• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 Summary of tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the survey...
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map








Soil survey of Bay County, Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026066/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Bay County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 152 p., 3, 77 p. of plates on folded leaves : ill., maps (1 col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1984]
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Bay County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Bay County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 87.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with the University of Flrorida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Issued August 1984"--P. iii.
General Note: Item 102-B-9
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001304087
notis - AGF4882
oclc - 11946480
lccn - 85601646
System ID: UF00026066:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ia
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    Summary of tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
        Page viii
    General nature of the survey area
        Page 1
        Climate
            Page 1
        Physiography, relief, and drainage
            Page 2
        History and development
            Page 2
    How this survey was made
        Page 3
        Page 4
    General soil map units
        Page 5
        Soil descriptions
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 11
        Soil descriptions
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
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            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 41
        Crops and pasture
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 44
            Page 45
        Recreation
            Page 46
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 47
        Engineering
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
    Soil properties
        Page 53
        Engineering index properties
            Page 53
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 54
        Soil and water features
            Page 55
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Engineering index test data
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
    Classification of the soils
        Page 61
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
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        Page 70
        Page 71
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        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Formation of the soils
        Page 85
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 85
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 86
    References
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Glossary
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Tables
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
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        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    General soil map
        Page 153
    Index to map sheets
        Page 154
        Page 155
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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Full Text


SUnited States In cooperation with the
i Department of University of Florida,
SAgriculture Institute of Food andoil Sy
s"' Agricultural Sciences,
Soil Agricultural Experiment B ay C county
Conservation Stations and Soil
Service Science Department, and the Flo
Florida Department of lor
Agriculture and
Consumer Services

















-






HOW TO US


Locate your area of interest on _e
i the "Index io Map Sheets'


------ _"* ; k,.m \-,





SNote the number of the map
-"---- *- -. sheet and turn to that sheet.






Locate your area of interest
3. on the map sheet.


---- A






S27C




Se'. 1 3B1314
1 4A 14 _I- ~- 148







564B
List the map unit symbols
4 o mlaI are in ,0:iur area-
Symbols

151C,. / ^ 27C
134A 6 B
\ )27C 1 3 *^ -1 B
56B Jl 1 B 134A

134AI/ \ 1IBr-- 481-^^ ~ }151 C






HIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5 which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. -
















,7 :~ ~ ~-- -- -r .
.....















See"Summary of Tables" (following the I
t-



















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service, the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and the Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance
furnished to the Bay County Soil and Water Conservation District. The Bay
County Board of Commissioners contributed financially to the acceleration of
the survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1978-81. Soil names
and descriptions were approved in 1981. Unless otherwise indicated,
statements in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1981. Soil
maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of these
maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.

Cover: Sea-oats are used to stabilize the Fripp and Corolla soils of Bay County's coastal
dunes. (Cover photo courtesy of Florida Division of Tourism. Photo by Karl Holland.)



















ii

















Contents


Index to m ap units................................................... iv W wildlife habitat ............................................................. 47
Sum m ary of tables................................................... v Engineering .................................................................. 48
Forew ord...................................................................... vii Soil properties ............................................................... 53
General nature of the survey area................................ 1 Engineering index properties...................................... 53
Clim ate.................................... ................. 1 Physical and chem ical properties.............................. 54
Physiography, relief, and drainage.......................... 2 Soil and water features.......................... ........... 55
History and development ................... ..... 2 Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
selected soils .... ................................... 56
How this survey was m ade ............................................ 3 Engineering index test data.................................... 58
General soil m ap units............................................... 5 Classification of the soils............................. ............. 61
Soil descriptions ........................................................ 5 Soil series and their m orphology................................... 61
Detailed soil m ap units................................................ 11 Form ation of the soils................................................ 85
Soil descriptions ........................................................ 11 Factors of soil form ation........................................... 85
Use and management of the soils.......................... 41 Processes of soil formation......................... ........ 86
Crops and pasture .................................................. 41 References ..................................................................... 87
W oodland m anagem ent and productivity............... 44 Glossary .................................................. ............ 89
Recreation ............... ..................................................... 46 Tables .............................................................................. 97


Soil Series

Alapaha series ....................... .......................................... 61 Leefield series.................................................................. 72
Albany series ................................................................... 62 Leon series..................................... .................................. 73
Allanton series ................................................................. 63 M andarin series ............................................................... 74
Bayvi series ........... .............................. ............................. 64 Osier series ...................................................................... 74
Blanton series ................................................................ 65 Pam lico series.................................................................. 75
Bonifay series ....................... .......................................... 65 Pansey series............................................................ 75
Centenary series............... ..................................... 66 Pantego series ................................................................. 76
Chipley series............................................................ 67 Pelham series .................................................................. 77
Corolla series................................................................... 67 Pickney series ................................................................. 77
Dirego series......... ........................................................... 68 Plum m er series ................................................................ 78
Dorovan series.......................................................... 68 Pottsburg series........................................................ 78
Ebro series ....................................................................... 69 Rains series ..................................................................... 79
Foxworth series ............................................................... 69 Resota series................................................................... 80
Fripp series ................................................................. 70 Rutlege series .................................................................. 80
Hurricane series.................... .......................................... 70 Sapelo series ................................................................... 81
Kureb series ................................................................. 71 Stilson series.................................. .................................. 81
Lakeland series ............................................................... 72 Troup series ..................................................................... 82

Issued August 1984







ill
















Index to Map Units


1-Albany sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes...................... 11 28-Allanton sand..................................... ........... 27
2-Albany sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes...................... 12 29-Rutlege sand................... ......................... .. 27
3-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............. 12 30-Pottsburg sand ........................................................ 28
4-Blanton fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............... 13 31-Osier fine sand ........................................................ 29
5-Bonifay sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes...................... 14 32-Plummer sand................... ............ ........... .. 29
6-Bonifay sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes..................... 14 33-Pelham sand .......................................................... 30
9-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .................... 15 36-Alapaha loamy sand ............................................... 30
10-Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes................ 16 37-Rains sand .............................. ....... 31
11-Lakeland sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes................ 16 38-Pansey loamy sand.................... 31
12- Leefield sand ................................................ .... 39- Pantego sandy loam ..................... ................... 32
13-Leon sand .................................................... 17 39--Pantsg tos 5 percent slopes................................ 32
15-Stilson sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...................... 18 40-rents, to 5 percent slopes.................. 32
16-Stilson sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ...................... 19 41-Dirego muck... .............................................................. 33
17-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes...................... 20 42-Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.............. 33
18-Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes................... 20 43-Urban land.................................. .......... 34
19-Troup sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes ................... 21 44-Beaches ................................................ ............ 34
20-Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 21 45-Kureb sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ....................... 34
21-Foxworth sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes................ 22 46-Sapelo sand........................................................ 34
22- Pamlico-Dorovan complex................................... 22 47- Pits ..................................................................... 35
23-Chipley sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................... 23 48-Fripp-Corolla complex, 2 to 30 percent slopes... 35
24-Chipley sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ..................... 24 50-Pickney fine sand.................................................... 36
25- Hurricane sand...................................................... 24 51- Rutlege-Pamlico complex....................................... 36
26-Centenary sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ................ 25 52-Bayvi loamy sand.................................................... 38
27-Mandarin sand....................................................... 26 53-Ebro-Dorovan complex......................................... 38






















iv
















Summary of Tables


Freeze data (table 1) ................................................................................... 98
Temperature and precipitation (table 2)................................... ......... 99
Soil ratings and limiting properties for selected uses, by general soil map
unit (table 3) ..................................................................................................... 100
Percentage of map unit. Suitability for-Cropland, Pasture.
Potential productivity for pine trees. Degree and kind of
limitations for urban uses.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) .............................. 104
Acres. Percent.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 5) ............................................... 105
Corn. Soybeans. Improved bermudagrass. Bahiagrass.
Grass hay.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 6).................................................. 108
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Woodland management and productivity (table 7)........................................ 109
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 8)................................................................ 112
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 9) ..................................................................................... 116
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 10).............................................................. 118
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 11)................................................................................ 121
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 12).................................................................... 125
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
Water management (table 13) ....................................................................... 128
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Grassed waterways.

v




















Engineering index properties (table 14) ......................................................... 131
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15) ............................... 135
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.
Soil and water features (table 16)................................................................... 138
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.
Physical properties of selected soils (table 17)............................................. 140
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.
Chemical properties of selected soils (table 18)........................................... 144
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon. Electrical
conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable. Citrate-
dithionite extractable.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 19).................................................. 148
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay minerals.
Engineering index test data (table 20) ........................................................... 150
Classification. Percentage passing sieve-No. 4, No. 10,
No. 40, No. 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Moisture
density.
Classification of the soils (table 21)................................................................ 152
Family or higher taxonomic class.












vi
















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Bay County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the
soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground -
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.







James Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service






vii























TALLAHASSEE

SACKSONVILLE
PENSACOLA AMA



-J_ ,GAINESVIL E





APPROXIMATE SCALES
ORLAN O
0 50 100 TAMPA
MILES

0 100 200
KILOMETERS








MIAMI


SState Agricultural Experiment Station


Location of Bay County in Florida.

Location of Bay County in Florida.













Soil Survey of

Bay County, Florida

By Ernest M. Duffee, Robert A. Baldwin, Douglas L. Lewis,
and William B. Warmack, Soil Conservation Service


United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




BAY COUNTY, part of the Florida Panhandle, is About 12,000 acres, or 3 percent of the county, is
bordered on the north by Washington and Jackson cropland. About 7,500 acres, or less than 2 percent, is
Counties, on the east by Calhoun and Gulf Counties, on pasture. Federally-owned land, urban land, small and
the west by Walton County, and on the south by the Gulf large water areas, and other land make up about 60,000
of Mexico. acres, or about 12 percent. The remaining 400,000
The county comprises 481,920 acres, or 753 square acres, or 82 percent of the county, is forest.
miles. It is about 36 miles wide at the widest part and 44 Soybeans is the major crop, followed by grain sorghum
miles long at the longest part. The population is about and corn. Forest production is by far the major use of
100,000. Panama City, the largest town and the county the soil. The soil, because it is mostly sand, is a limiting
seat, has a population of 45,000. factor in crop production. Present land use patterns will
Tourism and recreation, the largest enterprises, are likely continue, with development for homes more
enhanced by the long coastline along the Gulf of important than crop production. Home gardens will
Mexico, having what is termed the "world's most probably increase in the rural areas.
beautiful beaches." Forest products and related There are many hard-surfaced roads and highways in
industries are also important to the economy of the Bay County. Bus routes north and south and east and
county. Tyndall Air Force Base, which occupies about west are available. A large airport used by commercial
28,000 acres, is very important to the economy of the airlines and private planes is at Panama City. Rail freight
county. service is available. State and federal highways provide
Recreation attracts over 1 million tourists each year ready access to population centers in Bay County and
from out of the county, and these tourists spend over Florida and to other states.
300 million dollars annually. Many types of recreation are
available in Bay County other than those provided by the nra atr o t r Ar
beaches. Econfina Creek provides opportunities for General Nature of the Survey Area
canoeing. Several large lakes provide opportunities for The following paragraphs describe the environmental
boating, fishing, water skiing, and scuba diving. Several factors that affect the use and management of the soils
large bays offer a variety of boating, sailing, and fishing, in Bay County.
St. Andrews Park and several private trailer and camping
areas offer camping, picnicking, hiking, swimming, and
other recreational activities. Chartered boats used for Climate
saltwater (deep sea) fishing and boat rides are available Bay County has a moderate climate. Summers are
at many large marinas. long, warm, and humid. Winters are mild to cool. The
1













Soil Survey of

Bay County, Florida

By Ernest M. Duffee, Robert A. Baldwin, Douglas L. Lewis,
and William B. Warmack, Soil Conservation Service


United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




BAY COUNTY, part of the Florida Panhandle, is About 12,000 acres, or 3 percent of the county, is
bordered on the north by Washington and Jackson cropland. About 7,500 acres, or less than 2 percent, is
Counties, on the east by Calhoun and Gulf Counties, on pasture. Federally-owned land, urban land, small and
the west by Walton County, and on the south by the Gulf large water areas, and other land make up about 60,000
of Mexico. acres, or about 12 percent. The remaining 400,000
The county comprises 481,920 acres, or 753 square acres, or 82 percent of the county, is forest.
miles. It is about 36 miles wide at the widest part and 44 Soybeans is the major crop, followed by grain sorghum
miles long at the longest part. The population is about and corn. Forest production is by far the major use of
100,000. Panama City, the largest town and the county the soil. The soil, because it is mostly sand, is a limiting
seat, has a population of 45,000. factor in crop production. Present land use patterns will
Tourism and recreation, the largest enterprises, are likely continue, with development for homes more
enhanced by the long coastline along the Gulf of important than crop production. Home gardens will
Mexico, having what is termed the "world's most probably increase in the rural areas.
beautiful beaches." Forest products and related There are many hard-surfaced roads and highways in
industries are also important to the economy of the Bay County. Bus routes north and south and east and
county. Tyndall Air Force Base, which occupies about west are available. A large airport used by commercial
28,000 acres, is very important to the economy of the airlines and private planes is at Panama City. Rail freight
county. service is available. State and federal highways provide
Recreation attracts over 1 million tourists each year ready access to population centers in Bay County and
from out of the county, and these tourists spend over Florida and to other states.
300 million dollars annually. Many types of recreation are
available in Bay County other than those provided by the nra atr o t r Ar
beaches. Econfina Creek provides opportunities for General Nature of the Survey Area
canoeing. Several large lakes provide opportunities for The following paragraphs describe the environmental
boating, fishing, water skiing, and scuba diving. Several factors that affect the use and management of the soils
large bays offer a variety of boating, sailing, and fishing, in Bay County.
St. Andrews Park and several private trailer and camping
areas offer camping, picnicking, hiking, swimming, and
other recreational activities. Chartered boats used for Climate
saltwater (deep sea) fishing and boat rides are available Bay County has a moderate climate. Summers are
at many large marinas. long, warm, and humid. Winters are mild to cool. The
1







2 Soil Survey


Gulf of Mexico moderates the maximum and minimum above sea level (3). The Hazelhurst Terrace, in the
temperatures, extreme northeastern part of the county adjacent to
Annual rainfall in the county averages about 60 inches. Washington, Jackson, and Calhoun Counties, has an
About 43 percent of the total occurs during the 5-month elevation of 215 to 300 feet above sea level. The
rainy season, which generally begins early in December Coharie Terrace, also in the extreme northeastern part of
and ends in late April. About 16 percent of the total falls the county, has an elevation of 120 to 215 feet above
in May and June. About 24 percent falls in July and sea level. The Sunderland Terrace (also called
August. October and November are generally the driest Okefenokee), in the northern part of the county adjacent
months. to Washington and Calhoun Counties, is 100 to 170 feet
Because the air is moist and unstable, showers are above sea level. The Wicomico Terrace, across the
frequent and generally short. In summer, thunderstorms northern part of the county, is 70 to 100 feet in
occur on an average of 1 day to 3 days each week. elevation. The Penholoway Terrace, across the north-
Sometimes 2 or 3 inches of rain falls within 1 or 2 hours. central part of the county, is 42 to 70 feet in elevation.
Rain lasting all day is rare in summer. Winter and spring The Talbot Terrace, across the central part of the
rains generally are not so intense as the summer county, is 25 to 42 feet in elevation. The Pamlico
thundershowers. In 1 year in 10, more than 8 inches of Terrace, across the southern part of the county, is 8 to
rain falls in a 24-hour period. Occasionally, heavy rain 25 feet in elevation. The Silver Bluff Terrace, across the
and high winds accompany the passage of a tropical extreme southern part of the county, is 0 to 10 feet in
disturbance or hurricane. Hail falls occasionally during a elevation.
thunderstorm, but it is generally small and seldom Soils of the Hazelhurst Terrace are generally sandy
causes much damage. Snow is extremely rare. and excessively drained. The natural vegetation is mostly
As cold continental air flows eastward or turkey oak, post oak, bluejack oak, and scattered
northeastward across Bay County and the Florida longleaf pine. Some areas have been planted to slash
Panhandle, the cold is appreciably modified. The coldest pine. The Coharie Terrace has sandy soils that range
weather generally occurs on the second night after the from excessively drained to poorly drained. Vegetation is
arrival of a cold front, after heat is lost through radiation, turkey oak, post oak, bluejack oak, scattered longleaf
The average date of the first killing frost is about pine, waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, gallberries, and wiregrass.
November 29th. The average date of the last killing frost As elevation decreases, the soils become more poorly
is about March 3rd. Frost has occurred, however, as drained. The Youngstown area is the only area where
early as November 5th and as late as April 10th. Freeze soils are loamy; the rest of the county has sandy soils.
data for the county are shown in table 1. Drainage is provided by Econfina Creek, the largest
Summer temperatures are moderated by the Gulf stream, and its tributaries, which include Juniper, Bear
breeze and by cumulus clouds, which frequently shade and Little Bear, Rudy, Cedar, and Moccasin Creeks. Pine
the land without completely obscuring the sun. Mean Log, Burnt Mill, Bayou George, Mill Bayou, Sandy, and
average temperature in June, July, August, and Calloway Creeks also contribute to Bay County drainage.
September is about 80 degrees F. Temperatures of 90 Many bays, swamps, and depressions throughout the
degrees or higher have occurred in June, July, August, county have little natural drainage.
and September, but 100 degrees is reached only rarely.
In July and August, the warmest months, the average History and Development
maximum temperature is 90 degrees. Temperatures of
about 95 degrees occur on fewer than 6 days. Bay County was established in 1913. Settlement
Temperature and precipitation data are shown in table 2. began before the county was established. The first
Fog occurs on an average of 6 mornings a month in settlement on record, Crevecour, was made by the
winter and spring and almost never occurs in summer French in 1717 on what is now Mexico Beach. In 1780,
and fall. Prevailing winds are generally from the south or the British settled in a town called Wells on what is now
southwest. In November, December, and January, they Panama City. Wells was deserted in 1783. The first
are from the northwest. The annual mean windspeed is American settlements were Bay Head and Econfina, in
about 7.5 miles per hour. The lowest monthly windspeed, 1819 to 1821, and Old Town (St. Andrews), in 1827. In
5.8 miles per hour, occurs in August. The highest 1898, settlers established a town named Florapolis,
windspeed, 9.0 miles per hour, occurs in March. which became Park Resort, then Harrison, and now
Panama City. Panama City has a population of around
Physiography, Relief, and Drainage 45,000; Bay County's population is about 100,000.
Fishing and forestry were the two main industries in Bay
Bay County lies within the Coastal Plain province. It County in the early development and are important
has one predominant topographic level or one today. However, tourism and recreation are the main
physiographic region, the terraced Coastal Lowland. This industries today, with forestry and forest-related
level is divided into eight terraces based on elevation industries, the military, and real estate playing important







2 Soil Survey


Gulf of Mexico moderates the maximum and minimum above sea level (3). The Hazelhurst Terrace, in the
temperatures, extreme northeastern part of the county adjacent to
Annual rainfall in the county averages about 60 inches. Washington, Jackson, and Calhoun Counties, has an
About 43 percent of the total occurs during the 5-month elevation of 215 to 300 feet above sea level. The
rainy season, which generally begins early in December Coharie Terrace, also in the extreme northeastern part of
and ends in late April. About 16 percent of the total falls the county, has an elevation of 120 to 215 feet above
in May and June. About 24 percent falls in July and sea level. The Sunderland Terrace (also called
August. October and November are generally the driest Okefenokee), in the northern part of the county adjacent
months. to Washington and Calhoun Counties, is 100 to 170 feet
Because the air is moist and unstable, showers are above sea level. The Wicomico Terrace, across the
frequent and generally short. In summer, thunderstorms northern part of the county, is 70 to 100 feet in
occur on an average of 1 day to 3 days each week. elevation. The Penholoway Terrace, across the north-
Sometimes 2 or 3 inches of rain falls within 1 or 2 hours. central part of the county, is 42 to 70 feet in elevation.
Rain lasting all day is rare in summer. Winter and spring The Talbot Terrace, across the central part of the
rains generally are not so intense as the summer county, is 25 to 42 feet in elevation. The Pamlico
thundershowers. In 1 year in 10, more than 8 inches of Terrace, across the southern part of the county, is 8 to
rain falls in a 24-hour period. Occasionally, heavy rain 25 feet in elevation. The Silver Bluff Terrace, across the
and high winds accompany the passage of a tropical extreme southern part of the county, is 0 to 10 feet in
disturbance or hurricane. Hail falls occasionally during a elevation.
thunderstorm, but it is generally small and seldom Soils of the Hazelhurst Terrace are generally sandy
causes much damage. Snow is extremely rare. and excessively drained. The natural vegetation is mostly
As cold continental air flows eastward or turkey oak, post oak, bluejack oak, and scattered
northeastward across Bay County and the Florida longleaf pine. Some areas have been planted to slash
Panhandle, the cold is appreciably modified. The coldest pine. The Coharie Terrace has sandy soils that range
weather generally occurs on the second night after the from excessively drained to poorly drained. Vegetation is
arrival of a cold front, after heat is lost through radiation, turkey oak, post oak, bluejack oak, scattered longleaf
The average date of the first killing frost is about pine, waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, gallberries, and wiregrass.
November 29th. The average date of the last killing frost As elevation decreases, the soils become more poorly
is about March 3rd. Frost has occurred, however, as drained. The Youngstown area is the only area where
early as November 5th and as late as April 10th. Freeze soils are loamy; the rest of the county has sandy soils.
data for the county are shown in table 1. Drainage is provided by Econfina Creek, the largest
Summer temperatures are moderated by the Gulf stream, and its tributaries, which include Juniper, Bear
breeze and by cumulus clouds, which frequently shade and Little Bear, Rudy, Cedar, and Moccasin Creeks. Pine
the land without completely obscuring the sun. Mean Log, Burnt Mill, Bayou George, Mill Bayou, Sandy, and
average temperature in June, July, August, and Calloway Creeks also contribute to Bay County drainage.
September is about 80 degrees F. Temperatures of 90 Many bays, swamps, and depressions throughout the
degrees or higher have occurred in June, July, August, county have little natural drainage.
and September, but 100 degrees is reached only rarely.
In July and August, the warmest months, the average History and Development
maximum temperature is 90 degrees. Temperatures of
about 95 degrees occur on fewer than 6 days. Bay County was established in 1913. Settlement
Temperature and precipitation data are shown in table 2. began before the county was established. The first
Fog occurs on an average of 6 mornings a month in settlement on record, Crevecour, was made by the
winter and spring and almost never occurs in summer French in 1717 on what is now Mexico Beach. In 1780,
and fall. Prevailing winds are generally from the south or the British settled in a town called Wells on what is now
southwest. In November, December, and January, they Panama City. Wells was deserted in 1783. The first
are from the northwest. The annual mean windspeed is American settlements were Bay Head and Econfina, in
about 7.5 miles per hour. The lowest monthly windspeed, 1819 to 1821, and Old Town (St. Andrews), in 1827. In
5.8 miles per hour, occurs in August. The highest 1898, settlers established a town named Florapolis,
windspeed, 9.0 miles per hour, occurs in March. which became Park Resort, then Harrison, and now
Panama City. Panama City has a population of around
Physiography, Relief, and Drainage 45,000; Bay County's population is about 100,000.
Fishing and forestry were the two main industries in Bay
Bay County lies within the Coastal Plain province. It County in the early development and are important
has one predominant topographic level or one today. However, tourism and recreation are the main
physiographic region, the terraced Coastal Lowland. This industries today, with forestry and forest-related
level is divided into eight terraces based on elevation industries, the military, and real estate playing important







Bay County, Florida 3



roles. At present, Bay County has one of the highest same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
rates of population growth in Florida. confirm data and assemble additional data based on
experience and research.
How This S y Wa Mae While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of
How This Survey Was Made the soils in the area generally are collected for laboratory
This survey was made to provide information about the analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists
soils in the survey area. The information includes a interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as
description of the soils and their location and a well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils
of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils
the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general were field tested through observation of the soils in
pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants different uses under different levels of management.
growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
profile extends from the surface down into the sources, such as research information, production
unconsolidated material in which the soil formed. The records, and field experience of specialists. For example,
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other data on crop yields under defined levels of management
living organisms and has not been changed by other were assembled from farm records and from field or plot
biologic activity, experiments on the same kinds of soil.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
that is related to the geology, landforms, relief, climate, soil properties but also on such variables as climate and
and natural vegetation of the area. Each kind of soil is biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over
associated with a particular kind of landscape or with a long periods of time, but they are not predictable from
segment of the landscape, By observing the soils in the year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a
survey area and relating their position to specific fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have
segments of the landscape, a soil scientist develops a a high water table within certain depths in most years,
concept, or model, of how the soils were formed. During but they cannot assure that a high water table will
mapping, this model enables the soil scientist to predict always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific
with considerable accuracy the kind of soil at a specific date.
location on the landscape. After soil scientists located and identified the
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
into one another as their characteristics gradually drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
scientists must determine the boundaries between the Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented accurately.
by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in Map Unit Composition
an area and to determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture, area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and identified and named according to the taxonomic
other features that enable them to identify soils. After classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
describing the soils in the survey area and determining taxonomic class, there are precisely defined limits for the
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil objects, they have a characteristic variability in their
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes.
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the These latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.







4



Most inclusions have properties and behavioral descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in complex that it was impractical to make enough
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar) landscape.
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
or require different management. These are contrasting taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas landscape into segments that have similar use and
and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps management requirements. The delineation of such
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit information for the development of resource plans, but
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the in small areas.







5








General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication slash pine, longleaf pine, dwarf live oak, and turkey oak
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of and an understory of native shrubs, sawpalmetto,
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general rosemary, and sparse pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map This unit makes up about 16,000 acres, or 3 percent
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor of the county. It is about 28 percent Kureb soils, 28
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up percent Resota soils, 28 percent Mandarin soils, and 16
one unit can occur in other units but in a different percent soils of minor extent.
pattern. The Kureb soils are excessively drained. Typically,
The general soil map can be used to compare the they have a surface layer of grayish brown and light gray
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of sand about 14 inches thick. Below this is yellowish
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, brown, brownish yellow, and very pale brown sand that
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. extends to 80 inches or more.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for extendsto 80 e
planning the management of a farm or field or for The Resota soils are moderately well drained.
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. Typically, they have a surface layer of light brownish
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place gray and light gray fine sand about 19 inches thick.
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that Below this is brownish yellow, yellow, very pale brown,
affect management. and white fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their or more. A fluctuating water table is at a depth of 40 to
suitability and limitations for major land uses. Table 3 60 inches during rainy seasons.
shows the extent of the map units shown on the general The Mandarin soils are somewhat poorly drained.
soil map. It lists the suitability or potential productivity of Typically, they have a surface layer of gray sand about 7
each, in relation to that of the other map units, for major inches thick. Below this is a white or light gray sandy
land uses and shows soil properties that limit use. layer about 18 inches thick, then a dark brown, organic
stained sandy layer 15 to 30 inches thick over light
Soil Descriptions brownish gray to light gray sand that extends to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
Soils of the sand ridges Soils of minor extent in this unit are Fripp, Leon,
The two map units in this group are excessively Rutlege, Chipley, Dorovan, Foxworth, Centenary,
drained to somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to Hurricane, and Rutlege soils.
strongly sloping soils on uplands. Most of these soils are Large areas of this unit have been cleared and leveled
sandy throughout; some are sandy throughout but have and are used for urban and recreational development.
a layer in which the sand grains are coated with organic The rest of the unit remains in natural vegetation.
material within 80 inches of the surface. One map unit is
adjacent to the Gulf, and the other map unit is 2. Lakeland-Foxworth-Centenary
dominantly in the northern part of the county.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained and
1. Kureb-Resota-Mandarin moderately well drained soils that are sandy to a depth
of 80 inches or more; some have organic stained sandy
Nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained, es sos
moderately well drained, and somewhat poorly drained layers
soils that are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more; This map unit is on uplands. It occurs as one large
some have organic stained sandy layers area about 15 miles wide and 2 to 6 miles long in the
This map unit is on the sandy ridge adjacent to the extreme northern to northeastern part of the county. The
Gulf. It occurs as one area about 2 miles wide or less area is interspersed with large to small, steep-sided
along most of the coastline. The landscape is mainly one sinks, many of which are lakes or ponds. It includes
of nearly level to gently sloping ridges along the Court Martial, White Western, Merial, Bream, Big Island,
coastline. The natural vegetation is mostly sand pine, and Little Blue Lakes.







5








General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication slash pine, longleaf pine, dwarf live oak, and turkey oak
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of and an understory of native shrubs, sawpalmetto,
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general rosemary, and sparse pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map This unit makes up about 16,000 acres, or 3 percent
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor of the county. It is about 28 percent Kureb soils, 28
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up percent Resota soils, 28 percent Mandarin soils, and 16
one unit can occur in other units but in a different percent soils of minor extent.
pattern. The Kureb soils are excessively drained. Typically,
The general soil map can be used to compare the they have a surface layer of grayish brown and light gray
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of sand about 14 inches thick. Below this is yellowish
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, brown, brownish yellow, and very pale brown sand that
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. extends to 80 inches or more.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for extendsto 80 e
planning the management of a farm or field or for The Resota soils are moderately well drained.
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. Typically, they have a surface layer of light brownish
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place gray and light gray fine sand about 19 inches thick.
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that Below this is brownish yellow, yellow, very pale brown,
affect management. and white fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their or more. A fluctuating water table is at a depth of 40 to
suitability and limitations for major land uses. Table 3 60 inches during rainy seasons.
shows the extent of the map units shown on the general The Mandarin soils are somewhat poorly drained.
soil map. It lists the suitability or potential productivity of Typically, they have a surface layer of gray sand about 7
each, in relation to that of the other map units, for major inches thick. Below this is a white or light gray sandy
land uses and shows soil properties that limit use. layer about 18 inches thick, then a dark brown, organic
stained sandy layer 15 to 30 inches thick over light
Soil Descriptions brownish gray to light gray sand that extends to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
Soils of the sand ridges Soils of minor extent in this unit are Fripp, Leon,
The two map units in this group are excessively Rutlege, Chipley, Dorovan, Foxworth, Centenary,
drained to somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to Hurricane, and Rutlege soils.
strongly sloping soils on uplands. Most of these soils are Large areas of this unit have been cleared and leveled
sandy throughout; some are sandy throughout but have and are used for urban and recreational development.
a layer in which the sand grains are coated with organic The rest of the unit remains in natural vegetation.
material within 80 inches of the surface. One map unit is
adjacent to the Gulf, and the other map unit is 2. Lakeland-Foxworth-Centenary
dominantly in the northern part of the county.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained and
1. Kureb-Resota-Mandarin moderately well drained soils that are sandy to a depth
of 80 inches or more; some have organic stained sandy
Nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained, es sos
moderately well drained, and somewhat poorly drained layers
soils that are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more; This map unit is on uplands. It occurs as one large
some have organic stained sandy layers area about 15 miles wide and 2 to 6 miles long in the
This map unit is on the sandy ridge adjacent to the extreme northern to northeastern part of the county. The
Gulf. It occurs as one area about 2 miles wide or less area is interspersed with large to small, steep-sided
along most of the coastline. The landscape is mainly one sinks, many of which are lakes or ponds. It includes
of nearly level to gently sloping ridges along the Court Martial, White Western, Merial, Bream, Big Island,
coastline. The natural vegetation is mostly sand pine, and Little Blue Lakes.







6 Soil Survey



The landscape is mainly one of nearly level to gently This map unit is on low uplands or high flatwoods. It
sloping broad ridges and strongly sloping areas around occurs as several closely scattered areas, dominantly in
sinks and along drainageways. There is a fairly well the east-central part of the county. Individual areas are
established stream pattern of creeks, branches, and irregular in shape. The unit is interspersed with poorly
narrow wet bottom land. The natural vegetation is mostly drained and very poorly drained swamps and poorly
turkey, post, bluejack, and blackjack oak and scattered defined drainageways. It includes the Youngstown
longleaf and slash pine. In some areas, slash pine is the community.
dominant vegetation. The landscape is dominantly nearly level to gently
This unit makes up about 85,000 acres, or 18 percent sloping. Scattered depressions, drainageways, and
of the county. It is about 40 percent Lakeland soils, 20 swamps are typical throughout most areas. The natural
percent Foxworth soils, 10 percent Centenary soils, and vegetation is mostly slash and longleaf pine; sweetgum;
30 percent soils of minor extent. water, laurel, and live oak; and an understory of woody
The Lakeland soils are excessively drained. Typically, shrubs and grasses.
they have a surface layer of dark brown sand about 4 Tis m ui aou 4, or
inches thick. Below this is yellowish brown and very pale This mp uit makes u about 45000 acres or
brown sand that extends to 80 inches or more. percent.of the county. It is about 30 percent Leefield
The Foxworth soils are moderately well drained. soils, 30 percent Albany soils, 10 percent Stilson soils,
Typically, they have a surface layer of grayish brown and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
sand about 4 inches thick. Below this is brown, yellowish The Leefield soils are somewhat poorly drained.
brown, very pale brown, and light gray or white sand that Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray and dark
extends to 80 inches or more. A fluctuating water table grayish brown sand about 12 inches thick, and the
is at a depth of 40 to 72 inches for 1 month to 3 months subsurface layer is light yellowish brown sand about 16
and at a depth of 30 to 40 inches for less than 30 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
cumulative days annually. 48 inches, is light yellowish brown sandy loam and sandy
The Centenary soils are moderately well drained, clay loam mottled with brown and yellow. The lower part
Typically, they have a surface layer of brown sand about of the subsoil to 80 inches is dominantly light gray sandy
9 inches thick. Below this is brownish yellow, very pale clay loam mottled with red, yellow, and brown.
brown, and white sand to 73 inches over a very dark, The Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained and are
organic stained sandy layer that extends to 80 inches or sandy to a depth of 40 inches or more. Typically, the
more. A fluctuating water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 surface layer is grayish brown sand about 8 inches thick,
inches for 1 month to 4 months and at a depth of 60 to and the subsurface layer is light yellowish brown, pale
75 inches for 4 to 8 months annually. brown, and light gray sand about 46 inches thick. The
Soils of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Blanton, upper part of the subsoil is light yellowish brown sandy
Chipley, Hurricane, Pelham, Plummer, Pottsburg, and loam, and the lower part is very pale brown sandy clay
Rutlege soils. loam mottled with light gray, brown, and yellowish red.
Large areas of this unit were cleared and planted to The subsoil extends to 80 inches or more.
tung nut trees at one time; but most have been
converted to slash pine forests, and some have been The Stilson soils are moderately well drained.
converted to urban development. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 7
inches thick, and the subsurface layer is light brownish
Soils of the low uplands and high flatwoods gray and very pale brown loamy sand about 27 inches
thick. The upper part of the subsoil extends to a depth of
The soils in this group are somewhat poorly drained 58 inches and is light yellowish brown sandy loam and
and moderately well drained and nearly level to gently sandy clay loam. The lower part of the subsoil extends
sloping. They are mainly on uplands. Some of these soils to a depth of 80 inches or more and is sandy clay loam
are loamy at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Others are reticulately mottled with shades of yellow, red, gray, and
sandy to a depth of 40 inches or more and are loamy brown.
below to a depth of 80 inches or more. These soils are Soils of minor extent are Alapaha, Blanton, Dorovan,
in the central to north-central part of the county and Centenary, Chipley, Foxworth, Hurricane, Pamlico,
extend to the eastern border.
Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, and Rutlege soils.

3. Leefield-Albany-Stilson Most of the acreage of this unit is wooded. Some
areas have been cleared and are cultivated or are
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained seeded to improved pasture or used for sod farming. A
and moderately well drained soils; some are sandy to a few small areas are planted to pecan trees and
depth of 20 to 40 inches and are loamy below, and vegetables. The largest areas are planted to slash pines.
others are sandy to more than 40 inches and are loamy Some areas have been cleared for urban development.
below







Bay County, Florida 7



Soils of the flatwoods replanted to slash pine. A few areas have been drained,
The three map units in this group are somewhat poorly partly cleared, and used for urban development.
drained to very poorly drained, nearly level to gently
sloping soils. Some of the soils are sandy to a depth of 5. Pottsburg-Leon-Rutlege
20 to 40 inches and are loamy below. Some are sandy Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
to a depth of 40 inches or more and are loamy below. that are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more; some
Some are sandy throughout and have organic stained have organic stained layers
sandy layers within 30 inches. Some have organic t
stained sandy layers at a depth of more than 50 inches. This map unit is in the low flatwoods. It occurs as
These soils are scattered throughout the county, large, broad areas scattered throughout the county but
Mostly in the western half of the county.
HurricanChiyAlany The landscape is dominantly one of nearly level areas
with scattered swamps, depressions, and poorly defined
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained drainageways. The natural vegetation is mostly water-
soils; some are sandy throughout and others are sandy tolerant species, including buckwheattree, sweetbay,
to a depth of 40 inches or more and are loamy below blackgum, cypress, water oak, slash pine, and longleaf
Sm u i i t I o i pine. The understory is native shrubs, pineland threeawn,
This map unit is in the flatwoods. It occurs in large, inkberry, waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, and smilax species.
scattered areas throughout the county. It is interspersed This map unit makes up about 110,000 acres, or 23
with higher lying, better drained soils and with more percent of the county. It is about 35 percent Pottsburg
poorly drained soils in swamps and depressions. soils, 30 percent Leon soils, 15 percent Rutlege soils,
The landscape is dominantly one of nearly level to and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
gently sloping areas. Scattered swamps and depressions The Pottsburg soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
are typical throughout most areas. The natural surface layer is dark gray sand about 5 inches thick over
vegetation is mostly slash and longleaf pine; sweetgum; grayish brown and light brownish gray sand about 25
water, laurel, and live oak; and an understory of native inches thick. The next layer is light gray to white sand
shrubs, sawpalmetto, inkberry, broomsedge, bluestem, about 30 inches thick. Below that is an organic stained
and pineland threeawn. sandy layer, very dark gray to black, that extends to a
This map unit makes up about 65,000 acres, or 14 depth of 80 inches or more.
percent of the county. It is about 45 percent Hurricane The Leon soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
soils, 18 percent Chipley soils, and 17 percent Albany surface layer is very dark gray sand about 3 inches thick.
soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent. The subsurface layer is light gray to gray sand about 12
The Hurricane soils are somewhat poorly drained. inches thick. Below that is a dark brown to black organic
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand about stained sandy layer about 15 inches thick. Below the
6 inches thick. The subsurface layers are brown, light organic stained layer is brown to light brownish gray
yellowish brown, very pale brown, and light gray sand to sand about 36 inches thick over a very dark brown
a depth of 51 inches. Below that is a dark, organic organic stained layer that extends to a depth of 80
stained sandy layer that extends to 80 inches or more. inches or more.
The Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained. The Rutlege soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4 the surface layer is black to very dark gray sand 22
inches thick. The underlying layers are grayish brown, inches thick. Below is gray or light gray sand that
light yellowish brown, very pale brown, light brownish extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.

gray, then light gray sand to a depth of 80 inches or Soils of minor extent in this unit are Alapaha, Albany,
more. Allanton, Chipley, Dorovan, Hurricane, Mandarin,
The Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. Pamlico, Pantego, Pansey, Pelham, and Plummer soils.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand about Most of the acreage of this unit is in cutover
8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light yellowish woodland. A few acres have been cleared and planted
brown, pale brown, and light gray sand to a depth of 46 to improved pasture. Some areas have been cleared and
inches. The subsoil is light yellowish brown and very pale planted to slash pine. Some small areas have been
brown loamy material that extends to a depth of 80 drained, partly cleared, and used for urban development.
inches or more.
Soils of minor extent are Alapaha, Blanton, Centenary, 6. Plummer-Pelham
Foxworth, Leefield, Mandarin, Pamlico, Pantego, Pelham,
Plummer, Pottsburg, and Rutlege soils. Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils; some are sandy
Most of the acreage of this unit is wooded. A few to a depth of 40 inches or more and are loamy below,
acres have been cleared and cultivated or seeded to and others are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and
improved pasture. Some areas have been cleared and are loamy below








8 Soil Survey



This map unit is in the low flatwoods. It occurs as slash pines grow in some areas. The understory consists
broad, nearly level areas dominantly in the southeastern of water-tolerant native shrubs, including waxmyrtle, sea
part of the county, myrtle, sawpalmetto, smilax species, and pineland
The landscape is dominantly one of low, nearly level threeawn.
areas with numerous swamps, depressions, and poorly This map unit makes up about 80,000 acres, or 17
defined drainageways. The natural vegetation is mostly percent of the county. It is about 32 percent Pamlico
water-tolerant plants, including buckwheattree, sweetbay, soils, 25 percent Rutlege soils, 15 percent Dorovan soils,
blackgum, cypress, water oak, and pond pine and and 28 percent soils of minor extent.
scattered slash and longleaf pine. The understory is The Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
pineland threeawn, waxmyrtle, and smilax species, the surface layer is black organic material more than 20
This map unit makes up about 25,000 acres, or 5 inches thick. Below that is dark grayish brown to light
percent of the county. It is about 50 percent Plummer gray sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
soils, 25 percent Pelham soils, and 25 percent soils of The Rutlege soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
minor extent. the surface layer is very dark gray or black sand 22
The Plummer soils are poorly drained. Typically, the inches thick. Below this is gray or light gray sand that
surface layer is dark gray sand about 7 inches thick. The extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
subsurface layer is gray to light gray sand about 41 The Dorovan soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is gray sandy the surface layer is organic material 60 inches thick.
loam about 11 inches thick, and the lower part is gray Below this is dark gray to light gray sand that extends to
sandy clay loam that extends to a depth of 80 inches or a depth of 80 inches or more.
more. Soils of minor extent in this unit are Alapaha, Albany,
The Pelham soils are poorly drained. Typically, the Allanton, Pansey, Pantego, Pelham, Pickney, Plummer,
surface layer is dark gray sand about 6 inches thick. The and Pottsburg soils.
subsurface layer is light brownish gray and light gray Most of the acreage of this unit remains in woodland,
sand about 28 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil some of which has had some trees cut for market. A few
is light brownish gray sandy loam about 4 inches thick, small areas have been drained and partly cleared for
and the lower part is a light brownish gray sandy clay urban development.
loam that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Soils of minor extent in this unit are Alapaha, Albany, 8. Rutlege-Allanton-Pickney
Leefield, Pantego, Pansey, Pamlico, Pickney, Pottsburg,
Rains, and Rutlege soils. Nearly level or depressional, very poorly drained or
Most of the acreage of this unit is in cutover poorly drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 80
woodland. A few small areas have been cleared and inches or more; some have organic stained layers
cultivated. A few areas have been cleared and planted
to improved pasture. Some few areas have been cleared and planted This map unit occurs as broad, very low, nearly level
slash pine. A few small areas have been drained, partly areas or in large depressional areas and some poorly
cleared, and used for urban development. defined drainageways throughout the county. The natural
vegetation is water-tolerant plants, including sweetbay,
Soils of the wet depressions, flood plains, and blackgum, water oak, cypress, buckwheattree, and pond
swamps and marshes pine. The understory is native shrubs, including
waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, gallberry, inkberry, pineland
The two map units in this group are mostly very poorly threeawn, and smilax species.
drained, nearly level or depressional soils. Some have a This map unit makes up about 45,000 acres, or 9
thick mineral surface layer high in organic matter percent of the county. It is about 35 percent Rutlege
content. Some have an organic surface layer from 20 to soils, 25 percent Allanton soils, 10 percent Pickney soils,
50 inches thick. Some have anorganic surface layer and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
more than 50 inches thick. These soils occur throughout The Rutlege soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
the county as areas ranging from small to very large the surface layer is very dark gray or black sand 22
9the surface layer is very dark gray or black sand 22
7. Pamlico-Rutlege-Dorovan inches thick. Below that, gray to light gray sand extends
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some have an The Allanton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
organthick, surface othlayer 20 inches to more than 50 inches surface layer is black to very dark gray sand 18 inches
hick, and others are sandy throughout thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray and light gray
This map unit is in swamps and depressions and in sand to a depth of 52 inches. It is underlain by a very
drainageways that range from narrow to very broad. The dark gray to black organic stained sandy layer that
natural vegetation is mostly water-tolerant plants, extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
including buckwheattree, sweetbay, cypress, blackgum, The Pickney soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
water oak, and pond pine. A few scattered longleaf and the surface layer is black sand to a depth of 30 inches.







Bay County, Florida 9



The subsurface layer is dark gray sand about 16 inches This map unit consists of saltwater marshes adjacent
thick. Below that is gray sand that extends to a depth of to the large bays in the southern part of the county. The
80 inches or more. natural vegetation is salt-tolerant needle reeds and
Soils of minor extent in this unit are Alapaha, Albany, cordgrasses. Most areas of this unit are in native
Pamlico, Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, and Pottsburg vegetation and are not suited to any use other than as
soils. wildlife habitat.
Most of the acreage of this unit is in cutover This map unit makes up about 11,000 acres, or 2
woodland. A few small areas have been cleared and percent of the county. It is about 79 percent Bayvi soils
planted in improved pasture. A few small areas have and 21 percent Dirego soils. The unit is unique in the
been drained, partly cleared, and used for urban survey area in that it is made up entirely of the two major
development. soils and does not include any minor soils.
Soils of the tidal marshes The Bayvi soils are very poorly drained and are
subject to tidal flooding daily. Typically, the surface layer
The soils in the group are in very poorly drained tidal is very dark gray loamy sand about 8 inches thick. The
marshes subject to daily flooding with saltwater. Some of next layer is very dark gray sand about 20 inches thick.
the soils have a thick organic surface layer over sand, Below that is dark gray to gray loamy sand about 37
and some have a sandy surface layer moderately high in inches thick over gray sand that extends to a depth of
organic matter content. These soils are along the 80 inches or more.
bayshore along the southern coastline and extend The Dirego soils are very poorly drained and are
northward in sloughlike areas joining drainageways of subject to tidal flooding daily. Typically, the surface layer
streams draining into the large bays. is dark reddish brown to black organic matter 28 inches
9. Bayvi-Dirego thick. Below that is stratified very dark brown, dark gray,
and gray loamy sand and sandy material to a depth of
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some are sandy 80 inches or more.
to a depth of 80 inches or more, and others are organic All of the areas of this unit are in natural vegetation.
to a depth of 14 to 50 inches and are sandy below



















Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The a special symbol on the soil maps.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and have little or no soil material and support little or no
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
used to plan the management needed for those uses. shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
under "Use and Management of the Soils." maps.
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
for which the unit is named. give properties of the soils and the limitations,
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for Soil Descriptions
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up 1-Albany sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the somewhat poorly drained, nearly level sandy soil occurs
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of along defined drainageways and on areas leading to
a series have major horizons that are similar in lower wet areas. Slopes are smooth.
composition, thickness, and arrangement. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in depth of about 54 inches. The upper 16 inches is light
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, yellowish brown, the next 22 inches is pale brown, and
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the the lower 8 inches is light gray with pale brown mottles.
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil The upper 6 inches of the subsoil is light yellowish
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil brown sandy loam with mottles of gray, brown, and
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil yellow. The lower 20 inches is very pale brown sandy
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or clay loam mottled with yellow, gray, and brown.
management. For example, Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
percent slopes, is one of several phases in the Lakeland Blanton, Bonifay, Chipley, Foxworth, Hurricane,
series. Lakeland, Leefield, and Stilson soils. Also included are
Some map units are made up of two or more major small areas of soils that have properties similar to those
soils. These map units are called soil complexes. of the Albany soil except that they have a thick, dark
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such surface layer. Also included in a few mapped areas are
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they soils that have similar properties in the upper 60 inches
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The but that have a dark layer within a depth of 80 inches. A
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar few small areas of soils that are similar to the Albany soil
in all areas. The Pamlico-Dorovan complex is an but are better drained and a few small areas of soils that
example. are similar except that they have 2 to 5 percent slopes
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils are also included. Included soils make up less than 15
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some percent of any mapped area.
of these included soils have properties that differ This Albany soil has a water table at a depth of 18 to
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such 30 inches for 1 month to 3 months during most years.
differences could significantly affect use and Available water capacity is very low in the surface and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil.
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, moderately
















Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The a special symbol on the soil maps.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and have little or no soil material and support little or no
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
used to plan the management needed for those uses. shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
under "Use and Management of the Soils." maps.
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
for which the unit is named. give properties of the soils and the limitations,
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for Soil Descriptions
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up 1-Albany sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the somewhat poorly drained, nearly level sandy soil occurs
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of along defined drainageways and on areas leading to
a series have major horizons that are similar in lower wet areas. Slopes are smooth.
composition, thickness, and arrangement. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in depth of about 54 inches. The upper 16 inches is light
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, yellowish brown, the next 22 inches is pale brown, and
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the the lower 8 inches is light gray with pale brown mottles.
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil The upper 6 inches of the subsoil is light yellowish
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil brown sandy loam with mottles of gray, brown, and
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil yellow. The lower 20 inches is very pale brown sandy
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or clay loam mottled with yellow, gray, and brown.
management. For example, Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
percent slopes, is one of several phases in the Lakeland Blanton, Bonifay, Chipley, Foxworth, Hurricane,
series. Lakeland, Leefield, and Stilson soils. Also included are
Some map units are made up of two or more major small areas of soils that have properties similar to those
soils. These map units are called soil complexes. of the Albany soil except that they have a thick, dark
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such surface layer. Also included in a few mapped areas are
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they soils that have similar properties in the upper 60 inches
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The but that have a dark layer within a depth of 80 inches. A
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar few small areas of soils that are similar to the Albany soil
in all areas. The Pamlico-Dorovan complex is an but are better drained and a few small areas of soils that
example. are similar except that they have 2 to 5 percent slopes
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils are also included. Included soils make up less than 15
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some percent of any mapped area.
of these included soils have properties that differ This Albany soil has a water table at a depth of 18 to
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such 30 inches for 1 month to 3 months during most years.
differences could significantly affect use and Available water capacity is very low in the surface and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil.
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, moderately







12 Soil Survey


rapid in the subsurface layer, and moderate in the included are a few small areas of similar soils that have
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. The organic matter slopes of less than 2 percent. Included soils make up
content is generally medium, but in a few small areas it less than 15 percent of any mapped area.
is moderately high. This Albany soil has a water table at a depth of 18 to
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine and 36 inches for 1 month to 3 months during most years.
some hardwoods, mostly blackjack, post, and blue oak. Available water capacity is very low in the surface and
The understory is gallberry, waxmyrtle, and pineland subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil.
threeawn. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, moderately
Wetness is a severe limitation for cultivated crops. rapid in the subsurface layer, and moderate in the
Without good water control, this soil is poorly suited to subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Organic matter content is
most cultivated crops. When properly managed, it is generally medium in the surface layer and low in the
moderately suited to most crops commonly grown in the subsurface layer.
area. Intensive water-control measures are needed. The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
Drains are needed to intercept hillside seepage water. pine and some hardwoods, including blackjack, post, and
Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue should blue oak. The understory consists of gallberry, southern
be left on the land. Drainage and bedding are needed for inkberry, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn.
crops that are damaged by wetness. Wetness and the sand content are severe limitations
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay for crop production. The potential for crop production is
crops. Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses respond low. Without good water control, this soil is poorly suited
moderately well to fertilizer and lime. Controlled grazing to most crops. With good water control and good
is needed to maintain vigorous plants for maximum management, it is moderately suited to adapted crops of
yields and a good ground cover, this area. Intensive water-control measures are needed.
Under high-level management, this soil has high Drains are needed to intercept hillside seepage water.
potential productivity for loblolly and slash pine. Soil-improving cover crops are recommended, and all
Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant crop residue should be left on the land or plowed under.
competition are the main management problems. Drainage and bedding are recommended for those crops
Soil limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields that are subject to damage by wetness.
are severe; limitations that affect local roads and streets This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay
are moderate. Water control is necessary for these uses. crops. Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are
Use of this soil as sites for dwellings without basements moderately well adapted. The soil responds moderately
and for playgrounds is severely limited. Water control, to fertilizers and lime. Controlled grazing is needed to
mounding, or filling or a combination of these measures maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields and a good
is required if the soil is used as a site for dwellings or ground cover.
playgrounds. Even if a complex system that includes all This soil has high potential productivity for loblolly and
these measures is installed, limitations are severe for slash pine under a high level of management. Equipment
trench sanitary landfills. limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw. the main management problems.
Use of this soil as septic tank absorption fields is
2-Albany sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This severely limited. Use as sites for local roads and streets
somewhat poorly drained, gently sloping sandy soil is moderately limited. Water control is necessary for
occurs along defined drainageways and on gentle slopes these uses. Use of this soil as sites for dwellings without
adjacent to lower lying wet areas. Slopes are smooth, basements and playgrounds is severely limited. Water
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand control, mounding, or filling or a combination of these
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a measures is required if the soil is used as building sites
depth of about 48 inches. The upper 19 inches is pale or playgrounds. Even if a complex system that includes
brown, and the next 22 inches is pale brown mottled all the above measures is installed, limitations are severe
with gray and brown. The upper 12 inches of the subsoil for trench sanitary landfills.
is light yellowish brown sandy loam with mottles of gray, This soil is in capability subclass Ille.
brown, and yellow. The lower 20 inches is light gray
sandy clay loam mottled with yellow and brown. 3-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping
Blanton, Bonifay, Chipley, Foxworth, Lakeland, Leefield, soil occurs on uplands throughout the county but is
and Stilson soils. Also included are small areas of soils predominantly in the northeastern and eastern parts.
that are similar to this Albany soil except that they have Slopes are smooth to convex.
a thicker, darker surface layer. Also included in a few Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
areas are soils that are similar in the upper 60 inches but about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
have a layer of humus within a depth of 80 inches. Also to a depth of about 60 inches. The upper 16 inches is







Bay County, Florida 13



pale brown, the next 27 inches is light yellowish brown 4-Blanton fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
with few to common uncoated sand grains, and the moderately well drained, deep, sloping soil is mostly in
lower 13 inches is yellow with many uncoated sand the northern part of the county on slopes adjacent to
grains. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or depressions and well-defined drainageways. Slopes are
more. The upper 3 inches is yellowish fine sandy loam. smooth to convex.
The lower part of the subsoil is brownish yellow fine Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
sandy loam mottled with gray and brown. about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of to a depth of about 58 inches. The upper 16 inches is
Albany, Bonifay, Foxworth, Lakeland, and Troup soils. pale brown, the next 26 inches is light yellowish brown
Also included are small areas of soils that are similar to with few to common uncoated sand grains, and the next
the Blanton soil but have lumps or streaks of sandy clay 12 inches is yellow with many uncoated sand grains. The
or clay in the lower part of the subsoil and a few small subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
areas of soils that are similar to the Blanton soil but are upper 3 inches is yellowish brown fine sandy loam. The
well drained. Included soils make up less than 15 lower part is brownish yellow fine sandy loam mottled in
percent of any one mapped area. shades of yellow, brown, and gray.
This Blanton soil has a perched water table above the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
subsoil for less than 1 month during most years. Albany, Bonifay, Chipley, Foxworth, Lakeland, Stilson,
Available water capacity is low in the surface and and Troup soils. Also included are small areas of soils
subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil. that are similar to this Blanton soil but have lumps or
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers streaks of sandy clay in the lower part of the subsoil and
and is moderately rapid in the subsoil. Natural fertility a few areas of soils that are similar to the Blanton soils
and organic matter content are low throughout. but have slopes of 0 to 5 percent or 8 to 12 percent. A
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf few small areas with plinthite are also included. Included
pine; live, post, and red oak; dogwood; and an soils make up less than 15 percent of any mapped area.
understory of native shrubs, huckleberry, and pineland This Blanton soil has a perched water table above the
threeawn. Most areas are cutover woodland or have subsoil for less than 1 month during most years.
been cleared for crops or improved bahiagrass pastures. Available water capacity is low in the surface and
Use of this soil for most cultivated crops is severely subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil.
limited. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
nutrients greatly limit the choice of plants and reduce and is moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility and
potential yields of adapted crops. Row crops should be organic matter content are low throughout.
planted on the contour in strips alternating with strips of The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine; live,
close-growing crops. Crop rotations should include close- post, and red oak; huckleberry; dogwood; and an
growing cover crops, and all crop residues should be left understory of native shrubs and pineland threeawn. Most
on the ground for cover. Irrigation of high-value crops is areas are cutover woodland or have been cleared and
generally feasible where water is readily available, planted to bahiagrass improved pasture.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay This soil has very severe limitations for most cultivated
crops. Deep-rooted Coastal bermudagrass and the crops. Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients,
improved bahiagrasses are well adapted, but yields are and slope greatly limit the choice of plants and reduce
reduced by periodic droughts. Regular fertilizing and potential yields of adapted crops. Row crops should be
liming are needed. Grazing should be controlled to planted on the contour in strips alternating with strips of
maintain plant vigor and a good ground cover, close-growing crops. Crop rotations should include close-
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for growing cover crops at least three-fourths of the time.
longleaf and slash pine. Equipment limitations and Soil-improving crops and all crop residues should be left
seedling mortality are the major management concerns, on the surface. These soils are too steep to be
Soil limitations that affect use of this soil as a site for effectively irrigated.
dwellings without basements, small commercial This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
buildings, and local roads and streets are slight. Use as crops. Deep-rooted Coastal bermudagrass and improved
septic tank absorption fields is moderately limited. Use bahiagrass are well adapted, but yields are reduced by
as a site for recreational development is severely limited, periodic droughts. Regular fertilizing and liming are
Surface stabilization is needed if the soil is used as a needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
site for this activity. Use as a site for shallow excavations vigor and a good ground cover.
and trench sanitary landfills is severely limited. If shallow This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
excavations are made in this soil, shoring of sidewalls is longleaf and slash pine. Equipment limitations and
necessary. Suitable fill must be used as a sealer and seedling mortality are the major management concerns.
daily cover if the soil is used as a trench sanitary landfill. Soil limitations that affect dwellings without basements
This soil is in capability subclass Ills. and local roads and streets are slight. Use of the soil as







14 Soil Survey


septic tank absorption fields and as a site for small crops should be planted on the contour in alternating
commercial buildings is moderately limited. Limitations strips with close-growing, soil-improving crops. Crop
that affect recreational uses are severe; surface rotations should include close-growing, soil-improving
stabilization is needed for these activities. Use of this soil crops at least two-thirds of the time. The soil-improving
as a site for shallow excavations and trench type crops and the residues of all other crops should be left
sanitary landfills is severely limited. If shallow on the land. All crops should be limed and fertilized.
excavations are made in this soil, shoring of sidewalls is Irrigation of high-value crops that are adapted to the soil
necessary. Suitable fill must be used as a sealer and is usually feasible where irrigation water is readily
daily cover if the soil is used as a trench sanitary landfill. available.
This soil is in capability subclass IVs. This soil is moderately suited to improved pastures.
Deep rooted plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and
5-Bonifay sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This well improved bahiagrass are well adapted. They grow well
drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil occurs on and produce good ground cover when they are limed
narrow to moderately broad ridges on the uplands. Areas and fertilized. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain
of this soil are generally surrounded by long, steeper vigorous plants for maximum yields. Yields are
slopes that extend from the ridges to narrow streambeds occasionally greatly reduced by extended severe
or natural drainageways. Slopes are smooth to convex, droughts.
Typically, the surface layer is brown sand about 7 This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand and extends slash and longleaf pine. Low available water capacity,
to a depth of about 54 inches. The upper 27 inches is low natural fertility, and rapid permeability in the root
light yellowish brown, and the lower 20 inches is very zone limit growth.
pale brown with mottles in shades of yellow and brown. Soil limitations that affect use of this soil as a site for
The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. dwellings without basements, small commercial
The upper 4 inches is light yellowish brown sandy loam. buildings, and local roads and streets are slight. Wetness
The next 6 inches is light yellowish brown sandy clay is a moderate limitation to use of this soil as sites for
loam mottled in shades of yellow, brown, red, and gray. dwellings with basements. Use as sites for recreational
The lower 16 inches is light yellowish brown sandy clay development is severely limited. Surface stabilization is
loam mottled in shades of yellow, brown, gray, and red. needed if the soil is used for recreational developments.
Plinthite occurs within 60 inches of the surface and Use of this soil as sites for shallow excavations and
makes up from 5 to 25 percent of the layer. trench sanitary landfills is severely limited. Sidewalls
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of must be shored if excavations are made in this soil.
Albany, Blanton, Foxworth, Lakeland, Stilson, and Troup Suitable material must be used as a sealer and as daily
soils. Also included are a few small areas of soils that cover for trench sanitary landfills.
are similar to this Bonifay sand except that they have This soil is in capability subclass Ills.
ironstone pebbles or thin layers of ironstone and a few
small areas of soils that are similar except that depth to 6-Bonifay sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This well
plinthite is more than 60 inches. Also included are a few drained, sloping soil occurs on side slopes adjacent to
small areas of soils that are similar to the Bonifay soil narrow streambeds or drainageways. Slopes are
but have 5 to 8 percent slopes. Included soils make up generally smooth.
less than 15 percent of any mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is brown sand about 4
Depth to the water table is more than 72 inches inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand about 44
except that a perched water table is above the subsoil inches thick. The upper 30 inches is yellowish brown,
for 1 to 5 days after heavy rainfall. Available water and the lower 14 inches is pale brown with many
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and uncoated sand grains. The subsoil extends to a depth of
is medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the 80 inches or more. The upper 6 inches is light yellowish
surface and subsurface layers and is moderate to brown sandy loam mottled with yellowish brown and
moderately slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility and yellowish red. The next 8 inches is light yellowish brown
organic matter content are low throughout this soil. sandy clay loam mottled with yellowish brown, strong
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine and a brown, yellowish red, and light gray. The lower 18 inches
mixture of hardwoods, including blackjack, live, turkey, is pale brown sandy clay loam mottled in shades of
and post oak and persimmon trees. The understory is yellow, brown, gray, and red. The content of plinthite in
huckleberry, native shrubs, and moderately sparse the subsoil ranges from 5 to 25 percent.
pineland threeawn. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Use of this soil for cultivated crops is severely limited. Albany, Blanton, Foxworth, Lakeland, Stilson, and Troup
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit soils. Also included are small areas of soils that are
the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of similar to this Bonifay soil but are more than 25 percent
adapted crops. If this soil is used for row crops, the row plinthite in the subsoil. In some areas, very compact,







Bay County, Florida 15



almost rocklike, firm or cemented indurated layers of 9-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
plinthite occur. Also included are small areas of soils that excessively drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil
are similar to this Bonifay soil but have slopes of 0 to 5 occurs on broad upland areas in the northern part of the
percent or 8 to 12 percent. In a few small areas, depth county. Slopes are smooth and generally convex.
to plinthite is more than 60 inches. Included soils make Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand about 4
up less than 15 percent of any mapped area. inches thick. Below the surface layer is yellowish brown
Depth to the water table is more than 72 inches sand and then very pale brown sand to a depth of 80
except that a perched water table is above the subsoil inches or more.
for 1 day to 5 days after heavy rains. Seepage at the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
base of slopes is common after rains. Available water Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipley, Foxworth, and Troup
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and soils. Also included in a few areas are soils that are
is medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the similar to this Lakeland soil in the upper 66 inches but
surface and subsurface layers and is moderate to have a dark layer within a depth of 80 inches. Also
moderately slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility and included are small areas of soils that are similar to this
organic matter content are low throughout this soil. Lakeland soil but have slopes of 5 to 8 percent. Included
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine and a soils make up less than 15 percent of any mapped area.
mixture of hardwoods, including blackjack, turkey, live, This Lakeland soil has low available water capacity
and post oak and persimmon. The understory is throughout. Permeability is very rapid throughout. Natural
huckleberry, native shrubs, smilax, and moderately fertility and organic matter content are low. Depth to the
sparse pineland threeawn. water table is more than 80 inches throughout the year.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine and
crops. Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, blackjack, bluejack, turkey, and post oak. The understory
and slopes limit the choice of plants and reduce consists of smilax, blackberry, yaupon, dwarf live oak,
potential yields of adapted crops. If this soil is used for running oak, huckleberry, milkweed, ragweed, mayweed,
row crops, row crops should be planted on the contour dogfennel, and sparse pineland threeawn. Most areas of
in alternating strips with close-growing, soil-improving this soil are owned by paper companies and are planted
crops. Crop rotations should include close-growing, soil- to slash pine and sand pine.
improving crops at least three-fourths of the time. The The sandy texture very severely limits use of this soil
soil-improving crops and the residues of all other crops for cultivated crops. Intensive soil management practices
should be left on the land. All crops should be limed and are required where this soil is cultivated. Droughtiness
fertilized. and rapid leaching of plant nutrients reduce the variety
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture, and potential yields of adapted crops. If this soil is used
Deep-rooted plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and for row crops, the row crops should be planted on the
improved bahiagrass are well adapted. They grow well contour in strips alternating with strips of close-growing
and produce good ground cover when they are limed crops. The soil-improving crops and the residue of all
and fertilized. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain crops should be left on the land. Crops should be
vigorous plants for maximum yields. Yields are irrigated where water is readily available.
occasionally greatly reduced by extended severe This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
droughts. crops. Deep-rooted plants such as bahiagrasses and
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for Coastal bermudagrass are well adapted, but yields are
slash and longleaf pine and for sweetgum and sycamore. reduced by periodic droughts. Regular fertilizing and
Low available water capacity, low natural fertility, and liming are needed. For maximum yields, grazing should
rapid permeability limit growth, be controlled to permit plants to maintain vigor.
Soil limitations that affect dwellings without basements This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
and local roads and streets are slight. Wetness is a pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
moderate limitation to use of this soil as sites for are the main management concerns. Slash pines are the
dwellings with basements. Use as sites for shallow best species to plant.
excavations, trench sanitary landfills, and recreational Soil limitations that affect use of this soil as sites for
uses is severely limited. Measures needed if shallow most urban development are slight. Use of this soil for
excavations are made in this soil include shoring of recreational development is severely limited. The sandy
sidewalls. The sandy overburden must be removed and texture, which causes cutbanks to cave, limits use as a
suitable material added as a sealer and as daily cover if site for shallow excavations and for most recreational
this soil is used as the site for a trench sanitary landfill. development. Shoring and surface stabilization help to
Surface stabilization is needed to use this soil as a site offset the limitation. Soil limitations that affect septic tank
for recreational developments, absorption fields and footings and foundations for
This soil is in capability subclass IVs. buildings are slight. This soil is too sandy to be used as







16 Soil Survey



a site for either trench or area sanitary landfills. It is 11-Lakeland sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. This
poorly suited to use as daily cover for landfills. excessively drained, strongly sloping soil occurs on
This soil is in capability subclass IVs. upland hillsides in the northern part of the county.
Slopes are smooth, irregular, and convex.
10-Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This Typically, the surface layer is dark brown or dark
excessively drained, sloping soil is on upland side slopes grayish brown sand 3 to 4 inches thick. The underlying
adjacent to well-defined drainageways, dominantly in the layer is sand extending to a depth of 80 inches or more.
northern part of the county. Slopes are smooth and The upper 38 inches is brownish yellow and overlies
convex. pale brown or very pale brown sand.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand about 4 Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
inches thick. The underlying layer is sand to a depth of Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Foxworth, and Troup soils.
80 inches or more. The upper 33 inches is brownish Also included are small areas of soils that occur at the
yellow, and the lower part is pale brown. bases of the steeper slopes and have a mixed sandy
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of clay loam and sandy clay subsoil at varying depths. Also
Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipley, Foxworth, and Troup included are soils that are similar to this Lakeland soil
soils. Also included in a few areas are soils that are but have slopes of 5 to 8 percent and a few areas where
similar to this Lakeland soil in the upper 60 inches but slopes are 12 to 30 percent. The steeper slopes are
have a dark layer within a depth of 80 inches. Also generally narrow escarpments adjacent to drainageways
included are small areas of soils that are similar to the and low-lying wet depressional areas. Included soils
Lakeland soil but have slopes of 0 to 5 percent, and a ^ uD less than 20 percent of anv mapped area
few areas where slopes are 8 to 12 percent. Included This Lakeland soil has low available water capacity,
soils make up less than 15 percent of any mapped area. lowThis Lakeand soil has low available water capacity,
This Lakeland soil has low available water capacity low natural fertility, and lo oranic matter content
throughout. Permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility and throughout. Permeability is very rapid.
organic matter content are low. Depth to the water table The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
is more than 80 inches. pine and blackjack, bluejack, turkey, and post oak. The
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash understory consists of smilax blackberry, yaupon, dwarf
pine and blackjack, bluejack, turkey, and post oak. The lve ak, running oak, huckleberry, milkweed, ragweed,
understory consists of smilax, blackberry, yaupon, dwarf mayweed, cornflower, dogfennel, cudweed, and sparse
live oak, running oak, huckleberry, milkweed, ragweed, pineland threeawn. Large areas of this soil have been
mayweed, cornflower, dogfennel, cudweed, and sparse planted to slash pine and sand pine.
pineland threeawn. Many areas have been planted to This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops because of
pine trees. droughtiness, low natural fertility, steepness of slope,
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops because of and susceptibility to erosion.
droughtiness, low natural fertility, steepness of slope, This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Deep-rooted
and susceptibility to erosion. plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Deep-rooted are well adapted, but yields are reduced by periodic
plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass droughts. Regular fertilizing and liming are needed. For
are well adapted, but yields are reduced by periodic maximum yields, grazing should be controlled to permit
droughts. Regular fertilizing and liming are needed. For plants to maintain vigor.
maximum yields, grazing should be controlled to permit This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
plants to maintain vigor. pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
These soils have moderately high potential productivity are management concerns. Slash pines are the best
for pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling species to plant.
mortality are the main management concerns. Slash Steep slopes are a moderate limitation to use of this
pines are the best species to plant, soil as sites for most urban uses and a severe limitation
Soil limitations that affect use as sites for most urban to use for recreational development. Septic tank
development are slight. Use of the soil as sites for absorption fields function best if laid out on the contour
recreational uses is severely limited. Surface stabilization or parallel to the slope rather than up and down the
is necessary where the soil is developed for recreational slope. The sandy texture and the hazard of cutbanks
uses. The sandy texture, which causes cutbanks to cave, caving limit use as sites for shallow excavations and
limits use for shallow excavations. Shoring helps to recreational development. Shoring and surface
offset this limitation. Soil limitations that affect use of the stabilization help to offset these limitations.
soil as sites for both area and trench sanitary landfills This soil is in capability subclass VIs.
are severe. The soil is poorly suited to use as daily cover
for landfills. 12-Leefield sand. This somewhat poorly drained,
This soil is in capability subclass VIs. nearly level soil is in wet areas along drainageways in







Bay County, Florida 17


the flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to convex and range This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
from 0 to 2 percent. pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand are the chief management problems. Slash or loblolly
about 6 inches thick. The upper 6 inches of the pines are the best species to plant.
subsurface layer is dark grayish brown sand, and the The water table, which is moderately high during rainy
lower 16 inches is light yellowish brown sand mottled seasons, and the sandy surface texture are moderate to
with gray, brown, and yellow. The subsoil extends to a severe limitations to use of this soil as sites for
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 8 inches is light recreational and urban development. Water-control
yellowish brown sandy loam with mottles of gray, brown, measures are necessary if this soil is used as a site for
yellow, and red. The next 12 inches is light yellowish recreational and urban development. Adding fill material
brown sandy clay loam with mottles of gray, brown, also helps to offset these limitations. Water control
yellow, and red. The lower 32 inches is sandy clay loam measures are necessary if the soil is used as a site for
reticulately mottled with gray, yellow, brown, and red. sanitary landfills or as septic tank absorption fields.
This subsoil contains plinthite. This soil is in capability subclass IIw.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Alapaha, Chipley, Foxworth, Pelham, and Stilson 13--Leon sand. This poorly drained, nearly level soil
soils. Also included are small areas of soils that are is in the flatwoods Slopes are generally smooth to
similar to this Leefield soil but are less than 5 percent slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
plinthite. Also included are small areas of soils that are Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
similar to the Leefield soil to a depth of about 48 inches about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand that
but have sandy clay or clay below 48 inches and a few extends to a depth of 15 inches. The upper 6 inches is
small areas of similar soils that have slopes of 2 to 5 gray, and the lower 6 inches is light gray. The subsoil, in
percent. Small areas of more poorly drained soils are sequence, is black, dark reddish brown, and dark brown
included in some areas. Also included are a few small sand to a depth of about 30 inches. Next is brown sand
included in some areas. Also included are a few small and then light brownish gray sand to a depth of about 66
areas of soils that are similar but have a thicker, very an hes. Blow that vry dark b own sand extends to
inches. Below that, very dark brown sand extends to 80
dark gray or black surface layer. Included soils make up inches or more.
less than 15 percent of any mapped area. Included with this Leon soil in mapping are small areas
This Leefield soil has a perched water table at a depth of Albany, Chipley, Foxworth, Allanton, Mandarin, Osier,
of 18 to 30 inches for about 3 to 4 months during most Pelham, Plummer, Pottsburg, and Rutlege soils. Also
years. Available water capacity is low in the surface and included are small areas of soils that are similar to this
subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil. Leon soil but do not have the deep organic subsoil. In a
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers few areas, there are places where the subsoil is strongly
and is moderately slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility and cemented. Also included are small areas of soils that are
organic matter content are moderate to a depth of about similar to the Leon soil but are somewhat poorly drained.
10 inches and are low below this depth. Included soils make up less than 15 percent of any one
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf, slash, and mapped area.
pond pine; sweetgum; water oak; sweetbay; blackgum; This Leon soil has a water table within a depth of 10
and red maple. The understory is native grasses and inches for 1 month to 4 months and at a depth of 10 to
shrubs, including gallberry, southern bayberry, inkberry, 40 inches for about 9 months in most years. Available
waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn. water capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface
Wetness is a moderate limitation for cultivated crops. layers and is low in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in
This soil is suited to some cultivated crops, but the the surface and subsurface layers and is moderate to
variety is limited because the water table is near the moderately rapid in the subsoil.
surface much of the time. Crops such as corn and The natural vegetation consists of longleaf, pond, and
soybeans are adapted, but water control is needed (fig. slash pine; water oak; and an understory of waxmyrtle,
1). Row crops should be rotated with cover crops; cover sawpalmetto, running oak, fetterbush, gallberry, and
crops should be on the land at least half the time. Soil- pineland threeawn.
improving cover crops and all crop residues should be Wetness is a severe limitation for cultivated crops. The
left on the land. Good seedbed preparation, fertilizing, soil is moderately suited to some crops, but the variety is
and liming are needed for maximum yields, limited because the water table is near the surface much
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. Such of the time. Crops such as corn and soybeans are
grasses as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses adapted only if adequate water-control measures are
grow well under good management. White clovers and applied. Row crops should be rotated with cover crops.
other legumes are moderately adapted. For best yields, Cover crops should remain on the land three-fourths of
fertilizing, liming, and carefully controlling grazing to the year. Soil-improving cover crops and all crops
maintain plant vigor are required, residues should be left on the land. For highest yields,







18Soil Survey







































Figure 1.-Soybeans and slash pines on Leefield sand. With adequate water control, this soil is well suited to corn, soybeans, and timber
crops.



good seedbed preparation, fertilizing, and liming are suitable fill material enhances suitability for use as sites
required. for recreational or urban development and as sites for
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay septic tank absorption fields.
crops. Bahiagrasses grow well under good management. This soil is in capability subclass IVw.
White clovers and other legumes are moderately
adapted. For maximum yields, fertilizing, liming, and 15-Stilson sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
carefully controlling grazing to maintain plant vigor are moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping
required. soil is on broad upland areas in the eastern part of the
This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine county. Slopes are smooth.
trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 7
windthrow hazard are management problems. Slash inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray
pines are the best species to plant. and very pale brown loamy sand about 27 inches thick.
Use of this soil as sites for recreational or urban The subsoil is light yellowish brown sandy loam that is
development is severely limited because the water table about 4 inches thick; light yellowish brown sandy clay
is very high during rainy seasons. A complex water- loam that is mottled with yellowish brown, brownish gray,
control system is necessary. Adding 2 to 3 feet of and weak red and is about 20 inches thick; and







Bay County, Florida 19


reticulately mottled yellow, brown, gray, and red sandy 16-Stilson sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
clay loam that extends to a depth greater than 80 moderately well drained, sloping soil occurs on upland
inches. The subsoil contains plinthite. areas in the eastern part of the county. Slopes are
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of smooth to convex.
Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, and Leefield soils. Also Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 7
included are soils that are similar to this Stilson soil inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray
except that they are sandy clay in the lower part of the and very pale brown loamy sand about 27 inches thick.
subsoil and a few small areas of soils that have slopes The subsoil is light yellowish brown sandy loam about 4
greater than 5 percent. Included soils make up less than inches thick; light yellowish brown sandy clay loam that
15 percent of any mapped area. has yellowish brown, strong brown, brownish gray, and
This Stilson soil has a perched water table above the yellowish red mottles and is about 20 inches thick; and
subsoil for brief periods in winter and early in spring reticulately mottled yellow, brown, gray, and red sandy
following heavy rainfall. Permeability is rapid in the clay loam that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
surface and subsurface layers and is moderate in the The subsoil contains plinthite.
subsoil. Available water capacity is low in the surface Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil. Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, and Leefield soils. Also
Organic matter content and natural fertility are moderate. included are a few small areas of soils that are similar to
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf this Stilson soil but are sandy clay in the lower part of
pine, white oak, red oak, water oak, and sweetgum. The the subsoil, a few small areas of soils similar to the
understory consists of inkberry, waxmyrtle, blackberry, Stilson soil that have slopes less than 5 percent, and a
panicum, bluesterm species, and pineland threeawn. A few small areas where the subsoil is less than 5 percent
few small areas have been cleared and planted to plinthite. Included soils make up less than 15 percent of
improved pasture grasses. any mapped area
The slight wetness and the hazard of erosion on the This Stilson soil has a perched water table above the
more sloping areas are moderate limitations for subsoil for a few days following heavy rainfall in the
cultivated crops. Adapted crops are those that are winter and early in spring. Permeability is rapid in the
cultivated crops. Adapted crops are those that are surface and subsurface layers and is moderate in the
tolerant of slight wetness. Corn and peanuts are subsoil. Available water capacity is low in the surface
adapted. Row crops should be planted on the contour and subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil.
and in rotation with cover crops. Cover crops should Organic matter content and natural fertility are moderate.
remain on the land at least half the time. Soil-building ara vegeattion consists of slash and longleaf
cover crops and all crop residues should be left on the pine; white, red, and water oak; and sweetgum. The
land. Good seedbed preparation, fertilizing, and liming understory consists of inkberry, waxmyrtle, blackberry,
are required for highest yields. panicum, bluestem species, and pineland threeawn. A
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. few small areas have been cleared and are cultivated or
Coastal bermudagrass and improved bahiagrasses grow planted to improved pasture grasses.
well when well managed. Several legumes are also well The hazard of erosion and the slight wetness are
adapted. These plants require fertilizing, liming, and severe limitations for cultivated crops. When properly
controlled grazing for highest yields, managed, the soil is moderately suited to most crops
This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees. commonly grown in the area. Intensive erosion control
Equipment' limitations, seedling mortality, and plant and simple water-control measures are needed. Row
competition are management concerns. Slash and crops should be planted on the contour in alternate
loblolly pines are the best species to plant, strips with close-growing crops, and crop rotations
Soil limitations that affect use of the soil as sites for should keep close-growing crops on the land at least
most recreational and urban developments are moderate two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops and all
to severe. For brief periods during rainy seasons, a crop residues should be left on the land.
perched water table limits drainage of septic tank This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay
absorption fields. Extending the length and increasing crops. Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses are
the capacity of the filter field generally offset this moderately well adapted. They make only moderate
limitation. The high water table is a moderate limitation response to fertilizer and lime. Controlled grazing is
to use of this soil as a site for trench sanitary landfills. needed to maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields
The soil is adequate cover material for both types of and a good ground cover.
landfill. In rainy seasons, a water-control system is This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees.
necessary to provide surface drainage of excess water Plant competition, equipment limitations, and seedling
away from trenches and open pits. mortality are management problems. Slash and loblolly
This soil is in capability subclass Ils. pines are the best species to plant.







20 Soil Survey



The steepness of slopes, perched water table, and occasionally greatly reduced by extended severe
seepage on side slopes are moderate limitations to use droughts.
of this soil as sites for recreational and urban This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
developments. Steepness of slopes also limits use as pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
septic tank absorption fields unless the fields are laid out are the main management problems. Slash and loblolly
on the contour. Use of this soil as sites for trench pine are the best species to plant.
sanitary landfills is moderately limited. Excess surface Soil limitations that affect use of this soil as sites for
water should be removed from the trenches or pits. local roads and streets, small commercial buildings, and
This soil is in capability subclass Ille. dwellings without basements are slight. Use of the soil
for purposes requiring shallow excavations is severely
17-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This well limited. Shoring of side slopes is required. Use of the soil
drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is on broad as sites for sanitary landfills is severely limited. Suitable
upland areas. Slopes are smooth to convex. Areas of fill material must be used as a sealer and daily cover for
this soil are small to moderate in size. landfills. Rapid permeability allows high-intensity use of
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand septic tank absorption fields. Use of the soil as sites for
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sandy to a most recreational developments is severely limited.
depth of 48 inches and is yellowish brown. The subsoil Additions of topsoil and sodding may be needed in areas
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper part used for recreational development.
is strong brown sandy loam, and the lower part is This soil is in capability subclass Ills.
yellowish red sandy clay loam with a few yellowish and
brownish mottles. 18-Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This well
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of drained, sloping soil generally is adjacent to well-defined
Blanton, Bonifay, Foxworth, Stilson, and Lakeland soils, drainageways in uplands. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Also included are small areas of soils that have a loamy Areas of this soil are small to moderate in size.
subsoil within a depth of 20 inches and small areas of Typically, the surface layer is brown sand about 8
soils that are similar to this Troup soil but have slopes of inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of
5 to 8 percent. Included soils make up less than 15 56 inches and is yellowish brown, strong brown, and
to 8 percent of any mappcluded areoils make up less than 15 reddish yellow. The subsoil is yellowish red sandy loam
percentand extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
In this Troup soil, the available water capacity is low in Incuded wt h this soi in mapping are sma rea
the surface and subsurface layers and is medium in the Blanton, Bonifay, Foxworth, Lakeland, and Stilson soils.
subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter content are Also included are small areas of soils that haveFoxworth, Lakeland, and Stilson soils.
low throughout the soil. Depth to the water table is more Alsoil withinuded a depth of 20 inches, small areas of soils that have a l
hn 7? K, 'ahit d .n s m0^ subsoil withinn a depth of 20 inches, small areas of soils
than 72 inches. Permeability is rapid in the surface and that are similar to this Troup soil but have slopes of less
subsurface layers and is moderate in the subsoil, than 5 percent, and some areas where slopes are 8 to
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf 12 percent. Included soils make up less than 15 percent
pine; live, post, and red oak; huckleberry; and dogwood. of any mapped area.
The understory is native shrubs and grasses, including In this Troup soil, the available water capacity is low in
pineland threeawn. the surface and subsurface layers and is medium in the
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter content are
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit low throughout the soil. Depth to the water table is more
the choice of crops and reduce potential yields of than 72 inches. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
adapted crops. Row crops should be planted on the subsurface layers and is moderate in the subsoil.
contour in alternating strips with close-growing, soil- The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
improving crops. Crop rotations should keep close- pine; live, post, and red oak; dogwood; huckleberry; and
growing, soil-improving cover crops on the land at least an understory of native shrubs and grasses, including
two-thirds of the time. The soil-improving crops and the pineland threeawn. Most areas are cutover woodland or
residues of all other crops should be left on the land. All have been cleared for improved pastures.
crops should be fertilized and limed. Irrigation of high- This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
value crops, such as watermelons, is usually feasible crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
where irrigation water is readily available, limit the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture, adapted crops. Soil management should include row
Deep-rooted plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and crops planted on the contour in alternating strips with
improved bahiagrass are well adapted. They grow well close-growing, soil-improving crops. Crop rotations
and produce good ground cover when they are limed should keep close-growing, soil-improving cover crops
and fertilized. For maximum yields, controlled grazing is on the land at least three-fourths of the time. The soil-
needed to maintain vigorous plants. Yields are improving crops and the residues of all other crops







Bay County, Florida 21



should be left on the land. All crops should be fertilized and fertilized. For maximum yields, controlled grazing is
and limed. needed to maintain vigorous plants. Yields are
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture, occasionally greatly reduced by extended severe
Deep-rooted plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and droughts.
improved bahiagrass are well adapted. They grow well This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
and produce good ground cover when they are limed pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
and fertilized. For maximum yields, controlled grazing is are the main management problems. Slash and loblolly
needed to maintain vigorous plants. Yields are pine are the best species to plant.
occasionally greatly reduced by extended severe Steepness of slope is a moderate to severe limitation
droughts, to use of this soil as a site for recreational and urban
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for development. Limitations to use of the soil as septic tank
pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality absorption fields are moderate, but the soil can be used
are the main management problems. Slash and loblolly as an absorption field if the field is laid out on the
pine are the best species to plant. contour and not up and down slopes. The length and
Use of this soil as sites for most recreational capacity of filter fields must be increased to prevent
development and sanitary facilities is severely limited, seepage. Suitable fill material for sealer and for daily
Septic tank absorption fields should be laid out on the cover are required if the soil is used as a site for sanitary
contour. Suitable fill material should be used as a sealer landfills. Slopes limit use for purposes requiring shallow
and daily covering for sanitary landfills. Sodding or excavations, and side slopes must be shored. Sodding
adding suitable topsoil may be necessary if the soil is or adding suitable topsoil may be required for
used as sites for recreational development. Slopes are a recreational development and use.
moderate limitation for use as sites for small commercial This soil is in capability subclass VIs.
buildings. Shoring of side slopes is required if the soil is
used for purposes that require shallow excavations. 20-Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
This soil is in capability subclass IVs. moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping
soil occurs between the high upland soils and lower
19-Troup sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. This well lying, wet flatwoods. It occurs as moderately small areas
drained, strongly sloping soil generally is adjacent to throughout the county but dominantly in the north, north-
well-defined drainageways on uplands. Slopes are central, and northeastern parts. Slopes are smooth to
smooth. Areas are small, convex.
Typically, the surface layer is brown sand about 4 Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of about 4 inches thick. The underlying layer is sand to a
about 52 inches and is yellowish brown, strong brown, depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 4 inches is
and reddish yellow. The subsoil is yellowish red sandy brown, the next 32 inches is light yellowish brown, the
loam. next 28 inches is very pale brown, and the next 12
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of inches is very light gray or white. Strong brown and
Blanton, Bonifay, Foxworth, Lakeland, and Stilson soils, yellow mottles are below a depth of 54 inches.
Also included are small areas of soils that are similar to Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
this Troup soil but have slopes of 5 to 8 percent and a Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipley, Lakeland, Centenary,
few small areas of soils that are similar but have slopes Pottsburg, Stilson, and Troup soils. Also included are
of more than 12 percent. Included soils make up less small areas of soils that are similar to this Foxworth soil
than 15 percent of any mapped area. but have slopes of 5 to 8 percent. Included soils make
In this Troup soil, available water capacity is low in the up less than 15 percent of any mapped area.
surface and subsurface layers and is medium in the This Foxworth soil has a water table at a depth of 40
subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter content are to 72 inches for 1 month to 3 months during most years
low. Depth to the water table is more than 72 inches. and at a depth of 30 to 40 inches for less than 30 days
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers in some years. Available water capacity is low.
and is moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility and organic
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf matter content are low.
pine; live, post, and red oak; dogwood; huckleberry; and The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
an understory of native shrubs and grasses, including pine; live, post, bluejack, and red oak; huckleberry;
pineland threeawn. Most areas are cutover woodland or dogwood; and an understory of native shrubs,
have been cleared for improved pastures. sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn. Some areas have
This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture. Deep- been cleared and are used for crops or for improved
rooted plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and pasture.
improved bahiagrasses are well adapted. They grow well This soil has severe limitations for most cultivated
and produce good ground cover when they are limed crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients







22 Soil Survey



limit the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
adapted crops. When the water table is at a depth of 40 pine; live, post, red, and bluejack oak; huckleberry;
to 72 inches, it provides water through capillary rise to sparse dogwood; and an understory of native shrubs and
supplement the low available water capacity. In very dry pineland threeawn. Most areas are cutover woodland or
seasons, however, the water table drops well below the have been replanted to slash pine. A few areas have
root zone and very little capillary water is available to been cleared and are planted to crops or improved
plants. Row crops should be planted on the contour in pasture.
alternate strips with close-growing crops. Crop rotations Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and the
should keep close-growing crops on the land at least hazard of erosion are very severe limitations to use of
two-thirds of the time. All crops should be fertilized and these soils for row crops. Soil-improving measures and
limed. Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residues erosion control measures are required when these soils
should be left on the land. Irrigation of high-value crops are cultivated. Row crops should be planted on the
is usually feasible where irrigation water is readily contour in strips alternating with strips of close-growing
available, crops. Crop rotations should keep the soil under close-
The soil is moderately well suited to adapted grasses growing plant cover at least three-fourths of the time. All
for pasture. Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses are crops need frequent fertilizing and liming. Soil-improving
well adapted. They produce good yields when they are crops and all crop residues should be left on the ground.
fertilized and limed. For maximum yields, controlled Irrigation of a few high-value crops may be feasible
grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants, where irrigation water is readily available. Irrigation
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for systems should be carefully designed to apply water at a
slash pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling rate low enough to prevent runoff and erosion.
mortality are the main management concerns. The soil is moderately suited to pasture. Deep-rooted
Soil limitations that affect urban and recreational plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass
development are moderate to severe. The water table, grow well when they are fertilized and limed. Yields are
which is at a depth of 30 inches during rainy seasons, severely reduced by occasional drought. Grazing must
limits septic tank use for a short period. Moderate water- be carefully controlled to permit plants to maintain their
control measures or about 12 inches of fill material are vigor and provide maximum yields and good ground
necessary for year-round septic tank use. Cutbanks are cover.
subject to caving. The sandy texture is a severe This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
limitation for recreational uses. slash pines. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
This soil is in capability subclass Ills. are the main management concerns.
Seepage and the high water table in these gently
21-Foxworth sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This sloping to sloping soils are moderate to severe
moderately well drained, sloping soil occurs on upland limitations for urban and recreational uses. The high
hillsides leading to lower lying, wet flatwoods and water table limits use as septic tank absorption fields
drainageways. This soil occurs as small areas throughout unless water control measures are used. The hazard of
the county but dominantly in the northern and north- cutbanks caving limits use for purposes requiring shallow
central parts. Slopes are smooth to convex, excavations unless shoring practices are used. The
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 3 sandy texture is a severe limitation for recreational uses.
inches thick. The underlying layers are sand to a depth This soil is in capability subclass IVs.
of more than 80 inches. The upper 7 inches is grayish
brown, and the next 22 inches is light yellowish brown 22-Pamlico-Dorovan complex. This complex
mottled with very pale brown with a few uncoated sand consists of very poorly drained soils that occur in an
grains. The lower 48 inches is very pale brown mottled irregular, intricately mixed pattern. The landscape is
with light gray, strong brown, and yellowish red. mainly depressional areas along low gradient
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of drainageways. Areas of each soil are too small to map
Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipley, Lakeland, Centenary, separately at the scale used. Areas of this complex are
Pottsburg, Stilson, and Troup soils. Also included are mostly rounded or oblong and are from 10 to 200 acres
small areas of soils that are similar to this Foxworth soil in size. Individual areas of each soil range from 5 to 100
but have slopes of 0 to 5 percent. Included soils make acres.
up less than 15 percent of any mapped area. The Pamlico soils make up about 40 percent of the
This Foxworth soil has a water table at a depth of 40 complex. Typically, Pamlico soils have black muck about
to 72 inches for 1 month to 3 months during most years 32 inches thick overlying very dark grayish brown sand
and at a depth of 30 to 40 inches for less than 30 that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
cumulative days in some years. Available water capacity The Pamlico soils are ponded after flooding for 4 to 8
is very low. Permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility and months in most years. Even when they are not covered
organic matter content are low. with water, these soils have a water table within a depth







Bay County, Florida 23



of 10 inches most of the time unless they are artificially water-control systems, removing the organic material,
drained. Only during the driest season, which is usually and backfilling with suitable soil material are necessary
late in fall, does the water table briefly recede to a depth for most uses. Subsidence of the organic layers and low
of 40 inches or more. Pamlico soils are moderate in strength are limitations for uses that require shallow
permeability and have very high available water capacity, excavations.
The Dorovan soils make up about 35 percent of the The soils in this complex are in capability subclass
complex. Typically, Dorovan soils are black muck to a Vllw.
depth of 60 inches or more overlying very dark grayish
brown sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or 23-Chipley sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
more. somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping
The Dorovan soils are ponded after flooding for 6 to soil is between the higher upland soils and lower lying,
12 months in most years unless they are artificially wet flatwoods. It occurs as small areas throughout the
drained. Even when they are not ponded, they have a county but predominantly in the central part. Slopes are
water table within 10 inches of the surface most of the smooth to convex and range from 0 to 5 percent.
time unless drained. Only during the driest season, which Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4
is usually late in fall, is the water table at a lower depth. inches thick. The underlying layers are sand to a depth
Then it may briefly recede to a depth of 40 inches or of 80 inches or more. The upper 4 inches is grayish
more. Dorovan soils are moderate in permeability and brown; the next 12 inches is light yellowish brown; the
have very high available water capacity, next 18 inches is very pale brown mottled with light gray
Soils of minor extent make up about 25 percent of the and reddish yellow; the next 16 inches is light brownish
complex. Rutlege soil makes up about 10 percent. Other gray mottled with light gray, yellow, and very pale brown;
minor soils are Alapaha, Pansey, Pantego, Plummer, and the lower 26 inches is light gray.
Pottsburg, and Rains soils, which occur in about equal Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
proportion. These soils generally are on the edges of the
complex. Albany, Blanton, Foxworth, Centenary, Lakeland, Leon,
e ee e Pelham, Plummer, Pottsburg, Hurricane, and Rutlege
The natural vegetation consists mostly of water- soils. Also included are soils that are similar to this
tolerant hardwoods such as water oak, sweetbay, Chipley so in most soil properties, including depth to th
blackgum, red maple, black willow, alder, and cypress. Ce soil n most soil properties, including depth to the
Around the perimeter of mapped areas, the vegetation is water table but have brighter colors n the upper 40
pond pine, shortleaf pine, and slash pine. Almost all inches. Included soils make up less than 15 percent of
areas are still in natural vegetation and provide habitat any mapped area.
for wildlife. This Chipley soil has a water table at a depth of 30 to
In their natural condition, these soils are not suitable 40 inches for 1 month to 3 months and at a depth of 40
for cultivation, but with adequate water control they are to 60 inches for 3 to 6 months in most years. Available
suited to some row crops and most vegetable crops. The water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid. Natural
water-control system should remove excess water during fertility and organic matter content are low.
times when crops are on the land and should keep the The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
soils saturated with water at all other times. Fertilizers pine; post, bluejack, and turkey oak; huckleberry;
that contain phosphates, potash, and trace elements are dogwood; and an understory of native shrubs,
needed. Water-tolerant cover crops should be planted sawpalmetto, bluestem, and pineland threeawn. Most
when the soils are not in use for row crops. All crop areas are cutover woodland or have been replanted to
residues and cover crops should be left on the land. slash pines. Some areas have been cleared for improved
Most adapted improved grasses and clovers grow well pasture of bahiagrasses.
on these soils if water is properly controlled. Water This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
control should maintain the water table near the surface Without good water control, this soil is poorly suited to
to prevent excessive oxidation of the organic layer. cultivated crops. With good management, including water
Fertilizers high in potash, phosphorus, and trace control, it is moderately suited to most crops commonly
elements are needed. Grazing should be controlled to grown in this area. Soil-improving cover crops and all
permit maximum yields. crop residues should be left on the land. Drainage and
These soils have moderate potential productivity for bedding are needed for crops that are damaged by
woodland. The high water table results in high seedling wetness.
mortality and severely limits the use of equipment. This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay
Overcoming the excessive wetness of these soils is crops. Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses are
difficult. moderately well adapted. They make moderate response
Flooding, thick layers of organic material, and the high to fertilizer and lime. Controlled grazing is needed to
water table are severe limitations to use of these soils as maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields and a good
sites for urban, sanitary, and recreational uses. Installing ground cover.







24 Soil Survey



Under a high level of management, this soil has high grow well if they are fertilized and limed. Yields are
potential productivity for slash pine. Equipment occasionally restricted by wetness in rainy seasons and
limitations and seedling mortality are the main by occasional drought. Grazing must be highly restricted
management problems. to permit plants to maintain vigor to provide maximum
The water table, which fluctuates between depths of yields and good ground cover.
20 and 40 inches during rainy seasons, is a severe This soil has high potential productivity for slash pines.
limitation to use of this soil as sites for most urban The equipment limitation is the main management
development. Water-control measures to lower the water concern.
table and maintain it at the desired depth are necessary The seasonal high water table and the severe hazard
for both urban and recreational uses. The hazard of of cutbanks caving are severe limitations for most urban
cutbanks caving and the high water table are severe and recreational development. Low strength is also a
limitations for shallow excavations. Shoring or a gradual limitation. Water-control measures are necessary to
sloping of cuts is necessary, lower the water table and to maintain it at the desired
This soil is in capability subclass IIlw. depth. Shoring of side slopes or slanting side slopes are
required for shallow excavations.
24-Chipley sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This This soil is in capability subclass IVs.
somewhat poorly drained, sloping soil is on upland
hillsides leading to lower lying, wet flatwoods and 25-Hurricane sand. This somewhat poorly drained,
drainageways. This soil occurs in small areas, mostly in nearly level soil occurs between the uplands and the
the northern and eastern parts of the county. Slopes are lower lying wet flatwoods. It occurs in small to
smooth to convex. moderately small areas throughout the county but
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 3 dominantly in the northern half. Slopes are smooth to
inches thick. The underlying layers are sand to a depth slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
of more than 80 inches. The upper 4 inches is grayish Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand
brown, the next 10 inches is light yellowish brown, the about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand that
next 20 inches is very pale brown mottled with light gray extends to a depth of 51 inches. The upper 4 inches is
and reddish yellow, and the lower 43 inches is light gray. brown, the next 12 inches is light yellowish brown, the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of next 12 inches is very pale brown, and the last 17 inches
Albany, Blanton, Foxworth, Lakeland, Leon, Plummer, is light gray. The upper 4 inches of the subsoil is brown
Pottsburg, and Rutlege soils. Also included are small loamy sand, and the lower part is mixed black and dark
areas of soils that are similar to this Chipley soil but reddish brown sand.
have slopes of 0 to 5 percent. Included soils make up Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
less than 15 percent of any mapped area. Chipley, Foxworth, Centenary, Leon, Allanton, Osier,
This Chipley soil has a water table within 40 to 60 Plummer, Pottsburg, and Rutlege soils. Also included are
inches of the surface for 3 to 6 months and within 20 to soils that are similar to this Hurricane soil but have a
40 inches for 1 month to 3 months in most years, less well developed dark organic stained subsoil.
Available water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid. Included soils make up less than 15 percent of any map
Natural fertility and organic matter content are low. unit.
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf This Hurricane soil has a water table at a depth of 40
pine; live, post, bluejack, and turkey oak; huckleberry; to 60 inches for 3 to 6 months in most years and at a
very sparse dogwood trees; and an understory of native depth of 20 to 40 inches for 1 month to 3 months in
shrubs and sawpalmetto, bluestem, and pineland some years. Available water capacity is low and very low
threeawn. Most areas are cutover woodland or have in the surface and subsurface layers and is medium in
been cleared and replanted to slash pine. the subsoil. Permeability is very rapid in the surface and
Rapid leaching of plant nutrients, wetness, and the subsurface layers and is moderately rapid in the subsoil.
hazard of erosion are very severe limitations to using this Natural fertility is low. Organic matter content is
soil for cultivated row crops. Good water control, soil- moderate in the surface layer and is low in the rest of
improving measures, and erosion control measures are the soil.
required if this soil is cultivated. Row crops should be The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
planted on the contour in strips alternating with strips of pine; bluejack, turkey, and post oak; and an understory
close-growing crops. Crop rotations should keep the soil of native shrubs, sawpalmetto, inkberry, broomsedge,
under close-growing plant cover at least three-fourths of bluestem, and pineland threeawn. Most areas are
the time. All crops need frequent fertilizing and liming, cutover woodland or are planted to slash pines. Some
Soil-building cover crops and all crop residues should be areas have been cleared for improved pasture.
left on the ground. This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Deep-rooted Without good water control, this soil is poorly suited to
plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses cultivated crops; but with good management, this soil is








Bay County, Florida 25



moderately suited to most adapted crops. Soil-improving proper depth for septic tank filter fields. The hazard of
cover crops and all crop residues should be left on the cutbanks caving is severe. Shoring is necessary if
land. Drainage and bedding are needed for crops that shallow excavations are made in this soil. Fill material
are damaged by wetness. must be added if water-control measures are not used.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay Surface stabilization is necessary for recreational uses.
crops. Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses are This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
moderately well adapted. They make moderate response
to fertilizer and lime. Controlled grazing is needed to 26-Centenary sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields and a good moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping
ground cover. soil is between the higher upland soils and the lower
This soil has high potential productivity for slash and lying, wet flatwoods. It occurs as small areas throughout
longleaf pine. Equipment limitations and seedling the county but dominantly in the northern half.
mortality are the main management problems. Slash Typically, the surface layer is brown sand about 9
pines are the best species to plant (fig. 2). inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand and extends
This soil has severe limitations for most urban and to about 73 inches. The upper 22 inches is brownish
recreational development. Water-control measures are yellow, the next 18 inches is very pale brown, and the
necessary to lower the water table and to maintain it at a lower 24 inches is white. The upper 4 inches of the



























Figure 2-Slash pine on Hurricane sand. This soil has high potential productivity for slash and lonleaf ine.



-.. Y.',





Figure 2.-Slash pine on Hurricane sand. This soil has high potential productivity for slash and longleaf pine.







26 Soil Survey


subsoil is brown loamy sand, and the lower part is black slight. Limitations that affect shallow excavations,
sand that extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. recreational uses, and sanitary landfills are severe.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Surface stabilization is needed if areas are used for
Albany, Blanton, Chipley, Foxworth, Lakeland, Leon, recreational activities. Measures needed to use this soil
Osier, Pottsburg, and Rutlege soils. Also included are for shallow excavations include shoring of sidewalls.
small areas of soils that have properties similar to those Suitable material should be used as a sealer and as daily
of this Centenary sand but are better drained. Included cover if the soil is used as a site for sanitary landfills.
soils make up less than 15 percent of any mapped area. This soil is in capability subclass Ills.
This Centenary soil has a water table at a depth of 40
to 60 inches for 1 month to 3 months during most years 27-Mandarin sand. This somewhat poorly drained,
and at a depth of 30 to 40 inches for brief periods in nearly level soil is on low ridges and knolls in the
some years. Available water capacity is low in the flatwoods. Slopes are generally smooth to slightly
surface layer, very low in the subsurface layer, and low convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
in the subsoil. Permeability is very rapid in the surface Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 7 inches
and subsurface layers and is moderately rapid in the thick. The subsurface layer is white sand about 18
subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter content are inches thick. The subsoil is dark brown sand to a depth
low. of about 36 inches and then brown and dark brown sand
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf to about 57 inches. The substratum is light brownish
pine; live, post, bluejack, and red oak; huckleberry; gray sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
persimmon; and dogwood. The understory is native Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
shrubs and pineland threeawn. Most areas are cutover Chipley, Foxworth, Centenary, Kureb, Leon, Resota, and
woodland or have been replanted to slash pine. Some Hurricane soils. Also included are small areas of soils
small areas have been cleared for crops, and some have that are similar to this Mandarin soil but have a thinner
been cleared for improved pasture, generally subsoil or organic stained layer and small areas of soils
bahiagrasses. that are similar to Mandarin soil but are poorly drained.
This soil has severe limitations for most cultivated Included soils make up less than 15 percent of any
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients mapped area.
limit the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of This Mandarin soil has a water table at a depth of 20
adapted crops. The water table, which is at a depth of to 30 inches for 1 month to 3 months and at a depth of
40 to 72 inches, provides water through capillary rise to 30 to 60 inches for about 9 months in most years.
supplement the low available water capacity. In very dry Available water capacity is very low in the surface and
seasons, the water table drops well below the root zone subsurface layers and is low in the subsoil. Permeability
and little capillary water is available to plants. Row crops is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and is
should be planted on the contour in alternate strips with moderate in the subsoil.
close-growing crops. Crop rotations should keep close- The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
growing crops on the land at least two-thirds of the time. pine; water, bluejack, turkey, and post oak; and an
All crops should be fertilized and limed. The soil- understory of waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, running oak,
improving cover crops and all crop residues should be fetterbush, and pineland threeawn.
left on the ground. Tile or another type of drainage is Rapid permeability and low available water capacity
needed for some crops that are damaged by the high are very severe limitations for cultivated crops. Row
water table during the growing season, crops should be rotated with cover crops; cover crops
The soil is moderately well suited to pasture. Coastal should be on the land three-fourths of the time. Soil-
bermudagrass and bahiagrasses are well adapted. They improving cover crops and all crop residues should be
produce good yields when they are fertilized and limed, left on the land. Maximum yields require good seedbed
For maximum yields, controlled grazing is needed to preparation, fertilizing, and liming.
maintain vigorous plants. This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees, crops. Bahiagrasses grow well under good management.
Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main Maximum yields require fertilizing, liming, and carefully
management concerns. Slash and loblolly pines are the controlling grazing to maintain plant vigor.
best species to plant. This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine
The water table, which fluctuates to within 30 inches trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
of the surface in rainy seasons, is a moderate limitation the main management problems. Slash pines are the
to use of this soil as septic tank absorption fields. Water- best trees to plant.
control measures that maintain the water table at a A water table that is moderately high during rainy
depth greater than 30 inches are necessary. Soil seasons is a moderate to severe limitation for
limitations that affect local roads and streets, dwellings recreational and urban development. Water-control
without basements, and small commercial buildings are measures must be used or fill material must be added if







Bay County, Florida 27



this soil is used for recreational or urban development or clovers are adapted. Surface ditches are needed to
as septic tank absorption fields. The sandy texture and remove excess water rapidly during heavy rains. Fertilizer
the hazard of cutbanks caving are limitations to uses and lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to
that require shallow excavations. Shoring of side slopes prevent overgrazing and to maintain plant vitality.
is required. This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
This soil is in capability subclass VIs. slash and loblolly pine and sweetgum. Adequate water
control is necessary before trees can be planted.
28-Allanton sand. This poorly drained soil is on Equipment limitations and seedling mortality resulting
nearly level or slightly depressional areas along poorly from excessive wetness are the main management
defined drainageways. Slopes are smooth to concave concerns. Slash and loblolly pines are the best species
and range from 0 to 2 percent. to plant.
Typically, the surface layer is black and very dark gray Use of this soil as sites for most urban and
sand about 18 inches thick. The upper part of the recreational uses is severely limited. A water-control
subsurface layer is gray sand about 9 inches thick, and system is required before any type of urban development
the lower part is light gray sand about 25 inches thick, or recreational development could be initiated. Mounding
The upper 4 inches of the subsoil is very dark gray sand. and filling would be required in addition to water-control
The lower part is black sand that extends to a depth of measures.
80 inches or more. The sand grains are coated with This soil is in capability subclass Vw.
organic matter.
Included in mapping are small areas of Chipley, 29-Rutlege sand. This very poorly drained soil is on
Dorovan, Leon, Osier, Pamlico, Pickney, Pottsburg, and nearly level or slightly depressional areas along
Rutlege soils. Also included in a few areas are small drainageways. Slopes are smooth to concave and range
areas of soils that have properties similar to those of this from 0 to 2 percent.
Allanton soil but have a thinner dark surface layer. Also Typically, the surface layer is sand about 22 inches
included in a few areas are unnamed soils that have thick. The upper 13 inches is black, and the lower 9
properties and colors similar to those of this Allanton soil inches is very dark gray. The next layer is gray sand 33
in the upper 10 to 20 inches but have a sandy loam inches thick, and the lower layer is 25 inches thick and is
subsoil. Included soils make up less than 25 percent of light gray sand mottled with yellow and brown.
any mapped area. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This Allanton soil has a water table at or near the Dorovan, Leon, Allanton, Mandarin, Osier, Pamlico,
surface for 4 to 6 months during most years, and most Pantego, Pickney, Pottsburg, and Rains soils. In a few
low-lying areas and drainageways are flooded for 4 to 6 mapped areas, there is a sandy loam subsoil. Small
months annually. Available water capacity is low to areas of soils that are similar to this Rutlege soil but
medium in the surface layer and is low in the other have a dark surface horizon less than 10 inches thick
layers. Permeability is rapid to moderately rapid above are included in some mapped areas. Included soils make
the subsoil and is moderately rapid in the subsoil. up less than 20 percent of any mapped area.
Internal drainage is very slow, impeded by the high water This Rutlege soil has a water table at or near the
table. Natural fertility is medium, and organic matter surface for 4 to 6 months during most years and is
content is moderate to a depth of 22 inches and low ponded for 4 to 6 months annually. Available water
below 22 inches. capacity is low. Permeability is rapid. Internal drainage is
The natural vegetation consists of buckwheattree, very slow, impeded by the high water table. Natural
sweetbay, blackgum, and cypress and scattered slash fertility is medium, and organic matter content is high in
and longleaf pine. The understory is gallberry, waxmyrtle, the surface layer.
and pineland threeawn. The natural vegetation is buckwheattree, sweetbay,
Wetness is a very severe limitation for cultivated blackgum, cypress, and scattered slash pine. The
crops. Choice of adapted crops is very limited. Intensive understory is gallberry, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn,
water management is required for any cultivated crop. and various reeds and sedges.
With adequate water control, such crops as corn and Wetness is a very severe limitation for cultivated
soybeans can be grown. Seedbed preparation should crops. Without intensive water control, the number of
include mounding and bedding of the rows. Adequate adapted crops is very limited. With adequate water
applications of lime and fertilizer are required. Crop control, such crops as corn and soybeans can be grown.
rotations should keep close-growing, soil-improving crops The water-control system should provide a means of
on the land for at least two-thirds of the time. All crop removing excess surface water rapidly after heavy rains
residues should be left on the surface. and provide rapid internal drainage to the upper layers.
With adequate water control and proper management, Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
this soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are needed.
crops. Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and white Crop rotations should keep close-growing, soil-improving







28 Soil Survey



crops on the land at least two-thirds of the time. All crop annually. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
residues and soil-improving crops should be left on the subsurface layers and is moderate in the subsoil. Internal
surface. drainage is very slow, impeded by the high water table.
When properly managed, this soil is moderately suited Available water capacity is low in the surface layer and is
to pasture and hay crops. Tall fescuegrass, Coastal moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility and organic
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and white clovers are well matter content are moderately high in the upper 5 inches
adapted. Surface ditches are needed to remove excess and are low between that depth and a depth of about 64
surface water rapidly during heavy rains. Fertilizer and inches. Below 64 inches, organic matter content is high.
lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to prevent The natural vegetation consists of sweetbay,
overgrazing and reduction of plant vitality. buckwheattree, blackgum, water oak, scattered slash
Where adequate water-control systems are installed, and longleaf pine, inkberry, gallberry, sawpalmetto,
this soil has high potential productivity for slash and waxmrte and inland threeawn
loblolly pine, sweetgum, and water tupelo. Equipment waxmys a e ere ltatn r stated rp
limitations and seedling mortality caused by excessive Wtness is a severe action for cultivated crops.
wetness are the main management concerns. Adequate Without intensive water control, the number of adapted
water control is necessary before trees can be planted. crops is very limited. With adequate water control, such
Loblolly and slash pine are the best species to plant. crops as corn and soybeans can be grown. The water-
The high water table and ponding of depressional control system should provide a means of removing
areas during rainy seasons are severe limitations to use excess surface water rapidly after heavy rains and
of this soil as sites for recreational and urban provide rapid internal drainage to the upper layers.
development uses. Complex and intensive water-control Seedbed preparation should include bedding or
systems are required for any of these uses. Fill material mounding of the rows. Crop rotations should keep close-
3 feet or more thick and surface ditches for rapid growing, soil-improving crops on the land at least two-
removal of excess surface water are required. The high thirds of the time. All crop residues and soil-improving
water table limits functioning of septic tank absorption crops should be left on the land.
fields. The hazard of cutbanks caving limits use for Under good management, this soil is moderately well
purposes that require shallow excavations. Shoring of suited to pasture and hay crops. Coastal bermudagrass,
side slopes is required for all excavations. The high bahiagrasses, and white clover are moderately well
water table and sandy texture limit the use of this soil as adapted. They grow well under good management.
sites for sanitary landfill. Surface ditches are needed to remove excess surface
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. water rapidly during heavy rains. Fertilizer and lime are
needed. Grazing should be controlled to prevent
30-Pottsburg sand. This poorly drained soil is on overgrazing and reduction of plant vitality.
nearly level, low-lying areas of the flatwoods. Slopes are This soil has moderate potential productivity for loblolly
0 to 2 percent. and slash pine and sweetgum, American sycamore, and
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 5 water tupelo. Equipment limitations and seedling
inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish brown sand mortality caused by excessive wetness are the main
about 7 inches thick overlying light grayish brown sand management concerns. Adequate water control is
about 18 inches thick. The next layer is light gray sand necessary before trees can be planted. Seedbed
about 30 inches thick over brown sand about 4 inches
thick. The subsoil is very dark gray to black sand that preparation should include bedding or mounding of the
extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. Dominantly rows w t i
all the sand grains in this layer are coated with organic The high water table s a severe limitation to use of
matter, this soil as a site for recreational or urban development.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Complex water-control systems are required if these
Albany, Chipley, Foxworth, Centenary, Leon, Allanton, soils are developed for urban or recreational uses. Fill
Mandarin, Osier, Pamlico, Hurricane, Plummer, and material 3 feet or more thick or surface ditches to
Rutlege soils. Also included are a few small areas of remove excess surface water rapidly are required. Septic
soils that are similar to this Pottsburg soil in drainage tank absorption fields will not function adequately unless
and properties but have a brown or dark grayish brown the water table is lowered or fill material is added. The
layer 2 to 5 inches thick at a depth of 30 to 50 inches. A sandy texture and high water table are severe limitations
few small, wet depressional areas are also included in to use of this soil as sites for sanitary landfills. The
some mapped areas. Included soils make up less than hazard of cutbanks caving limits use of the soil for
15 percent of any mapped area. purposes that require shallow excavations. Shoring of
This Pottsburg soil has a water table within a depth of side slopes is required.
10 inches for 4 to 6 months during most years. Some This soil is in capability subclass IVw.
included low-lying areas are ponded for 2 to 6 months







Bay County, Florida 29


31-Osier fine sand. This poorly drained soil is in measures are not used. The hazard of cutbanks caving
nearly level or slightly depressional areas and flatwoods. and the high water table limit use of the soil for purposes
Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. requiring shallow excavations. Limitations to use of this
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 8 sandy soil as sites for trench and area sanitary landfills
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray fine sand are severe. This sandy soil is unsuited to use as cover
about 26 inches thick. The underlying layer is dark gray material.
fine sand about 10 inches thick, dark gray fine sand This soil is in capability subclass Vw.
about 17 inches thick, gray fine sand about 8 inches
thick, and gray fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 32-Plummer sand. This poorly drained, nearly level
inches or more. soil is in low-lying areas and in poorly defined
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of drainageways. Slopes are concave to smooth and range
Albany, Chipley, Dorovan, Leon, Allanton, Mandarin, from 0 to 2 percent.
Pamlico, Pottsburg, Hurricane, Pelham, Plummer, and Typically, the surface and subsurface layers are sand
Rutlege soils. Included soils make up less than 15 about 48 inches thick. The upper 7 inches is dark gray,
percent of any mapped area. the next 18 inches is gray, and the lower 23 inches is
This Osier soil has a water table within a depth of 10 light gray. The upper 11 inches of the subsoil is gray
inches for 3 to 6 months in most years. Most sandy loam mottled in brown and yellow, and the lower
depressional areas are ponded for 2 to 4 months 21 inches is gray sandy clay loam mottled in shades of
annually. Permeability is rapid, but internal drainage is red, yellow, and brown.
very slow because it is impeded by the high water table. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Natural fertility and organic matter content are Albany, Pelham, Pottsburg, Rains, and Rutlege soils.
moderately high in the upper 6 inches and are low below Also included are small areas of soils that have
that depth. Available water capacity is low. properties similar to those of this Plummer soil but have
The natural vegetation consists of sweetbay, a thick dark surface layer and a few small areas of soils
buckwheattree, blackgum, water oak, slash and longleaf that are similar to this Plummer soil but have 2 to 5
pine, inkberry, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, and pineland percent slopes. In a few mapped areas, the subsoil is
threeawn. coarser in texture.
This soil is not suitable for cultivation in its natural This Plummer soil has a water table at a depth of less
state. With adequate water control, however, a few crops than 10 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years.
can be grown. The water-control system should provide Some low-lying areas are ponded for brief periods in
a means of removing excess surface water rapidly after most years. Permeability is moderately rapid in the
heavy rains and provide rapid internal drainage to the surface and subsurface layers and is moderate in the
upper layers. Seedbed preparation should include subsoil. Available water capacity is low in the surface
bedding or mounding of the rows. Crop rotations should and subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil.
keep close-growing, soil-improving crops on the land at Internal drainage is slow, impeded by the high water
least two-thirds of the time. All crop residues and soil- table. Natural fertility and organic matter content are
improving crops should be left on the land. moderate in the surface layer and are low below.
Under good management, this soil is moderately well The natural vegetation consists mostly of slash and
suited to pasture and hay crops. Coastal bermudagrass, longleaf pine, sweetgum, water oak, and cypress. The
bahiagrasses, and white clover are moderately well understory is gallberry, pineland threeawn, pitcher plants,
adapted. They grow well under good management. and waxmyrtle.
Surface ditches are needed to remove excess surface Wetness and the thick sandy layers above the subsoil
water rapidly during heavy rains. Fertilizer and lime are are very severe limitations for cultivated crops. Intensive
needed. Grazing should be controlled to prevent water-control measures are needed before these soils
overgrazing and reduction of plant vitality, are suitable for cultivated crops. Soil-improving cover
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for crops and all crop residues should be left on the land.
loblolly and slash pine. Equipment limitations and Bedding of the rows is needed for crops that are
seedling mortality caused by excessive wetness are the damaged by wetness.
main management concerns. Adequate water control is This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Most
necessary before trees can be planted. improved grasses and legumes are poorly suited. Under
The high water table and ponding during rainy seasons good management, which includes water control,
are severe limitations for recreational or urban fertilizing, liming, and controlled grazing, these soils
development. Installation and maintenance of complex produce moderate yields of pasture grasses.
water-control systems are necessary for most This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees,
recreational and urban development uses. Adding fill but water control is needed to achieve the potential.
material 2 to 4 feet thick is necessary for most Bedding or mounding is necessary for seedling survival.
recreational and urban uses, if other water control Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main







30 Soil Survey



management concerns. Loblolly pine and slash pine are all crop residues should be left on the land. Drainage
the best species to plant, and bedding are needed for crops that are damaged by
The high water table and ponding during rainy seasons wetness.
are severe limitations for recreational or urban This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay crops
development. Installation and maintenance of complex if adequate water-control measures are installed. Coastal
water-control systems are necessary for most bermudagrass and bahiagrasses are moderately well
recreational and urban development uses. Either fill adapted to this soil. They have moderate response to
material 3 feet or more thick or a water-control system fertilizer and lime. Controlled grazing is needed to
that removes excess surface water or both fill and a maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields and a good
water-control system are required for most uses. The ground cover.
sandy texture and the high water table are severe This soil has high potential productivity for slash,
limitations to use of this soil as sites for sanitary landfill. loblolly, and longleaf pine if water control measures are
The hazard of cutbanks caving is a severe limitation to applied. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
use for purposes that require shallow excavations. Side the main management problems. Bedding or mounding
slopes need to be shored before excavations can be increases pine growth and decreases seedling mortality.
made. Flooding and the very high water table during rainy
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. seasons are severe limitations to use of this soil as sites
for recreational or urban development. A complex water-
33-Pelham sand. This deep, poorly drained, nearly control system is necessary for these uses. Adding 2 to
level soil is on broad flats and slightly depressional areas 3 feet of suitable fill material will help to overcome most
along poorly defined drainageways. Slopes are smooth limitations for urban or recreational development and to
to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. improve functioning of septic tank absorption fields.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 6 This soil is in capability subclass IVw.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of
about 34 inches. The upper 18 inches is light brownish 36-Alapaha loamy sand. This poorly drained, nearly
gray, and the next 10 inches is light gray. The subsoil level soil occurs in wet depressional areas along poorly
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 4 defined drainageways in the flatwoods. Slopes are
inches is light brownish gray sandy loam; the next 20 smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
inches is light brownish gray sandy clay loam with pale Typically, the surface and subsurface layers are loamy
brown, yellow, and yellowish brown mottles; and the sand about 32 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is very
lower part is light gray sandy clay loam with mottles of dark gray, the next 8 inches is dark gray, and the lower
yellow, brown, red, and gray. 18 inches is gray. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of depth of 72 inches or more. The upper 18 inches is light
Alapaha, Albany, Allanton, Blanton, Chipley, Foxworth, gray with yellowish brown mottles. The next 14 inches is
Centenary, Leefield, Osier, Plummer, Pottsburg, light gray with yellow, yellowish brown, strong brown, and
Hurricane, Rains, Rutlege, and Stilson soils. Included red mottles and is more than 5 percent plinthite. The
soils make up less than 15 percent of any mapped area. next layer is similar but has a slightly higher clay content
This Pelham soil has a water table within a depth of and has mottles that are similar to those in the layer
15 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years and is above in color but are larger.
subject to brief periods of flooding. Available water Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and Albany, Leefield, Osier, Pansey, Pamlico, Pelham,
is medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the Plummer, and Rains soils. Also included in a few small
surface and subsurface layers and is moderate in the areas are soils that are similar to this Alapaha soil in
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Organic matter content is drainage and horizons but that have a sandy loam
generally medium to moderately high in the surface layer subsoil about 20 inches thick underlain by sandy
and is low in the subsurface layer. material. Also included, in a few areas, are soils that are
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash similar to the Alapaha soil except that the subsoil is
pine, sweetgum, blackgum, sweetbay, water oak, and sandy clay. In a few depressional areas, the surface
cypress and an understory of gallberry, waxmyrtle, and layer is dark and is thicker than is typical for Alapaha
pineland threeawn. soils. Included soils make up less than 20 percent of any
Wetness is a very severe limitation for use as mapped area.
cropland. With good water control and good This Alapaha soil has a water table at a depth of less
management, this soil is moderately suited to most crops than 15 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years and
commonly grown in the area. Intensive water control is subject to brief periods of flooding when the water
measures are necessary for cultivated crops. Crop table is high. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
rotations should include close-growing crops at least subsurface layers and is moderately slow in the subsoil.
three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving cover crops and Internal drainage is slow because it is impeded by the







Bay County, Florida 31


high water table. Natural fertility and organic matter moderately difficult to control. With adequate drainage,
content are moderately high to a depth of about 14 these soils are suited to several important crops. The
inches and are low below this depth. Available water water-control system should be designed to remove
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and excess surface and internal water rapidly. Seedbeds
is medium in the subsoil. should be prepared by bedding the rows. Crop rotations
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf should keep the soil under close-growing, soil-improving
pine, scattered sweetgum, blackgum, water oak, red crops at least two-thirds of the time. All crop residues
maple, and an understory of scattered inkberry, and soil-improving crops should be left on the land.
waxmyrtle, a few sawpalmetto, and abundant pineland Fertilizers, applied according to the needs of the crops,
threeawn. Most of the areas are in cutover forests or and occasional liming are needed for maximum yields.
woodland. This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops and is Simple drainage measures are required to remove
poorly suited to improved pasture because of wetness, excess surface water during heavy rains. Coastal
This soil has high potential productivity for loblolly and bermudagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clovers
slash pine, but a good water-control system to remove are well adapted. These grass and legume crops require
excessive water is necessary if the potential is to be fertilizing and liming. Controlled grazing is needed to
realized. The equipment limitation is the main prevent overgrazing and reduction of plant vigor.
management concern. Slash and loblolly pine are the This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees,
most suitable species for planting. but a water-control system is needed if the full potential
Use of this soil as sites for recreational or urban is to be reached. Bedding or mounding of the rows is
development is severely limited by the high water table necessary. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
and the flooding during rainy seasons. Complex water- are the main management concerns. Loblolly and slash
control systems must be installed and maintained and fill pine are the best species to plant.
material 3 to 4 feet thick must be added if the soil is The high water table is a severe limitation for
used as sites for most recreational and urban uses. recreational or urban development uses. Installation and
This soil is in capability subclass Vw. maintenance of complex water-control systems, addition
of fill material 3 feet or more thick, and installation of
37-Rains sand. This poorly drained, nearly level soil surface ditches to remove excess surface water are
occurs in low-lying positions on the coastal plain and in necessary for most recreational or urban development
depressional areas. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 uses. The high water table severely limits the use of this
to 2 percent. soil as sites for sanitary landfills.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray sand 7
inches thick. The upper 45 inches of the subsoil is gray 38-Pansey loamy sand. This poorly drained, nearly
sandy clay loam with brown and yellow mottles, and the level soil occurs on broad flats and in poorly defined,
next 15 inches is a mixture of pale brown, reddish low-gradient drainageways. Slopes are smooth to
yellow, and gray sandy clay loam. The substratum is gray concave.
loamy sand. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, Hurricane, and Rutlege soils. brownish gray loamy sand about 11 inches thick. The
Also included are a few small areas of soils that are subsoil extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. The
similar to this Rains soil but have a thick, black surface upper 8 inches is light gray sandy loam or sandy clay
layer high in organic matter. Included soils make up less loam with a few light yellowish brown and yellowish
than 15 percent of any mapped area. brown mottles and common gray mottles. Below this is
This Rains soil has a water table at a depth of less 36 inches of light gray sandy clay loam mottled in
than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months during most years. shades of yellow, brown, and red. The lower part of the
Available water capacity is low in the surface and subsoil is light gray sandy loam or sandy clay loam,
subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil. reticulately mottled in shades of yellow, brown, and red.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and is moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Alapaha, Albany, Leefield, Pelham, Plummer, and
Organic matter content is low. Pantego soils. Included soils make up less than 15
The natural vegetation is slash pine, blackgum, and percent of any mapped area.
scattered cypress. The understory is mainly native The water table is within a depth of 20 inches during
grasses, predominantly pineland threeawn. Low gallberry wet seasons, usually winter, and water may stand on the
and waxmyrtle are the dominant low-growing shrubs. surface of most areas for short periods after flooding.
Wetness is a severe limitation for cultivated crops. The Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface and
number of adapted crops is limited by wetness, which is subsurface layers and is slow in most of the subsoil.







32 Soil Survey



Available water capacity is moderate in the surface and a few areas, the soils have a thicker dark surface layer
subsurface layers and is high in the subsoil. Internal than that described as typical. Included soils make up
drainage is slow, impeded by a high water table. Natural less than 20 percent of any mapped area.
fertility and organic matter content are moderate in the This Pantego soil has a water table at a depth of less
surface layer but are low in the other layers. than 15 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years.
The natural vegetation is slash, loblolly, and longleaf Depressional areas are ponded for 1 to 3 months
pine and sweetgum, blackgum, water oak, red maple, annually. Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface
and a few cypress in the depressional areas. The layer and is moderate in the subsoil. Internal drainage is
understory is inkberry, waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, and slow, impeded by the high water table. Natural fertility
abundant pineland threeawn. Most areas of this soil and organic matter content are high to a depth of about
remain in woodland or cutover woodland. Some areas 18 inches and are low below that depth. Available water
are planted to slash pine. capacity is high throughout the soil.
Wetness and low natural fertility are very severe The natural vegetation is pond pine, tupelo-gum,
limitations for cultivated crops. A good water-control sweetbay, willow oak, and cypress. The understory is
system is needed before the soil can be made suitable buckwheattree, gallberry, reeds, waxmyrtle, and pineland
for most crops. The water-control system should be threeawn. Most areas remain in woodland or cutover
designed to remove excess surface water during heavy forest.
rains as well as to remove excess internal water. This soil in its natural state is unsuited to cultivated
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows. crops. With drainage or water-control systems, it is
Fertilizing, liming, and keeping a close-growing, soil- moderately suited to most adapted cultivated crops. The
improving crop on the soil at least three-fourths of the water-control system should provide a means of
time also are important. Crop residues should remain on removing excess surface water rapidly after heavy rains
the soil. and provide internal drainage to the upper soil layers.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture, Seedbed preparation should include bedding or
especially to adapted grasses such as Coastal mounding of the rows. Regular applications of lime and
bermudagrass and bahiagrass. Surface drainage, fertilizers are needed. Crop rotations should keep close-
fertilizers, and lime are needed. Grazing should be growing, soil-improving crops on the land at least two-
controlled to maintain plant vigor and high yields, thirds of the time. Crop residues should be left on the
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for surface.
loblolly and slash pine, sweetgum, and water oak. This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops when
Adequate water control is needed to achieve the adequately drained and properly managed. Tall fescue,
potential. Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover are
- Use of this soil as sites for urban development and well adapted and grow well under good management.
recreational uses is severely limited. Water-control Surface ditches are needed to remove surface water
systems are needed for any type of development and rapidly during heavy rains. Fertilizers and lime are
especially for septic tank absorption fields for urban use. needed. Grazing should be controlled to prevent
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. overgrazing and to maintain vigorous plants.
This soil has very high potential productivity for pine
39-Pantego sandy loam. This very poorly drained, trees. Trees respond well to good water-control systems.
nearly level soil is in wet depressions and along poorly Bedding and mounding enable pine seedlings to get a
defined drainageways in the flatwoods and along vigorous start.
moderately well defined drainageways in the uplands. Use of this soil as sites for urban or recreational use is
Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 severely limited. The cost of adequate water-control
percent. systems is high. These systems are complex to plan and
Typically, the surface layer is sandy loam about 18 to use.
inches thick. It is dominantly black or very dark gray. The This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
upper part of the subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam
about 14 inches thick; the next layer is gray sandy clay 40-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Parents consist of
loam to a depth of 80 inches. manmade land mixed by earth-moving operations,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of including cutting, leveling, dredging, or filling activities or
Alapaha, Albany, Dorovan, Leefield, Pamlico, Pansey, any combination of these operations. Slopes are smooth.
Pelham, Rains, and Rutlege soils. Also included in some These soils consist of mixed soil material. This
depressional areas are larger areas of Alapaha, material is light gray, grayish brown, very pale brown,
Dorovan, Pamlico, Pansey, and Rutlege soils that are too yellow, black, dark reddish brown, strong brown, or red
intricately mixed to map at the scale used. Also included sand, fine sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, or sandy clay
in a few small areas are soils that have properties similar loam. Sandy textures are dominant in most areas. The
to those of this Pantego soil but have a clayey subsoil. In sandy loam or sandy clay loam part contains fragments,







Bay County, Florida 33


lumps, or layers of subsoil material. Fragments of This soil is unsuited to cultivated crops and improved
organic humus are also present in some areas. Few pastures because of wetness, flooding, high salinity,
areas of this soil have uniform horizons or an orderly excess organic matter, and high sulfur content.
sequence of horizons. Many areas of these soils were Overcoming these limitations is not practical.
formed when small depressions or ponds were filled with The soil is unsuited to loblolly, slash, or longleaf pine.
available soil material to the surrounding ground level or Saltwater retards growth of trees.
to elevations above natural ground level. In some areas, This soil is unsuited to urban development or
surrounding higher ridges or elevations were cut down recreational uses because it is inundated each day with
and the surplus material filled in the lower areas. Soil tidewater.
material used for fill material may have come from This soil is in capability subclass Vlllw.
adjacent areas or from distant areas.
Included in mapping are very small areas of natural 42-Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
soils too small to map at the scale used. These included moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping,
soils are Albany, Blanton, Chipley, Centenary, Foxworth, deep, sandy soil occurs on small to broad, slightly ridged
Kureb, Lakeland, Leon, Plummer, Pottsburg, Pamlico, areas near the Gulf of Mexico in the southern part of the
Dorovan, and Rutlege soils. Also included are soils with county. Slopes are generally convex to smooth.
deep sandy horizons that have been altered by Typically, the surface layer is light brownish gray fine
manmade activities. Included areas make up as much as sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
about 20 percent of any map area. gray fine sand about 15 inches thick. The subsoil
Depth to the water table is variable in these soils. extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. The upper 8
Permeability is variable. Natural fertility is generally low. inches is brownish yellow fine sand with lenses of darker
Organic matter content is variable. Available water colors. Next is 15 inches of yellow fine sand with
capacity is variable. brownish mottles. The lower layer is very pale brown fine
These soils are moderately suited to improved pasture. sand that grades to white with increasing depth.
In most areas, water-control measures are needed to Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
remove excess water during wet periods. Low fertility Chipley, Foxworth, Kureb, Lakeland, Leon, and Mandarin
limits use for pastures. Most areas of this unit were soils. Included soils make up less than 10 percent of any
prepared for urban development and not for agricultural mapped area.
use. This Resota soil has very low available water capacity.
Arents have not been assigned to a capability Permeability is very rapid. The water table fluctuates
subclass. between depths of 40 and 60 inches in wet seasons and
between 60 and more than 80 inches in dry seasons.
41-Dirego muck. This level to nearly level, very Organic matter content and natural fertility are low.
poorly drained soil is in the tidal marshes. Slopes are The natural vegetation consists of sand pine, slash
smooth and range from 0 to 1 percent. pine, longleaf pine, dwarf live oak, turkey oak,
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown muck sawpalmetto, rosemary, and sparse pineland threeawn.
about 28 inches thick. It is underlain by a mixture of very Most areas remain in cutover woodland. Some areas
dark brown, gray, and dark gray mucky fine sandy loam, near the coast have been cleared for urban
loamy fine sand, and fine sand that extends to a depth development.
of 80 inches or more.
of incld with thor o Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of very severe limitations for cultivated crops. Intensive soil
Bayvi, Dorovan, Leon, Osier, Pamlico, Pickney, management practices are required when this soil is
Pottsburg, and Rutlege soils. Also included are small cultivated. Row crops should be planted on the contour
areas of soils that are similar to this Dirego soil but have in strips alternating with strips of close-growing crops.
a surface layer less than 16 inches in thickness. Crop rotations should keep close-growing plants on the
Included soils make up less than 15 percent of any land at least three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving
mapped area. crops and all crop residues should be left on the land.
This Dirego soil has a water table at a depth of less Only a few crops produce good yields without irrigation.
than 10 inches, or the soil is pounded for 6 to 12 months Irrigation is generally feasible where irrigation water is
during most years. This soil is subject to tidal flooding, readily available.
Available water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid in This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
all horizons. Internal drainage is very slow because of crops. Deep-rooted plants such as bahiagrass are well
the high water table. Natural fertility is low, and organic adapted, but yields are reduced by periodic droughts.
matter content is very high. Regular fertilizing and liming are needed. Grazing should
The natural vegetation is dominantly needlegrass rush, be controlled to permit plants to maintain vigor for
cordgrass, and torpedograss. maximum yields.







34 Soil Survey



This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine inches thick. Below that, brownish yellow sand about 50
trees. Seedling mortality and equipment limitations are inches thick overlies very pale brown sand that extends
the main management concerns. Sand pine is the best to a depth of 80 inches or more.
species to plant. Included with this Kureb soil in mapping are small
Use of this soil as sites for most urban and areas of Foxworth, Lakeland, Mandarin, Resota, Osier,
recreational developments is moderately to severely and Rutlege soils. In a few areas, soils that are similar to
limited. Wetness is a moderate limitation to use of the this Kureb soil but have slopes of 5 to 12 percent are
soil as septic tank absorption fields. The sandy texture included on side slopes of ridges. Included soils make up
and low natural fertility limit use for playgrounds or other less than 10 percent of any mapped area.
recreational uses. The hazard of cutbanks caving limits The natural vegetation consists of scattered longleaf
use for purposes that require shallow excavations, and sand pine, dwarf live oak, turkey oak, and bluejack
Shoring of sidewalls is necessary. The sandy texture, oak. The understory consists of sawpalmetto, rosemary,
poor filtering ability, and very rapid permeability limit use huckleberry, lichens, and sparse pineland threeawn.
of this soil as sites for trench and area sanitary landfills. Most areas of this soil are still in woodland or are in
This soil is in capability subclass VIs. urbanized areas along the gulf coast.
This soil has very low available water capacity.
43-Urban land. Urban land consists of areas that are Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility and organic matter
75 percent or more covered with streets, houses, content are very low. The water table is below a depth of
commercial buildings, parking lots, shopping centers, 80 inches throughout the year.
industrial parks, airports, and related facilities. This soil is not suitable for cultivated field crops. It is
Included in mapping are very small areas of Blanton, poorly suited to pasture. Grasses such as Coastal
Chipley, Foxworth, Kureb, Lakeland, Leon, Pottsburg, bermudagrass and bahiagrass make only fair growth
and Rutlege soils. These included soils are mostly in when fertilized. Clovers are not adapted.
lawns, parks, vacant lots, and playgrounds. Other areas This soil has low potential productivity for pine trees.
are made up of undifferentiated soil material. All of the Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
included soils are in tracts that are too small to be management concerns. Sand pines are the best trees to
mapped separately. plant.
This unit is not assigned to a capability subclass. Use of this soil as sites for sanitary facilities and
recreational uses is severely limited. The sandy texture
44-Beaches. Beaches are narrow strips of nearly throughout limits most recreational development unless
level to gently sloping sand along the Gulf of Mexico. complex conservation practices are used. The hazard of
These areas are inundated with saltwater daily by high cutbanks caving limits use for purposes that require
tide and wave action. This map unit is a mixture of shallow excavations unless side slopes are immediately
quartz sand, heavy minerals (principally rutile and shored. Adding topsoil, nutrients, and water will help to
ilmenite), and fragments of seashells. The material is overcome the limitations for recreational use.
subject to movement by wind, tides, and waves and is This soil is in capability subclass Vlls.
bare of vegetation. The water table is above the surface
or within 10 inches of the surface most of the time. The 46-Sapelo sand. This poorly drained, nearly level soil
salt content of the ground water is high. is in low flatwoods. Slopes are generally broad and
Included in mapping are very small knolls or ridges of smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
coastal sand dunes. These areas are generally too small Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 6
to map separately, are unstable and shifted by wind or inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray sand about 14
water action, and make up less than 5 percent of the inches thick. The upper 7 inches of the subsoil is very
unit. dark grayish brown sand that is coated with organic
Beaches are used intensively for recreational activities. matter. The next layer is 15 inches of pale brown sand
Because of their location, their value for recreational over 16 inches of light gray sand. The lower part of the
activities, and the daily flooding by saltwater, other uses subsoil is brownish yellow sandy loam.
are not practical or feasible. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Alapaha, Albany, Blanton, Chipley, Foxworth, Leefield,
45-Kureb sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This Leon, Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, and Rutlege soils.
excessively drained, nearly level to sloping soil is on Also included is a soil that is similar to this Sapelo soil in
moderately broad upland areas near the coast in the most soil characteristics but that has a lighter surface
southern part of the county. Slopes are smooth to layer and a more weakly developed upper part of the
convex, subsoil. Also included are a few small areas of soils that
Typically, he surface layer is grayish brown sand have a brown subsurface layer and do not have the dark
about 6 inches thick. The next layer is light gray sand upper layer of the subsoil. Included soils make up less
about 8 inches thick over yellowish brown sand about 11 than 15 percent of any mapped area.






Bay County, Florida 35


This Sapelo soil has a water table within a depth of 10 some, however, are as large as 30 to 40 acres. Depth is
to 30 inches for 2 to 4 months and within a depth of 40 generally about 4 to 12 feet. Pits too small to map at the
inches for about 9 months in most years. Available water scale used are shown on the map by a pick and shovel
capacity is medium in both parts of the subsoil and is symbol.
low to very low in the other layers. Permeability is 48-Fripp-Corolla complex, 2 to 30 percent slopes.
moderate in both parts of the subsoil and is rapid in the This map unit is gently sloping to steep. It consists
other layers. dominantly of excessively drained Fripp soils and
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained
pine; water, bluejack, and post oak; and an understory of Corolla soils in areas so intricately intermixed in the
waxmyrtle, southern inkberry, sawpalmetto, fetterbush, landscape that they could not be mapped separately at
and pineland threeawn. the scale selected. Fripp and Corolla soils are on
Wetness and low natural fertility are severe limitations undulating, dunelike areas adjacent to the Gulf of
for cultivated crops. The number of adapted crops is Mexico. The sloping to steep Fripp soils are on the
limited unless very intensive management practices are upper two-thirds of the side slopes, and the gently
applied. Where adequate water-control measures and sloping Corolla soils are on the lower one-third. These
soil-improving measures are used, the soil is suited to a areas are subject to rare storm tide flooding.
limited number of crops. The best-suited crops are The Fripp soils make up about 55 to 60 percent of the
vegetable crops. A complete water-control system is complex. Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about
needed to remove excess water quickly after heavy rains 3 inches thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or
and to supply subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. The more is white sand that contains horizontal bands of
crop rotation should keep soil-improving crops on the black heavy minerals and lenses of gray sand.
land at least three-fourths of the time. All crop residues Depth to the water table is more than 72 inches.
and the soil-improving crops should be left on the land. Permeability is rapid. Available water capacity and
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows. organic matter content are very low.
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the The moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
needs of the crops. drained Corolla soils make up about 25 percent of the
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. complex. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand
Coastal bermudagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and about 3 inches thick. The next 12 inches is gray sand.
several legumes are adapted. Water-control measures The next 50 inches is white sand. The next 15 inches is
are needed to remove excess water during heavy rains, light brownish gray sand. Horizontal bands of heavy
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, black minerals are throughout the soil.
For maximum yields, grazing should be controlled to The water table is 20 to 60 inches below the soil
maintain vigorous plants, surface for 1 month to 3 months during most years.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for Permeability is very rapid throughout. Available water
pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality capacity and organic matter content are very low.
are the main management problems. Seedbed Soils of minor extent make up the rest of the complex.
preparation should include bedding or mounding for Included are Bayvi, Dirego, Dorovan, Osier, Pamlico, and
seedling survival. Slash pines are the best species to Rutlege soils. Also included in this unit are soils that are
plant. similar to Fripp sand but have a water table at a depth of
The high water table is a severe limitation to use of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months during most years.
this soil as a site for urban development uses. The natural vegetation is stunted sand pine, sea-oats,
Installation and maintenance of complex water-control switchgrass, rosemary, reindeer lichen, scrub live oak,
measures are necessary for most recreational or urban and palmetto.
development uses. Adding fill material 2 to 4 feet high is The soils in this complex are not suitable for cultivated
necessary for most urban uses if other water-control crops or for pasture.
measures are not used. The hazard of cutbanks caving The potential productivity of the complex for pine trees
and the high water table limit use of this soil for is moderate. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
purposes that require shallow excavations. These soils are the main management concerns. Sand pines are the
are poorly suited to use as sites for both trench and area best species to plant.
sanitary landfills. This sandy soil is unsuited to use as Use of these soils for most urban and recreational
cover material. development is severely limited because these areas are
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. subject to rare storm tides. Water-control measures are
necessary to lower the water table and maintain it at a
47-Pits. Pits are areas from which soil has been proper depth if the soils are used as septic tank
excavated for use in road construction and as fill absorption fields. The hazard of cutbanks caving is
material in preparing sites for buildings. The areas vary severe if the soils are used for purposes that require
in size, shape, and depth. Most are relatively small; shallow excavations. Shoring is necessary. Surface







36 Soil Survey


stabilization is necessary if the soils in this complex are controlled to prevent overgrazing and reduction of plant
developed for recreational uses. vitality.
The soils in this complex are in capability subclass This soil has very high potential productivity for slash
VIls. and loblolly pine, sweetgum, and water tupelo if
adequate water control systems are used. Under natural
50-Pickney fine sand. This very poorly drained soil conditions, equipment limitations and seedling mortality
is on nearly level, broad flats and slightly depressional are the main management concerns. Adequate water
areas along poorly defined drainageways. Slopes are control is necessary before trees can be planted.
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 1 percent. Bedding or mounding is necessary for optimum seedling
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 30 survival. Loblolly and slash pine are the best species to
inches thick. Below that is dark gray fine sand about 16 plant.
inches thick. Below that to a depth of 80 inches or more The use of this soil as sites for urban and recreational
is gray or light gray fine sand. developments or uses are severely limited. The
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of extremely high water table and flooding prohibit use as
Alapaha, Allanton, Dorovan, Leon, Osier, Pamlico, septic tank absorption fields. The hazard of cutbacks
Pantego, Pelham, Pottsburg, and Rutlege soils. Also caving, flooding, and the high water table limit or prohibit
included in a few areas are soils that have properties shallow excavations. Intensive and complex water-
similar to those of this Pickney soil but have layers, control systems are necessary to use these soils as sites
similar to those of ths Pickney soi bu havelayersfor either urban or recreational developments. The sandy
streaks, or lumps of loamy sand or sandy loam in the for either urban or recreational developments. The sandy
subsoil. Included soils make up less than 15 percent of texture, flooding, and the high water table prohibit the
use of these soils as sites for sanitary landfills.
any mapped area. This soil is in capability subclass IVw.
This Pickney soil has a water table at or near the
surface for 4 to 6 months during most years. Most low- 51-Rutlege-Pamlico complex. This map unit
lying areas are ponded for 3 to 6 months after flooding consists of nearly level, very poorly drained, frequently
during rainy seasons. Available water capacity is medium flooded soils. Areas of these soils occur in an irregular
in the surface layer and is low below. Permeability is pattern and are difficult to map separately at the scale
rapid. Internal drainage is very slow because it is used. The landscape is mainly one of drainageways. A
impeded by the water table. Natural fertility is medium, few wide depressional areas are included. The Rutlege
and organic matter content is high in the surface layer. soils are commonly on the outer rim of areas and extend
The natural vegetation is sweetbay, blackgum, inward toward the center. The Pamlico and Pantego soils
cypress, buckwheattree, and scattered slash and are in the lowest part of the areas. The areas are mostly
longleaf pine. The understory is gallberry, waxmyrtle, long and moderately narrow and are about 30 to 500
pineland threeawn, St.-Johnswort, and maidencane. acres. The depressional areas are about 10 to 300
Most areas of this soil are in cutover woodland or have acres. Individual areas of each soil range from about 5 to
been planted to slash pine. A few areas have been 50 acres.
drained and planted to improved pasture. The Rutlege soils make up about 35 percent of the
Wetness is a very severe limitation for cultivated, complex. Typically, they have a black and very dark
crops. Without intensive, complex water-control systems, grayish brown loamy sand surface layer about 20 inches
the number of adapted crops is very limited. With thick. Below this is gray loamy sand or sand to a depth
adequate water control, such crops as corn and of about 36 inches and then light gray or gray sand to a
soybeans can be grown. The water-control system depth of 72 inches or more.
should provide a means of removing excess surface The Rutlege soils have a water table near the surface
water rapidly after heavy rains and should provide rapid for 4 to 6 months in most years and may be ponded
internal drainage to the upper layers. Seedbed after flooding. Permeability is rapid throughout. Available
preparation should include bedding or mounding of the water capacity is low. Internal drainage is slow because
rows. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are it is impeded by the high water table.
needed. Crop rotations should keep close-growing, soil- The Pamlico soils make up about 25 percent of the
improving crops on the land at least two-thirds of the complex. Typically, they have a black muck surface layer
time. All crop residues should be left on the land. about 30 inches thick. Below this is very dark grayish
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay brown sand about 20 inches thick and then gray or light
crops when properly managed. Tall fescue, Coastal gray sand that extends to a depth of 72 inches or more.
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and white clovers are well The Pamlico soils may be ponded for 4 to 6 months in
adapted if adequate water-control systems are installed most years after flooding. Even when the soils are not
and maintained. Surface ditches are necessary to flooded, a water table is within 20 inches of the surface
remove excess surface water rapidly during heavy rains, most of the time. During dry seasons, usually late in fall,
Fertilizers and lime are needed. Grazing should be the water table may briefly recede to a depth of 40







Bay County, Florida 37



inches or deeper. Pamlico soils are moderate in Soils of minor extent make up about 30 percent of the
permeability and have high available water capacity, unit. The most common are Albany, Allanton, Osier,
The Pantego soils make up about 10 percent of the Pelham, Plummer, and Pottsburg soils, which occur in
unit. Typically, they have a surface layer of very dark about equal proportion. Not all of the minor soils occur in
gray or black loamy sand about 18 inches thick. The each mapped area. These minor soils generally are at
subsoil is dark gray and gray sandy clay loam with the outer edges of the complex but may extend into the
mottles of brownish yellow and yellowish brown and areas.
extends to a depth of 72 inches or more. The natural vegetation consists of sweetbay,
The Pantego soils have a water table within 10 inches blackgum, red maple, sweetgum, slash pine, and an
of the surface for 2 to 4 months during most years and understory of buckwheattree, waxmyrtle, hammock,
at a depth of 40 inches for 3 to 6 months. They are sweet azalea, gallberry, and smilax species (fig. 3). Most
moderate in permeability and have medium available areas of this unit remain in native vegetation. There are
water capacity. a few cutover areas.








































Figure 3.-Water-tolerant bay, gum, and cypress trees growing in an area of the Rutlege-Pamlico complex.






38 Soil Survey


Wetness and flooding are severe limitations for more than 10 inches thick. Included soils make up less
cultivated crops. The number of adapted crops is very than 25 percent of any map area.
limited unless intensive water control measures are This Bayvi soil has a water table at a depth of less
applied. Crops such as corn and soybeans can be grown than 10 inches, or the soil is ponded for 6 to 12 months
if an adequate water control system is installed. The during most years. This soil is subject to tidal flooding.
water control system should provide a means of Available water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid or
removing excess surface water rapidly after heavy rains very rapid in all layers. Internal drainage is very slow
and should provide rapid internal drainage to the upper because of the high water table. Natural fertility is low.
soil layers. Seedbed preparation should include bedding Organic matter content is high in the surface layer and is
or mounding of the rows. Regular applications of lime low in the lower layers.
and fertilizers are needed. Crop rotations should keep The natural vegetation is dominantly needlegrass
close-growing, soil-improving crops on the land at least rushes, cordgrass, and torpedograss.
two-thirds of the time. All crop residues and soil- This soil is unsuited to all agricultural uses. Wetness,
improving crops should be left on the land. flooding, and high salinity prohibit all uses except wildlife
All of these soils are well suited to pasture and hay habitat.
crops when adequately drained and properly managed. This soil is in capability subclass Vlllw.
Tall fescuegrass, Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrasses,
and white clover are well adapted and grow well under 53-Ebro-Dorovan complex. This complex consists
good management. Surface ditches are needed to of nearly level, very poorly drained soils in irregular
remove excess surface water rapidly during heavy rains, patterns too complex to map separately. The landscape
Fertilizers and lime are needed. Grazing should be is low, broad flood plains that are mostly hardwood
controlled to prevent overgrazing and to maintain swamps on the flood plains of the East River and Pine
vigorous plants and good cover. Log Creek.
The Pantego and Rutlege soils have high potential The Ebro soils make up 40 to 60 percent of the
productivity for pine trees, but excess water must be complex. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
removed before the potential can be reached. The brown muck 6 inches thick over very dark gray to black
Pamlico soils have moderate potential productivity for muck that is about 40 percent mineral and is more than
pine trees. To increase the rate of seedling survival, 60 inches thick.
seedbed preparation should include bedding or The water table is at or near the surface for 8 to 10
mounding of the rows before planting. months, and the soils are frequently flooded for long
The use of these soils as sites for recreational and periods. Permeability is moderately slow and is impeded
urban development is severely limited because of the by the high water table. Available water capacity is high.
high water table and the hazard of frequent flooding in Natural fertility and organic matter content are high.
rainy seasons. Installation and maintenance of a very Response to drainage is moderate.
complex and intensive water-control system is necessary The Dorovan soils make up 30 to 50 percent of the
for these uses. Fill material 3 feet or more thick must be complex. Typically, the surface layer is black muck to a
added if the soils are used as a site for any recreational depth of 60 inches underlain by very dark grayish brown
or urban development. Surface ditches to remove sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
excess surface water rapidly are required. Use of these The Dorovan soils are ponded for 6 to 12 months in
soils as septic tank absorption fields is severely limited, most years unless they are artificially drained. Even
These soils are unsuited to use as sanitary landfill sites. when these soils are not flooded, the water table is
The soils in this complex are in capability subclass within 10 inches of the surface most of the time unless
VIw. the soils are artificially drained. Only during the driest
season, usually late in fall, is the water table lower.
52-Bayvi loamy sand. This level or nearly level, very Permeability is moderate. Available water capacity is very
poorly drained soil is in the tidal marshes and is high.
inundated daily by normal high tides. Slopes are smooth Soils of minor extent make up about 20 percent of the
and range from 0 to 1 percent. complex. Areas of Allanton, Pamlico, Pantego, Pickney,
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand or and Rutlege soils are intermixed and occur in small
loamy sand about 28 inches thick. It is underlain by a areas within the mapped areas. Small areas of Alapaha,
mixture of dark gray and gray sand or loamy sand to a Pansey, Pelham, Pottsburg, Plummer, and Rains soils
depth of 80 inches or more. Salt content is high in all occur along the outer borders of the map areas.
layers. The natural vegetation is dominantly baldcypress,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of blackgum, and water tupelo in the wetter areas and red
Hydraquents similar to this Bayvi soil. Also included are maple, sweetgum, redbay, sweetbay, and buckwheattree
small areas of soils that have an organic surface layer along the edges of the areas and on the tributaries. The







Bay County, Florida 39



understory consists of sedges, reeds, giant canes, and Most improved grasses and clovers adapted to this
smilax. area grow well on these soils if water control systems
Frequent flooding and ponding are very severe are used. Water-control systems should insure that the
limitations for cultivated crops. In their natural condition, water table is maintained near the surface to prevent
these soils are not suitable for cultivation, but with excessive oxidation of the organic surface layer. Grazing
adequate water control, water management, and should be controlled to permit maximum growth and
protection from flooding, they are moderately suited to yields.
most vegetable crops and soybean crops. The water- Because of excessive wetness, these soils are not
control system should provide for removing excess water suited to the production of slash and longleaf pine
when crops are on the land and for keeping the soils unless complex water-control systems are installed and
saturated when not in crops. Good fertilization practices maintained.
saturated en no n rops. d fertilization practices These soils are not suited to urban or recreational
are necessary for optimum growth. These acid soils development. The high water table, flooding, subsidence
need high applications of lime. Water-tolerant cover of the organic material, and low strength of the soils
crops should be used when cultivated crops are not on prohibit these uses.
the land. The soils in this complex are in capability subclass
Vllw.









41









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural listed for each soil.
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid Planners of management systems for individual fields
soil-related failures in land uses. or farms should consider the detailed information given
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, agronomists, in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
foresters, conservationists, engineers, biologists, and Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
others collect extensive field data about the nature and local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
behavior characteristics of the soils. They collect data on Cooperative Extension Service.
erosion, droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that Approximately 20,000 acres in the Bay County soil
affect various soil uses and management. Field survey area was used for crops and pasture in 1976,
experience and collected data on soil properties and according t the Census of Agriculture, Soil Conservation
performanceaccording to the Census of Agriculture, Soil Conservationbasis in predicting soil
performance are used as a basis in predctng soil Service records, Bay County Extension Service
behavior. estimates, and Florida Agricultural Statistics. Of this total,
Information in this section can be used to plan the use 7,000 acres was used for pasture; 12,000 acres for field
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as 7,000 acres was used for pasture; 12,000 acres for field
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, crops, mainly corn, small grains, and soybeans; and
highways and other transportation systems, and parks 1,500 acres for special crops, mainly vegetables-snap
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It beans, sweet corn, pepper, cucumbers, and smaller
can be used to identify the potentials and limitations of acreages of squash, eggplant, field peas, sod, nursery
each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent plants, and pecans.
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil The potential of the soils in Bay County for increased
properties. food production is moderately good. About 100,000
Planners and others using soil survey information can acres of potentially moderately good cropland is
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity currently used as woodland. In addition to that acreage,
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. some land that is presently used for woodland and
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a pasture could be used for cropland if intensive
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. conservation measures were installed to control soil
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of blowing on sandy soils. In addition to the reserve
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to capacity represented by this land, food production could
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil be increased considerably by extending the latest crop
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, production technology to all cropland in the county. This
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and soil survey can greatly facilitate the application of such
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can technology.
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate The acreage used as cropland, pasture, and woodland
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, has gradually been decreasing as more and more land is
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. used for urban development. In 1967 there was about
10,000 acres of urban and built-up land in the county.
Crops and Pasture This acreage has been increasing about 15 percent per
year for the past 10 years, according to estimates by the
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation Northwest Florida Regional Planning Council. The use of
Service, helped prepare this section. this soil survey to help make land use decisions that will
General management needed for crops and pasture is influence the future role of farming in the county is
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants discussed in the section "General Soil Map Units."
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly Water erosion is a problem in about one-fifth of the
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of cropland and pastureland in Bay County. Where the
land capability classification used by the Soil slope is more than 2 percent in the moderately well






41









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural listed for each soil.
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid Planners of management systems for individual fields
soil-related failures in land uses. or farms should consider the detailed information given
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, agronomists, in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
foresters, conservationists, engineers, biologists, and Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
others collect extensive field data about the nature and local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
behavior characteristics of the soils. They collect data on Cooperative Extension Service.
erosion, droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that Approximately 20,000 acres in the Bay County soil
affect various soil uses and management. Field survey area was used for crops and pasture in 1976,
experience and collected data on soil properties and according t the Census of Agriculture, Soil Conservation
performanceaccording to the Census of Agriculture, Soil Conservationbasis in predicting soil
performance are used as a basis in predctng soil Service records, Bay County Extension Service
behavior. estimates, and Florida Agricultural Statistics. Of this total,
Information in this section can be used to plan the use 7,000 acres was used for pasture; 12,000 acres for field
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as 7,000 acres was used for pasture; 12,000 acres for field
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, crops, mainly corn, small grains, and soybeans; and
highways and other transportation systems, and parks 1,500 acres for special crops, mainly vegetables-snap
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It beans, sweet corn, pepper, cucumbers, and smaller
can be used to identify the potentials and limitations of acreages of squash, eggplant, field peas, sod, nursery
each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent plants, and pecans.
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil The potential of the soils in Bay County for increased
properties. food production is moderately good. About 100,000
Planners and others using soil survey information can acres of potentially moderately good cropland is
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity currently used as woodland. In addition to that acreage,
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. some land that is presently used for woodland and
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a pasture could be used for cropland if intensive
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. conservation measures were installed to control soil
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of blowing on sandy soils. In addition to the reserve
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to capacity represented by this land, food production could
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil be increased considerably by extending the latest crop
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, production technology to all cropland in the county. This
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and soil survey can greatly facilitate the application of such
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can technology.
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate The acreage used as cropland, pasture, and woodland
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, has gradually been decreasing as more and more land is
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. used for urban development. In 1967 there was about
10,000 acres of urban and built-up land in the county.
Crops and Pasture This acreage has been increasing about 15 percent per
year for the past 10 years, according to estimates by the
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation Northwest Florida Regional Planning Council. The use of
Service, helped prepare this section. this soil survey to help make land use decisions that will
General management needed for crops and pasture is influence the future role of farming in the county is
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants discussed in the section "General Soil Map Units."
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly Water erosion is a problem in about one-fifth of the
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of cropland and pastureland in Bay County. Where the
land capability classification used by the Soil slope is more than 2 percent in the moderately well







42 Soil Survey



drained Stilson soils and the somewhat poorly drained Information on the design of erosion control practices
Albany soils, erosion is a hazard, for each kind of soil is contained in the "Water and Wind
Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging Erosion Control Handbook Florida," which is available
for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the in local offices of the Soil Conservation Service.
surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is Soil drainage is a major management need on about
incorporated into the plow layer. Second, soil erosion on one-third of the acreage used for crops and pasture in
farmland results in sediment entering streams. Control of Bay County. Some soils are naturally so wet that the
erosion minimizes the pollution of streams by sediment production of crops common to the area is generally not
and improves the quality of water for municipal use, for practical. There are about 150,000 acres of poorly
recreation, and for fish and wildlife, drained soils, such as the Alapaha, Allanton, Leon,
Erosion control practices provide protective surface Pansey, Pelham, Plummer, Pottsburg, Rains, and Sapelo
cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. A cropping soils, and very poorly drained soils, such as the Dorovan,
system that keeps plant cover on the soil for extended Osier, Pamlico, Pantego, Pickney, and Rutlege soils.
periods can hold soil losses to amounts that will not Unless artificially drained, some of the somewhat poorly
reduce the productive capacity of the soils. On livestock drained soils are wet enough in the root zone of most
farms, which require pasture and hay, the legume and crops during the wet seasons to cause damage during
grass forage crops in the cropping system reduce most years. Included in this category are Albany,
erosion on erodible, sloping land and also provide Chipley, Hurricane, and Mandarin soils, which make up
nitrogen and improve tilth for the following crop. about 55,000 acres.
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residues on the Unless artificially drained, some of the poorly drained
surface help to increase infiltration and reduce the soils are wet enough to cause some damage to pasture
hazards of runoff and erosion. These practices can be plants during the wet seasons. These soils also have low
adapted to most soils in the survey area. The use of no- available water capacity and are drought during dry
tillage for corn and soybeans is effective in reducing periods. It is necessary to subsurface irrigate these soils
erosion on sloping land and can be adapted to most for adequate pasture production. The very poorly drained
soils in the survey area. soils are very wet during the rainy periods. Water stands
Contour tillage or terracing is not practical in the on the surface of most areas, and the production of
survey area because the soils are sandy and slopes are good quality pastures is not possible without artificial
short and irregular. Stripcropping and diversions, which drainage
reduce the length of slopes, reduce runoff and erosion. The design of both surface drainage and subsurface
These practices are most practical on deep, well drained The design of both surface drainage and subsurface
soils that have regular slopes. Diversions and sod irrigation systems varies with the kind of soil and the
waterways, which reduce runoff and erosion, can be types of pastures. A combination of surface drainage
waterways, which reduce runoff and erosion, can be and subsurface irrigation systems is needed on these
adapted to most soils in the survey area. poorly drained and very poorly drained soils for intensive
Wind erosion is a hazard on the sandy soils. Wind p
erosion can damage soils and tender crops in a few pasture production.
hours in open, unprotected areas if the winds are strong Information on drainage and irrigation for each kind of
and the soil is dry and bare of vegetation and surface soil is contained in the Technical Guide available in the
mulch. Maintaining plant cover and surface mulch local office of the Soil Conservation Service.
minimizes wind erosion. Soil fertility is naturally low in most soils in the survey
Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It area. Most of the soils have a sandy surface layer. Many
reduces soil fertility by removing finer soil particles and have a loamy subsoil. In this category are the Alapaha,
organic matter; damages or destroys crops by Albany, Blanton, Pansey, Pelham, Plummer, Rains, and
sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and weed Sapelo soils. The Chipley, Foxworth, Kureb, Lakeland,
seeds; and creates health hazards and cleaning and Resota soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or
problems. Control of wind erosion minimizes duststorms more. The Allanton, Centenary, Hurricane, Leon,
and improves air quality for more healthful living Mandarin, and Pottsburg soils have an organically
conditions. stained subsoil below a sandy subsurface layer. Reaction
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such as is strongly acid to very strongly acid in the surface layer
Carolina cherry laurel, slash pine, southern redcedar, and of most of the soils if the soils have never been limed.
Japanese privet, and strip crops of small grains are Applications of ground limestone are needed to raise the
effective in reducing wind erosion and crop damage. pH level sufficiently for good growth of crops. Nitrogen
Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow plantings and potash and available phosphorus levels are naturally
made at right angles to the prevailing wind and at low in most of these soils. On all soils, additions of lime
specific intervals across the field. The intervals depend and fertilizer should be based on the results of soil tests,
on the erodibility of the soil and the susceptibility of the on the needs of the crops, and on the desired level of
crop to damage from sandblasting. yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can help in







Bay County, Florida



determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime Most recent information and suggestions for growing
to apply. special crops can be obtained from the local offices of
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of the Cooperative Extension Service and the Soil
seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils with Conservation Service.
good tilth are granular and porous. Pastures in the survey area are used to produce
Most soils in the survey area have a surface layer of forage for beef and dairy cattle. Beef cattle cow-calf
sand or loamy sand that is generally light in color and operations are the major livestock systems. Bahiagrass
low to moderate in organic matter content. The Allanton, and Coastal bermudagrass are the major pasture plants.
Dorovan, Pamlico, Pantego, Pickney, Ebro, and Rutlege Grass seeds could be harvested from these grasses for
soils are exceptions. The Allanton, Pickney, and Rutlege improved pasture plantings as well as for commercial
soils have a dark surface layer and high organic matter purposes. Many cattlemen seed small grain on cropland
content. The Dorovan, Ebro, Pamlico, and Pantego soils and overseed ryegrass on pastures in the fall for winter
are organic or have an organic surface layer. Generally and spring grazing. Excess grass is harvested from
the structure of the surface layer of most soils in the Coastal bermudagrass as hay during the summer months
survey area is weak. Intense rainfall on dry soils that are for feeding during the winter months. Peanut vines are
low in organic matter content causes the colloidal matter harvested as hay after the peanuts have been
to cement, forming a slight crust. The crust is slightly harvested.
hard when it is dry and is slightly impervious to water. The well drained and moderately well drained Blanton,
Once the crust forms, it reduces infiltration and Bonifay, Centenary, Foxworth, Stilson, and Troup soils
increases runoff. Regular additions of crop residues, are well suited to bahiagrass and improved
manure, and other organic material help to improve soil bermudagrass. With good management, hairy indigo and
structure and to reduce crusting. alyce clover can be grown during the summer and fall.
Fall plowing is generally not a good practice in the The somewhat poorly drained Albany, Chipley, and
county. About one-fourth of the cropland is sloping soils Hurricane soils are well suited to bahiagrass and
that are subject to damaging erosion if they are plowed improved bermudagrass and to legumes such as sweet
in fall. Also, about three-fourths of the cropland soils are clover if adequately limed and fertilized.
sandy and are subject to soil blowing. Alapaha, Pansey, Pelham, Pottsburg, Plummer, Rains,
Field crops grown in the survey area include corn, and Sapelo soils are well suited to bahiagrass pasture if
soybeans, and small grains. The acreage of grain drainage is provided in some areas. In some areas of
sorghum, sunflowers, potatoes, and sugarcane could be these soils, subsurface irrigation is needed. Subsurface
increased if economic conditions were favorable. Rye is irrigation increases the length of the growing season and
the common close-growing crop grown. Wheat, oats, and the total forage production. If these soils are adequately
triticale could be grown. limed and fertilized, they are well suited to legumes such
as white clover.
Special crops grown commercially in the survey area as white clover.
include a small acreage of sweet corn, squash, eggplant, Pasture in many parts of the county is greatly depleted
peas, beans, turnips, pecans, nursery crops, and sod. by continuous excessive grazing. Yields of pasture can
There is a potential to increase the production of nursery be increased by adding lime and fertilizer, by including
crops, sod, cabbage, turnips, mustard, and other legumes in the cropping system, by irrigating, and by
vegetables if economic conditions were favorable. using other management practices. The amount and kind
of pasture yields are related to the kind of soil. Proper
The deep soils that have good natural drainage are of pasture yields are related e kind of soil. Proper
especially well suited to many vegetables and small management of pasture should be based on the
especially well suited to many vegetables and small relationship among soils, pasture plants, lime, fertilizer,
fruits. In the survey area, these are the Blanton, Bonifay, and moisture.
Stilson, and Troup soils on slopes of less than 8 percent. str
These soils make up about 20,000 acres. If irrigated, Latest information and suggestions on growing pasture
about 50,000 acres of Blanton, Bonifay, Centenary, can be obtained from the local offices of the Cooperative
about 50,000 acresofBntExtension Service and the Soil Conservation Service.
Foxworth, Lakeland, and Troup soils that have slopes of Extension Service and the Soil Conservation Service.
less than 8 percent are very well suited to vegetables
and small fruit. In addition, there are about 50,000 acres Yields Per Acre
of Alapaha, Albany, Chipley, Hurricane, Pansey, Pelham, The average yields per acre that can be expected of
Rains, and Sapelo soils that, if adequately drained, are the principal crops under a high level of management
moderately well suited to vegetables and small fruits. are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be
Most of the well drained and moderately well drained higher or lower than those indicated in the table because
soils are suitable for orchards and nursery plants. In of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
some areas, however, poor air drainage and frequent The yields are based mainly on the experience and
frost pockets may limit their suitability for early records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
vegetables, small fruits, and orchards. agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and







44 Soil Survey


results of field trials and demonstrations are also Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
considered, the choice of plants or that require very careful
The management needed to obtain the indicated management, or both.
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; generally unsuitable for cultivation.
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction them unsuitable for cultivation.
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
residue, barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; and crop production.
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss. Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely c, to the class numeral, for example, Ile. The letter e
to increase as new production technology is developed, shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
other soils, however, is not likely to change. water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold
about the management and productivity of the soils for or very dry.
those crops. In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
Land Capability Classification subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in
Land capability classification shows, in a general way, class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have
the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops (5). other limitations that restrict their use to pasture,
Crops that require special management are excluded. rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
The soils are grouped according to their limitations for Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The
field crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops, soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to
and the way they respond to management. The grouping the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar
does not take into account major and generally management, and to have similar productivity. Capability
expensive landforming that would change slope, depth, units are generally designated by adding an Arabic
or other characteristics of the soils, nor does it consider numeral to the subclass symbol, for example, lle-4 or
possible major reclamation projects. Capability Ille-6.
classification is not a substitute for interpretations The acreage of soils in each capability class and
designed to show suitability and limitations of groups of subclass is shown in table 6. The capability classification
soils for rangeland, for woodland, and for engineering of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed Soil
purposes. Map Units."
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only Woodland Management and Productivity
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
are defined in the following paragraphs. Ralph J. Edenfield, county forester, Florida Division of Forestry,
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are helped prepare this section.
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The Approximately 407,000 acres, or 85 percent of the
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and total land area of Bay County, is woodland. The soils
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are and the climate of the county are fairly good for growing
defined as follows: timber. The major part of the forest land is Lakeland,
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. Leon, Foxworth, Troup, Chipley, Pottsburg, Allanton,
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the Pamlico, Dorovan, and Pickney soils (fig. 4). Commercial
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation forest enterprises are located in the southern part of the
practices, county. The major part of the forest land is owned by
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the several large companies. Approximately 25 percent of
choice of plants or that require special conservation the remaining forest land is owned by smaller
practices, or both. landowners.







Bay County, Florida 45



































Figure 4.-Slash pine on Leon sand. This poorly drained soil has moderate potential productivity for pines.


Slash pine and longleaf pine, the predominant species oak, sweetgum, blackgum, and cypress grow along
in the southern part of Bay County, make up about 60 Econfina, Bear, Cedar, and Pine Log Creeks. These
percent of the forest. Sparse pine stands are being trees have very little market value.
clearcut and planted to improved slash pine. Timber management varies from intensive thinning,
Buckwheattree, waxmyrtle, and slash pine are the clearcutting, and planting on corporate land to less
primary species in the wet flats and drainageways intensive selective cutting and harvest on private land.
throughout the southern part of the county. Generally, Prescribed burning through most pine stands is important
narrow stands of slash pine grow along the borders of in reducing "rough" and in exposing mineral soils as a
these wet areas. The sandhill belt, which runs east and seedbed for natural reproduction. It also encourages
west through the northern part of the county, is stocked grasses and forbs, which help to support various wildlife
with longleaf pine, bluejack oak, turkey oak, post oak, species, such as deer, turkey, and quail.
and scrub oak. Gradually, longleaf pine and oaks are A pulp and paper mill and a chip-and-saw mill are
being replaced with planted stands of Choctawhatchee A plp and paper mill and a chipuand-saw mill are
sand pine. Laurel oak, water oak, magnolia, sweetbay, located in Bay County. Two pulp and aper mills and two
slash pine, waxmyrtle, buckwheattree, and blackgum sawmills buy most of the timber sold by Bay County
grow in the drainageways throughout the northern part of landowners.
the county. Live oak, Choctawhatchee sand pine, slash More detailed information on woodland and forest
pine, and longleaf pine occur in scattered stands along management can be obtained at the local offices of the
the gulf coast. Laurel oak, water oak, slash pine, live Florida Division of Forestry, the Soil Conservation







46 Soil Survey



Service, the Florida Cooperative Extension Service, and strong winds; and severe, that many trees are blown
the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. down during periods of excessive soil wetness and
Table 7 can be used by woodland owners or forest moderate or strong winds.
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops. The potential productivity of merchantable or common
Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is
table lists the ordination (woodland suitability) symbol for the average height, in feet, that dominant and
each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified
require the same general management and have about number of years. The site index applies to fully stocked,
the same potential productivity, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly grown trees
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, are those that woodland managers generally favor in
indicates the potential productivity of the soils for intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected
important trees. The number 1 indicates very high on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and
productivity; 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; marketability.
and 5, low. The second part of the symbol, a letter, Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils
indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter x and to commercial wood production.
indicates stoniness or rockiness; w, excessive water in or
on the soil; t, toxic substances in the soil; d, restricted Recreation
root depth; c, clay in the upper part of the soil; s, sandy
texture; f, high content of coarse fragments in the soil The soils of the survey area are rated in table 8
profile; and r, steep slopes. The letter o indicates that according to limitations that affect their suitability for
limitations or restrictions are insignificant. If a soil has recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
more than one limitation, the priority is as follows: x, w, t, features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
d, c, s, f, and r. surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
In table 7, slight, moderate, and severe indicate the considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
management. size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss vegetation, access to water, potential water
of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
expected soil loss is small, moderate if measures are capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
needed to control erosion during logging and road ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
construction, and severe if intensive management or important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
special equipment and methods are needed to prevent recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
excessive loss of soil. and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
characteristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
of the equipment generally needed in woodland In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
management or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
that use of equipment is not limited to a particular kind of properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
equipment or time of year; moderate indicates a short minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
seasonal limitation or a need for some modification in limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
management or in equipment; and severe indicates a design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
seasonal limitation, a need for special equipment or properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
management, or a hazard in the use of equipment. offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant of these measures.
competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings The information in table 8 can be supplemented by
apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly other information in this survey, for example,
planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than 11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe, and for local roads and streets in table 10.
more than 50 percent. Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
Ratings of windthrow hazard are based on soil and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
characteristics that affect the development of tree roots and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
and the ability of the soil to hold trees firmly. A rating of facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
slight indicates that few trees may be blown down by heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
strong winds; moderate, that some trees will be blown soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or







Bay County, Florida 47


no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but species such as the brown pelican. A complete list of
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes such species and detailed information on range and
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of habitat may be obtained from the local Soil Conservation
constructing campsites. Service office.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping be created or improved by planting appropriate
sites or of building access roads and parking areas. vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not In table 9, the soils in the survey area are rated
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The according to their potential for providing habitat for
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains, various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are
considered, suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are the intensity of management needed for each element of
not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and the habitat.
are not subject to flooding more than once a year during The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
or no stones or boulders on the surface. kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to established, improved, or maaitned in most places.
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have Moderately intensive management is required for
moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is limitations are severe for the designated element or kind
not considered in rating the soils. of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
Wildlife Ha t maintained in most places, but management is difficult
Wildlife Habitat and must be intensive. A rating of verypoor indicates
John F. Vance, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
prepare this section. very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
Wildlife is a valuable resource of Bay County. Urban expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
Wildlife is a valuable resource of Bay County. Urban impractical or impossible.
development, primarily in the coastal areas, has been impractical elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
detrimental to wildlife habitat, but the less developed The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
areas support a large variety and number of wildlife following paragraphs.
species. The large acreage in woodland over the Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
northern half of the county provides valuable habitat. producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
Game species include white-tailed deer, squirrels, features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
turkey, bobwhite quail, and waterfowl. Nongame species are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
include raccoon, rabbit, armadillo, opossum, skunk, available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
bobcat, gray fox, otter, and a variety of songbirds, stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
wading birds, shore birds, woodpeckers, reptiles, and moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and
amphibians. A wide variety of fish species, both seed crops are corn, soybeans, wheat, oats, browntop
freshwater and saltwater, provide good fishing, especially millet, and grain sorghum.
in the bays and sounds. Largemouth bass, bluegill, Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
redbreasted sunfish, and catfish are the primary and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
freshwater species. Speckled trout, redfish, and that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
mackerel are important saltwater species. of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
A number of endangered or threatened species occur water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard,
in Bay County, ranging from the seldom-seen red and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
cockaded woodpecker to more commonly known considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are







48 Soil Survey



bahiagrass, lovegrass, Florida beggarweed, clover, and turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray
sesbania. fox, raccoon, deer, and bear.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
properties and features that affect the growth of these attracted to such areas are ducks, geese, herons, shore
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface birds, otter, and mink.
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil Engineering
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod, This section provides information for planning land
beggarweed, partridgepea, and bristlegrasses. uses related to urban development and to water
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
properties and features that affect the growth of given in the following tables: Building site development,
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of management. The ratings are based on observed
these plants are oak, palmetto, cherry, sweetgum, apple, performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
hawthorn, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and blueberry. test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for Information in this section is intended for land use
planting on soils rated good are fire thorn, wild plum, and planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
crabapple. planning site investigations prior to design and
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil construction. This information, however, has limitations.
properties and features that affect the growth of For example, estimates and other data generally apply
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness. Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, fir, may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
cedar, and juniper. soil.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild The soils information is not site specific and does not
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites. eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil Additional testing and analysis by personnel experienced
properties and features affecting wetland plants are in the design and construction of engineering works may
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity, be necessary.
slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland State andlocal government ordinances and
plants are smartweed, wild millet, wildrice, saltgrass, regulations that restrict certain land uses or impose
cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds. specific design criteria were not considered in preparing
the information in this section. Any existing local
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less the information in this section. Any existing local
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are ordinances and regulations must be considered in
created by dams, levees, or other water-control planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow performance were considered in determining the ratings
performance were considered in determining the ratings
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
ponds. bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
the following paragraphs. table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
Habitat for open/and wildlife consists of cropland, aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas swell potential, available water capacity, and other
include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow, behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses.
cottontail, and red fox. This information can be used to (1) evaluate the
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and and recreation uses; (2) make preliminary estimates of
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous construction conditions; (3) evaluate alternative routes
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild for roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground







Bay County, Florida 49



cables; (4) evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills, table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; (5) stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
plan detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts
(6) locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
topsoil; (7) plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
conservation; and (8) predict performance of proposed have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
small structures and pavements by comparing the gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
performance of existing similar structures on the same or flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
similar soils. limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps, properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high
survey can be used to make additional interpretations. water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength as
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the inferred from the engineering classification of the soil),
Glossary. shrink-swell potential, frost action potential, and depth to
Building Site Development a high water table affect the traffic supporting capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and
Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and o t
without affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site reaction, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
features are generally favorable for the indicated use cemented pan, the available water capacity in the upper
and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate 40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic
if soil properties or site features are not favorable for the materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope,
indicated use and special planning, design, or stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the matter in the surface layer affect trafficability after
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features vegetation is established.
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
special design, significant increases in construction Sanitary Facilities
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required. Table 11 shows the degree and the kind of soil
Special feasibility studies may be required where the soil limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
limitations are severe. sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a are considered slight if soil properties and site features
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves, are generally favorable for the indicated use and
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging, indicated use and special planning, design, or
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to indicated use and special planning, design, or
bedrock, a cemented layer, or a very firm dense layer; maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
year that excavations can be made is affected by the are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
depth to a seasonal high water table and the special design, significant increases in construction
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of the costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table. as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed and good performance and low maintenance can be
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
for small commercial buildings without basements, for more soil properties or site features make the soil less
dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site that one or more soil properties or site features are
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water costly alteration.







50 Soil Survey


Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil away from the site.
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
features, and observed performance of the soils. needs to be considered.
Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties,
cemented pan, and flooding affect absorption of the site features, and observed performance of the soils.
effluent. Large stones and bedrock or a cemented pan Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented layer, a
interfere with installation. high water table, slope, and flooding affect both trench
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption and area types of landfill. Texture, stones and boulders,
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent, highly organic layers, soil reaction, and content of salts
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect and sodium affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly stated, the ratings apply only to that part of the soil
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less within a depth of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if limitation rated slight or moderate may not be valid.
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the Additional onsite investigation is needed.
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
the absorption field to filter the effluent effectively. Many to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
local ordinances require that this material be of a certain landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
thickness. to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is and seepage.
required to minimize seepage and contamination of After soil material has been removed, the soil material
ground water. remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over
Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and and the best potential for plant growth. Material from the
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final
ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth cover.
to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones,
and content of organic matter. Construction Materials
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the Table 12 gives information about the soils as a source
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
organic matter in the soil profile is detrimental to proper properties and site features that affect the removal of
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
activity. Slope, bedrock, and cemented pans can cause compaction, minor processing, and other standard
construction problems, and large stones can hinder construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
compaction of the lagoon floor, evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of and used in road embankments in another place. In this
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an exacting in design than higher embankments.
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted, layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil







Bay County, Florida 51



layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading. of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within the reclamation potential of the borrow area.
their profile. The table showing engineering index Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties provides detailed information about each soil properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
layer. This information can help determine the suitability fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
in the ratings, of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a depth
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
excavation is affected by large stones, a high water cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less
table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
after it has been compacted and drained is determined are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
by its strength (as inferred from the engineering not so wet that excavation is difficult.
classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential. Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more not so wet that excavation is difficult.
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet. than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10, near the surface.
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of
of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet moisture and nutrients for plant growth.
thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for Water Management
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
gravel are used in many kinds of construction. Table 13 gives information on the soil properties and
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 12, only site features that affect water management. The degree
the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil
excavation of the material. properties and site features are generally favorable for
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of the indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are
by the engineering classification of the soil), the not favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to
sizes is given in the table on engineering index overcome that special design, significant increase in
properties. construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean are required.
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to This table also gives for each soil the restrictive
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3 features that affect drainage, irrigation, and grassed
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large waterways.
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel, seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable







52



material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
of the reservoir area. subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
constructed to impound water or to protect land against affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth to
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding;
material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5 subsidence of organic layers; and potential frost action.
feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed Excavating and grading and the stability of ditchbanks
and compacted during construction. are affected by depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
large stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving.
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural large stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbacks caving.
The ratings do not ndicate the ability of the natural The productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in the
depth even greater than the height of the embankment root zone, such as salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of
can affect performance and safety of the embankment. drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings.
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
determine these properties. supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to and management of an irrigation system are affected by
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system
of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium. is affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
A high water table affects the amount of usable material, cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
It also affects trafficability. by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that sodium, and soil reaction.
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface. stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
water table, permeability of the aquifer, and quality of the waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
water as inferred from the salinity of the soil. Depth to capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
bedrock and the content of large stones affect the ease as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
of excavation affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
construction.







53








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics, soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
Estimates of soil properties are based on field groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the SM.
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field those properties that affect roadway construction and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
accurately by field observation, and help characterize that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
key soils. of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Engineering Index Properties groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
or 6 feet. for soils tested, with group index numbers in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer parentheses, is given in table 20.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.







53








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics, soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
Estimates of soil properties are based on field groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the SM.
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field those properties that affect roadway construction and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
accurately by field observation, and help characterize that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
key soils. of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Engineering Index Properties groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
or 6 feet. for soils tested, with group index numbers in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer parentheses, is given in table 20.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.







54 Soil Survey



Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies,
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The depending on soil properties that affect the retention of
estimates are based on test data from the survey area or water and the depth of the root zone. The most
from nearby areas and on field examination, important properties are the content of organic matter,
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available
plasticity index are rounded to the nearest 5 percent. water capacity is an important factor in the choice of
Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg limits plants or crops to be grown and in the design and
extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points) management of irrigation systems. Available water
across classification boundaries, the classification in the capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
marginal zone is omitted in the table, actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
Physical and Chemical Properties expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics and many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
The estimates are based on field observations and on fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
test data for these and similar soils. corrosion.
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter, saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil 25 degrees C.
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Shrink-swellpotential is the potential for volume
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
moisture. They influence shrink-swell potential, of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
a soil also affect tillage and earth-moving operations. place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field undisturbed clods were made for man sois. o others
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 swellin was timat n the sis o n
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying amount of clay miners n the soil and on
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated measurements of similar soils.
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, often needed.
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward is sometimes used.
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
based on soil characteristics observed in the field, sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
is considered in the design of soil drainage systems, to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
septic tank absorption fields, and construction where the and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates
rate of water movement under saturated conditions are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and
affects behavior. organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69.
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The The higher the value the more susceptible the soil is to
capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per sheet and rill erosion by water.







Bay County, Florida 55



Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum Soil and Water Features
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
can occur without affecting crop productivity over a Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year. features. The estimates are used in land use planning
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have that involves engineering considerations.
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following according to the intake of water when the soils are
distinctions: thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine duration storms.
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. The four hydrologic soil groups are:
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
establish. potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind transmission.
erosion are used. Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
control wind erosion are used. texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 transmission.
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
are used. soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
control wind erosion are used. chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to In table 16, some soils are assigned to two hydrologic
control wind erosion are used. groups. Soils that have a seasonal high water table but
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and can be drained are assigned first to a hydrologic group
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, that denotes the drained condition and then to a
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly hydrologic group that denotes the undrained condition;
erodible. Crops can easily be grown, for example, B/D. Because there are different degrees
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay of drainage and water table control, onsite investigation
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, is needed to determine the hydrologic group of the soil
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily in a particular location.
be grown. Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
to wind erosion. slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding, nor is
soil at various stages of decomposition. water in swamps and marshes.
In table 15, the estimated content of organic matter is Table 16 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
The content of organic matter of a soil can be are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, rare,
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the common, occasional, and frequent. None means that
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity, flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and possible under unusual weather conditions; common that
other nutrients for crops. it is likely under normal conditions; occasional that it







56 Soil Survey


occurs, on the average, no more than once in 2 years; throughout an extensive area as a result of lowering the
and frequent that it occurs, on the average, more than water table.
once in 2 years. Duration is expressed as very brief if Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
less than 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, and long if more electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
than 7 days. Probable dates are expressed in months; weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
November-May, for example, means that flooding can corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
occur during the period November through May. soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
The information is based on evidence in the soil electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil.
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of Special site examination and design may be needed if
distinctive horizons that form in soils that are not subject the combination of factors creates a severe corrosion
to flooding. environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
Also considered ae local information about the extent boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the o sl are entirely within one kind
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than o or wthnne lay
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that ,For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
levels total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
levels.electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a For concrete,the risk of corrosion is also expressed
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
soil. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to the seasonal Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
high water table; the kind of water table-that is, Analyses of Selected Soils
perched, artesian, or apparent; and the months of the
year that the water table commonly is high. A water table Dr. V. W. Carlisle, Professor of Soil Science, Soil Science
that is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not Department, University of Florida, prepared this section.
indicated in table 16. .
indicated in table 16. Physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water physicalive pe dns samled inalogal popti of
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water representative pedons sampled in Bay County are
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is presented in tables 17, 18, and 19. The analyses were
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. An conducted and coordinated by the Soil Characterization
artesian water table is under hydrostatic head, generally Laboratory at the University of Florida. Detailed profile
beneath an impermeable layer. When this layer is descriptions of the soils analyzed are given in
penetrated, the water level rises in an uncased borehole. alphabetical order in the section "Classification of the
A perched water table is water standing above an Soils." Laboratory data and profile information for other
unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water soils in Bay County and soils in other counties in Florida
table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone. are on file at the Soil Science Department, University of
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet Florida.
are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth Soils were sampled from pits at carefully selected
indicates that the water table is above the surface of the locations that represent typical pedons. Samples were
soil. The first numeral in the range indicates how high air-dried, crushed, and sieved through a 2-millimeter
the water rises above the surface. The second numeral screen. Most analytical methods used are outlined in Soil
indicates the depth below the surface. Survey Investigations Report No. 1 (6).
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of Particle-size distribution, given in table 17, was
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Table 16 determined using a modified pipette method with sodium
shows subsidence that results from desiccation and hexametaphosphate as the dispersant. Hydraulic
shrinkage and oxidation of organic material, following conductivity and bulk density were determined on
drainage. The table shows the expected initial undisturbed soil core samples. Water retention data were
subsidence and total subsidence, which is initial obtained from duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in
subsidence plus the slow sinking that occurs over a tempe pressure cells. Weight percentage of water
period of several years as a result of oxidation. Not retained at 100 centimeters water (1/10 bar) and 345
shown in the table is subsidence caused by an imposed centimeters water (1/3 bar) were calculated from
surface load or by the withdrawal of ground water volumetric water percentages divided by bulk density.







Bay County, Florida 57



Samples were oven-dried, ground to pass a 2-millimeter in the Stilson soil is more than 30 percent clay. The
sieve, and the 15-bar water retention was determined, content of silt is 3 to 8 percent in most of the soils in the
Extractable bases, shown in table 18, were obtained county. Silt content exceeds 8 percent, however, in one
by leaching soils with ammonium acetate buffered at pH or more horizons of the Allanton, Bayvi, Centenary,
7.0. The content of sodium and potassium in the extract Dirego, and Stilson soils and is less than 3 percent in
was determined by flame emission, and the content of most horizons of the Kureb, Lakeland, Osier, Resota,
calcium and magnesium was determined by atomic and Pottsburg soils. Fine sand dominates the sand
absorption spectrophotometry. Extractable acidity was fractions of Albany, Blanton, Chipley, Dirego, Foxworth,
determined by the barium chloride-triethanolamine Kureb, Osier, Pottsburg, Resota, and Stilson soils.
method at pH 8.2. The sum of cations, which may be Horizons that are more than 50 percent fine sand occur
considered a measure of cation-exchange capacity, was in all these soils except the Albany and Stilson soils.
calculated by adding the values for extractable bases Medium sand dominates the sand fractions of Allanton,
and extractable acidity. Base saturation is the ratio of Bayvi, Centenary, Hurricane, Lakeland, Lucy, Mandarin,
extractable bases to cation-exchange capacity and Troup soils. Horizons that are more than 50 percent
expressed as a percentage. Organic carbon was medium sand occur in all of these soils except the Bayvi
determined by a modification of the Walkley-Black wet and Troup soils. Droughtiness is a common
combustion method. Electrical conductivity was characteristic of sandy soils, particularly those that are
determined using a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil-to- moderately well drained, well drained, and excessively
water mixtures. The pH measurements were made with a drained.
glass electrode using a soil-to-water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01 Hydraulic conductivity values are less than 15
M calcium cloride solution in a 1:2 soil-to-solution ratio; centimeters per hour throughout the entire profiles of the
and a 1 N potassium cloride solution in a 1:1 soil-to- Albany, Osier, and Stilson soils. Hydraulic conductivity
solution ratio. values exceed 60 centimeters per hour in some horizons
Aluminum, carbon, and iron were extracted from in the Centenary, Hurricane, Kureb, Lakeland, Mandarin,
probable spodic horizons with 0.1 M sodium Resota, and Troup soils. Deep horizons with increased
pyrophosphate. The percentages of aluminum and iron amounts of clay in the Blanton and Stilson soils have
were determined by atomic absorption; and the hydraulic conductivity values that are less than 1
percentage of extracted carbon, by the Walkley-Black centimeter per hour. Centenary, Hurricane, Leon, and
wet combustion method. The percentages of iron and Mandarin soils have spodic horizons that have higher
aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate were hydraulic conductivity values than are usually recorded
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. for spodic horizons in most Florida soils.
The mineralogy of the clay fraction was ascertained by The available water capacity can be estimated from
X-ray diffraction. Peak heights at 18-angstrom, 14- bulk density and water content data. Generally,
angstrom, 7.2-angstrom, 4.83-angstrom, and 4.31- excessively sandy soils that contain low amounts of
angstrom positions represent montmorillonite and organic matter retain low amounts of water. The Kureb,
interstratified expandibles, vermiculite or 14-angstrom Mandarin, and Resota soils retain very low amounts of
intergrades, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz, respectively, water throughout the profile. The surface horizons of the
Peaks were measured, summed, and normalized to give Osier and Pottsburg soils retain relatively large amounts
percentages of soil minerals identified in the X-ray of water.
diffractograms. These percentage values do not indicate Most Bay County soils contain a low amount of
absolute determined quantities of soil minerals but do extractable bases (table 18). In the Bayvi and Dirego
represent the relative distribution of minerals in a soils, all horizons have more than 7 milliequivalents
particular mineral suite. Determining absolute extractable bases per 100 grams of soil. All horizons of
percentages would require additional knowledge of all other soils sampled contain less than 1 milliequivalent
particle size, crystallinity, unit structure substitution, and of extractable bases per 100 grams of soil. Calcium is
matrix problems. the dominant base in most soils; sodium, however, is by
The sandy nature of most Bay County soils (table 19) far the dominant base in the Bayvi and Dirego soils.
is readily apparent. All pedons sampled, with the Sodium is barely detectable in the Centenary, Chipley,
exception of the Stilson soil, contained at least one Foxworth, Kureb, Lakeland, Mandarin, Resota, and
horizon that is more than 90 percent sand. Chipley, Troup soils. Magnesium occurs in amounts exceeding 1
Foxworth, Kureb, Lakeland, Leon, Mandarin, Osier, milliequivalent per 100 grams in the Bayvi and Dirego
Pottsburg, and Resota soils are more than 90 percent soils and in much lower but detectable amounts in all
sand to a depth of 2 meters or more. Only one horizon other soils. Most Bay County soils contain extremely low
in the Allanton, Centenary, Hurricane, and Troup soils is amounts of potassium; potassium is nondetectable in
less than 90 percent sand. Deep horizons of the Albany, horizons of Albany, Allanton, Centenary, Chipley,
Blanton, Stilson, and Troup soils contain the highest Foxworth, Hurricane, Kureb, Lakeland, Leon, Mandarin,
percentage of fine-textured materials. Only one horizon Osier, Pottsburg, and Resota soils. Cation-exchange







58 Soil Survey



capacity, as represented by the sum of cations, exceeds soils are not sufficient to detrimentally affect phosphorus
7 milliequivalents per 100 grams in the surface horizon availability.
of the Bayvi and Dirego soils. The cation-exchange The sand fraction (2.0-0.05 millimeters) is siliceous,
capacity also exceeds 7 milliequivalents per 100 grams with quartz overwhelmingly dominant in all pedons. Small
in the spodic horizon of the Allanton, Hurricane, Leon, amounts of heavy minerals occur in most horizons, with
and Pottsburg soils. In soils with low cation-exchange the greatest concentration in the very fine sand fraction.
capacity in the surface horizon, such as Centenary, No weatherable minerals were observed in the soils
Foxworth, and Mandarin soils, only small amounts of tested. In table 19 crystalline mineral components of the
lime are required to significantly alter both the base clay fraction (less than 0.002 millimeter) are reported for
status and the reaction in the upper horizons. Generally, selected horizons of the pedons sampled. The clay
soils with low values for extractable bases and cation- mineralogical suite is composed of montmorillonite, a 14-
exchange capacity have low inherent soil fertility and angstrom intergrade, kaolinite, gibbsite, and mica (illite).
soils with high values for extractable bases, high cation- Montmorillonite is detectable in all soils sampled except
exchange capacity, and high base saturation values are the Albany, Allanton, Centenary, Hurricane, Leon, and
fertile. Stilson pedons. The 14-angstrom intergrade minerals
The organic carbon content is less than 2 percent occur in all pedons and are dominant in most. Kaolinite
throughout all horizons of all soils sampled except the occurs in all but the Centenary and Leon soils. Gibbsite,
Dirego soil. Significant increases in organic carbon generally in small amounts, was detected in the Albany,
content occur in the spodic horizon of Allanton, Allanton, Foxworth, Stilson, and Troup soils. Mica was
Hurricane, Leon, and Pottsburg soils. Soil management detected only in the C4 horizon of the Osier soil.
practices that conserve and maintain the organic carbon Montmorillonite, which occurs in relatively small
in soils are highly desirable because organic carbon amounts, is probably the least stable of the mineral
content is directly related to nutrient and water retention. components in the present environment. Montmorillonite
Electrical conductivity values are very low for most of appears to have been inherited by Bay County soils.
the soils in Bay County. They exceed 0.1 millimhos per Relatively large amounts of 14-angstrom intergrade
centimeter only in the Bayvi and Dirego soils, which minerals occur in all soils, and the general tendency for
occur near the Gulf of Mexico. The data indicate that, these minerals to decrease with increasing depth
with the exception of the Bayvi and Dirego soils, the suggests that the 14-angstrom intergrade minerals are
content of soluble salt in Bay County soils is insufficient the most stable species in this weathering environment.
to detrimentally affect the growth of salt-sensitive plants. The general tendency for kaolinite to increase with
Reaction in water ranges between pH 4.5 and 6.0 for The general tendency for kaolinite to increase with
Reaction in water ranges between pH 4.5 and 6.0 for increasing depth indicates that kaolinite is less stable
most soils in the county. Reaction values are slightly increa 4-ng depth integs tat ainite s ess se
higher for one or two horizons in the Blanton, Chipley, than the 14-angstrom intergrades in the severe
Foxworth, and Resota soils, but none is above pH 6.8. weathering environment near the surface. The
Reaction values are lower than pH 4.5 in one or two inconsitent ocrrence of gbsie suggests t s
horizons of Allanton, Bayvi, Osier, and Pottsburg soils inherited. Clay-sized quartz has resulted from
and in all horizons of the Dirego soil. Reaction is decrements of the silt fraction. As is usual for most
generally 0.5 and 1.5 units lower in calcium chloride and Florida soils, mica (illite) does not occur in detectable
potassium chloride solutions than in water. Maximum amounts in most soils.
plant nutrient availability is usually attained when soil
reaction is between pH 6.5 and 7.5. Engineering Index Test Data
The percentage of iron extractable in sodium
pyrophosphate is 0.04 percent or less in the Bh horizons Table 20 presents engineering test data for some
of Allanton, Centenary, Hurricane, Leon, Mandarin, and major soil series in Bay County. The tests were made by
Pottsburg soils. In these soils, the ratio of the Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of
pyrophosphate-extractable carbon and aluminum to clay Transportation, Bureau of Materials and Research. They
is sufficient to meet the chemical criteria for a spodic were made to help evaluate the soils for engineering
horizon. The percentage of iron extractable in citrate- purposes. The classifications given are based on data
dithionite in argillic horizons of Ultisols ranges from 0.01 obtained by mechanical analyses and by tests to
percent in the Stilson soil to 1.6 percent in the Troup determine liquid limit and plastic limit.
soil. These values in spodic horizons of Spodosols range The mechanical analyses were made by combined
from 0.04 percent in the Leon and Pottsburg soils to sieve and hydrometer methods. The various grain-sized
0.08 percent in the Centenary soil and the lower part of fractions were calculated on the basis of all the material
the Bh horizon of the Pottsburg soil. The percentage of in the soil sample, including that coarser than 2
aluminum extracted by citrate-dithionite ranges from 0.02 millimeters in diameter. The mechanical analyses used in
percent in the Bayvi soil to 0.37 percent in the Troup this method should not be used in naming textural
soil. The amounts of aluminum and iron in Bay County classes of soils.







Bay County, Florida 59



Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in increased from a dry state, the material changes from a
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively semisolid to a plastic state. If the moisture content is
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive further increased, the material changes from a plastic to
effort remains constant, the density of the compacted a liquid state. The plastic limit is the moisture content at
material increases until the optimum moisture content is which the soil material changes from a semisolid to a
reached. After that, density decreases as moisture plastic state, and the liquid limit is the moisture content
content increases. The highest dry density obtained in at which the soil material changes from a plastic to a
the compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As liquid state. The plasticity index is the numerical
a rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit. It
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density. indicates the range of moisture content within which a
The liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect soil material is plastic. The data on liquid limit and
of water on the strength and consistence of the soil plasticity index in this table are based on laboratory tests
material. As the moisture content of a clayey soil is of soil samples.










61








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (7). Beginning mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
with the broadest, these categories are the order, zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series, permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
field or inferred from those observations or from properties. An example is siliceous, thermic Typic
laboratory measurements. Table 21 shows the Psammaquents.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs, horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An differ within a series.
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil Soil Series and Their Morphology
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties In this section, each soil series recognized in the
that reflect the most important variables within the survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder in alphabetic order.
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
water, plus ent, from Entisol). formed are identified for each series. The soil is
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
base status. Each great group is identified by the name follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (4). Many of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, in Soil Taxonomy (7). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
meaning sand, plus aquent, the suborder of the Entisols the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
that have an aquic moisture regime). description is the range of important characteristics of
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. the soils in the series.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The The map units of each soil series are described in the
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Alapaha Series
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate The Alapaha series is a member of the loamy,
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each siliceous, thermic family of Arenic Plinthic Paleaquults. It
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives consists of deep, poorly drained, moderately slowly
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective permeable soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great sediment. These soils are on nearly level flats and
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. shallow depressional areas along poorly defined
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on drainageways. They have a water table within 15 inches
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other of the soil surface for 3 to 6 months in most years.
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the Slopes are 2 percent or less.
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where Alapaha soils are near Albany, Chipley, Foxworth,
there is much biological activity. Among the properties Leefield, Pansey, and Hurricane soils. Alapaha soils are







61








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (7). Beginning mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
with the broadest, these categories are the order, zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series, permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
field or inferred from those observations or from properties. An example is siliceous, thermic Typic
laboratory measurements. Table 21 shows the Psammaquents.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs, horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An differ within a series.
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil Soil Series and Their Morphology
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties In this section, each soil series recognized in the
that reflect the most important variables within the survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder in alphabetic order.
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
water, plus ent, from Entisol). formed are identified for each series. The soil is
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
base status. Each great group is identified by the name follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (4). Many of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, in Soil Taxonomy (7). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
meaning sand, plus aquent, the suborder of the Entisols the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
that have an aquic moisture regime). description is the range of important characteristics of
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. the soils in the series.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The The map units of each soil series are described in the
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Alapaha Series
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate The Alapaha series is a member of the loamy,
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each siliceous, thermic family of Arenic Plinthic Paleaquults. It
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives consists of deep, poorly drained, moderately slowly
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective permeable soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great sediment. These soils are on nearly level flats and
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. shallow depressional areas along poorly defined
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on drainageways. They have a water table within 15 inches
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other of the soil surface for 3 to 6 months in most years.
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the Slopes are 2 percent or less.
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where Alapaha soils are near Albany, Chipley, Foxworth,
there is much biological activity. Among the properties Leefield, Pansey, and Hurricane soils. Alapaha soils are







62 Soil Survey


more poorly drained than Albany, Chipley, Foxworth, sandy clay loam. Few to many mottles of yellow, brown,
Leefield, and Hurricane soils. Albany soils have an A gray, and red are in the Bt horizon. Plinthite content
horizon 40 to 80 inches thick. Chipley and Foxworth soils ranges from 10 to 30 percent.
are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. Pansey soils
have a fine-loamy argillic horizon within 20 inches of the Albany Series
surface. Hurricane soils have a deep spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Alapaha loamy sand in a wooded The Albany series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
area approximately 300 yards south of Pine Log Creek thermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It consists of
bridge, 100 feet east of Highway 79, NE1/4SW1/4 sec. somewhat poorly drained, moderately permeable soils.
8, T. 1 S., R. 16 W. These nearly level and gently sloping soils are on
1-0 to 6 i ; vy dk gy ( 3 l uplands (fig. 5). They formed in thick deposits of sandy
A1-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (O1YR 3/1) loamy and loamy material. They occur in small areas, generally
sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable; on low elevations, throughout the county. Slopes range
many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear from 0 to 5 percent. Most areas are dissected by defined
smooth boundary. drainage patterns. A water table is at a depth of 18 to 30
A21-6 to 14 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loamy sand; inches for 1 month to 3 months in most years.
wea medm anuartucure very inches for 1 month to 3 months in most years.
weak medium granular structure; very friable;
common fine and few medium roots; strongly acid Albany soils are near Alapaha, Blanton, Chipley,
clear wavy boundary. Foxworth, Hurricane, Lakeland, Leefield, and Stilson
A22-14 to 32 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) loamy sand; soils. Albany soils are more poorly drained than Blanton,
weak medium granular structure; very friable; few Foxworth, and Lakeland soils. Chipley, Foxworth, and
fine and medium roots; many uncoated sand grains; Lakeland soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. more. Alapaha, Leefield, and Stilson soils have an argillic
B21tg-32 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches and have more
clay loam; few medium distinct yellowish brown than 5 percent plinthite within 60 inches of the surface.
(10YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium subangular Stilson soils are better drained than Albany soils, and
blocky structure; friable; strongly acid; gradual wavy Alapaha soils are more poorly drained.
boundary. Typical pedon of Albany sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes,
B22tg-50 to 64 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy in a cultivated field approximately 14 miles southeast of
clay loam; common medium distinct brownish yellow Panama City, about 1-1/2 miles east of County Road
(10YR 6/6) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) and 167, SE1/4NW1/4 sec. 29, T. 4 S., R. 12 W.
common medium prominent dark red (2.5YR 3/6) to 8 i ; g b ( 5
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky Ap- to 8 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
structure; friable; approximately 18 percent plinthite single grained; loose; medium organic matter
by volume; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. content; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
B23tg-64 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) sandy A21-8 to 24 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
clay loam; many coarse distinct dark red (2.5YR sand; few fine faint light gray and brownish yellow
4/6) and common medium distinct brownish yellow mottles; single grained; loose; few uncoated sand
(1 YR 6/6) mottles; strongly acid; clear wavy grains; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
boundary. A22-24 to 46 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand;
common medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) and
Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid in all brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; single grained;
horizons unless the soil has been limed. The content of loose; common uncoated sand grains; strongly acid;
strongly cemented ironstone nodules is greater than 5 gradual wavy boundary.
percent by volume throughout the argillic horizon. A23-46 to 54 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand;
The Al or Ap horizon ranges from 4 to 6 inches in common medium distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3)
thickness. It has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and and yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; single
chroma of 1, or it is neutral and has value of 2 through grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains; strongly
4. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through acid; gradual wavy boundary.
6, and chroma of 1. Thickness of the A horizon is B21t-54 to 60 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
generally about 32 inches but ranges from 20 to 40 sandy loam; common medium distinct light gray
inches. (10YR 7/2), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), and strong
The B21tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak medium
through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral and has subangular blocky structure; very friable; few sand
value of 5 through 7. Texture is sandy loam or sandy lenses or streaks; strongly acid; clear smooth
clay loam. The B22tg and B23tg horizons have hue of boundary.
10YR to 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2, or B22t-60 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3)
they are neutral and have value of 5 to 7. Texture is sandy clay loam; common medium distinct light gray







Bay County, Florida
63





































Figure 5.-A centipede grass sod farm on Albany sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.



(10YR 7/2), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), light mottles of gray, yellow, or brown. Thickness of the A2
yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), brownish yellow (10YR horizon ranges from 36 to 56 inches. Texture of the A
6/6), and yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; moderate horizon is dominantly sand but ranges from sand to
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few loamy sand.
sand pockets; few to common uncoated sand The B21t horizon has hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and
grains; strongly acid. chroma of 4 or 6 or hue of 10YR, value of 6, and
chroma of 4 or 6. This horizon has few to common
Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid in all mottles in shades of gray and yellow. Thickness ranges
horizons unless the soil has been limed. The solum from 6 to 12 inches. The B22t horizon has hue of 10YR,
thickness exceeds 80 inches. value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3 through 8 or has hue of
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 2.5Y and value of 6 and chroma of 4 or value of 7 and
through 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The Al or Ap horizon is chroma of 3 to 8 with common to many mottles of red,
4 to 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR and brown, yellow, and gray. Texture of the Bt horizon is
value of 6 and chroma of 2 to 6 or value of 7 and sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
chroma of 2 to 4 or has hue of 2.5Y and value of 5 and
chroma of 2 or value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 2 or 4.
The A2 horizon has few to common faint to distinct






64 Soil Survey



Allanton Series loamy fine sand. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR or
2.5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture
The Allanton series is a member of the sandy, is sand or fine sand.
siliceous, thermic family of Grossarenic Haplaquods. It The B1h horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 2
consists of poorly drained, moderately rapidly permeable to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. From 30 to 60 percent of the
soils that formed in sandy marine deposits. These soils sand grains are coated with organic matter. Texture is
are in nearly level areas or slightly depressional areas sand, fine sand, or loamy sand. The B2h horizon has
along poorly defined drainageways. Slopes are smooth hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
to concave and are less than 2 percent. The water table chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral and has value of 2 or 3.
is at or near the surface for 4 to 6 months annually. The texture is sand or fine sand. Virtually, all sand grains
Many of the lower lying areas are frequently flooded or are coated with organic matter.
are ponded for extended periods.
Allanton soils are near Chipley, Dorovan, Leon,
Pamlico, Pickney, Pottsburg, Hurricane, and Rutlege Bayvi Series
soils. Chipley, Pickney, and Rutlege soils do not have a The Bayvi series is a member of the sandy, siliceous,
The Bayvi series is a member of the sandy, siliceous,
spodic horizon. Dorovan and Pamlico soils are organic. thermic family of Cumulic Haplaquolls. It consists of very
The somewhat poorly drained Hurricane soils are better thermic family of Cumulic Haplaquolls. It consists of very
drained than Allanton soils and do not have an umbric poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in
epipedon. Pottsburg soils do not have an umbric sandy marine sediment and some nonwoody halophytic
plant remains. These level to nearly level soils are on
epipedon. Leon soils have a spodic horizon at a depth ofThese level to nearly level soils are on
0 inches or less an o no h ave a n spoc rin a a eph ido broad flats and tidal marshes. Slopes range from 0 to 1
ical eon o Allanon sand vin a cutover woodland percent. Under natural conditions, the water table is at a
Typical pedon of Allanton sand in a cutover woodland eth an ice o the ssoed
area approximately 3 miles west of Fountain and U.S. depth of less than 10 inches, or the soil is covered
Highway 231, about 30 feet south of dirt road, (flooded) with saltwater for 6 to 12 months during most
NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 20, T. 1 N., R. 12 W. years. These soils are subject to tidal flooding.
Bayvi soils are near Dirego, Dorovan, Leon, Osier,
A11-0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak fine Pamlico, Pickney, Pottsburg, and Rutlege soils. Dirego
granular structure; very friable; many medium and soils have a surface layer of organic muck more than 16
fine roots; many uncoated sand grains; very strongly inches thick and are sulfidic. None of the associated
acid; clear smooth boundary. soils are subject to tidal flooding.
A12-10 to 18 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; Typical pedon of Bayvi loamy sand in a tidal marsh at
single grained; loose; common uncoated sand the south end of Kimbrel Avenue in Calloway, Florida,
grains; common fine and medium roots; very SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 19, T. 4 S., R. 13 W.
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A21-18 to 27 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand with A11-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy
streaks and splotches of gray (10YR 5/1); single sand with splotches of dark gray (10YR 4/1);
grained; loose; few medium roots; common massive; friable; slightly sticky; common fine and
uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid; gradual few medium roots; slight sulfur odor; neutral wet,
wavy boundary. very strongly acid dry; gradual smooth boundary.
A22-27 to 52 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single A12-8 to 28 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand
grained; loose; few fine roots; very strongly acid; with splotches of gray (10YR 5/1); massive; friable;
clear smooth boundary. slightly sticky; few fine and medium roots; slight
B1h-52 to 56 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; sulfur odor; neutral wet, very strongly acid dry;
single grained; loose; approximately 50 percent of gradual smooth boundary.
sand grains coated with organic matter; very C1-28 to 48 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loamy sand
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. with splotches of gray (10YR 5/1); massive; loose;
B2h-56 to 80 inches; black (N 2/0) sand; massive, slightly sticky; very slight sulfur odor; extremely acid
crushes to weak fine granular structure; loose; all dry; gradual wavy boundary.
sand grains coated with organic matter; extremely C2-48 to 65 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) loamy sand
acid. with streaks of gray (10YR 5/1); weak medium
granular structure; slightly sticky; extremely acid dry;
Solum thickness exceeds 80 inches. Reaction is very gradual wavy boundary.
strongly acid or strongly acid in the A horizon and C3-65 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
extremely acid to strongly acid in the B horizon, grained; loose; extremely acid.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 or
3, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral and has value of Reaction ranges from slightly acid to neutral
2 or 3. The thickness of the Al horizon is greater than throughout the profile in its natural state. After air-drying,
10 inches. The texture is sand, fine sand, loamy sand, or the pH decreases to strongly acid or extremely acid.






Bay County, Florida 65
65


Sulfur content is low within a depth of 28 inches. A slight A23-47 to 60 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand;
odor is detected when the soil is first exposed to air but single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
dissipates rapidly. Some decomposed hemic plant strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
materials may be in the Al and A2 horizons. B21t-60 to 63 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 to sandy loam; moderate fine granular structure; very
4, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral and has value of friable; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
2 to 4. The texture is loamy sand or sand. The C horizon B22t-63 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. sandy loam with few medium distinct pale brown
The texture is sand or loamy sand. (10YR 6/3) and light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; neutral.
Blanton Series The solum thickness is more than 60 inches. Reaction
The Blanton series is a member of the loamy, ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid in the A
siliceous, thermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It horizon, except where limed, and strongly acid through
consists of deep, moderately well drained, moderately neutral in the B horizon.
permeable soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy The A or Al horizon has hue of 10YR and has value
marine sediment. These nearly level to sloping soils are of 3 and chroma of 2, value of 4 or 5 and chroma of 1 to
in the uplands. During wet seasons, they have a perched 3, or value of 6 and chroma of 1. It ranges from 2 to 10
inches in thickness. The A21 and A22 horizons have hue
water table above the argillic horizon for less than 1 i nc hes in thiknes. The of and chroma of 4 through 6,
month during most years. Slopes range from 0 to 8 value of and chroma of through
value of 6 and chroma of 1 through 4, or value of 7 and
percent. .chroma of 1 through 8. The A23 horizon, where present,
Blanton soils are near the Albany, Bonifay, Chipley, has hue of 10YR and has value of 7 or 8 and chroma of
Foxworth, Lakeland, Stilson, and Troup soils. Blanton 1 to 8 or value of 6 and chroma of 3 to 8. Uncoated
soils are better drained than the Albany soils and do not sand grains range from few in the A21 and A22 horizons
have chroma 2 mottles in the upper part of the Bt to many in the A23 horizon. In some pedons, horizontal,
horizon. Blanton and Albany soils occur on similar discontinuous lamellae and small pockets of lamellae
landscape positions. Blanton soils differ from the Bonifay occur in the lower part of the A23 horizon. Total
soils in that they have less than 5 percent plinthite within thickness of the A horizon ranges from 40 to 70 inches
60 inches of the surface and occur on slightly lower, but is commonly 54 to 68 inches.
broad flats rather than on more rolling uplands. Blanton The B21t horizon has hue of 10YR and has value of 5
soils have a Bt horizon within a depth of 40 to 80 inches, and chroma of 6 or 8 or value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 3
whereas Chipley, Foxworth, and Lakeland soils are or 4, or has hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6
sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches. All occur on or 8. Thickness ranges from 3 to 12 inches. The B22t
similar landscape positions. Stilson soils have an argillic horizon has hue of 10YR and has value of 5 and chroma
horizon within a depth of 20 to 40 inches and are more of 6 or 8 or value of 6 and chroma of 3 to 8, or has hue
than 5 percent plinthite within a depth of 60 inches, of 2.5Y, value of 6, and chroma of 4 with few to common
Troup soils are better drained than Blanton soils; occur mottles in shades of brown, yellow, gray, or red. The
on higher, rolling upland landscapes; and usually have a texture of the B2t horizon is fine sandy loam or sandy
reddish subsoil. clay loam. Some pedons have up to 5 percent plinthite
Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent between depths of 60 and 80 inches.
slopes, planted to slash pine, approximately 2 miles
northeast of Youngstown, Florida, approximately 1 mile Bonifay Series
east of U.S. Highway 231 on right side of dirt road,
SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 15, T. 1 S., R. 12 W. The Bonifay series is a member of the loamy,
siliceous, thermic family of Grossarenic Plinthic
A1l-0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; Paleudults. It consists of well drained, moderately slowly
single grained; loose; common fine and medium permeable, nearly level to sloping upland soils that
roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary, formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy material. The
A21-4 to 20 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches. Slopes
few grayish brown (10YR 5/2) stains along root range from 0 to 8 percent.
channels; single grained; loose; common fine and Bonifay soils are near the Albany, Blanton, Foxworth,
medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. Lakeland, Stilson, and Troup soils. Bonifay soils have
A22-20 to 47 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) more than 5 percent plinthite within a depth of 60
fine sand; single gained; loose; few to common inches; however, the Albany, Blanton, and Troup soils do
uncoated sand grains; few fine and medium roots; not contain plinthite. In addition, Bonifay soils are well
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. drained, whereas Albany soils are somewhat poorly







66 Soil Survey



drained and Blanton soils are moderately well drained. chroma of 3 to 8, value of 6 and chroma of 4 to 8, or
Bonifay soils have a loamy Bt horizon at a depth of less value of 7 and chroma of 3 or 4. Uncoated sand grains
than 60 inches, whereas Foxworth and Lakeland soils range from few in the upper part to many in the lower
are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches. Stilson part and are light gray or white.
soils have a loamy Bt horizon within a depth of 20 to 40 The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
inches and are moderately well drained. chroma of 4 through 8 and is mottled in shades of
Typical pedon of Bonifay sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, yellow, gray, brown, and red. The texture of the B2t
approximately 6 miles north of Fountain, 3 miles west of horizon is dominantly sandy clay loam but ranges to
U.S. Highway 231, NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 21, T. 2 N., R. 12 sandy loam. In the Bt horizon of many pedons, there are
W. few iron oxide pebbles and the content of plinthite
Ap-0 to 7 inches; brown (,10YR 5/3) sand; single ranges from 5 to 25 percent. In a few pedons, indurated
grained; loose; many fine roots; strongly acid; clear plinthite or streaks or thin layers of hard iron oxide occur
smooth boundary. at a depth of 60 to 80 inches.
A21-7 to 34 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; few fine faint pale brown mottles; single Centenary Series
grained; loose; common fine roots; few medium
roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. The Centenary series is a member of the sandy,
A22-34 to 54 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand; siliceous, thermic family of Grossarenic Entic
few medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) Haplohumods. It consists of moderately well drained,
and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; single moderately or moderately rapidly permeable soils that
grained; loose; few fine roots; few nodules of sandy formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediment. These
loam; few plinthite nodules; common uncoated sand nearly level soils are on slightly undulating uplands.
grains; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. A water table
B21t-54 to 58 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fluctuates between depths of 40 and 60 inches for 1
sandy loam; common medium distinct yellowish month to 3 months during most years and between
brown (10YR 5/6), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), depths of 30 and 40 inches for less than 30 cumulative
yellowish red (5YR 5/6), and red (2.5YR 4/6) days in some years.
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; Centenary soils are near Albany, Blanton, Chipley,
very friable; many uncoated sand grains; few Foxworth, Lakeland, Hurricane, and Troup soils. Albany,
plinthite nodules; few iron concretions; strongly acid; Blanton, and Troup soils all have an argillic horizon
clean smooth boundary. within 80 inches of the surface. Chipley soils are more
B22t-58 to 64 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) poorly drained than Centenary soils and do not have a
sandy clay loam; common medium distinct yellowish spodic horizon. Foxworth soils are similar to Centenary
brown (10YR 5/8), light gray (10YR 7/2), and red soils in most properties but do not have a spodic
(2.5YR 4/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular horizon. Hurricane soils are similar to Centenary soils in
blocky structure; friable; estimated 10 to 15 percent most soil properties but are more poorly drained.
plinthite; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Lakeland soils are excessively drained and do not have
B23t-64 to 80 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) a spodic horizon.
sandy clay loam; common medium distinct yellowish
brown (10YR 5/8) and yellowish red (5YR 5/6) Typical pedon of Centenary sand, 0 to 5 percent
mottles and common coarse distinct light gray slopes, in a planted slash pine plantation about 3-1/2
(10YR 7/2) and red (2.5YR 4/6) mottles; moderate miles north of Fountain, approximately 1/4 mile east of
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; streaks U.S. Highway 231, just west of St. Andrews and Bay Line
of hard induratedd) plinthite or iron concretions; more Railroad on north edge of pine plantation, NE1/4SE1/4
than 15 percent plinthite; strongly acid. sec. 2, T. 1 N., R. 12 W.
Solum thickness ranges from 60 to more than 80 Ap-0 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
inches. Unless the soil has been limed, reaction is grained; loose; few to common fine and medium
strongly acid or very strongly acid in all horizons. In roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
some pedons, a few small iron oxide pebbles occur A21-9 to 31 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
throughout the soil. single grained; loose; common fine roots; few
Total thickness of the A horizon is 40 to 60 inches but krotovinas about 3 inches in diameter filled with
is most commonly 40 to 56 inches. The Al or Ap horizon brown, yellow, and very pale brown sand; few
has hue of 10YR and has value of 3 and chroma of 2, uncoated sand grains; medium acid; clear smooth
value of 4 or 5 and chroma of 1 to 3, or value of 6 and boundary.
chroma of 1. The thickness ranges from 3 to 8 inches. A22-31 to 49 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/4) sand;
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR and has value of 5 and single grained; loose; common fine roots; common







Bay County, Florida 67



uncoated sand grains; medium acid; clear wavy Typical pedon of Chipley sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
boundary. in a wooded area about 6 miles north of West Bay,
A23-49 to 73 inches; white (10YR 8/2) sand; single approximately 100 feet east of State Highway 79
grained; loose; few fine roots; sand grains NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 20, T. 1 S., R. 16 W.
dominantly uncoated; medium acid; clear smooth
boundary. A11-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single
B1h-73 to 77 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) loamy grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; very
sand; single grained; loose; very few fine roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
about 50 to 75 percent of sand grains coated with A12-4 to 8 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
organic matter; strongly acid; clear smooth single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
boundary. very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B2h-77 to 80 inches; black (5YR 2/1) sand; single C1-8 to 20 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
grained; loose; sand grains well coated with organic sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very
material; very strongly acid. strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C2-20 to 30 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand;
Solum thickness exceeds 80 inches. Reaction ranges single grained; loose; few to common uncoated
from medium acid to very strongly acid throughout. sand grains; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
Texture is sand or loamy sand throughout. boundary.
The Ap or Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 Q3-30 to 38 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand;
through 5, and chroma 1 to 3 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 common medium faint light gray (10YR 7/2) and
or 5, and chroma of 2. The A21 and A22 horizons have common medium prominent reddish yellow (7.5YR
hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 3 6/8) mottles; single grained; loose; common
through 8, or they have hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 through uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid; gradual
8, and chroma of 2. The A23 horizon has hue of 10YR, wavy boundary.
value of 6 through 8, and chroma of 1 through 4. Few to C4-38 to 54 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
common yellowish brown or strong brown mottles and sand; few medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR
few to many uncoated sand grains occur in the lower 6/8) and common medium faint very pale brown
part of the A23 horizon. (10YR 7/3) and light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles; single
The Blh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and grained; loose; dominantly uncoated sand grains;
chroma of 1 to 3 or has hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, ahd very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
chroma of 2 or 3. Sand grains are not well coated with C5-54 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; few
organic matter, and the horizon does not meet the medium faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
criteria for a spodic horizon. The B2h horizon has hue of mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly acid.
10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 3 or less; hue of i a
7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value Thickness of sand exceeds 80 inches. Reaction
of 2 or 3, and chroma of 3 or less. ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid
throughout. The texture is sand or fine sand throughout.
Chipley Series Silt plus clay content in the 10- to 40-inch control section
The Chipley series is a member of the thermic, coated is 5 to 10 percent.
family of Aquic Quartzipsamments. It consists of The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
somewhat poorly drained, rapidly permeable, nearly level 5, and chroma of 1 or 2.
to sloping soils in upland flatwoods. These soils formed The C1 and C2 horizons have hue of 10YR and have
in thick beds of sandy marine sediment. They occur as value of 7 and chroma of 1 to 8 or value of 5 or 6 and
small to medium sized areas throughout the county but chroma of 3 through 8, or they have hue of 2.5Y, value
dominantly in the northern half. Landscapes are slightly of 6 or 8, and chroma of 4. In some pedons, few to
undulating and are dissected by ill defined to well common fine to large mottles or pockets of uncoated
defined drainage patterns. Slopes range from 0 to 8 sand grains occur in these horizons.
percent. In most years, a water table fluctuates between The C3, C4, and C5 horizons have hue of 10YR, value
depths of 20 and 40 inches for 1 month to 3 months and of 6 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 3 with few to common, fine
between depths of 40 and 60 inches for 3 to 6 months, or medium, reddish yellow or brownish yellow,
Chipley soils are near Albany, Blanton, Foxworth, segregated iron mottles indicative of a fluctuating water
Centenary, Lakeland, Plummer, and Hurricane soils. table. Depth to mottles is commonly 30 to 40 inches.
Albany, Blanton, and Plummer soils all have an argillic
horizon within 80 inches of the soil surface. Foxworth Corolla Series
and Lakeland soils are better drained than Chipley soils.
Centenary and Hurricane soils have a Bh horizon within The Corolla series is a member of the thermic,
55 to 80 inches of the surface. uncoated family of Aquic Quartzipsamments. It consists







68 Soil Survey


of moderately well drained and somewhat poorly conditions, the water table is at a depth of less than 10
drained, very rapidly permeable soils that formed in thick inches, or the soil is ponded for 6 to 12 months during
deposits of marine sands that have been reworked by most years. These soils are subject to tidal flooding.
wind and wave action. These gently sloping soils occur Dirego soils are near Bayvi, Dorovan, Leon, Osier,
on the lower part of side slopes of dunelike, undulating Pamlico, Pickney, Pottsburg, and Rutlege soils. Dirego
ridges near or adjacent to the coast. Slopes range from soils differ from all of the associated soils by having
2 to 6 percent. Depth to the seasonal high water table sulfidic materials. In addition, Bayvi, Leon, Osier,
ranges from 20 to 60 inches. Pickney, Pottsburg, and Rutlege soils are mineral soils.
Corolla soils are near Bayvi, Dorovan, Fripp, Osier, Typical pedon of Dirego muck in tidal marsh, 200 feet
and Pamlico soils. Dorovan and Pamlico soils have a west of State Highway 77 and 100 feet south of a paved
thick muck surface layer and are very poorly drained, road in Southport, SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 28, T. 2 S., R. 14
Bayvi soils are on tidal marshes and are very poorly W.
drained. Fripp soils are very similar to Corolla soils in
most soil characteristics but are excessively drained and Oa-0 to 28 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
have a water table at a depth of 72 inches or more. muck; about 40 percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5
Osier soils are poorly drained and have a seasonal high percent rubbed; massive; sticky; many fine and
water table within 20 inches of the surface, medium roots; high sulfur content; slightly acid in
Typical pedon of Corolla sand in an area of Fripp- natural wet state, extremely acid dry; gradual
Corolla complex, 2 to 30 percent slopes, approximately smooth boundary.
350 feet west of a paved road in St. Andrews State Park, IIC1-28 to 36 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
about 250 feet north of the Gulf of Mexico, mucky fine sandy loam; stratified with very dark gray
SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 22, T. 4 S., R. 15 W. (10YR 3/1); massive; very sticky; many fine and
medium roots; slightly acid wet, extremely acid dry;
A1-0 to 1 inch; gray (10YR 6/1, rubbed) sand; single gradual wavy boundary.
grained; loose; few fine roots; very low in organic IIC2-36 to 40 inches; dark gray (1OYR 4/1) loamy fine
matter; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. sand; streaks of very dark gray (10YR /1) loamy fine
C1-1 to 20 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single sand; streaks of very dark gray (10YR 3/1);
-grained; loose; medium acid; gradual wavysingle moderate medium granular structure; slightly sticky;
boundary, medium acid wet, extremely acid dry; gradual wavy
C2-20 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; common boundary.
lenses of black heavy minerals; few thin lenses of llC3-40 to 46 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
gray (10YR 5/1) sand that are probably remnants of stratified with dark gray (10YR 4/1) and very dark
Al horizons that have been covered by windblown gray (10YR 3/1); single grained; extremely acid dry;
sands; single grained; loose; medium acid. gradual wavy boundary.
IIC4-46 to 80 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
Reaction is medium acid to neutral in all horizons, streaks of very dark gray (10YR 3/1); many
Solum thickness exceeds 80 inches. Texture is sand or uncoated sand grains; extremely acid dry.
fine sand. Shell fragments occur in some pedons.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 0 to 3 inches in value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2 or 1, or; is neutral and
thickness. has value of 2 or 3. Sulfur content ranges from 0.75 to
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and 5.5 percent. The organic material is generally sapric. The
chroma of 1 or 2. It has few to common thin horizontal mineral content ranges from 25 to 50 percent. Reaction
bands of black heavy minerals. It also has a few gray ranges from slightly acid to neutral under natural moist
lenses that appear to be former Al horizons that have conditions and is extremely acid when dry.
been buried or covered by blowing and drifting sands. The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR;
Fragments of seashells occur in some pedons. This value of 2 through 6; and chroma of 1 to 3. Texture
horizon extends to a depth greater than 80 inches. ranges from sand, fine sand, and mucky sand to fine
sandy loam.
Dirego Series
The Dirego series is a member of the sandy or sandy- Dorovan Series
skeletal, siliceous, euic, thermic family of Terric The Dorovan series is a member of the dysic, thermic
Sulfihemists. It consists of very poorly drained, rapidly family of Typic Medisaprists. It consists of very poorly
permeable organic soils that formed from nonwoody drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in thick
halophytic plant remains over sandy marine sediment, deposits of well decomposed organic material. These
These level to nearly level soils occur in the tidal marsh. nearly level soils are in low depressional areas in the
Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent. Under natural uplands and flatwoods and along low gradient







Bay County, Florida 69



drainageways. Water covers the surface most of the time Ebro soils are near Dorovan, Pamlico, and Rutlege
unless the soil is artificially drained. Slopes are less than soils. In the subsurface layer, Dorovan soils have less
1 percent and are generally concave, than 40 percent mineral content on a weighted average.
Dorovan soils are near Alapaha, Allanton, Leon, Osier, Pamlico soils have organic surface and subsurface
Pamlico, Pansey, Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, Pottsburg, layers less than 50 inches thick. Rutlege soils are
and Rutlege soils. All the associated soils except the mineral throughout.
Pamlico soils are mineral. Pamlico soils have sandy Typical pedon of Ebro muck in an area of Ebro-
mineral material within a depth of 51 inches. Dorovan complex in a wooded flood plain, about 10 feet
Typical pedon of Dorovan muck in a depressional south of junction of Pine Log Creek and East River, 1/2
wooded area approximately 1/2 mile north of Fountain, mile west of Oakledge Fish Camp, about 2-1/2 miles
on west side of U.S. Highway 231 right-of-way, on west of Pine Log community in Bay County, about 10
Jupiter Creek flood plain, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 14, T. 1 N., miles north of Sunnyside Beach on the Gulf of Mexico,
R. 12W. NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 16, T. 1 S., R. 17 W.
Oal-0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck with some Oal-0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (1YR 3/2)
partly decomposed leaves, twigs, and moss; 30 to muck; less than 5 percent fiber rubbed; massive;
50 percent fiber unrubbed, 5 to 10 percent rubbed; slightly sticky;a percent mfier al content;; i
mrssved; fribers comaining ot a nd partly slightly sticky; about 30 percent mineral content;
massive; friable; common roots and partly many fine, medium, and coarse roots; very strongly
decomposed imbs; very strongly acid; diffuse wavy acid; gradual wavy boundary.
boundary. t0Y0 Oa2-6 to 24 inches; very dark gray (1OYR 3/1) muck;
Oa2-10 to 36 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 30 less than 5 percent fiber rubbed; massive; sticky;
percent fiber unrubbed, about 5 percent fiber less than 5 percent fiber rubbed; monassivent; many finicky;
rubbed; fibers remaining are partly decomposed estimated 45 percent mineral content; many fine,
roots and limbs; massive; friable; few to common medium, and coarse roots; very strongly acid;
fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; diffuse gradual wavy boundary.
wavy boundary. Oa3-24 to 74 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; less than
Oa3-36 to 60 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; 20 to 30 5 percent fiber rubbed; massive; sticky; many
percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed; medium and coarse roots; very strongly acid.
massive; friable; few undecomposed roots; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Thickness of the organic material is greater than 51
C g60 to 80 inchesid; ve ry dark grayish brown (1YR nches. Reaction is less than 4.5 in 0.01 M calcium
3/2) sand; sand grains mostly stained withyish brown (10YR chloride. Logs, stumps, roots, and fragments of woody
coatings, few uncoated sand grains; single grainedic material make up 0 to 20 percent of the organic layers.
coatings, few uncoated sand grains; single grained; There are few to common flakes or specks of mica in
loose; few partially decomposed roots; very strongly There are few on. M con flakes or specks of mica in
acid. some pedons. Mineral content in the organic horizons
ranges from 15 to 50 percent.
Thickness of the Oa horizon ranges from 51 to more The Oal horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3,
than 80 inches. Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral and has value of 2 or
acid. Reaction is less than 4.5 in 0.01 M calcium 3. The lower layers have hue of 7.5YR, 10YR, or 2.5Y;
chloride. The horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, value of 2 or 3; and chroma of 1 or 2 or are neutral and
and chroma of 1 or is neutral and has value of 2 or 3. It have value of 2 or 3. Fiber content is less than 10
is 10 to 40 percent fiber, unrubbed, and less than 1/6 percent rubbed. The organic layers are dominantly
fiber, rubbed, massive under natural wet conditions.
Some pedons have a IIC horizon. It has hue of 10YR,
value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is Foxworth Series
dominantly sand but ranges from sand to sandy loam.
The Foxworth series is a member of the thermic,
Ebro Series coated family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It consists of
moderately well drained, very rapidly permeable soils
The Ebro series are members of the dysic, thermic that formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediment.
family of Typic Medisaprists. It consists of deep, very These nearly level to sloping soils are on slightly
poorly drained, moderately permeable to moderately undulating uplands and side slopes leading to
slowly permeable soils. They formed in herbaceous and drainageways. Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent. A water
related woody hydrophytic plant remains and loamy table fluctuates between depths of 40 and 72 inches for
fluvial sediment. These soils are on broad, level flood 1 to 3 months during most years and between depths of
plains of the East River and Pine Log Creek and their 30 and 40 inches for less than 30 cumulative days in
tributaries. Slopes are less than 1 percent. some years.







70 Soil Survey



Foxworth soils are near Albany, Blanton, Chipley, mottles is commonly 44 to 60 inches but ranges from 40
Centenary, Lakeland, Stilson, and Troup soils. Albany, to 72 inches.
Blanton, Stilson, and Troup soils all have an argillic
horizon at a depth of less than 80 inches. Chipley soils Fripp Series
are more poorly drained than Foxworth soils. Centenary
soils have a dark organic stained layer within a depth of The Fripp series is a member of the thermic, uncoated
80 inches. Lakeland soils are excessively drained, family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It consists of
Typical pedon of Foxworth sand in a wooded area of excessively drained, very rapidly permeable soils that
Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, about 5 miles formed in thick deposits of marine sands that have been
west of U.S. Highway 231, about 1/4 mile east of Deep reworked by wind and wave action. These gently sloping
Point Lake, NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 19, T. 2 S., R. 13 W. to steep soils occur on dunelike, undulating ridges
adjacent to the coast. Slopes range from 2 to 30
A11--0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (1 OYR 5/2) sand; percent. Depth to the seasonal high water table is
single grained; loose; many fine roots; strongly acid; greater than 72 inches.
clear smooth boundary. Fripp soils are near Bayvi, Corolla, Dorovan, Kureb,
A12-4 to 8 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single Leon, Mandarin, Osier, Pamlico, and Resota soils. Fripp
grained; loose; common fine roots; strongly acid; and Corolla soils are very similar in most soil
clear smooth boundary. characteristics except that the Corolla soil has a
C1 -8 to 40 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) seasonal high water table at a depth of 20 to 60 inches
sand; single grained; loose; common fine roots; and is moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. drained. Dorovan and Pamlico soils have a thick muck
C2-40 to 54 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand; surface layer and are very poorly drained. Bayvi soils
common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) occur in tidal marsh areas subject to tidal flooding and
mottles and common fine faint pale brown mottles; are very poorly drained. Kureb and Resota soils are
single grained; loose; common uncoated sand similar to Fripp soils in some soil properties but have
grains; few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy more color in the subsurface layers and are farther from
boundary. the coast. Leon and Mandarin soils are more poorly
C3-54 to 68 inches; very pale brown (1 YR 7/3) sand; drained than Fripp soils and have an organic stained
many fine faint light gray and light yellowish brown sandy layer (spodic horizon) within 30 inches of the
mottles and few fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR surface. Osier soils are similar to Fripp soils in some soil
5/6) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; single properties but are poorly drained and have a water table
grained; few fine roots; many uncoated sand grains; within 10 inches of the surface for long periods.
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Typical pedon of Fripp sand in an area of Fripp-Corolla
C4-68 to 80 inches; light gray (1OYR 7/1) or white complex, 2 to 30 percent slopes, approximately 300 feet
(10YR 8/1) sand; common fine faint very pale brown west of a paved road and 200 feet north of the Gulf of
and light yellowish brown mottles and few fine Mexico, SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 22, T. 4 S., R. 15 W.
distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6, 5/8) mottles;
single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains, A1-0 to 3 inches; gray (10YR 5/1 rubbed) sand; single
strongly acid. grained; loose; few fine roots; very low organic
matter content; medium acid; clear smooth
Thickness of sand exceeds 80 inches. Reaction boundary.
ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid throughout. C11-3 to 25 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
The silt and clay content in the 10- to 40-inch control grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
section is 5 to 10 percent. boundary.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 C2-25 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; common
through 5, and chroma of 1 through 3 or has hue of lenses of black heavy minerals; few thin lenses of
2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2. gray (10YR 5/1) sand that are probably Al horizons
The C1 and C2 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 5 that have been covered by windblown sand; single
through 7, and chroma of 3 through 8 or have hue of grained; loose; strongly acid.
2.5Y, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 2. In some pedons
few to common fine to coarse mottles or pockets of Reaction is strongly acid to neutral in all horizons.
uncoated sand grains occur in these horizons but do not The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
indicate wetness. The C3 and C4 horizons have hue of chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 1 to 4 inches.
10YR, value of 6 through 8, and chroma of 1 through 4 The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and
and have few to common fine or medium strong brown chroma of 1 or 2. It has few to common thin horizontal
or yellowish brown segregated iron mottles, which are bands of black heavy minerals. It also has a few gray
indicative of a fluctuating water table. Depth to the lenses that appear to be former Al horizons that have







Bay County, Florida 71



been buried by blowing and drifting sand. This horizon percent of sand grains uncoated; strongly acid; clear
extends to a depth greater than 80 inches, smooth boundary.
B2h-55 to 80 inches; mixed black (5YR 2/1) and dark
Hurricane Series reddish brown (5YR 3/2) sand; weak medium
granular structure, crushes to granular; very friable;
The Hurricane series is a member of the sandy, noncemented; sand grains well coated with organic
siliceous, thermic family of Grossarenic Entic matter; very strongly acid.
Haplohumods. It consists of somewhat poorly drained,
moderately rapidly permeable soils that formed in thick Thickness of sand exceeds 80 inches. Reaction
beds of sandy marine sediment. These nearly level soils ranges from very strongly acid to strongly acid
are in small to moderately small flatwoods areas throughout. Texture is sand or fine sand throughout.
throughout the county but dominantly in the northern Depth to the spodic horizon is more than 50 inches.
half. Areas are dissected by lower lying, poorly defined The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through
to fairly defined drainageways. Slopes range from 0 to 2 5, and chroma of 1 through 3 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 4
percent. A water table fluctuates between depths of 40 or 5, and chroma of 2 or is neutral and has value of 4 or
and 60 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years and 5 d chroma of 2 or s neutral and has value of 4 or
between 20 and 40 inches for 1 month to 3 months in 5
eee and 40 inches for 1 month to 3 The A21 and A22 horizons have hue of 10YR or 2.5Y,
some years.
Hurricane soils are near Albany, Blanton, Chipley, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 4, but dominantly
Foxworth, Centenary, Leon, Allanton, Osier, Plummer, chroma are 3 or 5. The A23 and A24 horizons have hue
Pottsburg, and Rutlege soils. Albany, Blanton, and of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 4
Plummer soils all have an argillic horizon at a depth of but dominantly chroma of 1 or 2 with or without mottles
40 to 80 inches and do not have a spodic horizon, of higher chroma.
Chipley and Foxworth soils are sandy to a depth of more Some pedons have a B21h horizon. This horizon is
than 80 inches and do not have a spodic horizon, about 4 inches thick. It has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5,
Centenary soils are similar to Hurricane soils in most soil and chroma of 1 to 3. This horizon does not meet the
properties but are better drained. Leon soils are poorly criteria for a spodic horizon. The B22h horizon has hue
drained and have a spodic horizon at a depth of 10 to 30 of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3 or has
inches. Allanton soils are poorly drained and have an hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 4.
umbric epipedon. Osier soils are poorly or very poorly
drained and do not have a spodic horizon. Pottsburg Kureb Series
soils are similar to Hurricane soils in most soil properties
but are poorly drained. Rutlege soils are very poorly The Kureb series is a member of the thermic,
drained, do not have a spodic horizon, and have an uncoated family of Spodic Quartzipsamments. It consists
umbric epipedon. of deep, excessively drained, rapidly permeable soils that
Typical pedon of Hurricane sand in a wooded area formed in thick deposits of sandy marine, aeolian, or
about 100 yards east of U.S. Highway 231, fluvial sediment. These nearly level to sloping soils are
approximately 4 miles north of Fountain, NE1/4SW1/4 on uplands near the coast. Slopes range from 0 to 5
sec. 36, T. 2 N., R. 12 W. percent and are smooth to convex.
A- to 6 inches; grayish brown (YR 5/2) sand; Kureb soils are near Beaches and are adjacent to
single grained; loose; many fine and very fine roots; Foxworth, Lakeland, Leon, Mandarin, Resota, and Osier
strongly acid; clear smooth fine andry soils. Beaches are white, saline sands. Foxworth and
A21-6 to 10 inches; brown ( OYR 5/3) sand; single Lakeland soils are in a coated family. Leon and
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly Mandarin soils have a spodic horizon. Resota soils are
acid; clear wavy boundary. similar to Kureb soils in properties and horizons but are
A22--10 to 22 inches; light yellowish brown (1 YR 6/4) moderately well drained. Osier soils are very poorly
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium drained.
roots; few uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; Typical pedon of Kureb sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
gradual wavy boundary. approximately 8 miles west of Panama City, about 50
A23-22 to 34 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand; feet north of State Highway 30A, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 22,
single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains; T. 3 S., R. 16 W.
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
A24-34 to 51 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single A1--0 to 6 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2 rubbed)
grained; loose; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. sand uncoatedd sand grains and humus give a salt-
Blh-51 to 55 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/2) loamy sand; and-pepper appearance); single grained; loose;
weak medium subangular blocky structure, crushes many fine and medium roots; very strongly acid;
to granular; very friable; noncemented; about 25 clear smooth boundary.







72 Soil Survey


A2-6 to 14 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single A1-0 to 4 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) sand; single
grained; loose; few medium roots; very strongly acid; grained; loose; common fine roots; strongly acid;
abrupt smooth boundary, clear smooth boundary.
C&Bh-14 to 25 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) fine C1-4 to 8 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sand;
sand; very thin layer and lamellae of dark brown single grained; loose; common fine roots; strongly
(7.5YR 4/4); single grained; loose; few medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. C2-8 to 42 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sand;
C1-25 to 75 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; few uncoated
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
wavy boundary. C3-42 to 82 inches; very pale brown (1 YR 7/4) sand;
C2-75 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/4) sand; single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
pockets of white (1 YR 8/2) and a few streaks of strongly acid.
brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) in old root channels; Thickness of the sand exceeds 80 inches. Reaction is
single grained; loose; very strongly acid. strongly acid or very strongly acid throughout unless the
Thickness of the sandy horizons exceeds 80 inches. soil has been limed. Silt plus clay content in the 10- to
Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid 40-inch control section ranges from 5 to 10 percent.
throughout. Silt plus clay content in the 10- to 40-inch The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR and has value
throuout. Silt ls ca ent of 3 through 5 and chroma of 1 or 2 or has value of 4
onol seion is less and chroma of 3 or has hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 to 5, and
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through chroma of 2.
6, and chroma of 1 or 2 and has many uncoated or The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and
clean white grains. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, chroma of 3 through 8 or value of 5 and chroma of 4 to
value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. 8; hue of 7.5YR or 5YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of
The C part of the C&Bh horizon has hue of 10YR and 6 or 8; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 4.
value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8 or value of 7 or 8 Most of the sand grains between depths of 10 and 40
and chroma of 6 or 8. The Bh part has hue of 7.5YR, inches are uncoated. In some pedons, small pockets of
value of 4, and chroma of 2 or 4 or has hue of 10YR, light gray or white uncoated sand occur below a depth of
value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 4. 40 inches.
The C1 and C2 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 6
to 8, and chroma of 1 to 8 with few to common mottles Leefield Series
of gray and yellow.
The Leefield series is a member of the loamy,
Lakeland Series siliceous, thermic family of Arenic Plinthaquic Paleudults.
It consists of somewhat poorly drained, moderately
The Lakeland series is a member of the thermic, slowly permeable soils on the uplands of the Coastal
coated family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It consists of Plain. The soils formed in deposits of sandy marine
deep, excessively drained, very rapidly permeable soils material and occur throughout the eastern half of the
that formed in thick deposits of sandy marine or eolian county, generally in small areas in the flatwoods. The
sediment. These nearly level to steep soils are on landscape is dissected by poorly defined to moderately
uplands. Slopes range from 0 to 12 percent and are defined drainage patterns. Slopes range from 0 to 2
smooth to convex. The water table is at a depth of more percent. A perched water table is at a depth of 18 to 30
than 80 inches throughout the year. inches for about 4 months during most years.
Lakeland soils are near Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Leefield soils are near Alapaha, Albany, Chipley,
Chipley, Foxworth, and Troup soils. Albany soils are Foxworth, and Stilson soils. Alapaha soils are poorly
somewhat poorly drained and have an argillic horizon at drained, and Stilson soils are moderately well drained.
a depth of 40 to 60 inches. Blanton, Bonifay, and Troup Albany soils have an argillic horizon below a depth of 40
soils all have an argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches. Chipley and Foxworth soils are sandy to a depth
inches. Foxworth soils are moderately well drained and of 80 inches or more.
have a water table at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for brief Typical pedon of Leefield sand in a wooded area,
periods in the rainy season in most years. approximately 1/4 mile south of dirt road, about 4 miles
west of U.S. Highway 237, SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 2
Typical pedon of Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent N., R. 12 W.
slopes, approximately 3 miles west of U.S. Highway 231,
about 1-1/2 miles south of the Bay-Jackson County line, A11-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
100 feet north of Highway 27, NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 27, T. weak medium granular structure; very friable; many
2 N., R. 12 W. fine roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.







Bay County, Florida 73


A12-6 to 12 inches; dark grayish brown (O1YR 4/2) Leon Series
sand; weak medium granular structure; loose; many
fine and common medium roots; strongly acid; clear The Leon series is a member of the sandy, siliceous,
wavy boundary. thermic family of Aeric Haplaquods. It consists of poorly
A2-12 to 28 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) drained, moderately permeable to moderately rapidly
sand; few medium light gray (10YR 7/2), brownish permeable soils that formed in thick beds of sandy
yellow (10YR 6/8), yellow (10YR 7/6), and yellowish material. These nearly level soils occur in the flatwoods.
brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak medium granular The areas are dissected by poorly defined drainageways.
structure; loose; many fine and common medium Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The water table is
roots; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary, within 10 inches of the surface for 1 month to 4 months
B21t-28 to 36 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) and within 10 to 40 inches for more than 9 months in
sandy loam; common medium distinct light gray most years.
(10YR 7/2) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) Leon soils are near Mandarin, Osier, Pantego,
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; Plummer, and Pottsburg soils. Leon soils have a spodic
very friable; few fine and medium roots; very horizon within 30 inches of the surface; Osier, Pantego,
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. and Plummer soils do not. In addition, Plummer soils
B22t-36 to 48 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) have an argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches.
sandy clay loam; common medium distinct light gray Pantego soils have an umbric epipedon and an argillic
(10YR 7/1), yellowish brown (10YR 5/8), brownish horizon within 20 inches of the surface. Pottsburg soils
yellow (10YR 6/6), and strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) are similar to Leon soils, but the depth to the spodic
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky horizon is more than 50 inches. Mandarin soils are very
structure; friable; estimated 10 percent plinthite; very similar to Leon soils in most soil properties but are better
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. drained.
B23t-48 to 62 inches; reticulately mottled light gray Typical pedon of Leon sand in a planted forest of
(10YR 7/1), gray (10YR 5/1), yellowish brown slash pine approximately 3/4 mile north of Mine Testing
(10YR 5/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), yellowish red Laboratory and U.S. Highway 98, 3 miles south of West
(5YR 4/8), red (2.5YR 4/6), and very pale brown Bay along west side of woods road, NW1/4SW1/4 sec.
(10YR 7/3) sandy clay loam; moderate medium 19, T. 3 S., R. 15 W.
subangular blocky structure; firm; approximately 5
percent plinthite; very strongly acid; gradual wavy A1-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1 rubbed)
boundary, sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
B24tg-62 to 84 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) light many fine and medium roots; many uncoated sand
sandy clay loam; many coarse distinct yellowish grains give a salt-and-pepper appearance; very
brown (10YR 5/8) and gray (10YR 5/1) mottles and strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
many medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), A21-3 to 9 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; common
brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), and red (2.5YR 4/8) medium faint grayish brown streaks of sand along
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; root channels; single grained; loose; many medium
friable; less than 5 percent plinthite; very strongly and fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
acid. boundary.
A22-9 to 15 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; few
Solum thickness ranges from 60 to 80 inches or more. medium faint grayish brown streaks of sand along
Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid throughout root channels; single grained; loose; few medium
unless the soil has been limed. Depth to horizons and fine roots; common medium pores; very strongly
containing 5 percent or more plinthite ranges from 30 to acid; clear wavy boundary.
55 inches. B21h-15 to 18 inches; black (5YR 2/1) sand; weak
The B21t horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 6 medium subangular blocky structure parts to weak
or 7, and chroma of 4 to 8. Few to common gray, brown, fine granular; friable; many fine and medium roots
and yellow mottles occur in this horizon. The B22t and pores; more than 95 percent of sand grains
horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 8, and have organic coatings; very strongly acid; abrupt
chroma of 4 to 8 and common to many gray, brown, and wavy boundary.
red mottles. The B23t and B24tg horizons are commonly B22h-18 to 22 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
reticulately mottled with gray, brown, yellow, and red. In sand; common medium faint black (10YR 2/1)
some pedons, they have hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 mottles; distinct dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) streaks;
to 8, and chroma of 0 to 8 with common to many mottles weak fine subangular blocky structure parts to weak
in shades of red, brown, gray, and yellow. The Bt horizon fine granular; friable; few fine and medium roots;
is sandy loam or sandy clay loam. common fine pores; more than 95 percent of sand







74 Soil Survey


grains have organic coatings; very strongly acid; Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The water table is at a
clear wavy boundary. depth of 20 to 30 inches for 1 month to 3 months and at
B23h&B3-22 to 30 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/1) a depth of 30 to 60 inches for about 9 months in most
sand; common medium distinct vertical streaks of years.
dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) sand along root Mandarin soils are near Chipley, Centenary, Kureb,
channels; weak fine granular structure; friable; few Leon, Allanton, Resota, Pamlico, Pottsburg, Hurricane,
fine and medium roots and pores; many coated and Rutlege soils. Chipley and Rutlege soils do not have
sand grains; very strongly acid; gradual wavy a spodic horizon within 80 inches of the surface. Pamlico
boundary. soils are organic and are very poorly drained. Kureb and
B3-30 to 33 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; few faint Resota soils are better drained than Mandarin soils and
streaks of light brownish gray (10YR 6/2); single lack a spodic horizon. Leon soils are similar to Mandarin
grained; loose; few medium and fine roots; few fine soils in most properties but are more poorly drained.
pores; many uncoated sand grains; very strongly Centenary, Pottsburg, and Hurricane soils have a spodic
acid; gradual irregular boundary. horizon at a depth of 50 inches or more. In addition,
A'2-33 to 66 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) Centenary soils are better drained than Mandarin soils,
sand; common medium faint dark grayish brown and Pottsburg soils are poorly drained. Allanton soils are
(10YR 4/2) mottles; single grained; loose; few more poorly drained than Mandarin soils and have an
medium and fine roots; many uncoated sand grains; umbric epipedon and a spodic horizon at a depth of
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. more than 50 inches.
B'h-66 to 80 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) sand; Typical pedon of Mandarin sand in a wooded area,
single grained; loose; common medium distinct light approximately 125 feet north of U.S. Highway 98,
brownish gray (10YR 6/2) streaks and pockets; NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 3 S., R. 16 W.
many uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid.
The solum thickness is 80 inches or more. Reaction A1-0 to 7 inches; gray (10YR 5/1 rubbed) sand; single
ranges from strongly acid to extremely acid. graned; loose; many ilne and common meddum
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through roots;very strongly acid; clear wavy bound ry.
4, and chroma of 1 or 2. When dry, the Al horizon has a A2-7 to 25 inches; white (10YR 8/2) sand; single
salt-and-pepper appearance caused by mixing of organic grained; loose; medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
matter and uncoated white sand grains. The A2 horizon B21h-25 to 36 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) sand;
has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 through 8, and upper 1 inch is dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2); weak
chroma of 1 or 2. medium subangular blocky structure crushes to
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR; granular; friable; very strongly acid; diffuse boundary.
value of 2 or 3; and chroma of 1 to 3. In some pedons, B22h-36 to 57 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) sand;
vertical or horizontal streaks or pockets of gray or light weak medium granular structure; very friable; very
gray sand are in the Bh horizon. The B23h&B3 horizon strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 3 through 5, and C-57 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
chroma of 2 through 4. The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR sand; gradually changes to white with increasing
or 7.5YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 2 through depth; single grained; loose; very strongly acid.
4 with or without mottles of gray, brown, or yellow.
Some pedons have an A'2 horizon. This horizon has Reaction ranges from medium acid to very strongly
hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 7 through 7, and chroma acid.
of 1 or 2. In some pedons, the B3 horizon is underlain by The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through
a C horizon that extends to a depth of 80 inches or 5, and chroma of 1. The Al horizon has a salt-and-
more. It has hue of 10YR, value of 6 through 8, and pepper appearance as a result of mixing of organic
chroma of 3 or 4. Some pedons have a B'h horizon. The matter and uncoated white sand grains. The A2 horizon
B'h horizon is similar to the Bh horizon and occurs below has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 through 8, and
the A'2 or B3 horizon. chroma of 1 or 2.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
Mandarin Series chroma of 1 to 4; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma
of 2; or hue of 10YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1 or
The Mandarin series is a member of the sandy, value of 3 and chroma of 1 to 3. Vertical or horizontal
siliceous, thermic family of Typic Haplohumods. It streaks or pockets of gray or light gray sand occur in
consists of somewhat poorly drained, moderately some Bh horizons. Some pedons have a B3 horizon.
permeable soils that formed in thick beds of sandy The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
material. These nearly level soils are on knolls and chroma of 2 to 4 or has hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and
ridges in the flatwoods areas. Areas are dissected by chroma of 2 through 4 or value of 5 and chroma of 4. In
poorly defined to moderately defined drainageways. some pedons, it is mottled in gray, brown, or yellow.







Bay County, Florida 75



The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 through 8, Reaction is extremely acid to strongly acid throughout.
and chroma of 1 through 3. It extends to a depth of 80 Texture is sand or fine sand throughout. Thickness of
inches or more. the sandy horizons is 80 inches or more.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 5,
Osier Series and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is sand or fine sand.
The C or Cg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value
The Osier series is a member of the siliceous, thermic of 4 through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. The Cg horizon
family of Typic Psammaquents. It consists of poorly has few fine or medium mottles of pale brown or
drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in thick yellowish brown. Texture is sand or fine sand.
beds of Coastal Plain sandy marine sediment. These
nearly level soils occur in flatwoods and depressions Pamlico Series
throughout the county. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent and are
smooth to concave. The water table is within 10 inches The Pamlico series is a member of the sandy or
of the surface for 3 to 6 months in most years. sandy-skeletal, siliceous, dysic, thermic family of Terric
Depressional areas are ponded for 2 to 3 months in Medisaprists. It consists of very poorly drained,
rainy seasons, moderately permeable soils that formed in moderately
Osier soils are near Albany, Chipley, Dorovan, Leon, thick deposits of well decomposed organic material
Allanton, Pamlico, Pelham, Plummer, Pottsburg, overlying sandy mineral material. These nearly level soils
Hurricane, and Rutlege soils. Albany soils have an argillic are dominantly in depressional areas along low-gradient
horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches and are somewhat drainageways. Slopes are nearly level or concave and
poorly drained. Chipley soils are better drained than are less than 1 percent. The water table is near or above
Osier soils. Dorovan and Pamlico soils are organic soils. the soil surface except in periods of extended drought or
Leon, Allanton, Pottsburg, and Hurricane soils all have a where the soil is artificially drained.
spodic horizon within 80 inches of the surface. Pelham Pamlico soils are near Alapaha, Dorovan, Leon, Osier,
and Plummer soils are similar to Osier soils in drainage Pansey, Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, Pottsburg, and
but have an argillic horizon within 60 inches of the Rutlege soils. All the associated soils except Dorovan
surface. Rutlege soils are similar to Osier soils in soils are mineral soils. Dorovan soils are organic
drainage and in most properties but have an umbric materials to a depth of 51 inches or more.
epipedon. Typical pedon of Pamlico muck in an area of Rutlege-
pialpedon of Osier fine sand in a cultivated area Pamlico complex in a heavily wooded drainageway about
Typical pedon of Osier fine sand in a cultivated area, 1/4 mile south of Jackson County line, along east side
approximately 1 mile east of Farmdale Bayou, 70 feet of US Highway 231 right-of-way line, alonfina Creek,
south of dirt road, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 32, T. 5 S., R. 12 of U.S. Highway 231 right-of-way on Econfina Creek,
W. NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 24, T. 2 N., R. 12 W.
W.

Ap-0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1 rubbed) fine sand; a-0 to 32 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; weak
weak fine granular structure; very friable; common coarse granular structure; friable; few partly
weak fine granular structure; very friable; common decomposed leaves and twigs; approximately 30
uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid; clear wavy percent fiber unrubbed, less than 10 percent rubbed;
boundary, slightly sticky; very strongly acid; clear wavy
A&C--8 to 34 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1 rubbed) fine boundary.
sand; common fine faint streaks of very dark gray IcIC1g-32 to 60 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
(10YR 3/1); single grained; loose; very strongly acid; 3/2) sand; single grained; loose; many medium
gradual wavy boundary, roots; common uncoated sand grains; very strongly
C1g-34 to 44 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1 rubbed) fine acid; gradual wavy boundary.
sand; common streaks of uncoated sand grains; IIC2g-60 to 72 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual single grained; loose; few medium roots; many
wavy boundary, uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid.
C23g-44 to 61 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1 rubbed)
fine sand; few fine faint streaks of uncoated sand Depth to the underlying sandy material ranges from 16
grains; single grained; loose; very strongly acid; to 40 inches. Reaction is very strongly acid or extremely
gradual wavy boundary. acid. The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value
C3g-61 to 69 inches; gray (10YR 5/1 rubbed) fine of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral and has
sand; few fine faint streaks of uncoated sand grains; value of 2 or 3. Fiber content is 10 to 35 percent,
single grained; loose; extremely acid; gradual wavy unrubbed, and less than 10 percent, rubbed.
boundary. The IICg horizon ranges from sand to loamy sand. It
C4g-69 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2.
grained; extremely acid. Few to many uncoated sand grains occur in this horizon.







76 Soil Survey



Pansey Series brown (10YR 6/3) mottles; weak fine and medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; patchy clay films
The Pansey series is a member of the fine-loamy, on ped faces; estimated less than 10 percent
siliceous, thermic family of Plinthic Paleaquults. It plinthite by volume; very strongly acid.
consists of deep, poorly drained, slowly permeable soils
that formed in loamy marine sediment. These soils are The solum thickness is more than 60 inches. Unless
on broad flats and in poorly defined drainageways. They limed, the soil is very strongly acid or strongly acid in all
generally occur as small areas and most are in the horizons. In some places, the soil is up to 5 percent
northeastern part of the county. They have a water table strongly cemented ironstone pebbles throughout.
within 20 inches of the surface for 3 to 6 months in most Thickness of the A horizon ranges from 6 to 20
years. Slopes are less than 2 percent. inches. The Al horizon is 4 to 9 inches thick. It has hue
Pansey soils are near Alapaha, Albany, Leefield, of 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of 1 or 2 or
Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, and Stilson soils. Alapaha, has hue of 2.5Y, value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 2, or is
Leefield, and Pelham soils have a sandy A horizon that neutral and has value of 2 to 4. The A2 horizon has hue
is more than 20 inches thick. Albany and Plummer soils
have a sandy A horizon that is more than 40 inches thick of te A hoon i do antly loamy sand.
and have no plinthite or are less than 5 percent plinthite. ofthe Ahorizon is domiantly oamy sand.
Pantego soils have a very dark (umbric) surface layer The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
more than 10 inches thick. chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral and has value of 5 to 7. It
Typical pedon of Pansey loamy sand in a wooded area has few to many mottles of yellow, brown, and red. The
approximately 2 miles south of State Highway 20, lower part of the Bt horizon may be reticulately mottled
approximately 5 miles northeast of Youngstown, in gray, yellow, brown, and red. Texture of the B horizon
NW1/4NW1/4 sec. 12, T. 1 S., R. 12 W. ranges from sandy loam to sandy clay loam. Plinthite
content ranges from 5 to 30 percent.
A1-0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy
sand; moderate medium granular structure; very Pantego Series
friable; many fine and common medium roots; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. The Pantego series is a member of the fine-loamy,
A2-7 to 18 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) siliceous, thermic family of Umbric Paleaquults. It
loamy sand; few medium distinct light yellowish consists of very poorly drained, moderately permeable
brown (1 YR 6/4) and pale brown (10YR 6/3) soils on nearly level and slightly depressional areas.
mottles; weak medium granular structure; very Slopes are less than 2 percent. The water table is at a
friable; common fine and medium roots; very depth of 10 inches or less for 2 to 4 months during most
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
21tr18 to 2 inches; lht gray sandy years and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 3 to 6
B21tg-18 to 26 inches; light gray (1OYR 6/1) sandy months.
clay loam; few medium distinct light yellowish brown
(10YFR 6/4) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles Pantego soils are near Albany, Allanton, Dorovan,
and common medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) Hurricane, Osier, Pamlico, Pelham, Plummer, Pottsburg,
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; and Rutlege soils. Pantego soils have an umbric
friable; slightly sticky when wet; few patchy clay epipedon and an A horizon less than 20 inches thick,
films on ped faces; few plinthite nodules; very whereas Albany, Pelham, and Plummer soils have an
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. ochric epipedon and an A horizon more than 20 inches
B22tg-26 to 62 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy thick. In addition, Albany soils are better drained than
clay loam; few medium distinct pale brown (10YR Pantego soils. Hurricane, Osier, and Pottsburg soils have
6/3) mottles, common medium distinct yellowish an ochric epipedon and are sandy throughout. In
brown (10YR 5/8) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) addition, Pottsburg and Hurricane soils have a spodic
mottles and common medium prominent yellowish horizon at a depth of 50 to 80 inches. Dorovan and
red (5YR 4/6) mottles; moderate medium Pamlico soils are organic. Rutlege soils are sandy
subangular blocky structure; friable to firm; sticky throughout.
and slightly plastic when wet; estimated 10 percent Typical pedon of Pantego sandy loam in a wooded
plinthite nodules; clay films on faces of peds; very area approximately 1 mile north of Bennett Road and
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. 1/2 mile east of State Road 167, NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 15,
B23tg-62 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy T. 1 S., R. 13 W.
clay loam with lumps or splotches of loamy sand;
few medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8) A1-0 to 18 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy
mottles, many coarse distinct yellowish brown (10YR loam; weak medium granular structure; very friable;
5/8) mottles, and common medium distinct strong many fine and medium roots; high organic matter
brown (7.5YR 5/8), yellow (10YR 7/6), and pale content; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.







Bay County, Florida 77



B21tg-18 to 32 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy 79, about 4 miles south of Bay-Washington County line,
clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 23, T. 1 S., R. 16 W.
structure; friable; common fine and medium roots;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. A1-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single
B22tg-32 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay grained; loose; many fine and common medium
loam; common medium distinct brownish yellow roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
(10YR 6/6), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), strong A21-6 to 24 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
brown (7.5YR 5/6), and pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; few streaks of gray (10YR 5/1); single
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; grained; loose; many fine and few medium roots;
friable; thin patchy clay films on ped faces; very very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
strongly acid. A22-24 to 34 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and few medium roots;
Solum thickness is more than 60 inches. Reaction is very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
strongly acid or very strongly acid throughout. The A B21tg-34 to 38 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of sandy loam; few fine faint pale yellow mottles; weak
1, or it is neutral and has value of 2 or 3. Thickness medium subangular blocky structure; few fine roots;
ranges from 10 to 20 inches. very friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 7, boundary a;
and chroma of 1 or 2 or has hue of 2.5Y, value of 6 or 7, boundary.
and chroma of 2. It has few to common mottles of brown B22tg-38 to 58 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
and com of sandy clay loam; common medium distinct very pale
and yellow. Texture ranges from sandy loam to clay brown (10YR 7/4) and yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles
loam. The upper 20 inches of the B2t horizon has hue of bwn ( R 7 ad yellow (YR o
10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is ad w medium sn llos bron
neutral and has value of 4 through 7. It has few to 5/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
common mottles of higher chroma. Texture is sandy s f y ac gradual a
loam to sandy clay loam. boundary.
o s y l B23tg-58 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy
clay loam; common medium distinct pale brown
Pelham Series (10YR 6/3), yellow (10YR 7/6), yellowish brown
The Pelham series is a member of the loamy, (10YR 5/6), and yellowish red (5YR 4/6) mottles;
siliceous, thermic family of Arenic Paleaquults. It consists moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
of poorly drained, moderately permeable soils that friable; very strongly acid.
formed in deep, unconsolidated Coastal Plain marine Solum thickness is more than 80 inches. Reaction is
sediment. These nearly level soils occur on broad flats very strongly acid or strongy acid throughout all
to slightly depressional areas and poorly defined horizonsgly acid or strongly acid throughout all
drainageways. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent and are smooth The Al horizon has hue of 1ns.YR to 5Y, value of 2 to
to concave. 4, and chroma of 1, or it is neutral and has value of 2 to
The water table is within 15 inches of the surface for 3 4 and hroa o i has ue of to
to 6 months in most years. Depressional areas and 4. Texture is sand. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR to
poorly defined drainageways are frequently flooded or 5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral
pooded or 1 o 3 ohieys iare freenty sos oded o and has value of 4 to 7. Texture is dominantly sand but
pounded for 1 to 3 months in rainy seasons.
Pelham soils are near Alapaha, Albany, Chipley, ranges from sand to loamy sand.
Dorovan, Leon, Allanton, Osier, Pamlico, Plummer, The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to
Pottsburg, Hurricane, and Rutlege soils. Alapaha soils 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It has few to many mottles in
are very similar to Pelham soils in drainage and most soil shades of yellow, brown, red, and gray. Texture is
properties but differ by having more than 5 percent dominantly sandy clay loam but ranges to sandy loam.
plinthite within 60 inches of the surface. Albany and
Plummer soils have an argillic horizon below a depth of Pickney Series
40 inches. In addition, Albany soils are better drained
than Pelham soils. Chipley and Osier soils are sandy to a The Pickney series is a member of the sandy,
depth of more than 80 inches. In addition, Chipley soils siliceous, thermic family of Cumulic Humaquepts. It
are better drained than Pelham soils. Dorovan and consists of very poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils
Pamlico soils are organic. Allanton, Pottsburg, and that formed in sandy marine deposits. These nearly level
Hurricane soils all have a spodic horizon. Rutlege soils soils are on low broad flats and slightly depressional
have an umbric epipedon and are sandy throughout. areas along poorly defined drainageways. Slopes are
Typical pedon of Pelham sand in a grassy wooded nearly level and smooth to concave and are less than 2
area approximately 2-1/2 miles east of State Highway percent. The water table is at ornear the surface for 4







78 Soil Survey



to 6 months in most years. Many areas are frequently materials. These nearly level soils are on nearly level to
ponded after flooding in rainy seasons. depressional landscapes and along poorly defined
Pickney soils are near Alapaha, Allanton, Dorovan, drainageways. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. A water table
Leon, Pamlico, Pantego, Plummer, Pottsburg, Osier, and is within a depth of 10 inches for 3 to 6 months in most
Rutlege soils. Pickney soils have a very dark gray or years. Some depressional areas are ponded for 2 to 4
black Al surface layer more than 24 inches thick. months during the rainy season.
Alapaha, Leon, Plummer, Pottsburg, and Osier soils have Plummer soils are near Alapaha, Albany, Chipley,
an Al surface layer that is less than 10 inches thick. In Dorovan, Leefield, Leon, Allanton, Pamlico, Pansey,
addition, Alapaha and Plummer soils have a loamy Pelham, Pottsburg, Hurricane, Rains, and Rutlege soils.
argillic horizon within 60 inches of the surface. Leon and None of the associated soils have an argillic horizon,
Pottsburg soils have a dark, organic stained layer within except Albany soils, which are better drained than
80 inches of the surface. Allanton soils have an Al Plummer soils, and Alapaha soils, which have a loamy
surface layer less than 24 inches thick and have an subsoil with a depth of 40 inches. In addition, Leon,
organic stained layer within 80 inches of the surface. Allanton, Pottsburg, and Hurricane soils have a spodic
Dorovan and Pamlico soils are organic soils and do not horizon. Dorovan and Pamlico soils are organic.
have a mineral Al surface layer. Pantego soils have an Typical pedon of Plummer sand in an open field
Al horizon that is thinner than that of Pickney soils and approximately 400 feet east of Fox Avenue and 250 feet
is usually organic, and they have a loamy argillic horizon north of Lisa Lane, NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 8, T. 4 S., R. 13
within 20 inches of the surface. Rutlege soils are similar no W Lsa ae N1/4 /4 e .
to Pickney soils in most properties but have an Al
surface layer less than 24 inches thick. A1-0 to 7 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak fine
Typical pedon of Pickney fine sand in a planted slash granular structure; very friable; low organic matter
pine area approximately 18 miles southeast of Panama content; few medium and many fine roots; strongly
City, approximately 3 miles northwest of Mexico Beach, acid; clear wavy boundary.
about 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 98, NE1/4SE1/4 A2 7 to 25 inches; gray (YR 6/1) sand; single
sec. 5, T. 6 S., R. 12 W. grained; loose; common fine roots; strongly acid;
A1--0 to 30 inches; black (10YR 2/1 rubbed) fine sand; gradual wavy boundary.
weak fine granular structure crushes to single A22g-25 to 48 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand;
grained; very friable to loose; many fine and medium single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
AC-30 to 46 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1 rubbed) fine B21tg-48 to 59 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy loam;
sand; irregular streaks of black (10YR 2/1); single common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; very 5/6) mottles; moderate fine subangular blocky
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. structure; friable; strongly acid; gradual wavy
Cg-46 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1 rubbed) fine sand; boundary.
irregular streaks and lumps of yellowish brown B22tg-59 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay
(10YR 5/4) and few fine faint streaks or mottles of loam; common medium distinct red (2.5YR 4/6)
dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) and light gray mottles and few medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 7/1) uncoated sand grains; single grained; (10YR 5/6) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles;
loose; very strongly acid. moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
Depth to the Cg horizon is 30 to 60 inches. Reaction friable; strongly acid.
is very strongly acid to strongly acid throughout. Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid in all
The A horizon has hue of 5YR to 2.5Y, value of 2 or 3, horizons unless the soil has been limed. The solum
and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral and has value of 2 thickness is 72 inches or more.
or 3. Texture ranges from fine sand to loamy fine sand. The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2
Thickness ranges from 24 to 60 inches. through 4, and chroma of 1. Where value is 3 or less,
The Cg horizon has hue o 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 to thickness is less than 6 inches. The A2 horizon has hue
7, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral and has value of of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1 or
of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1 or
3 to 7. Texture ranges from sand to loamy sand. 2. Total thickness of the A horizon ranges from 40 to 60

Plummer Series inches.
The B21t horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 to
The Plummer series is a member of the loamy, 7, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral and has value of
siliceous, thermic family of Grossarenic Paleaquults. It 5 to 7. Few to many fine or medium brown and yellow
consists of poorly drained, moderately permeable soils mottles are throughout the horizon. Texture is sandy clay
that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine loam or sandy loam.







Bay County, Florida 79



The B22t horizon has colors similar to those of the All horizons are sand or fine sand to a depth of more
B21t horizon and many fine or medium brown, yellow, than 80 inches. Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly
and red mottles. Texture is sandy clay loam or sandy acid throughout the profile.
loam. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through
5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The A21 horizon has hue of
Pottsburg Series 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The
A22 and A23 horizons have hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value
The Pottsburg series is a member of the sandy, of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. The A2 horizon
siliceous, thermic family of Grossarenic Haplaquods. It has few to common, fine to medium, faint mottles of light
consists of poorly drained, moderately permeable soils gray, pale brown, or yellowish brown.
that formed in thick beds of Coastal Plain sandy marine The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 3
sediment. These nearly level soils are in the flatwoods. through 5, and chroma of 1 to 3; or it is neutral and has
Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. The water table is within 10 value of 2. Sand grains are well coated with organic
inches of the surface for 3 to 6 months in most years. matter.
Low-lying areas may be ponded for 2 to 6 months in
rainy seasons.
Pottsburg soils are near Albany, Chipley, Dorovan, Rains Series
Foxworth, Centenary, Leon, Allanton, Osier, Pamlico, T -
Plummer, Hurricane, and Rutlege soils. Albany, Chipley, The Rains series is a member of the fine-loamy,
Foxworth, Osier, Plummer, and Rutlege soils do not have siliceous, thermic family of Typic Paleaquults. It consists
a spodic horizon within 80 inches of the surface. In of poorly drained, moderately permeable soils hat
addition, Albany and Plummer soils have an argillic formed in thick beds of loamy marine sediment. These
horizon within 40 to 60 inches of the surface. Centenary nearly level soils are in low-lying positions of the Coastal
soils have profiles similar to those of the Pottsburg soils Plain and in depressional areas. Slopes range from 0 to
but are moderately well drained. Leon soils are similar to 2 percent. The water table is at a depth of less than 10
Pottsburg soils in drainage but have a spodic horizon inches for 2 to 6 months during most years.
within 30 inches of the surface. Dorovan and Pamlico Rains soils are near Albany, Chipley, Pantego, Pelham,
soils have a thick, dark, mucky surface layer more than Plummer, Hurricane, and Rutlege soils. Chipley,
20 inches thick. Allanton soils are similar to Pottsburg Hurricane, and Rutlege soils are sandy to a depth of 80
soils in drainage and in most soil properties but have a inches or more. In addition, Rutlege soils have an umbric
dark Al horizon that is high in content of organic matter epipedon. Albany, Pelham, and Plummer soils all have
and is more than 10 inches thick. Hurricane soils are an argillic horizon at a depth of more than 20 inches.
similar to Pottsburg soils in most properties but are Pantego soils are poorly drained and have an umbric
better drained. epipedon.
Typical pedon of Pottsburg sand in a wooded area Typical pedon of Rains sand in a grass field
approximately 0.2 mile east of U.S. Highway 231, about approximately 0.25 mile north of a dirt road and 0.25
0.4 mile north of Atlantic and St. Andrews Railroad, mile east of Pine Log Creek, NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 8, T. 1
NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 36, T. 2 N., R. 12 W. S., R. 16 W.
A1-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single A1-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; very weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. and few medium roots; low organic matter content;
A21-5 to 12 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; A2-6 to 13 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, grained; loose; few fine roots; very low organic
A22-12 to 30 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) matter content; very strongly acid; clear wavy
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium boundary.
roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. B21tg-13 to 26 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay
A23-30 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single loam; few medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear smooth 5/6) mottles and common large faint pale brown
boundary. mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
Blh-60 to 64 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single friable; few fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual
grained; estimated 30 to 40 percent of sand grains wavy boundary.
coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear B22tg-26 to 58 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay
smooth boundary, loam; common medium distinct reddish yellow
B2h-64 to 80 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; (7.5YR 6/6) mottles and many large faint pale
single grained; loose; sand grains coated with brown and few fine prominent red mottles; weak
organic matter; very strongly acid. medium subangular blocky structure; friable; clay







80 Soil Survey



films on ped faces; very strongly acid; gradual wavy and medium roots; salt-and-pepper appearance
boundary, when dry; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
B23tg-58 to 73 inches; mixed gray (10YR 6/1) pale A2-4 to 19 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
brown (10YR 6/3) and reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) single grained; loose; few medium roots; strongly
sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy B21-19 to 27 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
boundary. sand; about 20 percent of horizon is light gray
Cg-73 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) loamy sand; (10YR 7/1) sand from horizon above; single grained;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid. loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B22-27 to 42 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; few
The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction coarse distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles
ranges from very strongly acid to strongly acid or nodules; single grained; loose; strongly acid;
throughout, gradual smooth boundary.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and C1-42 to 51 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/4) fine
chroma of 1. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of sand; few fine and medium distinct light gray (10YR
5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture of the A horizon is 7/1) mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid;
sand or loamy sand. Total thickness ranges from 4 to 14 gradual wavy boundary.
inches. C2-51 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand;
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, streaks and mottles of very pale brown (10YR 7/3)
and chroma of 1 or 2 and has few to many mottles in and few medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
shades of red, yellow, and brown. The lower part of the 5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid.
B2tg horizon is generally mixed gray, red, yellow, and
brown. Texture is predominantly sandy clay loam but Thickness of the sand exceeds 80 inches. Reaction is
ranges to sandy loam in the upper few inches in some strongly acid or very strongly acid throughout. The silt
pedons. Average clay content in the control section is 18 plus clay content in the 10- to 40-inch control section is
to 35 percent. less than 5 percent.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
chroma of 1. Texture ranges from sand to sandy clay. chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is sand or fine sand. A mixture
of dark organic matter and light gray sand grains gives
Resota Series the surface horizon a salt-and-pepper appearance. The
s A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and
The Resota series is a member of the thermic, chroma of 1 or 2.
uncoated family of Spodic Quartzipsamments. It consists The B horizon has hue of 10YR and value of 5 or 6
of deep, moderately well drained, very rapidly permeable and chroma of 4 to 8, or value of 7 and chroma of 6 or 8
soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy marine or has hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6 or 8.
sediment. These nearly level to gently sloping soils are Few to common yellowish or reddish mottles are in the B
on low ridges near the Gulf coast in the southern part of horizon below a depth of 40 inches. In some pedons, a
the county. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent and are thin Bh horizon is at the base of the A2 horizon and
smooth to convex. A water table is at a depth of 40 to surrounds tongues of A2 horizon material. The Bh
60 inches in wet seasons. horizon has hue of 10YR to 2.5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
Resota soils are near Chipley, Foxworth, Kureb, Leon, chroma of 1 to 3.
Mandarin, and Fripp soils. Chipley and Foxworth soils do The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and
not have an albic horizon and have no evidence of any chroma of 1 to 4.
spodic properties. In addition, Chipley soils are
somewhat poorly drained. Kureb soils are similar to Rutlege Series
Resota soils in most properties but are excessively
drained. Leon and Mandarin soils have a thick spodic The Rutlege series is a member of the sandy,
horizon within a depth of 30 inches and are more poorly siliceous, thermic family of Typic Humaquepts. It consists
drained than Resota soils. Fripp soils do not have spodic of very poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that
properties. Fripp soils are excessively drained, formed in sandy marine deposits. These nearly level
Typical pedon of Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent soils are in slightly depressional areas. Slopes are
slopes, in a wooded area approximately 8 miles west of smooth to concave and are less than 2 percent. The
Panama City, 100 feet north of U.S. Highway 98, water table is at or near the surface for 4 to 6 months
NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 3 S., R. 16 W. annually. Many depressional areas are frequently
ponded.
A1-0 to 4 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2 Rutlege soils are near Chipley, Dorovan, Mandarin,
rubbed) fine sand; single grained; loose; many fine Leon, Allanton, Pamlico, Pantego, Pickney, Plummer,







Bay County, Florida 81



Pottsburg, Hurricane, Osier, and Rains soils. Rutlege have an argillic or spodic horizon. Leon soils do not have
soils are more poorly drained than Chipley, Leon, an argillic horizon. Pantego soils have an umbric
Mandarin, Plummer, Pottsburg, Hurricane, Osier, and epipedon and do not have a spodic horizon.
Rains soils. In addition, Leon, Mandarin, Pottsburg, and Typical pedon of Sapelo sand in pasture, on the east
Hurricane soils have a spodic horizon, and Plummer and side of Fox Street in Calloway, about 1,700 feet south of
Rains soils have an argillic horizon. Pickney soils have State Highway 22, SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 7, T. 4 S., R. 13
an umbric epipedon that is more than 24 inches thick. W.
Allanton soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of more
than 50 inches. Dorovan and Pamlico soils are organic. Ap-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; single
Pantego soils have an argillic horizon within 29 inches of grained; loose; many fine roots; strongly acid; clear
the surface. smooth boundary.
Typical pedon of Rutlege sand in a wooded area A2-6 to 20 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
approximately 0.4 mile east of U.S. Highway 98, about grained; loose; many fine roots; strongly acid; abrupt
0.5 mile west of County Road 30D, NW1/4SE1/4 sec. smooth boundary.
26, T. 3 S., R. 16 W. B2h-20 to 27 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/1) sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure
A11--0 to 13 inches; black (1OYR 2/1) sand; weak fine crushes to granular; friable; strongly acid; gradual
granular structure; very friable; few medium and fine wavy boundary.
roots; high organic matter content; very strongly A'21-27 to 42 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand;
acid; gradual wavy boundary. single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
A12-13 to 22 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; boundary.
single grained; loose; few fine roots; medium organic A'22-42 to 58 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand;
matter content; very strongly acid; gradual smooth single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary. boundary.
Clg-22 to 55 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single B'2t-58 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy sandy loam; few fine faint yellowish brown mottles;
boundary. weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
C2g-55 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; few strongly acid.
fine to medium faint gray and light yellowish brown
mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly acid. Solum thickness ranges from 70 to 80 inches or more.
o te Cg h n is 10 to 2 R n Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid. Depth to
Depth to the Cg horizon is 10 to 24 inches. Reaction the Bh horizon is 10 to 24 inches, and depth to the B'2t
is extremely acid or very strongly acid throughout. horizon is 40 to 70 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and The Ap or Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral and has value of 2 or 3. 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. The A2 horizon has hue of
Thickness is greater than 10 inches. Texture is sand or 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2.
loamy sand. Texture of the A horizon is sand or fine sand.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 4 to Texte Bh hoiz hoas hu i of 10YR, 7.5, or YR;.
7, and chroma of 1 or 2 if mottled or chroma of 1 if not value of 2 to 4; and chrome of 1 through 4. Some
mottled. In some pedons, it has few to many mottles of pedons have a Bh&B3 horizon. This horizon has hue of
brown, yellow, and gray. 10YR, value of 3 to 7, and chroma of 3 or 4.
Sapo S s The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value
Sapelo Series of 5 through 8; and chroma of 1 through 4.
The Sapelo series is a member of the sandy, siliceous, The B't horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value of
thermic family of Ultic Haplaquods. It consists of poorly 5 through 8; and chroma of 1 through 6. It has few to
drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in thick many mottles in shades of red, yellow, and brown.
beds of sandy material over loamy material. These Texture of the B't horizon is dominantly sandy loam but
nearly level soils are in small or very small areas of the includes sandy clay loam.
flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The water
table is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 4 months Stilson Series
in most years and within 40 inches for about 9 months in
most years. The Stilson series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
Sapelo soils are near Albany, Chipley, Dorovan, thermic family of Arenic Plinthic Paleudults. It consists of
Leefield, Leon, Pamlico, Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, and moderately well drained, moderately permeable soils that
Rutlege soils. Albany, Leefield, Pelham, and Plummer formed in thick beds of loamy and clayey marine
soils do not have a spodic horizon. Dorovan and Pamlico sediment. These nearly level to sloping soils are on
soils are organic soils. Chipley and Rutlege soils do not broad upland areas and side slopes leading to







82 Soil Survey


drainageways. A perched water table is above the value of 7 and chroma of 4. Texture is loamy sand or
subsoil briefly in winter and early in spring. Slopes range sand.
from 0 to 8 percent. The B21t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
Stilson soils are near Alapaha, Albany, Blanton, and chroma of 4 to 8 or has hue of 2.5Y and value of 6
Bonifay, Dorovan, Leefield, Pamlico, and Pelham soils. and chroma of 4 or 6 or value of 7 and chroma of 6 or 8.
Alapaha soils are poorly drained and do not have The B22t horizon has hue of 10YR and value of 5 and
plinthite. Albany, Blanton, and Bonifay soils have an A chroma of 4 or 6, value of 6 and chroma of 4 to 8, or
horizon more than 40 inches thick. Dorovan and Pamlico value of 7 and chroma of 6 or has hue of 2.5Y and value
soils are organic. Leefield soils have mottles with chroma of 6 and chroma of 4 or value of 7 and chroma of 8.
of 2 or less within a depth of 30 inches. Few to common distinct and prominent red, yellowish
Typical pedon of Stilson sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, red, strong brown, and pale brown mottles are
in Bear Creek area, approximately 1/4 mile northwest of throughout the horizon. The t horizon is re
U.S. Highway 231, on north side of dirt road, throughout the horizon. The B23t horizon is reticulately
NW1/4SW1/4 sec231, on north side of dirt road,12 W mottled red, yellow, brown, and gray. Texture of the Bt
Horizon is sandy clay loam or sandy loam. Plinthite
A1-0 to 7 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; moderate content is 5 to 35 percent between depths of 30 and 50
medium granular structure; very friable; very strongly inches.
acid; clear smooth boundary.
A21-7 to 22 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) Troup Series
loamy sand; moderate medium granular structure;
very friable; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. The Troup series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
A22-22 to 34 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) thermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It consists of
loamy sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; well drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in
clear wavy boundary. thick deposits of sandy and loamy marine sediment.
B21t-34 to 38 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) These nearly level to strongly sloping soils are in the
sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky northern part of the county on broad upland areas and
structure; very friable; strongly acid; clear wavy hillsides leading to drainageways. Slopes range from 0 to
boundary. 12 percent. The water table is below a depth of 72
B22t-38 to 58 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) inches.
sandy clay loam; common medium distinct yellowish Troup soils are near Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipley,
brown (10YR 5/8) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) Foxworth, and Lakeland soils. Troup soils are better
and few medium distinct light brownish gray (1 OYR drained than Albany and Blanton soils and do not have
6/2) mottles in lower part; moderate medium mottles of chroma of 2 or less in the subsoil. Bonifay
subangular blocky structure; friable; few medium and soils have plinthite within 60 inches of the surface.
fnesils have plihite within 60 inches of the surface.
fine roots; estimated 15 percent plinthite; few Chipley and Foxworth soils are sandy to a depth of 80
ironstone nodules; very strongly acid; clear wavy inches or more and are more poorly drained than Troup
boundary soils. Lakeland soils are well drained to excessively
B23t-58 to 80 inches; reticulately mottled light gray drained and are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more.
(10YR 7/1), brownish yellow (10YR 6/8), weak red draned and are sandy to a de of 80 nches or more
(2.5YR 5/2), and red (2.5YR 4/8) sandy clay loam; Typical pedon of Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, in
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; a slash pine plantation on the north side of U.S. Highway
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; estimated 10 percent plinthite; very strongly 231, approximately 1/2 mile south of Bear Creek,
acid. SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 17, T. 2 S., R. 12 W.
Solum thickness ranges from 60 to 80 inches or more. Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid throughout weak medium granular structure; loose; many fine
except where the soil has been limed. Depth to horizons roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
containing 5 percent or more plinthite ranges from 30 to A21-8 to 18 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sand;
50 inches. Content of ironstone nodules ranges from 0 weak medium granular structure; loose; many fine
to 5 percent in the A horizon and upper part of the Bt roots and common medium roots; strongly acid;
horizon. clear wavy boundary.
The A horizon ranges from 20 to 40 inches in A22-18 to 44 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sand;
thickness. The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value weak medium granular structure; loose; few fine and
of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1 or 2; has hue of 2.5Y, value medium roots; few uncoated sand grains in lower
of 4, and chroma of 2; or it is neutral and has value of 3 part; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
or 4. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, A23-44 to 48 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
and chroma of 4 or has hue of 2.5Y and value of 5 and loamy sand; moderate medium granular structure;
chroma of 2 to 6, value of 6 and chroma of 2 to 8, or very friable; few fine and medium roots; few







Bay County, Florida 83



uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; diffuse wavy The solum thickness is 80 inches or more. Reaction is
boundary. strongly acid or very strongly acid in all horizons except
B21t-48 to 56 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy where the soil has been limed.
loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3
very friable; sand grains coated and bridged with through 6, and chroma of 2 to 4. The A2 horizon has
clay; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3
B22t-56 to 80 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/8) sandy through 8. The texture of the A horizon is dominantly
clay loam; few medium distinct yellowish brown sand but ranges to loamy sand. The thickness of the A
(10YR 5/8) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; horizon ranges from 40 to 80 inches but is commonly 46
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; sand to 66 inches.
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; sand The B2t horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 4
grains coated and bridged with clay; friable; strongly to 5, and chroma of 6 or 8 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 or
acid. 6, and chroma of 6 or 8. Texture is sandy clay loam or
sandy loam.




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