• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 How to use the soil survey
 Table of Contents
 How this survey was made
 General soil map
 Descriptions of the soils
 Use and management of the...
 Formation, morphology, and classification...
 Laboratory data
 Additional facts about the...
 Literature cited
 Glossary
 Explanation of key phrases
 Guide to mapping units
 General soil map
 Maps
 Index to map






Title: Soil survey of Broward County area, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026067/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Broward County area, Florida
Physical Description: 47 fr., 17 fold. leaves of plates : ill. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pendleton, Robert F
Dollar, Hershel D. ( joint author )
Law, Lloyd ( joint author )
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: [1976]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Broward County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Broward County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 45.
Statement of Responsibility: by Robert F. Pendleton, Hershel D. Dollar, and Lloyd Law, Jr. ; United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026067
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001162913
notis - AFR3074
oclc - 02819466
lccn - 76602823

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title
    How to use the soil survey
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    How this survey was made
        Page 1
    General soil map
        Page 2
        Paola-Urban land-St. Lucie association
            Page 3
        Immokalee-Urban land-Pompano association
            Page 3
        Hallandale-Margate association
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
        Lauderhill-Dania association
            Page 6
            Page 7
    Descriptions of the soils
        Page 8
        Basinger series
            Page 8
        Boca series
            Page 9
        Dania series
            Page 10
        Hallandale series
            Page 11
        Immokalee series
            Page 12
        Lauderhill series
            Page 13
        Margate series
            Page 14
        Paola series
            Page 15
        Plantation series
            Page 16
        Pomello series
            Page 17
        Pompano series
            Page 18
        St. Lucie series
            Page 19
        Udorthents series
            Page 19
        Urban land
            Page 20
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 20
        Engineering uses of the soils
            Page 20
            Engineering classification systems
                Page 21
            Engineering test data
                Page 21
            Soil properties significant in engineering
                Page 21
                Page 22
            Engineering interpretations
                Page 23
                Page 24
                Page 25
                Page 26
                Page 27
                Page 28
                Page 29
                Page 30
        Use of the soils for farming
            Page 31
            Capability grouping
                Page 32
            Estimated yields
                Page 33
        use of the soils as wildlife habitat
            Page 33
            Page 34
        Use of the soils for recreational development
            Page 35
    Formation, morphology, and classification of the soils
        Page 35
        Formation of soils
            Page 35
            Climate
                Page 36
            Plants and animals
                Page 37
            Relief
                Page 37
            Time
                Page 37
        Morphology of soils
            Page 37
        Classification of soils
            Page 37
            Page 38
    Laboratory data
        Page 39
        Laboratory methods
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
    Additional facts about the area
        Page 42
        Transportation, markets, and farming
            Page 43
        Water supply and natural resources
            Page 44
        Physiography and drainage
            Page 44
    Literature cited
        Page 45
    Glossary
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Explanation of key phrases
        Page 47
    Guide to mapping units
        Page 48
    General soil map
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Maps
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Index to map
        Page 29
        Page 51
Full Text











SOIL SURVEY OF


Broward CountyArea, Florida


United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Soil Science Department


p









This is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort of the United
States Department of Agriculture and agencies of the States, usually the Agricultural Experiment
Stations. In some surveys, other Federal and local agencies also contribute. The Soil Conservation
Service has leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in the period 1970-72. Soil names and de-
scriptions were approved in 1973. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in the publication refer
to conditions in the county in 1972. This survey was made cooper tively by the Soil Conservation
Service and the University of Florida Institute of Foods and Agri cultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to
the Palm Beach Broward Soil and Water Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission, but any enlargement of these maps
could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping and result in erroneous interpretations. En-
larged maps do not show small areas of contrasting soils that could have been shown at a larger
mapping scale.




HOW TO USE THIS SOIL SURVEY


T HIS SOIL SURVEY contains informa-
tion that can be applied in managing
farms, ranches, and woodlands; in selecting
sites for roads, ponds, buildings, and other
structures; and in judging the suitability of
tracts of land for farming, industry, and rec-
reation.

Locating Soils
All the soils of the Broward County Area
are shown on the detailed map at the back of
this publication. This map consists of many
sheets made from aerial photographs. Each
sheet is numbered to correspond with a num-
ber on the Index to Map Sheets.
On each sheet of the detailed map, soil
areas are outlined and are identified by sym-
bols. All areas marked with the same symbol
are the same kind of soil. The soil symbol is
inside the area if there is enough room; other-
wise, it is outside and a pointer shows where
the symbol belongs.
The Broward County Area soil survey map
sheets do not join with those of the Dade
County detailed reconnaissance soil survey
completed about 1952 and published in 1958.
The Dade County survey was made under an
older classification system and the maps were
published at a different scale, not on an aerial
photo background. Thus, soil boundary lines
of Broward County Area do not join those of
Dade County, and soil series names are differ-
ent.

Finding and Using Information
The "Guide to Mapping Units" can be used
to find information. This guide lists all the
soils of the county in alphabetic order by map
symbol and gives the capability classification
of each. It also shows the page where each
soil is described.


Individual colored maps showing the rela-
tive suitability or degree of limitation of soils
for many specific purposes can be developed
by using the soil map and the information in
the text. Translucent material can be used
as a overlay over the soil map and colored
to show soils that have the same limitation
or suitability. For example, soils that have
a slight limitation for a given use can be
colored green, those with a moderate limita-
tion can be colored yellow, and those with a
severe limitation can be colored red.
Farmers and those who work with farmers
can learn about use and management of the
soils from the soil descriptions and from the
discussion of the capability units.
Game managers, sportsmen, and others can
find information about soils and wildlife in
the section "Use of the Soils as Wildlife Hab-
itat."
Community planners and others can read
about soil properties that affect the choice of
sites for dwellings, industrial buildings, and
recreation areas in the sections "Engineering
Uses of the Soils" and "Use of the Soils for
Recreational Development."
Engineers and builders can find, under
"Engineering Uses of the Soils," tables that
contain test data, estimates of soil properties,
and information about soil features that af-
fect engineering practices.
Scientists and others can read about how
the soils formed and how they are classified
in the section "Formation, Morphology, and
Classification of the Soils."
Newcomers in the Broward County Area
may be especially interested in the section
"General Soil Map," where broad patterns of
soils are described. They may also be inter-
ested in the information about the Area
given at the beginning and end of the publi-
cation.










Contents
Page
How this survey was made------------------------------------ 1
General soil map __------------- -------___----____------- 2
1. Paola-Urban land-St. Lucie association-------------------- 3
2. Immokalee-Urban land-Pompano association--------------- 3
3. Hallandale-Margate association---------------- 3
4. Lauderhill-Dania association ----------_______----------- 6
Descriptions of the soils-- ------------------------------- 8
Basinger series--- ----------------------------------- 8
Boca series-___________________________ 9
Dania series ---------_----- -----_----------------_ 10
Hallandale series --- ----------__ --------------------- 11
Immokalee series ------------------------------------ 12
Lauderhill series .-------- --------------------------------_ 13
Margate series -- ---__---------------------------- 14
Paola series ------_-___- --__ -- -------- 15
Plantation series ------------------------------- 16
Pomello series -----------------------__ ------------------- 17
Pompano series --------------------------------- 18
Sanibel series ------------------------------ 18
St. Lucie series ----------------------------------19
Udorthents --_--------_------------ 19
Urban land ----------------------- 20
Use and management of the soils --------_--- ---------- 20
Engineering uses of the soils ---------- ------------- 20
Engineering classification systems -------- ---------- 21
Engineering test data---- --- ---- --- --_ 21
Soil properties significant in engineering ----- --------- 21
Engineering interpretations--------------------------- 23
Use of the soils for farming ------------------------- 31
Capability grouping --------------------------------- 32
Estimated yields -- ----____________________________ 33
Use of the soils as wildlife habitat__ ----- ______ 33
Use of the soils for recreational development ---_____________ 35
Formation, morphology, and classification of the soils ---_-------- 35
Formation of soils ----------------_______ 35
Parent material- ----------------------------- 35
Climate ---------------------------------- 36
Plants and animals ----------------------------- 37
Relief -------------------------------37
Time ------------------------- ------- 37
Morphology of soils------- ---------------------------- 37
Classification of soils ---------------- ------ -- 37
Laboratory data --------------------- --------------39
Laboratory methods -------_---------- ------------ 39
Additional facts about the area----------------------------------- 42
Climate ---- --------------------------- 42
Transportation, markets, and farming --------- --------- 43-
Water supply and natural resources ----- -------------- 44
Physiography and drainage ------------------------------ 44
Literature cited------------ -------- ----------------- 45
Glossary -------------- ------------------------------ 45
Explanation of key phrases ---------- ------_----------- 47
Guide to mapping units------------- ------ ----Following 47
Issued July 1976
















SOIL SURVEY OF BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA

BY ROBERT F. PENDLETON, HERSHEL D. DOLLAR, AND LLOYD LAW, JR.,
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION
SERVICE, IN COOPERATION WITH UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE
OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT
STATIONS, SOIL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


BROWARD COUNTY AREA is in Broward County
and the southeastern part of Florida (fig. 1). It


Figure 1.-Location of Broward County Area in Florida.

has a total land area of 189,273 acres or about 296
square miles. Fort Lauderdale is the county seat of
Broward County. The survey area is bounded by Dade
County on the south, a conservation area on the west,
Palm Beach County on the north, and an area defined
along Range line 42-43E to Atlantic Boulevard, west
on Atlantic Boulevard to Powerline Road, south on
Powerline Road to Oakland Park Boulevard, west on
Oakland Park Boulevard to Sunshine Parkway, and
south on the Sunshine Parkway to the Dade County
line.
Most of the survey area is low, nearly level land at
an elevation of 2 to 10 feet above sea level. Two sand


ridges are in the area. One is a coastal ridge that ex-
tends from Palm Beach County and ends south of
Pompano. The other is known as Pine Island and is
west of Davie and north of Cooper City. This ridge
consists of only about 400 acres but is at the highest
elevation, 29 feet, in the Area. The average tempera-
ture is 75.40 F. Rainfall is abundant, but is unevenly
distributed.
The county had a population of 620,000 people in
1970.1 Almost all of the people live east of the conserva-
tion area.
Generally, farm activity has diminished, but some
citrus crops, winter truck crops, and cattle are pro-
duced.
The Area is very popular with tourists and retired
persons because of the warm climate in winter and the
various available recreational facilities.


How This Survey Was Made
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds
of soil are in the Broward County Area, where they are
located, and how they can be used. The soil scientists
went into the county knowing they likely would find
many soils they had already seen and perhaps some
they had not. They observed the steepness, length, and
shape of slopes, the size and speed of streams, the kinds
of native plants or crops, the kinds of rock, and many
facts about the soils. They dug many holes to expose
soil profiles. A profile is the sequence of natural layers,
or horizons, in a soil; it extends from the surface down
into the parent material that has not been changed
much by leaching or by the action of plant roots.
The soil scientists made comparisons among the pro-
files they studied, and they compared these profiles
with those in counties nearby and in places more dis-
tant. They classified and named the soils according to
nationwide, uniform procedures. The soil series and
the soil phase are the categories of soil classification
most used in a local survey.
Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil
series. Except for different textures in the surface
1 This figure is taken from statistical data of the U.S. Depart-
ment of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.


1


KEY


I


*Slste AriMullunr Emriment gStnM







SOIL SURVEY


layer, all the soils of one series have major horizons
that are similar in thickness, arrangement, and other
important characteristics. Each soil series is named
for a town or other geographic feature near the place
where a soil of that series was first observed and
mapped. Hallandale and Sanibel, for example, are the
names of two soil series. All the soils in the United
States having the same series name are essentially
alike in those characteristics that affect their behavior
in the undisturbed landscape.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer and in slope, stoniness, or some other characteris-
tic that affects use of the soils by man. On the basis of
such differences, a soil series is divided into phases.
The name of a soil phase indicates a feature that af-
fects management. For example, Hallandale fine sand
is one of several phases within the Hallandale series.
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils
had been worked out, the soil scientists drew the
boundaries of the individual soils on aerial photo-
graphs. These photographs show woodlands, buildings,
field borders, trees, and other details that help in draw-
ing boundaries accurately. The soil map at the back of
this publication was prepared from aerial photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in
planning the management of farms and fields, a map-
ping unit is nearly equivalent to a soil phase. It is not
exactly equivalent, because it is not practical to show
on such a map all the small, scattered bits of soil of
some kind that have been seen within an area that is
dominantly of a recognized soil phase.
Some mapping units are made up of soils of different
series, or of different phases within one series. Two
such kinds of mapping units are shown on the soil map
of the Broward County Area: soil complexes and un-
differentiated groups.
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils,
so intricately mixed or so small in size that they cannot
be shown separately on the soil map. Each area of a
complex contains some of each of the two or more
dominant soils, and the pattern and relative propor-
tions are about the same in all areas. Generally, the
name of a soil complex consists of the names of the
dominant soils, joined by a hyphen. Immokalee-Urban
land complex is an example.
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
soils that could be delineated individually but are
shown as one unit because, for the purpose of the soil
survey, there is little value in separating them. The
pattern and proportion of soils are not uniform. An
area shown on the map may be made up of only one of
the dominant soils, or of two or more. Hallandale and
Margate soils is an undifferentiated soil group in this
survey area.
In most areas surveyed there are places where the
soil material is so rocky, so shallow, so severely eroded,
or so variable that it has not been classified by soil
series. These places are shown on the soil map and are
described in the survey, but they are called land types
and are given descriptive names. Urban land is a land
type in this survey area.
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists take
soil samples needed for laboratory measurements and
for engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same


kind of soil in other places are also assembled. Data on
yields of crops under defined practices are assembled
from farm records and from field or plot experiments
on the same kind of soil. Yields under defined manage-
ment are estimated for all the soils.
Soil scientists observe how soils behave when used
as a growing place for native and cultivated plants,
and as material for structures, foundations for struc-
tures, or covering for structures. They relate this be-
havior to properties of the soils. For example, they
observe that filter fields for onsite disposal of sewage
fail on a given kind of soil, and they relate this to the
slow permeability of the soil or a high water table.
They see that streets, road pavements, and foundations
for houses are cracked on a named kind of soil and
they relate this failure to the high shrink-swell poten-
tial of the soil material. Thus, they use observation and
knowledge of soil properties, together with available
research data, to predict limitations or suitability of
soils for present and potential uses.
After data have been collected and tested for the
key, or benchmark, soils in a survey area, the soil
scientists set up trial groups of soils. They test these
groups by further study and by consultation with
farmers, agronomists, engineers, and others. They
then adjust the groups according to the results of their
studies and consultation. Thus, the groups that are
finally evolved reflect up-to-date knowledge of the soils
and their behavior under current methods of use and
management.


General Soil Map
The general soil map at the back of this survey
shows, in color, the soil associations in the Broward
County Area. A soil association is a landscape that has
a distinctive proportional pattern of soils. It normally
consists of one or more major soils and at least one
minor soil, and it is named for the major soils. The
soils in one association may occur in another, but in a
different pattern.
A map showing soil associations is useful to people
who want a general idea of the soils in the Area, to
people who want to compare different parts of the
Area, or to people who want to know the location of
large tracts that are suitable for a certain kind of land
use. Such a map is a useful general guide in managing
a watershed, a wooded tract, or a wildlife area, or in
planning engineering works, recreational facilities,
and community developments. It is not a suitable map
for planning the management of a farm or field, or for
selecting the exact location of a road, building, or
similar structure, because the soils in any one associa-
tion ordinarily differ in slope, depth, stoniness, drain-
age, and other characteristics that affect their man-
agement.
Table 1 shows soil ratings and limitations and fea-
tures affecting selected uses by soil associations for
sanitary facilities, community development, source
material, and water management. These uses of the
soils and the rating system are explained in detail in
the section "Engineering Interpretations."
The soil associations in the Broward County Area
are discussed in the following paragraphs.







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


1. Paola-Urban Land-St. Lucie Association
Excessively drained, nearly level mineral soils that are
more than 80 inches deep to hard limestone; some areas
have been modified for urban use
This association consists of low knolls and ridges
that are part of the Coastal Ridge. It is mostly in the
northeastern part of the survey area. Very little nat-
ural vegetation remains except in the vicinity of Pine
Island. What remains is sand pine and scrub oak and
an undergrowth of native grasses, cacti, and in places
some saw palmetto.
This association makes up about 4 percent of the
survey area. About 37 percent of the association is
Paola soils and Urban land, about 12 percent is St.
Lucie soils, and about 51 percent is minor soils.
Paola soils are excessively drained and nearly level.
Typically they have a thin surface layer of gray fine
sand, a subsurface layer of white fine sand, and a sub-
soil of yellow fine sand. These soils are more than 80
inches deep. Most of them have been modified by grad-
ing and shaping or generally altered for community or
urban development.
Urban land consists of areas that are more than 70
percent covered by houses, streets, driveways, build-
ings, parking lots, and other structures so that the
natural soil is not readily observable.
St. Lucie soils are also excessively drained and
nearly level. Typically they have a thin surface layer of
gray fine sand that overlies white fine sand to a depth
of more than 80 inches.
The minor soils in this association are Immokalee,
Pomello, Pompano, and Basinger soils. Most of the
Immokalee soils have been modified by grading and
shaping or otherwise generally altered.
Much of the area of this association is used for
homes, airports, and related urban purposes. Farming
has no importance because of extensive urban develop-
ment; and at any rate, the major soils are generally
not suited or are poorly suited to most kinds of farm-
ing.
The soils of this association have slight limitations
for most nonfarm uses. The major soils have severe
limitations for structures designed to retain or hold
water.

2. Immokalee-Urban Land-Pompano Association
Poorly drained, nearly level mineral soils that are more
than 80 inches deep to hard limestone; some areas have
been modified for urban use
This association is made up of broad, low ridges
interspersed with sloughs and broad flats. It is in the
eastern part of the survey area. The natural vegeta-
tion, where it remains, is either slash pine, saw pal-
metto, and native grasses or pepper, slash pine, guava
trees, and native grasses.
This association makes up about 14 percent of the
survey area. It is about 50 percent Immokalee soils and
Urban land, 20 percent Pompano soils, and 30 percent
minor soils.
Immokalee soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
They are sandy throughout and typically have a dark-


gray surface layer, a light-gray subsurface layer, and
a dark-colored, weakly cemented layer that begins at a
depth of more than 30 inches. These soils are more
than 80 inches deep. They have been disturbed or
modified in most places by sandy materials spread on
the surface of the soil to an average thickness of about
12 inches.
Urban land consists of areas that are 70 to more
than 75 percent covered by houses, shopping centers,
parking lots, large buildings, and streets and sidewalks
so that the natural soil is not readily observable.
Pompano soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
Typically they have a surface layer of gray fine sand
mixed with organic matter and grayish or brownish
sandy material. The soils are 80 inches or more deep.
The minor soils in this association are Basinger,
Sanibel, Plantation, Hallandale, and Margate soils.
Some of the minor soils also have been altered or
filled.
Much of this association is used for homes, large
buildings, shopping centers, and related urban uses.
Most of the natural vegetation has been removed.
Farming is of no importance because of extensive ur-
ban development. Drainage and water control have
been established over most of the association and help
to reduce the wetness limitation for most nonfarm
uses. In undeveloped areas that do not have adequate
water control, wetness is a limitation of the soils for
most uses, and in some places flooding is a hazard.

3. Hallandale-Margate Association
Poorly drained, nearly level mineral soils that are less
than 40 inches deep to hard limestone
This association consists of broad flats and low ter-
races interspersed with drainageways and ponds or
depressions. It is east of the Everglades and west of the
Coastal Ridge. The natural vegetation is native grasses,
saw palmetto, wax myrtle, and a few slash pine and
cypress trees. Cypress trees are common in the drain-
ageways and depressions.
This association makes up about 54 percent of the
survey area. About 34 percent of the association is
Hadlandale soils, about 24 percent is Margate soils, and
about 42 percent is minor soils.
Hallandale soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
Typically they have a thin surface layer of black fine
sand, a subsurface layer of light brownish-gray fine
sand, and a subsoil of brown and yellowish-brown
fine sand that has slightly more clay than the subsur-
face layer. Beneath the subsoil is hard limestone. Depth
to hard limestone ranges from 7 to 20 inches but is typi-
cally 16 inches.
Margate soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
Typically they have a surface layer of very dark gray
fine sand and a subsurface layer of light brownish-
gray fine sand. The subsoil is brown fine sand that is
slightly more clayey than the subsurface layer. It has a
layer, about 4 inches thick, of brown fine sandy loam
mixed with fragments of limestone. Hard limestone is
at a depth of about 32 inches. Depth to hard limestone
ranges from 20 to 40 inches.
The minor soils in this association are Dania,
Lauderhill, and Sanibel soils and areas of Urban land


3







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


1. Paola-Urban Land-St. Lucie Association
Excessively drained, nearly level mineral soils that are
more than 80 inches deep to hard limestone; some areas
have been modified for urban use
This association consists of low knolls and ridges
that are part of the Coastal Ridge. It is mostly in the
northeastern part of the survey area. Very little nat-
ural vegetation remains except in the vicinity of Pine
Island. What remains is sand pine and scrub oak and
an undergrowth of native grasses, cacti, and in places
some saw palmetto.
This association makes up about 4 percent of the
survey area. About 37 percent of the association is
Paola soils and Urban land, about 12 percent is St.
Lucie soils, and about 51 percent is minor soils.
Paola soils are excessively drained and nearly level.
Typically they have a thin surface layer of gray fine
sand, a subsurface layer of white fine sand, and a sub-
soil of yellow fine sand. These soils are more than 80
inches deep. Most of them have been modified by grad-
ing and shaping or generally altered for community or
urban development.
Urban land consists of areas that are more than 70
percent covered by houses, streets, driveways, build-
ings, parking lots, and other structures so that the
natural soil is not readily observable.
St. Lucie soils are also excessively drained and
nearly level. Typically they have a thin surface layer of
gray fine sand that overlies white fine sand to a depth
of more than 80 inches.
The minor soils in this association are Immokalee,
Pomello, Pompano, and Basinger soils. Most of the
Immokalee soils have been modified by grading and
shaping or otherwise generally altered.
Much of the area of this association is used for
homes, airports, and related urban purposes. Farming
has no importance because of extensive urban develop-
ment; and at any rate, the major soils are generally
not suited or are poorly suited to most kinds of farm-
ing.
The soils of this association have slight limitations
for most nonfarm uses. The major soils have severe
limitations for structures designed to retain or hold
water.

2. Immokalee-Urban Land-Pompano Association
Poorly drained, nearly level mineral soils that are more
than 80 inches deep to hard limestone; some areas have
been modified for urban use
This association is made up of broad, low ridges
interspersed with sloughs and broad flats. It is in the
eastern part of the survey area. The natural vegeta-
tion, where it remains, is either slash pine, saw pal-
metto, and native grasses or pepper, slash pine, guava
trees, and native grasses.
This association makes up about 14 percent of the
survey area. It is about 50 percent Immokalee soils and
Urban land, 20 percent Pompano soils, and 30 percent
minor soils.
Immokalee soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
They are sandy throughout and typically have a dark-


gray surface layer, a light-gray subsurface layer, and
a dark-colored, weakly cemented layer that begins at a
depth of more than 30 inches. These soils are more
than 80 inches deep. They have been disturbed or
modified in most places by sandy materials spread on
the surface of the soil to an average thickness of about
12 inches.
Urban land consists of areas that are 70 to more
than 75 percent covered by houses, shopping centers,
parking lots, large buildings, and streets and sidewalks
so that the natural soil is not readily observable.
Pompano soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
Typically they have a surface layer of gray fine sand
mixed with organic matter and grayish or brownish
sandy material. The soils are 80 inches or more deep.
The minor soils in this association are Basinger,
Sanibel, Plantation, Hallandale, and Margate soils.
Some of the minor soils also have been altered or
filled.
Much of this association is used for homes, large
buildings, shopping centers, and related urban uses.
Most of the natural vegetation has been removed.
Farming is of no importance because of extensive ur-
ban development. Drainage and water control have
been established over most of the association and help
to reduce the wetness limitation for most nonfarm
uses. In undeveloped areas that do not have adequate
water control, wetness is a limitation of the soils for
most uses, and in some places flooding is a hazard.

3. Hallandale-Margate Association
Poorly drained, nearly level mineral soils that are less
than 40 inches deep to hard limestone
This association consists of broad flats and low ter-
races interspersed with drainageways and ponds or
depressions. It is east of the Everglades and west of the
Coastal Ridge. The natural vegetation is native grasses,
saw palmetto, wax myrtle, and a few slash pine and
cypress trees. Cypress trees are common in the drain-
ageways and depressions.
This association makes up about 54 percent of the
survey area. About 34 percent of the association is
Hadlandale soils, about 24 percent is Margate soils, and
about 42 percent is minor soils.
Hallandale soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
Typically they have a thin surface layer of black fine
sand, a subsurface layer of light brownish-gray fine
sand, and a subsoil of brown and yellowish-brown
fine sand that has slightly more clay than the subsur-
face layer. Beneath the subsoil is hard limestone. Depth
to hard limestone ranges from 7 to 20 inches but is typi-
cally 16 inches.
Margate soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
Typically they have a surface layer of very dark gray
fine sand and a subsurface layer of light brownish-
gray fine sand. The subsoil is brown fine sand that is
slightly more clayey than the subsurface layer. It has a
layer, about 4 inches thick, of brown fine sandy loam
mixed with fragments of limestone. Hard limestone is
at a depth of about 32 inches. Depth to hard limestone
ranges from 20 to 40 inches.
The minor soils in this association are Dania,
Lauderhill, and Sanibel soils and areas of Urban land


3







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


1. Paola-Urban Land-St. Lucie Association
Excessively drained, nearly level mineral soils that are
more than 80 inches deep to hard limestone; some areas
have been modified for urban use
This association consists of low knolls and ridges
that are part of the Coastal Ridge. It is mostly in the
northeastern part of the survey area. Very little nat-
ural vegetation remains except in the vicinity of Pine
Island. What remains is sand pine and scrub oak and
an undergrowth of native grasses, cacti, and in places
some saw palmetto.
This association makes up about 4 percent of the
survey area. About 37 percent of the association is
Paola soils and Urban land, about 12 percent is St.
Lucie soils, and about 51 percent is minor soils.
Paola soils are excessively drained and nearly level.
Typically they have a thin surface layer of gray fine
sand, a subsurface layer of white fine sand, and a sub-
soil of yellow fine sand. These soils are more than 80
inches deep. Most of them have been modified by grad-
ing and shaping or generally altered for community or
urban development.
Urban land consists of areas that are more than 70
percent covered by houses, streets, driveways, build-
ings, parking lots, and other structures so that the
natural soil is not readily observable.
St. Lucie soils are also excessively drained and
nearly level. Typically they have a thin surface layer of
gray fine sand that overlies white fine sand to a depth
of more than 80 inches.
The minor soils in this association are Immokalee,
Pomello, Pompano, and Basinger soils. Most of the
Immokalee soils have been modified by grading and
shaping or otherwise generally altered.
Much of the area of this association is used for
homes, airports, and related urban purposes. Farming
has no importance because of extensive urban develop-
ment; and at any rate, the major soils are generally
not suited or are poorly suited to most kinds of farm-
ing.
The soils of this association have slight limitations
for most nonfarm uses. The major soils have severe
limitations for structures designed to retain or hold
water.

2. Immokalee-Urban Land-Pompano Association
Poorly drained, nearly level mineral soils that are more
than 80 inches deep to hard limestone; some areas have
been modified for urban use
This association is made up of broad, low ridges
interspersed with sloughs and broad flats. It is in the
eastern part of the survey area. The natural vegeta-
tion, where it remains, is either slash pine, saw pal-
metto, and native grasses or pepper, slash pine, guava
trees, and native grasses.
This association makes up about 14 percent of the
survey area. It is about 50 percent Immokalee soils and
Urban land, 20 percent Pompano soils, and 30 percent
minor soils.
Immokalee soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
They are sandy throughout and typically have a dark-


gray surface layer, a light-gray subsurface layer, and
a dark-colored, weakly cemented layer that begins at a
depth of more than 30 inches. These soils are more
than 80 inches deep. They have been disturbed or
modified in most places by sandy materials spread on
the surface of the soil to an average thickness of about
12 inches.
Urban land consists of areas that are 70 to more
than 75 percent covered by houses, shopping centers,
parking lots, large buildings, and streets and sidewalks
so that the natural soil is not readily observable.
Pompano soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
Typically they have a surface layer of gray fine sand
mixed with organic matter and grayish or brownish
sandy material. The soils are 80 inches or more deep.
The minor soils in this association are Basinger,
Sanibel, Plantation, Hallandale, and Margate soils.
Some of the minor soils also have been altered or
filled.
Much of this association is used for homes, large
buildings, shopping centers, and related urban uses.
Most of the natural vegetation has been removed.
Farming is of no importance because of extensive ur-
ban development. Drainage and water control have
been established over most of the association and help
to reduce the wetness limitation for most nonfarm
uses. In undeveloped areas that do not have adequate
water control, wetness is a limitation of the soils for
most uses, and in some places flooding is a hazard.

3. Hallandale-Margate Association
Poorly drained, nearly level mineral soils that are less
than 40 inches deep to hard limestone
This association consists of broad flats and low ter-
races interspersed with drainageways and ponds or
depressions. It is east of the Everglades and west of the
Coastal Ridge. The natural vegetation is native grasses,
saw palmetto, wax myrtle, and a few slash pine and
cypress trees. Cypress trees are common in the drain-
ageways and depressions.
This association makes up about 54 percent of the
survey area. About 34 percent of the association is
Hadlandale soils, about 24 percent is Margate soils, and
about 42 percent is minor soils.
Hallandale soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
Typically they have a thin surface layer of black fine
sand, a subsurface layer of light brownish-gray fine
sand, and a subsoil of brown and yellowish-brown
fine sand that has slightly more clay than the subsur-
face layer. Beneath the subsoil is hard limestone. Depth
to hard limestone ranges from 7 to 20 inches but is typi-
cally 16 inches.
Margate soils are poorly drained and nearly level.
Typically they have a surface layer of very dark gray
fine sand and a subsurface layer of light brownish-
gray fine sand. The subsoil is brown fine sand that is
slightly more clayey than the subsurface layer. It has a
layer, about 4 inches thick, of brown fine sandy loam
mixed with fragments of limestone. Hard limestone is
at a depth of about 32 inches. Depth to hard limestone
ranges from 20 to 40 inches.
The minor soils in this association are Dania,
Lauderhill, and Sanibel soils and areas of Urban land


3








4 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 1.-Degree and kind of soil limitations and

[Ratings are given for soil associations as a whole, and additional ratings are given for the major component parts. Ratings differ
differing from those in the Soil Survey Manual (5). Refer to "Explanations of Key Phrases" at the back of


Soil association
and
component soils


1. Paola-Urban land-St. Lucie
(4%).8

Paola-Urban land (37%)' -----




St. Lucie (12%) -----------




Minor soils (51%).7
Interpretations not made.

2. Immokalee-Urban land-Pompano
(14%).


Limitations for sanitary facilities


Septic-
tank
absorption
fields


Slight --


Slight __-




Slight6 --







Severe ----


Immokalee (50%) ------- Severe:
wet.


Pompano (20%) ------ ----- Severe:
wet.


Minor soils (30%)."
Interpretations not made.


3.


Sewage
lagoons


Not prac-
tical.

Not prac-
tical.'



Severe:
seepage.






Not prac-
tical.


Not prac-
tical.



Severe:
wetness;
seepage.


Sanitary landfill


Trench
type


Not prac-
tical.


Not prac-
tical.'



Severe:
seepage;
too
sandy.




Not prac-
tical.


Not prac-
tical.



Severe:
wetness;
seepage.


Area
type


Not prac-
tical.

Not prac-
tical.'



Severe:
seepage.






Not prac-
tical.


Not prac-
tical.



Severe:
wetness;
seepage.


Limitations for Community
Development


Shallow
excavations


Dwellings
without
basements


I IIII I IC


Slight ---


Slight --




Slight --


Slight .


Slight .


Dwellings
with
basements


Slight ---


Slight --


Slight --.- Slight ---


Severe ---- Severe ---


Severe:
wetness;
cutbanks
cave.

Severe:
wetness;
cutbanks
cave.


Severe:
wetness.



Severe:
wetness.


Severe .--


Severe:
wet.



Severe:
wet.


Hallandale-Margate (54%) ----- Severe -__ Severe ---- Severe --- Severe --- Severe _-- Severe ..-- Severe---


Hallandale (34%) -------





Margate (24%) -- --- ----


Minor soils (42%).'
Interpretations not made.


Severe:
wetness;
depth to
rock.


Severe:
wetness;
depth to
rock.


Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
seepage.


Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
seepage.


Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
seepage;
too
sandy.
Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
seepage.


Severe:
wetness;
seepage.



Severe:
wetness;
seepage.


Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
cutbanks
cave.

Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
cutbanks
cave.


Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness.


Severe:
wetness.


Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness.


Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness.


I








BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 5

features affecting selected uses, by soil associations
in some respects from ratings for the entire association. Soil characteristics in this table are expressed in computer-adapted terms
this survey for definitions of "percs rapidly" and other terms that describe soil characteristics]


Limitations for
Community Develop-
ment-continued


Small
commercial
buildings


Slight -


Slight


----I


Local roads
and
streets



Slight -



Slight ---


Slight --- Slight


Limitations for source material


I ________________________________


Road fill



Good -----



Good ----




Good ---


Sand


Topsoil


Daily cover
for
landfill


Good ----- Poor -- Poor ___


Good


Poor: too
sandy.


Good ---- Poor: too
sandy.


Poor: too
sandy;
seepage.


Poor: too
sandy;
seepage.


Water management


Limitations for-


Embank-
ments,
dikes, and
levees


SSevere ---


Severe:
piping;
percs
rapidly;
unstable
fill.
Severe:
piping;
percs
rapidly;
unstable
fill.


Severe ____ Severe ---- Good -----I Good --- Poor ---- Poor -_--- Severe --


Severe:
wetness;
cor-
rosive.


Severe:
wetness;
cor-
rosive.



Severe ----



Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
cor-
rosive.

Severe:
wetness.


Severe:
wet.



Severe:
wet.





Severe ---



Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness.



Severe:
wetness.


Good ----


Good ----


Good --- Good ---


Poor --



Poor:
thin
layer;
area
reclaim.


Poor:
thin
layer;
wet.


Poor: too
sandy;
wetness.



Poor: too
sandy;
wetness.


Poor: too
sandy;
wetness;
seepage.


Poor: too
sandy;
wetness;
seepage.


Severe:
percs
rapidly;
piping;
unstable
fill.
Severe
piping;
seepage;
unstable
fill.


Aquifer-
fed
excavated
ponds


Severe __--



Severe:
no
water.


Severe:
no
water.





Moderate



Moderate:
deep to
water.



Slight ----


Poor -----Poor -_-- Poor ---- Severe --- Severe ----


Poor:
thin
layer.



Poor:
thin
layer.


Poor: too
sandy;
wetness;
area
reclaim.


Poor: too
sandy;
wetness.


Poor: too
sandy;
wetness;
seepage;
area
reclaim.

Poor: too
sandy;
wetness.


Severe:
thin
layer;
piping;
unstable
fill.

Severe:
piping;
seepage;
unstable
fill.


Severe:
depth to
rock.



Moderate:
depth to
rock.


Features affecting-


Drainage



Not
needed.


Not
needed.



Not
needed.






Cutbanks
cave;
wetness.

Cutbanks
cave;
wetness.



Cutbanks
cave;
wetness.




Depth to
rock;
wetness;
cutbanks
cave.
Depth to
rock;
wetness;
cutbanks
cave.


Depth to
rock;
cutbanks
cave;
wetness.


Irrigation



Droughty;
seepage;
fast
intake.
Droughty;
seepage;
fast
intake.


Droughty;
seepage;
fast
intake.




Wetness;
seepage;
fast
intake.
Wetness;
seepage;
fast
intake.


Wetness;
seepage.





Wet;
seepage;
fast
intake.

Wet;
seepage;
fast
intake.


Wet;
seepage;
fast
intake.


_ ~








SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 1.-Degree and kind of soil limitations and


Soil association
and
component soils


4. Lauderhill-Dania (28%) ________




Lauderhill (63%) --- ____-







Dania (27%) _- __----








Minor soils (10%).
Interpretations not made.


Limitations for sanitary facilities


Septic-
tank
absorption
fields



Severe ___




Severe:
wetness;
depth to
rock,




Severe:
wetness;
depth to
rock.


Sewage
lagoons




Severe ____




Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
excess
humus.


Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
seepage;
excess
humus.


Sanitary landfill


Trench
type


Very
severe.



Very
severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
seepage;
excess
humus.

Very
severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
seepage;
excess
humus.


Area
type


Severe ----




Severe:
wetness;
seepage.





Severe:
wetness;
seepage.


Limitations for Community
Development


Shallow Dwellings
excavations without
basements


Severe __-- Very
severe.


Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
excess
humus.


Severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
excess
humus.


Very
severe:
wetness;
excess
humus;
low
strength.


Very
severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
excess
humus;
low
strength.


1Ratings for source material and water management are generally not applicable to the Urban land part of Paola-Urban
land-St. Lucie association and Immokalee-Urban land-Pompano association, because Urban land is mostly covered by concrete.
Onsite deep studies of the underlying strata, water tables, and hazards of acquifer pollution and drainage into ground water
need to be made for landfills deeper than 5 or 6 feet.
3 Percentage of Area comprised by the association.


and Hallandale and Margate soils that have been
modified by grading, shaping, and covering with fill
material.
Much of the area of this association is used for im-
proved pasture (fig. 2) or is in natural vegetation. A
few areas are used for truck crops. Urban development
is rapidly encroaching into this association so that
farming has diminishing importance. Drainage and
water control have been established over most of the
association. The major soils are unsuited or poorly
suited to cultivated crops.
The soils of this association have severe limitations
for most nonfarm uses. Because of wetness, water con-
trol is necessary for most uses, and commonly fill ma-
terial needs to be added to the surface of the soil to
make areas higher for use as building sites. The hard
limestone provides an excellent base for foundations.


4. Lauderhill-Dania Association

Very poorly drained, nearly level organic soils that are
less than 40 inches deep to hard limestone
This association is made up of broad flats. It is
mostly in the western part of the survey area and the


eastern part of the Everglades. The natural vegetation
is mainly sawgrass (fig. 3), and where the sawgrass
has been burned, melaleuca has become established.
This association makes up about 28 percent of the


Figure 2.-Typical area of improved grass pasture in the Hallan-
dale-Margate association. The soil is Margate fine sand. Limestone
is exposed on the bank of the drainage ditch in the foreground.


I


Dwellings
with
basements


Very
severe.



Very
severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
excess
humus;
low
strength.
Very
severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
excess
humus;
low
strength.


6








BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


features affecting selected uses, by soil associations-Continued


Limitations for
Community Develop-
ment-continued


Small
commercial
buildings


Very
severe.



Very
severe:
wetness;
excess
humus;
low
strength.


Very
severe:
depth to
rock;
wetness;
excess
humus;
low
strength.


Local roads
and
streets


Very
severe.



Very
severe:
excess
humus;
low
strength;
wetness.


Very
severe:
excess
humus;
low
strength;
wetness;
depth to
rock.


Limitations for source material


Road fill


Poor ____




Poor:
excess
humus;
low
strength;
wetness;
area
reclaim.

Poor:
excess
humus;
low
strength;
thin
layer;
wetness;
area
reclaim.


Sand


Unsuited -




Unsuited:
excess
humus.





Unsuited:
excess
humus.


Topsoil



Poor -




Poor:
area
reclaim;
wetness.




Poor:
area
reclaim;
wetness.


Daily
cover for
landfill


Water management'


Limitations for- Features affecting-


Embank-
ments,
dikes, and
levees


Poor ___- I Severe


Poor:
excess
humus;
area
reclaim;
wetness.


Poor:
excess
humus;
area
reclaim;
wetness.


Severe:
excess
humus;
low
strength;
seepage.


Severe:
thin
layer;
excess
humus;
low
strength.


Aquifer-
fed
excavated
ponds


-I I-


-- Moderate


Moderate:
depth to
rock.





Severe:
depth to
rock.


Drainage


Depth to
rock;
wetness;
excess
humus.

Depth to
rock;
wetness;
excess
humus.



Depth to
rock;
wetness;
excess
humus.


Irrigation


Wetness.




Wetness.







Wetness.


'Percentage of association comprised by the component soil. Percentages are estimates and are not based on measured acreage.
5 Excessive permeability may cause pollution of ground water.
"Areas are too close to houses and commercial buildings or mostly covered by concrete.
SNo one of the individual minor soils makes up as large a percentage of the association as the major soil with the lowest per-
centage.


survey area. It is about 63 percent Lauderhill soils, 27
percent Dania soils, and 10 percent minor soils.
Lauderhill soils are very poorly drained and nearly
level. Typically they have a surface layer of black
sapric material or muck. Below this is dark reddish-
brown sapric material or muck, and hard limestone is
at a depth of about 31 inches. Depth to hard limestone
varies from 20 to 40 inches.
Dania soils are very poorly drained and nearly level.
Typically they have a surface layer of black sapric
material or muck. Below this is dark reddish-brown
sapric material or muck, a thin layer of brown fine
sand, and a thin layer of light-gray sandy marl mixed
with limestone fragments. Hard limestone is at a depth
of about 18 inches. Depth to hard limestone varies
from 14 to 20 inches.
The minor soils in this association are the Plantation
and Sanibel soils.
Most of this association is still in its natural vegeta-
tion. Several small areas are in improved pasture and
some sod farms. With adequate drainage and water
control, the soils have good potential for farming. For
community developments or other nonfarm uses, wet-
ness and organic material are limitations. The organic
material has low strength and is subject to oxidation


and subsidence when not saturated with water. For
houses or other urban developments, the organic ma-
terial needs to be removed and replaced by fill (fig. 4).


i "3. "


Figure 3.-Area of sawgrass and scattered malaleuca trees in the
Lauderhill-Dania association. The soil is Dania muck.


1-1-1-


I I


7







SOIL SURVEY


Figure 4.-Trailer park development in an area of the Lauderhill-
Dania association. The soils are Lauderhill muck and Dania
muck, from which the organic material is removed and replaced
by fill. The high water table is a limitation of these soils for
septic tanks.


Descriptions of the Soils
This section describes the soil series and mapping
units in the Broward County Area. Each soil series is
described in detail, and then, briefly, each mapping
unit in that series. Unless it is specifically mentioned
otherwise, it is to be assumed that what is stated about
the soil series holds true for the mapping units in that
series. Thus, to get full information about any one
mapping unit, it is necessary to read both the descrip-
tion of the mapping unit and the description of the
soil series to which it belongs.
An important part of the description of each soil
series is the soil profile; that is, the sequence of layers
from the surface downward to rock or other underly-
ing material. Each series contains two descriptions of
this profile. The first is brief and in terms familiar to
the layman. The second is much more detailed and is
for those who need to make thorough and precise
studies of soils. The profile described in the series is
representative for the mapping units in that series. If
the profile of a given mapping unit is different from
the one described for the series, these differences are
stated in describing the mapping unit or they are
differences that are apparent in the name of the map-
ping unit.
As mentioned in the section "How This Survey Was
Made," not all mapping units are members of a soil
series. Urban land, for example, does not belong to a
soil series, but nevertheless, is listed in alphabetic or-
der along with the soil series.
Following the name of each mapping unit is a sym-
bol in parentheses. This symbol identifies the mapping
unit on the detailed soil map. Listed at the end of each
description of a mapping unit is the capability unit in
which the mapping unit has been placed. The capa-
bility unit for each soil and the page number for each
soil mapping unit can be learned by referring to the
"Guide to Mapping Units" at the back of this survey.
The acreage and proportionate extent of each map-


TABLE 2.-Approximate acreage and proportionate
extent of the soils

Soil Acres Percent

Basinger fine sand ______-------------- ___ 3,080 1.6
Boca fine sand ________________ 1,684 .9
Dania muck ___--------------------- ___ 15,709 8.4
Hallandale fine sand __-- ---------------_ 35,260 18.6
Hallandale and Margate soils ______________ 6,031 3.2
Hallandale-Urban land complex ____________ 14,547 7.7
Immokalee fine sand ________________ 7,239 3.8
Immokalee-Urban land complex _______ 12,248 6.4
Lauderhill muck ________-_____ 34,594 18.3
Margate fine sand _____________25,515 13.5
Paola fine sand _______________ 747 .4
Paola-Urban land complex __________ 2,156 1.1
Plantation muck ________________ 6,404 3.4
Pomello fine sand ______________________---961 .5
Pompano fine sand _____________ 6,452 3.4
Sanibel muck ________________ 3,371 1.8
St. Lucie fine sand ____ _______ 950 .5
Udorthents ______-- --------- 3,196 1.7
Udorthents, shaped 6__-- --- 6,545 3.4
Urban land ____----------- 2,584 1.4
Total land area ____________-- 189,273 100.0



ping unit are shown in table 2. Many of the terms used
in describing soils can be found in the Glossary, and
more detailed information about the terminology and
methods of soil mapping can be obtained from the Soil
Survey Manual (5).2

Basinger Series

The Basinger series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils in broad sloughs and flats. These soils
formed in unconsolidated marine sediment. In most
years the water table is at a depth of 10 inches or less
for 2 to 6 months, and between 10 and 40 inches for 6
months or more. In dry seasons it is below a depth of
40 inches for short periods. Under natural conditions
these soils are covered with shallow water 1 to 2
months each year; where there is improved drainage,
however, they are not.
In a representative profile the surface layer is very
dark grayish-brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is about 11 inches of light-gray fine
sand. Underlying this, to a depth of 60 inches, is pale-
brown fine sand.
Permeability is rapid in all layers of these soils.
Available water capacity is very low to a depth of 23
inches. Natural fertility and content of organic matter
are low.
Where adequate water control and intensive man-
agement practices are in use, Basinger soils are suited
to winter truck crops and improved pasture grasses.
Representative profile of Basinger fine sand, about
50 feet west of University Drive and 0.9 mile north of
Orange Drive, SE1/SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 50 S., R. 41 E.:
Al-0 to 6 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly
acid; clear, smooth boundary.
2 Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 45.


8







SOIL SURVEY


Figure 4.-Trailer park development in an area of the Lauderhill-
Dania association. The soils are Lauderhill muck and Dania
muck, from which the organic material is removed and replaced
by fill. The high water table is a limitation of these soils for
septic tanks.


Descriptions of the Soils
This section describes the soil series and mapping
units in the Broward County Area. Each soil series is
described in detail, and then, briefly, each mapping
unit in that series. Unless it is specifically mentioned
otherwise, it is to be assumed that what is stated about
the soil series holds true for the mapping units in that
series. Thus, to get full information about any one
mapping unit, it is necessary to read both the descrip-
tion of the mapping unit and the description of the
soil series to which it belongs.
An important part of the description of each soil
series is the soil profile; that is, the sequence of layers
from the surface downward to rock or other underly-
ing material. Each series contains two descriptions of
this profile. The first is brief and in terms familiar to
the layman. The second is much more detailed and is
for those who need to make thorough and precise
studies of soils. The profile described in the series is
representative for the mapping units in that series. If
the profile of a given mapping unit is different from
the one described for the series, these differences are
stated in describing the mapping unit or they are
differences that are apparent in the name of the map-
ping unit.
As mentioned in the section "How This Survey Was
Made," not all mapping units are members of a soil
series. Urban land, for example, does not belong to a
soil series, but nevertheless, is listed in alphabetic or-
der along with the soil series.
Following the name of each mapping unit is a sym-
bol in parentheses. This symbol identifies the mapping
unit on the detailed soil map. Listed at the end of each
description of a mapping unit is the capability unit in
which the mapping unit has been placed. The capa-
bility unit for each soil and the page number for each
soil mapping unit can be learned by referring to the
"Guide to Mapping Units" at the back of this survey.
The acreage and proportionate extent of each map-


TABLE 2.-Approximate acreage and proportionate
extent of the soils

Soil Acres Percent

Basinger fine sand ______-------------- ___ 3,080 1.6
Boca fine sand ________________ 1,684 .9
Dania muck ___--------------------- ___ 15,709 8.4
Hallandale fine sand __-- ---------------_ 35,260 18.6
Hallandale and Margate soils ______________ 6,031 3.2
Hallandale-Urban land complex ____________ 14,547 7.7
Immokalee fine sand ________________ 7,239 3.8
Immokalee-Urban land complex _______ 12,248 6.4
Lauderhill muck ________-_____ 34,594 18.3
Margate fine sand _____________25,515 13.5
Paola fine sand _______________ 747 .4
Paola-Urban land complex __________ 2,156 1.1
Plantation muck ________________ 6,404 3.4
Pomello fine sand ______________________---961 .5
Pompano fine sand _____________ 6,452 3.4
Sanibel muck ________________ 3,371 1.8
St. Lucie fine sand ____ _______ 950 .5
Udorthents ______-- --------- 3,196 1.7
Udorthents, shaped 6__-- --- 6,545 3.4
Urban land ____----------- 2,584 1.4
Total land area ____________-- 189,273 100.0



ping unit are shown in table 2. Many of the terms used
in describing soils can be found in the Glossary, and
more detailed information about the terminology and
methods of soil mapping can be obtained from the Soil
Survey Manual (5).2

Basinger Series

The Basinger series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils in broad sloughs and flats. These soils
formed in unconsolidated marine sediment. In most
years the water table is at a depth of 10 inches or less
for 2 to 6 months, and between 10 and 40 inches for 6
months or more. In dry seasons it is below a depth of
40 inches for short periods. Under natural conditions
these soils are covered with shallow water 1 to 2
months each year; where there is improved drainage,
however, they are not.
In a representative profile the surface layer is very
dark grayish-brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is about 11 inches of light-gray fine
sand. Underlying this, to a depth of 60 inches, is pale-
brown fine sand.
Permeability is rapid in all layers of these soils.
Available water capacity is very low to a depth of 23
inches. Natural fertility and content of organic matter
are low.
Where adequate water control and intensive man-
agement practices are in use, Basinger soils are suited
to winter truck crops and improved pasture grasses.
Representative profile of Basinger fine sand, about
50 feet west of University Drive and 0.9 mile north of
Orange Drive, SE1/SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 50 S., R. 41 E.:
Al-0 to 6 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly
acid; clear, smooth boundary.
2 Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 45.


8







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


A21-6 to 13 inches, light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
streaks of very dark gray (10YR 3/1) in root chan-
nels; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual,
wavy boundary.
A22-13 to 17 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual,
wavy boundary.
A3-17 to 23 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; few,
medium, distinct, black (10YR 2/1) mottles in root
channels; single grained; loose; some uncoated sand
grains; sand grains turn white on ignition; very
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
C&Bh-23 to 35 inches, brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; black
(10YR 2/1) streaks in root channels; single
grained; loose; some clean and some partly coated
sand grains; strongly acid; gradual, wavy bound-
ary.
C-35 to 60 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; single
grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains; very
strongly acid.
Basinger soils range from slightly acid to very strongly
acid throughout.
The Al horizon is black, very dark gray, dark gray, or
very dark grayish brown and ranges from 2 to 8 inches in
thickness. The A21 horizon is light brownish gray, gray,
or light gray and is 5 to 18 inches thick. The A22 horizon
is white, light gray, very pale brown, or light brownish
gray and is 3 to 6 inches thick. The A3 horizon is brown
or dark brown and is 2 to 8 inches thick.
The C&Bh horizon is brown, dark brown, or dark grayish
brown and ranges from 6 to 18 inches in thickness. This
horizon has a slight increase in clay content over the A2
horizon. The C horizon is brown or pale brown and extends
to a depth of 60 inches or more.
Basinger soils are associated with Immokalee, Margate,
and Pompano soils. They lack the weakly cemented Bh
horizon of Immokalee soils. They differ from Margate soils
in not having limestone within a depth of 40 inches. They
have a C&Bh horizon that is not present in Pompano soils.
Basinger fine sand (Ba).-This is a nearly level, deep,
poorly drained, sandy soil that is in broad sloughs
and flats. Included in mapping are small areas of Im-
mokalee fine sand, Pompano fine sand, and Margate
fine sand.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vege-
tation that consists of pepper trees, myrtle, pine, and
native grasses. Scattered cypress trees are in lower
areas.
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops by
wetness and other adverse properties. To grow any
crops and pasture plants on this soil, a water control
system is needed that provides subsurface irrigation
by controlling the water table. Truck crops, other
specialized crops, and improved pasture consisting of
a mixture of grass and clover can be grown with ade-
quate water control and intensive management. This
soil is severely limited for citrus. Where citrus is grown,
very intensive management practices and adequate
water control are needed. The soil responds well to
applications of fertilizer and lime. Capability unit
IVw-1.3

Boca Series
The Boca series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils in low broad wet areas and along grassy,
poorly defined drainageways. These soils formed in
moderately thick beds of marine sandy loamy sediment
over limestone. In most years the water table is at a
SPlaced in capability subclass IVw on the assumption that
drainage outlets are available. Without drainage outlets, this soil
should be in capability subclass Vw.


depth of 10 inches or less for 2 to 6 months, and be-
tween 10 and 30 inches for 6 months or more. During
dry seasons it remains in cavities of the limestone.
Under natural conditions some areas of these soils are
covered by shallow water 1 to 2 months each year.
Where there is improved drainage, however, they are
not.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark-
gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is about 6 inches -of light-gray fine sand. The
subsoil is about 19 inches thick. The upper 12 inches
of the subsoil is very pale brown fine sand mottled
with brownish yellow and yellowish brown, and the
lower 7 inches is grayish-brown sandy clay loam mot-
tled with yellowish brown. Below this is about 2 inches
of white to yellowish-brown marl, decomposed rock,
sandy clay loam, and sand mixed with limestone frag-
ments. Hard limestone that contains solution holes
filled with sandy clay loam is at a depth of 34 inches.
Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers of these
soils and moderate in the loamy part of the subsoil.
Available water capacity is low in the surface layer,
very low between depths of 7 and 25 inches, and
medium in the loamy part of the subsoil. Natural fer-
tility and content of organic matter are low.
Where adequate water control and intensive man-
agement practices are in use, Boca soils are suited to
most winter truck crops and improved pasture grasses.
Representative profile of Boca fine sand, 0.25 mile
south of State Road 827 and about 0.7 mile west of
U.S. Highway 441, SW1/4SW14NW14 sec. 36, T. 48 S.,
R. 41 E.:
Ap-0 to 7 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; me-
dium acid; clear, wavy boundary.
A2-7 to 13 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fiie sand; many,
medium, distinct, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) mot-
tles; single grained; loose; medium acid; clear,
wavy boundary.
B1-13 to 25 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand;
few, fine, distinct, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) and
common, fine, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4)
mottles; single grained; loose; neutral; abrupt,
smooth boundary. This horizon has a slight in-
crease in clay.
B2tg-25 to 32 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
clay loam; common, fine and medium, distinct,
yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; weak, me-
dium, subangular blocky structure; friable; mod-
erately alkaline; abrupt, irregular boundary.
IIC-32 to 34 inches, white (10YR 8/1) to yellowish-brown
(10YR 5/8) decomposed rock, marl, sandy clay
loam, and sand mixed with limestone fragments;
massive in places; friable; moderately alkaline;
abrupt, irregular boundary.
IIIR-34 inches, hard limestone. This horizon has two solu-
tion holes approximately 15 inches in diameter and
extending from 40 to 82 inches below the surface.
These holes contain sandy clay loam.
The Al or Ap horizon is black, very dark gray, dark gray,
very dark grayish brown, dark grayish brown, or grayish
brown and ranges from 4 to 9 inches in thickness. Where
the Al or Ap horizon is black, very dark gray, or very dark
grayish brown, it is less than 6 inches thick. The A2 horizon
is grayish brown, dark grayish brown, light gray, or gray
and ranges from 14 to 22 inches in thickness. Reaction is
strongly acid to neutral.
The B1 horizon, where present, is brown, pale brown, very
pale brown, dark-brown, yellowish-brown, or light yellowish-
brown fine sand. This horizon has at least a 3 percent in-
crease in clay content from the overlying horizon. The B1
horizon is 0 to 15 inches thick. Reaction ranges from


9







SOIL SURVEY


strongly acid to neutral. In some places there are mottles
in shades of brown, yellow, or gray.
The B2tg horizon is light brownish-gray, grayish-brown,
dark grayish-brown, gray, or dark-gray sandy loam or sandy
clay loam. It averages from 16 to 23 percent clay. In some
places there are mottles in shades of gray, yellow, or brown.
Reaction is neutral to moderately alkaline. This horizon is
3 to 7 inches thick.
The IIC horizon is decomposed rock, marl, sandy clay
loam, and sand mixed with broken pieces of limerock. The
color of this material is white to very dark gray and in
places includes shades of yellowish brown. This horizon is
1 to 3 inches thick. Reaction is neutral to moderately alka-
line.
Hard limestone is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches, and solu-
tion holes extend to a depth of 50 inches or more and are
filled with sandy clay loam.
Boca soils are associated with Hallandale, Margate, and
Plantation soils. They have a B2t horizon above the rock,
whereas Margate and Hallandale soils do not. They do not
have the organic surface layer of Plantation soils.
Boca fine sand (Bc).-This is a nearly level, poorly
drained, sandy soil underlain by limestone at a depth
of 24 to 40 inches. It is in low, broad, wet areas and
along grassy, poorly defined drainageways.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
of Basinger fine sand, Margate fine sand, and Hallan-
dale fine sand.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation
that consists of gallberry, saw palmetto, cabbage pal-
metto, slash pine, and an understory of pineland three-
awn. Some areas are used for truck crops, improved
pasture, and citrus.
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops by
excessive wetness. To grow any crops and pasture
plants on this soil, a water control system is needed that
provides subsurface irrigation by controlling the water
table. Truck crops and improved pasture consisting of
a mixture of grass and clover can be grown with ade-
quate water control and intensive management that
includes adequate fertilization and lime if needed. With
very intensive management and adequate water con-
trol, citrus can be grown on this soil. Capability unit
IVw-2.

Dania Series
The Dania series consists of nearly level, very poorly
drained soils in broad flats along the eastern part of
the Everglades. These soils formed in thin beds of
hydrophytic nonwoody plant remains. Under natural
conditions they are covered with water most of the
year. Where there is improved drainage, water stands
on the surface for 2 to 6 months each year. When
water is not standing on the surface, the water table
is at a depth of less than 10 inches.
In a representative profile the upper 14 inches is
sapric material or muck. It is black in the upper 6
inches and dark reddish-brown in the lower 8 inches.
Below this is brown fine sand to a depth of 16 inches
and light-gray sandy marl that is about 50 percent
limestone fragments to a depth of 18 inches. Hard
limestone is at a depth of 18 inches.
Permeability is rapid in all layers of these soils.
Available water capacity is very high in the organic
layers and low in the mineral layers. Content of or-
ganic matter is very high, and natural fertility is
moderate.
Dania soils are suited to improved pasture grasses


but because of excessive wetness are not suited to cul-
tivated crops or citrus.
Representative profile of Dania muck, about 10 miles
west of University Drive in Davie, about 1.5 miles
east of the intersection of Orange Drive and U.S. High-
way 27 on Orange Drive, and 0.3 miles north,
NE1/NE .i SE' j, sec. 26, T. 50 S., R. 39 E.:
Oal-0 to 6 inches, black (N 2/0), rubbed and unrubbed,
sapric material; 7 percent fiber, 2 percent rubbed;
65 percent organic material; moderate, medium,
granular structure; friable; many medium and fine
roots; pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sodium pyrophos-
phate extract; slightly acid (pH 6.1 in 0.01M
CaC12); gradual, smooth boundary.
Oa2-6 to 14 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2), rubbed
and unrubbed, sapric material; about 8 percent
fiber; about 64 percent organic material; moderate,
medium, granular structure; friable; few coarse
and fine roots; light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4)
sodium pyrophophate extract; slightly acid (pH
6.1 in 0.01M CaC12); clear, wavy boundary.
IIC-14 to 16 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
grained; loose; slightly acid; abrupt, "irregular
boundary.
IIIC-16 to 18 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sandy marl;
single grained; loose; about 50 percent limestone
fragments; moderately alkaline; abrupt, irregular
boundary.
R-18 inches, hard limestone.
The profile ranges from 14 to 20 inches in thickness, and
the Oa horizon or the organic material is 12 to 20 inches
in thickness. The organic material is more than twice as
thick as the mineral material. Fiber content ranges from
5 to 16 percent. Reaction is strongly acid to slightly acid in
0.01M calcium chloride.
The Oal horizon is black, dark reddish brown, or very
dark brown rubbed. Unrubbed colors are black and dark
reddish brown. Sodium pyrophosphate extract is pale brown,
light yellowish brown, yellowish brown, or brown. This
horizon is 4 to 10 inches in total thicknes. The Oa2 horizon
is black or dark reddish brown rubbed and unrubbed.
Sodium pyrophosphate extract for this horizon is light
yellowish brown, yellowish brown, brown, or dark brown.
The thickness of the Oa2 horizon is 8 to 10 inches.
The IIC horizon is brown, pale brown, dark gray, dark
grayish brown, or very dark gray. This horizon has mottles
of any of these colors in some areas. It is fine sand or sand
that is mixed with some organic matter and is 1 to 4 inches
thick. Reaction is slightly acid to mildly alkaline. The IIIC
horizon is white or light gray. It is mixed with about 40 to
60 percent limestone fragments and is 1 to 5 inches thick.
Reaction is mildly alkaline to moderately alkaline.
Dania soils are associated with Hallandale, Lauderhill,
and Plantation soils. They are organic soils, whereas Hallan-
dale soils are mineral soils. Also they have limestone at a
depth of less than 20 inches, whereas Lauderhill and Plan-
tation soils have limestone at a depth of more than 20
inches.
Dania muck (Da).-This is a nearly level, very poorly
drained, organic soil underlain by limestone at a depth
of 14 to 20 inches. It is in broad flats along the eastern
edge of the Everglades.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
of Lauderhill muck and Plantation muck. Also included
are some soils that have solution holes in the limestone
extending to a depth of more than 50 inches.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegeta-
tion that consists of sawgrass, lilies, and sedges. In
some areas where the sawgrass has been burned,
melaleuca has become established. A few areas are used
for improved pasture.
This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops or citrus be-
cause of the thin layer of organic material above the
limestone, wetness, and flooding. Good pasture of im-


10







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


.oved grasses or grass and clover can be produced
with intensive management. Some water control is
needed to keep water from standing on the surface most
of the year. Nitrogen fertilizer is not needed, but the
soil responds to fertilizer containing potassium and
phosphorus. Grazing should be carefully controlled.
Capability unit Vw-2.

Hallandale Series
The Hallandale series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained sandy soils in broad flats east of the Everglades
and west of the Coastal Ridge. These soils formed in
sandy marine sediment over limestone. Under natural
conditions they are covered with water 1 to 2 months
each year. In most years the water table is at a depth
of 10 inches or less for 4 to 6 months and between
depths of 10 and 20 inches for 6 months or more.
During very dry periods water remains briefly in so-
lution holes in the limestone. Near large drainage
canals the water table fluctuates with the water level
in the canals, and much of the time it is below a depth
of 20 inches.
In a representative profile the surface layer is black
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
about 6 inches of light brownish-gray fine sand. The
subsoil is brown fine sand about 4 inches thick over
2 inches of yellowish-brown fine sand that contains
decomposed limestone fragments. Limestone is at a
depth of 16 inches.
Permeability is rapid in all layers of these soils.
Available water capacity is low in the surface layer
and the layer above the limestone and very low be-
tween depths of 4 and 14 inches. Content of organic
matter and natural fertility are low.
Hallandale soils are suited to improved pasture, but
because of excessive wetness and shallow depth to lime-
stone, they are not suited to cultivated crops or citrus.
Representative profile of Hallandale fine sand about
0.5 mile north of Stirling Road and 0.2 mile east of
Hunter Lane and Holatee Trail Junction, NE1/4NWl/4
SW1/ sec. 34, T. 50 S., R. 40 E.:
Al-0 to 4 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine,
granular structure; very friable; many medium
and fine roots; strongly acid; clear, smooth bound-
ary.
A2-4 to 10 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; few, fine, faint, very dark gray mottles and
streaks along root channels; single grained; loose;
few fine roots; cyclic thickness of 2 to 8 inches;
medium acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B--10 to 14 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; few,
faint, very dark grayish-brown mottles; single
grained; loose; many uncoated, few well coated,
and some thinly coated or partly coated sand
grains; cyclic thickness of 1 to 20 inches; medium
acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B2-14 to 16 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand
and very pale brown (10YR 8/4) decomposed lime-
stone fragments; common, medium, distinct, gray-
ish-brown (10YR 5/2) and yellowish-brown (10YR
5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; slight increase
in clay content; common clean sand grains; discon-
tinuous; cyclic thickness of 0 to 8 inches; neutral;
abrupt, irregular boundary.
IIR-16 inches, hard limestone.
Thickness of the solum and depth to limestone are com-
monly 7 to 20 inches, but solution holes as deep as 50
inches or more are within the profile.
The Al horizon is black, very dark gray, dark gray, or


gray. The A2 horizon is light brownish gray, gray, or gray-
ish brown. The A horizon ranges from 4 to 14 inches in
thickness and from strongly acid to slightly acid in reac-
tion.
The B1 horizon is brown, pale brown, dark brown, or gray-
ish brown. Reaction ranges from medium acid to mildly
alkaline. In some profiles the B1 horizon is absent, but,
where present, it ranges from 1 to 20 inches in thickness.
The B2 horizon is yellowish-brown, dark yellowish-brown, or
brown fine sand 0 to 8 inches thick. This horizon has an
average of about 1 to 3 percent more clay than the B1
horizon. Sandy clay loam or sandy loam is discontinuous
where the B2 horizon contacts the limestone. Grayish marly
material containing small fragments of weathered rock or
carbonatic material is also present at the surface of the
limestone. Reaction in the B2 horizon is neutral to moder-
ately alkaline.
The IIR horizon is hard limestone that has many solution
holes. These holes range from about 4 inches to 3 feet in
diameter and are at intervals of 1 to 6 feet. They are filled
with gray (10YR 5/1), light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2),
pale-brown (10YR 6/3), or very pale brown (10YR 7/4)
fine sand. Solution holes are 50 inches or more in depth.
Hallandale soils are associated with Boca, Dania, Mar-
gate, and Plantation soils. They differ from Boca, Margate,
and Plantation soils by having limestone at a depth of 20
inches or less. Also, they do not have the loamy B horizon
of Boca soils. Hallandale soils do not have the layers of
muck or organic matter of Dania and Plantation soils.
Hallandale fine sand (Ha).-This is a nearly level,
poorly drained, sandy soil that is underlain by lime-
stone at a depth of 7 to 20 inches. It is in broad flats
east of the Everglades and west of the Coastal Ridge.
This soil has the profile described as representative
for the series.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
of Margate fine sand, Dania muck, and Plantation
muck. In some areas a thin layer, 4 inches thick or
less, of organic material is on the surface.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegeta-
tion or improved pasture. The natural vegetation con-
sists of scattered slash pine and saw palmetto, pineland
three-awn, paspalum, blue panicum, blue maidencane,
and bluestem.
This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops or citrus.
Good pasture of improved grasses or grass and clover
can be produced under intensive management. Some
water control and fertilization with trace elements are
needed. Capability unit Vw-1.
Hallandale and Margate soils (Hm).-These are nearly
level, poorly drained soils that have been modified by
grading, shaping, and covering with 8 to 20 inches of
fill material. These alterations were made to provide a
base for construction of homes, streets, and industrial
buildings. Depth to the water table in these soils is
variable and depends on the established drainage in
the area.
Hallandale soil covered with fill material makes up
about 45 percent of the total acreage, and Margate soil
covered with fill makes up about 35 percent. The re-
maining 20 percent is mostly filled ponds, areas of
Pompano soils, and areas of Basinger soils that have
been modified by spreading fill on the surface of the
original soil.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of soils in the Hallandale-Urban land complex.
The fill material on these soils consists of sand, shell
fragments, and limestone fragments. About 80 percent
of the fill is mixed shell and limestone fragments rang-
ing from sand size to 3 inches in diameter. The aver-


11







SOIL SURVEY


age thickness of the fill on these soils is about 12 inches,
but some areas that originally were the lower areas
in the landscape are covered by as much as 5 feet of
fill material.
Planned use of these soils is for urban development
only. Not assigned to a capability unit.
Hallandale-Urban land complex (Hb).-This complex
consists mainly of Hallandale fine sand and Urban
land. Proportions of open land and Urban land, or
areas covered by concrete and buildings, vary from
one mapped area to another. Depth to the water table
depends on the established drainage in the area.
About 20 to 45 percent of the complex is open land,
such as lawns and vacant lots, and about 40 to 70 per-
cent is Urban land. The rest is modified areas of Mar-
gate, Pompano, and Basinger soils and filled ponds.
The open land consists of nearly level, poorly drained
Hallandale soil that has been modified in most places
by spreading fill material on the surface of the original
soil to an average thickness of about 12 inches. The
original soil below the fill material is Hallandale fine
sand. About 80 percent of the fill material consists of a
mixture of sand, limestone, and shell fragments that
range from sand size to about 3 inches in diameter.
The remaining 20 percent is sand.
The Urban land consists of areas covered by side-
walks, streets, patios, driveways, buildings, and other
constructions related to urban use.
The Margate soils have also been modified by spread-
ing fill material on the surface of the original soil to an
average thickness of about 12 inches, and the Pom-
pano and Basinger soils have been modified by spread-
ing fill material on the surface of the original soil.
The determined use of these soils for the foreseeable
future is urban related. Not assigned to a capability
unit.

Immokalee Series
The Immokalee series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils on broad low ridges in the eastern part
of the survey area. These soils formed in unconsolidated
marine sediment. Under natural conditions they have
a water table at a depth of 10 inches or less for 1 to
4 months in most years, and at a depth of 10 to 40
inches for most of the rest of the year. In some years
these soils are covered with shallow water for a few
days.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark-
gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is 34 inches of fine sand. The upper 14 inches is
light gray, and the lower 20 inches is white. The sub-
soil extends to a depth of 80 inches. The upper 22
inches is black fine sand that is weakly cemented and
coated with organic matter. The next 3 inches is dark
reddish-brown fine sand that has black mottles and is
weakly cemented and coated with organic matter. The
lower 15 inches is dark-brown fine sand.
Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid in the
weakly cemented part of the subsoil and rapid in all
other layers. Available water capacity is moderate in
the subsoil and very low in all other layers. Content
of organic matter and natural fertility are low.
Where adequate water control and good manage-
ment practices are in use, Immokalee soils are suited


to winter truck crops and improved pasture grasses.
Representative profile of Immokalee fine sand, 350
feet west of railroad and 1.25 miles south of Hills-
borough Boulevard, SE14NW1/4 sec. 11, T. 48 S., R. 42
E.:
A1-0 to 6 inches, dark gray, rubbed (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
light-gray (10YR 7/1), unrubbed and dry, sand
grains mixed with some organic matter; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
A21-6 to 20 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
A22-20 to 40 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few,
fine, distinct, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks
along root channels; single grained; loose; strongly
acid; clear, wavy boundary.
B21h-40 to 62 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; few,
medium, faint, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) mot-
tles; weak, medium, granular structure; firm;
weakly cemented; most sand grains coated with
organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual,
smooth boundary.
B22h-62 to 65 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) fine
sand; many, medium, faint, black (5YR 2/1) mot-
tles that are weakly cemented; weak, medium,
granular structure; friable; most sand grains
coated with organic matter; very strongly acid;
gradual, smooth boundary.
B3-65 to 80 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sand;
common, fine, faint, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2)
weakly cemented Bh bodies; weak, medium, gran-
ular structure; friable; strongly acid.
Thickness of the solum is 80 inches or more. Depth to
the Bh horizon ranges from 30 to 50 inches. Reaction ranges
from very strongly acid to strongly acid throughout.
The Al or Ap horizon is very dark gray, very dark gray-
ish brown, or dark gray and is 4 to 8 inches thick. The
A21 horizon is gray, light brownish gray, light gray, or
white and is 4 to 28 inches thick. The A22 horizon is white,
gray, or light brownish gray with very dark gray or very
dark grayish brown streaks and is 15 to 30 inches thick. An
A23 horizon that is light brownish gray, light gray, or white
and has very dark grayish-brown or dark-gray streaks is
present in places. It is 0 to 15 inches thick. The entire A
horizon is 30 to 50 inches thick.
The B21h horizon is black, very dark brown, or dark red-
dish brown and in places has a few mottles of light brown-
ish gray to light gray. It is 4 to 24 inches thick. The B21h
horizon is weakly cemented with organic matter. The B22h
horizon is dark reddish brown or dark brown and in places
has a few black mottles that are weakly cemented. Most
sand grains are well coated to thinly coated with organic
matter. The B22h horizon is 3 to 15 inches thick. The B3
horizon is dark brown or dark yellowish brown and has a
few to common dark reddish-brown weakly cemented Bh
bodies. The B3 horizon is 4 to 16 inches thick.
In a few places a dark grayish-brown C horizon is
present.
Immokalee soils are associated with Basinger, Pomello,
and Pompano soils. They have a weakly cemented Bh hori-
zon, whereas Basinger soils have a C&Bh horizon that is not
weakly cemented. They are similar to Pomello soils but are
poorly drained, whereas Pomello soils are moderately well
drained. They have a Bh horizon that Pompano soils do not
have.
Immokalee fine sand (la).-This is a nearly level,
deep, poorly drained, sandy soil that has a layer weakly
cemented with organic matter at a depth of 30 inches or
more. It is on broad, low ridges in the eastern part of
the survey area. This soil has the profile described as
representative for the series.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger fine sand, Pompano fine sand, and Margate
fine sand. Also included are a few areas of soils that
have a thin subsoil that has an accumulation of some


12







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


Figure 5.-Typical vegetation of slash pine, saw palmetto, and
native grasses in an area of Immokalee fine sand.

organic matter and some areas where the surface layer
is gray.
A large part of the acreage of this soil is in natural
vegetation that consists of slash pine, saw palmetto, and
native grasses (fig. 5).
This soil is limited for cultivated crops and improved
pasture by wetness, very low available water capacity
in the upper 40 inches, low content of organic matter,
and low natural fertility. Where adequate water con-
trol and intensive management are in use, this soil is
suited to most truck crops (fig. 6) and to improved
pasture grasses and clover. A water control system that
provides subsurface irrigation by controlling the water
table is needed. This soil is poorly suited to citrus.
Where adequate water control and intensive manage-
ment and fertilization are in use, however, some citrus
can be grown. The soil responds well to application of
complete fertilizer and lime. Capability unit IVw-3.
Immokalee-Urban land complex (lu).-This complex
consists of Immokalee fine sand and Urban land. Pro-
portions of open land and Urban land, or areas covered
by concrete and buildings, vary from one mapped area
to another. Depth to the water table depends on the
established drainage in the area.
About 20 to 45 percent of the complex is open land,
such as lawns and vacant lots, and about 40 to 70 per-
cent is Urban land or areas covered by sidewalks,
streets, patios, driveways, and buildings where the
natural soil cannot be observed.
The open land consists of nearly level, poorly drained
Immokalee soils that have been modified in most places
by spreading sandy material on the surface of the soil to
an average thickness of about 12 inches, but ranging
from about 6 to 20 inches. About 10 percent of the
Immokalee soils have not been modified. The original
soil below the fill material is Immokalee fine sand.
The rest of the land area that is not Immokalee soils
or Urban land consists of Basinger, Pompano, Margate,


Figure 6.-Eggplant growing in an area of Immokalee fine sand
that has been improved for both drainage and irrigation.

and Hallandale soils, all of which have been modified
by spreading fill material on the surface of the original
soil.
About 80 percent of the fill material on the Immo-
kalee soils is sand. The rest of the fill material on the
Immokalee soils and most of the fill material on the
other soils consist almost wholly of a mixture of sand,
shell fragments, and limestone fragments. The shell
fragments and limestone fragments range from sand
size to about 3 inches in diameter and make up 40
percent of the material.
The determined use of these soils for the foreseeable
future is urban related. Not assigned to a capability
unit.

Lauderhill Series
The Lauderhill series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils in broad flats in the Everglades.
These soils formed in hydrophytic plant remains mixed
with a small amount of mineral material. Under natural
conditions these soils are covered with water most of the
year. Even where there is improved drainage, water
stands on the surface for 6 to 12 months each year.
In a representative profile the upper 9 inches is black
sapric material or muck. Below this, to a depth of about
27 inches, is dark reddish-brown sapric material or
muck. Between depths of 27 and 31 inches is dark
reddish-brown sapric material or muck that is about
77 percent mineral material, of which 15 percent is
clay. Hard limestone is at a depth of 31 inches.
Permeability is rapid in these soils. Available water
capacity is very high throughout. Content of organic
matter is very high, and natural fertility is high. These
soils are subject to oxidation, which decreases the
amount of their organic material each year.
Where adequate water control is in use, Lauderhill
soils are well suited to winter truck crops and improved
pasture.
Representative profile of Lauderhill muck, approxi-
mately 700 feet west of U.S. Highway 27 and 1.75 miles
south of Andytown, SE1/SE1/ sec. 4, T. 50 S., R. 39 E.:







SOIL SURVEY


Oal-0 to 9 inches, black (10YR 2/1), rubbed and unrubbed,
sapric material; 4 percent fiber; 67 percent organic
material; moderate, medium, subangular blocky
structure; friable; few fine and medium roots;
brown (10YR 5/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract;
neutral (pH 6.6 in 0.01M CaC12); clear, wavy
boundary.
Oa2-9 to 27 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2), rubbed
and unrubbed, sapric material; 6 percent fiber;
weak, medium, subangular blocky structure; fri-
able; 60 percent organic material; few fine roots;
brown (10YR 5/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract;
slightly acid (pH 6.5 in 0.01M CaC12); gradual,
wavy boundary.
Oa3-27 to 31 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2),
rubbed and unrubbed, sapric material; 20 percent
fiber, 5 percent rubbed; 23 percent organic ma-
terial; about 77 percent mineral material of which
15 percent is clay; moderate, medium, granular
structure; friable; few large roots; brown (10YR
5/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract; neutral (pH
6.6 in 0.01M CaC12) ; abrupt, irregular boundary.
IIR-31 inches, hard limestone.
Thickness of the organic material ranges from 20 to 40
inches. Hard limestone rock is below the soil at a depth of
20 to 40 inches. Where the organic material is less than 20
inches thick, a mineral layer up to 6 inches thick is between
the organic material and limestone. Reaction ranges from
medium acid to neutral in 0.01M calcium chloride.
The Oal horizon is black or dark reddish brown unrubbed.
Rubbed colors are black, very dark brown, dark brown, or
dark reddish brown. Sodium pyrophosphate extract for this
horizon is pale brown, brown, light yellowish brown, or dark
brown. Thickness of this horizon is 6 to 12 inches. The Oa2
horizon is black or dark reddish brown unrubbed. Rubbed
colors are black, very dark brown, dark brown, or dark red-
dish brown. Sodium pyrophosphate extract for this horizon
is light yellowish brown, very pale brown, very dark grayish
brown, or brown. The thickness of this horizon is 10 to 20
inches. The Oa3 horizon is black, very dark gray, or dark
reddish-brown sapric material that is high in content of
mineral material. It is 0 to 10 inches thick.
In many places, the Oa3 horizon is absent, and a IIC
horizon is in the soil between the organic material and the
limestone. Where present, this horizon is black, very dark
gray, gray, or dark-gray sand, loamy sand, or sandy loam
with or without carbonatic material, or gray or white marl
that is mixed with fragments of limestone in some areas.
This horizon ranges to about 6 inches in thickness.
Lauderhill soils are associated with Dania, Hallandale,
and Margate soils. They have limestone bedrock between
depths of 20 and 40 inches, whereas Dania soils have lime-
stone bedrock at a depth of less than 20 inches. They are
organic soils, whereas Margate and Hallandale soils are
mineral soils.
Lauderhill muck (La).-This is a nearly level, very
poorly drained, organic soil underlain by limestone at a
depth of 20 to 40 inches. It is in broad flats in the Ever-
glades.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Dania muck and small areas of soils that have organic
material 36 to 51 inches thick over limestone. Also in-
cluded are small areas that have organic material over-
lying a layer of mineral material more than 6 inches
thick.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegeta-
tion that consists of sawgrass. In some places where
the sawgrass has been burned, melaleuca has become
established. A few acres are in improved pasture.
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops by
excessive wetness. Where it is properly drained, it is
well suited to winter truck crops. After drainage and
the initial subsidence caused by compaction, subsidence
by oxidation is a continual hazard. Thus, structures are
needed that hold the water level at the proper depth for


crops and permit flooding when the soil is left idle. In
addition, fertilizer that is high in all plant nutrients
except nitrogen should be applied frequently. Lime is
needed in places.
This soil is not suited to citrus; however, high-
quality pasture consisting of improved grasses or grass
and clover can be produced with intensive manage-
ment. A drainage system is needed for removing excess
surface water and for maintaining the water table at
shallow (deithI-. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
where needed. Grazing needs to be controlled. Capa-
bility unit IIIw-1.4

Margate Series
The Margate series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils on nearly level, low terraces between the
Everglades and the Coastal Ridge. These soils formed in
sandy marine sediment over limestone. Under natural
conditions they are covered with shallow water for 1 to
4 months. Where there is improved drainage, however,
they are not. The water table is at a depth of 10 inches
for 2 to 6 months in most years and at a depth of 10 to
30 inches most of the rest of the year. In very dry
periods water remains briefly in solution holes in the
limestone.
In a representative profile the surface layer is very
dark gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsur-
face layer is light brownish-gray fine sand about 8
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 28 inches.
The upper 10 inches of the subsoil is brown fine sand,
and the lower 2 inches is brown fine sand mottled with
black streaks in root channels. The lower part of the
subsoil has about 2.5 percent more clay than the upper
part. It is underlain by 4 inches of brown fine sandy
loam and decomposed limestone fragments. Hard lime-
stone rock is at a depth of 32 inches.
Permeability is rapid in all layers of these soils.
Available water capacity is low in the surface layer
and very low in all other layers. Natural fertility and
content of organic matter are low.
Where adequate water control and good management
practices are in use, these soils are suited to citrus,
truck crops, and improved pasture grasses.
Representative profile of Margate fine sand, about
1,980 feet south of Griffin Road and 2,640 feet west of
106th Avenue on Cherry Road, SW'4NW1/, sec. 31, T.
50 S., R. 41 E.:

Ap-0 to 8 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
very strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
A2-8 to 16 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; few streaks of very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
in root channels; single grained; loose; few fine
roots; cyclic thickness of 2 to 8 inches; medium
acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B1-16 to 26 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand, brown
(10YR 4/3) in root channels; single grained;
loose; few medium and fine roots; few clean sand
grains, some partly coated; cyclic thickness of 2 to
10 inches; slightly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B12-26 to 28 inches, brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; common,
medium, distinct, black (10YR 2/1) mottles; single
SPlaced in capability subclass IIIw on the assumption that
drainage outlets are available and reclamation is feasible. Small
areas without drainage outlets should be in capability subclass
Vw.


14








BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


grained; loose; few medium and fine roots; about
2.5 percent increase in clay content from overlying
horizon; many partly coated and common clean
sand grains; cyclic thickness of 2 to 8 inches;
neutral; abrupt, irregular boundary.
C-28 to 32 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) fine sandy loam;
weak, fine, subangular blocky structure; friable;
about 50 percent very pale brown (10YR 7/4) frag-
ments of limestone; moderately alkaline; gradual,
irregular boundary.
IIR-32 inches, hard limestone.
The profile dominantly ranges from 20 to 40 inches thick
over hard limestone, but in places pockets range up to 60
inches.
The Al or Ap horizon is black, very dark gray, or dark
gray and is 6 to 10 inches thick. Reaction in this horizon
is very strongly acid to medium acid. The A2 horizon is
gray, light brownish gray, or grayish brown and is 8 to 16
inches thick. Reaction is strongly acid to slightly acid.
The B1 horizon is brown, grayish brown, or pale brown
and is 2 to 10 inches thick. The B2 horizon is dark grayish
brown, brown, or grayish brown and is 2 to 8 inches thick.
Texture is fine sand with a 1- to 3-percent increase in clay
content. Reaction in the B1 and B2 horizons is slightly acid
to mildly alkaline.
The C horizon is brown or yellowish-brown loamy fine
sand, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam mixed with frag-
ments of hard limestone, soft carbonatic material, or both.
Reaction is mildly alkaline to moderately alkaline. This
horizon is 0 to 5 inches thick.
The IIR horizon is hard limestone that ranges from 20 to
60 inches or more in depth of the solution holes. The holes
range from about 6 inches to 3 feet in diameter and occur
at intervals of about 2 to 6 feet. They are filled with gray,
grayish-brown, light brownish-gray, brown, very pale brown,
or pale-brown fine sand.
Margate soils are associated with Dania, Hallandale, and
Lauderhill soils. They are mineral soils, whereas Dania and
Lauderhill soils are organic. They have limestone at a depth
of 20 to 40 inches, whereas Hallandale soils have limestone
at a depth of less than 20 inches.
Margate fine sand (Ma).-This is a nearly level, poorly
drained, sandy soil that is underlain by limestone at a
depth of 20 to 40 inches but has solution holes as deep as
60 inches. It is on nearly level, low terraces between the
Everglades and the low, sandy Coastal Ridge.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger fine sand and Plantation muck, and small
areas of soils that have up to 8 inches of organic ma-
terial on the surface. Also included are some areas of
soils that are similar to Margate fine sand but have a
very dark gray or black surface layer less than 6 inches
thick to a dark-gray or gray surface layer 3 to 6 inches
thick.
The natural vegetation consists of native grasses,
wax myrtle, and a few cypress trees. Most areas of this
soil are in improved pastures and some citrus.
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops by
excessive wetness and other poor soil properties. Truck
crops and improved pasture grasses can be grown
where water control, fertilization with a complete fer-
tilizer and lime, and proper management practices
are in use. Under very intensive management and ade-
quate water control, citrus can be grown on this soil
(fig. 7). For all crops and pasture, a complete water
control system is needed that provides subsurface irri-
gation by controlling the water table. Capability unit
IVw-2.

Paola Series
The Paola series consists of nearly level, excessively
drained soils on low knolls and ridges that are part of


Figure 7.-Well-managed citrus grove (grapefruit trees) on
Margate fine sand.

the Coastal Ridge in the northeastern part of the
county. These soils formed in unconsolidated marine
sediment. The water table is below a depth of 80 inches
throughout the year.
In a representative profile the surface layer is gray
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
white fine sand about 22 inches thick. The subsoil,
about 36 inches thick, is yellow fine sand. Light
yellowish-brown fine sand is at a depth of 62 to 83
inches.
Permeability is very rapid in all layers of these soils.
Available water capacity is very low in all layers. Nat-
ural fertility and content of organic matter are low.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or citrus.
They are poorly suited to improved pasture.
Representative profile of Paola fine sand, 1,200 feet
west of the east-west runway of Pompano Beach Air-
port, NW/4NWVi/ sec. 36, T. 48 S., R. 42 E.:
A1-0 to 4 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; very
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
A2-4 to 26 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few,
coarse, distinct, gray (10YR 5/1) and dark-gray
(10YR 4/1) mottles in root channels; single
grained; loose; few coarse roots; very strongly
acid; abrupt, wavy boundary.
B2-26 to 62 inches, yellow (10YR 7/8) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few tongues filled with light-colored
sand from the A2 horizon throughout; outer edges
of the tongues stained with very dark grayish-
brown (10YR 3/2) organic material that in places
is weakly cemented; outer edges of the tongues are
less than 2 inches thick; few coarse roots; very
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
C-62 to 83 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) fine
sand; many, coarse, distinct, yellowish-brown
(10YR 5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; very
strongly acid.
Paola soils are 80 inches or more in thickness. Reaction
ranges from very strongly acid to strongly acid throughout.
The Al horizon is 2 to 5 inches thick and is dark gray, gray,
or dark grayish brown. The A2 horizon is gray, light gray, or
white and is 6 to 40 inches thick. The B horizon is yellow,
brownish yellow, yellowish brown, or strong brown and is
12 to 40 inches thick. The tongues filled with A2 material


15







SOIL SURVEY


are lacking in some places. The C horizon is light yellowish
brown, brown, pale brown, or very pale brown. It is mottled
with darker or lighter colors in places.
Paola soils are associated with Pomello and St Lucie soils.
They are better drained than Pomello soils, and do not have
the Bh horizon of those soils. They have a B horizon that is
not present in St. Lucie soils.
Paola fine sand (Pa).-This is a nearly level, deep,
excessively drained, sandy soil on low knolls and ridges
that make up the Coastal Ridge in the northeastern part
of the county. It has the profile described as representa-
tive for the series.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Immokalee fine sand, Pomello fine sand, and St. Lucie
fine sand.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegeta-
tion that consists of sand pine, scrub live oak and an
undergrowth of cacti and native grasses.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or citrus be-
cause it is drought and has many other poor soil
properties. Plant nutrients are lost rapidly through
leaching. Improved pasture of fair quality can be pro-
duced under intensive management. Deep-rooted
grasses that resist drought should be planted. In addi-
tion, large amounts of fertilizer and lime need to be ap-
plied frequently. Grazing should be delayed during ini-
tial development and controlled carefully thereafter.
Capability unit VIs-1.
Paola-Urban land complex (Pb).-This complex con-
sists of about 55 to 75 percent Paola soils which are
commonly in lawns, vacant lots, and playgrounds and
20 to 45 percent Urban land that is more than 70 per-
cent covered by houses, streets, driveways, buildings,
parking lots, and similar constructions so that the nat-
ural soil is not readily observable.
The Paola soils have been modified by grading and
shaping or generally altered for community develop-
ment, and although they can be recognized and are
similar to those described as representative for the
Paola series, close investigation is difficult, and map-
ping them separately from Urban land is not feasible.
In older communities alteration of the soil has not been
great; but more reworking and reshaping has taken
place in the newer, more densely developed communi-
ties. Excavation of streets below the original land sur-
face and the spreading of this excavated material over
adjacent land areas, particularly narrow strips near
roads, is a common practice.
Included with this complex in mapping are small
areas of St. Lucie fine sand and Pomello fine sand.
The determined use of these soils for the foreseeable
future is urban related. Not assigned to a capability
unit.

Plantation Series
The Plantation series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils in broad flats along the eastern
edge of the Everglades. These soils formed in uncon-
solidated sandy marine sediment. Under natural condi-
tions they are covered with water most of the year.
Even where there is improved drainage, there are times
when water stands on the surface for a few days. The
water table is at a depth of 10 inches or less for 2 to 6
months and 20 inches or less the rest of the year dur-
ing most years.


In a representative profile a layer of sapric material
or muck about 10 inches thick covers the surface. It is
black in the upper 4 inches and dark reddish brown in
the lower 6 inches. The mineral surface layer is dark-
gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. Below this is a
layer of light-gray fine sand, about 12 inches thick, that
has black mottles; 5 inches of pale-brown fine sand that
has mottles of very dark gray and light gray; and 2
inches of pale-brown fine sandy loam that is about 50
percent limestone fragments. Hard limestone rock is 35
inches below the surface of the muck and 25 inches be-
low the top of the mineral surface layer.
Permeability is rapid in all layers of these soils.
Available water capacity is very high in the muck lay-
ers and very low in the sandy layers. Natural fertility is
moderate. Content of organic matter is very high in the
muck layers and low in the mineral surface layer.
Where adequate water control and good management
practices are in use, Plantation soils are suited to winter
truck crops and improved pasture.
Representative profile of Plantation muck, about 520
feet west of Snake Creek Road and 1.1 miles north of
Canal number 9, NW1/SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 26, T. 51 S., R.
40 E.:
Oal-10 to 6 inches, black (N 2/0), rubbed and unrubbed,
sapric material; 6 percent fiber; 50 percent mineral
material; weak, fine, subangular blocky structure;
friable; few fine and medium roots; pale-brown
(10YR 6/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract;
strongly acid (pH 5.3 in 0.01M CaC12); clear,
smooth boundary.
Oa2-6 inches to 0, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2), rubbed
and unrubbed, sapric material; 10 percent fiber; 37
percent mineral material; weak, medium, subangu-
lar blocky structure; friable; few medium roots;
light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sodium pyro-
phosphate extract; strongly acid (pH 5.4 in 0.01M
CaC12); clear, wavy boundary.
IIA1-0 to 6 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; many,
coarse, distinct, gray (10YR 6/1) mottles and
streaks; single grained; loose; many uncoated sand
grains; medium acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
IIA2-6 to 18 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; com-
mon, medium, distinct, black (10YR 2/1) mottles;
single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
cyclic thickness of 7 to 28 inches; slightly acid;
gradual, wavy boundary.
IIC1-18 to 23 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
common, medium, distinct, very dark gray (10YR
3/1) and common, coarse, distinct, light-gray
(10YR 7/2) mottles; single grained; loose; some
partly coated and very thinly coated and common
clean sand grains; mildly alkaline; abrupt, irregu-
lar boundary.
IIC2-23 to 25 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) fine sandy
loam; weak, fine, subangular blocky structure;
friable; about 50 percent limestone fragments that
are very pale brown (10YR 7/3) and yellow (10YR
8/6) ; moderately alkaline; abrupt, irregular
boundary.
IIIR-25 inches, hard limestone.
Above the limestone the profile ranges from 28 to 56
inches in thickness, but solution pits are more than 60 inches
deep. Reaction is strongly acid to slightly acid in the organic
material, in 0.01M calcium chloride, and slightly acid to
moderately alkaline in the mineral material.
The Oal horizon is black or dark reddish brown and is 1
to 12 inches thick. The Oa2 horizon is dark reddish brown
or very dark brown and is 4 to 12 inches thick.
The IIA1 horizon is dark gray, black, very dark gray, or
gray and is 4 to 8 inches thick. The IIA2 horizon is light
gray, gray, dark gray. or light brownish gray and is 8 to
20 inches thick.
The IIC1 horizon is brown, yellowish brown, pale brown,


16







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


or very pale brown and is 5 to 10 inches thick. In many
places this horizon has very dark gray, black, or dark-gray
mottles or black, very dark brown, or dark reddish-brown
weakly cemented fragments. The IIC2 horizon is pale brown,
brown, or yellowish brown and is 0 to 4 inches thick. It is
fine sand to fine sandy loam, and is about 40 to 60 percent
pale-brown or yellow limestone fragments.
The IIIR horizon is hard limestone and has solution pits
of varying depth and width.
Plantation soils are associated with Boca, Dania, Hallan-
dale, and Margate soils. They have an organic surface layer
that is not present in Boca, Hallandale, and Margate soils.
They do not have the loamy B horizon of Boca soils. They
are deeper to limestone than Dania and Hallandale soils.
Plantation muck (Pm).-This is a nearly level, very
poorly drained soil that has a muck surface layer over
sandy mineral material. It is in broad flats along the
eastern edge of the Everglades. The organic surface
layer is subject to oxidation, which decreases its
amount of organic material each year.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
areas of Dania muck, Lauderhill muck, Margate fine
sand, and Hallandale fine sand.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation that
consists of sawgrass, paspalum, maidencane, and cut-
throat grass. In some areas that have been burned,
melaleuca and myrtle have become established. Some
areas that have adequate water control are used for im-
proved pasture.
In its natural condition, this soil is very severely
limited for cultivated crops and pasture because of ex-
cessive wetness and flooding. It is not suited to citrus.
The water table is generally controlled by existing
ditches. Where adequate water control and proper man-
agement are in use, this soil is well suited to winter
truck crops and improved pasture grasses or grass and
clover. After drainage and the initial subsidence caused
by compaction, subsidence by oxidation is a continual
hazard. Thus, structures are needed that hold the water
level at the proper depth for crops and that permit
flooding of the soil when left idle. In addition, fertilizer
that is high in all plant nutrients except nitrogen
should be applied frequently. Lime is needed in some
places. Grazing needs to be controlled on improved
pasture. Capability unit IIIw-2.5

Pomello Series
The Pomello series consists of nearly level to gently
sloping, moderately well drained soils on low ridges
east of the Everglades. These soils formed in uncon-
solidated marine sands. In most years the water table
is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 2 to 4 months and
between depths of 40 and 60 inches most of the rest of
the year.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark-
gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is 33 inches of fine sand. The upper 3 inches is
light gray, and the lower 30 inches is white. The sub-
soil extends to a depth of 80 inches. The upper 14 inches
is black fine sand that is weakly cemented; the next 20
inches is dark reddish-brown fine sand that also is
weakly cemented; the lower 8 inches is dark reddish-
brown fine sand.
'Placed in capability subclass IIIw on the assumption that
drainage outlets are available and reclamation is feasible. Small
areas without drainage outlets should be in capability subclass
Vw.


Permeability is very rapid to a depth of about 38
inches, moderate between depths of 38 and 72 inches,
and rapid between depths of 72 and 80 inches. Avail-
able water capacity is very low to a depth of 38 inches,
moderate between depths of 38 and 72 inches, and low
between depths of 72 and 80 inches. Natural fertility
and content of organic matter are low.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or citrus.
They are poorly suited to improved pasture.
Representative profile of Pomello fine sand, 0.9 mile
south of State Road 84 and 0.85 mile west of Pine
Island Road, SEI'SW sec. 17, T. 50 S., R. 41 E.:
Al-0 to 5 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; many fine and medium and few
large roots; very strongly acid; smooth, wavy
boundary.
A21-5 to 8 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; few,
fine, faint, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) mottles in root
channels; single grained; loose; few fine and
medium roots; very strongly acid; clear, smooth
boundary.
A22-8 to 38 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few, fine,
faint, gray (10YR 6/1) streaks in root channels;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
very strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B21h-38 to 52 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; many
light-gray (10YR 7/1) uncoated sand grains;
weakly cemented; massive in place, parting to
weak, medium, granular structure; friable; few
fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual,
wavy boundary.
B22h-52 to 72 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) fine
sand; common, distinct, black (10YR 2/1) organic
coated sand grains; weakly cemented; massive in
place, parting to weak, fine, granular structure;
friable; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy bound-
ary.
B3-72 to 80 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/4) fine
sand; common, black (10YR 2/1), organic coated
sand grains; single grained; loose; very strongly
acid.
The solum is 80 inches or more in thickness. Reaction
ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid throughout.
The Al horizon is black, dark gray, or very dark gray
and is 3 to 6 inches thick. The A21 and A22 horizons are
gray, light gray, or white and have a combined thickness of
8 to 38 inches.
The B2h horizon is black or dark reddish brown. The B21h
horizon is 6 to 16 inches thick, and the B22h horizon is 8 to
24 inches thick. The B3 horizon is dark brown or dark red-
dish brown or dark yellowish brown and extends to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
Pomello soils are associated with Immokalee, Margate,
Paola, and St. Lucie soils. They are better drained than
Immokalee soils. They have a Bh horizon, whereas Paola
and St. Lucie soils are excessively drained.
Pomello fine sand (Po).-This is a nearly level to
gently sloping, deep, moderately well drained, sandy
soil that has a layer weakly cemented with organic
matter at a depth of 30 or more inches. It is on low
ridges east of the Everglades.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
of a moderately well drained soil that does not have a
subsoil that has an accumulation of organic matter.
Also included are small areas of St. Lucie sand.
The natural vegetation consists of pine, palmetto,
live oak, and native grasses.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or citrus.
Even under intensive management, it is too drought
and leaches too rapidly for good growth of such crops.
Where intensive management practices are in use, im-
proved deep-rooted pasture grasses of fair quality can
be produced. Large amounts of fertilizer should be ap-


17







SOIL SURVEY


plied frequently, and lime is also needed. Grazing
should be delayed during initial development and con-
trolled carefully thereafter. Capability unit VIs-2.

Pompano Series
The Pompano series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils in sloughs and broad flats. These soils
formed in thick beds of marine sand. Under natural
conditions they are covered with shallow water for 1 to
2 months during the year. Under improved drainage
they are not. During most years, the water table is at a
depth of 10 inches or less for 2 to 6 months and at a
depth of 30 inches or less most of the rest of the year.
In a representative profile the surface layer is gray
fine sand about 7 inches thick. Below this is gray and
light-gray fine sand to a depth of 43 inches. Brown
fine sand is at a depth of 43 to 80 inches.
Permeability is rapid in all layers of these soils.
Available water capacity is very low in all layers. Nat-
ural fertility and content of organic matter are low.
Where adequate water control and good management
practices are in use, Pompano soils are suited to winter
truck crops and improved pasture grasses.
Representative profile of Pompano fine sand, 1.25
miles east of the Turnpike and 0.5 mile north of Pros-
pect Road, SW1/NE1/ sec. 8, T. 49 S., R. 48 E.:
Al-0 to 7 inches, gray (10YR 5/1), crushed and rubbed,
fine sand; organic matter and gray fine sand have
a salt-and-pepper appearance; weak, fine, granular
structure; very friable; many fine and medium
roots; very strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
C1-7 to 17 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; few, fine,
faint, white (10YR 8/1) mottles; single grained;
loose; few fine and medium roots; very strongly
acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
C2-17 to 35 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; com-
mon, medium, distinct, very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
streaks in root channels; single grained; loose; few
coarse roots; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy
boundary.
C3-35 to 43 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; many,
medium, distinct, very dark grayish-brown (10YR
3/2) mottles in root channels and few, fine, faint,
white (10YR 8/1) mottles; single grained; loose;
very strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
C4-43 to 80 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; many,
medium, distinct, very dark grayish-brown (10YR
3/2) mottles in root channels; single grained;
loose; very strongly acid.
Pompano soils are more than 80 inches thick. Reaction
ranges from very strongly acid to strongly acid throughout.
The Al or Ap horizon is black, dark gray, very dark gray,
or gray and is 2 to 8 inches thick.
The C1 horizon is gray, grayish brown, light brownish
gray, or dark grayish brown and is 8 to 20 inches thick.
The C2 horizon is light brownish gray, grayish brown,
brown, or light gray and is 2 to 20 inches thick The C3
and C4 horizons are light brownish gray, pale brown,
brown, grayish brown, or light gray. The C3 horizon is 8
to 20 inches thick, and the C4 horizon is 15 to 40 inches
thick or more.
Pompano soils are associated with Basinger, Immokalee,
Margate, and Sanibel soils. They do not have the C1 & Bh
horizon of Basinger soils or the Bh horizon of Immoka-
lee soils. They are more than 80 inches deep, whereas
Margate soils have limestone bedrock at a depth of 20 to
40 inches. They do not have the organic surface layer of
Sanibel soils.
Pompano fine sand (Pp).-This is a nearly level, deep,
poorly drained, sandy soil in sloughs and broad flats in
the eastern part of the Area. Included in mapping are


small areas of Immokalee fine sand, Basinger fine sand,
and Margate fine sand.
The natural vegetation consists of pepper, slash pine,
and guava trees and native grasses. Scattered cypress
is in some lower areas.
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops by
wetness and other adverse soil properties. Winter truck
crops and improved pasture grasses or a mixture of
grass and clover can be grown where adequate water
control and fertilization and intensive management are
in use. This soil responds well to applications of com-
plete fertilizer, including minor elements, and lime. It
is severely limited for citrus. If it is used for citrus,
very intensive management practices and adequate wa-
ter control are needed. Capability unit IVw-1.

Sanibel Series
The Sanibel series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils in ponds, drainageways, and low
broad flats. These soils formed in thick beds of sand
beneath a thin mantle of organic material. Under nat-
ural conditions they are covered with shallow water
for 2 to 6 months, but where there is improved drain-
age, they are not. The water table is at depths of less
than 10 inches for 6 to 12 months during most years.
In a representative profile a layer of sapric material
or muck about 9 inches thick covers the surface. It is
black in the upper 2 inches and dark reddish brown in
the lower 7 inches. The mineral surface layer is black
fine sand mixed with organic material and is about 1
inch thick. The next layer is grayish-brown fine sand
about 8 inches thick, and below this is a layer of light-
gray fine sand about 51 inches thick or more.
Permeability is rapid in all layers of these soils.
Available water capacity is very high in the muck
layers and very low in the sandy layers. Content of
organic matter is very high in the muck layers and
low in the sandy mineral surface layer. Natural fer-
tility is moderate.
Where adequate water control and good manage-
ment practices are in use, the Sanibel soils are suited to
winter truck crops, improved pasture grasses and
clover, and citrus.
Representative profile of Sanibel muck, 1.5 miles
north of Hollywood Boulevard and 0.1 mile west of
WGMA Radio Station on Palm Avenue, SW1/SW1/4 sec.
5, T. 51 S., R. 41 E.:
Oal-9 to 7 inches, black (N 2/0) material; 5 percent fiber;
weak, medium, granular structure; friable; many
fine and medium roots; about 55 percent mineral
material; light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) so-
dium pyrophosphate extract; medium acid (pH 5.8
in 0.01M CaC12); clear, smooth boundary.
Oa2-7 inches to 0, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) sapric
material; 5 percent fiber; weak, medium, subangu-
lar blocky structure; very friable; few fine roots;
about 48 percent mineral material; light yellowish-
brown (10YR 6/4) sodium pyrophosphate extract;
strongly acid (pH 5.5 in 0.01M CaC12); gradual,
wavy boundary.
IIA-0 to 1 inch, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand mixed with
well-decomposed organic material; weak, medium,
crumb structure; very friable; few fine roots; me-
dium acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
IIC1-1 to 9 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
few, fine, faint, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
medium acid; gradual, wavy boundary.


18







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


IIC2-9 to 60 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; com-
mon, medium, distinct, dark-brown (10YR 3/3)
mottles in root channels; single grained; loose;
medium acid.
Sanibel soils are 60 inches or more in thickness. Reaction
ranges from strongly acid to neutral throughout.
The Oa horizon is 8 to 16 inches thick. The Oal horizon
is black sapric material. The Oa2 horizon is dark reddish-
brown or black sapric material. This horizon is absent in
some places.
The IIA horizon is grayish brown, dark grayish brown,
gray, dark gray, or black. This horizon is 1 to 4 inches
thick.
The IIC horizon is gray, light gray, white, light brownish
gray, or grayish brown. The IIC1 horizon is 7 to 20 inches
thick. The IIC2 horizon extends to a depth of 60 inches or
more below the surface of the mineral soil.
Sanibel soils are associated with Basinger, Immokalee,
and Pompano soils. They do not have the CI&BH horizon
of Basinger soils and the Bh horizon of Immokalee soils.
They have an organic surface layer that Basinger, Im-
mokalee, and Pompano soils do not have.
Sanibel muck (Sa).-This is a nearly level, deep, very
poorly drained soil that has a muck surface layer over
sandy mineral material. It is in ponds, drainageways,
and low broad flats in the eastern part of the county.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Dania muck, Lauderhill muck, Plantation muck, and
Margate fine sand. Also included are a few small areas
of soils that are similar to Sanibel muck but have a dark
grayish-brown underlying layer.
The natural vegetation consists of sawgrass. In some
areas where the sawgrass has been burned, melaleuca
and myrtle have become established. About 75 percent
of this soil has adequate water control and is used for
citrus production and improved pasture.
In its native state, this soil is not suited to cultivated
crops, citrus, or improved pasture grasses because of
wetness and flooding. Where adequate water control
and good management practices are in use, this soil is
suited to winter truck crops, citrus, and improved pas-
ture grasses and clover. After drainage, subsidence
caused by oxidation is a continual hazard. Structures
are needed that hold the water level at the proper depth
for crops and that permit flooding of the soil when left
idle. In addition, large amounts of fertilizer that is high
in all plant nutrients except nitrogen should be applied
frequently. Lime is needed in places. Grazing needs to
be controlled in pasture areas. Capability unit IIIw-3.

St. Lucie Series
The St. Lucie series consists of nearly level, exces-
sively drained soils on low knolls and ridges in the
eastern part of the county. These soils formed in thick
beds of marine sand. The water table is below a depth
of 80 inches.
In a representative profile the surface layer is gray
fine sand about 4 inches thick. White fine sand is be-
tween depths of 4 and 82 inches. Below this, to a depth
of 94 inches, is white fine sand mottled with brown.
Permeability is very rapid throughout these soils.
Available water capacity is very low in all layers. Nat-
ural fertility and content of organic matter are low.
St. Lucie soils are not suited to cultivated crops or
citrus and have only limited use for improved pasture.
Representative profile of St. Lucie fine sand, 400 feet
south of Cypress Creek Road and 3,320 feet west of


NW 12th Avenue, NE14NE14SW14, sec. 9, T. 49 S., R
42 E.:
A1-0 to 4 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
C1-4 to 9 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; common,
medium, distinct, gray (10YR 5/1) and dark-gray
(10YR 4/1) streaks along root channels; single
grained; loose; few coarse roots; strongly acid;
gradual, wavy boundary.
C2-9 to 82 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few coarse roots; strongly acid;
gradual, wavy boundary.
C3-82 to 94 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few, fine,
faint, brown (10YR 4/3) and dark yellowish-
brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; single grained; loose;
strongly acid.
St. Lucie soils are 80 or more inches deep. Reaction ranges
from very strongly acid to strongly acid throughout. The Al
horizon is gray or light gray and is 2 to 5 inches thick.
The C horizon is white or light gray. This horizon has mot-
tles in shades of gray, yellow, or brown below a depth of 40
inches in some places.
St. Lucie soils are associated with Paola and Pomello soils.
They do not have the B horizon of Paola soils or the Bh
horizon of Pomello soils. They are excessively drained,
whereas Pomello soils are moderately well drained.
St. Lucie fine sand (St).-This is a nearly level, deep,
excessively drained, sandy soil on low knolls and ridges
in the eastern part of the county. Included in mapping
are small areas of Immokalee fine sand, Pomello fine
sand, and Paola fine sand.
The natural vegetation consists of sand pine, scrub
oak, a few palmetto, and cacti.
This soil has properties that make it unsuited to
cultivated crops and citrus and very limited for use as
improved pasture. Pasture grasses are hard to main-
tain and grow poorly because of droughtiness and in-
fertility. Fertilizers leach rapidly. Capability unit
VIIs-1.

Udorthents
Udorthents is the name for unconsolidated material
or heterogeneous geologic soil material that has been
excavated and piled alongside canals and dug ponds,
and soils that have been shaped and contoured primar-
ily for golf courses. This soil material is well drained to
excessively drained. Alongside canals and dug ponds
slopes are 2 to 40 percent, and the water table is
generally below a depth of 60 inches throughout the
year. In areas of golf courses, the water table is mostly
variable and depends on water control, but is generally
at a depth of more than 20 inches.
In a representative profile light-gray to white un-
consolidated material extends from the surface to a
depth of 57 inches. This material is 65 percent broken
fragments of consolidated shell and limestone, 30 per-
cent sand, and 5 percent loamy carbonatic material.
Permeability and available water capacity are vari-
able, but permeability is mostly rapid, and available
water capacity is generally very low or low. Natural
fertility and content of organic matter are low.
Areas of Udorthents alongside canals and dug ponds
generally remain idle and serve no useful purpose, but
at times material from these areas is hauled away and
used as fill. These areas are not suited to cultivated
crops, citrus, or improved pasture. Areas that have


19







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


IIC2-9 to 60 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; com-
mon, medium, distinct, dark-brown (10YR 3/3)
mottles in root channels; single grained; loose;
medium acid.
Sanibel soils are 60 inches or more in thickness. Reaction
ranges from strongly acid to neutral throughout.
The Oa horizon is 8 to 16 inches thick. The Oal horizon
is black sapric material. The Oa2 horizon is dark reddish-
brown or black sapric material. This horizon is absent in
some places.
The IIA horizon is grayish brown, dark grayish brown,
gray, dark gray, or black. This horizon is 1 to 4 inches
thick.
The IIC horizon is gray, light gray, white, light brownish
gray, or grayish brown. The IIC1 horizon is 7 to 20 inches
thick. The IIC2 horizon extends to a depth of 60 inches or
more below the surface of the mineral soil.
Sanibel soils are associated with Basinger, Immokalee,
and Pompano soils. They do not have the CI&BH horizon
of Basinger soils and the Bh horizon of Immokalee soils.
They have an organic surface layer that Basinger, Im-
mokalee, and Pompano soils do not have.
Sanibel muck (Sa).-This is a nearly level, deep, very
poorly drained soil that has a muck surface layer over
sandy mineral material. It is in ponds, drainageways,
and low broad flats in the eastern part of the county.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Dania muck, Lauderhill muck, Plantation muck, and
Margate fine sand. Also included are a few small areas
of soils that are similar to Sanibel muck but have a dark
grayish-brown underlying layer.
The natural vegetation consists of sawgrass. In some
areas where the sawgrass has been burned, melaleuca
and myrtle have become established. About 75 percent
of this soil has adequate water control and is used for
citrus production and improved pasture.
In its native state, this soil is not suited to cultivated
crops, citrus, or improved pasture grasses because of
wetness and flooding. Where adequate water control
and good management practices are in use, this soil is
suited to winter truck crops, citrus, and improved pas-
ture grasses and clover. After drainage, subsidence
caused by oxidation is a continual hazard. Structures
are needed that hold the water level at the proper depth
for crops and that permit flooding of the soil when left
idle. In addition, large amounts of fertilizer that is high
in all plant nutrients except nitrogen should be applied
frequently. Lime is needed in places. Grazing needs to
be controlled in pasture areas. Capability unit IIIw-3.

St. Lucie Series
The St. Lucie series consists of nearly level, exces-
sively drained soils on low knolls and ridges in the
eastern part of the county. These soils formed in thick
beds of marine sand. The water table is below a depth
of 80 inches.
In a representative profile the surface layer is gray
fine sand about 4 inches thick. White fine sand is be-
tween depths of 4 and 82 inches. Below this, to a depth
of 94 inches, is white fine sand mottled with brown.
Permeability is very rapid throughout these soils.
Available water capacity is very low in all layers. Nat-
ural fertility and content of organic matter are low.
St. Lucie soils are not suited to cultivated crops or
citrus and have only limited use for improved pasture.
Representative profile of St. Lucie fine sand, 400 feet
south of Cypress Creek Road and 3,320 feet west of


NW 12th Avenue, NE14NE14SW14, sec. 9, T. 49 S., R
42 E.:
A1-0 to 4 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
C1-4 to 9 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; common,
medium, distinct, gray (10YR 5/1) and dark-gray
(10YR 4/1) streaks along root channels; single
grained; loose; few coarse roots; strongly acid;
gradual, wavy boundary.
C2-9 to 82 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few coarse roots; strongly acid;
gradual, wavy boundary.
C3-82 to 94 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few, fine,
faint, brown (10YR 4/3) and dark yellowish-
brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; single grained; loose;
strongly acid.
St. Lucie soils are 80 or more inches deep. Reaction ranges
from very strongly acid to strongly acid throughout. The Al
horizon is gray or light gray and is 2 to 5 inches thick.
The C horizon is white or light gray. This horizon has mot-
tles in shades of gray, yellow, or brown below a depth of 40
inches in some places.
St. Lucie soils are associated with Paola and Pomello soils.
They do not have the B horizon of Paola soils or the Bh
horizon of Pomello soils. They are excessively drained,
whereas Pomello soils are moderately well drained.
St. Lucie fine sand (St).-This is a nearly level, deep,
excessively drained, sandy soil on low knolls and ridges
in the eastern part of the county. Included in mapping
are small areas of Immokalee fine sand, Pomello fine
sand, and Paola fine sand.
The natural vegetation consists of sand pine, scrub
oak, a few palmetto, and cacti.
This soil has properties that make it unsuited to
cultivated crops and citrus and very limited for use as
improved pasture. Pasture grasses are hard to main-
tain and grow poorly because of droughtiness and in-
fertility. Fertilizers leach rapidly. Capability unit
VIIs-1.

Udorthents
Udorthents is the name for unconsolidated material
or heterogeneous geologic soil material that has been
excavated and piled alongside canals and dug ponds,
and soils that have been shaped and contoured primar-
ily for golf courses. This soil material is well drained to
excessively drained. Alongside canals and dug ponds
slopes are 2 to 40 percent, and the water table is
generally below a depth of 60 inches throughout the
year. In areas of golf courses, the water table is mostly
variable and depends on water control, but is generally
at a depth of more than 20 inches.
In a representative profile light-gray to white un-
consolidated material extends from the surface to a
depth of 57 inches. This material is 65 percent broken
fragments of consolidated shell and limestone, 30 per-
cent sand, and 5 percent loamy carbonatic material.
Permeability and available water capacity are vari-
able, but permeability is mostly rapid, and available
water capacity is generally very low or low. Natural
fertility and content of organic matter are low.
Areas of Udorthents alongside canals and dug ponds
generally remain idle and serve no useful purpose, but
at times material from these areas is hauled away and
used as fill. These areas are not suited to cultivated
crops, citrus, or improved pasture. Areas that have


19







SOIL SURVEY


been shaped and contoured are used primarily for golf
courses.
Representative profile of Udorthents, about 0.6 mile
west of University Drive and 0.3 mile north of State
Highway 84, SE1,SE1ISW1! sec. 16, T. 50 S., R. 41 E.:
C-0 to 57 inches, mixed light-gray (10YR 7/1) and white
(10YR 8/1) unconsolidated material; 65 percent
broken shell rock and limerock fragments, 30 per-
cent sand mixed with shell, and 5 percent loamy
carbonatic material; few, fine, faint, very dark
mottles; massive; friable; moderately alkaline.
Reaction ranges from moderately alkaline to strongly
alkaline. The material is mainly gray, white, dark gray,
brown, yellow, dark yellowish brown, and pale brown. It is
a mixture of shell rock and limerock fragments, sand, shell,
loamy sand, and sandy loam or sandy clay loam carbonatic
material.
Associated with Udorthents are Urban land and areas of
manmade lakes and canals.
Udorthents (Ud).-This soil consists of areas of un-
consolidated or heterogeneous geologic material re-
moved in the excavation of ditches, canals, lakes, and
ponds. It is commonly piled along banks and has slopes
of 2 to 40 percent. This soil has the profile described
as representative for Udorthents. Few if any other
soils are included in mapping.
Vegetation of weeds and native grasses has become
established on some areas of Udorthents. Other areas
have little or no vegetation. The soil material is erod-
ible, especially where slopes are steep and where areas
are bare or sparsely vegetated.
This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops, citrus, or im-
proved pasture. It is frequently used as a source of
roadbuilding material and as a source of fill for new
homesites, golf courses, and other purposes. Capability
unit VIIIs-1.
Udorthents, shaped (Un). -This soil consists of ma-
terial that has been shaped and contoured mainly for
golf courses. The original soil material has been re-
shaped or covered with fill or soil and reshaped to make
a proper playing surface. Nearly all areas are covered
with fill to a depth of 20 inches or more. Some areas
consist mostly of limestone rock fragments, while oth-
ers consist of sand. The fill is commonly obtained from
ponds dug on the golf courses. Properties of the fill
material are variable, but the identifiable underlying
soils have properties representative of their respective
series.
About 50 percent of the soils that underlie the fill in
this mapping unit can be identified. Of this 50 percent,
66 percent of the soils are in the Hallandale and Mar-
gate series, and the remaining 34 percent are in the
Pompano, Immokalee, Basinger, Pomello, and Paola
series.
Included with Udorthents in mapping are some areas
of Urban land that contain the interchanges on Inter-
state Highway 95 in the northern end of the county.
These interchanges are contoured and shaped and, on
the average, are 15 to 20 feet above ground level. Also
included is a residential area of about 240 acres along
Covered Bridge Drive in Coral Springs. This area has
been filled and contoured similarly to the areas used as
golf courses.
Under proper fertilization, water control, and irri-
gation, areas of Udorthents support grasses suitable
for golf courses.
The main determined use of this soil for the foresee-


able future is for golf courses. Not assigned to a capa-
bility unit.

Urban Land
Urban land (Ur).-This type consists of areas that
are more than 70 percent covered with airports, shop-
ping centers, parking lots, large buildings, streets and
sidewalks, and other structures, so that the natural soil
is not readily observable. Unoccupied areas of this land
type, mostly lawns, parks, vacant lots, and playgrounds,
consist of soils in the Hallandale, Margate, Immokalee,
and Basinger series that have been altered by fill ma-
terial spread on the surface to an average thickness of
about 12 inches. These unoccupied areas are in tracts
too small to be mapped separately. The fill is mostly
sandy material, some of which contains limestone and
shell fragments. Not assigned to a capability unit.


Use and Management of the Soils
This section explains nonfarm uses of the soils in
the Broward County Area. First, the soils are rated
and interpretations are given for various engineering
uses. Following this, use of the soils for farming is
discussed, the system of capability classification used
by the Soil Conservation Service is explained, and es-
timated yields of the principal crops grown in the
Area are given. Also covered in this section is suit-
ability of the soils for wildlife habitat and recrea-
tional development.
The Broward County Area has urbanized rapidly.
Much land that only a few years ago was used for
commercial production of citrus, truck and other farm
crops, and cattle has been converted to nonfarm uses.
If this trend continues, indications are that very little
of the Area will remain in farm uses.

Engneering Uses of the Soils '
This section is useful to those who need information
about soils used as structural material or as foundations
upon which structures are built. Among those who can
benefit from this section are planning commissions,
town and city managers, land developers, engineers,
contractors, and farmers.
Among properties of soils highly important in en-
gineering are permeability, strength, compaction char-
acteristics, soil drainage characteristics, shrink-swell
and consolidation potential, grain-size distribution,
plasticity, and soil reaction. Also important are depth
to the water table, depth to bedrock, and soil slope.
These properties, in various degrees and combinations,
affect construction and maintenance of roads, airports,
pipelines, foundations for small buildings, irrigation
systems, ponds and small dams, and systems for dis-
posal of sewage and refuse.
Information in this section of the soil survey can be
helpful to those who-
1. Select potential residential, industrial, com-
mercial, and recreational areas.
SJAMES N. KRIDER, assistant State conservation engineer, Soil
Conservation Service, assisted in preparing this section.


20







SOIL SURVEY


been shaped and contoured are used primarily for golf
courses.
Representative profile of Udorthents, about 0.6 mile
west of University Drive and 0.3 mile north of State
Highway 84, SE1,SE1ISW1! sec. 16, T. 50 S., R. 41 E.:
C-0 to 57 inches, mixed light-gray (10YR 7/1) and white
(10YR 8/1) unconsolidated material; 65 percent
broken shell rock and limerock fragments, 30 per-
cent sand mixed with shell, and 5 percent loamy
carbonatic material; few, fine, faint, very dark
mottles; massive; friable; moderately alkaline.
Reaction ranges from moderately alkaline to strongly
alkaline. The material is mainly gray, white, dark gray,
brown, yellow, dark yellowish brown, and pale brown. It is
a mixture of shell rock and limerock fragments, sand, shell,
loamy sand, and sandy loam or sandy clay loam carbonatic
material.
Associated with Udorthents are Urban land and areas of
manmade lakes and canals.
Udorthents (Ud).-This soil consists of areas of un-
consolidated or heterogeneous geologic material re-
moved in the excavation of ditches, canals, lakes, and
ponds. It is commonly piled along banks and has slopes
of 2 to 40 percent. This soil has the profile described
as representative for Udorthents. Few if any other
soils are included in mapping.
Vegetation of weeds and native grasses has become
established on some areas of Udorthents. Other areas
have little or no vegetation. The soil material is erod-
ible, especially where slopes are steep and where areas
are bare or sparsely vegetated.
This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops, citrus, or im-
proved pasture. It is frequently used as a source of
roadbuilding material and as a source of fill for new
homesites, golf courses, and other purposes. Capability
unit VIIIs-1.
Udorthents, shaped (Un). -This soil consists of ma-
terial that has been shaped and contoured mainly for
golf courses. The original soil material has been re-
shaped or covered with fill or soil and reshaped to make
a proper playing surface. Nearly all areas are covered
with fill to a depth of 20 inches or more. Some areas
consist mostly of limestone rock fragments, while oth-
ers consist of sand. The fill is commonly obtained from
ponds dug on the golf courses. Properties of the fill
material are variable, but the identifiable underlying
soils have properties representative of their respective
series.
About 50 percent of the soils that underlie the fill in
this mapping unit can be identified. Of this 50 percent,
66 percent of the soils are in the Hallandale and Mar-
gate series, and the remaining 34 percent are in the
Pompano, Immokalee, Basinger, Pomello, and Paola
series.
Included with Udorthents in mapping are some areas
of Urban land that contain the interchanges on Inter-
state Highway 95 in the northern end of the county.
These interchanges are contoured and shaped and, on
the average, are 15 to 20 feet above ground level. Also
included is a residential area of about 240 acres along
Covered Bridge Drive in Coral Springs. This area has
been filled and contoured similarly to the areas used as
golf courses.
Under proper fertilization, water control, and irri-
gation, areas of Udorthents support grasses suitable
for golf courses.
The main determined use of this soil for the foresee-


able future is for golf courses. Not assigned to a capa-
bility unit.

Urban Land
Urban land (Ur).-This type consists of areas that
are more than 70 percent covered with airports, shop-
ping centers, parking lots, large buildings, streets and
sidewalks, and other structures, so that the natural soil
is not readily observable. Unoccupied areas of this land
type, mostly lawns, parks, vacant lots, and playgrounds,
consist of soils in the Hallandale, Margate, Immokalee,
and Basinger series that have been altered by fill ma-
terial spread on the surface to an average thickness of
about 12 inches. These unoccupied areas are in tracts
too small to be mapped separately. The fill is mostly
sandy material, some of which contains limestone and
shell fragments. Not assigned to a capability unit.


Use and Management of the Soils
This section explains nonfarm uses of the soils in
the Broward County Area. First, the soils are rated
and interpretations are given for various engineering
uses. Following this, use of the soils for farming is
discussed, the system of capability classification used
by the Soil Conservation Service is explained, and es-
timated yields of the principal crops grown in the
Area are given. Also covered in this section is suit-
ability of the soils for wildlife habitat and recrea-
tional development.
The Broward County Area has urbanized rapidly.
Much land that only a few years ago was used for
commercial production of citrus, truck and other farm
crops, and cattle has been converted to nonfarm uses.
If this trend continues, indications are that very little
of the Area will remain in farm uses.

Engneering Uses of the Soils '
This section is useful to those who need information
about soils used as structural material or as foundations
upon which structures are built. Among those who can
benefit from this section are planning commissions,
town and city managers, land developers, engineers,
contractors, and farmers.
Among properties of soils highly important in en-
gineering are permeability, strength, compaction char-
acteristics, soil drainage characteristics, shrink-swell
and consolidation potential, grain-size distribution,
plasticity, and soil reaction. Also important are depth
to the water table, depth to bedrock, and soil slope.
These properties, in various degrees and combinations,
affect construction and maintenance of roads, airports,
pipelines, foundations for small buildings, irrigation
systems, ponds and small dams, and systems for dis-
posal of sewage and refuse.
Information in this section of the soil survey can be
helpful to those who-
1. Select potential residential, industrial, com-
mercial, and recreational areas.
SJAMES N. KRIDER, assistant State conservation engineer, Soil
Conservation Service, assisted in preparing this section.


20







SOIL SURVEY


been shaped and contoured are used primarily for golf
courses.
Representative profile of Udorthents, about 0.6 mile
west of University Drive and 0.3 mile north of State
Highway 84, SE1,SE1ISW1! sec. 16, T. 50 S., R. 41 E.:
C-0 to 57 inches, mixed light-gray (10YR 7/1) and white
(10YR 8/1) unconsolidated material; 65 percent
broken shell rock and limerock fragments, 30 per-
cent sand mixed with shell, and 5 percent loamy
carbonatic material; few, fine, faint, very dark
mottles; massive; friable; moderately alkaline.
Reaction ranges from moderately alkaline to strongly
alkaline. The material is mainly gray, white, dark gray,
brown, yellow, dark yellowish brown, and pale brown. It is
a mixture of shell rock and limerock fragments, sand, shell,
loamy sand, and sandy loam or sandy clay loam carbonatic
material.
Associated with Udorthents are Urban land and areas of
manmade lakes and canals.
Udorthents (Ud).-This soil consists of areas of un-
consolidated or heterogeneous geologic material re-
moved in the excavation of ditches, canals, lakes, and
ponds. It is commonly piled along banks and has slopes
of 2 to 40 percent. This soil has the profile described
as representative for Udorthents. Few if any other
soils are included in mapping.
Vegetation of weeds and native grasses has become
established on some areas of Udorthents. Other areas
have little or no vegetation. The soil material is erod-
ible, especially where slopes are steep and where areas
are bare or sparsely vegetated.
This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops, citrus, or im-
proved pasture. It is frequently used as a source of
roadbuilding material and as a source of fill for new
homesites, golf courses, and other purposes. Capability
unit VIIIs-1.
Udorthents, shaped (Un). -This soil consists of ma-
terial that has been shaped and contoured mainly for
golf courses. The original soil material has been re-
shaped or covered with fill or soil and reshaped to make
a proper playing surface. Nearly all areas are covered
with fill to a depth of 20 inches or more. Some areas
consist mostly of limestone rock fragments, while oth-
ers consist of sand. The fill is commonly obtained from
ponds dug on the golf courses. Properties of the fill
material are variable, but the identifiable underlying
soils have properties representative of their respective
series.
About 50 percent of the soils that underlie the fill in
this mapping unit can be identified. Of this 50 percent,
66 percent of the soils are in the Hallandale and Mar-
gate series, and the remaining 34 percent are in the
Pompano, Immokalee, Basinger, Pomello, and Paola
series.
Included with Udorthents in mapping are some areas
of Urban land that contain the interchanges on Inter-
state Highway 95 in the northern end of the county.
These interchanges are contoured and shaped and, on
the average, are 15 to 20 feet above ground level. Also
included is a residential area of about 240 acres along
Covered Bridge Drive in Coral Springs. This area has
been filled and contoured similarly to the areas used as
golf courses.
Under proper fertilization, water control, and irri-
gation, areas of Udorthents support grasses suitable
for golf courses.
The main determined use of this soil for the foresee-


able future is for golf courses. Not assigned to a capa-
bility unit.

Urban Land
Urban land (Ur).-This type consists of areas that
are more than 70 percent covered with airports, shop-
ping centers, parking lots, large buildings, streets and
sidewalks, and other structures, so that the natural soil
is not readily observable. Unoccupied areas of this land
type, mostly lawns, parks, vacant lots, and playgrounds,
consist of soils in the Hallandale, Margate, Immokalee,
and Basinger series that have been altered by fill ma-
terial spread on the surface to an average thickness of
about 12 inches. These unoccupied areas are in tracts
too small to be mapped separately. The fill is mostly
sandy material, some of which contains limestone and
shell fragments. Not assigned to a capability unit.


Use and Management of the Soils
This section explains nonfarm uses of the soils in
the Broward County Area. First, the soils are rated
and interpretations are given for various engineering
uses. Following this, use of the soils for farming is
discussed, the system of capability classification used
by the Soil Conservation Service is explained, and es-
timated yields of the principal crops grown in the
Area are given. Also covered in this section is suit-
ability of the soils for wildlife habitat and recrea-
tional development.
The Broward County Area has urbanized rapidly.
Much land that only a few years ago was used for
commercial production of citrus, truck and other farm
crops, and cattle has been converted to nonfarm uses.
If this trend continues, indications are that very little
of the Area will remain in farm uses.

Engneering Uses of the Soils '
This section is useful to those who need information
about soils used as structural material or as foundations
upon which structures are built. Among those who can
benefit from this section are planning commissions,
town and city managers, land developers, engineers,
contractors, and farmers.
Among properties of soils highly important in en-
gineering are permeability, strength, compaction char-
acteristics, soil drainage characteristics, shrink-swell
and consolidation potential, grain-size distribution,
plasticity, and soil reaction. Also important are depth
to the water table, depth to bedrock, and soil slope.
These properties, in various degrees and combinations,
affect construction and maintenance of roads, airports,
pipelines, foundations for small buildings, irrigation
systems, ponds and small dams, and systems for dis-
posal of sewage and refuse.
Information in this section of the soil survey can be
helpful to those who-
1. Select potential residential, industrial, com-
mercial, and recreational areas.
SJAMES N. KRIDER, assistant State conservation engineer, Soil
Conservation Service, assisted in preparing this section.


20







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


2. Evaluate alternate routes for roads, highways,
pipelines, and underground cables.
3. Seek sources of gravel, sand, or clay.
4. Plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, and other structures for controlling
water and conserving soil.
5. Correlate performance of structures already
built with properties of the kinds of soil on
which they are built, for the purpose of pre-
dicting performance of structures on the same
or similar kinds of soil in other locations.
6. Predict the trafficability of soils for cross-
country movement of vehicles and construc-
tion equipment.
7. Develop preliminary estimates pertinent to
construction in a particular area.
Most of the information in this section is presented
in table 3, which shows results of engineering labora-
tory tests on soil samples; tables 4, 5, and 6, which
show several estimated soil properties significant to
engineering; and tables 7, 8, 9, and 10, which show
interpretations for various engineering uses.
This information, along with the soil map and other
parts of this publication, can be used to make interpre-
tations in addition to those given in tables 7; 8, 9, and
10, and it also can be used to make other useful maps.
This information, however, does not eliminate need
for further investigation at sites selected for engineer-
ing works, especially works that involve heavy loads
or that require excavations to depths greater than
those shown in the tables, generally depths greater
than 6 feet. Also, inspection of sites, especially the
small ones, is needed because many delineated areas of
a given soil mapping unit may contain small areas of
other kinds of soils that have strongly contrasting
properties and different suitabilities or limitations for
soil engineering.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have
special meaning to soil scientists that are not known to
all engineers. The Glossary defines many of these terms
commonly used in soil science.
Engineering classification systems
The two systems most commonly used in classifying
samples of soils for engineering are the Unified Soil
Classification System (8), used by the Soil Conserva-
tion Service engineers, Department of Defense, and
others, and the AASHO Classification System (1),
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
Officials.
In the Unified system soils are classified according
to particle-size distribution, plasticity, liquid limit, and
organic matter. Soils are grouped in 15 classes. There
are eight classes of coarse-grained soils, identified as
GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six classes
of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, HL, OL, MH,
CH, and OH; and one class of highly organic soils, iden-
tified as Pt. Soils on the borderline between two classes
are designated by symbols for both classes; for ex-
ample, SC-SM.
The AASHO system is used to classify soils accord-
ing to those properties that affect use in highway con-
struction and maintenance. In this system, a soil is
placed in one of seven basic groups ranging from A-1


through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, and plasticity index. In group A-1 are
gravelly soils and coarse sandy soils of high bearing
strength, or the best soils for subgrade (foundation).
At the other extreme, in group A-7, are clay soils that
have low strength when wet and that are the poorest
soils for subgrade. Where laboratory data are available
to justify a further breakdown, the A-i, A-2, and A-7
groups are divided as follows: A-i-a, A-l-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, and A-7-6. As additional
refinement, the engineering value of a soil material can
be indicated by a group index number. Group indexes
range from 0 for the best material to 20 or more for
the poorest. The AASHO classification for tested soils,
with group index numbers in parentheses, is shown in
table 3; the estimated classification, without group in-
dex numbers, is given in table 4 for all soils mapped in
the survey area.

Engineering test data
Table 3 presents engineering test data for some of
the major soil series in the Broward County Area.
These tests were made to help evaluate the soils for
engineering purposes. The engineering classifications
given are based on data obtained by mechanical anal-
yses and by tests to determine liquid limits and plastic
limits. The mechanical analyses were made by com-
bined sieve and hydrometer methods.
Moisture-density (or compaction) data are impor-
tant in earthwork. If a soil material is compacted at
successively higher moisture content, assuming that
the compactive effort remains constant, the density of
the compacted material increases until the maximum
dry density is reached. After that, density decreases
with increase in moisture content. The moisture con-
tent at the point of maximum dry density is termed the
optimum moisture content. As a rule, maximum
strength of earthwork is obtained if the soil is com-
pacted to the maximum dry density.
Soil properties significant in engineering
Several estimated soil properties significant in en-
gineering are in tables 4, 5, and 6. These estimates
are made for typical soil profiles, for the whole soil,
and by layers sufficiently different to have different
significance for soil engineering. The estimates are
based on field observations made in the course of map-
ping, on test data for these and similar soils, and on
experience with the same kinds of soil in other counties.
Following are explanations of some of the columns in
table 4.
USDA texture is described in table 4 in the standard
terms used by the Department of Agriculture. These
terms take into account relative percentages of sand,
silt, and clay in soil material that is less than 2 milli-
meters in diameter. "Sandy clay loam," for example,
is soil material that contains 20 to 35 percent clay,
less than 2 percent silt, and 45 percent or more sand.
If the soil contains gravel or other particles coarser
than sand, an appropriate modifier is added; for ex-
ample, "gravelly loamy sand." "Sand," "silt," "clay,"
and some of the other terms used in USDA textural
classification are defined in the Glossary of this soil
survey.


21







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


2. Evaluate alternate routes for roads, highways,
pipelines, and underground cables.
3. Seek sources of gravel, sand, or clay.
4. Plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, and other structures for controlling
water and conserving soil.
5. Correlate performance of structures already
built with properties of the kinds of soil on
which they are built, for the purpose of pre-
dicting performance of structures on the same
or similar kinds of soil in other locations.
6. Predict the trafficability of soils for cross-
country movement of vehicles and construc-
tion equipment.
7. Develop preliminary estimates pertinent to
construction in a particular area.
Most of the information in this section is presented
in table 3, which shows results of engineering labora-
tory tests on soil samples; tables 4, 5, and 6, which
show several estimated soil properties significant to
engineering; and tables 7, 8, 9, and 10, which show
interpretations for various engineering uses.
This information, along with the soil map and other
parts of this publication, can be used to make interpre-
tations in addition to those given in tables 7; 8, 9, and
10, and it also can be used to make other useful maps.
This information, however, does not eliminate need
for further investigation at sites selected for engineer-
ing works, especially works that involve heavy loads
or that require excavations to depths greater than
those shown in the tables, generally depths greater
than 6 feet. Also, inspection of sites, especially the
small ones, is needed because many delineated areas of
a given soil mapping unit may contain small areas of
other kinds of soils that have strongly contrasting
properties and different suitabilities or limitations for
soil engineering.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have
special meaning to soil scientists that are not known to
all engineers. The Glossary defines many of these terms
commonly used in soil science.
Engineering classification systems
The two systems most commonly used in classifying
samples of soils for engineering are the Unified Soil
Classification System (8), used by the Soil Conserva-
tion Service engineers, Department of Defense, and
others, and the AASHO Classification System (1),
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
Officials.
In the Unified system soils are classified according
to particle-size distribution, plasticity, liquid limit, and
organic matter. Soils are grouped in 15 classes. There
are eight classes of coarse-grained soils, identified as
GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six classes
of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, HL, OL, MH,
CH, and OH; and one class of highly organic soils, iden-
tified as Pt. Soils on the borderline between two classes
are designated by symbols for both classes; for ex-
ample, SC-SM.
The AASHO system is used to classify soils accord-
ing to those properties that affect use in highway con-
struction and maintenance. In this system, a soil is
placed in one of seven basic groups ranging from A-1


through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, and plasticity index. In group A-1 are
gravelly soils and coarse sandy soils of high bearing
strength, or the best soils for subgrade (foundation).
At the other extreme, in group A-7, are clay soils that
have low strength when wet and that are the poorest
soils for subgrade. Where laboratory data are available
to justify a further breakdown, the A-i, A-2, and A-7
groups are divided as follows: A-i-a, A-l-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, and A-7-6. As additional
refinement, the engineering value of a soil material can
be indicated by a group index number. Group indexes
range from 0 for the best material to 20 or more for
the poorest. The AASHO classification for tested soils,
with group index numbers in parentheses, is shown in
table 3; the estimated classification, without group in-
dex numbers, is given in table 4 for all soils mapped in
the survey area.

Engineering test data
Table 3 presents engineering test data for some of
the major soil series in the Broward County Area.
These tests were made to help evaluate the soils for
engineering purposes. The engineering classifications
given are based on data obtained by mechanical anal-
yses and by tests to determine liquid limits and plastic
limits. The mechanical analyses were made by com-
bined sieve and hydrometer methods.
Moisture-density (or compaction) data are impor-
tant in earthwork. If a soil material is compacted at
successively higher moisture content, assuming that
the compactive effort remains constant, the density of
the compacted material increases until the maximum
dry density is reached. After that, density decreases
with increase in moisture content. The moisture con-
tent at the point of maximum dry density is termed the
optimum moisture content. As a rule, maximum
strength of earthwork is obtained if the soil is com-
pacted to the maximum dry density.
Soil properties significant in engineering
Several estimated soil properties significant in en-
gineering are in tables 4, 5, and 6. These estimates
are made for typical soil profiles, for the whole soil,
and by layers sufficiently different to have different
significance for soil engineering. The estimates are
based on field observations made in the course of map-
ping, on test data for these and similar soils, and on
experience with the same kinds of soil in other counties.
Following are explanations of some of the columns in
table 4.
USDA texture is described in table 4 in the standard
terms used by the Department of Agriculture. These
terms take into account relative percentages of sand,
silt, and clay in soil material that is less than 2 milli-
meters in diameter. "Sandy clay loam," for example,
is soil material that contains 20 to 35 percent clay,
less than 2 percent silt, and 45 percent or more sand.
If the soil contains gravel or other particles coarser
than sand, an appropriate modifier is added; for ex-
ample, "gravelly loamy sand." "Sand," "silt," "clay,"
and some of the other terms used in USDA textural
classification are defined in the Glossary of this soil
survey.


21







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


2. Evaluate alternate routes for roads, highways,
pipelines, and underground cables.
3. Seek sources of gravel, sand, or clay.
4. Plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, and other structures for controlling
water and conserving soil.
5. Correlate performance of structures already
built with properties of the kinds of soil on
which they are built, for the purpose of pre-
dicting performance of structures on the same
or similar kinds of soil in other locations.
6. Predict the trafficability of soils for cross-
country movement of vehicles and construc-
tion equipment.
7. Develop preliminary estimates pertinent to
construction in a particular area.
Most of the information in this section is presented
in table 3, which shows results of engineering labora-
tory tests on soil samples; tables 4, 5, and 6, which
show several estimated soil properties significant to
engineering; and tables 7, 8, 9, and 10, which show
interpretations for various engineering uses.
This information, along with the soil map and other
parts of this publication, can be used to make interpre-
tations in addition to those given in tables 7; 8, 9, and
10, and it also can be used to make other useful maps.
This information, however, does not eliminate need
for further investigation at sites selected for engineer-
ing works, especially works that involve heavy loads
or that require excavations to depths greater than
those shown in the tables, generally depths greater
than 6 feet. Also, inspection of sites, especially the
small ones, is needed because many delineated areas of
a given soil mapping unit may contain small areas of
other kinds of soils that have strongly contrasting
properties and different suitabilities or limitations for
soil engineering.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have
special meaning to soil scientists that are not known to
all engineers. The Glossary defines many of these terms
commonly used in soil science.
Engineering classification systems
The two systems most commonly used in classifying
samples of soils for engineering are the Unified Soil
Classification System (8), used by the Soil Conserva-
tion Service engineers, Department of Defense, and
others, and the AASHO Classification System (1),
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
Officials.
In the Unified system soils are classified according
to particle-size distribution, plasticity, liquid limit, and
organic matter. Soils are grouped in 15 classes. There
are eight classes of coarse-grained soils, identified as
GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six classes
of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, HL, OL, MH,
CH, and OH; and one class of highly organic soils, iden-
tified as Pt. Soils on the borderline between two classes
are designated by symbols for both classes; for ex-
ample, SC-SM.
The AASHO system is used to classify soils accord-
ing to those properties that affect use in highway con-
struction and maintenance. In this system, a soil is
placed in one of seven basic groups ranging from A-1


through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, and plasticity index. In group A-1 are
gravelly soils and coarse sandy soils of high bearing
strength, or the best soils for subgrade (foundation).
At the other extreme, in group A-7, are clay soils that
have low strength when wet and that are the poorest
soils for subgrade. Where laboratory data are available
to justify a further breakdown, the A-i, A-2, and A-7
groups are divided as follows: A-i-a, A-l-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, and A-7-6. As additional
refinement, the engineering value of a soil material can
be indicated by a group index number. Group indexes
range from 0 for the best material to 20 or more for
the poorest. The AASHO classification for tested soils,
with group index numbers in parentheses, is shown in
table 3; the estimated classification, without group in-
dex numbers, is given in table 4 for all soils mapped in
the survey area.

Engineering test data
Table 3 presents engineering test data for some of
the major soil series in the Broward County Area.
These tests were made to help evaluate the soils for
engineering purposes. The engineering classifications
given are based on data obtained by mechanical anal-
yses and by tests to determine liquid limits and plastic
limits. The mechanical analyses were made by com-
bined sieve and hydrometer methods.
Moisture-density (or compaction) data are impor-
tant in earthwork. If a soil material is compacted at
successively higher moisture content, assuming that
the compactive effort remains constant, the density of
the compacted material increases until the maximum
dry density is reached. After that, density decreases
with increase in moisture content. The moisture con-
tent at the point of maximum dry density is termed the
optimum moisture content. As a rule, maximum
strength of earthwork is obtained if the soil is com-
pacted to the maximum dry density.
Soil properties significant in engineering
Several estimated soil properties significant in en-
gineering are in tables 4, 5, and 6. These estimates
are made for typical soil profiles, for the whole soil,
and by layers sufficiently different to have different
significance for soil engineering. The estimates are
based on field observations made in the course of map-
ping, on test data for these and similar soils, and on
experience with the same kinds of soil in other counties.
Following are explanations of some of the columns in
table 4.
USDA texture is described in table 4 in the standard
terms used by the Department of Agriculture. These
terms take into account relative percentages of sand,
silt, and clay in soil material that is less than 2 milli-
meters in diameter. "Sandy clay loam," for example,
is soil material that contains 20 to 35 percent clay,
less than 2 percent silt, and 45 percent or more sand.
If the soil contains gravel or other particles coarser
than sand, an appropriate modifier is added; for ex-
ample, "gravelly loamy sand." "Sand," "silt," "clay,"
and some of the other terms used in USDA textural
classification are defined in the Glossary of this soil
survey.


21









TABLE 3.-Engineering
[Tests performed by the Florida State Department of Transportation (FDOT) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Public
soils tested



FDOT
Soil name and location Parent material report Depth
No.



In
Basinger fine sand:
About 50 feet west of University Drive and 0.9 mile north of Orange Sandy marine sediment -__- 6-10 6-13
Drive, SESEl sec. 21, T. 50 S., R. 41 E. (Modal) 23-35
35-60
Hallandale fine sand:
About 0.5 mile north of Stirling Road and 0.2 mile east of Hunter Sandy marine sediment ---- 6-3 4-10
Lane and Holatee Trail Junction, NE4NW1/SW1/ sec. 34, T. 50
S., R. 40 E. (Modal)
Margate fine sand:
About 1,980 feet south of Griffin Road and 2,640 feet west of 106th Sandy marine sediment --- 6-4 8-16
Avenue on Chenny Road, SW'NW% sec. 31, T. 50 S., R. 41 E.
(Modal)
Plantation muck:
About 520 feet west of Snake Creek Road and 1.1 miles north of Sandy marine sediment be- 6-8 18-23
Canal number 9, NWl/SE/NEia sec. 26, T. 51 S., R. 40 E. (Modal) neath a thin mantle of
organic material.
Sanibel muck:
About 1.5 miles north of Hollywood Boulevard and 0.1 mile west of Sandy marine sediment be- 6-12 9-60
WGMA Radio Station on Palm Avenue, SW1/SW4 i sec. 5, T. 51 neath a thin mantle of
S., R. 41 E. (Modal) organic material.

SBased on AASHO Designation T99-57 (1).
Mechanical analysis according to AASHO Designation T88-57 (1). Results by this procedure differ somewhat from results
obtained by the soil survey procedure of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS). In the AASHO procedure, the fine material is
analyzed by the hydrometer method and the various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis of all the material, in-


The Unified and AASHO classifications are ex-
plained in the section "Engineering Soil Classification
Systems." Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate
the effect of water on the strength and consistence of
soil material. As the moisture content of a fine-grained
soil is increased from a dry state, the material changes
from a semisolid to a plastic state. If the moisture
content is further increased, the material changes
from a plastic to a liquid state. The plastic limit is the
moisture content at which the soil material changes
from a semisolid to a plastic state; and the liquid limit
from a plastic to a liquid state. The liquid and plastic
limits are expressed as the percentage of water com-
puted on the basis of the dry weight of soil. The plastic-
ity index is the numerical difference between the liquid
limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic.
Liquid limit and plasticity index are estimated in table
4, but in table 3 the data on liquid limit and plasticity
index are based on tests of soil samples.
ESTIMATED PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIS-
TICS.-Following are explanations of some of the col-
umns in table 5.
Depth to bedrock is distance from the surface of the
soil to the upper surface of the rock layer.


Permeability is that quality of a soil that enables it
to transmit water or air. It is estimated on basis of
those soil characteristics observed in the field, particu-
larly structure and texture. The estimates in table 5
do not take into account lateral seepage or such tran-
sient soil features as plowpans and surface crusts.
Available water capacity is the ability of soils to
hold water for use by most plants. It is commonly
defined as the difference between the amount of water
in the soil at field capacity and the amount at the
wilting point of most crop plants.
Reaction is the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a
soil expressed in pH values. The pH value and terms
used to describe soil reaction are explained in the
Glossary.
Corrosivity pertains to potential soil-induced chemi-
cal action that dissolves or weakens steel or concrete.
Rate of corrosion of steel is related to soil properties
such as drainage, texture, total acidity, and electrical
conductivity of the soil material. Corrosivity for con-
crete is influenced mainly by the content of sodium or
magnesium sulfate, but also by soil texture and acidity.
Installations of steel that intersect soil boundaries or
soil horizons are more susceptible to corrosion than in-
stallations entirely in one kind of soil or in one soil


22


SOIL SURVEY







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


test data
Roads, in accordance with standard procedures of the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO) (1). All the
are nonplastic]


Moisture


Maximum
dry
density


density1


Optimum


moisture
content


Lb/cu ft Pet


100
104
102

98



100



98



98


16
14
15

15



14



16



13


Mechanical analyst


Percentage passing sieve-


No. 10
(2.0 mm)


100
100
100

100



100



100



100


No. 40
(0.42 mm)


93
93
91

97



93


96


93


No. 200
(0.074 mm)


2
3
2

3



2


1


1


is2 Classification

Percentage smaller than-
AASHO Unified
0.05 mm 0.005 mm


2
8
2

2



1



1



0


0
0
0

0



0



0



0


A-3(0)
A-3(0)
A-3 (0)

A-3 (0)



A-3(0)



A-3 (0)



A-3(0)


SP
SP
SP

SP



SP



SP



SP


eluding that coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. In the SCS soil survey procedure, the fine material is analyzed by the
pipette method and the material coarser than 2 millimeters is excluded from calculations of grain-size fractions. The mechanical
analysis data used in this table are not suitable for naming textural classes for soils.
3 Based on AASHO Designation M 145-49 (1).


horizon. A corrosivity rating of low means that there
is a low probability of soil-induced corrosion damage.
A rating of high means that there is a high probability
of damage, so that protective measures for steel and
more resistant concrete should be used to avoid or
minimize damage.
HYDROLOGIC FEATURES.-Following are explanations
of some of the columns in table 6.
A seasonal high water table is a zone of saturation
at the highest level during the wettest season, and it
persists in the soil for more than a few days. Most
water tables occur within the soil and are measured
from the surface of the soil down to the free-water
level. In swamps and marshes, however, the water table
is above the surface of the soil much of the time and
is measured from the surface of the water down to the
soil.
In this survey area two kinds of water tables are
recognized: apparent and marsh. An apparent water
table is within the soil and is defined as the level at
which water stands in a freshly dug, unlined borehole.
It is influenced by the hydrostatic pressure of soil
water and by pressure at greater depths penetrated
by the borehole, water relations across impermeable
layers, and other factors. A marsh water table is one


defined as having water above the surface of the soil
much of the time.
The months when the water table is highest are also
given.
Hydrologic groups are those soils with similar run-
off potential under similar storm and cover conditions.
There are four classes, designated either A, B, C, or D,
with class A reflecting the lowest runoff potential. Dual
hydrologic groups are given for certain wet soils that
can be adequately drained. The first letter applies to
the drained condition, the second to the undrained.
Engineering interpretations
The estimated interpretations in tables 7, 8, 9, and
10 are based on the engineering properties of soils
shown in tables 4, 5, and 6 and on test data for soils
in this survey area and others nearby or adjoining,
and on the experience of engineers and soil scientists
with the soils of the Broward County Area. In tables
7, 8, 9, and 10, ratings are used to summarize limita-
tion or suitability of the soils for all listed purposes
other than for drainage and irrigation. For these par-
ticular uses, table 10 lists those soil features not to be
overlooked in planning, installation, and maintenance.
Soil limitations are indicated by the ratings slight,


1


23








SOIL SURVEY


TABLE 4.-Cl. ;.i.;rio,, and estimated engineering properties of the soils


Soil series
and
map symbols


Basinger: Ba ----

Boca: Be ---------






Dania: Da ---


Hallandale:
Hb,4 Hm.'


Ha,


Immokalee: la,
lu.'


Lauderhill: La ---

Margate: Ma ---





Paola: Pa, Pb4 --

Plantation: Pm --




Pomello: Po --





Pompano: Pp ----

Sanibel: Sa ------


St. Lucie: St ---

Udorthents: Ud,
Un."
Urban land:
Ur.'


Depth
from
surface



In
0-60

0-25

25-32

32-34


0-14
14-16

16-18

0-14

14-16
0-40

40-80

0-31

0-26

26-28
28-32


0-83
10-0
0-23
23-25


0-38

38-72

72-80


USDA
texture


SFine sand ___-----


Fine sand ----------

Sandy loam and sandy
clay loam.
Rock, marl, sandy
clay loam, and
sand.
Muck ----------
Fine sand and sand---

Sandy marl and lime-
stone fragments.

Fine sand ---------
Fine sand ---------

Fine sand --------
Fine sand ----------

Muck ----------

Fine sand ---------

Fine sand --------
Loamy fine sand, fine
sandy loam, and
sandy clay loam.

Fine sand ---------

Muck --------
Fine sand ----------
Fine sand, loamy fine
sand, fine sandy
loam.
Fine sand --------

Fine sand ----------

Fine sand ----------


0-80 Fine sand ----------


9-0
0-60

0-94


Muck ----------
Fine sand ----------

Fine sand ---------


1 NP = Nonplastic.
2 Too variable for valid estimates.
SOrganic.


Classification


Unified


SP, SP-
SM

SP, SP-
SM
SC

(2)


Pt
SP, SP-
SM
GM, SM

SP, SP-
SM
SP-SM

SP, SP-
SM
SP-SM,
SM
Pt

SP, SP-
SM
SP-SM
GM, GM-
GC, SM,
SM-SC

SP

Pt
SP
GM, SM,
SP,
SM

SP, SP-
SM
SP-SM,
SM
SP, SP-
SM
SP, SP-
SM
Pt
SP

SP


AASHO


A-3

A-3

A-2-6,
A-6
(")


(2)
A-3,
A-2-4
A-l,
A-2-4

A-3
A-3
A-3

A-3,
A-2-4
(")

A-3

A-3
A-l,
A-2-4,
A-6
A-3

(")
A-3
A-1


A-3

A-3
A-2-4
A-3

A-3


(")
A-3

A-3


More
than 3
inches



Pet
0

0

0
(2)



0

0-10


0

0
0
0



0

0
0-10


0


Soil material
passing sieve-


No. 4
(4.7
mm)

Pot
100

100

100

(2)



100
40-60

100

100

100
100



100

100
45-60


100


No. 10
(2.0
mm)

Pet
100

100

95-100

(2)



95-100
35-55

100

100

100
100



100

100
35-55


100


No. 40
(0.42
mm)

Pet
90-99

85-99

85-99

(2)



80-95

30-45

90-99

90-99

90-99
90-99



90-99

90-99
30-45


90-99


No. 200
(0.074
mm)

Pet
2-10

2-10

25-40
(2)



2-12

15-25

2-9

5-10

2-10
5-15



2-8

5-10
20-40


1-4


0 100 100 90-99 1-4 --
0-5 60-75 45-60 30-45 8-20 .__--


0

0

0

0



0
0


100

100
100

100


100

100


100

100

100

100


100

100


90-99

90-99


90-99

85-99


90-99

90-99


2-10

5-15

2-10

2-10


1-4

1-4


I Liquid


Liquid
limit



Pet


Plas-
ticity
index


_.__-- NP2


20-40

(2)


NP

11-20

(2)



NP

NP

NP

NP

NP
NP



NP

NP
NP-7


NP
NP
NP
NP


NP

NP

NP

NP


NP-

NP


SThis mapping unit is made up of more than one kind of soil. The different soils may
have different properties, and for this reason, it is necessary to refer to the other series
for these soils in the table, as follows: for the Urban land part of Hb, lu, and Pb, refer
to Urban land. For the Margate part of Hm, refer to the Margate series.
6 The symbol < means less than.
e No valid estimates can be made.


I
I I I I I I I I I~


24








BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


TABLE 5.-Estimated physical and chemical characteristics of the soilsl


Soil series
and
map symbols





Basinger: Ba--- ---------

Boca: Bc-------------


Dania: Da-- ------------


Hallandale: Ha, Hb, Hm6 ---



Immokalee: la, lu ----- ---


Lauderhill: La

Margate: Ma -----------------



Paola: Pa, Pb6 ----_- __-

Plantation: Pm

Pomello: Po


Pompano: Pp __________

Sanibel: Sa

St. Lucie: St _-- _____

Udorthents: Ud, Un.
No valid estimates can be made.

Urban land: Ur.
No valid estimates can be made.


Depth
to
bedrock



Inches


S>72


24-40


14-20


7-20



>80


20-40

20-40



>80

28-56

>80


>80

>60

>80


Depth
from
surface



Inches

0-23
23-60

0-7
7-25
25-34

0-14
14-16
16-18

0-4
4-10
10-14
14-16

0-40
40-65
65-80

0-31

0-8
8-16
16-28
28-32

0-83

10-0
0-25

0-38
38-72
72-80

0-80

9-0
0-60

0-94


Permeability



Inches
per
hour

6.0-20.0
6.0-20.0

6.0-20.0
6.0-20.0
0.6-2.0

6.0-20.0
6.0-20.0
6.0-20.0

6.0-20.0
6.0-20.0
6.0-20.0
6.0-20.0

6.0-20.0
0.6-6.0
6.0-20.0

6.0-20.0

6.0-20.0
6.0-20.0
6.0-20.0
6.0-20.0

>20.0

6.0-20.0
6.0-20.0

>20.0
0.6-2.0
6.0-20.0

6.0-20.0

6.0-20.0
6.0-20.0

>20.0


Available
water
capacity


Inches
r .,,,I

0.02-0.05
0.03-0.07

0.05-0.10
0.02-0.05
0.10-0.15

0.20-0.30
0.05-0.10
0.05-0.10

0.05-0.10
0.02-0.05
0.02-0.05
0.05-0.10

0.02-0.05
0.10-0.15
0.10-0.15

0.20-0.30

0.05-0.10
0.02-0.05
0.02-0.05
0.02-0.05

0.02-0.05

0.20-0.30
0.02-0.05

0.02-0.05
0.10-0.15
0.05-0.10

0.02-0.05

0.20-0.30
0.02-0.05
0.02-0.05


Reaction




pH
4.5-6.5
4.5-6.5

5.1-7.3
5.1-7.3
6.6-8.4

4.5-6.5
6.1-7.8
7.4-8.4

5.1-6.5
5.1-6.5
5.6-7.8
6.6-8.4

4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5

5.6-7.3

4.5-6.0
5.1-6.5
6.1-7.8
7.4-8.4

4.5-5.5

5.1-6.5
6.1-8.4

4.0-5.5
4.0-5.5
4.0-5.5

4.5-5.5

5.1-7.3
5.1-7.3
4.5-5.5


Corrosivity


Steel2




High ____--
High --
High ---
High ---
High ---
Moderate -
Moderate --
Moderate --

High ------
High _-----
High ----
High ..----

High --.---
High _-----
High _----

Moderate -_

High ------
High __-----
High ------
High _-----
Low --

Moderate --
Moderate ---

Low ------
Low ---
Low ------

High ---- .

Moderate -
Moderate __-

Low----


Concrete'


Moderate.
Moderate.

Moderate.
Moderate.
Low.

Moderate.
Low.
Low.

Moderate.
Moderate.
Low.
Low.

High.
High.
High.

Moderate.

High.
Moderate.
Low.
Low.

High.

Moderate.
Low.

High.
High.
High.

High.

Moderate.
Moderate.

High.


1 Shrink-swell potential for all the soils in the survey area is low. Shrink-swell potential, however, applies only to the mineral
soils or mineral layers in organic soils. Organic soils or organic layers have a high potential subsidence.
a Estimates of corrosivity for steel are based on drainage class (wetness) and texture of the soil, estimated total acidity, re-
sistivity of field capacity, and conductivity.
3Estimates of corrosivity for concrete are based on soil texture and reaction and estimated sodium and/or magnesium sulfate
present in the soil.
The symbol > means more than.
SThis mapping unit is made up of more than one kind of soil. The different soils may have different characteristics, and for
this reason it is necessary to refer to the other series for these soils in the table, as follows: For the Urban land part of Hb, lu,
and Pb, refer to Urban land. For the Margate part of Hm, refer to the Margate series.


moderate, and severe. Slight means soil properties gen-
erally favorable for the rated use, or in other words,
limitations that are minor and easily overcome or modi-
fied by special planning and design. Moderate means

that some soil properties are unfavorable but can be
overcome or modified by special planning and design.


Severe means soil properties are so unfavorable and so
difficult to correct or overcome as to require major soil
reclamation, special designs, or intensive maintenance.
For some uses, the rating of severe is divided to obtain
ratings of severe and very severe. Very severe means
one or more soil properties so unfavorable for a particu-










SOIL SURVEY


TABLE 6.-Hydrologic features of the soils
[Dashes in a column indicate that appropriate entry cannot be made]

Soil series High water table Hydrologic
and soil
map symbols Depth Kind Months group

Feet
Basinger: Ba ----------------------_- 0-1 Apparent --------- June-November --_ ---------- A/D
Boca: Bc ----------------______________0-1 Apparent _--_--_ June-November ______-------_ A/D
Dania: Da --------------------------_- 0-1.5 Marsh ------------ June-November _______________ A/D
Hallandale:
Ha -----------________________ 0-1 Apparent ------- June-November _______________ A/D
Hb, Hm.
Too variable for valid estimates.
Immokalee:
la ------------------------------ 0-1 Apparent -__-----_ July-October --______________ B/D
lu.
Too variable for valid estimates.
Lauderhill: La ------------------------- 0-1.5 Marsh ---_-------__ June-May ---_______________ A/D
Margate: Ma ------_-----_ --_-----___- 0-1 Apparent --------- June-November ---------------A/D
Paola: Pa, Pb _________---------______ >6.5 A--- -------- ----------------------------- A
Plantation: Pm2 _____---_______ 0-1 Apparent --------- June-November _______________ A/D
Pomello: Po ------------------------- 2-3.5 Apparent __________- July-October _________________ C
Pompano: Pp ------------------------ 0-1 Apparent ---------- June-November --------------A/D
Sanibel: Sa -------------------------- 0-1 Marsh ------------- June-May ___---------------- A/D
St. Lucie: St ---------__-------__ -- >6.5 ----- ------------___-__ _____----------__ A
Udorthents: Ud, Un.
Too variable for valid estimates.
Urban land: Ur.
Too variable for valid estimates.

1 The symbol > means more than.
2 During period of high water table, shallow water may cover the soil at times for a few days.


lar use that overcoming the limitations is most difficult
and costly and commonly not practical for the rated
use.
Soil suitability is rated by the terms good, fair, and
poor, which have, respectively, meanings approxi-
mately parallel to the terms slight, moderate, and se-
vere.
INTERPRETATIONS OF SOILS FOR SANITARY FACILITIES.
-Following are explanations of some of the columns
in table 7.
Septic tank absorption fields are subsurface systems
of tile or perforated pipe that distribute effluent from
a septic tank into natural soil. The soil material from
a depth of 18 inches to 6 feet is evaluated. The soil
properties considered are those that affect both absorp-
tion of effluent and construction and operation of the
system. Properties that affect absorption are perme-
ability, depth to water table or rock, and susceptibility
to flooding. Slope is a soil property that affects dif-
ficulty of layout and construction and also the risk of


soil erosion, lateral seepage, and downslope flow of
effluent. Large rocks or boulders increase construction
costs.
Sewage lagoons are excavated ponds constructed to
hold sewage within a depth of 5 to 10 feet long enough
for bacteria to decompose the solids. A lagoon has a
nearly level floor and is protected from flooding by an
encircling embankment of compacted soil material.
Site properties that affect the construction and func-
tion of lagoons are permeability, organic matter, slope,
and depth to bedrock. The soil properties that affect
the embankment are the engineering properties of the
embankment material as interpreted from the Unified
Soil Classification System (8) and the amounts of
stones, if any, that influence the ease of excavation and
compaction of the embankment material.
Sanitary landfill is a method of disposing of refuse.
The waste is spread in thin layers, compacted, and
covered with soil throughout the disposal period. Land-
fill areas are subject to heavy vehicular traffic. Some


26








BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


TABLE 7.-Degree and kind of soil limitations for sanitary facilities
[Soil characteristics in this table are expressed in computer-adapted terms differing from those in the Soil Survey Manual (5).
Refer to "Explanation of Key Phrases" at the back of this survey for definition of "percs rapidly" and other terms that describe
soil characteristics]


Soil series
and
map symbols


Basinger: Ba

Boca: Bc --___

Dania: Da


Hallandale :
Hm.?


Ha, Hb,2


Immokalee: fa,lu -__

Lauderhill: La _______


Margate: Ma_____


Septic-tank
absorption
fields


Severe: wetness


Sewage lagoons


Severe:
age.


wetness; seep-


Severe: wetness; depth Severe: depth to rock;
to rock. wetness.


Severe: wetness; depth
to rock.


Severe: wetness; depth
to rock.

Severe: wetness _____

Severe: wetness; depth
to rock.

Severe: wetness; depth
to rock.


Severe: depth to rock;
wetness; seepage; ex-
cess humus.

Severe: depth to rock;
wetness; seepage.

Severe: wetness; seep-
age.

Severe: depth to rock;
wetness; seepage; ex-
cess humus.

Severe: depth to rock;
wetness; seepage.


Paola: Pa, Pb2 ---____ Slight --____________ Severe: seepage _


Plantation: Pm


Severe: wetness; depth Severe: depth to rock;
to rock. wetness; seepage.


Pomello: Po ---------- Severe: wetness -- Moderate: wetness;
seepage.


Pompano: Pp ----- Severe: wetness -_


Sanibel: Sa ---_----_ Severe: wetness ---


St. Lucie: St _-----_ Slight 4---- -


Udorthents: Ud, Un.
Too variable for
valid estimates.

Urban land: Ur.?
Too variable for
valid estimates
except in Pb.


Severe:
age.

Severe:
age.

Severe:


SOnsite deep studies of the underlying strata, water tables,
and hazards of acquifer pollution and drainage into ground
water need to be made for landfills deeper than 5 or 6 feet.
2 Hb, lu, Pb, and Ur are not suited to sewage lagoons and


soil properties that affect suitability for landfill are
ease of excavation, hazard of polluting ground water,
and trafficability. Ratings apply only to a depth of
about 6 feet, and therefore limitating ratings of
slight or moderate may not be valid if excavations
are to be much deeper than that. For some soils, re-
liable predictions can be made to a depth of 10 or 15


wetness; seep-


wetness; seep-

seepage


Sanitary landfill 1


Trench type


Severe: wetness; too
sandy.

Severe: depth to rock;
wetness; too sandy.

Very severe: depth to
rock; wetness; seep-
age; excess humus.

Severe: depth to rock;
wetness; seepage; too
sandy.

Severe: wetness; seep-
age.

Very severe: depth to
rock; wetness; seep-
age; excess humus.

Severe: depth to rock;
wetness; seepage.

Severe: seepage; too
sandy.

Severe: depth to rock;
wetness; seepage; ex-
cess humus.

Severe: wetness; too
sandy.

Severe: wetness; seep-
age.

Severe: wetness; seep-
age.

Severe: seepage; too
sandy.


Area type

Severe: wetness; seep-
age.

Severe: wetness.


Severe:
age.

Severe:
age.

Severe:
age.
Severe:
age.

Severe:
age.

Severe:
age.

Severe:
age.


wetness; seep-


wetness; seep-


wetness; seep-

wetness; seep-


wetness; seep-


wetness; seep-

wetness; seep-


Moderate: wetness.


Severe:
age.

Severe:
age.

Severe:


wetness; seep-


wetness; seep-

seepage.


sanitary landfill because they are too close to houses and com-
mercial buildings or are mostly covered by concrete.
For the Margate part of Hm, refer to the Margate series.
4 Excessive permeability may cause pollution of ground water.


feet, but in most instances geologic investigations will
be needed below a depth of about 6 feet.
Sanitary landfill (trench) is a dug trench in which
refuse is buried daily, or more frequently if necessary.
The refuse is covered with a layer of soil material at
least 6 inches thick, generally soil excavated in digging
the trench. When the trench is full, a final cover of


I I I


27








28 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 8.-Degree and kind of soil limitations for community development
[Soil characteristics in this table are expressed in computer-adapted terms differing from those in the Soil Survey Manual (5).
Refer to "Explanation of Key Phrases" at the back of this survey for definition of "cutbanks cave" and other terms that describe
soil characteristics]


Soil series
and
map symbols


Basinger: Ba


Boca: Bc


Dania: Da------


Hallandale:
Hb,' Hm.'


Immokalee:
lu.1

Lauderhill:


Ha,


La --.


Margate: Ma


Paola: Pa, Pb' __

Plantation: Pm



Pomello: Po ---


Pompano: Pp --


Sanibel: Sa _______-


Shallow
excavations



Severe: wetness;
cutbanks cave.

Severe: wetness;
cutbanks cave;
depth to rock.

Severe: depth to
rock; wetness;
excess humus.


Severe: depth to
rock; wetness;
cutbanks cave.

Severe: wetness;
cutbanks cave.

Severe: depth to
rock; wetness;
excess humus.


Severe: depth to
rock; wetness;
cutbanks cave.

Slight _____

Severe: depth to
rock; wetness;
cutbanks cave;
excess humus.

Severe: wetness;
cutbanks cave.

Severe: wetness;
cutbanks cave.

Severe: wetness;
cutbanks cave.


St. Lucie: St ---___ Slight


Udorthents: Ud,
Un.
Too variable
for valid
estimates.

Urban land: Ur.
Too variable
for valid
estimates.


Dwellings-


Without
basements


Severe: wetness


Severe: wetness


Very severe:
depth to rock;
wetness; excess
humus; low
strength.

Severe: depth to
rock; wetness.


Severe: wetness


Very severe: wet-
ness; excess
humus; low
strength.

Severe: wetness _


With
basements


Severe: wetness -


Severe: depth to
rock; wetness.


Very severe:
depth to rock;
wetness; excess
humus; low
strength.

Severe: depth to
rock; wetness.


Severe: wetness -


Very severe:
depth to rock;
wetness; excess
humus; low
strength.

Severe: depth to
rock; wetness.


Slight --------- Slight -------


Severe: wetness;
excess humus;
low strength.

Moderate: wet-
ness.

Severe: wetness -


Severe: wetness;
excess humus;
low strength.

Slight _____


Severe: wetness;
excess humus;
low strength.


Severe: wetness _


Severe: wetness _


Severe: wetness;
excess humus;
low strength.


Slight _____


Small
commercial
buildings


Severe: wet; cor-
rosive.

Severe: wet; cor-
rosive.


Very severe:
depth to rock;
wet; excess
humus; low
strength.

Severe: depth to
rock; wet;
corrosive.

Severe: wet; cor-
rosive.

Very severe:
wet; excess
humus; low
strength.

Severe: wet


Local
roads and
streets


Severe: wetness.


Severe: wetness.



Very severe: ex-
cess humus; low
strength; wet-
ness; depth to
rock.

Severe: depth to
rock; wetness.


Severe: wetness.


Very severe: ex-
cess humus;
low strength;
wetness.


I Severe:


wetness.


Slight _-- ----- Slight.


Severe: wet; ex-
cess humus;
low strength.

Moderate: wet --


Severe: wetness;
corrosive.

Severe: wetness;
excess humus;
low strength.

Slight _--


Severe: wetness;
excess humus;
low strength.


Slight.


Severe: wetness.


Severe: wetness;
excess humus;
low strength.

Slight.


1This mapping unit is made up of more than one kind of soil. The different soils may have different characteristics, and for this
reason it is necessary to refer to the other series for these soils in the table, as follows: For the Urban land part of Hb, lu, and
Pb, refer to Urban land. For the Margate part of Hm, refer to the Margate series.


I I


I I I I I








BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


TABLE 9.-Suitability of the soils as source material
[Soil characteristics in this table are expressed in computer-adapted terms differing from those in the Soil Survey Manual (5).
Refer to "Explanation of Key Phrases" at the back of this survey for definition of "percs rapidly" and other terms that describe
soil characteristics]


________________________________ 1


Road fill


Good- --------- -------

Poor: thin layer; wet-
ness.
Poor: excess humus;
low strength; thin
layer; wetness; area
reclaim.

Poor: thin layer; area
reclaim; wetness.


Sand


Good ----------------


Poor: thin layer __.__


Unsuited:
humus.


excess


Poor: thin layer ----


Topsoil


Poor: too sandy; wet-
ness.
Poor: too sandy; wet-
ness.
Poor: area reclaim;
wetness.


Poor: too sandy; wet-
ness; area reclaim.


Good --------------- Good ----- -- Poor: too sandy; wet-
I e ness.


Poor: excess humus;
low strength; wet-
ness; area reclaim.


Unsuited: excess
humus.

Poor: thin layer ----


Poor: area reclaim;
wetness.


Poor:
ness.


too sandy; wet-


Soil series
and
map symbols

Basinger: Ba -----..

Boca: Bc -------

Dania: Da


Lauderhill: La --. -_-


Margate: Ma _- Poor: thin layer; wet-
ness.


Paola: Pa, Pb _------__ Good ----------------. Good ----------------- Poor: too sandy .----


Plantation: Pm --


Poor: thin layer; ex-
cess humus; low
strength; wetness.


Poor: thin layer; ex-
cess humus.


Fair:
ness.


thin layer; wet-


Pomello: Po ___---- Good --------------- Good ----------------- Poor: too sandy ----


Pompano: Pp _


Sanibel: Sa -




St. Lucie: St -----

Udorthents: Ud, Un '-
Urban land: Ur."


-__--------------I Good ------------------


Unsuited at a depth of
9-0 inches; excess
humus.
Good at a depth of 0-60
inches.


Poor at a depth of 9-0
inches; excess humus;
low strength.
Good at a depth of 0-60
inches.'


Poor: too sandy; wet-
ness.


Fair:
ness.


thin layer; wet-


---------------- .I Good ----------------I Poor: too sandy


I Good -----------------


(")


'Wetness may be a limitation of this soil for this use.
2For the Urban land part of Hb, lu, and Pb, refer to Urban
land.
SThe mapping unit Hm is not suitable for source material be-
cause it has been modified for base construction of homes, streets,
and industrial buildings.


soil material at least 2 feet thick is placed over the
landfill.
In sanitary landfill (area) refuse is placed on the
surface of the soil in successive layers. The daily and
final cover material generally must be imported. A
final cover of soil material at least 2 feet thick is
placed over the fill when it is completed.
INTERPRETATIONS OF SOILS FOR COMMUNITY DEVEL-


(")


Daily cover
for
landfill


Poor: too sandy; wet-
ness; seepage.
Poor: too sandy; wet-
ness; seepage.

Poor: excess humus;
area reclaim; wetness.


Poor: too sandy; wet;
seepage; area reclaim.

Poor: too sandy; wet-
ness; seepage.

Poor: excess humus;
area reclaim; wetness.

Poor: too sandy; wet-
ness.

Poor: too sandy; seep-
age.
Poor: excess humus;
too sandy; seepage;
wetness.
Poor: too sandy; seep-
age.
Poor: too sandy; seep-
age; wetness.

Poor: excess humus;
too sandy; seepage;
wetness.


Poor:
age.


too sandy; seep-


(5)


The mapping unit Un is not suitable for source material. It
is used mostly for golf courses.
SNo valid estimates can be made.
o Ur is not suitable for source material because it is mostly
covered by concrete.



OPMENT.-Following are explanations of some of the
columns in table 8.
Shallow excavations are those that require excavat-
ing or trenching to a depth of less than 6 feet, as for
example, excavations for pipelines, sewer lines, phone
and power transmission lines, basements, open ditches,
and cemeteries. Desirable soil properties are good work-
ability, moderate resistance to sloughing, gentle slopes,


Hallandale:
Hm.'

Immokalee:


Ha, Hb,'

la, lu .---


--I Good 1


I Good


I I I


29








30 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 10.-Water management
[Soil characteristics in this table are expressed in computer-adapted terms differing from those in the Soil Survey Manual (5).
Refer to "Explanation of Key Phrases" at the back of this survey for definition of "percs rapidly" and other terms that describe
soil characteristics]


Soil series
and
map symbols


Basinger: Ba-------

Boca: Be ----_----__

Dania: Da--------


Hallandale:
Hm.


Ha, Hb,


Immokalee: la, lu ___

Lauderhill: La ---

Margate: Ma -__---

Paola: Pa, Pb --.---..

Plantation: Pm


Pomello: Po


Pompano: Pp ----

Sanibel: Sa-----


St. Lucie: St

Udorthents: Ud, Un.
No valid estimates
can be made.
Urban land: Ur.2


Limitations for-


Embapkments,
dikes, and
levees


Aquifer-fed
excavated
ponds


Features affecting-


Drainage


I I I_


Severe: piping; un-
stable fill; seepage.
Severe: piping; seep-
age; unstable fill.
Severe: thin layer;
excess humus; low
strength.
Severe: thin layer;
piping; unstable fill.
Severe: seepage;
piping; unstable fill.
Severe: excess humus;
low strength; seepage.
Severe: piping; seep-
age; unstable fill.
Severe: piping; seep-
age; unstable fill.
Severe: piping; seep-
age; excess humus;
unstable fill.
Severe: piping; seep-
age; unstable fill.

Severe: piping; seep-
age; unstable fill.
Severe: piping; seep-
age; excess humus;
unstable fill.
Severe: piping; seep-
age; unstable fill.


1 This mapping unit is made up of more than one kind of soil.
The different soils may have different characteristics and for
this reason it is necessary to refer to the other series for these
soils in the table, as follows: For the Urban Land part of Hb,


absence of rock outcrops or big stones, and freedom
from flooding or a high water table.
Dwellings are not more than three stories high and
are supported by foundation footings placed in un-
disturbed soil. The features that affect the rating of a
soil for dwellings are those that relate to capacity to
support load and resist settlement under load, and those
that relate to ease of excavation. Soil properties that


Slight ---------------

Moderate: deep to
water.
Severe: depth to rock -


Severe: depth to rock

Moderate: deep to
water.


Moderate:
rock.


depth to


Moderate: depth to
rock.
Severe: no water

Slight ---- .-


Moderate:
water.


deep to


Slight -- __

Slight ---_ __


Cutbanks cave; wet-
ness.

Cutbanks cave; depth
to rock; wetness.
Depth to rock; wetness;
excess humus.

Depth to rock; wetness;
cutbanks cave.
Cutbanks cave; wet-
ness.
Depth to rock; wetness;
excess humus.
Depth to rock; cutbanks
cave; wetness.
Not needed __ ___

Depth to rock; wetness;
cutbanks cave; excess
humus.

Cutbanks cave; drainage
not needed for crops
and pasture.

Cutbanks cave; wet-
ness.
Cutbanks cave; wet-
ness; excess humus.


Severe: no water -.-_I Not needed ___-------


Irrigation


Wet; seepage; fast in-
take.

Wet: fast intake.

Wet.


Wet; seepage; fast in-
take.
Wet; seepage; fast in-
take.
Wet.

Wet; seepage; fast in-
take.
Droughty; seepage; fast
intake.

Wet; seepage.


Droughty; seepage; fast
intake.

Wet; seepage.

Wet; seepage.


Droughty; seepage; fast
intake.


lu, and Pb, refer to Urban land. For the Margate part of Hm,
refer to the Margate series.
2 Urban land is generally not suitable for water management
because it is mostly covered by concrete.


affect capacity to support load are wetness, suscepti-
bility to flooding, density, plasticity, texture, and
shrink-swell and consolidation potential. Those that
affect excavation are wetness, slope, depth to bedrock,
and content of stones and rocks.
Ratings for small commercial buildings are for the
undisturbed soils that are used to support building
foundations. Emphasis is on foundations, ease of ex-


I


I I I







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


cavation for underground utilities, and corrosion po-
tential of uncoated steel pipe. The undisturbed soil is
rated for footing foundations for buildings less than
three stories high. Properties affecting load-supporting
capacity and settlement under load are wetness, flood-
ing, texture, plasticity, density, and shrink-swell and
consolidation behavior. Properties affecting excavation
are wetness, flooding, slope, and depth to bedrock.
Properties affecting corrosion of buried uncoated steel
pipe are wetness, texture, total acidity, and electrical
resistivity.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
expected to carry automobile traffic all year. They have
a subgrade of underlying soil material; a base consist-
ing of gravel, crushed rock, or soil material stabi-
lized with lime or cement; and a flexible or rigid sur-
face, commonly asphalt or concrete. These roads are
graded to shed water and have ordinary provisions
for drainage. They are built mainly from soil at hand,
and most cuts and fills are less than 6 feet deep.
Soil properties that most affect design and construc-
tion of roads and streets are load-supporting capacity
and stability of the subgrade, and the quality and
AASHO and Unified classifications of the soil material
and also the shrink-swell potential indicate load-
supporting capacity. Wetness and flooding affect sta-
bility of the material. Slope, depth to hard rock,
content of stones and rocks, and wetness affect ease of
excavation and amount of cut and fill needed to reach
an even grade.
INTERPRETATIONS OF SOILS AS SOURCE MATERIAL.-
Following are explanations of the columns in table 9.
Road fill is soil material used in embankments for
roads. The suitability ratings reflect the predicted per-
formance of soil after it has been placed in an em-
bankment and has been properly compacted and pro-
vided with adequate drainage, and the relative ease of
excavating the material at borrow areas.
Sand is used in great quantities in many kinds of
construction. The ratings in table 9 provide guidance
about where to look for probable sources. A soil rated
as a good or fair source of sand generally has a layer
at least 3 feet thick, the top of which is within a depth
of 6 feet. The ratings do not take into account thick-
ness of overburden, location of the water table, or
other factors that affect mining of the materials, and
do not indicate quality of the deposit.
Soils of the Broward County Area do not contain
gravel. Hallandale, Margate, Dania, and Lauderhill
soils are underlain by limestone bedrock that is a good
source of material to crush for aggregate.
Topsoil is used for topdressing an area where vegeta-
tion is to be established and maintained. Suitability is
affected mainly by ease of working and spreading the
soil material, as for preparing a seedbed; natural fer-
tility of the material, or its response of plants when
fertilizer is applied; and absence of substances toxic to
plants. Texture of the soil material and its content of
stone fragments are characteristics that affect suit-
ability, but also considered in the ratings is damage
that will result at the area from which topsoil is taken.
Daily cover for landfill generally must be obtained
from a source away from the site; for this reason,
soils of the Broward County Area are given limitation
ratings for use as cover.


Suitability of a soil for use as cover is based on
properties that reflect workability; ease of excavating,
moving, and spreading over the refuse daily during
both wet and dry periods; and slope, permeability, and
thickness of the soil material.
INTERPRETATIONS OF SOILS FOR WATER MANAGE-
MENT.-Following are explanations of the columns in
table 10.
Embankments, dikes, and levees require soil material
resistant to seepage and piping and of favorable sta-
bility, shrink-swell potential, shear strength, and com-
pactability. Presence of stones or organic material in a
soil are among factors that are unfavorable.
An aquifer-fed excavated pond is a body of water
created by excavating a pit or dugout into a ground-
water aquifer. Excluded are ponds fed by runoff and
also embankment-type ponds where the depth of water
impounded against the embankment exceeds 3 feet.
Properties affecting aquifer-fed ponds are the exis-
tence of a permanent water table, permeability of the
aquifer, and properties that interfere with excavation
-stoniness and rockiness.
Drainage is affected by such soil properties as per-
meability, texture, and structure; depth to claypan,
rock, or other layers that influence rate of water move-
ment; depth to the water table; slope; stability in
ditchbanks; and salinity or alkalinity. Drainage is also
affected by susceptibility to stream overflow and avail-
ability of outlets for drainage.
Irrigation of a soil is affected by such features as
slope; susceptibility to flooding, water erosion or soil
blowing; texture; depth to root zone; rate of water
intake at the surface; permeability of layers below the
surface layer or other layers that restrict movement of
water; amount of water held available to plants; need
for drainage; and depth to water table or bedrock.

Use of the Soils for Farming
Most of the soils in the Broward County Area are not
suited to farming without some water control. The soils
most often used for truck crops, citrus, and pasture are
poorly drained soils that have a sandy surface layer and
sandy or loamy subsoil that extends to limestone. The
soils that have organic surface layers are also used for
pasture and some truck crops. They are very poorly
drained, and most of them have limestone at a depth of
less than 50 inches. If not completely saturated, the
organic layers oxidize or subside at the rate of about 1
inch per year.
About 41,000 acres are used for pasture for beef or
dairy cattle. Several dairies are in the area. Most of the
land used for pasture has water control and improved
grasses such as Pangola, Bahia, and St. Augustine.
Approximately 6,200 acres are used for truck crops,
mostly snap beans, sweet corn, eggplant, squash, and
tomatoes. Citrus, mostly oranges, is grown on about
5,600 acres. About 2,800 acres are used for sod and
nursery products.
Urban development is expanding rapidly in the Area,
and land used for farming is decreasing. It is estimated
that the decrease is about 5,000 acres per year.

Figures given in this section are statistical data from the
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.


31







SOIL SURVEY


Capability grouping

Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the
suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The
soils are grouped according to their limitations if used
for field crops, the risk of damage if they are so used,
and the way they respond to treatment. The grouping
does not take into account major and generally ex-
pensive landforming that would change -liope. dtl:,ilh. or
other characteristics of the soils; does not take into
consideration possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects; and does not apply to rice, cranberries, horti-
cultural crops, or other crops requiring special
management.
Those familiar with the capability classification can
infer from it much about the behavior of soils if used
for other purposes, but this classification is not a sub-
stitute for interpretations designed to show suitability
and limitations of groups of soils for range, forest
trees, or engineering.
In the capability system, all kinds of soils are grouped
at three levels: the class, the subclass, and the unit. The
broadest grouping, the capability class, is designated by
Roman numerals I to VIII. In class I are the soils that
have the fewest limitations, the widest range of use,
and the least risk of damage if they are used. The soils
in the other classes have progressively greater natural
limitations. In class VIII are soils and landforms so
rough, shallow, or otherwise limited that they do not
produce worthwhile yields of crops, forage, or wood
products. The subclass indicates major kinds of limita-
tions within the classes. Within most of the classes
there can be up to four subclasses. The subclasses are
indicated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or c, to the
class numeral, for example IIe. The letter e shows that
the main limitation is risk of erosion unless close-
growing plant cover is maintained; w means that water
in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
corrected by artificial drainage) ; s shows that the soil
is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or
stony; and c, used only in some parts of the United
States, indicates that the chief limitation is climate
that is too cold or too dry.
In class I there are no subclasses, because the soils of
this class have few or no limitations. Class V can con-
tain, at the most, only subclasses w, s, and c, because
the soils are subject to little or no erosion but have
other limitations that confine their use largely to pas-
ture, range, wildlife, or recreation.
Subclasses are further divided into groups called
capability units. These are groups of soils that are so
much alike that they are suited to the same crops and
pasture plants, require about the same management,
and have generally similar productivity and other re-
sponses to management. Capability units are generally
identified by numbers assigned locally, for example,
IIIw-1 or IVw-2.
The eight classes in the capability system and the
subclasses and units in the Broward County Area are
described in the list that follows. The capability unit in
which each soil mapped in the Area has been placed can
be learned by referring to that soil in the section "De-
scriptions of the Soils" or to the "Guide to Mapping
Units" at the back of this survey. Information about


management is given in the section "Descriptions of
the Soils."

CLASS I. Soils that have few limitations that restrict
their use (no subclasses). (There are no class I soils
in the Broward County Area.)
CLASS II. Soils that have moderate limitations that
reduce the choice of plants or require moderate con-
servation practices. (There are no class II soils in
the Broward County Area.)
CLASS III. Soils that have severe limitations that
reduce the choice of plants, require special conserva-
tion practices, or both.
SUBCLASS IIIw. Soils that have severe limita-
tions because of excess water.
Unit IIIw-1. Nearly level, very poorly
drained, organic soils that are underlain by
limestone at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Unit IIIw-2. Nearly level, very poorly
drained soils that have a surface layer of
muck over sandy mineral soil; underlain by
limestone at a depth of 28 to 56 inches.
Unit IIIw-3. Nearly level, deep, poorly
drained soils that have a surface layer of
muck over sandy mineral soil.
CLASS IV. Soils that have very severe limitations
that reduce the choice of plants, require very careful
management, or both.
SUBCLASS IVw. Soils that have very severe
limitations because of excess water.
Unit IVw-1. Nearly level, deep, poorly
drained soils that are sandy throughout.
Unit IVw-2. Nearly level, poorly drained,
sandy soils that are underlain by limestone
at a depth of either 20 or 24 to 40 inches.
Unit IVw-3. Nearly level, deep, poorly
drained, sandy soils that have a layer
weakly cemented with organic matter at a
depth of 30 or more inches.
CLASS V. Soils that are not likely to erode but have
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit
their use largely to pasture, range, woodland, or
wildlife.
SUBCLASS Vw. Soils too wet for cultivation;
drainage or protection not feasible.
Unit Vw-1. Nearly level, poorly drained,
sandy soils that are underlain by limestone
at a depth of 7 to 20 inches.
Unit Vw-2. Nearly level, very poorly
drained, organic soils underlain by lime-
stone at a depth of 14 to 20 inches.
CLASS VI. Soils that have severe limitations that
make them generally unsuited to cultivated crops
and limit their use largely to pasture, range, wood-
land, or wildlife.
SUBCLASS VIs. Soils severely limited because
of droughtiness.
Unit VIs-1. Nearly level, deep, excessively
drained soils that are sandy throughout.
Unit VIs-2. Nearly level to gently sloping,
deep, moderately well drained, sandy soils
that have a layer weakly cemented with
organic matter at a depth of 30 or more
inches.
CLASS VII. Soils that have very severe limitations


32







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


that make them generally unsuited to cultivated
crops and that restrict their use largely to range,
woodland, or wildlife.
SUBCLASS VIIs. Soils very severely limited be-
cause of droughtiness.
Unit VIIs-1. Nearly level, deep, excessively
drained soils that are sandy throughout.
CLASS VIII. Soils and landforms that have limita-
tions that preclude their use for commercial plants
and restrict their use to recreation, wildlife, or water
supply or to esthetic purposes.
SUBCLASS VIIIs. Unconsolidated material more
than very severely limited because of droughti-
ness and other poor soil properties.
Unit VIIIs-1. Well-drained to excessively
drained unconsolidated material that has
slopes of 2 to 40 percent; material has been
excavated and piled along the banks of
canals and dug ponds.
Estimated yields
Table 11 lists estimated yields of the principal crops
and pasture plants grown in the Area. These are based
on estimates made by farmers, soil scientists, and oth-
ers who have knowledge of yields in the Area and on
information taken from research data. The estimated
yields are average yields per acre that can be expected
by good commercial farmers at the level of manage-
ment which tends to produce the highest economic re-
turns.
Crops other than those shown in table 11 are grown
in the area, but their estimated yields are not included
because their acreage is small or reliable data on yields
are not available. Not included in this table are the
mapping units Hb, Hm, lu, Pb, Ud, Un, and Ur, which
are not used for crops or pasture. These units include
soils that are used only for recreation and urban pur-
poses, or that have been modified for urban develop-
ment.


The yields given in table 11 can be expected if the
following management practices are observed:
1. Rainfall is effectively used and conserved.
2. Surface or subsurface drainage systems, or
both, are installed.
3. Crop residue is managed to maintain tilth.
4. Minimum but timely tillage is used.
5. Insect, plant disease, and weed control mea-
sures are consistently used.
6. Fertilizer is applied according to soil test and
crop needs.
7. Suited crop varieties are used at recommended
seeding rates.
8. Irrigation water of suitable quality and quan-
tity is used, where needed.
9. Irrigations are timed to meet the need of the
soil and crop.
10. Irrigation systems are properly designed and
efficiently used.

Use of the Soils as Wildlife Habitat
Soils directly influence kinds and amounts of vegeta-
tion and amounts of water available, and in this way
indirectly influence the kinds of wildlife that can live
in an area. Soil properties that affect the growth of
wildlife habitat are thickness of soil useful for crops,
surface texture, available water capacity to a 40-inch
depth, wetness, surface stoniness or rockiness, flood
hazard, slope, and permeability of the soil to air and
water.
In table 12 soils of this survey area are rated for
their potential for producing seven elements of wild-
life habitat and the potential as habitat for three
groups, or kinds, of wildlife. Not considered in the
table are the mapping units Hb, Hm, lu, Pb, Ud, Un,
and Ur, which do not have wildlife habitat as a princi-
pal use.


TABLE 11.-Estimated average yields per acre of crops and pasture plants
[Yields are those to be expected under a high level of management. Absence of a yield figure indicates that the soil is not suited
to the crop or data are not available]

Vegetable crops Citrus crops Permanent improved pasture
Soil name
Tomatoes Sweet corn Cabbage Oranges Grapefruit Grass Grass-clover

40-pound 40-60-pound 50-pound Animal-unit- Animal-unit-
boxes crates crates Boxes Boxes months 1 months 1
Basinger fine sand ----- 600 160 350 300 400 7.5 9.5
Boca fine sand -- 600 160 350 300 400 7.5 9.5
Dania muck _---------------------------------------------------------- -----------25 32
Hallandale fine sand -------------------------------- ----------------------------------7.5 9.5
Immokalee fine sand --. 600 160 350 300 400 7.0 9.0
Lauderhill muck---------------------- 300 550 ------- ------------- --35 40
Margate fine sand ---- 600 160 350 300 400 7.5 9.5
Paola fine sand --_-----.----.---------.. ._ ...-_____. .------___.. ---______-___ ._____.-. ____- 4.5 ---
Plantation muck ---------------------- 180 450 ---------------------------. 25 32
Pomello fine sand --------------------- -- ----- ---------- -------- --------- 5.6 -
Pompano fine sand ---.- 650 160 350 300 400 8 10
Sanibel muck ----------- _-- --180 450 360 560 25 32
St. Lucie fine sand --- -- ., _

1Animal-unit-months refers to the number of months during a normal growing season that 1 acre will provide grazing for one
animal unit without injury to the sod. One animal unit is defined as one cow, horse, or steer; five hogs; or seven sheep.


33







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


that make them generally unsuited to cultivated
crops and that restrict their use largely to range,
woodland, or wildlife.
SUBCLASS VIIs. Soils very severely limited be-
cause of droughtiness.
Unit VIIs-1. Nearly level, deep, excessively
drained soils that are sandy throughout.
CLASS VIII. Soils and landforms that have limita-
tions that preclude their use for commercial plants
and restrict their use to recreation, wildlife, or water
supply or to esthetic purposes.
SUBCLASS VIIIs. Unconsolidated material more
than very severely limited because of droughti-
ness and other poor soil properties.
Unit VIIIs-1. Well-drained to excessively
drained unconsolidated material that has
slopes of 2 to 40 percent; material has been
excavated and piled along the banks of
canals and dug ponds.
Estimated yields
Table 11 lists estimated yields of the principal crops
and pasture plants grown in the Area. These are based
on estimates made by farmers, soil scientists, and oth-
ers who have knowledge of yields in the Area and on
information taken from research data. The estimated
yields are average yields per acre that can be expected
by good commercial farmers at the level of manage-
ment which tends to produce the highest economic re-
turns.
Crops other than those shown in table 11 are grown
in the area, but their estimated yields are not included
because their acreage is small or reliable data on yields
are not available. Not included in this table are the
mapping units Hb, Hm, lu, Pb, Ud, Un, and Ur, which
are not used for crops or pasture. These units include
soils that are used only for recreation and urban pur-
poses, or that have been modified for urban develop-
ment.


The yields given in table 11 can be expected if the
following management practices are observed:
1. Rainfall is effectively used and conserved.
2. Surface or subsurface drainage systems, or
both, are installed.
3. Crop residue is managed to maintain tilth.
4. Minimum but timely tillage is used.
5. Insect, plant disease, and weed control mea-
sures are consistently used.
6. Fertilizer is applied according to soil test and
crop needs.
7. Suited crop varieties are used at recommended
seeding rates.
8. Irrigation water of suitable quality and quan-
tity is used, where needed.
9. Irrigations are timed to meet the need of the
soil and crop.
10. Irrigation systems are properly designed and
efficiently used.

Use of the Soils as Wildlife Habitat
Soils directly influence kinds and amounts of vegeta-
tion and amounts of water available, and in this way
indirectly influence the kinds of wildlife that can live
in an area. Soil properties that affect the growth of
wildlife habitat are thickness of soil useful for crops,
surface texture, available water capacity to a 40-inch
depth, wetness, surface stoniness or rockiness, flood
hazard, slope, and permeability of the soil to air and
water.
In table 12 soils of this survey area are rated for
their potential for producing seven elements of wild-
life habitat and the potential as habitat for three
groups, or kinds, of wildlife. Not considered in the
table are the mapping units Hb, Hm, lu, Pb, Ud, Un,
and Ur, which do not have wildlife habitat as a princi-
pal use.


TABLE 11.-Estimated average yields per acre of crops and pasture plants
[Yields are those to be expected under a high level of management. Absence of a yield figure indicates that the soil is not suited
to the crop or data are not available]

Vegetable crops Citrus crops Permanent improved pasture
Soil name
Tomatoes Sweet corn Cabbage Oranges Grapefruit Grass Grass-clover

40-pound 40-60-pound 50-pound Animal-unit- Animal-unit-
boxes crates crates Boxes Boxes months 1 months 1
Basinger fine sand ----- 600 160 350 300 400 7.5 9.5
Boca fine sand -- 600 160 350 300 400 7.5 9.5
Dania muck _---------------------------------------------------------- -----------25 32
Hallandale fine sand -------------------------------- ----------------------------------7.5 9.5
Immokalee fine sand --. 600 160 350 300 400 7.0 9.0
Lauderhill muck---------------------- 300 550 ------- ------------- --35 40
Margate fine sand ---- 600 160 350 300 400 7.5 9.5
Paola fine sand --_-----.----.---------.. ._ ...-_____. .------___.. ---______-___ ._____.-. ____- 4.5 ---
Plantation muck ---------------------- 180 450 ---------------------------. 25 32
Pomello fine sand --------------------- -- ----- ---------- -------- --------- 5.6 -
Pompano fine sand ---.- 650 160 350 300 400 8 10
Sanibel muck ----------- _-- --180 450 360 560 25 32
St. Lucie fine sand --- -- ., _

1Animal-unit-months refers to the number of months during a normal growing season that 1 acre will provide grazing for one
animal unit without injury to the sod. One animal unit is defined as one cow, horse, or steer; five hogs; or seven sheep.


33








SOIL SURVEY


TABLE 12.-Potential of the soils for elements of wildlife habitat and kinds of wildlife


Soil name





Basinger fine sand -___-__
Boca fine sand ___________
Dania muck ----

Hallandale fine sand ________
Immokalee fine sand _______
Lauderhill muck __________

Margate fine sand __ _-- --
Paola fine sand __________
Plantation muck __________
Pomello fine sand -_ __---

Pompano fine sand __________________
Sanibel muck ______________
St. Lucie fine sand ____________


Potential for elements of wildlife habitat


Grain
and
seed
crops


Poor _-
Poor --
Very
poor.
Poor -
Poor --
Very
poor.
Poor _-
Very
poor.
Very
poor.
Very
poor.
Poor -_
Very
poor.
Poor -_


Do-
mestic
grasses
and
legumes


Poor _
Fair __
Poor _

Poor _
Fair _
Poor -
Fair _
Poor _
Poor __
Poor _

Fair _
Poor
Poor __


Wild
herba-
ceous
upland
plants


Fair __
Fair _
Poor _-

Poor _
Fair _-
Poor
Fair --
Poor
Poor _-
Poor _

Poor
Poor __

Poor _


Hard-
wood
trees,
shrubs,
and
vines

Poor -
Poor -
Poor --

Poor --
Poor -
Poor --

Poor -
Poor -
Poor -

Poor --

Poor -
Poor -
Poor _


Conif-
erous
woody
plants


Poor __
Poor __
Poor __

Poor -
Poor --
Poor --

Poor --
Poor -
Poor __
Fair --

Poor __
Poor __

Poor __


Wetland
food
and
cover
plants


Fair _
Good
Good

Good
Poor _
Good

Good
Very
poor.
Good
Very
poor.
Good
Good

Very
poor.


Potential as habitat for-


Open-
land
wildlife



Poor __
Fair __.
Poor _

Poor __
Fair _
Poor __

Fair _
Poor __
Poor __
Poor _

Poor _-
Poor _

Poor __


Wood-
land
wildlife



Poor -_
Poor -
Poor _

Poor -
Poor _
Poor -

Poor -
Poor -
Poor -
Fair -

Poor -
Poor -

Poor -


Wetland
wildlife



Fair.
Good.
Fair.

Good.
Poor.
Good.

Good.
Very
poor.
Good.

Very
poor.
Good.
Good.

Very
poor.


In the part on habitat elements, a rating of good
means the element of wildlife habitat and habitats
generally are easily created, improved, and maintained.
Few or no limitations affect management in this cate-
gory, and satisfactory results are expected if the soil
is used for the prescribed purpose.
A rating of fair means the element of wildlife
habitat and habitats can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places. Moderate intensity of man-
agement and fairly frequent attention may be required
for satisfactory results, however.
A rating of poor means the element of wildlife and
limitations for the designated use are rather severe.
Habitats can be created, improved, or maintained in
most places, but management is difficult and requires
intensive effort.
A rating of very poor means the elements of wildlife
habitat are very severe and that unsatisfactory results
are to be expected. It is either impossible or impracti-
cal to create, improve, or maintain habitats on soils in
this category.
Each soil is rated in table 12 according to its poten-
tial for producing various kinds of plants and other
elements that make up wildlife habitats. The ratings
take into account mainly the characteristics of the soils
and closely related natural factors of the environment.
They do not take into account present use of soils or
present distribution of wildlife and human population.
For this reason, selection of a site for development as a
habitat for wildlife requires inspection at the site.
The significance of each subheading in table 12 in its
potential for habitat elements is given in the following
paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are annual grain-producing
plants such as corn, sorghum, and millet.


Domestic grasses and legumes are established by
planting. They provide food and cover for wildlife.
Domestic grasses include bahiagrass, ryegrass, and
pangola grass; legumes are primarily limited to white
clover and joint vetch.
Wild herbaceous upland plants are native or intro-
duced perennial grasses, forbs, and weeds that provide
food and cover for wildlife on uplands. Beggarweed,
grassleaf goldaster, sunflowers, pepperweed, and dotten
gayfeather are typical examples. On rangeland, typical
plants are bluestem, panicums, perennial forbs, and
legumes.
Hardwood trees, shrubs, and vines are nonconiferous
trees, shrubs, and woody vines that produce wildlife
food in the form of fruits, nuts, buds, catkins, or
browse. Such plants commonly grow in their natural
environment, but they may be planted and developed
through wildlife management programs. Typical spe-
cies in this category are oak, cherry, maple, viburnum,
grape, honeysuckle, and greenbrier.
Coniferous woody plants are cone-bearing trees and
shrubs that provide cover and commonly furnish food
in the form of browse, seeds, or fruitlike cones. They
commonly grow in their natural environment, but they
may be planted and managed. Typical plants in this
category are pines, cedars, and ornamental trees and
shrubs.
Wetland food and cover plants are annual and peren-
nial herbaceous plants and grasses that grow wild on
moist and wet sites. They furnish food and cover mostly
for wetland wildlife. Typical examples of plants are
sloughgrass, smartweed, wild millet, spikerush and
other rushes, sedges, and torpedograss. Submerged and
floating aquatics are not included in this category.
Shallow-water areas are impoundments or excava-


- ------------


Shallow-
water
areas



Good --
Good -
Fair __

Good -
Poor __
Good --

Good --
Very
poor.
Good --

Very
poor.
Good --
Good -

Very
poor.


34







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


tions for controlling water, generally not more than 5
feet deep, to create habitats that are suitable for
waterfowl. Some are designed to be drained, planted,
and then flooded; others are permanent impoundments
that grow submersed aquatics.
Table 12 also rates soils according to their potential
as habitat for three kinds of wildlife in the Broward
County Area-open-land, woodland, and wetland wild-
life. These ratings are related to ratings made for the
elements of habitat. For example, soils rated very poor
for shallow-water areas are rated very poor for wetland
wildlife as well. Kinds of wildlife rated in the table are
the following.
Open-land wildlife are birds and mammals that
normally live in meadows, pastures, and open areas
where grasses, herbs, and shrubby plants grow. Quail,
doves, meadowlarks, field sparrows, cottontail rabbits,
and foxes are typical examples of openland wildlife.
Woodland wildlife are birds and mammals that
normally live in wooded areas of hardwood trees, conif-
erous trees, and shrubs. Wild turkeys, deer, squirrels,
and raccoons are typical examples of woodland wildlife.
Wetland wildlife are birds and mammals that nor-
mally live in wet areas, marshes, and swamps. Ducks,
shore birds, and herons are typical examples of wet-
land wildlife.

Use of the Soils for Recreational Development
Knowledge of soils is necessary in planning, devel-
oping and maintaining areas used for recreation. In
table 13 the soils of the Broward County Area are
rated according to limitations that affect their suita-
bility for camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, and
paths and trails.
The soils in the table are rated as having slight,
moderate, or severe limitations for specified uses. For
all of these ratings, it is assumed that a good cover
of vegetation can be established and maintained. A
limitation of slight means that soil properties are gen-
erally favorable and limitations are so minor that they
can be easily overcome. A moderate limitation can be
overcome or modified by planning, design, or special
maintenance. A severe limitation means that costly
soil reclamation, special design, intense maintenance,
or a combination of these, is required.
Camp areas are used intensively for tents and small
camp trailers and the accompanying activities of out-
door living. Little preparation of the site is required,
other than shaping and leveling for tent and parking
areas. Camp areas are subject to heavy foot traffic
and limited vehicular traffic. The best soils for this use
have mild slopes, good drainage, a surface free of rocks
and coarse fragments, freedom from flooding during
periods of heavy use, and a surface that is firm after
rains but not dusty when dry.
Picnic areas are attractive natural or landscaped
tracts used primarily for preparing meals and eating
outdoors. These areas are subject to heavy foot traffic.
Most of the vehicular traffic, however, is confined to
access roads. The best soils are firm when wet but not
dusty when dry; are free of flooding during the sea-
son of use; and do not have slopes or stoniness that
greatly increase cost of leveling sites or of building
access roads.


Playgrounds are areas used intensively for baseball,
football, badminton, and similar organized games. Soils
suitable for this use must withstand intensive foot
traffic. The best soils have a nearly level surface free
of coarse fragments and rock outcrops, good drainage,
freedom from flooding during periods of heavy use, and
a surface that is firm after rains but not dusty when
dry. If grading and leveling are required, depth to rock
is important.
Paths and trails are used for local and cross-country
travel by foot or horseback. Design and layout should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils
are at least moderately well drained, are firm when
wet but not dusty when dry, are flooded not more than
once during the season of use, have slopes of less than
15 percent, and have a few or no rocks or stones on
the surface.


Formation, Morphology, and Classification
of the Soils
In this section, the factors affecting soil formation
and morphology of the soils of the Broward County
Area are discussed. The current system of soil classi-
fication is also explained and the soils are placed in
the higher categories.

Formation of Soils
Soil is formed by weathering and other processes
that act on the parent material. The characteristics of
the soil, at any given point, are determined by parent
material, climate, plants and animals, relief, and time.
Climate and plants and animals are the active forces
of soil formation. They act on the parent material that
has accumulated through the weathering of rocks and
slowly change it into soil. All five factors come into
play in the formation of every soil. The relative im-
portance of each differs from place to place; sometimes
one is more important and sometimes another. In ex-
treme cases one factor may dominate in the forma-
tion of a soil and fix most of its properties. In general,
however, it is the combined action of the five factors
that determines the present character of each soil.
Parent material
Parent material is the unconsolidated mass from
which a soil is formed. It determines the limits of the
chemical and mineralogical composition of the soil.
All of the soils in the Broward County Area formed
in material of Pleistocene or Recent ages. Slightly over
75 percent of the area is covered by the Pamlico Ter-
race, and the rest by organic material of Recent age
(3).
The Pamlico Terrace consists mostly of sand and
ranges from less than 1 foot to about 8 feet or more
in thickness. Near the Executive Airport, the Pamlico
Terrace is made up of thick deposits of sand that give
rise to the Paola soils.
The Broward County Area is generally underlain
by the Miami Oolite formation, a porous limestone
formed from small spherules of carbonate of lime. To
the north, the oolite merges laterally into the Ana-
stasia formation (a coquinoid limestone, sand, and


35







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


tions for controlling water, generally not more than 5
feet deep, to create habitats that are suitable for
waterfowl. Some are designed to be drained, planted,
and then flooded; others are permanent impoundments
that grow submersed aquatics.
Table 12 also rates soils according to their potential
as habitat for three kinds of wildlife in the Broward
County Area-open-land, woodland, and wetland wild-
life. These ratings are related to ratings made for the
elements of habitat. For example, soils rated very poor
for shallow-water areas are rated very poor for wetland
wildlife as well. Kinds of wildlife rated in the table are
the following.
Open-land wildlife are birds and mammals that
normally live in meadows, pastures, and open areas
where grasses, herbs, and shrubby plants grow. Quail,
doves, meadowlarks, field sparrows, cottontail rabbits,
and foxes are typical examples of openland wildlife.
Woodland wildlife are birds and mammals that
normally live in wooded areas of hardwood trees, conif-
erous trees, and shrubs. Wild turkeys, deer, squirrels,
and raccoons are typical examples of woodland wildlife.
Wetland wildlife are birds and mammals that nor-
mally live in wet areas, marshes, and swamps. Ducks,
shore birds, and herons are typical examples of wet-
land wildlife.

Use of the Soils for Recreational Development
Knowledge of soils is necessary in planning, devel-
oping and maintaining areas used for recreation. In
table 13 the soils of the Broward County Area are
rated according to limitations that affect their suita-
bility for camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, and
paths and trails.
The soils in the table are rated as having slight,
moderate, or severe limitations for specified uses. For
all of these ratings, it is assumed that a good cover
of vegetation can be established and maintained. A
limitation of slight means that soil properties are gen-
erally favorable and limitations are so minor that they
can be easily overcome. A moderate limitation can be
overcome or modified by planning, design, or special
maintenance. A severe limitation means that costly
soil reclamation, special design, intense maintenance,
or a combination of these, is required.
Camp areas are used intensively for tents and small
camp trailers and the accompanying activities of out-
door living. Little preparation of the site is required,
other than shaping and leveling for tent and parking
areas. Camp areas are subject to heavy foot traffic
and limited vehicular traffic. The best soils for this use
have mild slopes, good drainage, a surface free of rocks
and coarse fragments, freedom from flooding during
periods of heavy use, and a surface that is firm after
rains but not dusty when dry.
Picnic areas are attractive natural or landscaped
tracts used primarily for preparing meals and eating
outdoors. These areas are subject to heavy foot traffic.
Most of the vehicular traffic, however, is confined to
access roads. The best soils are firm when wet but not
dusty when dry; are free of flooding during the sea-
son of use; and do not have slopes or stoniness that
greatly increase cost of leveling sites or of building
access roads.


Playgrounds are areas used intensively for baseball,
football, badminton, and similar organized games. Soils
suitable for this use must withstand intensive foot
traffic. The best soils have a nearly level surface free
of coarse fragments and rock outcrops, good drainage,
freedom from flooding during periods of heavy use, and
a surface that is firm after rains but not dusty when
dry. If grading and leveling are required, depth to rock
is important.
Paths and trails are used for local and cross-country
travel by foot or horseback. Design and layout should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils
are at least moderately well drained, are firm when
wet but not dusty when dry, are flooded not more than
once during the season of use, have slopes of less than
15 percent, and have a few or no rocks or stones on
the surface.


Formation, Morphology, and Classification
of the Soils
In this section, the factors affecting soil formation
and morphology of the soils of the Broward County
Area are discussed. The current system of soil classi-
fication is also explained and the soils are placed in
the higher categories.

Formation of Soils
Soil is formed by weathering and other processes
that act on the parent material. The characteristics of
the soil, at any given point, are determined by parent
material, climate, plants and animals, relief, and time.
Climate and plants and animals are the active forces
of soil formation. They act on the parent material that
has accumulated through the weathering of rocks and
slowly change it into soil. All five factors come into
play in the formation of every soil. The relative im-
portance of each differs from place to place; sometimes
one is more important and sometimes another. In ex-
treme cases one factor may dominate in the forma-
tion of a soil and fix most of its properties. In general,
however, it is the combined action of the five factors
that determines the present character of each soil.
Parent material
Parent material is the unconsolidated mass from
which a soil is formed. It determines the limits of the
chemical and mineralogical composition of the soil.
All of the soils in the Broward County Area formed
in material of Pleistocene or Recent ages. Slightly over
75 percent of the area is covered by the Pamlico Ter-
race, and the rest by organic material of Recent age
(3).
The Pamlico Terrace consists mostly of sand and
ranges from less than 1 foot to about 8 feet or more
in thickness. Near the Executive Airport, the Pamlico
Terrace is made up of thick deposits of sand that give
rise to the Paola soils.
The Broward County Area is generally underlain
by the Miami Oolite formation, a porous limestone
formed from small spherules of carbonate of lime. To
the north, the oolite merges laterally into the Ana-
stasia formation (a coquinoid limestone, sand, and


35







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


tions for controlling water, generally not more than 5
feet deep, to create habitats that are suitable for
waterfowl. Some are designed to be drained, planted,
and then flooded; others are permanent impoundments
that grow submersed aquatics.
Table 12 also rates soils according to their potential
as habitat for three kinds of wildlife in the Broward
County Area-open-land, woodland, and wetland wild-
life. These ratings are related to ratings made for the
elements of habitat. For example, soils rated very poor
for shallow-water areas are rated very poor for wetland
wildlife as well. Kinds of wildlife rated in the table are
the following.
Open-land wildlife are birds and mammals that
normally live in meadows, pastures, and open areas
where grasses, herbs, and shrubby plants grow. Quail,
doves, meadowlarks, field sparrows, cottontail rabbits,
and foxes are typical examples of openland wildlife.
Woodland wildlife are birds and mammals that
normally live in wooded areas of hardwood trees, conif-
erous trees, and shrubs. Wild turkeys, deer, squirrels,
and raccoons are typical examples of woodland wildlife.
Wetland wildlife are birds and mammals that nor-
mally live in wet areas, marshes, and swamps. Ducks,
shore birds, and herons are typical examples of wet-
land wildlife.

Use of the Soils for Recreational Development
Knowledge of soils is necessary in planning, devel-
oping and maintaining areas used for recreation. In
table 13 the soils of the Broward County Area are
rated according to limitations that affect their suita-
bility for camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, and
paths and trails.
The soils in the table are rated as having slight,
moderate, or severe limitations for specified uses. For
all of these ratings, it is assumed that a good cover
of vegetation can be established and maintained. A
limitation of slight means that soil properties are gen-
erally favorable and limitations are so minor that they
can be easily overcome. A moderate limitation can be
overcome or modified by planning, design, or special
maintenance. A severe limitation means that costly
soil reclamation, special design, intense maintenance,
or a combination of these, is required.
Camp areas are used intensively for tents and small
camp trailers and the accompanying activities of out-
door living. Little preparation of the site is required,
other than shaping and leveling for tent and parking
areas. Camp areas are subject to heavy foot traffic
and limited vehicular traffic. The best soils for this use
have mild slopes, good drainage, a surface free of rocks
and coarse fragments, freedom from flooding during
periods of heavy use, and a surface that is firm after
rains but not dusty when dry.
Picnic areas are attractive natural or landscaped
tracts used primarily for preparing meals and eating
outdoors. These areas are subject to heavy foot traffic.
Most of the vehicular traffic, however, is confined to
access roads. The best soils are firm when wet but not
dusty when dry; are free of flooding during the sea-
son of use; and do not have slopes or stoniness that
greatly increase cost of leveling sites or of building
access roads.


Playgrounds are areas used intensively for baseball,
football, badminton, and similar organized games. Soils
suitable for this use must withstand intensive foot
traffic. The best soils have a nearly level surface free
of coarse fragments and rock outcrops, good drainage,
freedom from flooding during periods of heavy use, and
a surface that is firm after rains but not dusty when
dry. If grading and leveling are required, depth to rock
is important.
Paths and trails are used for local and cross-country
travel by foot or horseback. Design and layout should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils
are at least moderately well drained, are firm when
wet but not dusty when dry, are flooded not more than
once during the season of use, have slopes of less than
15 percent, and have a few or no rocks or stones on
the surface.


Formation, Morphology, and Classification
of the Soils
In this section, the factors affecting soil formation
and morphology of the soils of the Broward County
Area are discussed. The current system of soil classi-
fication is also explained and the soils are placed in
the higher categories.

Formation of Soils
Soil is formed by weathering and other processes
that act on the parent material. The characteristics of
the soil, at any given point, are determined by parent
material, climate, plants and animals, relief, and time.
Climate and plants and animals are the active forces
of soil formation. They act on the parent material that
has accumulated through the weathering of rocks and
slowly change it into soil. All five factors come into
play in the formation of every soil. The relative im-
portance of each differs from place to place; sometimes
one is more important and sometimes another. In ex-
treme cases one factor may dominate in the forma-
tion of a soil and fix most of its properties. In general,
however, it is the combined action of the five factors
that determines the present character of each soil.
Parent material
Parent material is the unconsolidated mass from
which a soil is formed. It determines the limits of the
chemical and mineralogical composition of the soil.
All of the soils in the Broward County Area formed
in material of Pleistocene or Recent ages. Slightly over
75 percent of the area is covered by the Pamlico Ter-
race, and the rest by organic material of Recent age
(3).
The Pamlico Terrace consists mostly of sand and
ranges from less than 1 foot to about 8 feet or more
in thickness. Near the Executive Airport, the Pamlico
Terrace is made up of thick deposits of sand that give
rise to the Paola soils.
The Broward County Area is generally underlain
by the Miami Oolite formation, a porous limestone
formed from small spherules of carbonate of lime. To
the north, the oolite merges laterally into the Ana-
stasia formation (a coquinoid limestone, sand, and


35







36 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 13.-Degree and kind of soil limitation for recreational development
[Soil characteristics in this table are expressed in computer-adapted terms differing from those in the Soil Survey Manual (5).
Refer to "Explanation of Key Phrases" at the back of this survey for definition of "depth to rock" and other terms that describe
soil characteristics]


Soil series
and
map symbols


Camp areas


Picnic areas


Basinger: Ba -------- Severe: wetness -_--I Severe: wetness ______


Boca: Bc-------- Severe: wetness __-_ Severe: wetness __---


Dania: Da_______

Hallandale:
Ha _-________


Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.


Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.


Severe: wetness _--- Severe: wetness ___


Hb,' Hm -_------- Moderate: wetness --- Moderate: wetness __-


Immokalee:
la ____-


-_- --I Severe: wetness ___ Severe: wetness _


lu _-__-__--- Moderate: wetness _


Lauderhill: La ______

Margate: Ma_---

Paola: Pa, Pb ------
Plantation: Pm ----

Pomello: Po-------

Pompano: Pp

Sanibel: Sa

St. Lucie: St --


Udorthents: Ud,' Un.8


Urban land: Ur.


Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.


Moderate: wetness _--

Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.


Severe: wetness -- Severe: wetness ----


Playgrounds


Severe:
sandy.
Severe:
sandy.


wetness; too

wetness; too


Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.

Severe: wetnsss; depth
to rock; too sandy.
Severe: too sandy;
depth to rock.

Severe: wetness; too
sandy.
Severe: too sandy __-_-
Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.
Severe: wetness; too
sandy.


Paths and trails


Severe: wetness.

Severe: wetness.

Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.

Severe: wetness.
Moderate: wetness.


Severe: wetness.
Moderate: wetness.

Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.
Severe: wetness.


Severe: too sandy---- Severe: too sandy--- Severe: too sandy ----- Severe: toosandy.


Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.

Severe: too sandy ---
Severe: wetness ----

Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.
Severe: too sandy --


Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.

Severe: too sandy -_-
Severe: wetness ----

Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.
Severe: too sandy _---


1 This mapping unit is made up of more than one kind of soil.
The different soils may have different characteristics, and for
this reason it is necessary to refer to the other series for these
soils in the table, as follows: For the Urban land part of Hb,
lu, and Pb, refer to Urban land. For the Margate part of Hm,
refer to the Margate series.



clay) near the Hillsboro Canal. The northern part of
the Everglades in the Broward County Area is under-
lain by the Fort Thompson formation (a shell hash of
alternating marine- and fresh-water mollusks, clay,
and sand) that grades into the Miami Oolite in the
southern part.
Near the conservation area the Pamlico Terrace is
thin over the Miami Oolite limestone. Common in this
area are Hallandale soils that are sandy and shallow
and extend into the porous limestone in solution holes.
In other places, such as the area around Andytown,


Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.

Severe: too sandy ___

Severe: wetness; too
sandy.
Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.
Severe: too sandy -


Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.

Severe: too sandy.
Severe: wetness.

Severe: wetness; ex-
cess humus.
Severe: too sandy.


2 Ud is too variable for valid interpretations.

SUn is not suitable for further recreational development. It
is presently used mostly for golf courses.
Ur is not suited to development for these types of recreation.



there is a thin layer of organic material over limestone
that gives rise to the Dania soils.
Climate
The Broward County Area has a tropical climate
near the coast and a subtropical climate west of the
coastal area. The relatively high year-round tempera-
ture and large amount of rainfall have hastened soil
development. Because the abundant rainfall continu-
ously leaches and translocates soluble minerals, the
soils contain only small amounts of organic matter and


I _







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


soluble plant nutrients. Only the soils that were once
covered with organic material have fairly high amounts
of organic material in the surface layer. Although the
climate changes from tropical to humid subtropical,
this has caused few differences among the soils.
Plants and animals
Plants have been the principal biological factor in
the formation of soils in the Area, but animals, in-
sects, bacteria, and fungi also have been important.
Two of the chief functions of plant and animal life
are to furnish organic matter and to bring plant nu-
trients from the lower to the upper horizons. Differ-
ences in the amount of organic matter, nitrogen, and
plant nutrients in the soils and differences in soil struc-
ture and porosity are among those caused by plants
and animals.
Relief
Relief has affected the formation of soils in the
Area, primarily through its influence on soil-water re-
lationships. Other factors of soil formation normally
associated with relief, such as erosion, temperature,
and plant cover, are of minor importance.
The Broward County Area is a nearly level plain
with an elevation of 2 to 10 feet except for several
ridges which are slightly higher. It comprises three
general types of areas-flatwoods; wet, grassy flats or
Everglades; and coastal ridges. Differences in the soils
of these general areas are directly related to differences
in relief.
The soils in the flatwoods area have a higher water
table and are periodically wet to the surface. These
soils, therefore, are not so highly leached as some on
the coastal ridges. The soils in the Everglades or wet,
grassy flats are covered with water for long periods
and have a high content of organic matter on the sur-
face. The soils on the coastal ridges are at higher
elevations than those of the flatwoods or Everglades
areas, are mostly excessively drained or well drained,
and are not influenced by a ground-water table.
Time
Time is an important factor in the formation of
soils. Normally, a long time is required for formation
of soils that have distinct horizons. The difference in
length of time that parent materials have been in place
commonly is reflected in the degree of development of
the soil.
Some basic minerals from which soils are formed
weather fairly rapidly, but other minerals change
slowly even though weathering has taken place over
a long period. The translocation of fine particles within
soils to form the various horizons varies under differ-
ent conditions. All of the soil forming processes, how-
ever, require a relatively long period. Almost pure
quartz sand that is highly resistant to weathering is
the dominant geologic material in the Broward County
Area. Only one soil in the Area contains enough fine-
textured material to be classified in a loamy family
rather than a sandy family. The organic soils of the
Everglades were formed by decayed organic material
that built up over the years in shallow water.
In terms of geologic time, the soil material that
makes up most of the soils of the Area is young. Not


enough time has elapsed since the material was laid
down or emerged from the sea for pronounced genetic
horizons to develop. Some thin, loamy horizons have
formed in place through the process of weathering.
An example is the Boca soils. A distinct genetic hori-
zon, such as the spodic horizon, has formed in the
Immokalee and Pomello soils; however, the time
required for its development is relatively short.

Morphology of Soils
Soil morphology refers to the process involved in the
formation of the soil horizon, or horizon differentia-
tion. Differentiation of horizons in the soils of the
Broward County Area is the result of accumulation
of organic matter, the leaching of carbonates, the re-
duction and transfer of iron, the accumulation of
silicate clay minerals, or of some combination of these
processes.
Some organic matter has accumulated in the upper
layers of most of the soils to form an Al horizon.
The quantity of organic matter is small in some
of the soils but fairly large in others. Leaching of
carbonates and salts has occurred in nearly all of the
soils. The effects of leaching have been indirect, in that
the leaching permitted the subsequent translocation of
silicate clay materials in some soils. Most of the soils
of the county are leached to varying degrees.
The reduction and transfer of iron has occurred in
most of the soils of the survey area but not in the
organic soils. In some of the wet soils, iron has been
segregated within the deeper horizons to form reddish-
brown mottles and concretions.
In the Boca soil, evidence of weathering and clay
movement, or alteration is present in the form of a
light-colored, leached A2 horizon and a loamy Bt hori-
zon that has sand grains coated and bridged with clay
material.

Classification of Soils
Classification consists of an orderly grouping of soils
according to a system designed to make it easier to
remember soil characteristics and interrelationships.
Classification is useful in organizing and applying the
results of experience and research. Soils are placed in
narrow classes for discussion in detailed soil surveys
and for application of knowledge within farms and
fields. The many thousands of narrow classes are then
grouped into progressively fewer and broader classes
in successively higher categories, so that information
can be applied to large geographic areas.
Two systems of classifying soils have been used in
the United States in recent years. The older system
was adopted in 1938 and revised later. The system cur-
rently used by the National Cooperative Soil Survey
was developed in the early 1960's and adopted in 1965
(4, 6). It is under continual study.8
The current system of classification has six cate-
gories. Beginning with the most inclusive, these cate-
SSee the unpublished working document "Selected Chapters
from the Unedited Text of the Soil Taxonomy of the National
Cooperative Soil Survey." It is ordinarily available in the SCS
State Office, and is a good source of information on current soil
classification.


37







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


soluble plant nutrients. Only the soils that were once
covered with organic material have fairly high amounts
of organic material in the surface layer. Although the
climate changes from tropical to humid subtropical,
this has caused few differences among the soils.
Plants and animals
Plants have been the principal biological factor in
the formation of soils in the Area, but animals, in-
sects, bacteria, and fungi also have been important.
Two of the chief functions of plant and animal life
are to furnish organic matter and to bring plant nu-
trients from the lower to the upper horizons. Differ-
ences in the amount of organic matter, nitrogen, and
plant nutrients in the soils and differences in soil struc-
ture and porosity are among those caused by plants
and animals.
Relief
Relief has affected the formation of soils in the
Area, primarily through its influence on soil-water re-
lationships. Other factors of soil formation normally
associated with relief, such as erosion, temperature,
and plant cover, are of minor importance.
The Broward County Area is a nearly level plain
with an elevation of 2 to 10 feet except for several
ridges which are slightly higher. It comprises three
general types of areas-flatwoods; wet, grassy flats or
Everglades; and coastal ridges. Differences in the soils
of these general areas are directly related to differences
in relief.
The soils in the flatwoods area have a higher water
table and are periodically wet to the surface. These
soils, therefore, are not so highly leached as some on
the coastal ridges. The soils in the Everglades or wet,
grassy flats are covered with water for long periods
and have a high content of organic matter on the sur-
face. The soils on the coastal ridges are at higher
elevations than those of the flatwoods or Everglades
areas, are mostly excessively drained or well drained,
and are not influenced by a ground-water table.
Time
Time is an important factor in the formation of
soils. Normally, a long time is required for formation
of soils that have distinct horizons. The difference in
length of time that parent materials have been in place
commonly is reflected in the degree of development of
the soil.
Some basic minerals from which soils are formed
weather fairly rapidly, but other minerals change
slowly even though weathering has taken place over
a long period. The translocation of fine particles within
soils to form the various horizons varies under differ-
ent conditions. All of the soil forming processes, how-
ever, require a relatively long period. Almost pure
quartz sand that is highly resistant to weathering is
the dominant geologic material in the Broward County
Area. Only one soil in the Area contains enough fine-
textured material to be classified in a loamy family
rather than a sandy family. The organic soils of the
Everglades were formed by decayed organic material
that built up over the years in shallow water.
In terms of geologic time, the soil material that
makes up most of the soils of the Area is young. Not


enough time has elapsed since the material was laid
down or emerged from the sea for pronounced genetic
horizons to develop. Some thin, loamy horizons have
formed in place through the process of weathering.
An example is the Boca soils. A distinct genetic hori-
zon, such as the spodic horizon, has formed in the
Immokalee and Pomello soils; however, the time
required for its development is relatively short.

Morphology of Soils
Soil morphology refers to the process involved in the
formation of the soil horizon, or horizon differentia-
tion. Differentiation of horizons in the soils of the
Broward County Area is the result of accumulation
of organic matter, the leaching of carbonates, the re-
duction and transfer of iron, the accumulation of
silicate clay minerals, or of some combination of these
processes.
Some organic matter has accumulated in the upper
layers of most of the soils to form an Al horizon.
The quantity of organic matter is small in some
of the soils but fairly large in others. Leaching of
carbonates and salts has occurred in nearly all of the
soils. The effects of leaching have been indirect, in that
the leaching permitted the subsequent translocation of
silicate clay materials in some soils. Most of the soils
of the county are leached to varying degrees.
The reduction and transfer of iron has occurred in
most of the soils of the survey area but not in the
organic soils. In some of the wet soils, iron has been
segregated within the deeper horizons to form reddish-
brown mottles and concretions.
In the Boca soil, evidence of weathering and clay
movement, or alteration is present in the form of a
light-colored, leached A2 horizon and a loamy Bt hori-
zon that has sand grains coated and bridged with clay
material.

Classification of Soils
Classification consists of an orderly grouping of soils
according to a system designed to make it easier to
remember soil characteristics and interrelationships.
Classification is useful in organizing and applying the
results of experience and research. Soils are placed in
narrow classes for discussion in detailed soil surveys
and for application of knowledge within farms and
fields. The many thousands of narrow classes are then
grouped into progressively fewer and broader classes
in successively higher categories, so that information
can be applied to large geographic areas.
Two systems of classifying soils have been used in
the United States in recent years. The older system
was adopted in 1938 and revised later. The system cur-
rently used by the National Cooperative Soil Survey
was developed in the early 1960's and adopted in 1965
(4, 6). It is under continual study.8
The current system of classification has six cate-
gories. Beginning with the most inclusive, these cate-
SSee the unpublished working document "Selected Chapters
from the Unedited Text of the Soil Taxonomy of the National
Cooperative Soil Survey." It is ordinarily available in the SCS
State Office, and is a good source of information on current soil
classification.


37







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


soluble plant nutrients. Only the soils that were once
covered with organic material have fairly high amounts
of organic material in the surface layer. Although the
climate changes from tropical to humid subtropical,
this has caused few differences among the soils.
Plants and animals
Plants have been the principal biological factor in
the formation of soils in the Area, but animals, in-
sects, bacteria, and fungi also have been important.
Two of the chief functions of plant and animal life
are to furnish organic matter and to bring plant nu-
trients from the lower to the upper horizons. Differ-
ences in the amount of organic matter, nitrogen, and
plant nutrients in the soils and differences in soil struc-
ture and porosity are among those caused by plants
and animals.
Relief
Relief has affected the formation of soils in the
Area, primarily through its influence on soil-water re-
lationships. Other factors of soil formation normally
associated with relief, such as erosion, temperature,
and plant cover, are of minor importance.
The Broward County Area is a nearly level plain
with an elevation of 2 to 10 feet except for several
ridges which are slightly higher. It comprises three
general types of areas-flatwoods; wet, grassy flats or
Everglades; and coastal ridges. Differences in the soils
of these general areas are directly related to differences
in relief.
The soils in the flatwoods area have a higher water
table and are periodically wet to the surface. These
soils, therefore, are not so highly leached as some on
the coastal ridges. The soils in the Everglades or wet,
grassy flats are covered with water for long periods
and have a high content of organic matter on the sur-
face. The soils on the coastal ridges are at higher
elevations than those of the flatwoods or Everglades
areas, are mostly excessively drained or well drained,
and are not influenced by a ground-water table.
Time
Time is an important factor in the formation of
soils. Normally, a long time is required for formation
of soils that have distinct horizons. The difference in
length of time that parent materials have been in place
commonly is reflected in the degree of development of
the soil.
Some basic minerals from which soils are formed
weather fairly rapidly, but other minerals change
slowly even though weathering has taken place over
a long period. The translocation of fine particles within
soils to form the various horizons varies under differ-
ent conditions. All of the soil forming processes, how-
ever, require a relatively long period. Almost pure
quartz sand that is highly resistant to weathering is
the dominant geologic material in the Broward County
Area. Only one soil in the Area contains enough fine-
textured material to be classified in a loamy family
rather than a sandy family. The organic soils of the
Everglades were formed by decayed organic material
that built up over the years in shallow water.
In terms of geologic time, the soil material that
makes up most of the soils of the Area is young. Not


enough time has elapsed since the material was laid
down or emerged from the sea for pronounced genetic
horizons to develop. Some thin, loamy horizons have
formed in place through the process of weathering.
An example is the Boca soils. A distinct genetic hori-
zon, such as the spodic horizon, has formed in the
Immokalee and Pomello soils; however, the time
required for its development is relatively short.

Morphology of Soils
Soil morphology refers to the process involved in the
formation of the soil horizon, or horizon differentia-
tion. Differentiation of horizons in the soils of the
Broward County Area is the result of accumulation
of organic matter, the leaching of carbonates, the re-
duction and transfer of iron, the accumulation of
silicate clay minerals, or of some combination of these
processes.
Some organic matter has accumulated in the upper
layers of most of the soils to form an Al horizon.
The quantity of organic matter is small in some
of the soils but fairly large in others. Leaching of
carbonates and salts has occurred in nearly all of the
soils. The effects of leaching have been indirect, in that
the leaching permitted the subsequent translocation of
silicate clay materials in some soils. Most of the soils
of the county are leached to varying degrees.
The reduction and transfer of iron has occurred in
most of the soils of the survey area but not in the
organic soils. In some of the wet soils, iron has been
segregated within the deeper horizons to form reddish-
brown mottles and concretions.
In the Boca soil, evidence of weathering and clay
movement, or alteration is present in the form of a
light-colored, leached A2 horizon and a loamy Bt hori-
zon that has sand grains coated and bridged with clay
material.

Classification of Soils
Classification consists of an orderly grouping of soils
according to a system designed to make it easier to
remember soil characteristics and interrelationships.
Classification is useful in organizing and applying the
results of experience and research. Soils are placed in
narrow classes for discussion in detailed soil surveys
and for application of knowledge within farms and
fields. The many thousands of narrow classes are then
grouped into progressively fewer and broader classes
in successively higher categories, so that information
can be applied to large geographic areas.
Two systems of classifying soils have been used in
the United States in recent years. The older system
was adopted in 1938 and revised later. The system cur-
rently used by the National Cooperative Soil Survey
was developed in the early 1960's and adopted in 1965
(4, 6). It is under continual study.8
The current system of classification has six cate-
gories. Beginning with the most inclusive, these cate-
SSee the unpublished working document "Selected Chapters
from the Unedited Text of the Soil Taxonomy of the National
Cooperative Soil Survey." It is ordinarily available in the SCS
State Office, and is a good source of information on current soil
classification.


37







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


soluble plant nutrients. Only the soils that were once
covered with organic material have fairly high amounts
of organic material in the surface layer. Although the
climate changes from tropical to humid subtropical,
this has caused few differences among the soils.
Plants and animals
Plants have been the principal biological factor in
the formation of soils in the Area, but animals, in-
sects, bacteria, and fungi also have been important.
Two of the chief functions of plant and animal life
are to furnish organic matter and to bring plant nu-
trients from the lower to the upper horizons. Differ-
ences in the amount of organic matter, nitrogen, and
plant nutrients in the soils and differences in soil struc-
ture and porosity are among those caused by plants
and animals.
Relief
Relief has affected the formation of soils in the
Area, primarily through its influence on soil-water re-
lationships. Other factors of soil formation normally
associated with relief, such as erosion, temperature,
and plant cover, are of minor importance.
The Broward County Area is a nearly level plain
with an elevation of 2 to 10 feet except for several
ridges which are slightly higher. It comprises three
general types of areas-flatwoods; wet, grassy flats or
Everglades; and coastal ridges. Differences in the soils
of these general areas are directly related to differences
in relief.
The soils in the flatwoods area have a higher water
table and are periodically wet to the surface. These
soils, therefore, are not so highly leached as some on
the coastal ridges. The soils in the Everglades or wet,
grassy flats are covered with water for long periods
and have a high content of organic matter on the sur-
face. The soils on the coastal ridges are at higher
elevations than those of the flatwoods or Everglades
areas, are mostly excessively drained or well drained,
and are not influenced by a ground-water table.
Time
Time is an important factor in the formation of
soils. Normally, a long time is required for formation
of soils that have distinct horizons. The difference in
length of time that parent materials have been in place
commonly is reflected in the degree of development of
the soil.
Some basic minerals from which soils are formed
weather fairly rapidly, but other minerals change
slowly even though weathering has taken place over
a long period. The translocation of fine particles within
soils to form the various horizons varies under differ-
ent conditions. All of the soil forming processes, how-
ever, require a relatively long period. Almost pure
quartz sand that is highly resistant to weathering is
the dominant geologic material in the Broward County
Area. Only one soil in the Area contains enough fine-
textured material to be classified in a loamy family
rather than a sandy family. The organic soils of the
Everglades were formed by decayed organic material
that built up over the years in shallow water.
In terms of geologic time, the soil material that
makes up most of the soils of the Area is young. Not


enough time has elapsed since the material was laid
down or emerged from the sea for pronounced genetic
horizons to develop. Some thin, loamy horizons have
formed in place through the process of weathering.
An example is the Boca soils. A distinct genetic hori-
zon, such as the spodic horizon, has formed in the
Immokalee and Pomello soils; however, the time
required for its development is relatively short.

Morphology of Soils
Soil morphology refers to the process involved in the
formation of the soil horizon, or horizon differentia-
tion. Differentiation of horizons in the soils of the
Broward County Area is the result of accumulation
of organic matter, the leaching of carbonates, the re-
duction and transfer of iron, the accumulation of
silicate clay minerals, or of some combination of these
processes.
Some organic matter has accumulated in the upper
layers of most of the soils to form an Al horizon.
The quantity of organic matter is small in some
of the soils but fairly large in others. Leaching of
carbonates and salts has occurred in nearly all of the
soils. The effects of leaching have been indirect, in that
the leaching permitted the subsequent translocation of
silicate clay materials in some soils. Most of the soils
of the county are leached to varying degrees.
The reduction and transfer of iron has occurred in
most of the soils of the survey area but not in the
organic soils. In some of the wet soils, iron has been
segregated within the deeper horizons to form reddish-
brown mottles and concretions.
In the Boca soil, evidence of weathering and clay
movement, or alteration is present in the form of a
light-colored, leached A2 horizon and a loamy Bt hori-
zon that has sand grains coated and bridged with clay
material.

Classification of Soils
Classification consists of an orderly grouping of soils
according to a system designed to make it easier to
remember soil characteristics and interrelationships.
Classification is useful in organizing and applying the
results of experience and research. Soils are placed in
narrow classes for discussion in detailed soil surveys
and for application of knowledge within farms and
fields. The many thousands of narrow classes are then
grouped into progressively fewer and broader classes
in successively higher categories, so that information
can be applied to large geographic areas.
Two systems of classifying soils have been used in
the United States in recent years. The older system
was adopted in 1938 and revised later. The system cur-
rently used by the National Cooperative Soil Survey
was developed in the early 1960's and adopted in 1965
(4, 6). It is under continual study.8
The current system of classification has six cate-
gories. Beginning with the most inclusive, these cate-
SSee the unpublished working document "Selected Chapters
from the Unedited Text of the Soil Taxonomy of the National
Cooperative Soil Survey." It is ordinarily available in the SCS
State Office, and is a good source of information on current soil
classification.


37







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


soluble plant nutrients. Only the soils that were once
covered with organic material have fairly high amounts
of organic material in the surface layer. Although the
climate changes from tropical to humid subtropical,
this has caused few differences among the soils.
Plants and animals
Plants have been the principal biological factor in
the formation of soils in the Area, but animals, in-
sects, bacteria, and fungi also have been important.
Two of the chief functions of plant and animal life
are to furnish organic matter and to bring plant nu-
trients from the lower to the upper horizons. Differ-
ences in the amount of organic matter, nitrogen, and
plant nutrients in the soils and differences in soil struc-
ture and porosity are among those caused by plants
and animals.
Relief
Relief has affected the formation of soils in the
Area, primarily through its influence on soil-water re-
lationships. Other factors of soil formation normally
associated with relief, such as erosion, temperature,
and plant cover, are of minor importance.
The Broward County Area is a nearly level plain
with an elevation of 2 to 10 feet except for several
ridges which are slightly higher. It comprises three
general types of areas-flatwoods; wet, grassy flats or
Everglades; and coastal ridges. Differences in the soils
of these general areas are directly related to differences
in relief.
The soils in the flatwoods area have a higher water
table and are periodically wet to the surface. These
soils, therefore, are not so highly leached as some on
the coastal ridges. The soils in the Everglades or wet,
grassy flats are covered with water for long periods
and have a high content of organic matter on the sur-
face. The soils on the coastal ridges are at higher
elevations than those of the flatwoods or Everglades
areas, are mostly excessively drained or well drained,
and are not influenced by a ground-water table.
Time
Time is an important factor in the formation of
soils. Normally, a long time is required for formation
of soils that have distinct horizons. The difference in
length of time that parent materials have been in place
commonly is reflected in the degree of development of
the soil.
Some basic minerals from which soils are formed
weather fairly rapidly, but other minerals change
slowly even though weathering has taken place over
a long period. The translocation of fine particles within
soils to form the various horizons varies under differ-
ent conditions. All of the soil forming processes, how-
ever, require a relatively long period. Almost pure
quartz sand that is highly resistant to weathering is
the dominant geologic material in the Broward County
Area. Only one soil in the Area contains enough fine-
textured material to be classified in a loamy family
rather than a sandy family. The organic soils of the
Everglades were formed by decayed organic material
that built up over the years in shallow water.
In terms of geologic time, the soil material that
makes up most of the soils of the Area is young. Not


enough time has elapsed since the material was laid
down or emerged from the sea for pronounced genetic
horizons to develop. Some thin, loamy horizons have
formed in place through the process of weathering.
An example is the Boca soils. A distinct genetic hori-
zon, such as the spodic horizon, has formed in the
Immokalee and Pomello soils; however, the time
required for its development is relatively short.

Morphology of Soils
Soil morphology refers to the process involved in the
formation of the soil horizon, or horizon differentia-
tion. Differentiation of horizons in the soils of the
Broward County Area is the result of accumulation
of organic matter, the leaching of carbonates, the re-
duction and transfer of iron, the accumulation of
silicate clay minerals, or of some combination of these
processes.
Some organic matter has accumulated in the upper
layers of most of the soils to form an Al horizon.
The quantity of organic matter is small in some
of the soils but fairly large in others. Leaching of
carbonates and salts has occurred in nearly all of the
soils. The effects of leaching have been indirect, in that
the leaching permitted the subsequent translocation of
silicate clay materials in some soils. Most of the soils
of the county are leached to varying degrees.
The reduction and transfer of iron has occurred in
most of the soils of the survey area but not in the
organic soils. In some of the wet soils, iron has been
segregated within the deeper horizons to form reddish-
brown mottles and concretions.
In the Boca soil, evidence of weathering and clay
movement, or alteration is present in the form of a
light-colored, leached A2 horizon and a loamy Bt hori-
zon that has sand grains coated and bridged with clay
material.

Classification of Soils
Classification consists of an orderly grouping of soils
according to a system designed to make it easier to
remember soil characteristics and interrelationships.
Classification is useful in organizing and applying the
results of experience and research. Soils are placed in
narrow classes for discussion in detailed soil surveys
and for application of knowledge within farms and
fields. The many thousands of narrow classes are then
grouped into progressively fewer and broader classes
in successively higher categories, so that information
can be applied to large geographic areas.
Two systems of classifying soils have been used in
the United States in recent years. The older system
was adopted in 1938 and revised later. The system cur-
rently used by the National Cooperative Soil Survey
was developed in the early 1960's and adopted in 1965
(4, 6). It is under continual study.8
The current system of classification has six cate-
gories. Beginning with the most inclusive, these cate-
SSee the unpublished working document "Selected Chapters
from the Unedited Text of the Soil Taxonomy of the National
Cooperative Soil Survey." It is ordinarily available in the SCS
State Office, and is a good source of information on current soil
classification.


37







38 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 14.-Soil series classified according to the current system'


Family


Siliceous, hyperthermic ____-__-
Loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic _
Euic, hyperthermic, shallow __
Siliceous, hyperthermic _____
Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic __
Euic, hyperthermic _________
Siliceous, hyperthermic _____
Hyperthermic, uncoated -____-

Siliceous, hyperthermic _____
Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic __
Siliceous, hyperthermic _______
Siliceous, hyperthermic ______
Hyperthermic, uncoated __ _-_-


Subgroup

Spodic Psammaquents -- _
Arenic Ochraqualfs
Lithic Medisaprists ___- _
Typic Psammaquents ____
Arenic Haplaquods ____ __
Lithic Medisaprists _____
Mollic Psammaquents _____
Spodic Quartzipsamments ______

Typic Psammaquents _____
Arenic Haplohumods _____
Typic Psammaquents ________
Typic Psammaquents ______
Typic Quartzipsamments --_____


' Classification of Udorthents is to the suborder level only, and not into series, family, or subgroup. The order is Entisols.


gories are the order, the suborder, the great group,
the subgroup, the family, and their series. The criteria
for classification are soil properties that are observable
or measurable, but the properties are selected so that
soils of similar genesis are grouped together. The place-
ment of some soil series in the current system of
classification, particularly in families, may change as
more precise information becomes available.
Table 14 shows the classification of each soil series
of the Broward County Area by family, subgroup, and
order, according to the current system.
Order. Ten soil orders are recognized in the sys-
tem. They are Alfisols, Aridisols, Entisols, Histosols,
Inceptisols, Mollisols, Oxisols, Spodosols, Ultisols, and
Vertisols. The properties used to differentiate among
soil orders are those that tend to give broad climatic
groupings of soils. The exceptions to this are the Enti-
sols, Histosols, and Inceptisols, which occur in many
different climates. The soil orders represented in the
Broward County Area are Alfisols, Entisols, Histosols,
and Spodosols.
Great group. Soil suborders are separated into
great groups on the basis of similarity in the kind
and sequence of the major horizons and in major soil
properties. The horizons used to make separations are
those in which clay, iron, or humus have accumulated;
those that have pans that interfere with growth of
roots, movement of water, or both; and thick, dark-
colored surface horizons. The features used are the
self-mulching properties of clay, soil temperature, ma-
jor differences in chemical composition (mainly cal-
cium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium), dark-red
and dark-brown colors associated with basic rocks, and
the like.
Subgroup. Great groups are subdivided into sub-
groups, one representing the central typicc) segment
of the group and others called intergrades that have
properties of the group and also one or more properties
of another great group, suborder, or order. Subgroups
may also be made in those instances where soil proper-
ties intergrade outside the range of any other great
group, suborder, or order.


Family. Soil families are separated within a sub-
group primarily on the basis of properties important
to the growth of plants or to the behavior of soils if
used for engineering. Among the properties considered
are texture, mineralogy, reaction, soil temperature, per-
meability, thickness of horizons, and consistence.
Alfisols are mineral soils that have a clay-enriched
B horizon high in base saturation.
Entisols are recent mineral soils that lack a genetic
horizon or have only the beginnings of such horizons.
Histosols are organic soils that formed in swamps
and marshes where conditions were favorable for the
accumulation of decaying plant remains.
Spodosols are mineral soils that have a spodic hori-
zon. The spodic horizon is an iron- and humus-enriched
B horizon.
Suborder. Each order is subdivided into suborders
primarily on the basis of soil characteristics that seem
to produce classes having the greatest genetic similar-
ity. The suborder has a narrower climatic range than
the order. The soil properties used to separate sub-
orders are mainly those that reflect either the presence
or absence of waterlogging, or soil differences resulting
from the climate or vegetation.
Series. The series consists of a group of soils that
formed from particular kinds of parent material and
that have genetic horizons that, except for texture of
the surface layer, are similar in differentiating char-
acteristics and in arrangement in the profile. Among
these characteristics are color, structure, reaction, con-
sistence, and mineralogical and chemical composition.
New soil series must be established, and concepts of
some established series, especially older ones, that have
been used little in recent years, must be revised in the
course of the soil survey program across the country. A
proposed new series has tentative status until review
of the series concept at State, regional, and national
levels of responsibility for soil classification results in
a judgment that the new series should be established.
Most of the soil series described in this publication
were established during this survey.


Series


Basinger ______
Boca _______
Dania ________
Hallandale _______
Immokalee ______
Lauderhill _______
Margate ______
Paola

Plantation ______
Pomello _________
Pompano _______
Sanibel _________
St. Lucie ________


Order

Entisols.
Alfisols.
Histosols.
Entisols.
Spodosols.
Histosols.
Entisols.
Entisols.

Entisols.
Spodosols.
Entisols.
Entisols.
Entisols.


I







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


TABLE 15.-Particle-size distribution analysis of selected soils 1
[Analyzed by Soil Characterization Laboratory, Department of Soil Science, University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tions, Gainesville, Florida]

Particle-size distribution
Soiland Horizonseries Very Medium Fine Very Silt Clay
and Horizon Depth Coarse Silt
sample number coarse sand sand sand fine (less
sand sand (0.5- (0.25- sand (0.05- than
(2-1 (1-5 0.25 0.10 (0.10- 0.002
mm) mm) mm) mm) 0.05 mm) mm) mm)

In Pet Pet Pet Pet Pet Pet Pat
Basinger:
S6-10-1 -------_ Al 0-6 0 3.0 25.3 65.7 3.6 0.8 1.6
S6-10-2 ------- A21 6-13 0.1 2.4 25.7 67.2 3.6 .6 .4
S6-10-3 ------- A22 13-17 0 2.8 27.3 65.3 3.2 .9 .5
S6-10-4------- A3 17-23 0 3.0 25.3 65.5 3.4 .2 2.6
S6-10-5 -- C1&Bh 23-35 0 2.8 27.5 63.2 3.1 0 3.4
S6-10-6 ------- C2 35-60 .1 4.2 36.4 55.8 2.4 .4 .7
Dania:
S6-6-3 __--- IIC 14-16 .3 5.2 25.6 56.2 3.8 5.4 8.5
Hallandale:
S6-3-1 ----- Al 0-4 .1 1.0 16.2 71.1 2.4 5.0 4.2
S6-3-2 -_--- A2 4-10 0 1.0 15.4 79.0 2.6 .8 1.2
S6-3-3 ------ B1 10-14 0 1.3 16.3 77.3 1.8 .8 2.5
S6-3-4 ----- B2 14-16 0 1.4 17.3 72.5 2.5 1.0 5.3
Margate:
S6-4-1 ---- Ap 0-8 .1 6.6 35.3 53.4 1.6 1.5 1.5
S6-4-2 ___---_ A2 8-16 .1 3.2 24.7 67.7 2.9 .5 .9
S6-4-3 ------ B1 16-26 .1 3.3 23.9 68.4 2.7 .1 1.5
S6-4-4 -------- B2 26-28 .1 2.7 22.1 67.8 2.2 .9 4.2
S6-4-5 ___---- C 28-32 .2 1.9 16.5 47.6 3.4 24.2 6.2
Plantation:
S6-8-3-------- IIA1 0-6 .1 1.7 17.7 76.7 2.2 .4 1.2
S6-8-4 ------- IIA2 6-18 .1 1.7 17.5 77.4 2.3 0 1.0
S6-8-5 ___---- IIC1 18-23 .1 2.0 18.4 74.8 2.0 .7 2.0
S6-8-6 __ IIC2 23-25 0 1.6 15.0 49.2 2.4 25.6 6.2
Pomello:
S6-15-1 -------- Al 0-5 .1 3.1 24.1 63.9 2.6 5.2 1.0
S6-15-2 _------ A21 5-8 .1 3.9 27.6 65.1 1.9 1.0 .4
S6-15-3 ------- A22 8-38 .1 3.5 25.1 68.5 2.0 .5 .3
S6-15-5 ------- B21h 38-52 .1 2.1 23.8 67.9 1.6 1.7 2.8
S6-15-6 ____--- B22h 52-72 0 1.2 19.2 74.2 2.1 1.5 1.8
S6-15-7 -------1 B3 72-80 0 2.3 22.0 70.8 2.8 .9 1.2
Sanibel:
S6-4-4 _----- IIC1 1-9 .1 2.8 24.8 69.4 2.0 .3 .6
S6-4-5 ___ IIC2 9-60 .1 3.6 25.7 68.4 1.8 0 .4

SParticle-size distribution analysis was not made on the organic horizons of the Dania, Plantation, and Sanibel series.


Laboratory Data9
Particle-size distribution of seven soil series is
shown in table 15, and chemical analyses and certain
physical properties of eight soil series are shown in
table 16. These analyses were conducted and coordi-
nated by the Soil Characterization Laboratory, Soil
Science Department, University of Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Stations, Gainesville, Florida. De-
tailed descriptions of the soils, including their location,

SDR. F. CALHOUN, JR., DR. R. E. CALDWELL, and DR. V. W.
CARLISLE, Soil Science Department, University of Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations.


are given in alphabetical order in the section "Descrip-
tions of the Soils."
In addition to the data presented in tables 15 and 16,
the results of laboratory analyses for other soils identi-
fied in the Broward County Area (profiles sampled in
other counties) are on file in the Soil Science Depart-
ment, University of Florida. Data of this nature are
useful in classification, determination of potential pro-
ductivity, and understanding the genesis of soils.


Laboratory Methods
Most of the data were obtained using methods out-


39







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


TABLE 15.-Particle-size distribution analysis of selected soils 1
[Analyzed by Soil Characterization Laboratory, Department of Soil Science, University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tions, Gainesville, Florida]

Particle-size distribution
Soiland Horizonseries Very Medium Fine Very Silt Clay
and Horizon Depth Coarse Silt
sample number coarse sand sand sand fine (less
sand sand (0.5- (0.25- sand (0.05- than
(2-1 (1-5 0.25 0.10 (0.10- 0.002
mm) mm) mm) mm) 0.05 mm) mm) mm)

In Pet Pet Pet Pet Pet Pet Pat
Basinger:
S6-10-1 -------_ Al 0-6 0 3.0 25.3 65.7 3.6 0.8 1.6
S6-10-2 ------- A21 6-13 0.1 2.4 25.7 67.2 3.6 .6 .4
S6-10-3 ------- A22 13-17 0 2.8 27.3 65.3 3.2 .9 .5
S6-10-4------- A3 17-23 0 3.0 25.3 65.5 3.4 .2 2.6
S6-10-5 -- C1&Bh 23-35 0 2.8 27.5 63.2 3.1 0 3.4
S6-10-6 ------- C2 35-60 .1 4.2 36.4 55.8 2.4 .4 .7
Dania:
S6-6-3 __--- IIC 14-16 .3 5.2 25.6 56.2 3.8 5.4 8.5
Hallandale:
S6-3-1 ----- Al 0-4 .1 1.0 16.2 71.1 2.4 5.0 4.2
S6-3-2 -_--- A2 4-10 0 1.0 15.4 79.0 2.6 .8 1.2
S6-3-3 ------ B1 10-14 0 1.3 16.3 77.3 1.8 .8 2.5
S6-3-4 ----- B2 14-16 0 1.4 17.3 72.5 2.5 1.0 5.3
Margate:
S6-4-1 ---- Ap 0-8 .1 6.6 35.3 53.4 1.6 1.5 1.5
S6-4-2 ___---_ A2 8-16 .1 3.2 24.7 67.7 2.9 .5 .9
S6-4-3 ------ B1 16-26 .1 3.3 23.9 68.4 2.7 .1 1.5
S6-4-4 -------- B2 26-28 .1 2.7 22.1 67.8 2.2 .9 4.2
S6-4-5 ___---- C 28-32 .2 1.9 16.5 47.6 3.4 24.2 6.2
Plantation:
S6-8-3-------- IIA1 0-6 .1 1.7 17.7 76.7 2.2 .4 1.2
S6-8-4 ------- IIA2 6-18 .1 1.7 17.5 77.4 2.3 0 1.0
S6-8-5 ___---- IIC1 18-23 .1 2.0 18.4 74.8 2.0 .7 2.0
S6-8-6 __ IIC2 23-25 0 1.6 15.0 49.2 2.4 25.6 6.2
Pomello:
S6-15-1 -------- Al 0-5 .1 3.1 24.1 63.9 2.6 5.2 1.0
S6-15-2 _------ A21 5-8 .1 3.9 27.6 65.1 1.9 1.0 .4
S6-15-3 ------- A22 8-38 .1 3.5 25.1 68.5 2.0 .5 .3
S6-15-5 ------- B21h 38-52 .1 2.1 23.8 67.9 1.6 1.7 2.8
S6-15-6 ____--- B22h 52-72 0 1.2 19.2 74.2 2.1 1.5 1.8
S6-15-7 -------1 B3 72-80 0 2.3 22.0 70.8 2.8 .9 1.2
Sanibel:
S6-4-4 _----- IIC1 1-9 .1 2.8 24.8 69.4 2.0 .3 .6
S6-4-5 ___ IIC2 9-60 .1 3.6 25.7 68.4 1.8 0 .4

SParticle-size distribution analysis was not made on the organic horizons of the Dania, Plantation, and Sanibel series.


Laboratory Data9
Particle-size distribution of seven soil series is
shown in table 15, and chemical analyses and certain
physical properties of eight soil series are shown in
table 16. These analyses were conducted and coordi-
nated by the Soil Characterization Laboratory, Soil
Science Department, University of Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Stations, Gainesville, Florida. De-
tailed descriptions of the soils, including their location,

SDR. F. CALHOUN, JR., DR. R. E. CALDWELL, and DR. V. W.
CARLISLE, Soil Science Department, University of Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations.


are given in alphabetical order in the section "Descrip-
tions of the Soils."
In addition to the data presented in tables 15 and 16,
the results of laboratory analyses for other soils identi-
fied in the Broward County Area (profiles sampled in
other counties) are on file in the Soil Science Depart-
ment, University of Florida. Data of this nature are
useful in classification, determination of potential pro-
ductivity, and understanding the genesis of soils.


Laboratory Methods
Most of the data were obtained using methods out-


39







SOIL SURVEY


TABLE 16.-Chemical analyses and certain
[Analyzed by soil characterization laboratory, Department of Soil Science, University of Florida


Extractable bases


Mg


Na


K


Meg/100 gms Meg/100 gms Meg/100 gms


Soil series
and sample
numbers


Horizon


Depth




In

0-6
6-13
13-17
17-23
23-35
35-60

0-6
6-14
14-16

0-4
4-10
10-14
14-16
16+

7.5
7.2
7.2

5.7
6.2
6.4
7.2

5.9
5.8
6.3
6.3
7.1
8.1

4.6
5.2
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.5

9-7
7-0
0-1
1-9
9-60


Basinger:
S6-10-1
S6-10-2
S6-10-3
S6-10-4
S6-10-5
S6-10-6
Dania:
S6-6-1
S6-6-2
S6-6-3
Hallandale:
S6-3-1
S6-3-2
S6-3-3
S6-6-4
S6-3-5
Lauderhill:
S6-14-1
S6-14-2
S6-14-3
Margate:
S6-4-1
S6-4-2
S6-4-3
S6-4-4

Plantation:
S6-8-1
S6-8-2
S6-8-3
S6-8-4
S6-8-5
S6-8-6
Pomello:
S6-15-1
S6-15-2
S6-15-3
S6-15-5
S6-15-6
S6-15-7
Sanibel:
S6-12-1
S6-12-2
S6-12-3
S6-12-4
S6-12-5


H20
1:1


pH

5.6
5.7
5.9
5.9
6.0
5.7

6.1
6.4
7.1

5.8
6.2
6.3
7.4
8.2

7.5
7.2
7.2

5.7
6.2
6.4
7.2

5.9
5.8
6.3
6.3
7.1
8.1

4.6
5.2
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.5

6.4
6.2
6.1
6.4
6.4


Al
A21
A22
A3
Cl&Bh
C2

Oal
Oa2
IIC

Al
A2
B1
B2
IIR

Oal
Oa2
Oa3

Ap
A2
B1
B2

Oal
Oa2
IIA1
IIA2
IIC1
IIC2

Al
A21
A22
B21h
B22h
B3

Oal
Oa2
IIA
IIC1
IIC2


0.01M
CaC12
1:2


pH

5.7
5.3
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.1

6.2
6.3
6.4

5.2
5.6
6.4
7.4
7.6

6.6
6.5
6.6

4.7
5.9
6.5
7.0

5.3
5.4
5.8
6.2
7.2
7.3

3.8
3.9
4.2
3.7
4.2
4.3

5.8
5.5
5.7
5.5
5.8


Titrat-
able
acidity



Meo/100 gns

2.3
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.2

6.4
4.0
0.1

5.3
0.7
0.3
0
0


5.2
--- ----- -- 2.9


5.3
5.1
5.0
5.0
5.1
4.9

5.7
5.9
6.1

5.1
5.7
6.0
7.1
7.9

6.2
6.3
6.4

5.0
6.0
6.4
7.1

5.2
5.4
5.9
6.2
7.7
7.8

3.7
4.0
4.2
3.5
4.0
4.2

5.6
5.4
5.7
5.6
5.7


4.9
9.5
1.9
0.3
0.2


lined in Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 1 (7).
Where such methods are mentioned in this section,
specific procedures from the Report are given. Soil
samples collected from carefully selected sites were air-
dried, rolled or crushed, and sieved through a 2-
millimeter screen. Particle-size distribution data were
obtained by the hydrometer method after dispersion


and shaking with sodium hexametaphosphate (2). The
sand fractions were obtained by dry-sieving through a
nest of sieves for at least 15 minutes and expressed on
an oven-dry weight basis. The percentage of silt was
determined by difference.
Measurements of pH (soil reaction) were made by
procedure 8C1 of Soil Survey Investigations Report


Soil reaction


0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1

3.5
1.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
1.1








1.6
0.7
0.1
0.1
T


0.2
0.1
0.2
0.3

1.1
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.2
2.5








0.1
0.1
T
T
0


ST
0
T
T
T
T

0.2
0.2
0.1

0.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
1.8


T
0.1
0.1
0.1

0.3
0.3
T
T
T
0.3



----------I




0.1
0.2
A 1


0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
T

1.6
1.5
0.3

0.7
0.1
0.1
0.3
3.1


0.1
T
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

0.1
0.1
0.1

0.1
T
T
0.1
3.4


v..
0.1
T


1N
KC1
1:1


2.9
0.9
0.3
T

4.1
2.3
1.9
0.6
0
0


Ca


pH Meg/100 gms


1.5
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.9
0.7

34.5
22.8
5.0

9.3
1.4
1.2
12.7
179


2.3
1.1
1.0
15.9

63.6
30.3
1.3
0.6
6.3
192








30.2
26.5
3.7
0.8
0.5


'T = Trace.


40







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 41

physical properties of selected soils
Agricultural Experiment Stations, Gainesville, Florida. Dashes indicate no determination made]


Organic
matter


Total
nitrogen


1.0 _-----


0.1
0.3


64.9
63.9
2.3


7.4
0.5


67.2
59.2
22.9

1.6
- - -
- - -


0.3
T
---------
T







0.1

T


50.0 2.4
63.4 1.6


7.5
0.4
0.1
3.1
1.6
0.8

46.0
51.7
1.9
0.3


Resis-
tivity


4.0
2.4
2.4
2.7
3.1
3.0

43.2
30.6
5.6

15.7
2.3
1.8
13.3
187.1


Corrosion
potential


43
21
21
26
35
27

85
80
98

66
70
83
100
100


Bulk
density


Satu-
rated
hydrau-
lic con-
ductivity


G/cmS Cm/hr


1.55
1.54
1.57
1.58
1.62
1.63

0.20
0.13
0.62

1.11
1.49
1.57
1.43
---------


1.0
0.7
1.3
1.3
0.8
2.0

4.9
3.4
2.9

2.0
1.0
1.0
2.2
2.2

2.9
3.2
2.9

1.2
0.9
1.7
2.2

4.1
1.9
2.1
1.8
1.7
2.7








2.8
3.7
3.0
2.5
1.8


0.1
0.1
01
0,1
0.1
0.2

0.7
0.3
0.3

0.2
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.3

0.4
0.5
0.4

0.1
0.1
0.2
0.3

0.6
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3








0.3
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.2


38.5
34.5
33.2
30.3
32.2
43.6

221
577
841

100
34.8
30.9
9.2


49.6
30.3
33.9


479
203
28.9
43.1
39.4


Water content at
various pressures
(bars)


Cation
exchange
capacity


10.8
2.8
3.8


154
355
5.6
2.8
3.6


132
215
3.5
3.4


Base
satura-
tion


8.1
2.0
2.1


138
310
3.1
1.5
2.0


117
203
1.9
2.1


15.00
bars

Pet

1.1
1.3
1.2
0.5
0.8
0.7

179
240
6.4

6.6
1.8
1.5
1.4


2.4
1.9
1.4


64.0
76.8
1.5
1.4
1.0


88.1
119

1.5
1.8


No. 1 using a glass electrode. Extractable bases were
obtained by leaching a soil sample with ammonium
acetate buffered at pH 7.0 as outlined in procedure
5B1. These cations were then determined separately
using a Beckman DU flame spectrophotometer. Titrat-
able acidity, which is roughly equivalent to the ex-
changeable acidity of procedure 6H2a (7), was


determined by potentiometric titrations with 0.05N
barium hydroxide using a Sargent Model D Recording
Titrator after immersing 10 grams of soil in 50 milli-
liters of neutral 1N KC1 (10). Cation exchange ca-
pacity was calculated by summing the exchangeable
bases and titratable acidity. Base saturation was de-
rived by dividing the sum of exchangeable bases by the


0.10
bar

Pet

11.9
2.7
2.7
2.5
4.8
3.9

280
539
81.5

27.9
5.1
3.2
11.1


0.33
bar

Pet

3.7
1.6
1.4
1.1
2.7
2.0

235
436
54.4

24.0
3.4
2.1
9.6


Meg/100 gns Pot Pet Pet Ohms/cm


1.38
1.60
1.62
----------

0.29
0.20
1.51
1.58
1.56
----------


5.6
2.4
1.7
16.4

72.6
34.6
3.5
1.5
6.6
196








36.9
37.0
5.8
1.3
0.7


0.52
0.32
1.63
1.63


48
63
82
100

94
93
46
60
100
100


87
74
67
77
71


Water
retention
differ-
ence



In/in

0.17
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.06
0.05

0.11
0.24
0.46

0.24
0.05
0.03
0.14


0.12
0.01
0.04


0.21
0.47
0.06
0.02
0.04


0.15
0.27

0.03
0.03


----------
----------
----------
----------
----------


----------


----------I
----------I
----------






SOIL SURVEY


cation exchange capacity and then multiplying by 100.
Organic matter was determined by a modification of
the Walkley-Black wet-combustion method as outlined
in procedure 6Ala. Total nitrogen was obtained by the
semi-micro Kjeldahl method as shown in procedure
6B2a. Resistivity (ohm/em) or an "R" value was ob-
tained using a Model 100 Corrosion Tester. The cor-
rosion potential or a "C" value that was obtained from
the manufacturer's tables is directly related to the
"R" value. The smaller the "C" value, the less the
corrosion and the greater the expectancy of pipe life.
Generally, C values range from 1 to 10, and pipe life
ranges accordingly from 20 to 2 years.
Bulk density, hydraulic conductivity (saturated),
and water retention at 0.10 and 0.33 bar were mea-
sured on 3 by 5.4 centimeter cylindrical (undisturbed)
soil cores. Water retention at 15-bar suction was de-
termined on disturbed or loose soil samples by proce-
dure 4B2.
Water retention difference was c:il>:utilated using the
formula
WRD (in/in) = (or ) bar % 15 bar %
100
x bulk density, moist. 1 bar was used for sandy
10
soils and 1 bar for organic soils. Water retention dif-
ference is considered by many to closely approximate
available water capacity.


Additional Facts About the Area
Soil is intimately associated with its environment.
The interaction of all factors determines the overall
behavior of a soil for a given use. This section dis-
cusses briefly the major factors of the environment
other than those that affect the use and management
of soils. The factors discussed are climate; transporta-
tion, markets, and farming; water supply and natural
resources; and physiography and drainage.

Climate 10
The climate of Broward County is characterized by
long, warm, humid summers and mild winters. The
moderating influence of the waters of the Atlantic on
maximum temperatures in summer and minimum tem-
peratures in winter is quite strong along the immediate
coast but diminishes noticeably a few miles inland.
The moderation of the coastal winter temperatures
gives this section of the survey area a tropical climate
(temperatures of coldest month higher than 64.40 F),
while the rest is designated as humid subtropical.
Rainfall also has a much greater variation in an
east-west direction than it has in a north-south direc-
tion. Precipitation occurs during all seasons but on the
basis of mean monthly totals of precipitation, a rainy
season of 5 months from June through October brings
1o By JAMES T. BRADLEY, climatologist for Florida, National
Weather Service, U.S. Department of Commerce. For conveni-
ence in presentation this section includes climate data for all of
Broward County.


nearly 65 percent of the annual rainfall and a relatively
dry season of 5 months from November through March
produces only about 20 percent of the annual total.
Average annual rainfall totals range from 60 inches
along the coastal sections to nearly 64 inches a few
miles inland, and then diminish to 50 inches along the
western border of Broward County.
Most summer rainfall comes from showers and
thunderstorms of -i._'.t duration. They are sometimes
heavy, with 2 or 3 inches of rain falling within a
period of 1 to 2 hours. Day-long rains in summer are
rare. When they occur, they are almost always asso-
ciated with tropical storms. Winter and spring rains
are not generally so intense as summer thundershow-
ers. A 24-hour rainfall of almost 9 inches may be
expected to occur sometime during the year in about 1
year in 10 on the average.
Hail falls occasionally in thunderstorms but the hail-
stones are generally small and seldom cause much
damage. Fourteen tornadoes were reported in Broward
County during the 12-year period 1959-71.
Temperature and precipitation data for the period
1962-71 are shown in table 17. The data recorded at
the Fort Lauderdale Experiment Station are repre-
sentative of weather conditions in the eastern section
of Broward County, but away from the immediate in-
fluences of the Atlantic. Table 18 gives a comparison
with other weather stations within Brcward County.
The Experiment Station is located 5 miles southwest of
the Fort Lauderdale Post Office, while the Dixie Water
Plant is within the city limits, 2 miles southwest of the
Post Office. The Bahia Mar observations are taken at
the Yacht Club. on the ocean, 3 miles east of the Post
Office. North New River Canal No. 2 is a weather sta-
tion that collects rainfall data only. It is located on the
northern border of the county, centered midway be-
tween its eastern and western boundaries.
Summer temperatures have few day-to-day varia-
tions, and temperatures as high as 980 F. are rare. In
45 years of record at the Dixie Water Plant, only one
reading of 1000 has been recorded. Twenty years of
observation show a record high of 980 at the Experi-
ment Station and 960 at Bahia Mar.
Winter minimum temperatures have considerable
day-to-day variations due largely to periodic invasions
of cold, dry air that has moved southward from Can-
ada. At the Experiment Station, temperatures of 32c
or below have been observed on only 11 days during
the past 10 years. In 3 of the 10 years, no freezing
temperatures have been observed. Data from stations
run by the Federal-State Frost Warning Service show
that in the 30-year period 1937-67, there were 25
nights on which the temperatures reached 320 or below
the coast, and 75 nights inland along the western edge
of Broward County. Calculations show that in the same
period there were 100 hours with temperatures of 320
or below along the coast, increasing to 300 hours in-
land. The lowest temperature reported in the Fort
Lauderdale area during the last 45 years was 280.
Table 19 gives the record of low temperatures at Davie,
a Frost Warning Station located in the interior south-
eastern section of Broward County. This temperature
record can be considered representative of the climate
for truck farming in the eastern sections of the survey
area.


42







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 43

TABLE 17.-Temperature and precipitation
[Based on data recorded at the Fort Lauderdale Experiment Station]


Temperature


Month


January ---------
February ________-
March -_ --------
April --_--
May ___---
June ______
July _-__-
August ----------
September _________
October _____
November _____
December _____


Average
daily
maxi-
mum




F
75.4
75.7
78.8
83.4
85.9
88.0
90.5
90.8
88.9
85.4
79.5
76.6


Average
daily
mini-
mum




oF

55.0
54.6
58.7
63.4
67.2
70.9
72.9
72.9
72.4
68.3
60.3
55.6


Two years in 10
will have at least
4 days with-


Maximum
tempera-
ture equal
to or
higher
than-

F

84
85
88
91
91
92
95
94
92
90
84
84


Minimum
tempera-
ture equal
to or
lower
than-

F

37
43
44
53
57
66
68
69
69
60
45
40


Average
monthly
total






Inches

2.11
3.14
2.56
1.68
6.73
11.11
6.01
7.04
7.06
9.16
2.10
1.39


Precipitation


One year
in 10
will have-


Less
than-



Inches
0.66
0.10
0.19
0.03
0.11
5.05
3.20
4.41
3.03
2.96
0.28
0.11


More
than-



Inches

3.67
5.78
11.67
5.58
15.22
21.28
9.11
9.01
10.68
14.29
3.37
4.30


Average number
of days with
rainfall of-


0.10 inch
or more


5
4
3
2
7
12
11
10
12
10
4
2


0.50 inch
or more


2
2
2
1
3
7
4
5
5
4
1
1


TABLE 18.-Comparison of weather records in Broward County


Station


Experiment Station ----

Dixie Water Plant ----

Bahia Mar ________

North New River Canal
No. 2 __ __________


Average
annual
temperature



73.8

75.4

75.5


Average number of
days each year
with temperature
of 900 F. or more


82

71

39


Average number of
days each year
with temperature
of 32' F. or less



1


T


Average
annual
precipitation



60.1
60.3

61.5


Average number of days
each year with
rainfall of-


0.10 inch
or more


82

83

85


53.9 .- -- -------


0.50 inch
or more


37
39

39


ST = Trace. Less than 0.5 day.


Tropical storms bring hazardous conditions at ir-
regular intervals; the chance of hurricane-force winds
in any given year is estimated 1 in 7.
The prevailing wind direction is southeasterly from
March through September and northwesterly to east-
erly for the other months. Wind velocity generally
ranges from 12 to 20 miles per hour during the day and
usually drops below 10 miles per hour at night. The
average relative humidity ranges from about 87 per-
cent early in the morning to about 60 percent early in
the afternoon.

Transportation, Markets, and Farming

The Broward County Area is served by several ma-


jor highways. U.S. Highway 1 is in the eastern part of
the Area, U.S. Highway 441 in the central part, and
U.S. Highway 27 in the western part. These highways
run north-south. The Florida Sunshine State Parkway
also runs north-south through the Area. Numerous
roads run east-west, but the most important is State
Route 84, which connects Fort Lauderdale with Naples
on the west coast. State Route 84 and U.S. Highway 27
are the only roads that go through the Everglades from
the survey area.
Rail service is provided by the Florida East Coast
Railroad and the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad. Both
run north and south.
Transportation by water is available through Port
Everglades. This oort can accommodate large ships.


Pan
evapora-
tion





Inches

3.71
4.11
5.81
7.08
7.81
6.58
7.36
7.07
5.87
5.42
4.27
3.78


.------------------------






SOIL SURVEY


TABLE 19.-Record of low temperatures
[Period of

Percent of seasons at or below various temperatures before-
Temperature
November December December January February March March
20 10 30 19 18 10 30

*F
36 0 23 57 87 100 100 100
32 0 13 33 57 77 83 83
28 0 0 7 17 33 33 33
26 0 0 7 7 17 17 17
24 0 0 0 0 3 3 3


Four airports are available for use-Fort Lauder-
dale-Hollywood International Airport, Fort Lauderdale
Executive Airport, Pompano Beach Airport, and North
Perry Airport. Only Fort Lauderdale International
Airport has scheduled commercial airline flights. The
other airports are mostly for private planes.
The largest state owned fresh-vegetable market in
Florida is the Pompano State Farmers' Market. This
market handles vegetables from the survey area and
from the southern part of Palm Beach County. Most of
the citrus is processed in other counties. More grape-
fruit is consumed than is produced in the county.
Not much farming was practiced in the Broward
County Area before 1910. Drainage was established
with the formation of the Napoleon B. Broward Drain-
age District. After drainage was established, citrus
groves were planted between the New River and South
New River Canals. Most of the winter vegetable crops
were grown in the same area, but planting soon spread
primarily to the north as the area was developed (9).
According to the 1950 Census of Agriculture, approxi-
mately 700 farms and 45 dairies were in Broward
County in 1950. By 1969, the number had decreased to
291 farms and 8 dairies. Farming in the Area generally
is still on the decrease.
This is one of the few places in the United States that
has either a tropical or humid subtropical climate. A
large percentage of the soils are nearly level, poorly
drained, and infertile. Another fairly large group of
soils are organic and nearly level, very poorly drained,
and relatively fertile. With drainage and proper fer-
tilization, all of these soils produce excellent winter
truck crops.
The coastal areas have excellent facilities for fishing
and boating.

Water Supply and Natural Resources
The water supply for the cities in the Broward
County Area comes primarily from municipal wells.
Many private wells are used mostly for watering lawns.
Because porous limestone is below most of the soils,
water can move laterally for long distances. The
water in the canals can be regulated to help recharge
the ground water during dry periods.
Although most of the Area receives about 60 inches
of rainfall annually, this amount may not be sufficient


to provide water needs in the future. The main alter-
nate source could be Lake Okeechobee to the north of
the survey area.
Climate is considered one of the most important
natural resources of the Area.

Physiography and Drainage
The Broward County Area can be divided into three
general parts based on differences in physiography and
soils.
The western part is a nearly level, generally treeless
sawgrass plain that appears to be flat. The soils are
organic and overlie limestone. In many places the soils
are shallow. Under natural conditions, water stood on
these soils for months and only during extremely dry
seasons was the surface exposed. Today, these soils
have been drained, and water stands on the surface for
only short periods. With drainage, the organic soils are
subject to oxidation and subsidence. When exposed to
air, organic matter is oxidized or slowly burned up,
and this gradual loss of organic matter results in sub-
sidence or a lowering of surface elevation. Also, during
dry seasons, wildfires have burned some of the organic
surface soil, and decreased the thickness of the organic
material.
Very little of the organic soils are presently farmed.
A few acres are in improved pasture. In recent years,
after some drainage, several types of trees have become
established. These trees are melaleuca, Australian pine,
and waxmyrtle. One method used for developing the
organic soils for urban use removes the organic mate-
rial and adds fill consisting of rock or sand.
The central part consists of nearly level, grassy
areas interspersed with small ponds. The soils here are
wet and sandy and are underlain by limestone. Before
drainage, water stood on these soils for several months
each year. The original vegetation was water-tolerant
grasses and a few cypress stands. In the higher areas,
pine and palmetto were common. These areas are now
farmed, and with drainage produce excellent pasture
and truck crops.
This is also an area of rapid urban development. The
underlying limestone is mostly porous, and water
moves through it laterally for long distances. Water-
control ditches can be further apart in these soils than
in soils underlain by sand or loamy material. For urban






SOIL SURVEY


TABLE 19.-Record of low temperatures
[Period of

Percent of seasons at or below various temperatures before-
Temperature
November December December January February March March
20 10 30 19 18 10 30

*F
36 0 23 57 87 100 100 100
32 0 13 33 57 77 83 83
28 0 0 7 17 33 33 33
26 0 0 7 7 17 17 17
24 0 0 0 0 3 3 3


Four airports are available for use-Fort Lauder-
dale-Hollywood International Airport, Fort Lauderdale
Executive Airport, Pompano Beach Airport, and North
Perry Airport. Only Fort Lauderdale International
Airport has scheduled commercial airline flights. The
other airports are mostly for private planes.
The largest state owned fresh-vegetable market in
Florida is the Pompano State Farmers' Market. This
market handles vegetables from the survey area and
from the southern part of Palm Beach County. Most of
the citrus is processed in other counties. More grape-
fruit is consumed than is produced in the county.
Not much farming was practiced in the Broward
County Area before 1910. Drainage was established
with the formation of the Napoleon B. Broward Drain-
age District. After drainage was established, citrus
groves were planted between the New River and South
New River Canals. Most of the winter vegetable crops
were grown in the same area, but planting soon spread
primarily to the north as the area was developed (9).
According to the 1950 Census of Agriculture, approxi-
mately 700 farms and 45 dairies were in Broward
County in 1950. By 1969, the number had decreased to
291 farms and 8 dairies. Farming in the Area generally
is still on the decrease.
This is one of the few places in the United States that
has either a tropical or humid subtropical climate. A
large percentage of the soils are nearly level, poorly
drained, and infertile. Another fairly large group of
soils are organic and nearly level, very poorly drained,
and relatively fertile. With drainage and proper fer-
tilization, all of these soils produce excellent winter
truck crops.
The coastal areas have excellent facilities for fishing
and boating.

Water Supply and Natural Resources
The water supply for the cities in the Broward
County Area comes primarily from municipal wells.
Many private wells are used mostly for watering lawns.
Because porous limestone is below most of the soils,
water can move laterally for long distances. The
water in the canals can be regulated to help recharge
the ground water during dry periods.
Although most of the Area receives about 60 inches
of rainfall annually, this amount may not be sufficient


to provide water needs in the future. The main alter-
nate source could be Lake Okeechobee to the north of
the survey area.
Climate is considered one of the most important
natural resources of the Area.

Physiography and Drainage
The Broward County Area can be divided into three
general parts based on differences in physiography and
soils.
The western part is a nearly level, generally treeless
sawgrass plain that appears to be flat. The soils are
organic and overlie limestone. In many places the soils
are shallow. Under natural conditions, water stood on
these soils for months and only during extremely dry
seasons was the surface exposed. Today, these soils
have been drained, and water stands on the surface for
only short periods. With drainage, the organic soils are
subject to oxidation and subsidence. When exposed to
air, organic matter is oxidized or slowly burned up,
and this gradual loss of organic matter results in sub-
sidence or a lowering of surface elevation. Also, during
dry seasons, wildfires have burned some of the organic
surface soil, and decreased the thickness of the organic
material.
Very little of the organic soils are presently farmed.
A few acres are in improved pasture. In recent years,
after some drainage, several types of trees have become
established. These trees are melaleuca, Australian pine,
and waxmyrtle. One method used for developing the
organic soils for urban use removes the organic mate-
rial and adds fill consisting of rock or sand.
The central part consists of nearly level, grassy
areas interspersed with small ponds. The soils here are
wet and sandy and are underlain by limestone. Before
drainage, water stood on these soils for several months
each year. The original vegetation was water-tolerant
grasses and a few cypress stands. In the higher areas,
pine and palmetto were common. These areas are now
farmed, and with drainage produce excellent pasture
and truck crops.
This is also an area of rapid urban development. The
underlying limestone is mostly porous, and water
moves through it laterally for long distances. Water-
control ditches can be further apart in these soils than
in soils underlain by sand or loamy material. For urban







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


at Davie in Broward County
record 1937-67]

Percent of seasons at or below various temperatures after-

November December December January February March March
20 10 30 19 18 10 30



100 100 100 83 50 13 0
83 80 73 50 17 3 0
37 37 30 20 3 0 0
17 17 10 17 0 0 0
3 3 3 3 0 0 0


development, fill is commonly added to raise the eleva-
tion to such a level that water does not cover the soil
surface.
The eastern part is made up of low, sandy ridges, a
part of which is commonly referred to as flatwoods.
The vegetation is mostly pine, palmetto, and native
grasses. The flatwoods part is made up of deep, poorly
drained, nearly level, sandy soils. These soils have been
used mostly for truck crops and pasture, but are rap-
idly being developed for urban uses. They require
drainage, and fill is added to low areas so that the
entire acreage can be developed. The other part is made
up of deep, excessively drained or well-drained, sandy
soils, many of which, are developed for urban uses.
The major drainage systems in the Area flow from
west to east and drain into the Atlantic Ocean. These
systems are the Hillsboro Canal at the Palm Beach-
Broward County line, the Pompano Canal at Margate,
the Midriver Canal at Lauderhill, the North New River
Canal at Davie, and C-9 at the Dade County line.
These canals are under the control of the Central and
Southern Florida Flood Central District.


Literature Cited
(1) American Association of State Highway Officials. 1961.
Standard specifications for highway materials and methods
of sampling and testing. Ed. 8, 2 v., illus.
(2) Bouyoucos, G. J. 1962. Hydrometer method improved for
making particle size analyses of soils. Agron. Jour. 54:
464-465.
(3) Cooke, C., Wythe. 1945. Geology of Florida. Fla. State
Dept. of Conserv. and Fla. Geol. Survey, Geol. Bul. 29,
339 pp., illus.
(4) Simonson, Roy W. 1962. Soil classification in the United
States. Sci. 137, 1027-1034, illus.
(5) United States Department of Agriculture. 1951. Soil survey
manual. U.S. Dept. Agr. Handb. No. 18, 503 pp., illus.
(6) -- 1960. Soil classification, a comprehensive system,
7th approximation. 265 pp., illus. [Supplements issued in
March 1967 and in September 1968]
(7) 1972. Soil survey laboratory methods and pro-
cedures for collecting soil samples. Soil Survey Investiga-
tions Report No. 1 (Revised Edition).
(8) United States Department of Defense. 1968. Unified soil
classification system for roads, airfields, embankments, and
foundations. MIL-STD-619B, 30 pp., illus.
(9) Weidling, Philip and Burghard, August. 1966. Checkered
sunshine; the story of Fort Lauderdale, 1793-1955.
Gainesville, University of Florida Press, 296 pp., illus.
(10) Zelazny, L. W. and Fiskell, J. G. A. 1972. Acidic properites


of some Florida soils ii. exchangeable and titratable acidity.
Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings 31:
149-154.


Glossary
Association, soil. A group of soils geographically associated in
a characteristic repeating pattern.
Available water capacity (also termed available moisture capac-
ity). The capacity of soils to hold water available for use
by most plants. It is commonly defined as the difference
between the amount of soil water at field capacity and the
amount at wilting point. It is commonly expressed as inches
of water per inch of soil.
Base saturation. The degree to which material that has base-
exchange properties is saturated with exchangeable cations
other than hydrogen, expressed as a percentage of the
cation-exchange capacity.
Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less than
0.002 millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural class, soil
material that is 40 percent or more clay, less than 45 per-
cent sand, and less than 40 percent silt.
Complex, soil. A mapping unit consisting of different kinds of
soils that occur in such small individual areas or in such
an intricate pattern that they cannot be shown separately
on a publishable soil map.
Consistence, soil. The feel of the soil and the ease with which a
lump can be crushed by the fingers. Terms commonly used
to describe consistence are-
Loose.-Noncoherent when dry or moist; does not hold to-
gether in a mass.
Friable.-When moist, crushes easily under gentle pressure
between thumb and forefinger and can be pressed together
into a lump.
Firm.-When moist, crushes under moderate pressure be-
tween thumb and forefinger, but resistance is distinctly
noticeable.
Plastic.-When wet, readily deformed by moderate pressure
but can be pressed into a lump; will form a "wire" when
rolled between thumb and forefinger.
Sticky.-When wet, adheres to other material, and tends to
stretch somewhat and pull apart, rather than to pull free
from other material.
Hard.-When dry, moderately resistant to pressure; can be
broken with difficulty between thumb and forefinger.
Soft.-When dry, breaks into powder or individual grains
under very slight pressure.
Cemented.-Hard and brittle; little affected by moistening.
Drainage class (natural). Refers to the conditions of frequency
and duration of periods of saturation or partial saturation
that existed during the development of the soil, as opposed
to altered drainage, which is commonly the result of artifi-
cial drainage or irrigation but may be caused by the sudden
deepening of channels or the blocking of drainage outlets.
Seven different classes of natural soil drainage are recog-
nized.


45







BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


at Davie in Broward County
record 1937-67]

Percent of seasons at or below various temperatures after-

November December December January February March March
20 10 30 19 18 10 30



100 100 100 83 50 13 0
83 80 73 50 17 3 0
37 37 30 20 3 0 0
17 17 10 17 0 0 0
3 3 3 3 0 0 0


development, fill is commonly added to raise the eleva-
tion to such a level that water does not cover the soil
surface.
The eastern part is made up of low, sandy ridges, a
part of which is commonly referred to as flatwoods.
The vegetation is mostly pine, palmetto, and native
grasses. The flatwoods part is made up of deep, poorly
drained, nearly level, sandy soils. These soils have been
used mostly for truck crops and pasture, but are rap-
idly being developed for urban uses. They require
drainage, and fill is added to low areas so that the
entire acreage can be developed. The other part is made
up of deep, excessively drained or well-drained, sandy
soils, many of which, are developed for urban uses.
The major drainage systems in the Area flow from
west to east and drain into the Atlantic Ocean. These
systems are the Hillsboro Canal at the Palm Beach-
Broward County line, the Pompano Canal at Margate,
the Midriver Canal at Lauderhill, the North New River
Canal at Davie, and C-9 at the Dade County line.
These canals are under the control of the Central and
Southern Florida Flood Central District.


Literature Cited
(1) American Association of State Highway Officials. 1961.
Standard specifications for highway materials and methods
of sampling and testing. Ed. 8, 2 v., illus.
(2) Bouyoucos, G. J. 1962. Hydrometer method improved for
making particle size analyses of soils. Agron. Jour. 54:
464-465.
(3) Cooke, C., Wythe. 1945. Geology of Florida. Fla. State
Dept. of Conserv. and Fla. Geol. Survey, Geol. Bul. 29,
339 pp., illus.
(4) Simonson, Roy W. 1962. Soil classification in the United
States. Sci. 137, 1027-1034, illus.
(5) United States Department of Agriculture. 1951. Soil survey
manual. U.S. Dept. Agr. Handb. No. 18, 503 pp., illus.
(6) -- 1960. Soil classification, a comprehensive system,
7th approximation. 265 pp., illus. [Supplements issued in
March 1967 and in September 1968]
(7) 1972. Soil survey laboratory methods and pro-
cedures for collecting soil samples. Soil Survey Investiga-
tions Report No. 1 (Revised Edition).
(8) United States Department of Defense. 1968. Unified soil
classification system for roads, airfields, embankments, and
foundations. MIL-STD-619B, 30 pp., illus.
(9) Weidling, Philip and Burghard, August. 1966. Checkered
sunshine; the story of Fort Lauderdale, 1793-1955.
Gainesville, University of Florida Press, 296 pp., illus.
(10) Zelazny, L. W. and Fiskell, J. G. A. 1972. Acidic properites


of some Florida soils ii. exchangeable and titratable acidity.
Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings 31:
149-154.


Glossary
Association, soil. A group of soils geographically associated in
a characteristic repeating pattern.
Available water capacity (also termed available moisture capac-
ity). The capacity of soils to hold water available for use
by most plants. It is commonly defined as the difference
between the amount of soil water at field capacity and the
amount at wilting point. It is commonly expressed as inches
of water per inch of soil.
Base saturation. The degree to which material that has base-
exchange properties is saturated with exchangeable cations
other than hydrogen, expressed as a percentage of the
cation-exchange capacity.
Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less than
0.002 millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural class, soil
material that is 40 percent or more clay, less than 45 per-
cent sand, and less than 40 percent silt.
Complex, soil. A mapping unit consisting of different kinds of
soils that occur in such small individual areas or in such
an intricate pattern that they cannot be shown separately
on a publishable soil map.
Consistence, soil. The feel of the soil and the ease with which a
lump can be crushed by the fingers. Terms commonly used
to describe consistence are-
Loose.-Noncoherent when dry or moist; does not hold to-
gether in a mass.
Friable.-When moist, crushes easily under gentle pressure
between thumb and forefinger and can be pressed together
into a lump.
Firm.-When moist, crushes under moderate pressure be-
tween thumb and forefinger, but resistance is distinctly
noticeable.
Plastic.-When wet, readily deformed by moderate pressure
but can be pressed into a lump; will form a "wire" when
rolled between thumb and forefinger.
Sticky.-When wet, adheres to other material, and tends to
stretch somewhat and pull apart, rather than to pull free
from other material.
Hard.-When dry, moderately resistant to pressure; can be
broken with difficulty between thumb and forefinger.
Soft.-When dry, breaks into powder or individual grains
under very slight pressure.
Cemented.-Hard and brittle; little affected by moistening.
Drainage class (natural). Refers to the conditions of frequency
and duration of periods of saturation or partial saturation
that existed during the development of the soil, as opposed
to altered drainage, which is commonly the result of artifi-
cial drainage or irrigation but may be caused by the sudden
deepening of channels or the blocking of drainage outlets.
Seven different classes of natural soil drainage are recog-
nized.


45










Excessively drained soils are commonly very porous and rap-
idly permeable and have a low water-holding capacity.
Somewhat excessively drained soils are also very permeable
and are free from mottling throughout their profile.
Well-drained soils are nearly free from mottling and are com-
monly of intermediate texture.
Moderately well drained soils commonly have a slowly per-
meable layer in or immediately beneath the solum. They
have uniform color in the A and upper B horizons and
mottling in the lower B and the C horizons.
Somewhat poorly drained soils are wet for significant periods
but not all the time, and some soils commonly have mot-
tling at a depth below 6 to 16 inches.
Poorly drained soils are wet for long periods and are light
gray and generally mottled from the surface downward,
although mottling may be absent or nearly so in some
soils.
Very poorly drained soils are wet nearly all the time. They
have a dark-gray or black surface layer and are gray or
light gray, with or without mottling, in the deeper parts
of the profile.
Fertility, soil. The quality of a soil that enables it to provide
compounds, in adequate amounts and in proper balance, for
the growth of specified plants, when other growth factors
such as light, moisture, temperature, and the physical con-
dition of the soil are favorable.
Flatwoods. As used in this survey, rather broad areas of land
dominated by sandy soils that have a fluctuating water
table and characteristic vegetation. Vegetation is typically
an open growth of pine and a dense undergrowth of saw
palmetto and many kinds of native grasses.
Horizon, soil. A layer of soil, approximately parallel to the sur-
face, that has distinct characteristics produced by soil-
forming processes. These are the major horizons:
0 horizon.-The layer of organic matter on the surface of a
mineral soil. This layer consists of decaying plant resi-
dues.
A horizon.-The mineral horizon at the surface or just below
an O horizon. This horizon is the one in which living
organisms are most active and therefore is marked by the
accumulation of humus. The horizon may have lost one or
more of soluble salts, clay, and sesquioxides (iron and
aluminum oxides).
B horizon.-The mineral horizon below an A horizon. The B
horizon is in part a layer of change from the overlying
A to the underlying C horizon. The B horizon also has
distinctive characteristics caused (1) by accumulation of
clay, sesquioxides, humus, or some combination of these;
(2) by prismatic or blocky structure; (3) by redder or
stronger colors than the A horizon; or (4) by some com-
bination of these. Combined A and B horizons are usually
called the solum, or true soil. If a soil lacks a B horizon,
the A horizon alone is the solum.
C horizon.-The weathered rock material immediately beneath
the solum. In most soils this material is presumed to be
like that from which the overlying horizons were formed.
If the material is known to be different from that in the
solum, a Roman numeral precedes the letter C.
R layer.-Consolidated rock beneath the soil. The rock usually
underlies a C horizon but may be immediately beneath an
A or B horizon.
Irrigation. Application of water to soils to assist in production
of crops. Methods of irrigation are-
Border.-Water is applied at the upper end of a strip in
which the lateral flow of water is controlled by small
earth ridges called border dikes, or borders.
Basin.-Water is applied rapidly to relatively level plots sur-
rounded by levees or dikes.
Controlled flooding.-Water is released at intervals from
closely spaced field ditches and distributed uniformly over
the field.
Corrugation.-Water is applied to small, closely spaced fur-
rows or ditches in fields of close-growing crops, or in
orchards, to confine the flow of water to one direction.
Furrow.-Water is applied in small ditches made by cultiva-
tion implements used for tree and row crops.
Sprinkler.-Water is sprayed over the soil surface through
pipes or nozzles from a pressure system.
Subirrigation.-Water is applied in open ditches or tile lines
until the water table is raised enough to wet the soil.


Wild flooding.-Irrigation water, released at high points,
flows onto the field without controlled distribution.
Leaching. The removal of soluble materials from soils or other
material by percolating water.
Miscellaneous land type. A mapping unit for areas of land that
have little or no natural soil; or that are too nearly acces-
sible for orderly examination; or that occur where, for
other reasons, it is not feasible to classify the soil.
Morphology, soil. The physical makeup of the soil, including the
texture, structure, porosity, consistence, color, and other
physical, mineralogical, and biological properties of the var-
ious horizons, and their thickness and arrangement in the
soil profile.
Mottling, soil. Irregularly marked with spots of different colors
that vary in number and size. Mottling in soils usually in-
dicates poor aeration and lack of drainage. Descriptive
terms are as follows: abundance-few, common, and
many; size-fine, medium, and coarse; and contrast-faint,
distinct, and prominent. The size measurements are these:
fine, less than 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch) in diameter
along the greatest dimension; medium, ranging from 5 mil-
limeters to 15 millimeters (about 0.2 to 0.6 inch) in diam-
eter along the greatest dimension; and coarse, more than
15 millimeters (about 0.6 inch) in diameter along the great-
est dimension.
Munsell notation. A system for designating color by degrees of
the three simple variables-hue, value, and chroma. For
example, a notation of 10YR 6/4 is a color with a hue of
10YR, a value of 6, and a chroma of 4.
Parent material. Disintegrated and partly weathered rock from
which soil has formed.
Permeability. The quality that enables the soil to transmit water
or air. Terms used to describe permeability are as follows:
very slow, slow, moderately slow, moderate, moderately
rapid, rapid, and very rapid.
Phase, soil. A subdivision of the soil series or other unit in the
soil classification system made because of differences in the
soil that affect its management but do not affect its classifi-
cation in the natural landscape. A soil series, for example,
may be divided into phases because of differences in slope,
stoniness, thickness, or some other characteristic that affects
its management but not its behavior in the natural land-
scape.
pH value. A numerical means for designing acidity and alka-
linity in soils. A pH value of 7.0 indicates precise neutrality;
a higher value, alkalinity; and a lower value, acidity.
Profile, soil. A vertical section of the soil through all its horizons
and extending into the parent material.
Reaction, soil. The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a soil, ex-
pressed in pH values. A soil that tests to pH 7.0 is precisely
neutral in reaction because it is neither acid nor alkaline.
An acid, or "sour," soil is one that gives an acid reaction;
an alkaline soil is one that is alkaline in reaction. In words,
the degrees of acidity or alkalinity are expressed thus:


PH
Extremely acid ____Below 4.5
Very strongly acid __4.5 to 5.0
Strongly acid -----______--5.1 to 5.5
Medium acid ________5.6 to 6.0
Slightly acid _---___ 6.1 to 6.5


pH
Neutral ------------6.6 to 7.3
Mildly alkaline _-_-- 7.4 to 7.8
Moderately alkaline __7.9 to 8.4
Strongly alkaline _- 8.5 to 9.0
Very strongly alka-
line _____9.1 and higher


Relief. The elevations or inequalities of a land surface, consid-
ered collectively.
Sand. Individual rock or mineral fragments in a soil that range
in diameter from 0.05 to 2.0 millimeters. Most sand grains
consist of quartz, but they may be of any mineral composi-
tion. The textural class name of any soil that contains 85
percent or more sand and not more than 10 percent clay.
Series, soil. A group of soils developed from a particular type
of parent material and having genetic horizons that, except
for texture of the surface layer, are similar in differentiat-
ing characteristics and in arrangement in the profile.
Silt. Individual mineral particles in a soil that range in diameter
from the upper limit of clay (0.002 millimeter) to the lower
limit of very fine sand (0.05 millimeter). Soil of the silt
textural class is 80 percent or more silt and less than 12
percent clay.
Soil. A natural, three-dimensional body on the earth's surface
that supports plants and that has properties resulting from


46


SOIL SURVEY








BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


the integrated effect of climate and living matter acting on
earthy parent material, as conditioned by relief over periods
of time.
Soil separates. Mineral particles, less than 2 millimeters in equiv-
alent diameter and ranging between specified size limits.
The names and sizes of separates recognized in the United
States are as follows: Very coarse sand (2.0 to 1.0 milli-
meter); coarse sand (1.0 to 0.5 millimeter); medium sand
(0.5 to 0.25 millimeter); fine sand (0.25 to 0.10 millimeter) ;
very fine sand (0.10 to 0.05 millimeter) ; silt (0.05 to 0.002
millimeter); and clay (less than 0.002 millimeter). The
separates recognized by the International Society of Soil
Science are as follows: I (2.0 to 0.2 millimeter); II (0.2
to 0.02 millimeter); III (0.02 to 0.002 millimeter); IV (less
than 0.002 millimeter).
Structure, soil. The arrangement of primary soil particles into
compound particles or clusters that are separated from ad-
joining aggregates and have properties unlike those of an
equal mass of unaggregated primary soil particles. The
principal forms of soil structure are-platy (laminated),
prismatic (vertical axis of aggregates longer than hori-
zontal), columnar (prisms with rounded tops), blocky (an-
gular or subangular), and granular. Structureless soils are
either single grained (each grain by itself, as in dune sand)
or massive (the particles adhering together without any
regular cleavage, as in many claypans and hardpans).
Subsoil. Technically, the B horizon; roughly, the part of the
solum below plow depth.
Substratum. Technically, the part of the soil below the solum.
Surface soil. The soil ordinarily moved in tillage, or its equiva-
lent in uncultivated soil, about 5 to 8 inches in thickness.
The plowed layer.
Terrace. An embankment, or ridge, constructed across sloping
soils on the contour or at a slight angle to the contour. The
terrace intercepts surface runoff so that it may soak into
the soil or flow slowly to a prepared outlet without harm.
Terraces in fields are generally built so they can be formed.
Terraces intended mainly for drainage have a deep channel
that is maintained in permanent sod.
Terrace (geological). An old alluvial plain, ordinarily flat or
undulating, bordering a river, lake, or the sea. Stream ter-


races are frequently called second bottoms, as contrasted to
flood plains, and are seldom subject to overflow. Marine ter-
races were deposited by the sea and are generally wide.
Texture, soil. The relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay
particles in a mass of soil. The basic textural classes, in
order of increasing proportion of fine particles, are sand,
loamy sand, sandy loam, loam, silt loam, silt, sandy clay
loam, clay loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay, and
clay. The sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam classes may be
further divided by specifying "coarse," "fine," or "very
fine."
Topsoil. A presumed fertile soil or soil material, or one that
responds to fertilization, ordinarily rich in organic matter,
used to topdress roadbanks, lawns, and gardens.
Water table. The highest part of the soil or underlying rock
material that is wholly saturated with water. In some places
an upper, or perched, water table may be separated from a
lower one by a dry zone.



Explanation of Key Phrases

Area reclaim. Borrow areas are difficult to reclaim, and revege-
tation and erosion control on these areas are extremely
'difficult.
Corrosive. The soil is relatively soft and decreases excessively in
volume when a load is applied.
Cutbanks cave. Walls of cuts are not stable. The soil sloughs
easily.
Depth to rock, Bedrock is so near the surface that it affects
specified use of soil.
Fast intake. Water infiltrates rapidly into the soil.
Low strength. The soil has inadequate strength to support loads.
Piping. The soil is susceptible to the formation of tunnels or
pipelike cavities by moving water.
Seepage. Water moves through the soil so quickly that it affects
the specified use.
Thin layer. Suitable soil material is not thick enough for use
as borrow material or topsoil.


47








GUIDE TO MAPPING UNITS

For complete information about a mapping unit, read both the description of the mapping unit and that of the
soil series to which the mapping unit belongs. The capability classification system is discussed on pages
32 and 33. Management of the soils for crops and pasture is given in the description of each mapping unit.
Other information is given in tables, as follows:


Limitations and uses, by soil association,
table 1, p. 4.
Acreage and extent, table 2, p. 8.
Engineering, tables 3 through 10, pp.. 22
through 30.


Estimated yields, table 11, p. 33.
Wildlife, table 12,
p. 34.
Recreation, table 13,
p. 36.


Map
symbol

Ba
Bc
Da
Ha
Hb
Hm
Ia
Iu
La
Ma
Pa
Pb
Pm
Po
Pp
Sa
St
Ud
Un
Ur


Mapping unit


Basinger fine sand--------------------------------------------------------------
Boca fine sand-------------------------------------------------------------------
Dania muck------------------------------------ -------------------------------
Hallandale fine sand-----------------------------------------------------------
Hallandale-Urban land complex--------------------------------------------------
Hallandale and Margate soils---------------------------------------------------
Immokalee fine sand--------------------------------------------------------------
Immokalee-Urban land complex-------------------------------------------------
Lauderhill muck------------------------------------------------------------------
Margate fine sand----------------------------------------------------------------
Paola fine sand------------------------------------------------------------------
Paola-Urban land complex-----------------------------------------------------
Plantation muck---------------------------------------------------------------
Pomello fine sand----------------------------------------------------------------
Pompano fine sand-------------------------------------------------------------
Sanibel muck------------------------------------ -----------------------------
St. Lucie fine sand--------------------------------------------------------------
Udorthents------------------------------ ------------------------------------
Udorthents, shaped---------------------------------------------------------------
Urban land------------------------------------ -------------------------------


De-
scribe
on
page


9
10
10
11
12
11
12
13
14
15
16
16
17
17
18
19
19
20
20
20


1/
Placed in capability subclass IVw on the assumption that drainage outlets are available.
age outlets, this soil should be in capability subclass Vw.
2/
Placed in capability subclass IIIw on the assumption that drainage outlets are available
tion is feasible. Small areas without drainage outlets should be in capability subclass Vw.
3/
Placed in capability subclass IIIw on the assumption that drainage outlets are available
tion is feasible. Small areas without drainage outlets should be in capability subclass Vw.


Capability
d unit

Symbol

1/IVw-1
IVw-2
Vw-2
Vw-1


IVw-3

2/IIIw-l
IVw-2
VIs-1

3/IIIw-2
VIs-2
IVw-1
IIIw-3
VIIs-1
VIIIs-1




Without drain-


and reclama-


and reclama-


* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1976- 207-912/57


l








R. 41 E
PALM BEA(


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS, SOIL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

GENERAL SOIL MAP

BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA
Scale 1:190,080
1 0 1 2 3 4 Mies
11111 I I I I
























SOIL ASSOCIATIONS
Paola-Urban land-St. Lucie association: Excessively drained, nearly
level mineral soils that are more than 80 inches deep to hard lime-
stone; some areas have been modified for urban use
Immokalee-Urban land-Pompano association: Poorly drained, nearly
level mineral soils that are more than 80 inches deep to hard lime-
stone; some areas have been modified for urban use
Hallandale-Margate association: Poorly drained, nearly level mineral
soils that are less than 40 inches deep to hard limestone


W4


Lauderhill-Dania association: Very poorly drai.ied, nearly level organic
soils that are less than 40 inches deep to hard limestone


Compiled 1974


Each area outlined on this map consists of
more than one kind of soil. The map is thus
meant for general planning rather than a basis
for decisions on the use of specific tracts.


ou
4-


44
-z
A..


2600'


80 20'




J. S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS, SOIL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


WORKS AND STRUCTURES

Highways and roads

D divided ... .........

Good motor

Poor motor .....


NAME


Basinger fine sand
Boca fine sand

Dania muck

Hallandale fi ne sand
Hallandale-Urbla land complex
Hallandale and Margate soils

Immokalee fine sand
Immokalee-Urban land complex

Lauderhil muck

Margate fine sand

Paola fine sand
Paola-Urban land complex
Plantation muck
Pomello fine sand
Pompano fine sand

Sanibel muck
St Lucie fine sand

Udorthents
Udorthents, shaped
Urban land


SYMBOL


Ba
Bc

Da

Ha
Hb
Hm

la
lu

La

Ma

Pa
Pb
pm
Po
Pp

Sa
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Abandoned .. ..........

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Road .......... .

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Buildings ...........

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Pipeline .............. ....

Cemetery .......

Dams .....................

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CONVENTIONAL SIGNS

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SOIL SURVEY DATA


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BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA SHEET NUMBER 27


FR 4j E R 41 E
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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS, SOIL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


WORKS AND STRUCTURES

Highways and roads

Divided ...

Good motor...

Poor motor ..................

Trail ............ ...... ..

Highway markers

National Interstate ..... .

U. S. ....................... C

State or county O

Railroads

Single track .... ...........

M multiple track ..............

Abandoned ..... ... .

Bridges and crossings

Road...........

Trail .. ._

Railroad

Ferry ................. ...... F Y-

Ford FOR

Grade.






Buildings ................ .

School ........ ........ .

Church .. ...................

Mine and quarry .

G ravel pit ......................

Power line .. .. .

Pipeline ........................ i _

Cemetery .......................

Dams .................

Levee ..............

Tanks .....

W ell, oil or gas ................

Forest fire or lookout station ... A

Windmill ......... ....

Located object ................. o


CONVENTIONAL SIGNS

BOUNDARIES


National or state -. -

County

Minor civil division .... .....

Reservation

S Land grant ............... ..

Small park, cemetery, airport ... -- -- -

Land survey division corners ... L _+




DRAINAGE

Streams, double-line

_ Perennial

Intermittent

4_ Streams, single-line

Perennial ..................

Intermittent
Crossable with tillage
implements ...........
Not crossable with tillage
I implements .............

Unclassified ..............

Canals and ditches ............

- Lakes and ponds

SPerennial ....................

S Intermittent If int

S pring ............ .............

Marsh or swamp ..............

Wet spot ............ .... ...

Drainage end or alluvial fan -


SOIL SURVEY DATA


Soil boundary

and symbol .........

G ravel ......... .....

Stony ............
Stoniness
e Very stony ..........


Rock outcrops ............

Chert fragments ...........

Clay spot ...............

Sand spot ........

Gumbo or scabby spot ........

M ade land .....................

Severely eroded spot ...........

Blowout, wind erosion ..........

Gully ...................

Borrow pit ................


SOIL LEGEND


Dx



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SYMBOL


Ba
Bc

Da

Ha
Hb
Hm

la
lu

La

Ma

Pa
Pb
Pm
Po
Pp

Sa
St

Ud
Un
Ur


B.P.


NAME


Basinger fine sand
Boca fine sand

Dania muck

Hallandale fine sand
Hallandale-Urban land complex
Hallandale and Margate soils

Immokalee fine sand
Immokalee-Urban land complex

Lauderhill muck

Margate fine sand

Paola fine sand
Paola-Urban land complex
Plantation muck
Pomello fine sand
Pompano fine sand

Sanibel muck
St. Lucie fine sand

Udorthents
Udorthents, shaped
Urban land


RELIEF


-4 i-i11


Escarpments

Bedrock .......... ... ...

O their .......... .......

Short steep slope ...............

Prominent peak ..........

Depressions
Crossable with tillage
implements ..............
Not crossable with tillage
im plements ...............
Contains water most of
the time ....................


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R. 41 E.


INDEX TO MAP SHEETS

BROWARD COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA
Scale 1:190,080
1 0 1 2 3 4 Miles
I I I I I I I I I




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