a soil
greatest dimension. Fine indicates less than 5 changes from semisolid to plastic.
millimeters (about 0.2 inch); medium, from 5 to 15 Ponding. Standing water on soils in closed depressions.
millimeters (about 0.2 to 0.6 inch); and coarse, more Unless the soils are artificially drained, the water can
than 15 millimeters (about 0.6 inch). be removed only by percolation or
Muck. Dark colored, finely divided, well decomposed evapotranspiration.
organic soil material. (See Sapric soil material.) Poorly graded. Refers to a coarse grained soil or soil
Munsell notation. A designation of color by degrees of material consisting mainly of particles of nearly the
the three simple variables-hue, value, and chroma. same size. Because there is little difference in size
For example, a notation of 10YR 6/4 is a color of of the particles, density can be increased only
10YR hue, value of 6, and chroma of 4. slightly by compaction.
Neutral soil. A soil having a pH value between 6.6 and Poor outlets (in tables). Refers to areas where surface
7.3. (See Reaction, soil.) or subsurface drainage outlets are difficult or
Nutrient, plant. Any element taken in by a plant expensive to install.
essential to its growth. Plant nutrients are mainly Productivity, soil. The capability of a soil for producing
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, a specified plant or sequence of plants under
magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, copper, boron, specific management.
and zinc obtained from the soil and carbon, Profile, soil. A vertical section of the soil extending
hydrogen, and oxygen obtained from the air and through all its horizons and into the parent material.
water. Reaction, soil. A measure of acidity or alkalinity of a
Open space. A relatively undeveloped green or wooded soil, expressed in pH values. A soil that tests to pH
area provided mainly within an urban area to 7.0 is described as precisely neutral in reaction
minimize feelings of congested living, because it is neither acid nor alkaline. The degree of
Organic matter. Plant and animal residue in the soil in acidity or alkalinity is expressed as-
various stages of decomposition. pH
Parent material. The unconsolidated organic and Extremely acid.........................................below 4.5
mineral material in which soil forms. ery strongly acid...................................... 4.5 to 5.0
mineral material in which soil forms. Strongly acid .......... ...... ..... 5.1 to 5.5
Pedon. The smallest volume that can be called "a soil." Medium acid.............................................. 5.6 to 6.0
A pedon is three dimensional and large enough to Slightly acid....................................... 6.1 to 6.5
permit study of all horizons. Its area ranges from Neutral...... ....................................6.6 to 7.3
about 10 to 100 square feet (1 square meter to 10 Mildly alkaline ......................................... 74 to 7.8
square meters), depending on the variability of the Strongderately alkaline.................................7.9 to 9.0
Strongly alkaline ............................................... 8.5 to 9.0
soil. Very strongly alkaline...................... ..... 9.1 and higher
Percolation. The downward movement of water through Relief. The elevations or inequalities of a land surface,
the soil. considered collectively.
Permeability. The quality of the soil that.enables water Rippable. Bedrock or hardpan can be excavated using a
to move downward through the profile. Permeability single-tooth ripping attachment mounted on a tractor
is measured as the number of inches per hour that with a 200-300 draw bar horsepower rating.
water moves downward through the saturated soil. Root zone. The part of the soil thqt can be penetrated
Terms describing permeability are: by plant roots.
Very slow.................................... less than 0.06 inch Runoff. The precipitation discharged into stream
Slow.................................... 0.06 to 0.2 inch h re an dare it ta
Moderately slow .......................................0.2 to 0.6 inch channels from an area. The water that flows off the
Moderate...................................0.6 inch to 2.0 inches surface of the land without sinking into the soil is
Moderately rapid..................................2. to 6.0 inches called surface runoff. Water that enters the soil






Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 75



before reaching surface streams is called ground- Fine sand.................................................. .25 to 0.10
water runoff or seepage flow from ground water. Very fine sand.............................................. 0.10 to 0.05
Salty water in tables). W after that is too salty for Silt................................................ ...... 0.05 to 0.002
Salty water (in tables). Water that is too salty for Clay.............. ........................ ............. ess than 0.002
consumption by livestock.
Sand. As a soil separate, individual rock or mineral Solum. The upper part of a soil profile, above the C
fragments from 0.05 millimeter to 2.0 millimeters in horizon, in which the processes of soil formation are
diameter. Most sand grains consist of quartz. As a active. The solum in soil consists of the A and B
soil textural class, a soil that is 85 percent or more horizons. Generally, the characteristics of the
sand and not more than 10 percent clay. material in these horizons are unlike those of the
Sapric soil material (muck). The most highly underlying material. The living roots and plant and
decomposed of all organic soil material. Muck has animal activities are largely confined to the solum.
the least amount of plant fiber, the highest bulk Structure, soil. The arrangement of primary soil
density, and the lowest water content at saturation particles into compound particles or aggregates. The
of all organic soil material, principal forms of soil structure are-platy
Seepage (in tables). The movement of water through the (laminated), prismatic (vertical axis of aggregates
soil. Seepage adversely affects the specified use. longer than horizontal), columnar (prisms with
Series, soil. A group of soils that have profiles that are rounded tops), blocky (angular or subangular), and
almost alike, except for differences in texture of the granular. Structureless soils are either single grained
surface layer or of the underlying material. All the (each grain by itself, as in dune sand) or massive
soils of a series have horizons that are similar in (the particles adhering without any regular cleavage,
composition, thickness, and arrangement. as in many hardpans).
Shrink-swell. The shrinking of soil when dry and the Subsoil. Technically, the B horizon; roughly, the part of
swelling when wet. Shrinking and swelling can the solum below plow depth.
damage roads, dams, building foundations, and Substratum. The part of the soil below the solum.
other structures. It can also damage plant roots. Subsurface layer. Technically, the A2 horizon. Generally
Silica. A combination of silicon and oxygen. The mineral refers to a leached horizon lighter in color and lower
form is called quartz. in content of organic matter than the overlying
Silt. As a soil separate, individual mineral particles that surface layer.
range in diameter from the upper limit of clay (0.002 Surface layer. The soil ordinarily moved in tillage, or its
millimeter) to the lower limit of very fine sand (0.05 equivalent in uncultivated soil, ranging in depth from
millimeter). As a soil textural class, soil that is 80 4 to 10 inches (10 to 25 centimeters). Frequently
percent or more silt and less than 12 percent clay. designated as the "plow layer," or the "Ap horizon."
Sinkhole. A depression in the landscape where Texture, soil. The relative proportions of sand, silt, and
limestone has been dissolved. clay particles in a mass of soil. The basic textural
Slope. The inclination of the land surface from the classes, in order of increasing proportion of fine
horizontal. Percentage of slope is the vertical particles, are sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, loam,
distance divided by horizontal distance, then silt loam, silt, sandy clay loam, clay loam, silty clay
multiplied by 100. Thus, a slope of 20 percent is a loam, sandy clay, silty clay, and clay. The sand,
drop of 20 feet in 100 feet of horizontal distance. loamy sand, and sandy loam classes may be further
Small stones (in tables). Rock fragments less than 3 divided by specifying "coarse," "fine," or "very
inches (7.5 centimeters) in diameter. Small stones fine."
adversely affect the specified use of the soil. Thin layer (in tables). Otherwise suitable soil material
Soil. A natural, three-dimensional body at the earth's too thin for the specified use.
surface. It is capable of supporting plants and has Topsoil. The upper part of the soil, which is the most
properties resulting from the integrated effect of favorable material for plant growth. It is ordinarily
climate and living matter acting on earthy parent rich in organic matter and is used to topdress
material, as conditioned by relief over periods of roadbanks, lawns, and land affected by mining.
time. Trace elements. Chemical elements, for example, zinc,
Soil separates. Mineral particles less than 2 millimeters cobalt, manganese, copper, and iron, are in soils in
in equivalent diameter and ranging between extremely small amounts. They are essential to plant
specified size limits. The names and sizes of growth.
separates recognized in the United States are as Unstable fill (in tables). Risk of caving or sloughing on
follows: banks of fill material.
Miime- Water table. The upper limit of the soil that is wholly
ters saturated with water.
Very coarse sand............................................. 2.0 to 1.0 saturated with water.
Coarse sand................................................. 1.0 to 0.5 Apparent water table. A thick zone of free water in
Medium sand.............................................. 0.5 to 0.25 the soil. An apparent water table is indicated by the






76



level at which water stands in an uncased borehole Well graded. Refers to soil material consisting of coarse
after adequate time is allowed for adjustment in the grained particles that are well distributed over a wide
surrounding soil. range in size or diameter. Such soil normally can be
Perched water table. A water table standing above easily increased in density and bearing properties by
an unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or compaction. Contrasts with poorly graded soil.
perched, water table is separated by a lower one by Wetness (in tables). Soil is wet during the period of use.
a dry zone. Wilting point (or permanent wilting point). The
Weathering. All physical and chemical changes moisture content of soil, on an ovendry basis, at
produced in rocks or other deposits at or near the which a plant (specifically sunflower) wilts so much
earth's surface by atmospheric agents. These that it does not recover when placed in a humid,
changes result in disintegration and decomposition dark chamber.
of the material.




































\








Tables







78 Soil Survey



TABLE 1.--TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION
[Recorded in the period 1962-71 at Fort Lauderdale Experiment Station]


Temperature Precipitation
I I I T I T I
2 years in 10 1 year IAverage number
will have at least in 10 I of days kith
4 days with-- Iwill have--I rainfall of--
Month AveragelAveragel I Average __ _
daily I daily I Maximum I Minimum Imonthly I I I I Pan
I maxi- I mini- I tempera- I tempera- Itotal I I I I levapora-
Imum mum Iture equallture equal I Less I More 10.10 inchl0.50 inchl tion
I I I to or I to or I than--Ithan--I or more Ior more I
I I I higher lower I I I I I I
I I I than-- I than-- I
I I I I I I I I
I UF IF F OF I n In I In In
January---I 75.4 I 55.0 84 37 2.11 I 0.66 I 3.671 5 2 I 3.71
February--I 75.7 54.6 I 85 43 3.14 0.10 5.781 4 2 4.11
March-----I 78.8 I 58.7 I 88 44 2.56 0.19 11.671 3 2 I 5.81
April-----I 83.4 I 63.4 I 91 53 1.68 I 0.03 I 5.581 2 1 1 7.08
May------- 85.9 I 67.2 I 91 57 6.73 1 0.11 15.221 7 3 7.81
June------I 88.0 70.9 92 66 11.11 5.05 21.181 12 7 6.58
1I I I I I I I I
July------I 90.5 I 72.9 I 95 68 6.01 3.20 I 9.111 11 I 4 7.36
1I I I I I I I I
August----I 90.8 I 72.9 I 94 69 I 7.04 4.41 9.011 10 5 7.07
September-i 88.9 I 72.4 I 92 69 7.06 3.03 I 10.681 12 5 5.87
October---I 85.4 I 68.3 I 90 60 9.16 2.96 14.291 10 4 5.42
November--I 79.5 I 60.3 I 84 45 2.10 0.28 3.371 4 1 4.27
I I I I I 1 I I I I
December--I 76.6 I 55.6 I 84 40 1.39 0.11 4.301 2 I 1 3.78

I I I I I I I I I I






TABLE 2.--COMPARISON OF WEATHER RECORDS IN BROWARD COUNTY w

T ___ I F I
Average number of days
Average Average number of Average number of each year with o
Station annual days each year days each year Average rainfall of--
temperature with temperature with temperature annual
of 900 F or more of 320 F or less precipitation
II I Ii
0.10 inch 0.50 inch .
or more I or more C

In m
I I I I I I

Experiment Station------ 73.8 82 1 60.1 82 37
Dixie Water Plant------- 75.4 71 (*) 60.3 83 39
Bahia Mar--------------- 75.5 39 (*) 61.5 85 39

North New River Canal
No. 2-------------------------------------------------------- ------ 53.9 --------------------


Trace. Less than 0.5 day.







TABLE 3.--RECORD OF LOW TEMPERATURES AT DAVIE IN BROWARD COUNTY
[Period of record 1937-67]

I Percent of seasons at or below various I Percent of seasons at or below various
temperatures before-- temperatures after--

Temperature November December December January FebruaryiMarchlMarch November DecemberlDecember January I February I MarchkMarch
20 10 30 19 I 18 10 1 30 20 I 10 30 I 19 18 10 30

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
36 0 23 57 87 100 100 100 100 100 100 83 50 13 0
32 0 13 33 57 77 83 83 83 80 73 50 17 3 .0
28 0 0 7 17 33 33 33 37 37 30 20 3 0 0
26 0 0 7 7 17 17 1 1 17 17 10 17 0 0 0
24 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 33 3 0 0 0
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I







80 Soil Survey



TABLE 4.--RATINGS AND LIMITATIONS OF ASSOCIATIONS ON THE GENERAL SOIL MAP

[Ratings are based on the dominant soil]

I Degree* and kind of limitations for-- ISuitability** for--
Soil Percent of _I
association survey area I IT I Improved
SUrban uses Recreation areas I Citrus iVegetablesl pasture

I I I I I I
1.Paola-Urban land-
St. Lucie 2.7 ISlight--------- Severe: (***) (***) (***)
I I Itoo sandy.
I I I j I
I I I I I I
2.Palm Beach-Urban 1.4 ISlight--------- Severe: I(**) (***) (***)
land-Beaches I I I too sandy.
SI I I I
SI I I I I
3.Dade-Urban land 5.3 Slight--------- Severe: (***) (***) (***)
I I too sandy.
I I I I I
I I I I
4.Duette-Urban 3.2 Slight--------- Severe: (***) (***) (***)
land-Pomello I I I too sandy.
I I I I I I
I I I I
5.Immokalee-Urban 14.0 Severe: Severe: (***) (***) (***)
land-Pompano wetness. Iwetness, too sandy.

6.Immokalee-Urban 3.5 Severe: Severe: (***) (**) (***)
land I I wetness. I wetness, too sandy.
I I I j j I
I I I j I I
7.Hallandale-Margatel 39.2 Severe: Severe: Poorly IPoorly Well
Depth to rock,I wetness, too sandy, Isuited: Isuited: Isuited.
Iwetness. depth to rock. Iwetness.l wetness.
I I I I I I
I I I I I
8.Lauderhill-Dania 24.4 Severe: Severe: ("**) Well Well
Iwetness, low Iwetness, excess humus. I suited. Suited.
Strength.
I I I I I
9.Udorthents-Urban 3.0 ISevere: Severe: (*I* (***) (***)
land-Pennsuco Iunstable fill.] too sandy, stones.
I I I I I
I I I I
lO.Arents-Urban land 3.3 IModerate: Severe: (*** (***) (***)
Iwetness. Itoo sandy.
I I I I I I

*A rating of slight means that the soil properties and site features are generally favorable for the
intended use and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate means that the soil properties or
site features are not favorable for the intended use and that special planning, design, or maintenance
is needed to overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe means that the soil properties or site
features are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that special design, significant increases in
construction cost, and, possibly, additional maintenance are required.
**A rating of well suited means that normal practices are sufficient for good production. A rating
of moderately suited indicates that normal practices are sufficient for fair or good production. The
practices are somewhat harder to install or maintain on a moderately suited soil, or the soil is less
productive. Poorly suited means that major modification of the site is needed before crops are planted
and that a high degree of maintenance is generally required.
***The soil is not normally in this use, or it is in urban use.








Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 81



TABLE 5.--ACREAGE AND PROPORTIONATE EXTENT OF THE SOILS


Map Soil name I Acres Percent
symbol__

Ae lArents-Urban land complex-------------------------------------------------------- 1 6,425 I 2.4
Ao lArents, organic substratum-Urban land complex-------------------------------------- 5,125 1.9
Ba IBasinger fine sand--------------------------------------------------------------- 3,010 1.1
Be IBoca fine sand--------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,705 0.6
Be IBeaches------------------------------------------------------------------------- 525 0.2
Ca ICanaveral-Urban land complex------------------------------------------------------- 260 1 0.1
Da IDania muck----------------------------------------------------------------------- 15,100 5.7
Dd IDade fine sand------------------------------------------------------------------- 960 0.4
Df IDuette-Urban land complex---------------------------------------------------------- 6,165 2.3
Du Dade-Urban land complex------------------------------------------------------------ 8,575 3.2
Ha lHallandale fine sand--------------------------------------------------------------- 34,690 13.0
Hb IHallandale-Urban land complex------------------------------------------------------ 8,640 3.3
Hm lHallandale and Margate soils------------------------------------------------------- 4,820 1 1.8
Ia IImmokalee fine sand--------------------------------------------------------------- 9,195 3.5
Ir Immokalee, limestone substratum-Urban land complex--------------------------------- 15,330 I 5.8
Iu IImmokalee-Urban land complex------------------------------------------------------- 14,375 5.4
La ILauderhill muck--------------------------------------------------------------------- 34,060 12.8
Ma IMargate fine sand------------------------------------------------------------------ 29,055 I 11.0
Mu IMargate-Urban land complex--------------------------------------------------------I 8,640 3.3
Ok 0lkeelanta muck--------------------------------------------------------------------- 725 0.3
Pa IPaola fine sand------------------------------------------------------------------ 733 0.3
Pb IPaola-Urban land complex----------------------------------------------------------- 2,675 1.0
Pc IPalm Beach sand-------------------------------------------------------------------- 285 0.1
Pe IPennsuco silty clay loam----------------------------------------------------------- 740 1 0.3
Pf IPennsuco silty clay loam, tidal---------------------------------------------------- 1,215 0.5
Pm IPlantation muck---------------------------------------------------------------- 7,125 2.7
Po IPomello fine sand------------------------------------------------------------------ 1,255 0.5
Pp IPompano fine sand---------------------------------------------------------------- 2,935 1.1
Ps IPerrine silty clay loam------------------------------------------------------------ 265 0.1
Pu IPalm Beach-Urban land complex------------------------------------------------------ 615 0.2
Pv IPerrine Variant silt loam---------------------------------------------------------- 120 *
Sa ISanibel muck----------------------------------------------------------------------- 2,845 1.1
St ISt, Lucie fine sand-------------------------------------------------------------- 805 0.3
Tc Terra Ceia muck, tidal----------------------------------------------------------- 285 0.1
Ud ludorthents------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2,455 0.9
Um lUdorthents, marly substratum-Urban land complex------------------------------------1 550 0.2
Un IUdorthents, shaped--------------------------------------------------------------- 7,905 3.0
Uo lUdorthents-Urban land complex------------------------------------------------------ 2,050 0.8
Ur IUrban land------------------------------------------------------------------------ 13,290 5.0
I water------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9,745 3.7
1 1-----------I------
I Total----------------------------------------------------------------- 265,273 100.0

Less than 0.1 percent.







82 Soil Survey




TABLE 6.--YIELDS PER ACRE OF CROPS AND PASTURE
[Yields are those that can be expected under a high level of management. Only arable soils are listed.
Absence of a yield indicates that the soil is not suited to the crop or the crop generally is not
grown on the soil]

I 1 I I I I I
Map symbol and I I I I Grass-
soil name I Tomatoes ISweet corn I Cabbage IOranges IGrapefruit I Grass I clover
I I I I I I I
S Ton Ton Crate I B Box Box I AUM* I AUM*
Ba------------------------ 13 --- 400 300 400 8.0 12.0
Basinger I
I I I I I
Bc------------------------ 13 3.7 --- 225 275 8.0 ---
Boca
Da------------------------ --- --- -- --- -- 10.0 12.0
Dania
Dd------------------------ 15 -- -- 300 400 3.5 --
Dade

Ha------------------------ 10 I --- I 300 225 275 7.5 --
Hallandale I
I I I I I I I
Hm------------------------ 11 --- 265 225 275 6.0 --
Hallandale and Margate I
II I I I I I
Ia------------------------I 13 --- 200 300 425 1 8.0 12.0
Immokalee
La------------------------ --- 4.5 340 -- --- 12.0 15.0
Lauderhill

Ma------------------------ 11 --- 220 225 275 6.5 12.0
Margate
Ok------------------------I --- I 4.5 350 I --- --- I 12.0 15.0
Okeelanta
Pa----------------------- 10 I -- -- 450 550 4.0 --
Paola

Pe------------------------I 8 --- I --- I --- I --- I ---
Pennsuco

Pm------------------------ --- 3.5 280 --- --- 12.0 15.0
Plantation
Po------------------------ -- --- --- 350 450 4.0 --
Pomello
Pp------------------------ 11 4 260 300 400 8.0 12.0
Pompano

Ps------------------------I 8 --- ---I .--- I --- ---
Perrine

Pv------------------------I 8 I --- --- I --- I --- I --- I
Perrine Variant

Sa------------------------I --- 3.5 450 --- -- 12.0 15.0
Sanibel

st------------------- -I --- --- --- --- --- 4.0 ---
St. Lucie

Animal-unit-month: The amount of forage or feed required to feed one animal unit (one cow and her calf)
for 30 days.








Broward County, Florida, Eastern Part 83



TABLE 7.--RECREATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

[Some terms that describe restrictive soil features are defined in the Glossary. See text for definition
of "slight," "moderate," and "severe." Absence of an entry indicates that the soil was not rated]

I I I I I
Map symbol and Camp areas Picnic areas Playgrounds IPaths and trails Golf fairways
soil name I


Ae*:
Arents--------------ISevere: ISevere: ISevere: ISevere: ISevere:
Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy, Idroughty.
I I I I I
Urban land. I I
I I I I I
Ao*:
Arents---------------ISevere: 1Severe: ISevere: ISevere: Moderate:
Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Iwetness.

Urban land. I I

Ba--------------------ISevere: ISevere: ISevere: ISevere: Severe:
Basinger I wetness, I wetness, I too sandy, I wetness, I wetness.
Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Iwetness. Itoo sandy.

Bc-------------------- Severe: Severe: ISevere: ISevere: Severe:
Boca I wetness, Iwetness, I too sandy, Iwetness, Iwetness,
Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy, wetness. Itoo sandy. I drought.

Be*.
Beaches

Ca*:
Canaveral------------ Severe: Severe: ISevere: ISevere: ISevere:
wetness, I too sandy. Itoo sandy, Itoo sandy. I drought.
too sandy. I I wetness.
II I I I
Urban land.

Da-------------------ISevere: Severe: Severe: Severe: ISevere:
Dania ponding, I ponding, Iexcess humus, I ponding, I ponding,
Excess humus, Iexcess humus, I ponding, Iexcess humus. Within layer,
Depth to rock. Depth to rock. I depth to rock. I I excess humus.
I I I I I
Dd-------------------- Severe: ISevere: Severe: ISevere: ISevere:
Dade Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Idroughty.

Df*:
Duette---------------Severe: Severe: Severe: ISevere: Severe:
too sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. I too sandy. I drought.
II I I I
Urban land.
I I I I
Du*: I
Dade-----------------ISevere: ISevere: ISevere: Severe: ISevere:
Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy, Itoo sandy. Idroughty.
I I I I I
Urban land.
I I I I
Ha-------------------- Severe: ISevere: Severe: Severe: ISevere:
Hallandale wetness, wetness, too sandy, wetness, Iwetness,
too sandy. too sandy. wetness. Itoo sandy. Idroughty.
I I I
Hb*:
Hallandale----------- Severe: Severe: ISevere: Severe: Severe:
Iwetness, Iwetness, Itoo sandy, Iwetness, Iwetness,
Itoo sandy, Itoo sandy. wetness. I too sandy. Idroughty.
II I I I
Urban land.
See footnote at end of table.
See footnote at end of table.







84 Soil Survey



TABLE 7.--RECREATIONAL DEVELOPMENT--Continued

I I I I i
Map symbol and Camp areas Picnic areas Playgrounds IPaths and trails Golf fairways
soil name I
I I I I I

Hm*:
Hallandale-----------ISevere: Severe: Severe: ISevere: Severe:
Iwetness, wetness, Itoo sandy, Iwetness, wetness,
Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. I wetness. too sandy, I drought.
I I I I I
Margate-------------- Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe:
Spending, I ponding, too sandy, I ponding, I ponding,
Itoo sandy. I too sandy. ponding. Itoo sandy. Idroughty.
I I I I
Ia-------------------- Severe: Severe: Severe: ISevere: ISevere:
Immokalee wetness, wetness, too sandy, wetness, Iwetness,
too sandy. too sandy. wetness. too sandy, drought.
Ir*:
Immokalee------------ ISevere: Severe: Severe: Severe: ISevere:
Iwetness, I wetness, Iwetness, Iwetness, Iwetness,
Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Idroughty.
II I
Urban land.
Iu*:
Immokalee------------ Severe: Severe: Severe: ISevere: ISevere:
Sweetness, Iwetness, Itoo sandy, I wetness, I wetness,
Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Iwetness. Itoo sandy. Idroughty.
I I I I I
Urban land. I I I
I I I I I
La-------------------- Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe:
Lauderhill I ponding, ponding, Iexcess humus, I ponding, I ponding,
Excess humus. Excess humus. ponding. Excess humus, excess humus.
I I I I I
Ma-------------------- Severe: ISevere: Severe:. Severe: Severe:
Margate I ponding, I ponding, Itoo sandy, I ponding, ponding,
Itoo sandy, Itoo sandy. I ponding, Itoo sandy. Idroughty.
I I I I I
Mu*: I I I I
Margate-------------- Severe: Severe: Severe: ISevere: ISevere:
ponding, I ponding, Itoo sandy, I ponding, I ponding,
Itoo sandy, Itoo sandy, ponding. Itoo sandy. Idroughty.
I I I
Urban land. I I I
I I I
Ok-------------------- Severe: Severe: Severe: ISevere: ISevere:
Okeelanta I ponding, I ponding, Iexcess humus, I ponding, I ponding,
Excess humus. Excess humus. ponding. Excess humus. Excess humus.
I I I I I
Pa--------------------ISevere: ISevere: Severe: Severe: ISevere:
Paola Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Idroughty.
I I I I I
Pb*:
Paola---------------- Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe:
Stood sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. drought.
I I I I
Urban land. I I
I I I I I
Pc-------------------- Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe:
Palm Beach Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy. Itoo sandy, Itoo sandy. Idroughty.
I I I I
Pe--------------------ISevere: ISevere: ISevere: ISevere: ISevere:
Pennsuco Iwetness. I wetness. Iwetness. Iwetness, Iwetness.
I I I I I
f--------------------Severe: ISevere: ISevere: ISevere: ISevere:
Pennsuco Iflooding, I wetness. Flooding, Iwetness, Iflooding,
wetness. wetness. Iwetness.

See footnote at end of table.




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