• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 How to use this soil survey
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 Summary of tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Tables
 Index to map
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Bradford County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026065/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Bradford County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 162, 3 p., 44 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dearstyne, David A
Leach, Darrell E
Sullivan, Kevin J ( Kevin James ), 1960-
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1991]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Bradford County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Bradford County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 101-102).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Item 102-B-9.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Prepared by David A. Dearstyne, Darrell E. Leach, and Kevin J. Sullivan.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 92-109-P.
General Note: "Issued October 1991"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026065
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001720278
notis - AJD2722
oclc - 28150217
lccn - 92218541

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    Summary of tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    How this survey was made
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Map unit composition
            Page 11
        Confidence limits of soil survey information
            Page 11
            Page 12
    General soil map units
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
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        Page 33
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        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 53
        Crops and pasture
            Page 53
            Page 54
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 55
            Page 56
        Grazeable woodland
            Page 57
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 58
        Recreation
            Page 58
            Page 59
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 60
        Engineering
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
    Soil properties
        Page 67
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 68
        Soil and water features
            Page 69
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
        Engineering index test data
            Page 73
            Page 74
    Classification of the soils
        Page 75
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 75
        Albany series
            Page 75
        Allanton series
            Page 76
        Blanton series
            Page 77
        Chipley series
            Page 78
        Croatan series
            Page 78
        Dorovan series
            Page 79
        Elloree series
            Page 79
        Foxworth series
            Page 80
        Grifton series
            Page 80
        Hurricane series
            Page 81
        Lakeland series
            Page 82
        Leon series
            Page 82
        Mascotte series
            Page 83
        Meadowbrook series
            Page 84
        Ocilla series
            Page 84
        Osier series
            Page 85
        Ousley series
            Page 86
        Pamlico series
            Page 86
        Pantego series
            Page 87
        Pelham series
            Page 87
            Page 88
        Penney series
            Page 89
        Plummer series
            Page 89
        Pottsburg series
            Page 90
        Sapelo series
            Page 91
        Starke series
            Page 92
        Surrency series
            Page 93
        Troup series
            Page 93
        Wampee series
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
    Formation of the soils
        Page 97
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 97
        Processes of horizon differentiation
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
    References
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Glossary
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Tables
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
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        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Index to map
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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Full Text


United States
Department of
Agriculture
Soil
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with
the University of Florida,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil
Science Department; and
the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services


Soil Survey of

Bradford County,

Florida


f


ii


s


I


r
r


"T















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps


The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas.


To find information about
your area of interest,
locate that area on the
Index to Map Sheets,
which precedes the soil
maps. Note the number of
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet.


Locate your area of
interest on the map
sheet. Note the map unit
symbols that are in that
area. Turn to the Index
to Map Units (see Con-
tents), which lists the map
units by symbol and
name and shows the
page where each map
unit is described.


MAP SHEET


AREA OF INTEREST
NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
survey may consist only of numbers or
letters, or they may be a combination
of numbers and letters.


MAP SHEET


The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.


1^ r 13 5
16 ..17 1 .
INDEX TO MAP SHEETS



















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal part
of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1987. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1988. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1988. This survey was
made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the University of Florida,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services. The Bradford County Board of County Commissioners
contributed funds for acceleration of the survey. The survey is part of the
technical assistance furnished by the Bradford County Soil and Water
Conservation District. Additional assistance was provided by the Florida
Department of Transportation.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
This survey supersedes the soil survey of Bradford County published in 1914
(23).
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: One of the many lakes in Bradford County, which provide habitat for wildlife and
opportunities for recreational activities.


I I
















Contents


Index to map units ............................. iv
Summary of tables ............................... v
Foreword ..................... ................ vii
General nature of the county ....................... 1
How this survey was made......................... 8
Map unit composition .......................... 11
Confidence limits of soil survey information ...... 11
General soil map units ......................... 13
Detailed soil map units .......................... 19
Use and management of the soils ................ 53
Crops and pasture ........................... 53
Woodland management and productivity ........ 55
Grazeable woodland .......................... 57
Windbreaks and environmental plantings......... 58
Recreation ................................... 58
W wildlife habitat................... ............. 60
Engineering ................................... 61
Soil properties ................................. 67
Engineering index properties ................... 67
Physical and chemical properties ............... 68
Soil and water features........................ 69
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses
of selected soils ...................... 70
Engineering index test data .................... 73
Classification of the soils ......................... 75
Soil series and their morphology ................. 75
Albany series .................................. 75
Allanton series.................. .............. 76
Blanton series ................................ 77
Chipley series ................................ 78


Croatan series ............................... 78
Dorovan series ............................... 79
Elloree series ................ .. .............. 79
Foxworth series................................ 80
Grifton series ................................. 80
Hurricane series .............................. 81
Lakeland series ............................. 82
Leon series .................. .. .............. 82
Mascotte series.............................. 83
Meadowbrook series .... ..................... 84
Ocilla series .................................. 84
Osier series ...................... ........... 85
Ousley series .............. .................. 86
Pamlico series .................... ........... 86
Pantego series................................ 87
Pelham series ................................ 87
Penney series ............. ..... .............. 89
Plummer series ............. ................. 89
Pottsburg series ................... ........... 90
Sapelo series ................................. 91
Starke series .................................. 92
Surrency series ................................ 93
Troup series .................. ................ 93
Wampee series ................ ............... 94
Formation of the soils ............................ 97
Factors of soil formation ....................... 97
Processes of horizon differentiation ............ 98
References ................................... 101
Glossary................................. 103
Tables..................................... 111


Issued October 1991


iii
















Index to Map Units


2-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .........
3-Ocilla fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .........
4-Mascotte sand ...............................
5-Penney sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...........
6-Plummer-Plummer, wet, sands ................
7-Surrency and Pantego soils, depressional.......
8-Surrency and Pantego soils, frequently
flooded ...................................
9-Starke mucky fine sand, frequently flooded......
10-Osier sand ..................................
11-Allanton loamy sand .........................
12-Sapelo sand ................................
13-Hurricane sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .........
14-Pamlico and Croatan mucks .................
15-Pottsburg sand .............................
16-Foxworth fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......
17-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......
18-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ..........
19- Leon sand ..................................
20-Grifton and Elloree soils, frequently flooded ....
21-Beaches, 1 to 5 percent slopes ..............
22-Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......


19
20
21
22
23
24

25
26
27
28
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
36
37
38
39


23-Pelham-Pelham, wet, fine sands ............. 40
24-Starke mucky fine sand, depressional ......... 41
25-Fluvaquents-Ousley association, occasionally
flooded ..................................... 42
26- Urban land .................................. 43
28-Arents, moderately wet, 0 to 5 percent
slopes...................................... 43
29-Dorovan muck, frequently flooded ........... 43
30-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............. 44
35-Wampee loamy fine sand, 5 to 12 percent
slopes...................................... 45
36-Udorthents, steep ............................. 46
37-Pamlico and Croatan mucks, frequently
flooded .................................... 46
38-Penney sand, rolling ........................ 47
39-Blanton fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ...... 48
40-Troup sand, rolling ............................ 49
43-Dorovan muck .............................. 50
44-Hydraquents, level ......................... 50
45-Meadowbrook and Allanton soils, frequently
flooded..................................... 50
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) .................................. 112

Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2) .................................. 112

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3) .................. 113
Acres. Percent.

Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 4)... 114
Land capability. Corn. Soybeans. Pecans. Watermelons.
Strawberries. Bahiagrass. Grass hay.

Woodland management and productivity (table 5)........................ 116
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.

Recreational development (table 6) ..................................... 122
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.

Wildlife habitat (table 7) .............................................. 126
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.

Building site development (table 8) ...................................... 129
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.

Sanitary facilities (table 9) .............................................. 133
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.

Construction materials (table 10) ...................................... 137
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.

W ater management (table 11)........................................... 140
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.


v




















Engineering index properties (table 12) .................................. 145
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 13) .................. 151
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Shrink-swell potential.
Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.

Soil and water features (table 14) ..................................... 154
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.

Physical analyses of selected soils (table 15) ............................ 157
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.

Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 16)............................ 159
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate-dithionite extractable.

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 17) ........................... 160
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay minerals.

Engineering index test data (table 18) .................................. 161
Classification-AASHTO, Unified. Mechanical analysis.
Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Moisture density.

Classification of the soils (table 19).................. ........... ....... 162
Family or higher taxonomic class.















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Bradford County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected
land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters, and
agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan
land use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to
ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists
in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use
the survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are too unstable to be used
as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to
use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly
suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service


vii





1


Soil Survey of

Bradford County, Florida


By David A. Dearstyne, Darrell E. Leach, and Kevin J. Sullivan, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services



BRADFORD COUNTY is in north-central Florida (fig. 1).
It is bordered on the north by Baker County, on the east
by Clay County, on the south by Alachua County, andTALLAS
on the west-northwest by Union County. The Santa Fe
River and Santa Fe Lake form its southern boundary,
and the New River forms its west-northwest boundary.
The county is 29 miles wide from north to south along
its eastern border and 22 miles from east to west
across the center.
The total area of Bradford County is 192,100 acres,
or 300 square miles. According to a 1984 census, the
population of the county is 23,498. Starke, the county
seat, is the largest town in the county. It has a
population of 5,448.
Forestry and the Florida State Prison are the
principal enterprises in the county (31). The state prison
is about 8 miles northwest of Starke, in an area along
the New River.


General Nature of the County Figure 1.-Location of Bradford County in


This section gives general information about the
county. It describes history and development, climate,
geomorphology, stratigraphy, ground water, mineral
resources, natural resources, recreation, and
transportation facilities.

History and Development
Eugene L. Matthews, president, Bradford County Historical Board
of Trustees, prepared this section.
The earliest settlers of Bradford County came mainly
from Georgia and South Carolina. They were attracted


by the native pine forests and the inexpensive land,
which was suitable for sea island cotton, the main cash
crop of the early period. Until the advent of the railroad,
cotton growers and producers of naval stores hauled
their products by ox or mule team to Middleburg, where
water transportation to Jacksonville was provided by
way of Black Creek and the St. Johns River.
Bradford County was established by an act of the
Florida Legislature on December 6, 1861, when New
River County was divided. The southern half of New


Florida.






Soil Survey


River County became Bradford County, and the
northern half became Baker County. The county was
named in honor of Captain Richard Bradford, the first
Florida officer killed in the Civil War. Bradford County
was divided by a legislative act in 1921, when the land
west of the New River became Union County. This
division settled a 60-year dispute between the towns of
Starke and Lake Butler over which should be the county
seat.
Until the late 1850's, when the Florida Railroad
Company constructed the first cross-state railroad,
Starke was a tiny crossroads settlement. The railroad
opened the interior of Florida and provided the first
means of transportation in this area, where settlement
had been thwarted by the Seminole Indian Wars during
the 1830's and 1840's. Completion of the railroad
spurred development in the eastern part of Bradford
County, but the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 and
the hardships of the postwar Reconstruction Era, lasting
into the 1870's, slowed development.
In the 1880's, Bradford County began to attract
newcomers from northern states. Some of these people
hoped to improve their health in the warm climate, and
others invested their money in citrus groves. Oranges,
grapefruit, and other citrus crops thrived in northern
Florida at that time, but the groves in this area were
totally destroyed by big freezes in the mid and late
1890's. Many growers then increased production of
winter strawberries, which had been introduced on an
experimental basis a decade earlier. This crop soon
proved to be ideally suited to the soils and climate of
Bradford County. The county is still famous for
strawberries, although the acreage has declined in
recent years because of increased production costs and
a shortage of labor.
Agriculture in Bradford County was again set back
when "king cotton," the chief money crop in this area
for many years, was devastated by the boll weevil
during the last years of World War I. Unsuccessful
attempts to combat this pest were made, but cotton
could no longer be grown in Bradford County. The
turpentine industry also gradually declined when
synthetics were developed, replacing the natural
turpentine and other naval stores that had been a
mainstay of the early economy.
In 1909, the Florida Legislature appropriated 50
thousand dollars for the purchase of a tract of land for
the state's first prison and directed the Board of
Commissioners of State Institutions to select and
purchase a site. After thorough study of the soils
throughout the state, Bradford County was selected for
the "State Prison Farm," as it was to be called at that
time, when prison labor was used extensively in farming


enterprises. Several adjoining tracts were acquired later
on the east and west sides of the New River to meet
expanding needs. The first prison was authorized in
1913. The prison system has grown to include two
institutions in Bradford County and two in Union County.
A land boom in the 1920's brought progress and
development to Bradford County, as it did to all of
Florida, but the "crash" of 1929 reversed many of the
advances and led to the Great Depression of the
1930's. Government relief programs and jobs created
by the Works Progress Administration and other make-
work agencies kept the county going. At the outbreak of
World War II, a large infantry training center, Camp
Blanding, was established 7 miles east of Starke.
Bradford County thus entered a period of rapid growth
and prosperity that continued until the end of the war.
The coming of peace in the late 1940's and the
deactivation of Camp Blanding made it necessary for
Bradford County to seek industrial payrolls.
Development of a heavy minerals mining operation on
leased lands in the Camp Blanding Reservation
accelerated this trend from an agricultural and military
economy to a more industrial economy. Several small
clothing industries were developed. The turpentine
industry was replaced by pulpwood farming, which
supplies the mills of the large timber companies that
now own or lease more than a third of the land in the
county.

Climate

The climate of Bradford County is characterized by
long, warm summers and relatively mild winters (29).
The Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and large inland
lakes moderate the temperatures.
In summer the temperature is fairly uniform with little
day-to-day variation. In the afternoon the temperature
generally is in the upper 80's and low 90's.
Temperatures of 100 degrees or more are rare. Late at
night and early in the morning, temperatures generally
are in the upper 60's to upper 70's. In winter the
temperature varies considerably. When cold fronts that
have large masses of cold air pass, the temperature
late at night and early in the morning often drops to 32
degrees or less. Warm air from the south can raise the
temperature to 80 degrees or more for several days.
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipition for
the survey area.
Frost and freezing temperatures generally occur
several times a year. The temperature can stay below
freezing from one day to several days. The duration of
temperatures below 32 degrees can be from 1 to 12
consecutive hours but is rarely 15 hours or more.






Bradford County, Florida


During an average winter the temperature is 32 degrees
or less about 40 to 50 times and is 28 degrees or less
about 30 to 40 times. Temperatures of less than 20
degrees are rare (30).
The first killing frost generally occurs early in
December. It is rarely as early as November. The last
killing frost generally is at the beginning of March. It is
rarely as late as early in April (30). Table 2 shows
freeze data for the survey area.
The total annual precipitation is 54.2 inches (30). A
large part of this rainfall occurs in the summer as locally
heavy afternoon or early evening thundershowers. As
much as 2 or 3 inches of rain can fall in an hour.
Daylong rains in the summer are rare and generally
accompany tropical depressions. These rains can be
heavy and of long duration. As much as several inches
of rain can fall in a 24-hour period. The annual
frequency of tropical depressions ranges from none to
several. Rainfall during the winter generally is more
moderate. This precipitation generally occurs as cold
fronts pass and can last from a few hours to a few
days.
Some tropical depressions intensify into tropical
storms or hurricanes. Hurricane-force winds rarely
develop because of the inland location of the county.
These storms can occur at any time of the year but
normally are between June and mid-November. The
wind and rain associated with these storms can cause
timber and crop damage along with local flooding.
Extended dry periods can occur at any time during
the year but are most common in spring and fall. These
periods can adversely affect plants and crops. Higher
temperatures in summer can also affect plants during
dry periods of several days because of increased
evaporation.
Hail sometimes accompanies thunderstorms.
Hailstorms generally are small and seldom cause
extensive damage. Snow is very rare and generally
melts as it hits the ground.
Heavy fog forms from 30 to 60 days per year,
generally during the winter. The fog usually forms from
late at night to midmorning. The sun shines 60 to 65
percent of the time possible during the year. Relative
humidity varies daily and seasonally. It generally is
highest during the summer, when it is about 90 percent
early in the morning. The relative humidity in winter
generally is less than 50 percent during the day. The
prevailing wind is from the south in spring and summer
and from the north or west in fall and winter.
Tornados occasionally accompany heavy
thunderstorms or tropical storms. They generally cause
limited damage in local areas.


Geomorphology
Frank R. Rupert, geologist, Florida Department of Natural
Resources, Florida Geological Survey, prepared this section and the
sections on stratigraphy, ground water, and mineral resources.
Bradford County is in the Northern Highlands
physiographic province. This province extends from the
eastern edge of Bradford County in northern Florida
westward into Alabama. It is characterized by a series
of topographically high and gently rolling, clayey
sandhills thought to be stream-dissected remnants of a
more extensive highland plain that covered much of the
Gulf Coastal Plain (32).
The Trail Ridge is a topographic feature on the
eastern edge of Bradford County. It is an elongated
series of quartz sandhills trending from north to south
and rising abruptly above the swampy plain in the
eastern part of the county to an elevation of nearly 220
feet above mean sea level (m.s.l.). Its crest roughly
parallels the Bradford-Clay County line, and on the
average the ridge extends less than 1 mile into Bradford
County (8). The Trail Ridge is mostly in neighboring
Clay County, where it is as much as 10 miles wide.
Elsewhere in Bradford County, elevations range from
about 60 feet m.s.l. in the swampy valley of the Santa
Fe River, in the westernmost tip of the county, to 175
feet m.s.l. east of Hampton, in the southeastern part of
the county. The landscape in most of the county
generally is flat and has large swampy areas and
shallow lakes. Creeks and streams are numerous but
are sluggish and flow in poorly defined channels. The
dominant surficial sediments are quartz sands and
clayey sands. In areas along the Santa Fe River, at the
southwestern edge of the county, and along the New
River, bordering the western edge, the tributary streams
are more deeply incised in the surrounding terrain. The
tributary streams flowing into the larger river valleys
have cut ravines into resistant clayey sands. Steep
bluffs border the wide valley floors of both the Santa Fe
and New Rivers in the western part of the county.
The Santa Fe River is the largest stream in the
county. It forms the Bradford-Alachua County line. The
river begins in Santa Fe Lake, a large, shallow body of
water in southeastern Bradford County and
northeastern Alachua County. The water flows
westward, and the river receives water from Hampton
Lake; from the Sampson River, which drains Lake
Sampson; and from the New River, which is the
Bradford-Union County line. The New River forms at the
confluence of numerous small creeks in northern
Bradford County and drains the highland areas in the
northern and western parts of the county.


3






Soil Survey


BAKER COUNTY cream limestones and dolomitic limestones of varying
A i hardness (8). Foraminifera are the dominant fossils.
N w-2360 Dolomitization has destroyed or altered many of the
o fossils. The Avon Park Formation is a component of the
Z Floridan aquifer system. The top of this formation
o 9 underlies Bradford County at a depth of 400 to 700 feet
"LA I (8).
MILES Group
S1 2 3 4 5 Ocala Group
KILOMETERS6 8 517 Marine limestones of the Ocala Group (16)
o uncomformably overlie the Avon Park Formation under
S TR -- ~ all of Bradford County (8). The Ocala Group is made up
SAKEO of, in ascending order, the Inglis Formation, the
E 1. ,W 3--j iw J Williston Formation, and the Crystal River Formation.
A W-14A255 'o-L These formations are differentiated on the basis of
SW-14230 lithology and fossil content. Typically, the lithology of
W-3719 _- BROOKER the Ocala Group grades from the alternating hard and
"""o > soft, white to tan, fossiliferous and dolomitic limestone
w-o WPT I of the Inglis Formation and the lower part of the
S *, Williston Formation to the white to pale orange,
4 c A I:i I abundantly fossiliferous, chalky limestones of the upper
SCo '"" part of the Williston Formation and the Crystal River



...\ A A'



Figure 2.-Geologic cross sections in Bradford County, Florida. o 200

-150
40 UNDIFFERENTIATED
SAND AND CLAY
Stratigraphy .00,
20-
Bradford County is underlain by hundreds of feet of .50 HAWTHORN GROUP
marine sands, clays, limestones, and dolomites (8). The
oldest rock penetrated by water wells is Eocene-age 0.0 MSL
limestone (37 to 54 million years before the present) in LIMESTONE
the Avon Park Formation. The youngest sediments are -20-
undifferentiated surficial sands and clays of Pliocene to -100
Holocene age (5 million years old and younger). The -40
Avon Park Formation and the younger limestone units -5o OCALA GROUP
overlying it are important freshwater aquifers. The
discussion of the geology of Bradford County will be -0 -00
confined to sediments of Eocene age and younger.
-250
Figure 2 shows geologic cross sections in Bradford -so
AVON PARK FORMATION
County, and figures 3 and 4 illustrate the underlying -300
stratigraphy of these cross sections. -o00
-350 MILES
Avon Park Formation 07 FEET
I TD 607 FEET
0 2 4 6 8
The Avon Park Formation (15) in Bradford County is KILOMETERS
typically a dense, tan to dark brown, porous dolomite Figure 3.-Geologic cross section A-A' in Bradford County. The
that in many areas is interbedded with tan, gray, or numbers preceded by "W" are well numbers.






Bradford County, Florida


B
3


601 200
150
40"


*100


20 1
Ls50


-20

-40

-60

-80

-100

120


-140 4


* 1


-50


I AVON PARK
-450 I FORMATION
T.D. 723 FEET
- -500


Figure 4.-Geologic cross section B-B' in Bradford County. The
numbers preceded by "W" are well numbers.




Formation. Foraminifera, mollusks, bryozoans, and
echinoids are the most abundant fossil types in
sediments in the Ocala Group.
The thickness of the Ocala Group sediments under
Bradford County averages about 250 feet. The
permeable and cavernous nature of the Ocala Group
limestones make them important freshwater-bearing
units of the Floridan aquifer system. Many drinking-
water wells in Bradford County draw water from the
Crystal River Formation.

Suwannee Limestone

The Oligocene-age (24 to 37 million years before the
present) Suwannee Limestone (9) occurs as
discontinuous erosional remnants overlying the Ocala
Group sediments under the extreme western tip of
Bradford County, westward from Brooker (8). Generally,
the Suwannee Limestone consists of tan, white, or
cream marine limestone, which in many areas is
dolomitic and coquinoid in parts and which varies


r considerably in hardness. In some wells this limestone
is lithologically similar to the Ocala Group limestone and
is identified mainly by the last occurrence of the
foraminifera Dictyoconus cookei. The thickness of the
limestone ranges from 20 to 40 feet, and the beds can
be discontinuous in the subsurface. This unit does not
occur in wells east of Brooker (8). In northern Florida,
the Suwannee Limestone is a freshwater-bearing unit of
the Floridan aquifer system.

Hawthorn Group
Phosphatic quartz sands, clays, limestones, and
dolomites of the Miocene-age (5 to 24 million years
before the present) Hawthorn Group (19) unconformably
overlie remnants of the Suwannee Limestone or the
Ocala Group in extreme western Bradford County. East
of Brooker, the Hawthorn Group sediments directly
overlie limestones of the Ocala Group. The Hawthorn
Group is dominantly a series of marine deposits
consisting of varying and interbedded lithologies and
characterized by phosphatic and quartz sands,
granules, and pebbles. Formations of the Hawthorn
Group distinguishable in Bradford County are, in
ascending order, the Penney Farms Formation of
interbedded phosphatic quartz sand, clay, and
carbonate; the Marks Head Formation of thin, complex,
interbedded phosphatic clay, sand, and carbonate; and
the Coosawhatchie Formation, a green to tan,
phosphatic quartz sand with varying amounts of clay
and dolomite.
The Hawthorn Group sediments have a
northeastward dip and range in thickness from about
100 feet in western Bradford County to at least 300 feet
in the northeast corner of the county, near the state
prison. The thick, relatively impermeable clays in the
Hawthorn Group are the main confining beds for the
underlying Floridan aquifer system. Undifferentiated
sands of Pliocene to Holocene age form a veneer over
the Hawthorn Group sediments in most of Bradford
County, although the larger river valleys in the southern
and western parts of the county may cut down into the
Hawthorn Group.

Pliocene to Holocene Undifferentiated
Undifferentiated quartz sands and clays make up the
surficial sediments in most of Bradford County.
Determining the age of these unfossiliferous deposits is
virtually impossible. The deposits include the unnamed
reddish coarse clastics, relict Pleistocene (2.8 million to
10 thousand years before the present) marine terrace
sands, and Holocene (10 thousand years to the
present) eolian, lacustrine, and alluvial material.


5






Soil Survey


Ground Water
Ground water fills the pore spaces in subsurface
rocks and sediments. In Bradford County and nearby
counties, it is derived mainly from precipitation. Most of
the water consumed in Bradford County is drawn from
ground-water aquifers. In order of increasing depth, the
main aquifer systems under Bradford County are the
surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer
system, and the Floridan aquifer system (21).

Surficial Aquifer System
The surficial aquifer system is the highest freshwater
aquifer in Bradford County. The sediments making up
this aquifer are mainly the sands and thin limestone
layers in the highest part of the Hawthorn Group and
the overlying Pleistocene marine terrace sands. The
surficial aquifer system averages about 40 feet thick
throughout most of the county (8). It is unconfined, and
its upper surface is the water table. Generally, the
elevation of the water table fluctuates with the
precipitation rate and conforms to the topography of the
land surface. In Bradford County, the water table is
normally 10 feet or less below the surface of the soil.
The surficial aquifer system is recharged mainly by
rainfall percolating downward through the surficial
sediments and to a lesser extent by upward leakage
from the deeper aquifers. Water naturally discharges
from the aquifer through evaporation, transpiration,
spring flow, and downward seepage into the lower
aquifers. The surficial aquifer system yields water of
suitable quality for consumption and is normally tapped
by shallow dug or sand point wells. Because of the
relatively thin units making up this aquifer, however,
only limited amounts of water are available before the
local water table is lowered.

Intermediate Aquifer System
The intermediate aquifer system is made up of
deeper water-bearing sand and limestone layers in the
Hawthorn Group. Slowly permeable clays above the
sand and limestone layers generally confine the
intermediate aquifer system under artesian conditions
and separate it from the overlying surficial aquifer
system. Water yields from this aquifer vary locally,
depending on the quantity of sand and the porosity and
permeability of the limestone. In some areas the
Hawthorn Group limestones are very dense, yielding
little water.
Recharge to the intermediate aquifer system occurs
chiefly through downward seepage from the surficial
aquifer system and through upward seepage from the
Floridan aquifer system in areas where the
potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer system is


higher than that of the intermediate aquifer system.
Numerous rural and domestic wells draw water from the
intermediate aquifer system. As in the surficial aquifer
system, the available volume of water depends mainly
on the local thickness of the aquifer units.

Floridan Aquifer System
The Floridan Aquifer system is made up of several
hundred feet of Eocene- to Oligocene-age porous
marine limestones, including the Avon Park Formation,
the Ocala Group, and Suwannee Limestone. It is by far
the most productive aquifer system in Bradford County.
The Floridan aquifer system is confined by slowly
permeable clays of the overlying Hawthorn Group and
is under artesian conditions. West of Brooker,
discontinuous beds of Suwannee Limestone make up
the upper unit of the Floridan aquifer system. East of
Brooker, the Crystal River Formation of the Ocala
Group is the upper unit. Depth to the Floridan aquifer
system ranges from 75 to 300 feet throughout the
county. This system is an important freshwater source
throughout Florida. Many deep domestic wells and most
municipal and industrial wells draw from this aquifer.
In Bradford County the Floridan aquifer system is
recharged mainly by downward leakage through the
confining beds of the shallower aquifers (8). Water
leaves the Floridan aquifer system through natural
downgradient movement, which is westward, and by
subsequent discharge through springs, lakes, and the
Santa Fe River.

Mineral Resources
No mineral commodities are commercially mined in
Bradford County. The potential for commercial mineral
production generally is low. The following discussion of
the major mineral commodities provides an overview of
the mining potential for each mineral.

Sand
A number of private shallow pits in Bradford County
are mined for fill sand. The sand deposits are
concentrated in the unconsolidated Pliocene- to
Holocene-age surficial sediments covering most of the
county. Clayey coarse clastics believed to be equivalent
to the Miccosukee and Citronelle Formations to the
west characteristically contain fine to coarse grained
quartz sand and gravelly sand. Similar unnamed clayey
sands are used as roadbase material in counties to the
south. Commercial sand production would require
extensive washing to remove the clay matrix. The
economics of this procedure would probably preclude
commercial mining of the sand in Bradford County.
White quartz sands are on the Trail Ridge, on the


6





7


Bradford County, Florida


eastern edge of the county. These sands are
commercially mined in adjacent Clay County and may
have industrial potential.

Phosphate
Phosphatic sediments of the Hawthorn Group
underlie most of Bradford County. The phosphate
occurs as tan to black sand and granule- and pebble-
sized phosphorite. The content of phosphorite in the
Hawthorn Group sediments has been analyzed in four
cores in Bradford County (18). The composite
phosphorite percentages range from 0.1 to 13.5
percent. The country-wide average is only 3.5 percent
(19). Since the minimum economic concentration of
phosphorite is about 28 percent (7), the potential for
mining phosphate in Bradford County is low.

Heavy Minerals
Economic deposits of heavy minerals, mainly
ilmenite, rutile, leucoxene, staurolite, zircon, and
monazite, are mined on the parts of Trail Ridge in
adjacent Clay County. Borehole sample data indicate
that composite percentages of heavy minerals in the
Trail Ridge sands drop from about 4 percent in the area
of Clay County currently mined to between 1.0 and 1.5
percent on the western flank of the ridge in Bradford
County (22). These relatively low concentrations in
Bradford County preclude economical mining with
existing technology.

Limestone and Dolomite
Bradford County is underlain by extensive deposits of
Eocene- to Miocene-age marine limestones. Because of
the thickness of the overlying Hawthorn Group
siliciclastics and the Pliocene- to Holocene-age
undifferentiated surficial sediments, however, most of
the limestone is at too great a depth for commercial
mining.

Peat
Peat is an organic deposit formed through the rapid
accumulation of decaying vegetation. To date, it is not
commercially mined in Bradford County (6). The
potential for mining peat is highest in areas of Dorovan,
Pamlico, and Croatan soils in the shallow, swampy
regions in central Bradford County and in the Santa Fe
Swamp, in the southeast corner of the county (4, 10).

Clay
Clay and clayey sand are deposited in the upper
Hawthorn Group sediments and in the undifferentiated
Pliocene- to Holocene-age surficial sediments. These
deposits have been commercially exploited only in


private borrow pits. The suitability of these deposits for
industrial and commercial use is untested as yet. In
Putnam County and in counties to the south, the red,
clayey sands and sandy clays formerly referred to as
unnamed coarse clastics are used extensively as road
material.

Natural Resources
Soil is the most important resource in Bradford
County. The soil and the underlying parent material are
the source and basis of the natural resources and the
agricultural commodities produced in the county.
Water for most domestic and urban uses is supplied
by underground wells. These wells tap into underground
aquifers. The depth of the wells varies. It generally is 50
to 80 feet. Water for agricultural uses is supplied by
wells, streams, or water-retention areas.
The Santa Fe and New Rivers are the largest
permanent streams. The headwaters of the Santa Fe
River are in the Santa Fe Swamp, in the southeastern
part of the county. Both rivers flow permanently, except
for the stretches of the Santa Fe River near its
headwaters and the northern part of the New River. The
county has very few other streams. Most of these are
intermittent, drying up to pools and potholes during
extended dry periods. The streams generally are
tributaries of the New River, but some are tributaries of
the Santa Fe River. These tributaries extend only a
couple miles back from the rivers.
Bradford County has several large lakes in the
central and southern parts and in the extreme southern
panhandle area. The largest of these is Santa Fe Lake,
which borders Alachua County near Keystone Heights.
It covers several square miles. The next largest body of
water, Lake Sampson, is about 3 miles west of Starke.
Lake Crosby and Lake Rowell are in the same vicinity
(fig. 5). Hampton Lake is in the southern part of the
county, about 1 mile west of Hampton. Numerous
smaller ponds and lakes are also in the southern
panhandle.
Woodland is a major natural resource in Bradford
County (31). Forestry and forest products are an
important part of the local economy. Timber is used for
lumber and pulpwood and provides habitat for wildlife.
Ilmenite, zircon, and staurolite are in areas along the
eastern county line, directly southeast of Starke. These
minerals are used for paper and plastic products, as a
white pigmentation for fabrics, for steel and other
metals, and for sandblasting.

Recreation
The many lakes in Bradford County provide
opportunities for a wide variety of recreational activities,






Soil Survey


Figure 5.-An area of Lake Rowell, which provides habitat for wildlife and opportunities for recreational activities.


such as swimming, diving, boating, water-skiing, and
fishing. Hunting also is an important recreational activity
in the county. Most hunting rights are on lands leased
to hunt clubs.

Transportation Facilities
Many county, state, and federal highways facilitate
the transportation of goods and people in Bradford
County. U.S. Highway 301, a north-south route between
Jacksonville and Ocala, passes through Starke. State
Route 100 is the main east-west highway. It passes
through Starke and extends east to Keystone Heights
and Palatka and west to Lake Butler and Lake City. Rail
service for freight and bus service also are available in
the county.


How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about
the soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of
slopes; the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of
crops and native plants growing on the soils; and the
kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil
profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or
horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface
down into the unconsolidated material in which the soil
formed. The unconsolidated material is devoid of roots


8






Bradford County, Florida


and other living organisms and has not been changed
by other biological activity.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly
pattern that is related to the geology, the landforms,
relief, climate, and the natural vegetation of the area.
Each kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
landscape or with a segment of the landscape (figs. 6
and 7). By observing the soils in the survey area and
relating their position to specific segments of the
landscape, a soil scientist develops a concept, or
model, of how the soils were formed. Thus, during
mapping, this model enables the soil scientist to predict
with a considerable degree of accuracy the kind of soil
at a specific location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually


change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, reaction, and
other features that enable them to identify soils. After
describing the soils in the survey area and determining
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are


Figure 6.-Pattern of soils on a gently rolling landscape near major drainageways.


9






10


Soil Survey


Pelham Pelham wet


Figure 7.-Pattern of soils in a flatwoods landscape that includes slightly elevated areas, depressions, and flood plains.


concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
(25) used in the United States is based mainly on the
kind and character of soil properties and the
arrangement of horizons within the profile. After the soil
scientists classified and named the soils in the survey
area, they compared the individual soils with similar
soils in the same taxonomic class in other areas so that
they could confirm data and assemble additional data
based on experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
of the soils in the area generally are collected for
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
scientists interpret the data from these analyses and


tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
the soil properties to determine the expected behavior
of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of
the soils are field tested through observation of the soils
in different uses under different levels of management.
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
and some new interpretations are developed to meet
local needs. Data are assembled from other sources,
such as research information, production records, and
field experience of specialists. For example, data on
crop yields under defined levels of management are
assembled from farm records and from field or plot
experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable






Bradford County, Florida


over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can
predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given
soil will have a high water table within certain depths in
most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
specific date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.
Bradford County was mapped concurrently with
adjacent Union County. Near the end of the survey, the
counties were correlated separately. For some of the
soils in Bradford County, the locations of the series
profiles are in Union County.
A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system was used
to document the type and variability of soils that occur
in the detailed soil map units (11, 12, 14, 20). Random
transects were made with the GPR system and by
hand. The GPR system was successfully used on all
soils to detect the presence of and measure the depth
to major soil horizons or other soil features and to
determine the variability of those features. In Bradford
and Union Counties, 160 random transects were made
with the GPR system and by hand. Information from
notes and ground-truth observations made in the field
was used, along with radar data from this study, to
classify the soils and to determine the composition of
the map units. The map units described in the section
"Detailed Soil Map Units" are based on this data.

Map Unit Composition
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
the soils are natural objects. In common with other
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to


other taxonomic classes. These latter soils are called
inclusions or included soils.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soil on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.

Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
Information
Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
probability that the composition of a map unit or a
property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
data to determine confidence limits, the natural
variability of soils and the way soil surveys are made
must be considered. The composition of map units and
other information are derived largely from extrapolations
made from a small sample. Also, information about the
soils does not extend below a depth of about 6 feet.
The information presented in the soil survey is not
meant to be used as a substitute for onsite
investigations. Soil survey information can be used to
select alternative practices or general designs that may
be needed to minimize the possibility of soil-related
failures. It cannot be used to interpret specific points on
the landscape.
Specific confidence limits for the composition of map


11






Bradford County, Florida


over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can
predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given
soil will have a high water table within certain depths in
most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
specific date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.
Bradford County was mapped concurrently with
adjacent Union County. Near the end of the survey, the
counties were correlated separately. For some of the
soils in Bradford County, the locations of the series
profiles are in Union County.
A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system was used
to document the type and variability of soils that occur
in the detailed soil map units (11, 12, 14, 20). Random
transects were made with the GPR system and by
hand. The GPR system was successfully used on all
soils to detect the presence of and measure the depth
to major soil horizons or other soil features and to
determine the variability of those features. In Bradford
and Union Counties, 160 random transects were made
with the GPR system and by hand. Information from
notes and ground-truth observations made in the field
was used, along with radar data from this study, to
classify the soils and to determine the composition of
the map units. The map units described in the section
"Detailed Soil Map Units" are based on this data.

Map Unit Composition
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
the soils are natural objects. In common with other
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to


other taxonomic classes. These latter soils are called
inclusions or included soils.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soil on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.

Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
Information
Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
probability that the composition of a map unit or a
property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
data to determine confidence limits, the natural
variability of soils and the way soil surveys are made
must be considered. The composition of map units and
other information are derived largely from extrapolations
made from a small sample. Also, information about the
soils does not extend below a depth of about 6 feet.
The information presented in the soil survey is not
meant to be used as a substitute for onsite
investigations. Soil survey information can be used to
select alternative practices or general designs that may
be needed to minimize the possibility of soil-related
failures. It cannot be used to interpret specific points on
the landscape.
Specific confidence limits for the composition of map


11









units in Bradford County were determined by random
transects made with the GPR system and by hand
across mapped areas. The data are statistically
summarized in the description of each map unit in the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units." Soil scientists made
enough transects and took enough samples to
characterize each map unit at a specific confidence
level. For example, Hurricane sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, was characterized at a 90 percent confidence
level based on the transect data. On 90 percent of the


areas mapped as Hurricane sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, Hurricane and similar soils make up 78 to 99
percent of the mapped areas. On 10 percent of the
acreage, the percentage of Hurricane and similar soils
can be either higher than 99 percent or lower than 78
percent.
The composition of miscellaneous areas and urban
map units was based on the judgment of the soil
scientist and was not determined by a statistical
procedure.






13


General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it
consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making
up one unit can occur in another but in a different
pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure.
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that
affect management.


Soils on Sand Ridges


The Blanton soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand.
The subsurface layer is yellowish brown and very pale
brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil is light
yellowish brown loamy fine sand grading to light
yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is gray
sandy clay loam.
Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Chipley,
Hurricane, Ocilla, Ousley, and Troup soils and
Fluvaquents.
Most areas are used for crops, pasture, or hay. The
major soils are severely limited as cropland and are
only moderately suited to pasture and hay because of
low fertility and seasonal droughtiness. Deep-rooted
grasses should be selected for planting. The
droughtiness can be overcome by irrigation. The soils
are moderately suited to pine trees. They have slight
limitations if used for most kinds of urban development.


2. Penney-Blanton-Troup


1. Lakeland-Foxworth-Blanton
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained and
moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout
or are sandy in the upper part and loamy at a depth of
40 to 80 inches
This map unit consists of soils on broad uplands in
the southwestern corner of the county. Rolling hills and
long, undulating slopes are interspersed with a few
intermittent streams. The natural vegetation consists
mainly of oaks and pines.
This map unit makes up about 2 percent of the
county. It is about 34 percent Lakeland soils, 30 percent
Foxworth soils, 16 percent Blanton soils, and 20
percent minor soils.
The Lakeland soils are excessively drained.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
fine sand. It is underlain by dark yellowish brown and
strong brown sand.
The Foxworth soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand.
It is underlain by yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and
very pale brown sand.


Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained,
moderately well drained, and well drained soils that are
sandy in the upper part and have lamellae or loamy
material at a depth of 40 to 80 inches
This map unit consists mostly of soils on broad
uplands in the extreme southern tip of the county.
Rolling hills are interspersed with lakes throughout the
unit. The lakes generally are sinkholes that are filled
with water. The level of water in the lakes fluctuates
considerably, depending on rainfall, ground water level,
and underground aquifer replenishment. The natural
vegetation consists of various oaks and dryland
hardwoods that in some areas are interspersed with
other trees, mainly longleaf pine.
This map unit makes up about 2 percent of the
county. It is about 39 percent Penney soils, 17 percent
Blanton soils, 15 percent Troup soils, and 29 percent
minor soils.
The Penney soils are excessively drained. Typically,
the surface layer is brown sand. It is underlain by
brownish yellow sand to a depth of 56 inches. Below
this is yellow sand that has common yellowish brown
lamellae.






Soil Survey


The Blanton soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand.
The subsurface layer is yellowish brown and very pale
brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil is light
yellowish brown loamy fine sand grading to light
yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is gray
sandy clay loam.
The Troup soils are well drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark grayish brown sand. The
subsurface layer is yellowish brown fine sand. The
subsoil is yellowish brown and brownish yellow sandy
loam.
Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Chipley, and
Foxworth soils and freshwater beach areas.
Most areas support natural vegetation or are used for
residential development. This unit includes the fastest
growing residential areas in Bradford County. The major
soils have slight limitations if used for urban
development and severe or moderate limitations if used
for cultivated crops. They are moderately suited to
pasture and pine trees. Droughtiness generally is the
main limitation. An irrigation system helps to overcome
this limitation.

Soils in the Flatwoods, on Slight Knolls, and in
Transitional Areas Between the Uplands and
Flatwoods

3. Albany-Blanton-Ocilla
Nearly level to strongly sloping, somewhat poorly drained
and moderately well drained soils that are sandy to a
depth of 20 inches or more and have loamy material
within a depth of 80 inches
This map unit consists mostly of soils on low uplands
along the central and southern parts of the western
boundary of the county and also in a small area along
the central part of the southern boundary. The natural
vegetation consists of live oak and laurel oak mixed
with pine and other hardwoods.
This map unit makes up about 3 percent of the
county. It is about 56 percent Albany soils, 12 percent
Blanton soils, 12 percent Ocilla soils, and 20 percent
minor soils.
The Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand. The
subsurface layer is brown sand and light brownish gray
and light gray fine sand. The subsoil is yellowish brown
fine sandy loam in the upper part and light gray sandy
clay loam in the lower part.
The Blanton soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand.
The subsurface layer is yellowish brown and very pale
brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil is light


yellowish brown loamy fine sand grading to light
yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is gray
and white sandy clay.
The Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand. The subsurface layer is light yellowish brown fine
sand. The upper part of the subsoil is a few inches of
yellow loamy fine sand. The lower part is pale brown
sandy clay loam grading to gray sandy clay loam.
Of minor extent in this unit are Chipley, Elloree,
Grifton, Mascotte, Osier, Surrency, and Wampee soils.
Most areas are used for crops, pasture, or hay
(fig. 8). Generally, the somewhat poorly drained soils
are moderately limited by low fertility and seasonal
wetness and the moderately well drained soils by low
fertility and seasonal droughtiness. The soils are
moderately well suited to pine trees. Because of the
wetness, the somewhat poorly drained soils are
severely limited as sites for some urban uses, such as
septic tank absorption fields, landfills, and dwellings
with basements. The moderately well drained soils have
slight limitations if used as sites for most urban uses.

4. Pelham

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy in the
upper part and loamy at a depth of 20 to 40 inches
This map unit consists of soils in the broad flatwoods
in the central, northwestern, and southeastern parts of
the county and also in small areas along the southern
part. The flatwoods are interspersed with swamps,
depressions, and intermittent drainageways. The natural
vegetation consists mainly of slash pine and an
understory of gallberry, waxmyrtle, and saw palmetto.
The dominant vegetation in the swamps, depressions,
and intermittent drainageways is maple, sweetgum, bay,
ash, pondcypress, pond pine, and slash pine.
This map unit makes up about 43 percent of the
county. It is about 78 percent Pelham soils and 22
percent minor soils.
Typically, the Pelham soils have a surface layer of
very dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is dark
gray fine sand grading to gray fine sand. The subsoil is
gray fine sandy loam in the upper part and gray sandy
clay loam and light gray sandy clay in the lower part.
Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Croatan,
Grifton, Mascotte, Ocilla, Pantego, Plummer, Sapelo,
Starke, and Surrency soils.
Most areas are used for planted or naturally seeded
pine (fig. 9). A few small areas have been cleared and
are used for pasture or crops. Most areas are
moderately well suited to pine trees and pasture. The
soils are severely limited as cropland and as sites for
urban uses. Wetness is the main limitation. An






15


Bradford County, Florida


s N

4 ^ *-.
1,



i. .
't
i ,


Figure 8.--mproved bermudagrass hay in an area of the Albany-Blanton-Ocilla general soil map unit. Slash pine is in the background.


extensive drainage system can lower the water table.

5. Plummer-Sapelo

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
depth of 40 inches or more and have loamy material
within a depth of 80 inches
This map unit consists dominantly of soils in the
flatwoods in the southern, central, and west-central
parts of the county. The flatwoods are interspersed with
swamps, depressions, intermittent drainageways, and
slightly elevated, slightly better drained areas. The
vegetation consists mainly of slash pine and an
understory of saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, titi, and
gallberry. The dominant vegetation in the wetter areas
consists of cypress, red maple, and pond pine.
This map unit makes up about 12 percent of the
county. It is about 37 percent Plummer soils, 36 percent
Sapelo soils, and 27 percent minor soils.


Typically, the Plummer soils have a surface layer of
very dark gray sand. The subsurface layer is grayish
brown, light gray, and white sand. A thin layer between
the subsurface layer and the subsoil is light brownish
gray loamy sand. The subsoil is light brownish gray and
light gray sandy clay loam.
Typically, the Sapelo soils have a surface layer of
very dark gray sand. The subsurface layer is grayish
brown sand. The upper part of the subsoil is very dark
brown and dark brown sand. The next part is light gray
sand. The lower part is light gray fine sandy loam
underlain by light gray sandy clay loam.
Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Chipley,
Croatan, Grifton, Leon, Mascotte, Ocilla, Pamlico,
Pelham, and Surrency soils.
Many areas are in planted or naturally seeded pine,
and a few areas of cleared land are used mainly for
pasture or crops. The major soils are moderately well
suited to pine trees and are well suited to pasture. They





Soil Survey


Figure 9.-Slash pine in an area of the Pelham general soil map unit. Slash pine is the dominant commercial tree in Bradford County.


are severely limited as cropland and as sites for urban
uses. Wetness is the main limitation. It can be reduced
by a good drainage system.

6. Pottsburg-Allanton-Leon-Hurricane
Nearly level, poorly drained and somewhat poorly
drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or
more
This map unit consists dominantly of soils in the
flatwoods in the southwest corner of the county and
about midway along the Clay County line. The
flatwoods are interspersed with depressions, intermittent
drainageways, and slightly elevated, better drained
areas. The natural vegetation consists mainly of slash


pine and an understory of gallberry, waxmyrtle, saw
palmetto, and fetterbush lyonia. The dominant
vegetation in the wetter areas consists of cypress, bay,
sweetgum, and maple.
This map unit makes up about 8 percent of the
county. It is about 28 percent Pottsburg soils, 25
percent Allanton soils, 24 percent Leon soils, 12
percent Hurricane soils, and 11 percent minor soils.
The Pottsburg soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray sand. The subsurface
layer is dark gray sand grading to light brownish gray
and grayish brown sand. The subsoil is sand that is well
coated with organic matter. The upper part is dark
brown, and the lower part is black.
The Allanton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the


16





Bradford County, Florida


surface layer is black and very dark gray loamy sand.
The subsurface layer is dark gray and brown sand in
the upper part and grayish brown sand in the lower
part. The subsoil is very dark brown and black fine
sand.
The Leon soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray sand. The subsurface
layer is grayish brown sand. The upper part of the
subsoil is sand that is well coated with organic matter. It
is very dark brown grading to dark reddish brown and
very dark grayish brown. The next part of the subsoil is
gray sand. The lower part is very dark grayish brown
sand.
The Hurricane soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand. The
subsurface layer is grayish brown sand grading to light
yellowish brown, light brownish gray, and light yellowish
brown sand. The subsoil is very dark brown fine sand
and black sand.
Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Chipley,
Mascotte, Ocilla, Pantego, Pamlico, Pelham, Plummer,
Sapelo, Starke, and Surrency soils.
Most areas are used for planted pine. A few small
areas are used for pasture or crops. The major soils are
moderately suited to pine trees and are well suited to
pasture and hay. The poorly drained soils are severely
limited as cropland and as sites for urban uses. The
somewhat poorly drained soils have moderate
limitations if used for crops and moderate or severe
limitations if used for most kinds of urban development.
Wetness is the main limitation. It can be reduced by a
good drainage system.

7. Sapelo-Mascotte-Pelham
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
depth of 20 inches or more and have loamy material
within a depth of 80 inches
This map unit consists dominantly of soils in the
flatwoods in the southern and west-central parts of the
county. The flatwoods are interspersed with swamps,
depressions, intermittent drainageways, and slightly
better drained, elevated areas. The natural vegetation
consists mainly of slash pine and an understory of saw
palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and white titi. The
dominant vegetation in the wetter areas consists of
cypress, sweetgum, bay, maple, and pond pine.
This map unit makes up about 18 percent of the
county. It is about 41 percent Sapelo soils, 27 percent
Mascotte soils, 12 percent Pelham soils, and 20 percent
minor soils.
Typically, the Sapelo soils have a surface layer of
very dark gray sand. The subsurface layer is grayish


brown sand. The upper part of the subsoil is very dark
brown and dark brown sand. The next part is light gray
sand. The lower part is light gray fine sandy loam
grading to sandy clay loam.
Typically, the Mascotte soils have a surface layer of
black sand. The subsurface layer is grayish brown
sand. The upper part of the subsoil is black loamy sand
and dark reddish brown sand. The next part is light
yellowish brown sand. The lower part is light gray fine
sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
Typically, the Pelham soils have a surface layer of
very dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is dark
gray fine sand grading to gray fine sand. The subsoil is
gray fine sandy loam in the upper part and gray sandy
clay loam and light gray sandy clay in the lower part.
Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Croatan,
Grifton, Leon, Ocilla, Pamlico, Pantego, Plummer,
Pottsburg, Starke, and Surrency soils and Fluvaquents.
Many areas are used for planted or naturally seeded
pine. A few small areas are used for pasture or crops.
The major soils are moderately suited to pine trees, are
moderately well suited to pasture, and generally are
severely limited as cropland and as sites for urban
uses. Wetness is the main limitation. An extensive
drainage system can lower the water table.

Soils in Swamps and on Flood Plains

8. Dorovan-Pamlico-Croatan
Nearly level, very poorly drained, organic soils that are
muck to a depth of more than 51 inches or are muck 16
to 51 inches deep over sandy or loamy material
This map unit consists of soils in broad swamps,
mainly in the Santa Fe Swamp, which is in the southern
tip of the county. Other scattered small areas of the unit
are in the southern two-thirds of the county. The natural
vegetation consists of bay, blackgum, red maple,
Carolina ash, pondcypress, and pond pine and a
commonly dense understory mainly of greenbrier,
fetterbush lyonia, willow, and other water-tolerant
species.
This map unit makes up about 8 percent of the
county. It is about 42 percent Dorovan soils, 23 percent
Pamlico soils, 22 percent Croatan soils, and 13 percent
minor soils.
Typically, the Dorovan soils have a surface layer of
dark brown muck. Below this is very dark brown muck.
Typically, the Pamlico soils have a surface layer of
dark brown muck. The next layer is black muck. Below
this is very dark grayish brown sand over grayish brown
sand.
Typically, the Croatan soils have a surface layer of


17








black muck. Below this is very dark grayish brown
mucky sandy loam grading to dark gray and gray sandy
clay loam.
Of minor extent in this unit are Pantego, Starke, and
Surrency soils.
Most areas support natural vegetation. Unless an
extensive drainage system is installed, the major soils
are not suited to crops, pasture, or urban uses. They
are best suited to wetland wildlife habitat.

9. Grifton-Elloree-Fluvaquents
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy in the
upper part and loamy within a depth of 40 inches or are
stratified throughout with various textures; in flood-prone
areas
This map unit consists of soils in narrow areas along
the major drainageways of the New and Santa Fe
Rivers and their tributaries. The landscape consists of
flat flood plains or areas interspersed with numerous
backwater channels, cutbanks, flats, and depressions.
The natural vegetation consists of various hardwoods,
such as live oak, laurel oak, water oak, overcup oak,
hickory, maple, sweetgum, ironwood, and cherry.
Cypress occasionally grows in very poorly drained
areas. Also, a few loblolly pine and slash pine grow in
some areas.
This map unit makes up about 3 percent of the


county. It is about 30 percent Grifton soils, 25 percent
Elloree soils, 20 percent Fluvaquents, and 25 percent
minor soils.
Typically, the Grifton soils have a surface layer of
very dark gray loamy fine sand. The subsurface layer is
dark gray loamy fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil
is dark gray sandy clay loam. The next part is gray and
dark gray sandy clay loam that has pockets and broken
bands of soft carbonate. The lower part is gray sandy
loam.
Typically, the Elloree soils have a surface layer of
black fine sand. The subsurface layer is grayish brown
fine sand grading to gray fine sand. The upper part of
the subsoil is light gray sandy loam grading to grayish
brown sandy loam. The lower part is grayish brown
sandy clay loam.
Typically, the Fluvaquents have a surface layer of
grayish brown loamy sand. Below this to a depth of 80
inches or more are alternating bands of loam, sand,
sandy clay loam, and sand.
Of minor extent in this unit are Croatan, Mascotte,
Ousley, Pamlico, Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, Sapelo,
Starke, and Surrency soils.
Most areas support natural hardwood stands. Very
few small areas are cleared or are used for planted
pine. Unless intensive flood-control and drainage
measures are applied, the major soils are generally
unsuited to crops, pasture, and urban development.





19


Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area.
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more
soils for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils
of a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5
percent slopes, is a phase of the Blanton series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil
associations, or undifferentiated groups.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils, or one
or more soils and a miscellaneous area, in such an
intricate pattern or in such small areas that they cannot
be shown separately on the soil maps. The pattern and
proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in all areas.
Pelham-Pelham, wet, fine sands, is an example.
A soil association is made up of two or more
geographically associated soils that are shown as one
unit on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil


uses in the survey area, it was not considered practical
or necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern
and relative proportion of the soils are somewhat
similar. Fluvaquents-Ousley association, occasionally
flooded, is an example.
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
the soils in the mapped areas are not uniform. An area
can be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can
be made up of all of them. Surrency and Pantego soils,
depressional, is an undifferentiated group in this survey
area.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named.
Some of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
areas have little or no soil material and support little or
no vegetation. Urban land is an example. Miscellaneous
areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
the soil maps.
Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.

2-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
soil is in slightly elevated areas in the flatwoods and on
low uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from about 2 to more than 500 acres in size.
Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a






Soil Survey


depth of about 50 inches. The upper 14 inches is brown
sand, the next 20 inches is light brownish gray fine
sand, and the lower 8 inches is light gray fine sand. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
upper 10 inches is yellowish brown fine sandy loam,
and the lower 20 inches is light gray sandy clay loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Albany fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Albany and similar soils
make up 81 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5
percent of the acreage, included soils make up more
than 19 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Albany soil
are included in mapping. These are Chipley and Ocilla
soils and soils that have 15 to 35 percent, by volume,
ironstone nodules or weathered phosphatic limestone
fragments in one or more of the subsurface horizons.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Albany
soil are included in this map unit. These are Blanton,
Foxworth, and Pelham soils, which make up about 1 to
19 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Albany soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 12 to 30 inches
for 1 to 4 months in most years. The water table is at a
depth of 30 to 50 inches for 3 to 7 months in most
years. It recedes below a depth of 50 inches during
extended dry periods. The available water capacity is
low. Permeability is moderate.
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation.
Some areas are used for the production of pine trees. A
few areas have been cleared and are used as cropland
or tame pasture. The natural vegetation consists of
slash pine, scattered longleaf pine, water oak, and
laurel oak. The understory includes waxmyrtle,
gallberry, creeping bluestem, low panicum, indiangrass,
pineland threeawn, and various other grasses.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has severe
limitations because of the wetness, low natural fertility,
and the hazard of erosion. The high water table retards
root development during wet periods. A well designed,
simple drainage system can overcome this limitation. If
good management that includes water-control measures
is applied, the soil is suited to most locally grown crops.
Good management includes growing the crops in
rotation with close-growing, soil-improving crops;
returning crop residue to the soil; and applying fertilizer
and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard where the surface is
unprotected, especially during dry periods. Leaving crop
residue on the surface can help to prevent excessive
soil loss and conserves moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are suitable, but yields
are reduced by periodic droughtiness. If properly
managed, good pastures of grass or of grass-legume


mixtures can be established. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps
to maintain plant vigor.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation and
minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Good site preparation, such as harrowing and
bedding, helps to establish seedlings, removes debris,
helps to control competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Retarding the growth of the hardwood
understory by chemical or mechanical means helps to
control plant competition. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the water table during wet periods. Adding suitable fill
material increases the depth to the water table and thus
helps to overcome the wetness. If outlets are available,
a surface drainage system can be installed.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

3-Ocilla fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
soil is in slightly elevated areas in the flatwoods and on
low uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 2 to more than 300 acres in size. Slopes are
smooth or slightly convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer
extends to a depth of about 20 inches. It is light
yellowish brown fine sand. The next 5 inches is yellow
loamy fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
more is sandy clay loam. It is pale brown in the upper
14 inches and gray in the lower 41 inches.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Ocilla fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Ocilla and similar soils


20






Bradford County, Florida


make up 83 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5
percent of the acreage, included soils make up more
than 17 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Ocilla soil
are included in mapping. These are Albany soils and
soils that have 2 to 10 percent, by volume, ironstone
nodules or weathered phosphatic, gravel-sized
limestone fragments in one or more horizons.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Ocilla
soil are included in this map unit. These are Blanton,
Mascotte, and Pelham soils and, in a few small areas,
soils that are so eroded that the subsoil is within a
depth of 20 inches. The dissimilar soils make up about
1 to 17 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Ocilla soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 12 to 30 inches
for 2 to 6 months. It recedes below a depth of 36 inches
during extended dry periods. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is moderate.
Most areas of this soil are used for tame pasture or
planted pine. The natural vegetation consists of slash
pine and scattered live oak and laurel oak. The
understory includes scattered saw palmetto, gallberry,
greenbrier, pineland threeawn, broomsedge bluestem,
chalky bluestem, and low panicum.
If used for cultivated crops, the soil has severe
limitations because of the wetness, low natural fertility,
and the hazard of erosion. The high water table retards
root development during wet periods. A well designed,
simple drainage system can overcome this limitation. If
good management that includes water-control measures
is applied, the soil is suited to most locally grown crops.
Good management includes growing the crops in
rotation with close-growing, soil-improving crops;
returning crop residue to the soil; and applying fertilizer
and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard where the surface is
unprotected, especially during dry periods. Leaving crop
residue on the surface can help to prevent excessive
soil loss and conserves moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are suitable, but yields
are reduced by periodic droughtiness. If properly
managed, good pastures of grass or of grass-legume
mixtures can be established. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps
to maintain plant vigor.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation and
minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning


activities. Good site preparation, such as harrowing and
bedding, helps to establish seedlings, removes debris,
helps to control competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Retarding the growth of the hardwood
understory by chemical or mechanical means helps to
control plant competition. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is moderately limited as a site for dwellings
without basements and severely limited as a site for
small commercial buildings and for septic tank
absorption fields because of the depth to the water
table during wet periods. Adding suitable fill material
increases the depth to the water table and thus helps to
overcome the wetness. If outlets are available, a
surface drainage system can be installed.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is Illw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

4-Mascotte sand. This nearly level, poorly drained
soil is in broad flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular
in shape and range from 2 to more than 1,000 acres in
size. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of
about 19 inches. It is grayish brown sand. The upper
part of the subsoil is about 4 inches of black loamy
sand and 4 inches of dark reddish brown sand. The
next 8 inches is light yellowish brown sand. The lower
part of the subsoil is about 3 inches of light gray fine
sandy loam and 42 or more inches of light gray sandy
clay loam.
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Mascotte
sand, Mascotte and similar soils make up 78 to 99
percent of the mapped areas. On 10 percent of the
acreage, included soils make up more than 22 percent
of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Mascotte
soil are included in mapping. These are Leon, Pelham,
and Sapelo soils and soils that do not have a
subsurface layer or have an 8-inch layer between the
sandy and loamy parts of the subsoil.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the


21






Soil Survey


Mascotte soil are included in this map unit. These are
Ocilla, Pantego, and Surrency soils, which make up
about 1 to 22 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Mascotte soil has a
seasonal high water table within a depth of about 6 to
18 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The
water table is at a depth of 18 to 40 inches for as long
as 6 months. It recedes below a depth of 40 inches
during extended dry periods. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is moderate.
Most areas support native vegetation or planted pine.
The natural vegetation consists mainly of slash pine.
The understory includes waxmyrtle, scattered saw
palmetto, gallberry, fetterbush lyonia, blackberry,
brackenfern, chalky bluestem, broomsedge bluestem,
lopsided indiangrass, low panicum, pineland threeawn,
and sedges.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has very severe
limitations because of the wetness and low fertility. The
number of crops that can be grown is limited unless
good water-control measures are used. If these
measures are applied, the soil is suitable for most
locally grown crops. It is better suited to specialty crops
than to most general farm crops. A good water-control
system removes excess water during wet periods and
provides for subsurface irrigation during dry periods.
Good management includes growing row crops in
rotation with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops;
returning crop residue, including that of the soil-
improving crops, to the soil; bedding rows; and applying
fertilizer and lime according to the needs of the crop.
If water is properly controlled, this soil is well suited
to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes. If
properly managed, good pastures of grass or of grass-
legume mixtures can be established. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
during long rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for the
best yields of white clover or other adapted shallow-
rooted pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing
an optimum plant population, applying fertilizer and
lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain a good
plant cover and increase forage production.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Preparing the site and planting and harvesting the trees
during the drier periods also help to overcome the
equipment limitation. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,


removes debris, helps to control competing vegetation,
and facilitates planting. Leaving all plant debris on the
site helps to maintain the content of organic matter in
the soil. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to grazeable woodland. The
desirable forage is creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
and blue maidencane. The forage composition and
annual productivity are influenced by the forest canopy.
Little grazing value can be expected after the canopy
cover exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the high water table during wet periods. A good
drainage system is needed to remove excess water
during wet periods and to control the water table.
Adding suitable fill material increases the depth to the
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The high water table is the major limitation. A good
water-control system is needed. Trafficability also is a
limitation. Because of the loose, sandy surface layer,
soil blowing is a hazard during dry periods. Maintaining
a good vegetative cover or windbreaks or adding
suitable topsoil or some other material that can stabilize
the surface improves trafficability and helps to control
soil blowing.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

5-Penney sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This nearly
level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil is in
broad uplands and sandhills. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and range from 2 to 500 acres in
size. Slopes are smooth to concave.
Typically, the surface layer is brown sand about 5
inches thick. The next 51 inches is brownish yellow
sand. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is
yellow sand that has thin, discontinuous bands of
yellowish brown loamy sand.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Penney
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Penney and similar soils
make up 89 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5
percent of the acreage, included soils make up more
than 11 percent of the mapped areas.
Areas of soils that are similar to the Penney soil are
included in mapping. These soils have thin layers of
loamy sand at a depth of more than 80 inches.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Penney
soil are included in this map unit. These are Blanton
soils, which make up about 1 to 11 percent of most
mapped areas.
The Penney soil has a water table below a depth of


22






23


Bradford County, Florida


72 inches. The available water capacity is very low.
Permeability is rapid.
Most areas support natural vegetation. Some areas
are used for urban development or tame pasture. The
natural vegetation consists of scattered longleaf pine,
slash pine, sand pine, live oak, laurel oak, turkey oak,
and bluejack oak. The understory includes a sparse
growth of pineland threeawn, lopsided indiangrass,
creeping bluestem, low panicum, and annual forbs.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has very severe
limitations. It is unable to retain a sufficient amount of
moisture during the drier periods because of the coarse
texture. Applied plant nutrients are rapidly leached from
the soil. Corn, peanuts, and watermelons can be grown,
but intensive management is needed. This includes
growing soil-improving cover crops, returning crop
residue to the soil, applying fertilizer and lime, and
using suitable crop rotations. Irrigation is needed during
drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard where
the surface is unprotected. It can damage tender crops.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture
grasses and hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants,
such as improved bermudagrass and improved
bahiagrasses, but yields are reduced by periodic
droughtiness. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant
vigor. Irrigation improves the quality of the pasture and
hay. Shallow-rooted pasture plants do not grow well
because the root zone does not retain a sufficient
amount of moisture.
The potential productivity of this soil is moderate for
pines. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and sand pine are
suitable for planting. The equipment limitation and
seedling mortality are management concerns. The soil
is drought. During long dry periods, it does not provide
enough moisture for plant growth. Selecting special
planting stock that is larger than usual or that is
containerized reduces the seedling mortality rate. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation on this loose, sandy
soil. Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter in the soil.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil has slight limitations if used as a site for
dwellings, small commercial buildings, or septic tank
absorption fields. Because of a poor filtering capacity,
however, ground-water contamination is a hazard in
areas that have a concentration of dwellings with septic
tanks.


The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8S.

6-Plummer-Plummer, wet, sands. These nearly
level, poorly drained soils generally are on broad flats,
but the wet Plummer soil is in the slightly lower areas or
in drainageways. The soils occur in a regular repeating
pattern on the landscape. Excess water ponds in the
low areas during the rainy season and for short periods
after heavy, unseasonal rainfall. Individual areas are
irregularly shaped or elongated and range from 2 to
more than 500 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Plummer soil on
flats is very dark gray sand about 9 inches thick. The
subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 56 inches.
It is sand. The upper 18 inches is grayish brown, the
next 8 inches is light gray, and the lower 21 inches is
white. Below this is light brownish gray loamy sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of about 80
inches is light brownish gray and light gray sandy clay
loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the wet Plummer soil is
very dark gray sand about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 48 inches.
It is sand. The upper 13 inches is grayish brown, and
the lower 28 inches is light brownish gray. Below this is
light gray loamy sand about 2 inches thick. The subsoil
to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray sandy clay
loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Plummer-
Plummer, wet, sands, Plummer and similar soils make
up 89 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5 percent
of the acreage, included soils make up more than 11
percent of the mapped areas. Generally, the mapped
areas are about 58 percent the Plummer soil on flats
and similar soils and 36 percent the wet Plummer soil
and similar soils. The components of this map unit
occur as areas so intricately intermingled that it is not
practical to map them separately at the scale used in
mapping. The proportions and patterns of both of the
Plummer soils and of the similar soils are relatively
consistent in most mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Plummer
soils are included in mapping. These are Osier, Pelham,
and Sapelo soils; soils that have about 5 to 15 percent,
by volume, ironstone nodules or weathered phosphatic,
gravel-sized limestone fragments in one or more






Soil Survey


horizons; and, in a few areas adjacent to drainageways,
soils that have slopes of as much as 5 percent.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Plummer soils are included in this map unit. These are
Albany, Starke, and Surrency soils, which make up 1 to
11 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Plummer soil on flats
has a seasonal high water table within about 6 to 18
inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months and the wet
Plummer soil has one at or above the surface for 1 to 4
months during the rainy season and for short periods
after heavy rainfall. The water table recedes to a depth
of 30 inches or more in both soils during drought
periods. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate.
Most areas support second-growth pine or planted
pine. A few areas are used for tame pasture, hay, or
urban development. The natural vegetation consists of
slash pine, longleaf pine, laurel oak, scattered
sweetgum, blackgum, water oak, and scattered
pondcypress. The understory includes waxmyrtle,
blackberry, gallberry, grape, greenbrier, lopsided
indiangrass, chalky bluestem, scattered saw palmetto,
low panicum, pineland threeawn, broomsedge bluestem,
chalky bluestem, maidencane, and St Johnswort.
If used for cultivated crops under natural conditions,
these soils have very severe limitations because of the
wetness and low natural fertility. They are suited to
most vegetable crops, however, if intensive
management that includes a water-control system to
remove excess water rapidly and provide for subsurface
irrigation is applied. Soil-improving crops and crop
residue can protect the soils from erosion and maintain
the content of organic matter. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be
applied according to the needs of the crop.
If water is properly controlled, these soils are well
suited to improved bermudagrasses, bahiagrass, and
legumes. If properly managed, good pastures of grass
or of grass-legume mixtures can be established. Water-
control measures are needed to remove excess surface
water during long rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for
the best yields of white clover or other adapted shallow-
rooted pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing
an optimum plant population, applying fertilizer and
lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain a good
plant cover and increase forage production.
In most areas the potential productivity of these soils
is high for slash pine. Slash pine and loblolly pine are
suitable for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes


compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Preparing the site and planting and harvesting the trees
during the drier periods also help to overcome the
equipment limitation. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
helps to control competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter in the soils. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
These soils are well suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, chalky
bluestem, and blue maidencane. The forage
composition and annual productivity are influenced by
the forest canopy. Little grazing value can be expected
after the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent.
These soils are severely limited as sites for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the high water table during wet periods. A good
drainage system is needed to remove excess water
during wet periods and to control the water table.
Adding suitable fill material increases the depth to the
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The high water table is the major limitation. A good
water-control system is needed. The sandy surface
layer limits trafficability, and soil blowing is a hazard.
These limitations can be overcome by establishing and
maintaining a good vegetative cover or windbreaks or
by adding suitable topsoil or some other material that
can stabilize the surface.
The Plummer soil on flats is assigned to capability
subclass IIIw and woodland ordination symbol 11W.
The wet Plummer soil is assigned to capability subclass
Vw and woodland ordination symbol 2W.

7-Surrency and Pantego soils, depressional.
These nearly level, very poorly drained soils are in
depressions. They do not occur in a regular repeating
pattern on the landscape. Individual areas are circular,
irregularly shaped, or elongated and range from 2 to
more than 500 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
slightly concave. They are dominantly less than 1
percent but range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer in the
Surrency soil is black mucky fine sand about 9 inches
thick. The lower part is very dark grayish brown sand
about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a
depth of about 30 inches. It is light brownish gray sand.
The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The upper 15 inches is grayish brown sandy loam, the
next 10 inches is light gray sandy clay loam, and the
lower 25 inches or more is light gray sandy clay loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pantego soil is


24






Bradford County, Florida


black mucky loamy sand about 15 inches thick. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 64 inches or more. The
upper 3 inches is grayish brown sandy loam, the next
14 inches is dark grayish brown sandy clay loam, and
the lower 32 inches is dark brown sandy clay.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Surrency
and Pantego soils, depressional, Surrency, Pantego,
and similar soils make up 83 to 99 percent of the
mapped areas. On 5 percent of the acreage, included
soils make up more than 17 percent of the mapped
areas. Generally, the mapped areas are about 62
percent Surrency and similar soils and about 30 percent
Pantego and similar soils. Some areas are Surrency
and similar soils, some are Pantego and similar soils,
and some are both Surrency and Pantego soils. Each of
the soils does not necessarily occur in every mapped
area. The relative proportion of the soils varies from
area to area. Areas of the individual soils are large
enough to be mapped separately. Because of the
present and predicted land uses, however, they were
mapped as one unit.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Surrency
and Pantego soils are included in mapping. These are
Pelham and Starke soils, soils that have a surface layer
of muck 3 to 16 inches thick, and soils that have a
substratum of sand, loamy sand, or sandy loam at a
depth of more than 60 inches.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Surrency and Pantego soils are included in this map
unit. These are Croatan, Pamlico, and Plummer soils,
which make up about 1 to 17 percent of most mapped
areas.
Undrained areas of the Surrency and Pantego soils
are ponded for 4 months or more during the year, and a
seasonal high water table is within 12 inches of the
surface for 4 to 8 months during most years. The
available water capacity is moderate or high.
Permeability is moderate.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of pondcypress, scattered pond pine,
sweetbay, water tupelo, blackgum, and red maple. The
understory includes gallberry, fetterbush lyonia, devils
walkingstick, sedges, ferns, and other water-tolerant
grasses. Areas of these soils provide cover for deer and
are excellent habitat for wading birds and other wetland
wildlife.
Under natural conditions, these soils are not suited to
cultivated crops, tame pasture, planted pine trees, or
grazeable woodland. The excessive wetness is the
main limitation. Installing adequate water-control
systems is difficult. Many areas are in isolated ponds or
wet depressions that do not have suitable drainage
outlets. In properly managed areas where a good


drainage system can be installed, good-quality grass or
grass-clover pastures can be established.
The limitations affecting urban uses are severe.
Excess water on or near the surface during much of the
year and the thick sandy layers are the dominant
limitations. Drainage systems that would adequately
remove the water and effectively regulate the water
table are expensive and cannot be easily installed or
maintained. Most areas do not have good drainage
outlets. Even where adequate drainage systems are
installed, maintaining the systems is a continuing
problem. Suitable fill material is needed on sites for
dwellings, small commercial buildings, and septic tank
absorption fields.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The ponding and the sandy texture are the major
limitations. A good water-control system is necessary.
Also, suitable fill material is needed to improve
trafficability and to increase the depth to the water
table.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W.

8-Surrency and Pantego soils, frequently flooded.
These nearly level, very poorly drained soils are on
flood plains along various creeks and rivers throughout
the county. They do not occur in a regular repeating
pattern on the landscape. Some areas are isolated by
meandering stream channels. Individual areas are
irregularly shaped or elongated and range from 5 to
more than 100 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
slightly concave. They are dominantly less than 1
percent but range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer in the
Surrency soil is black mucky fine sand about 12 inches
thick. The lower part is very dark gray loamy fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a
depth of about 32 inches. It is grayish brown and light
gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80
inches or more. The upper 10 inches is gray sandy
loam, the next 25 inches is mixed gray and light gray
sandy clay loam, and the lower 13 inches is gray sandy
clay loam.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer in the
Pantego soil is black mucky loamy sand about 10
inches thick. The lower part is very dark gray loamy fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil
is sandy clay loam. The upper 12 inches is dark gray,
the next 14 inches is grayish brown, and the next 21
inches is gray. Below this to a depth of 80 inches is
mixed gray and light gray sandy loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Surrency
and Pantego soils, frequently flooded, Surrency,


25






Soil Survey


Pantego, and similar soils make up 86 to 99 percent of
the mapped areas. On 5 percent of the acreage,
included soils make up more than 14 percent of the
mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas are about
60 percent Surrency and similar soils and about 35
percent Pantego and similar soils. Some areas are
Surrency and similar soils, some are Pantego and
similar soils, and some are both Surrency and Pantego
soils. Each of the soils does not necessarily occur in
every mapped area. The relative proportion of the soils
varies from area to area. Areas of the individual soils
are large enough to be mapped separately. Because of
the present and predicted uses, however, they were
mapped as one unit.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Surrency
and Pantego soils are included in mapping. These are
Grifton soils and soils that have a thin surface layer of
muck.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Surrency and Pantego soils are included in this map
unit. These are Croatan soils, which make up about 1 to
14 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Surrency and Pantego
soils have a seasonal high water table within 12 inches
of the surface for long periods. These soils are flooded
for very long periods following heavy rainfall. Ponding
occurs in the lower areas for long periods. The
available water capacity is moderate or high.
Permeability is moderate.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of red maple, blackgum, sweetgum, sweetbay,
swamp tupelo, baldcypress, and scattered pond pine.
The understory includes waxmyrtle, dwarf palmetto,
maidencane, ferns, sedges, and other water-tolerant
grasses.
Unless major drainage systems are installed, these
soils are not suited to cultivated crops, tame pasture
grasses, planted pine trees, or grazeable woodland
because of the prolonged wetness and the hazard of
flooding. Establishing and maintaining a drainage
system are difficult because of the hazard of flooding.
These soils are severely limited as sites for urban
and recreational uses because of the hazard of flooding
and the wetness (fig. 10). Intensive flood-control and
drainage measures are necessary. Fill material is
needed to elevate building sites and septic tank
absorption fields. Local roads and streets also should
be elevated.
These soils are well suited to habitat for wetland and
woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily
developed, and the natural vegetation provides
abundant food and shelter for wildlife.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W.


9-Starke mucky fine sand, frequently flooded.
This nearly level, very poorly drained soil is in flood-
prone areas along drainageways and adjacent to bodies
of water. Individual areas are irregularly shaped or
elongated and range from 5 to more than 100 acres in
size. Slopes are smooth or slightly concave and are
less than 2 percent.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is black
mucky fine sand about 7 inches thick. The lower part is
black fine sand about 11 inches thick. The subsurface
layer extends to a depth of about 46 inches. It is dark
grayish brown and brown fine sand. The subsoil
extends to a depth of about 80 inches or more. The
upper 13 inches is gray sandy loam, and the lower 21
inches or more is gray sandy clay loam.
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Starke
mucky fine sand, frequently flooded, Starke and similar
soils make up 78 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
On 10 percent of the acreage, included soils make up
more than 22 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Starke soil
are included in mapping. These are Plummer and
Surrency soils; soils that have a thin, weakly organic
stained layer within a depth of 30 inches; and soils that
have a surface layer of muck 8 to 16 inches thick.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Starke
soil are included in this map unit. These are Croatan,
Pamlico, and Pelham soils, which make up about 1 to
22 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Starke soil has a
seasonal high water table at or above the surface for 4
to 8 months in most years. This soil is flooded for very
long periods following intense rainfall. The lower areas
are ponded for long periods. The available water
capacity is moderate. Permeability also is moderate.
Most areas support natural vegetation consisting of
baldcypress, swamp tupelo, sweetbay, red maple, and
scattered slash pine and pond pine. The understory
includes waxmyrtle, swamp cyrilla, sedge, greenbrier,
and brackenfern.
Unless major drainage systems are installed, this soil
is not suited to cultivated crops, tame pasture grasses,
planted pine trees, or grazeable woodland because of
the prolonged wetness and the hazard of flooding.
Establishing and maintaining a drainage system is
difficult because of the hazard of flooding.
The soil has severe limitations if used as a site for
urban or recreational uses because of the hazard of
flooding and the wetness. Intensive flood-control and
drainage measures are necessary. Fill material is
needed to elevate building sites, septic tank absorption
fields, and local roads and streets.
This soil is well suited to habitat for wetland and
woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily


26






27


Bradford County, Florida


Figure 10.-Flooding in an area of Surrency and Pantego soils, frequently flooded.


developed, and the natural vegetation provides
abundant food and shelter for wildlife.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W.

1-Osier sand. This nearly level, poorly drained soil
is in low areas in the flatwoods. Individual areas are
circular or irregularly shaped and range from 10 to 120
acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave and are
less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 5 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth
of 80 inches or more is sand. The upper 20 inches is
dark grayish brown, the next 30 inches is grayish
brown, and the lower 25 inches is light brownish gray.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Osier sand,


Osier and similar soils make up 82 to 99 percent of the
mapped areas. On 5 percent of the acreage, included
soils make up more than 18 percent of the mapped
areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Osier soil
are included in mapping. These are Chipley, Plummer,
and Pottsburg soils and soils that have underlying
material of dark brown to light yellowish brown sand or
fine sand.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Osier
soil are included in this map unit. These are Albany
soils, which make up about 1 to 18 percent of most
mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Osier soil has a
seasonal high water table within a depth of 12 inches
for 2 to 4 months and at a depth of 12 to 30 inches for






Soil Survey


about 3 to 6 months or more during most years. The
available water capacity is very low. Permeability is
rapid.
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation. A
few areas have been cleared and are used for tame
pasture or planted pine. The natural vegetation consists
of blackgum, water oak, slash pine, and scattered red
maple. The understory includes pineland threeawn,
gallberry, waxmyrtle, scattered saw palmetto, little
bluestem, blue maidencane, toothachegrass,
switchgrass, and various other grasses.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has very severe
limitations because of the wetness and low natural
fertility. The number of crops that can be grown is
limited unless good water-control measures are used. If
these measures are applied, the soil is suitable for most
locally grown crops. It is better suited to specialty crops
than to most general farm crops. A good water-control
system removes excess water during wet periods and
provides for subsurface irrigation during dry periods.
Good management includes growing row crops in
rotation with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops;
returning crop residue, including that of the soil-
improving crops, to the soil; bedding rows; and applying
fertilizer and lime according to the needs of the crop.
If water is properly controlled, the soil is well suited
to improved bermudagrasses, bahiagrass, and legumes.
If properly managed, good pastures of grass or of
grass-legume mixtures can be established. Water-
control measures are needed to remove excess surface
water during long rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for
the best yields of white clover or other adapted shallow-
rooted pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing
an optimum plant population, applying fertilizer and
lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain a good
plant cover and increase forage production.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine is suitable for planting. The equipment
limitation, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
management concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main
limitation. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation and
minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Preparing the site and planting and harvesting
the trees during the drier periods also help to overcome
the equipment limitation. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
helps to control competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter in the soil.
This soil is well suited to grazeable woodland. The
desirable forage is creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
and blue maidencane. The forage composition and
annual productivity are influenced by the forest canopy.


Little grazing value can be expected after the canopy
cover exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the high water table during wet periods. A good
drainage system is needed to remove excess water
during wet periods and to control the water table.
Adding suitable fill material increases the depth to the
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The high water table is the major limitation. A good
water-control system is needed. The sandy surface
layer limits trafficability, and soil blowing is a hazard.
These limitations can be overcome by establishing and
maintaining a good vegetative cover or windbreaks or
by adding suitable topsoil or some other material that
can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

11-Allanton loamy sand. This nearly level, poorly
drained soil is in the flatwoods and along poorly defined
drainageways. Individual areas are broad, irregularly
shaped, or elongated and range from 10 to 1,000 acres
in size. Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is loamy sand about 22
inches thick. The upper 5 inches is black, and the lower
17 inches is very dark gray. The subsurface layer
extends to a depth of about 59 inches. The upper 14
inches is dark gray and brown fine sand, and the lower
23 inches is grayish brown sand. The subsoil to a depth
of 80 inches or more is sand. The upper 10 inches is
very dark brown, and the lower 11 inches is black.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Allanton
loamy sand, Allanton and similar soils make up 83 to 99
percent of the mapped areas. On 5 percent of the
acreage, included soils make up more than 17 percent
of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Allanton
soil are included in mapping. These are Pottsburg soils
and soils that have a layer in which the sand grains are
coated with colloidal organic matter. This layer is
directly below the surface layer.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Allanton
soil are included in this map unit. These are Hurricane,
Starke, and Surrency soils, which make up about 1 to
17 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Allanton soil has a
seasonal high water table within a depth of 12 inches
for 3 to 6 months during most years. The water table is
at a depth of 12 to 40 inches for as long as 6 months. It
recedes below a depth of 40 inches during extended


28






Bradford County, Florida


Figure 11.-Com in an area of Allanton loamy sand. Bedding the rows helps to keep the crop from drowning during wet periods.


dry periods. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate to rapid.
Most areas support natural vegetation or planted
pine. The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine
and slash pine. The understory includes saw palmetto,
gallberry, waxmyrtle, creeping bluestem, chalky
bluestem, and pineland threeawn.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has very severe
limitations because of the wetness and low fertility. The
number of crops that can be grown is limited unless
good water-control measures are used. If these
measures are applied, the soil is suitable for most
locally grown crops. It is better suited to specialty crops
than to most general farm crops. A good water-control
system removes excess water during wet periods and
provides for subsurface irrigation during dry periods.
Good management includes growing row crops in


rotation with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops;
returning crop residue, including that of the soil-
improving crops, to the soil; bedding rows (fig. 11); and
applying fertilizer and lime according to the needs of the
crop.
If water is properly controlled, this soil is well suited
to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes. If
properly managed, good pastures of grass or of grass-
legume mixtures can be established. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
during long rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for the
best yields of white clover or other adapted shallow-
rooted pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing
an optimum plant population, applying fertilizer and
lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain a good
plant cover and increase forage production.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.


29






Soil Survey


Slash pine and loblolly pine are suitable for planting.
The equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
competition are management concerns. Seasonal
wetness is the main limitation. The use of equipment
that has large tires or tracks helps to overcome the
equipment limitation and minimizes compaction and root
damage during thinning activities. Preparing the site
and planting and harvesting the trees during the drier
periods also help to overcome the equipment limitation.
Good site preparation, such as harrowing and bedding,
helps to establish seedlings, removes debris, helps to
control competing vegetation, and facilitates planting.
Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to maintain the
content of organic matter in the soil. The trees respond
well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to grazeable woodland. The
desirable forage is creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
and blue maidencane. The forage composition and
annual productivity are influenced by the forest canopy.
Little grazing value can be expected after the canopy
cover exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the high water table during wet periods. A good
drainage system is needed to remove excess water
during wet periods and to control the water table.
Adding suitable fill material increases the depth to the
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The high water table is the main limitation. A good
water-control system is needed. Trafficability also is a
limitation. Because of the sandy surface layer, soil
blowing is a hazard during dry periods. Maintaining a
good vegetative cover or windbreaks or adding suitable
topsoil or some other material that can stabilize the
surface improves trafficability and helps to control soil
blowing.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

12-Sapelo sand. This nearly level, poorly drained
soil is in the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregularly
shaped and range from 3 to more than 400 acres in
size. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
brown sand about 7 inches thick. The subsoil extends
to a depth of 80 inches or more. In sequence
downward, it is about 6 inches of very dark brown sand,
8 inches of dark brown sand, 21 inches of light gray
sand, 10 inches of light gray fine sandy loam, and 20
inches of light gray sandy clay loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Sapelo


sand, Sapelo and similar soils make up 79 to 99
percent of the mapped areas. On 5 percent of the
acreage, included soils make up more than 21 percent
of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Sapelo soil
are included in mapping. These are Mascotte and
Plummer soils and soils that have less than 10 percent,
by volume, ironstone nodules and weathered
phosphatic limestone fragments in the lower part of the
subsoil.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Sapelo
soil are included in this map unit. These are Pelham,
Starke, and Surrency soils, which make up about 1 to
21 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Sapelo soil has a
seasonal high water table within a depth of about 6 to
18 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The
available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderate.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
A few areas are used for crops or pasture. The natural
vegetation consists of slash pine, loblolly pine,
gallberry, saw palmetto, fetterbush lyonia, and
waxmyrtle. The understory includes chalky bluestem,
pineland threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, and
broomsedge bluestem.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has very severe
limitations because of the wetness and low fertility. The
number of crops that can be grown is limited unless
good water-control measures are used. If these
measures are applied, the soil is suitable for most
locally grown crops. It is better suited to specialty crops
than to most general farm crops. A good water-control
system removes excess water during wet periods and
provides for subsurface irrigation during dry periods.
Good management includes growing row crops in
rotation with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops;
returning crop residue, including that of the soil-
improving crops, to the soil; bedding rows; and applying
fertilizer and lime according to the needs of the crop.
If water is properly controlled, this soil is well suited
to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes. If
properly managed, good pastures of grass or of grass-
legume mixtures can be established. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
during long rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for the
best yields of white clover or other adapted shallow-
rooted pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing
an optimum plant population, applying fertilizer and
lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain a good
plant cover and increase forage production.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling


30






Bradford County, Florida


mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Preparing the site and planting and harvesting the trees
during the drier periods also help to overcome the
equipment limitation. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
removes debris, helps to control competing vegetation,
and facilitates planting. Leaving all plant debris on the
site helps to maintain the content of organic matter in
the soil. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to grazeable woodland. The
desirable forage is creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
and blue maidencane. The forage composition and
annual productivity are influenced by the forest canopy.
Little grazing value can be expected after the canopy
cover exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the high water table during wet periods. A good
drainage system is needed to remove excess water
during wet periods and to control the water table.
Adding suitable fill material increases the depth to the
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The high water table is the major limitation. A good
water-control system is needed. Trafficability also is a
limitation. Because of the loose, sandy surface layer,
soil blowing is a hazard during dry periods. Maintaining
a good vegetative cover or windbreaks or adding
suitable topsoil or some other material that can stabilize
the surface improves trafficability and helps to control
soil blowing.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

13-Hurricane sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
soil is in slightly elevated areas in the flatwoods.
Individual areas are irregularly shaped or elongated and
range from 5 to 120 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 2
inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of
about 57 inches. It is sand. It is grayish brown in the
upper 7 inches, light yellowish brown in the next 20
inches, light brownish gray in the next 12 inches, and
light yellowish brown in the lower 16 inches. The
subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is very dark
brown and black fine sand.


On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Hurricane
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Hurricane and similar soils
make up 79 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 20
percent of the acreage, included soils make up more
than 21 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Hurricane
soil are included in mapping. These are Chipley soils
and soils in which the lower part of the subsurface layer
has few or common bodies of sand that is well coated
with organic matter.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Hurricane soil are included in this map unit. These are
Allanton and Pottsburg soils, which make up 1 to 21
percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Hurricane soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 24 to 40 inches
for 2 to 4 months during most years. The water table is
at a depth of 12 to 24 inches for less than 30
cumulative days during periods of heavy rainfall. It
recedes to a depth of 60 inches or more during
extended dry periods. The available water capacity is
low. Permeability is moderately rapid.
Most areas support planted pine. A few areas are
used for tame pasture or cultivated crops. The natural
vegetation consists mainly of slash pine, water oak, and
live oak. The understory includes saw palmetto,
waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, chalky bluestem,
creeping bluestem, dwarf huckleberry, gallberry, and
fetterbush lyonia.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has severe
limitations. Droughtiness, low natural fertility, and rapid
leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of suitable
plants and reduce the potential crop yields. The high
water table provides water through capillary rise and
thus helps to compensate for the low available water
capacity of the soil. In very dry periods, the water table
drops well below the root zone, and little capillary water
is available to plants. If good management that includes
water-control measures is applied, the soil is suited to
most locally grown crops. Good management includes
growing the crops in rotation with close-growing, soil-
improving crops; returning crop residue to the soil; and
applying fertilizer and lime. Irrigation of high-value crops
generally is feasible where irrigation water is readily
available. Soil blowing is a hazard where the surface is
unprotected, especially during dry periods. Leaving crop
residue on the surface can help to prevent excessive
soil loss and conserves moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass, but yields are
reduced by periodic droughtiness. If properly managed,
good pastures of grass or of grass-legume mixtures can
be established. Regular applications of fertilizer and


31






Soil Survey


lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain
plant vigor.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation and
minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Good site preparation, such as harrowing and
bedding, helps to establish seedlings, removes debris,
helps to control competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Retarding the growth of the hardwood
understory by chemical or mechanical means helps to
control plant competition.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil has moderate limitations if used as a site for
dwellings without basements or for small commercial
buildings and severe limitations if used as a site for
septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to the
water table during wet periods and a poor filtering
capacity. Adding suitable fill material increases the
depth to the water table and thus helps to overcome the
wetness. If outlets are available, a surface drainage
system can be installed.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

14-Pamlico and Croatan mucks. These nearly
level, very poorly drained soils are in depressions. They
do not occur in a regular repeating pattern on the
landscape. Individual areas are irregularly shaped or
elongated and range from 2 to more than 500 acres in
size. Slopes are smooth or slightly concave and are
less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is
muck about 40 inches thick. The upper 16 inches is
dark brown, and the lower 24 inches is black. The
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
sand. The upper 10 inches is very dark grayish brown,
and the lower 30 inches or more is grayish brown.
Typically, the surface layer of the Croatan soil is
black muck about 23 inches thick. The underlying


material extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
upper 7 inches is very dark grayish brown mucky sandy
loam. The next 35 inches is dark gray sandy clay loam.
The lower 15 inches or more is gray sandy clay loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pamlico
and Croatan mucks, Pamlico, Croatan, and similar soils
make up 82 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5
percent of the acreage, included soils make up more
than 18 percent of the mapped areas. Generally, the
mapped areas are about 52 percent Pamlico and similar
soils and about 40 percent Croatan and similar soils.
Some areas are Pamlico and similar soils, some are
Croatan and similar soils, and some are both Pamlico
and Croatan soils. Each of the soils does not
necessarily occur in every mapped area. The relative
proportion of the soils varies from area to area. Areas
of the individual soils are large enough to be mapped
separately. Because of the present and predicted land
uses, however, they were mapped as one unit.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Pamlico
and Croatan soils are included in this map unit. These
are Dorovan soils and soils having an organic surface
layer that is 8 to 16 inches thick.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Pamlico
and Croatan soils are included in this map unit. These
are Surrency soils and soils having coarse pockets of
sand and loamy sand between the organic material and
the underlying material. The dissimilar soils make up
about 1 to 18 percent of most mapped areas.
Undrained areas of the Pamlico and Croatan soils
are ponded for 6 months or more during the year, and a
seasonal high water table is within 12 inches of the
surface for 6 to 12 months during most years. The
available water capacity is very high. Permeability is
moderately slow to moderately rapid.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of sweetbay, red maple, scattered
pondcypress, and widely scattered pond pine. The
understory includes large gallberry, fetterbush lyonia,
willow, maidencane, and other water-tolerant plants.
Areas of these soils provide cover for deer and are
excellent habitat for wading birds and other wetland
wildlife.
Under natural conditions, these soils are not suited to
cultivated crops, tame pasture, planted pine trees, or
grazeable woodland. The excessive wetness is the
main limitation. Installing adequate water-control
systems is difficult. Many areas are in isolated ponds or
wet depressions that do not have suitable drainage
outlets. In properly managed areas where a good
drainage system can be installed, good-quality grass or
grass-clover pastures can be established.
The limitations affecting urban uses are severe.
Excess water on or near the surface during much of the


32






Bradford County, Florida


year and the thick surface layer of muck are the
dominant limitations. Drainage systems that would
adequately remove the water and effectively regulate
the water table are expensive and cannot be easily
installed or maintained. Most areas do not have good
drainage outlets. Even where adequate drainage
systems are installed, maintaining the systems is a
continuing limitation. Suitable fill material is needed on
sites for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and
septic tank absorption fields.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The ponding and the mucky surface layer are the major
limitations. A good water-control system is necessary.
Also, suitable fill material is needed to improve
trafficability and to increase the depth to the water
table.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W.

15-Pottsburg sand. This nearly level, poorly
drained soil is in the flatwoods. Individual areas are
irregularly shaped and range from 5 to 250 acres in
size. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a
depth of about 62 inches. It is sand. The upper 7 inches
is dark gray, the next 17 inches is light brownish gray,
and the lower 30 inches is grayish brown. The subsoil
to a depth of 80 inches or more is sand. The upper 8
inches is dark brown, and the lower 10 inches or more
is black sand that is well coated with organic matter.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pottsburg
sand, Pottsburg and similar soils make up 84 to 99
percent of the mapped areas. On 5 percent of the
acreage, included soils make up more than 16 percent
of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Pottsburg
soil are included in mapping. These are Allanton and
Osier soils and soils having a weakly stained layer at a
depth of 30 to 50 inches.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Pottsburg soil are included in this map unit. These are
Plummer, Sapelo, and Starke soils, which make up
about 1 to 16 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Pottsburg soil has a
seasonal high water table within a depth of about 6 to
18 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. It
recedes below a depth of more than 40 inches during
very dry periods. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate.
Most areas support planted pine. A few areas are
used as tame pasture. The natural vegetation consists
of slash pine, longleaf pine, and laurel oak. The
understory includes saw palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle,


fetterbush lyonia, chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem,
blue maidencane, and various other grasses.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has very severe
limitations because of the wetness and low fertility. The
number of adapted crops that can be grown is limited
unless good water-control measures are used. If these
measures are applied, the soil is suitable for most
locally grown crops. It is better suited to specialty crops
than to most general farm crops. A good water-control
system removes excess water during wet periods and
provides for subsurface irrigation during dry periods.
Good management includes growing row crops in
rotation with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops;
returning crop residue, including that of the soil-
improving crops, to the soil; bedding rows; and applying
fertilizer and lime according to the needs of the crop.
If water is properly controlled, this soil is well suited
to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes. If
properly managed, good pastures of grass or of grass-
legume mixtures can be established. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
during long rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for the
best yields of white clover or other adapted shallow-
rooted pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing
an optimum plant population, applying fertilizer and
lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain a good
plant cover and increase forage production.
The potential productivity of this soil is moderately
high for pines. Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Preparing the site and planting and harvesting the trees
during the drier periods also help to overcome the
equipment limitation. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
removes debris, helps to control competing vegetation,
and facilitates planting. Leaving all plant debris on the
site helps to maintain the content of organic matter in
the soil. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to grazeable woodland. The
desirable forage is creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
and blue maidencane. The forage composition and
annual productivity are influenced by the forest canopy.
Little grazing value can be expected after the canopy
cover exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the high water table during wet periods. A good


33






Soil Survey


drainage system is needed to remove excess water
during wet periods and to control the water table.
Adding suitable fill material increases the depth to the
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The high water table is the main limitation. A good
water-control system is needed. Trafficability also is a
limitation. Because of the loose, sandy surface layer,
soil blowing is a hazard during dry periods. Maintaining
a good vegetative cover or windbreaks or adding
suitable topsoil or some other material that can stabilize
the surface improves trafficability and helps to control
soil blowing.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.

16-Foxworth fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well
drained soil is on uplands. Individual areas are
irregularly shaped and range from 2 to more than 150
acres in size. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 8 inches thick. The underlying material to a
depth of 80 inches or more is sand. The upper 20
inches is yellowish brown. The next 47 inches is
brownish yellow, and the lower 5 inches or more is very
pale brown.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Foxworth
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Foxworth and similar
soils make up 83 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
On 5 percent of the acreage, included soils make up
more than 17 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Foxworth
soil are included in mapping. These are Blanton and
Lakeland soils; soils having a layer that is weakly
coated with organic matter at a depth of about 50
inches or more; soils having a dark surface layer that is
10 to 19 inches thick; and, in a few areas, soils that
have slopes of as much as 8 percent.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Foxworth soil are included in this map unit. These are
Albany and Chipley soils and soils having ironstone
concretions that make up less than 15 percent, by
volume, of any one horizon. The dissimilar soils make
up about 1 to 17 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Foxworth soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 42 to 72 inches
for 1 to 3 months. The water table is at a depth of 30 to
40 inches for less than 30 cumulative days in some
years. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
is very rapid.
Most areas are used for crops or tame pasture. The
natural vegetation consists of live oak, laurel oak, turkey


oak, and bluejack oak and some longleaf pine and
slash pine. Other trees, such as dogwood, hickory,
ironwood, and cherry, grow in some areas. The
understory includes huckleberry, gallberry, pineland
threeawn, and various other weeds and grasses.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has severe
limitations. Droughtiness, low natural fertility, and rapid
leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of suitable
plants and reduce the potential crop yields. The high
water table provides water through capillary rise and
thus helps to compensate for the low available water
capacity of the soil. Good management includes
growing the crops in rotation with close-growing, soil-
improving crops; returning crop residue to the soil; and
applying fertilizer and lime. Irrigation of high-value crops
generally is feasible where irrigation water is readily
available. Soil blowing is a hazard where the surface is
unprotected, especially during dry periods. Leaving crop
residue on the surface helps to control erosion and
conserve moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass, but yields are
reduced by periodic droughtiness. If properly managed,
good pastures can be established. Regular applications
of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing
helps to maintain plant vigor.
The potential productivity of this soil is moderately
high for pines. Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation
caused by the sandy surface layer. The soil is drought.
During long dry periods, it does not provide enough
moisture for plant growth. Selecting special planting
stock that is larger than usual or that is containerized
reduces the seedling mortality rate. Retarding the
growth of the hardwood understory by chemical or
mechanical means helps to control plant competition.
Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to maintain the
content of organic matter in the soil.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil has slight limitations if used as a site for
dwellings without basements or for small commercial
buildings and moderate limitations if used as a site for
septic tank absorption fields. No corrective measures
are needed. Because of a poor filtering capacity,


34






Bradford County, Florida


however, ground-water contamination is a hazard in
areas that have a concentration of dwellings with septic
tanks.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10S.

17-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
soil is in the uplands. Individual areas are irregularly
shaped and range from 2 to more than 500 acres in
size. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer
extends to a depth of about 42 inches. It is fine sand.
The upper 27 inches is yellowish brown, and the lower
6 inches is very pale brown and has about 5 percent
quartz gravel and ironstone nodules. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. In sequence
downward, it is 6 inches of light yellowish brown loamy
fine sand, 13 inches of light yellowish brown sandy clay
loam that has 5 percent quartz gravel and ironstone
nodules, 13 inches of gray sandy clay, and 6 or more
inches of white sandy clay.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Blanton
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Blanton and similar
soils make up 82 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
On 5 percent of the acreage, included soils make up
more than 18 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Blanton
soil are included in mapping. These are Foxworth and
Troup soils; soils that have 15 to 35 percent, by volume,
ironstone nodules or weathered phosphatic, gravel-
sized limestone fragments in one or more horizons;
soils that have loamy material at a depth of 20 to 40
inches; and, adjacent to drainageways, soils that have
slopes of more than 5 percent.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Blanton
soil are included in this map unit. These are Albany,
Lakeland, Ocilla, and Penney soils, which make up
about 1 to 18 percent of most mapped areas.
The Blanton soil has a perched water table at a
depth of 48 to 72 inches for 2 to 4 months in most
years. The water table is at a depth of 36 to 48 inches
for less than 30 cumulative days in some years. It
recedes to a depth of more than 72 inches during
extended dry periods. The available water capacity is
low. Permeability is moderate.
Most areas of this soil are used for tame pasture or


cultivated crops. The natural vegetation consists of
bluejack oak and turkey oak and scattered live oak,
longleaf pine, and slash pine. Various other hardwoods,
such as dogwood, ironwood, hickory, and cherry, are
common. The understory includes pineland threeawn,
creeping bluestem, low panicum, and various other
grasses.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has severe
limitations. Droughtiness, low natural fertility, and rapid
leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of suitable
crops and reduce the potential crop yields. The high
water table provides water through capillary rise and
thus helps to compensate for the low available water
capacity of the soil. Good management includes
growing the crops in rotation with close-growing, soil-
improving crops; returning crop residue to the soil; and
applying fertilizer and lime. Irrigation of high-value crops
generally is feasible where irrigation water is readily
available. Soil blowing is a hazard where the surface is
unprotected, especially during dry periods. Leaving crop
residue on the surface can help to prevent excessive
soil loss and conserves moisture.
This soil is moderately well suited to tame pasture
and hay. It is well suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, but
yields are reduced by periodic droughtiness. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled
grazing helps to maintain plant vigor.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation and seedling
mortality are management concerns. The soil is
drought. During long dry periods, it does not provide
enough moisture for plant growth. Selecting special
planting stock that is larger than usual or that is
containerized reduces the seedling mortality rate. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation on this loose, sandy
soil. Retarding the growth of the hardwood understory
by chemical or mechanical means helps to control plant
competition. Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter in the soil. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil has slight limitations if used as a site for
dwellings without basements or for small commercial
buildings. It is moderately limited as a site for septic
tank absorption fields because of the depth to the water
table during wet periods. In most areas corrective


35






Soil Survey


measures are not needed. Adding suitable fill material
or installing a drainage system, however, helps to
overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11S.

18-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil is
on broad, slightly elevated ridges in the uplands.
Individual areas are regular in shape and range from 20
to 100 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown sand about 8 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of 80 inches or more is sand. The
upper 40 inches is dark yellowish brown, and the lower
32 inches or more is strong brown and has about 2
percent ironstone concretions.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Lakeland
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Lakeland and similar soils
make up 83 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5
percent of the acreage, included soils make up more
than 17 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Lakeland
soil are included in mapping. These are Troup soils;
soils having thin, discontinuous strata of loamy material
at a depth of about 70 inches or more; and, in a few
areas, soils that have slopes of as much as 12 percent.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Lakeland soil are included in this map unit. These are
Blanton soils, which make up about 1 to 17 percent of
most mapped areas.
The Lakeland soil has a water table below a depth of
80 inches. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is rapid.
Most areas support natural vegetation. Some areas
are used for tame pasture or urban development. The
natural vegetation consists of bluejack oak, turkey oak,
sand post oak, slash pine, and cherry. The understory
includes poison oak, pricklypear cacti, persimmon,
sumac, lopsided indiangrass, purple lovegrass, and
pineland threeawn.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has very severe
limitations. It does not retain a sufficient amount of
moisture during the drier periods because of the coarse
texture. Applied plant nutrients are rapidly leached from
the soil. Corn, peanuts, and watermelons can be grown,
but intensive management is needed. This includes
growing soil-improving cover crops, returning crop


residue to the soil, applying fertilizer and lime, and
using suitable crop rotations. Irrigation is needed during
drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard where
the surface is unprotected. It can damage tender crops.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture
grasses and hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants,
such as improved bermudagrass and improved
bahiagrass, but yields are reduced by periodic
droughtiness. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant
vigor. Irrigation improves the quality of the pasture and
hay. Shallow-rooted pasture plants do not grow well
because the root zone does not retain a sufficient
amount of moisture.
The potential productivity of this soil is moderately
high for pines. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and sand pine
are suitable for planting. The equipment limitation and
seedling mortality are management concerns. The soil
is drought. During long dry periods, it does not provide
enough moisture for plant growth. Selecting special
planting stock that is larger than usual or that is
containerized reduces the seedling mortality rate. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation on this loose, sandy
soil. Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter in the soil.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil has slight limitations if used as a site for
dwellings, small commercial buildings, or septic tank
absorption fields. Because of a poor filtering capacity,
however, ground-water contamination is a hazard in
areas that have a concentration of dwellings with septic
tanks.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9S.

19-Leon sand. This nearly level, poorly drained soil
is in broad areas in the flatwoods. Individual areas are
irregularly shaped and range from 2 to more than 250
acres in size. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish


36






Bradford County, Florida


brown sand about 9 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsoil is about 4 inches of very dark brown fine sand
that is well coated with organic matter, 9 inches of dark
reddish brown sand that is well coated with organic
matter, and 15 inches of very dark grayish brown sand.
The next 25 inches is gray sand. The lower part of the
subsoil is 21 or more inches of very dark grayish brown
sand.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Leon sand,
Leon and similar soils make up 88 to 99 percent of the
mapped areas. On 5 percent of the acreage, included
soils make up more than 12 percent of the mapped
areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Leon soil
are included in mapping. These are Allanton, Mascotte,
and Pottsburg soils and soils that have a subsoil of
loamy sand.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Leon
soil are included in this map unit. These are Hurricane,
Starke, and Surrency soils, which make up 1 to 12
percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Leon soil has a
seasonal high water table within a depth of about 6 to
18 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The
available water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid.
Most areas support planted pine or natural
vegetation. The natural vegetation consists of slash
pine, scattered longleaf pine, red maple, sweetbay, and
sweetgum. The understory includes gallberry, saw
palmetto, waxmyrtle, blackberry, dwarf huckleberry,
brackenfern, chalky bluestem, broomsedge bluestem,
indiangrass, low panicum, pineland threeawn, and
various sedges.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has very severe
limitations because of the wetness and low fertility. The
number of crops that can be grown is limited unless
good water-control measures are used. The soil is
better suited to specialty crops than to most general
farm crops. A good water-control system removes
excess water during wet periods and provides for
subsurface irrigation during dry periods. Good
management includes growing row crops in rotation with
close-growing, soil-improving cover crops; returning
crop residue, including that of the soil-improving crops,
to the soil; bedding rows; and applying fertilizer and
lime according to the needs of the crop.
If water is properly controlled, this soil is well suited
to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes. If
properly managed, good pastures of grass or of grass-
legume mixtures can be established. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
during long rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for the
best yields of white clover or other adapted shallow-
rooted pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing


an optimum plant population, applying fertilizer and
lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain a good
plant cover and increase forage production.
The potential productivity of this soil is moderately
high for pines. Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Preparing the site and planting and harvesting the trees
during the drier periods also help to overcome the
equipment limitation. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
removes debris, helps to control competing vegetation,
and facilitates planting. Leaving all plant debris on the
site helps to maintain the content of organic matter in
the soil. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to grazeable woodland. The
desirable forage is creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
and blue maidencane. The forage composition and
annual productivity are influenced by the forest canopy.
Little grazing value can be expected after the canopy
cover exceeds 60 percent.

This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the high water table during wet periods. A good
drainage system is needed to remove excess water
during wet periods and to control the water table.
Adding suitable fill material increases the depth to the
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The high water table is the main limitation. A good
water-control system is needed. Trafficability also is a
limitation. Because of the loose, sandy surface layer,
soil blowing is a hazard during dry periods. Maintaining
a good vegetative cover or windbreaks or adding
suitable topsoil or some other material that can stabilize
the surface improves trafficability and helps to control
soil blowing.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.

20-Grifton and Elloree soils, frequently flooded.
These nearly level, poorly drained soils are on flood
plains along the New River and other major
drainageways throughout the county. They do not occur
in a regular repeating pattern on the landscape. Some
areas are isolated by meandering stream channels.
Individual areas are narrow and elongated and range
from 5 to more than 500 acres in size. Slopes are


37






Soil Survey


smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Grifton soil is very
dark gray loamy fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is dark gray loamy fine sand about 6
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 65
inches or more. In sequence downward, it is 8 inches of
dark gray sandy clay loam, 34 inches of dark gray and
gray sandy clay loam that has pockets and
discontinuous bands of soft carbonate, and 13 or more
inches of gray sandy loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Elloree soil is black
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
extends to a depth of about 33 inches. It is fine sand.
The upper 10 inches is grayish brown, and the lower 18
inches is gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of about
80 inches. The upper 10 inches is light gray sandy
loam, the next 12 inches is grayish brown sandy loam,
and the lower 25 inches is grayish brown sandy clay
loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Grifton and
Elloree soils, frequently flooded, Grifton, Elloree, and
similar soils make up 82 to 99 percent of the mapped
areas. On 5 percent of the acreage, included soils make
up more than 18 percent of the mapped areas.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 67 percent
Grifton and similar soils and about 26 percent Elloree
and similar soils. Some areas are Grifton and similar
soils, some are Elloree and similar soils, and some are
both Grifton and Elloree soils. Each of the soils does
not necessarily occur in every mapped area. The
relative proportion of the soils varies from area to area.
Areas of the individual soils are large enough to be
mapped separately. Because of the present and
predicted land use, however, they were mapped as one
unit.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Grifton and
Elloree soils are included in mapping. These are soils
that have loamy sand, sand, or fine sand at a depth of
about 50 inches or more; soils that have a thick, dark
surface layer; and soils that have a surface layer of fine
sand or sand underlain by a subsoil of sandy clay loam
or sandy clay.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Grifton
and Elloree soils are included in this map unit. These
are Ousley soils and Fluvaquents, which make up about
1 to 18 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Grifton and Elloree soils
have a seasonal high water table within 12 inches of
the surface for 2 to 6 months during most years. The
duration of flooding is from several days to several
weeks during extended periods of heavy rainfall.
Ponding occurs in the lower areas of these soils for
long periods. The available water capacity is low or


moderate. Permeability is moderate or moderately
rapid.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of various water-tolerant hardwoods, such as
overcup oak, water oak, sweetgum, ironwood, red
maple, scattered slash pine, loblolly pine, and
baldcypress. The understory vegetation includes
scattered dwarf palmetto, greenbrier, waxmyrtle, and
other water-tolerant plants.
Unless major drainage systems are installed, these
soils are not suited to cultivated crops, tame pasture
grasses, or grazeable woodland because of the
prolonged wetness and the hazard of flooding.
Establishing and maintaining a drainage system are
difficult because of the hazard of flooding.
These soils generally are not used for the production
of pine trees. The equipment limitation, plant
competition, and seedling mortality are management
concerns. A water-control system is needed to remove
excess surface water. Slash pine, loblolly pine,
baldcypress, and hardwoods are suitable for planting.
Harvesting and planting should be scheduled for dry
periods.
These soils are severely limited as sites for urban
and recreational uses because of the hazard of flooding
and the wetness. Intensive flood-control and drainage
measures are necessary. Fill material is needed to
elevate building sites, septic tank absorption fields, and
local roads and streets.
These soils are well suited to habitat for wetland and
woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily
developed, and the natural vegetation provides
abundant food and shelter for wildlife.
The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

21-Beaches, 1 to 5 percent slopes. Beaches
consist of bands or strips of rapidly permeable, sandy
soil material around the perimeter of freshwater lakes.
The beaches vary in size and drainage from year to
year because the water level in the lakes rises and falls
over a period of several years. Individual areas range
from less than 100 feet to more than 500 feet in width
at the lowest water level. During periods of elevated
water levels, which can last from several weeks to 20 or
more months, most areas are entirely covered with
several inches to several feet of water.
Some areas support no vegetation, but others have a
thick cover of soft annuals and young woody perennials.
The amount of vegetation depends on present and
previous water levels. During long periods of receding
water levels, the areas directly adjacent to the water
support no vegetation. Grasses, small shrubs, and


38






Bradford County, Florida


sprouting trees increase in abundance with progressive
distance from the edge of the water. Generally, there is
a sharp contrast in vegetation where the highest water
level occurs and where mature trees dominate above
this level. This vegetative line delineates the unit.
Beaches are unsuited to crops, tame pasture,
planted pine trees, and most urban uses because of the
periodic immersion. They are well suited to some
recreational uses. Planting suitable grasses helps to
control erosion in the less intensively used areas.
Limiting the use of vehicles also helps to control
erosion.
This map unit is not assigned a capability subclass or
a woodland ordination symbol.

22-Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
soil is on low knolls and ridges in the flatwoods and on
toe slopes in the uplands. Individual areas are
irregularly shaped or elongated and range from 3 to
more than 20 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
slightly convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying
material extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. In
sequence downward, it is 13 inches of yellowish brown
fine sand, 20 inches of brownish yellow fine sand, 15
inches of yellow fine sand, 19 inches of pale brown fine
sand, and 8 inches or more of light gray sand.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Chipley
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Chipley and similar
soils make up 78 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
On 5 percent of the acreage, included soils make up
more than 22 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Chipley
soil are included in mapping. These are Albany soils.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Chipley
soil are included in this map unit. These are Blanton
and Foxworth soils, which make up about 1 to 22
percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Chipley soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 24 to 36 inches
for 2 to 4 months in most years. The water table is at a
depth of 12 to 24 inches for less than 30 cumulative
days in some years. It recedes to a depth of 60 inches
or more during extended dry periods. The available
water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid.
Most areas of this soil are used for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, or planted pine or support natural
vegetation, which consists of longleaf pine, slash pine,
scattered bluejack oak, post oak, turkey oak, live oak,
and laurel oak. The understory includes waxmyrtle,
gallberry, chalky bluestem, hairy low panicum, pineland
threeawn, and various other grasses.


If used for cultivated crops, this soil has severe
limitations because of the wetness, low natural fertility,
and the hazard of erosion. The high water table retards
root development during wet periods. A well designed,
simple drainage system can overcome this limitation. If
good management that includes water-control measures
is applied, the soil is suited to most locally grown crops.
Good management includes growing the crops in
rotation with close-growing, soil-improving crops;
returning crop residue to the soil; and applying fertilizer
and lime. Irrigation generally is feasible if water is
readily available. Soil blowing is a hazard where the
surface is unprotected, especially during dry periods.
Leaving crop residue on the surface can help to prevent
excessive soil loss and conserves moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass, but yields are
reduced by periodic droughtiness. If properly managed,
good pastures of grass or of grass-legume mixtures can
be established. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain
plant vigor.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation and
minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Good site preparation, such as harrowing and
bedding, helps to establish seedlings, removes debris,
helps to control competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Retarding the growth of the hardwood
understory by chemical or mechanical means helps to
control plant competition.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the water table during wet periods. Adding suitable fill
material increases the depth to the water table and thus
helps to overcome the wetness. If outlets are available,
a surface drainage system can be installed.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some


39






Soil Survey


other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11S.

23-Pelham-Pelham, wet, fine sands. These nearly
level, poorly drained soils generally are in broad areas
in the flatwoods. The wet Pelham soil is in the slightly
lower areas and in poorly defined drainageways. The
soils occur in a regular repeating pattern on the
landscape. Excess water ponds in the low areas during
the rainy season and for short periods after heavy
rainfall. Individual areas are broad or irregularly shaped
and range from 2 to more than 3,600 acres in size.
Slopes are smooth or slightly concave and range from 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pelham soil in
broad areas in the flatwoods is very dark gray fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a
depth of about 31 inches. It is fine sand. The upper 7
inches is dark gray, and the lower 16 inches is gray.
The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The upper 5 inches is gray fine sandy loam, the next 26
inches is gray sandy clay loam, and the lower 18 inches
is light gray sandy clay.
Typically, the surface layer of the wet Pelham soil is
very dark gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 22 inches.
It is gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of
80 inches or more. The upper 26 inches is gray fine
sandy loam, the next 13 inches is gray sandy clay loam,
and the lower 32 inches or more is dark gray sandy
clay loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pelham-
Pelham, wet, fine sands, Pelham and similar soils make
up 85 to 98 percent of the mapped areas. On 5 percent
of the acreage, included soils make up more than 15
percent of the mapped areas. Generally, the mapped
areas are about 52 percent the Pelham soil in broad
areas in the flatwoods and similar soils and 39 percent
the wet Pelham soil and similar soils. The components
of this map unit occur as areas so intricately
intermingled that it is not practical to map them
separately at the scale used in mapping. The
proportions and patterns of both of the Pelham soils
and of the similar soils are relatively consistent in most
mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Pelham
soils are included in mapping. These are Plummer soils;
soils that have 5 to 15 percent, by volume, ironstone
nodules or weathered phosphatic, gravel-sized
limestone fragments in one or more horizons; soils in
which the subsoil is within a depth of 20 inches; soils
that have more than 35 percent base saturation in the
subsoil; soils that have a substratum of sand or loamy


sand at a depth of 60 inches or more; and, in a few
areas adjacent to well defined drainageways, soils that
have slopes of as much as 5 percent and a yellow
subsurface layer.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Pelham
soils are included in this map unit. These are Albany
and Surrency soils, which make up about 2 to 15
percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Pelham soil in broad
areas in the flatwoods has a water table within about 6
to 18 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months and the
wet Pelham soil has one at or above the surface for 2
to 4 months during rainy periods and for short periods
after heavy rainfall. The water table recedes to a depth
of 24 to 40 inches or more in both soils during drought
periods. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate.
Most areas support second-growth pine or planted
pine. A few areas are used for tame pasture, hay, or
urban development. The natural vegetation consists of
slash pine, longleaf pine, laurel oak, scattered
sweetgum, blackgum, and water oak in the flatwoods.
Pond pine, pondcypress, scattered sweetgum, and
slash pine grow in the lower areas. The understory
includes waxmyrtle, blackberry, tarflower, gallberry,
grape, greenbrier, lopsided indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, scattered saw palmetto, low panicum,
pineland threeawn, and little bluestem in the flatwoods
and maidencane, St Johnswort, and various other
water-tolerant grasses in the lower areas.
If used for cultivated crops under natural conditions,
these soils have very severe limitations because of the
wetness and low natural fertility. They are suited to
most vegetable crops, however, if intensive
management that includes a water-control system to
remove excess water rapidly and provide for subsurface
irrigation is applied. Soil-improving crops and crop
residue can protect the soils from erosion and maintain
the content of organic matter. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be
applied according to the needs of the crop.
If water is properly controlled, these soils are well
suited to improved bermudagrasses, bahiagrass, and
legumes. If properly managed, good pastures of grass
or of grass-legume mixtures can be established. Water-
control measures are needed to remove excess surface
water during long rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for
the best yields of white clover or other adapted shallow-
rooted pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing
an optimum p ant population, applying fertilizer and
lime, and con rolling grazing help to maintain a good
plant cover a d increase forage production.
In most areas the potential productivity of these soils
is high for pin s. Slash pine and loblolly pine are


40






Bradford County, Florida


suitable for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Preparing the site and planting and harvesting the trees
during the drier periods also help to overcome the
equipment limitation. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
helps to control competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter in the soils. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
These soils are well suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, chalky
bluestem, and blue maidencane. The forage
composition and annual productivity are influenced by
the forest canopy. Little grazing value can be expected
after the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent.
These soils are severely limited as sites for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the high water table during wet periods. A good
drainage system is needed to remove excess water
during wet periods and to control the water table.
Adding suitable fill material increases the depth to the
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The high water table is the major limitation. A good
water-control system is needed. The sandy surface
layer limits trafficability, and soil blowing is a hazard.
These limitations can be overcome by establishing and
maintaining a good vegetative cover or windbreaks or
by adding suitable topsoil or some other material that
can stabilize the surface.
The Pelham soil in broad areas in the flatwoods is in
capability subclass IIIw. The wet Pelham soil is in
capability subclass Vw. Both soils are assigned to
woodland ordination symbol 11W.

24-Starke mucky fine sand, depressional. This
nearly level, very poorly drained soil is in depressions in
the flatwoods. Individual areas are circular, irregularly
shaped, or elongated and range from 2 to more than 15
acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave and range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is black
mucky fine sand about 7 inches thick. The lower part is
black fine sand about 11 inches thick. The subsurface
layer extends to a depth of about 46 inches. It is fine
sand. The upper 8 inches is dark grayish brown, and
the lower 20 inches is brown. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches or more. It is gray sandy loam in the


upper 13 inches and gray sandy clay loam in the lower
21 inches or more.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Starke
mucky fine sand, depressional, Starke and similar soils
make up 84 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5
percent of the acreage, included soils make up more
than 16 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Starke soil
are included in mapping. These are Plummer and
Surrency soils and soils that have a surface layer of
muck 8 to 16 inches thick.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Starke
soil are included in this map unit. These are Croatan,
Pamlico, and Plummer soils, which make up about 1 to
16 percent of most mapped areas.
Undrained areas of the Starke soil are ponded for 4
to 8 months during the year, and the water table is
within 12 inches of the surface for 6 to 9 months during
most years. The available water capacity and
permeability are moderate.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of pondcypress, scattered slash pine,
sweetbay, red maple, and tupelo. The understory
includes maidencane, brackenfern, sedge, greenbrier,
gallberry, St Johnswort, and other water-tolerant plants.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, tame pasture, planted pine trees, or
grazeable woodland. The excessive wetness is the
main limitation. Installing adequate water-control
systems is difficult. Many areas are in isolated ponds or
wet depressions that do not have suitable drainage
outlets. In properly managed areas where a good
drainage system can be installed, good-quality grass or
grass-clover pastures can be established.
The limitations affecting urban uses are severe.
Excess water on or near the surface during much of the
year is the dominant limitation. Drainage systems that
would adequately remove the water and effectively
regulate the water table are expensive and cannot be
easily installed or maintained. Most areas do not have
good drainage outlets. Even where adequate drainage
systems are installed, maintaining the systems is a
continuing limitation. Suitable fill material is needed on
sites for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and
septic tank absorption fields.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The ponding and the sandy texture are the major
limitations. A good water-control system is necessary.
Also, suitable fill material is needed to improve
trafficability and to increase the depth to the water
table.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W.


41






Soil Survey


25-Fluvaquents-Ousley association, occasionally
flooded. These nearly level, poorly drained and
somewhat poorly drained soils are on the flood plains
along the Santa Fe River, the New River, and other
major drainageways throughout the county. The soils
occur in a regular repeating pattern on the landscape.
Some areas are isolated by meandering stream
channels. Individual areas are long and narrow or broad
and irregularly shaped and range from 10 to more than
500 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave or are
undulating in dissected areas. They dominantly range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Fluvaquents is
grayish brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The
underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. In sequence downward, it is 14 inches of grayish
brown loam, 11 inches of grayish brown sand, 12
inches of dark grayish brown sandy clay loam, and 38
or more inches of dark grayish brown sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Ousley soil is dark
grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. In sequence downward, it is 20 inches of brown
fine sand, 16 inches of very pale brown fine sand, 15
inches of light brownish gray sand, and 25 or more
inches of light gray sand.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as the
Fluvaquents-Ousley association, occasionally flooded,
Fluvaquents, Ousley, and similar soils make up 95 to 99
percent of the mapped areas. On 5 percent of the
acreage, included soils make up more than 5 percent of
the mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas are
about 78 percent Fluvaquents and similar soils and
about 18 percent Ousley and similar soils. Some areas
are Fluvaquents and similar soils, some are Ousley and
similar soils, and some are both Fluvaquents and
Ousley soils. Each of the soils does not necessarily
occur in every mapped area. The relative proportion of
the soils varies from area to area. Areas of the
individual soils are large enough to be mapped
separately. Because of the present and predicted land
uses, however, they were mapped as one unit.
Soils that are similar to the Fluvaquents are included
in mapping. These are soils that are loamy or sandy
throughout or that have a thin surface layer of muck.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Ousley soil
are included in mapping. These soils have thin,
discontinuous layers of loamy material.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Ousley
soil and Fluvaquents are included in this map unit.
These are Grifton and Elloree soils, which make up
about 1 to 5 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Fluvaquents have a
seasonal high water table within a depth of 12 inches


for 2 to 6 months. The water table recedes to a depth of
12 to 40 inches during the rest of the year. The Ousley
soil has a seasonal high water table at a depth of 18 to
36 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a depth of 12 to 18
inches for brief periods after heavy rainfall. The water
table recedes to a depth of 60 inches or more during
extended dry periods. Flooding occurs on the
Fluvaquents several times during a 10-year span. The
duration and extent of flooding vary and are directly
related to the intensity and frequency of rainfall. The
flooding occurs from a few weeks to several months on
the Fluvaquents and for less than 7 days on the Ousley
soil. Excess water ponds in the lowest areas of the
Fluvaquents. The available water capacity is low or
moderate in the Fluvaquents and very low in the Ousley
soil. Permeability varies in the Fluvaquents and is rapid
in the Ousley soil.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of baldcypress, sweetgum, sweetbay, water
oak, red maple, laurel oak, blackgum, sparkleberry, and
common sweetleaf. The understory includes dwarf
palmetto, ferns, gallberry, waxmyrtle, greenbrier, low
panicum, and other water-tolerant plants.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops, tame
pasture grasses, or grazeable woodland because of the
prolonged wetness and the hazard of flooding.
Numerous backwater channels, low areas, and steep
banks severely limit the use of equipment even in dry
periods. Because the soils vary greatly over short
distances and are subject to flooding, applying
management measures is difficult.
These soils generally are not suited to planted pines.
In a few areas, however, the potential productivity of the
Ousley soil is moderately high for pines. Slash pine is
suitable for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The hazard of flooding and the wetness in
adjacent areas severely restrict the use of these soils
for planted pines. The use of equipment that has large
tires or tracks helps to overcome the equipment
limitation and minimizes compaction and root damage
during thinning activities. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
removes debris, helps to control competing vegetation,
and facilitates planting. Retarding the growth of the
hardwood understory by chemical or mechanical means
helps to control plant competition.
These soils are severely limited as sites for urban
and recreational uses because of the hazard of flooding
and the wetness. Intensive flood-control and drainage
measures are necessary. Fill material is needed to
elevate building sites, septic tank absorption fields, and
local roads and streets.
These soils are well suited to habitat for wetland and


42






Bradford County, Florida


woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily
developed, and the natural vegetation provides
abundant food and shelter for wildlife.
The Fluvaquents are assigned to capability subclass
Vw and woodland ordination symbol 7W. The Ousley
soil is assigned to capability subclass Illw and
woodland ordination symbol 10W.

26-Urban land. This map unit is in areas covered
by shopping centers, parking lots, industrial buildings,
houses, streets, sidewalks, airports, and similar urban
structures. The natural soil generally cannot be
observed. Slopes dominantly are less than 2 percent
but range to 5 percent.
In areas mapped as Urban land, 70 percent or more
of the surface is covered with asphalt, concrete,
buildings, and other impervious surfaces that so
obscure or alter the soils that identification of the soil
series is not feasible.
Included in this map unit are moderately urbanized
areas where structures cover 50 to 70 percent of the
surface. Mascotte, Pelham, and Sapelo soils are in
most of the open areas of this map unit. They are used
as sites for lawns, vacant lots, playgrounds, and parks.
They generally have been altered by grading and
shaping or have been covered by 12 or more inches of
sandy and loamy fill material that has limestone and
shell fragments in places. The areas of these soils are
so small that it was not practical to map them
separately.
Drainage systems have been installed in most areas.
Depth to the seasonal high water table varies,
depending on how well the drainage system functions.
No capability subclass or woodland ordination symbol
is assigned.

28-Arents, moderately wet, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
These nearly level to gently sloping soils are in areas
that have been reworked or filled in during earthmoving
activities. The soil material in these areas is used as fill
in shallow depressions, swamps, and other low areas.
The soils are mainly in shallow landfills, on elevated
building sites, on airstrips, and adjacent to bodies of
water. Individual areas are irregularly shaped or
rectangular and range from 1 to more than 100 acres in
size.
These soils consist of material dug from several
areas that have different kinds of soil. Typically, the
upper 8 inches is brown and dark brown fine sand. It is
underlain by 14 inches of grayish brown sandy loam
and 5 inches of pale brown loamy fine sand. Below this
to a depth of 80 inches is undisturbed soil. In sequence
downward, the undisturbed soil is 6 inches of very dark


gray fine sand, 14 inches of light brownish gray fine
sand, 9 inches of light gray fine sand, and 24 or more
inches of grayish brown sandy loam. The texture of the
fill material ranges from fine sand to sandy clay loam.
Chunks of loamy material and thin, discontinuous
lenses of a dark, sandy subsoil or a few rock fragments
can be scattered throughout the matrix.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of soils that are similar to the Arents but have slopes of
more than 5 percent as a result of stockpiling; small
areas of undisturbed soils; small areas of water; areas
where soil material has been removed, backfilled, or
both to a depth of 80 inches or more; areas where sand
or fine sand is mixed with discontinuous loamy
fragments; and narrow areas along the edge of Santa
Fe Lake where a layer of organic material is at a depth
of 60 inches or more. Also included are areas that are
used as sanitary landfills and are as much as 50
percent or more solid waste material. These areas are
delineated as "sanitary landfill" on the soil map. The
percentage of included soils varies from one area to
another but generally does not exceed 30 percent.
Most properties of the Arents vary. Permeability
generally is moderately rapid or rapid. Depth to the
water table varies, depending on the amount of fill
material and the extent of artificial drainage in any given
area. In most years the water table is at a depth of 18
to 36 inches for 2 to 4 months. In some areas where
the Arents consist of two or more strata of sandy and
loamy material, it is perched over the layer of loamy
material after heavy rainfall. The water table can be at a
depth of 60 inches or more during extended dry
periods. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to
moderately alkaline. The available water capacity
generally ranges from very low to moderate.
The natural vegetation has been removed from most
areas of these soils. The existing vegetation consists of
scattered slash pine and various weeds or grasses.
Cypress and water-tolerant plants grow in some low
areas. Some areas have been leveled and seeded to
various grasses.
Most areas of these soils are used for urban
development. Onsite investigations are needed to
determine the suitability for all uses because both the
soil material and the depth to the high water table vary,
depending on the amount of fill material and the extent
of artificial drainage.
No capability subclass or woodland ordination symbol
is assigned.

29-Dorovan muck, frequently flooded. This nearly
level, very poorly drained, organic soil is on flood plains
and in drainageways. Individual areas are narrow and


43






Soil Survey


elongated or broad and irregularly shaped and range
from 40 to 5,600 acres in size. Slopes are smooth and
range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown muck about
25 inches thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or
more is very dark brown muck.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Dorovan
muck, frequently flooded, Dorovan and similar soils
make up 93 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5
percent of the acreage, included soils make up more
than 7 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Dorovan
soil are included in mapping. These are Pamlico and
Croatan soils. Pamlico soils are around the outer edges
of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Dorovan soil are included in this map unit. These are
Pantego soils, which make up about 1 to 7 percent of
most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Dorovan soil has a
water table at or above the surface for 6 months or
more during most years. Flooding occurs frequently
during rainy periods. The duration and extent of flooding
vary, depending on the intensity and frequency of
rainfall. The flooding generally lasts from 1 to 4 months.
The available water capacity is very high. Permeability
is moderate.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of baldcypress, red maple, sweetbay,
sweetgum, and swamp tupelo. The understory includes
scattered fetterbush lyonia, greenbrier, and various
water-tolerant grasses.
Unless major drainage systems are installed, this soil
is not suited to cultivated crops, tame pasture grasses,
planted pine trees, or grazeable woodland because of
the prolonged wetness and the hazard of flooding.
Establishing and maintaining a drainage system are
difficult because of the hazard of flooding.
This soil is severely limited as a site for urban and
recreational uses because of the hazard of flooding, the
wetness, and excess humus. Intensive flood-control and
drainage measures are necessary. The organic material
should be removed. Fill material is needed to elevate
building sites, septic tank absorption fields, and local
roads and streets.
This soil is well suited to habitat for wetland and
woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily
developed, and the natural vegetation provides
abundant food and shelter for wildlife.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W.

30-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This nearly
level to gently sloping, well drained soil is in the


uplands. Individual areas are regular in shape and
range from 10 to 500 acres in size. Slopes are smooth
or slightly convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer
extends to a depth of about 50 inches. It is yellowish
brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches is
sandy loam. The upper 15 inches is yellowish brown,
and the lower 15 inches or more is brownish yellow.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Troup
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Troup and similar soils
make up 78 to 97 percent of the mapped areas. On 20
percent of the acreage, included soils make up less
than 3 percent or more than 22 percent of the mapped
areas.
Areas of soils that are similar to the Troup soil are
included in mapping. These soils have a loamy subsoil
at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Troup
soil are included in this map unit. These are well
drained soils that are sandy throughout and soils that
have thin, discontinuous bands of loamy sand at a
depth of 50 inches or more. The dissimilar soils make
up about 3 to 22 percent of most mapped areas.
The Troup soil has a water table below a depth of 72
inches. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate.
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation or
are used for crops or tame pasture. The natural
vegetation consists of slash pine, live oak, bluejack oak,
and scattered hickory. The understory includes dwarf
huckleberry, sassafras, ferns, and pineland threeawn.
If used for most cultivated crops, this soil has severe
limitations. Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant
nutrients, and low fertility limit the choice of suitable
plants and reduce the potential crop yields. Good
management includes growing the crops in rotation with
close-growing, soil-improving crops; returning crop
residue to the soil; and applying fertilizer and lime. Soil
blowing is a hazard where the surface is unprotected,
especially during dry periods. Leaving crop residue on
the surface can help to prevent excessive soil loss and
conserves moisture. Irrigation increases the yields of
most crops.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and
hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and improved bahiagrasses,
but yields can be reduced by periodic droughtiness.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant vigor.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Longleaf pine, loblolly pine, and slash pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management


44






Bradford County, Florida


concerns. The soil is drought. During long dry periods,
it does not provide enough moisture for plant growth.
Selecting special planting stock that is larger than usual
or that is containerized reduces the seedling mortality
rate. The use of equipment that has large tires or tracks
helps to overcome the equipment limitation on this
loose, sandy soil. Retarding the growth of the hardwood
understory by chemical or mechanical means helps to
control plant competition. Leaving all plant debris on the
site helps to maintain the content of organic matter in
the soil. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil has slight limitations if used as a site for
dwellings, small commercial buildings, or septic tank
absorption fields. These uses require no special
measures.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11S.

35-Wampee loamy fine sand, 5 to 12 percent
slopes. This moderately sloping and strongly sloping,
somewhat poorly drained soil is in low upland areas
adjacent to poorly defined drainageways or flood plains
along streams. Individual areas are long and narrow or
broad and irregularly shaped and range from 5 to more
than 150 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is loamy fine sand about
13 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is very dark grayish
brown, and the lower 7 inches is dark brown. The
subsurface layer is pale brown fine sand about 11
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 69
inches. The upper 5 inches is light gray loamy fine
sand, the next 21 inches is light gray gravelly sandy
clay loam, and the lower 19 inches is light gray sandy
clay. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is
light gray clay. Limestone fragments and ironstone
nodules are throughout the soil.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Wampee
loamy fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes, Wampee and
similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the mapped
areas. On 5 percent of the acreage, included soils make
up more than 20 percent of the mapped areas.


Areas of soils that are similar to the Wampee soil are
included in mapping. These are slightly eroded soils in
which the subsoil is within a depth of 20 inches; soils
that have no coarse fragments; soils that have more
than 30 percent, by volume, coarse fragments in the
subsurface layer and subsoil; soils that have less than
35 percent base saturation; and, on short, steep slopes,
soils that are wet as the result of lateral seepage.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Wampee soil are included in this map unit. These are
moderately well drained soils that do not have a
significant content of gravel and limestone fragments
and poorly drained and somewhat poorly drained soils
that have a subsoil at a depth of 40 inches or more.
The dissimilar soils make up about 1 to 22 percent of
most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Wampee soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 12 to 36 inches
for 2 to 6 months during most years or for short periods
after heavy rainfall. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderately slow.
Most areas of this soil support native hardwoods.
Some areas have been cleared and are used as tame
pasture. The natural vegetation consists of sweetgum,
hickory, slash pine, southern magnolia, laurel oak, and
red maple. The understory includes waxmyrtle,
American beautyberry, dwarf palmetto, greenbrier,
Virginia creeper, wild grape, pineland threeawn, and low
panicum.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has very severe
limitations because of the wetness, low natural fertility,
the hazard of erosion, and the slope. The high water
table retards root development during wet periods. A
well designed, simple drainage system can overcome
this limitation. Good management includes planting on
the contour; growing the crops in rotation with close-
growing, soil-improving crops; returning crop residue to
the soil; and applying fertilizer and lime. A drainage
system is needed for some crops. Soil blowing is a
hazard where the surface is unprotected, especially
during dry periods. Leaving crop residue on the surface
can help to prevent excessive soil loss and conserves
moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass, but yields are
reduced by periodic droughtiness. If properly managed,
good pastures of grass or of grass-legume mixtures can
be established. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain
plant vigor.
The potential productivity of this soil is moderately
high for pines. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly
pine are suitable for planting. The equipment limitation


45






Soil Survey


and plant competition are limitations. The use of
equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Good site preparation, such as harrowing and bedding,
helps to establish seedlings, removes debris, helps to
control competing vegetation, and facilitates planting.
Retarding the growth of the hardwood understory by
chemical or mechanical means helps to control plant
competition. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil has severe limitations if used as a site for
dwellings without basements, for small commercial
buildings, or for septic tank absorption fields because of
the depth to the water table during wet periods and the
slope. Adding suitable fill material increases the depth
to the water table and thus helps to overcome the
wetness. A surface drainage system can be installed.
Land shaping can help to overcome the slope.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface. The slope
is a limitation on sites for some recreational uses.
The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.

36-Udorthents, steep. These soils consist of
stratified soil material on embankments used to retain
sediments from large mining enterprises. In the areas
from which it has been removed, this material generally
has been excavated to a depth of more than 80 inches.
The landscape is so disturbed that soil horizons are no
longer recognizable within the altered layers. This
stratified material is more than 60 inches thick. The
water table is at a depth of more than 60 inches. Areas
of this map unit are exclusively southeast of Starke,
along the Bradford-Clay County line. Slopes range from
15 to 75 percent. Individual areas are long and narrow
or irregularly shaped and range from 40 to 76 acres in
size.
Typically, the upper 4 inches is dark yellowish brown
sandy loam that is mottled in shades of gray and brown.
In sequence downward, the rest of the profile is about
10 inches of gray sandy clay loam that is mottled in
shades of yellow and brown; 6 inches of mixed brown


and white sand that has pockets of loamy material; 35
inches of gray sandy clay that is mottled in shades of
brown, olive, and red; 7 inches of mixed light yellowish
brown and white sand; and 18 or more inches of gray
sandy clay that is mottled in shades of olive, red, and
brown and that has pockets of white sand.
The strata range from sand to sandy clay. Generally,
one or more of the strata are sandy loam or are finer
textured. Soil properties vary. Some areas have been
smoothed by earthmoving activities and have slopes of
0 to 2 percent. In places slopes are 2 to 15 percent.
These soils are not suited to crops, tame pasture,
woodland, or urban uses.
No capability subclass or woodland ordination symbol
is assigned.

37-Pamlico and Croatan mucks, frequently
flooded. These nearly level, very poorly drained soils
are on flood plains. They do not occur in a regular
repeating pattern on the landscape. Individual areas are
irregularly shaped or elongated and range from 40 to
more than 400 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
slightly concave and are less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is
muck about 48 inches thick. The upper 16 inches is
dark brown, and the lower 32 inches is black. The
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
sand. The upper 17 inches is dark brown, and the lower
15 inches or more is pale brown.
Typically, the surface layer of the Croatan soil is
black muck about 38 inches thick. The next 10 inches is
very dark gray mucky sandy loam. The underlying
material to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark gray
sandy loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pamlico
and Croatan mucks, frequently flooded, Pamlico,
Croatan, and similar soils make up 89 to 99 percent of
the mapped areas. On 5 percent of the acreage,
included soils make up more than 11 percent of the
mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas are about
53 percent Pamlico and similar soils and about 43
percent Croatan and similar soils. Some areas are
Pamlico and similar soils, some are Croatan and similar
soils, and some are both Pamlico and Croatan soils.
Each of the soils does not necessarily occur in every
mapped area. The relative proportion of the soils varies
from area to area. Areas of the individual soils are large
enough to be mapped separately. Because of the
present and predicted land uses, however, they were
mapped as one unit.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Pamlico
and Croatan soils are included in mapping. These are
Dorovan soils, soils that have an organic surface layer
that is 8 to 16 inches thick, and Pamlico soils that have


46






Bradford County, Florida


a loamy substratum at a depth of more than 40 inches.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Pamlico
and Croatan soils are included in this map unit. These
are Starke and Surrency soils, which make up about 1
to 11 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Pamlico and Croatan
soils have a seasonal high water table at or above the
surface for more than 6 months during most years.
Flooding occurs frequently during rainy periods. The
duration and extent of flooding vary and are directly
related to the intensity and frequency of rainfall. The
flooding normally lasts from 2 to 4 months. Ponding
occurs in the lower areas of these soils for long periods.
The available water capacity is very high. Permeability
is moderately slow to moderately rapid.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of sweetbay, blackgum, swamp tupelo,
baldcypress, red maple, and pond pine. The understory
includes gallberry, buttonbush, greenbrier, and
waxmyrtle.
Unless major drainage systems are installed, these
soils are not suited to cultivated crops, tame pasture
grasses, planted pine trees, or grazeable woodland
because of the prolonged wetness and the hazard of
flooding. Establishing and maintaining a drainage
system are difficult because of the hazard of flooding.
These soils are severely limited as sites for urban
and recreational uses because of the hazard of
flooding, the wetness, and excess humus. Intensive
flood-control and drainage measures are necessary.
The organic material should be removed. Fill material is
needed to elevate building sites, septic tank absorption
fields, and local roads and streets.
These soils are well suited to habitat for wetland and
woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily
developed, and the natural vegetation provides
abundant food and shelter for wildlife.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W.

38-Penney sand, rolling. This moderately sloping
to strongly sloping, excessively drained soil is on broad
uplands. Individual areas are irregularly shaped and
range from 2 to more than 50 acres in size. Slopes are
complex. They generally range from 5 to 12 percent,
but in a few areas they are less than 5 percent or more
than 12 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand
about 2 inches thick. The next 52 inches is light
yellowish brown and yellow sand. The next 5 inches is
very pale brown sand that has thin, discontinuous
bands of brownish yellow sandy loam. Below this to a
depth of 80 inches or more is yellow sand that has a


few thin, discontinuous bands of brownish yellow sandy
loam.
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Penney
sand, rolling, Penney and similar soils make up 79 to 99
percent of the mapped areas. On 10 percent of the
acreage, included soils make up more than 21 percent
of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Penney
soil are included in mapping. These are Troup soils.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Penney
soil are included in this map unit. These are Blanton
soils, which make up about 1 to 21 percent of most
mapped areas.
The Penney soil has a water table at a depth of more
than 72 inches. The available water capacity is very
low. Permeability is rapid.
Most areas support natural vegetation. Some areas
are used for urban development. The natural vegetation
consists of live oak, sand post oak, turkey oak, bluejack
oak, and some longleaf pine and sand pine. The
understory includes a sparse growth of pineland
threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, creeping bluestem,
chalky bluestem, hairy low panicum, and annual forbs.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops. It is
unable to retain a sufficient amount of moisture during
the drier periods because of the coarse texture. Applied
plant nutrients are rapidly leached from the soil. Erosion
is a hazard. If crops are planted on this soil, intensive
management is required. This includes growing soil-
improving cover crops during most years, returning crop
residue to the soil, applying fertilizer and lime, and
using suitable crop rotations. Irrigation is needed during
drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard where
the surface is unprotected.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture
grasses and hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants,
such as improved bermudagrass and improved
bahiagrasses, but yields are reduced by periodic
droughtiness. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant
vigor. Irrigation improves the quality of the pasture and
hay. Shallow-rooted pasture plants do not grow well
because the root zone does not retain a sufficient
amount of moisture. The slope can limit the use of
haying equipment.
The potential productivity of this soil is moderately
high for pines. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and sand pine
are suitable for planting. The equipment limitation,
seedling mortality, and plant competition are
management concerns. The soil is drought. During
long dry periods, it does not provide enough moisture
for plant growth. Selecting special planting stock that is
larger than usual or that is containerized reduces the


47






Soil Survey


seedling mortality rate. The use of equipment that has
large tires or tracks helps to overcome the equipment
limitation on this loose, sandy soil. Retarding the growth
of the hardwood understory by chemical or mechanical
means helps to control plant competition. Leaving all
plant debris on the site helps to maintain the content of
organic matter in the soil.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil has slight or moderate limitations if used as
a site for dwellings, small commercial buildings, or
septic tank absorption fields. Because of a poor filtering
capacity, ground-water contamination is a hazard in
areas that have a concentration of dwellings with septic
tanks. Land shaping can help to overcome the slope in
the steeper areas.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is VIs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8S.

39-Blanton fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This
moderately sloping and strongly sloping, moderately
well drained soil is on uplands. Individual areas are
irregularly shaped or elongated and range from 2 to
more than 50 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a
depth of about 59 inches. It is fine sand. The upper 8
inches is brown, the next 22 inches is light yellowish
brown, and the lower 23 inches is very pale brown. The
subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is yellowish red
sandy loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Blanton
fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes, Blanton and similar
soils make up 75 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
On 5 percent of the acreage, included soils make up
more than 25 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Blanton
soil are included in mapping. These are Foxworth and
Troup soils, soils that have slopes of less than 5
percent, and soils that have less than 15 percent, by
volume, ironstone nodules and weathered phosphatic
limestone fragments in the subsurface layer and
subsoil.


Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Blanton
soil are included in this map unit. These are Albany,
Lakeland, and Penney soils, which make up about 1 to
25 percent of most mapped areas.
The Blanton soil has a perched water table at a
depth of 48 to 72 inches for 2 to 4 months in most
years. The water table is at a depth of 36 to 48 inches
for less than 30 cumulative days in some years. In
areas where seepage occurs at the base of the slopes,
the water table is within a depth of 30 inches for brief
periods after heavy rainfall. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is moderate.
Most areas are used for tame pasture or cultivated
crops. The natural vegetation consists of live oak,
bluejack oak, and turkey oak and scattered longleaf
pine and slash pine. Various hardwoods, such as
dogwood, ironwood, hickory, and cherry, are common.
The understory includes pineland threeawn, creeping
bluestem, low panicum, and various other grasses.
If used for most cultivated crops, this soil has very
severe limitations. Droughtiness, low natural fertility,
rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and the slope limit the
choice of suitable plants and reduce the potential crop
yields. The high water table provides water through
capillary rise and thus helps to compensate for the low
available water capacity of the soil. Good management
includes growing the crops in rotation with close-
growing, soil-improving crops; returning crop residue to
the soil; planting on the contour; and applying fertilizer
and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard where the surface is
unprotected, especially during dry periods. Leaving crop
residue on the surface can help to prevent excessive
soil loss and conserves moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, but
yields are reduced by periodic droughtiness. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled
grazing helps to maintain plant vigor and a good ground
cover.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The soil is drought. During long dry periods,
it does not provide enough moisture for plant growth.
Selecting special planting stock that is larger than usual
or that is containerized reduces the seedling mortality
rate. The use of equipment that has large tires or tracks
helps to overcome the equipment limitation on this
loose, sandy soil. Leaving all plant debris on the site
helps to maintain the content of organic matter in the
soil. The trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.


48






Bradford County, Florida


The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
The slope is a slight or moderate limitation on sites
for dwellings without basements and a moderate or
severe limitation on sites for small commercial
buildings. Land shaping can help to overcome this
limitation. The soil has moderate limitations if used as a
site for septic tank absorption fields because of the
depth to the water table during wet periods and the
slope. Corrective measures may or may not be needed.
Land shaping and adding suitable fill material can
overcome these limitations.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface. The slope
is a limitation on sites for some recreational uses.
The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11S.

40-Troup sand, rolling. This moderately sloping to
strongly sloping, well drained soil is in the uplands.
Individual areas are irregularly shaped and range from
10 to 60 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to complex.
They generally range from 5 to 12 percent, but in a few
areas they are less than 5 percent or more than 12
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand about
4 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth
of about 55 inches. It is sand. The upper 3 inches is
brown, the next 23 inches is brownish yellow, and the
lower 25 inches is very pale brown. The subsoil extends
to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 5 inches is
light brown loamy sand in which the content of
ironstone nodules is about 5 percent. The lower 20
inches or more is yellowish red sandy loam.
Small areas of soils that are similar to Troup soil are
included in mapping. These are Blanton, Foxworth,
Lakeland, and Penney soils and soils that have loamy
material at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Included soils
make up less than 15 percent of the mapped areas.
The Troup soil has a water table below a depth of 72
inches. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate.
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation,
which consists mainly of slash pine, longleaf pine,
hickory, live oak, and bluejack oak. The understory
includes fern, huckleberry, sassafras, and pineland
threeawn.


If used for cultivated crops, this soil has severe
limitations. The slope, low fertility, rapid leaching of
plant nutrients, and droughtiness severely limit the
choice of suitable plants and reduce the potential crop
yields. Good management includes growing the crops in
rotation with close-growing, soil-improving crops;
returning crop residue to the soil; planting on the
contour; and applying fertilizer and lime. Soil blowing is
a hazard where the surface is unprotected, especially
during dry periods. Leaving crop residue on the surface
can help to prevent excessive soil loss and conserves
moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, but
yields can be reduced by periodic droughtiness.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant vigor and a
good ground cover.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Longleaf pine, loblolly pine, and slash pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The soil is drought. During long dry periods,
it does not provide enough moisture for plant growth.
Selecting special planting stock that is larger than usual
or that is containerized reduces the seedling mortality
rate. The use of equipment that has large tires or tracks
helps to overcome the equipment limitation on this
loose, sandy soil. Retarding the growth of the hardwood
understory by chemical or mechanical means helps to
control plant competition. Leaving all plant debris on the
site helps to maintain the content of organic matter in
the soil. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
The slope is a slight or moderate limitation if this soil
is used as a site for dwellings or septic tank absorption
fields and a moderate limitation if the soil is used as a
site for small commercial buildings. This limitation can
be easily overcome by land shaping.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface. The slope
is a limitation on sites for some recreational uses.


49






Soil Survey


The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11S.

43-Dorovan muck. This nearly level, very poorly
drained, organic soil is in depressions. Individual areas
are circular or irregularly shaped and range from about
40 to 3,000 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or slightly
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the soil is muck to a depth of about 59
inches. The upper 12 inches is dark reddish brown, and
the lower 47 inches is black. The underlying material to
a depth of about 72 inches is sand. The upper 8 inches
is very dark brown, and the lower 5 inches is grayish
brown.
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Dorovan
muck, Dorovan soils make up 78 to 99 percent of the
mapped areas. On 10 percent of the acreage, included
soils make up more than 22 percent of the mapped
areas.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Dorovan soil are included in this map unit. These are
Pamlico and Croatan soils, which make up about 1 to
22 percent of most mapped areas.
Undrained areas of the Dorovan soil are ponded for 6
months or more during most years. The available water
capacity is very high. Permeability is moderate.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of pondcypress, sweetgum, red maple, swamp
tupelo, blackgum, and scattered pond pine. The
understory includes Coastal Plain willow, fetterbush
lyonia, greenbrier, maidencane, lizards tail, cinnamon
fern, and various other water-tolerant weeds and
grasses. The natural areas of this soil provide cover for
deer and are excellent habitat for wading birds and
other wetland wildlife.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, tame pasture, planted pine trees, or
grazeable woodland. The excessive wetness is the
main limitation. Installing adequate water-control
systems is difficult. Many areas are in isolated ponds or
wet depressions that do not have suitable drainage
outlets.
The limitations affecting urban uses are severe.
Excess water on or near the surface during much of the
year and excess humus are the dominant limitations.
Drainage systems that would adequately remove the
water and effectively regulate the water table are
expensive and cannot be easily installed or maintained.
Most areas do not have good drainage outlets. Where
adequate drainage systems are installed, subsidence is
a continuing limitation. The organic material should be
replaced with suitable fill material on sites for dwellings,
small commercial buildings, and septic tank absorption
fields.


The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
Ponding and excess humus are the major limitations. A
good water-control system is necessary. Also, suitable
fill material is needed to improve trafficability and to
increase the depth to the water table.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W.

44-Hydraquents, level. These very poorly drained
soils are in mined areas on the parts of Trail Ridge
along the Bradford-Clay County line. The water and
fines are pumped to settlement ponds in areas along
the county line east and south of Starke. These soils
consist of the remains of the organic-stained material
that originally coated sand grains and clay. The
coatings have been washed and separated from heavy
metals and coarse aggregates. The soils are known
locally as "humate."
Typically, the soils are black mucky silty clay to a
depth of 80 inches or more. They are uniform in color
and consistence. Reaction is very strongly acid. Cracks
form on the surface when the soil material dries.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of water; Udorthents, which consist of stockpiled dredge
material; and areas that have been smoothed and serve
as dikes around the perimeter of the map unit.
The Hydraquents are at various depths in settlement
ponds and vary in moisture content. They are
dominantly saturated throughout and very fluid. In some
areas the upper 12 inches has dried sufficiently to

support chalky bluestem and other grasses and
scattered slash pine. In vegetated areas the soils
remain very fluid below 12 inches of the surface. Areas
in the latter stages of settlement support pond lily and
other fleshy hydrophytic plants. In areas where the
material is most recently deposited, the soils support
little vegetation and are ponded for long periods.
These soils are unsuited to most uses because of the
wetness, the fluidity, low strength, and low fertility.
No capability subclass or woodland ordination symbol
is assigned.

45-Meadowbrook and Allanton soils, frequently
flooded. These nearly level, poorly drained and very
poorly drained soils are on flood plains. They do not
occur in a regular repeating pattern on the landscape.
Individual areas are elongated and range from 2 to
more than 100 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
slightly concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil
is very dark gray sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 44 inches.
It is sand. The upper 6 inches is dark gray, and the
lower 34 inches is light gray. The subsoil extends to a


50






Bradford County, Florida


depth of about 61 inches. It is grayish brown sandy
loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more
is grayish brown loamy sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Allanton soil is
black mucky fine sand about 16 inches thick. The
subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 51 inches.
The upper 11 inches is very dark gray fine sand, and
the lower 24 inches is dark grayish brown sand. The
subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is black sand.
Small areas of included soils are in this map unit.
These are Elloree, Grifton, Ousley, Starke, and
Surrency soils and Fluvaquents. The included soils
make up less than 20 percent of the mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Meadowbrook and
Allanton soils have a seasonal high water table within a
depth of 12 inches for 2 to 6 months during most years.
Flooding occurs several times each year. The duration
and extent of flooding vary, depending on the intensity
and frequency of rainfall. The flooding normally lasts
about 1 month, but in some areas it lasts for several
months. The available water capacity is low or
moderate. Permeability is moderately slow to
moderately rapid.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of bottom land hardwoods, such as water oak,
ironwood, red maple, sweetgum, sweetbay, and hickory,
and some slash pine, loblolly pine, and cypress.


Unless major drainage systems are installed, these
soils are not suited to cultivated crops, tame pasture
grasses, or grazeable woodland because of the
prolonged wetness and the hazard of flooding.
Establishing and maintaining a drainage system is
difficult because of the hazard of flooding.
These soils generally are not used for the production
of pine trees. The equipment limitation, plant
competition, and seedling mortality are management
concerns. A water-control system is needed to remove
excess surface water. Slash pine, loblolly pine,
baldcypress, and hardwoods are suitable for planting.
Harvesting and planting should be scheduled for dry
periods.
These soils are severely limited as sites for urban
and recreational uses because of the hazard of flooding
and the wetness. Intensive flood-control and drainage
measures are necessary. Fill material is needed to
elevate building sites, septic tank absorption fields, and
local roads and streets.
These soils are well suited to habitat for wetland and
woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily
developed, and the natural vegetation provides
abundant food and shelter for wildlife.
The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.


51






53


Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavior
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis in predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It
can be used to identify the limitations of each soil for
specific land uses and to help prevent construction
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to identify
areas where wetness or very loose or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for buildings, streets, roads, campgrounds,
playgrounds, and pond reservoir areas and for other
uses.

Crops and Pasture
Robert Taylor, county extension agent, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Service, Bradford County, Florida, helped prepare this
section.
General management needed for crops and pasture
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants


best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
About 50,000 acres in Bradford County is used for
crops, pasture, or grazeable woodland (31). Of this
total, about 6,000 acres is harvested cropland and
about 10,000 acres is used for pasture or hay. The rest
is used as grazeable woodland or commercial
woodland.
The potential of the soils in Bradford County for
increased food production is good. At one time many
additional acres were used for vegetable and specialty
crops. Because of economic conditions, many acres of
cropland have been converted or allowed to revert to
woodland. Also, small areas of cropland have been
converted to urban uses, mostly housing developments.
On many small farms throughout the county,
vegetables, strawberries, or both are grown, mainly for
local consumption. The vegetables include greens,
sweet corn, peppers, cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplant,
squash, peas, beans, okra, and watermelons. In some
areas corn is grown for livestock feed. Tobacco and
soybeans are grown on a small acreage. Also, several
small nurseries in the county grow a wide variety of
ornamental plants and trees.
Pecans were once grown and harvested extensively
in groves throughout the county. Many of these groves
remain in the county, but very few are used mainly for
the production of pecans. Many of the groves are used
as pasture.
Bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass are the
main forage and hay grasses used to support the many
small to medium-sized beef cattle or cow-calf
enterprises in the county. Cool-season annuals also are
planted or overseeded on many ranches. Legumes,






53


Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavior
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis in predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It
can be used to identify the limitations of each soil for
specific land uses and to help prevent construction
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to identify
areas where wetness or very loose or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for buildings, streets, roads, campgrounds,
playgrounds, and pond reservoir areas and for other
uses.

Crops and Pasture
Robert Taylor, county extension agent, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Service, Bradford County, Florida, helped prepare this
section.
General management needed for crops and pasture
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants


best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
About 50,000 acres in Bradford County is used for
crops, pasture, or grazeable woodland (31). Of this
total, about 6,000 acres is harvested cropland and
about 10,000 acres is used for pasture or hay. The rest
is used as grazeable woodland or commercial
woodland.
The potential of the soils in Bradford County for
increased food production is good. At one time many
additional acres were used for vegetable and specialty
crops. Because of economic conditions, many acres of
cropland have been converted or allowed to revert to
woodland. Also, small areas of cropland have been
converted to urban uses, mostly housing developments.
On many small farms throughout the county,
vegetables, strawberries, or both are grown, mainly for
local consumption. The vegetables include greens,
sweet corn, peppers, cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplant,
squash, peas, beans, okra, and watermelons. In some
areas corn is grown for livestock feed. Tobacco and
soybeans are grown on a small acreage. Also, several
small nurseries in the county grow a wide variety of
ornamental plants and trees.
Pecans were once grown and harvested extensively
in groves throughout the county. Many of these groves
remain in the county, but very few are used mainly for
the production of pecans. Many of the groves are used
as pasture.
Bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass are the
main forage and hay grasses used to support the many
small to medium-sized beef cattle or cow-calf
enterprises in the county. Cool-season annuals also are
planted or overseeded on many ranches. Legumes,






Soil Survey


especially white clover, can be grown in many pastured
areas of the soils in the flatwoods, such as Leon,
Mascotte, Sapelo, and Pottsburg soils. Pasture
management is based on the relationship of soils,
plants, lime, fertilizer, drainage, irrigation and grazing
systems, or a combination of these. Yields of forage
and stand densities can be increased by integrating
these into a sound management system.
The paragraphs that follow describe the major
concerns in managing the soils in the county for crops
and pasture.
Water erosion is a minor problem in Bradford County.
It is a problem only where the soils have slopes of more
than 3 to 5 percent and have a surface layer of fine
sand or finer textured material. Small areas of these
soils are along the southern part of the New River and
along the western part of the Santa Fe River. Erosion is
a hazard on Lakeland, Blanton, Foxworth, Ocilla,
Wampee, and Albany soils.
Erosion-control practices help to maintain a
protective cover, reduce the runoff rate, and increase
the rate of water infiltration. A cropping system that
keeps crop residue and organic matter on the surface
can improve soil structure, making the soil more
resistant to erosive forces. Limiting tillage and leaving
crop residue on the surface help to control runoff and
erosion. Contour farming and stripcropping in areas
where these practices are feasible reduce the length of
slopes and thus the runoff rate and the hazard of
erosion.
Soil blowing is a hazard in some areas in the county.
Large fields can lose valuable topsoil if the winds are
strong and the soil is very dry and has little or no plant
cover. Maintaining a vegetative cover or surface
mulching reduces the hazard of soil blowing. Planting
cover crops or evenly spaced strips of small grain at
right angles to the prevailing winds also reduces the
hazard of soil blowing. These crops can be plowed
under before planting, thus increasing the organic
matter content and the level of fertility. Establishing
windbreaks at key locations reduces the impact and
force of the wind, thereby reducing the hazard of soil
blowing.
The latest information about erosion-control practices
can be obtained from the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service.
Soil drainage is a major management need on a
large percentage of soils in Bradford County. About 80
to 85 percent of the soils in the county are poorly
drained or very poorly drained. Drainage and bedding
measures are needed to increase yields of most crops
on Allanton, Pelham, Plummer, Mascotte, Leon, Sapelo,
and Pottsburg soils. A surface drainage system that


includes good water outlets reduces the wetness. Tile
drainage systems also reduce the wetness.
Irrigation systems are needed on a large part of the
cropland in areas of Albany, Ocilla, Penney, Lakeland,
Hurricane, Blanton, and Troup soils. Many crops require
water during critical growth periods. During these
periods water is not available to plant roots in the
deeper, sandy soils. Permanent or movable irrigation
systems can be installed. The type of system depends
on the crop, the kind of soil, the topography, and
management practices.
Information about drainage and irrigation practices
and assistance in selecting the appropriate system and
its layout and design can be obtained from the local
office of the Soil Conservation Service.
Soil fertility is naturally low in most of the soils in
Bradford County. Most of the soils have a sandy
surface layer and a low pH level. Seasonal high rainfall
rapidly leaches available nutrients through the sandy
layers into the subsoil. The sandy surface layer in most
of the soils in the county has a low content of clay and
organic matter. As a result, the nutrient-holding capacity
of the plow layer is limited. Incorporating plant residue
or cover crops into the soil increases the content of
organic matter, which increases the nutrient-holding
capacity of the topsoil. More nutrients are thus available
to plants for longer periods. Applications of slow-release
fertilizer or applications of fertilizer at the time of
optimum plant needs help to overcome nutrient
deficiencies and decrease the amount of nutrients lost
through leaching. Applications of lime increase the
uptake of plant nutrients, resulting in higher yields. The
kind and amount of lime and fertilizer to be applied
should be based on the results of soil tests, the type of
soil, and the crop to be grown. The Cooperative
Extension Service can provide assistance in soil testing
and in determining the kind and amount of fertilizer and
lime needed in a given area.

Yields Per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management
are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table
because of variations in rainfall and other climatic
factors. The land capability classification of each map
unit also is shown in the table.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain the indicated
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil


54






Bradford County, Florida


and the crop. Management can include drainage,
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop
varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable
soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures
the smallest possible loss.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
likely to increase as new production technology is
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
about the management and productivity of the soils for
those crops.

Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops.
Crops that require special management are excluded.
The soils are grouped according to their limitations for
field crops, the risk of damage if they are used for
crops, and the way they respond to management. The
criteria used in grouping the soils do not include major
and generally expensive landforming that would change
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for
interpretations designed to show suitability and
limitations of groups of soils for woodland and for
engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
use. There are no class I soils in Bradford County.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate
conservation practices. There are no class II soils in
Bradford County.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the


choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production. There are no class VIII soils in
Bradford County.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, Illw. The
letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of
erosion unless close-growing plant cover is maintained;
w shows that water in or on the soil interferes with plant
growth or cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be
partly corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the
soil is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or
stony; and c, used in only some parts of the United
States, shows that the chief limitation is climate that is
very cold or very dry.
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils
of this class have few limitations. Class V contains only
the subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils
in class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have
other limitations that restrict their use to pasture,
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
The capability classification of each map unit is given
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" and in the
yields table.

Woodland Management and Productivity
Dave Norton, county forester, Florida Division of Forestry, helped
prepare this section.
About 138,000 acres in Bradford County, or 74
percent of the total land area, is used as woodland (31).
The soils and climate of Bradford County are very well
suited to commercial timber production. Most of the
woodland is in areas of Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo
soils. Smaller acreages are in areas of Albany, Allanton,
Mascotte, Ocilla, and Pottsburg soils.
Forestry has played an important role in the
economic development of Bradford County. Before the
first settlers arrived, longleaf pine dominated the better
drained soils and slash pine grew on the wetter soils in
the flatwoods. Burning practices favored grasses and


55






Soil Survey


native grazing. Longleaf pine was the only tree that
could withstand these hot fires. Baldcypress,
pondcypress, black tupelo (gum), sweetgum, red maple,
and several varieties of bay were the principal trees on
the lake and river flood plains, around ponds, and in
drainageways and swamps.
Harvesting timber, collecting gum naval stores, and
cutting railroad crossties once provided many jobs to
area residents. In the past and to some extent in the
present, timber cutting practices by private landowners
have failed to provide adequate regeneration of
commercially important species. Also, fire prevention
allows undesirable hardwoods to grow, further inhibiting
the establishment and growth of pine trees.
Currently, slash pine is the dominant commercial
species in Bradford County. It grows well on poorly
drained soils in the flatwoods that are naturally low in
fertility. Cypress, bay, blackgum, and red maple grow
well on the wetter soils in ponds, swamps, and
depressional areas. These trees, however, have limited
commercial value (5). Live oak, laurel oak, and water
oak grow in the scattered hammocks bordering the wet
areas. Blanton, Foxworth, Lakeland, Penney, and Troup
soils support scattered longleaf pine, sand pine, live
oak, laurel oak, and turkey oak, which generally have
limited commercial value.
Timber management consists mainly of clearcutting,
site preparation, planting of seedlings, and prescribed
burning at regular 3- to 5-year intervals. Burning
reduces the amount of underbrush and limits the hazard
of wildfire.
A major management concern on the poorly drained
soils in most of Bradford County is seasonal wetness,
which results in severe seedling mortality and an
increase in early growth rates. Bedding should not
hinder natural drainage.
A strong demand for timber is expected to continue
well into the next century. This anticipated demand,
along with the pressure to increase overall farm
revenues, has prompted many landowners to begin
growing and managing timber as part of their farm
enterprises.
Before the most can be made of an investment in
commercial woodland, suitable trees must be selected
for planting. This selection can be made through an
evaluation of soil productivity as it relates to tree
growth, which is determined mainly by the physical and
chemical properties of the soil. One of the most
important considerations that affects the productive
capacity is the ability of the soil to provide adequate
moisture. Other factors include the thickness of the
surface layer and its organic matter content, the natural
supply of plant nutrients, the texture and consistence of
the soil material, aeration, internal drainage, and the


depth to and duration of the seasonal high water table.
A well managed stand of trees can conserve soil and
water resources. It protects the soil against erosion.
The tree cover allows more moisture to enter the soil
and thus increases the supply of ground water.
There are plentiful markets for wood products in the
county. Within a 90-mile radius, there are 20 primary
wood products industries (31), including pulp and
paperboard, chip-n-saw, veneer and plywood, pallet and
crate, pole peeler, and treatment mills. The county also
has numerous small cypress and pine sawmills and
more than 100 secondary industries that use southern
pine products.
Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth,
fertility, texture, and the available water capacity
influence tree growth. Available water capacity and
depth of the root zone significantly affect tree growth.
This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
planning ways to increase the productivity of forest
land. Some soils respond better to applications of
fertilizer than others, and some are more susceptible to
erosion after roads are built and timber is harvested.
Some soils require special reforestation efforts. In the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units," the productivity of
each map unit suitable for producing timber is described
and the limitations that affect harvesting and producing
timber are specified. The common forest understory
plants are also listed. Table 5 summarizes this forestry
information and rates the soils for a number of factors
to be considered in management. Slight, moderate, and
severe are used to indicate the degree of the major soil
limitations to be considered in forest management.
The first tree listed for each soil in the column
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil.
An indicator species is a tree that is common in the
area and that is generally the most productive on a
given soil.
Table 5 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential
productivity is based on the site index and the point
(age of the species) where the mean annual increment
is the greatest. Cubic meters per hectare can be
converted to cubic feet per acre by multiplying by 14.3.
It can be converted to board feet by multiplying by a
factor of about 71. For example, a productivity class of
8 means the soil can be expected to produce 114 cubic
feet per acre per year at the point where the mean
annual increment culminates, or about 568 board feet
per acre per year. This is the maximum growth that the
species is expected to produce per year and is not
directly related to the total yield.


56






Bradford County, Florida


The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter W
indicates a soil in which excessive water, either
seasonal or year-round, causes a significant limitation.
The letter S indicates a dry, sandy soil. If a soil has
more than one of these limitations, the priority is as
follows: W and S.
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the
use of forest management equipment, year-round or
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope,
wetness, or susceptibility of the surface layer to
compaction. As slope gradient and length increase,
operating wheeled equipment becomes more difficult.
On the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be
used. On the steepest slopes, even tracked equipment
cannot be operated. More sophisticated systems are
needed. The rating is slight if equipment use is
restricted by soil wetness for less than 2 months and if
special equipment is not needed. The rating is moderate
if the soil is so steep that wheeled equipment cannot be
operated safely across the slope, if soil wetness
restricts equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, or
if special equipment is needed to prevent or minimize
compaction. The rating is severe if the soil is so steep
that tracked equipment cannot be operated safely
across the slope, if soil wetness restricts equipment use
for more than 6 months per year, if stoniness restricts
ground-based equipment, or if special equipment is
needed to prevent or minimize compaction. Ratings of
moderate or severe indicate a need to choose the most
suitable equipment and to carefully plan the timing of
harvesting and other management operations.
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
death of naturally occurring or properly planted
seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as
influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features.
Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much
water or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil
for seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer,
depth and duration of the water table, rock fragments in
the surface layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of the
slope. Mortality generally is greatest on soils that have
a sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk is slight if,
after site preparation, expected mortality is less than 25
percent; moderate if expected mortality is between 25
and 50 percent; and severe if expected mortality
exceeds 50 percent. Ratings of moderate or severe
indicate that it may be necessary to use containerized
or larger than usual planting stock or to make special
site preparations, such as bedding, furrowing, installing
a surface drainage system, or providing artificial shade
for seedlings. Reinforcement planting is often needed if
the risk is moderate or severe.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of


the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
competition becomes more severe on the more
productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils
having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The
risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants
hinders adequate natural or artificial reforestation but
does not necessitate intensive site preparation and
maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from
undesirable plants hinders natural or artificial
reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation
and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if
competition from undesirable plants hinders adequate
natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is
intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or
severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to
ensure the development of an adequately stocked
stand. Managers must plan site preparation measures
to ensure timely reforestation.
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is
expressed in terms of a site index and site quality.
Common trees are listed in the order of their observed
general occurrence. Generally, only two or three tree
species dominate. Estimates of the productivity of the
soils in this survey area are based mainly on published
data (3, 17, 26, 28).
The site index is determined by taking height
measurements and determining the age of selected
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the
average height, in feet, that the trees attain in 50 years.
The average height, in feet, in 25 years is called site
quality. All indexes apply to fully stocked, even-aged
stands under all management practices.
Productivity represents an expected volume produced
by the most important trees, expressed as the number
of cords per acre per year based on the 25-year
average of corresponding site quality.
Trees to plant are those that are used for
reforestation or, under suitable conditions, for natural
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and can
produce a commercial wood crop. The desired product,
the topographic position (such as a low, wet area), and
personal preference are three factors among many that
can influence the choice of trees for reforestation.
More detailed information about woodland
management can be obtained from local offices of the
Soil Conservation Service, the Cooperative Extension
Service, and the Florida Division of Forestry.

Grazeable Woodland
R. Gregory Hendricks, range conservationist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
Bradford County has about 138,000 acres of
woodland, much of which can be grazed by cattle (31).


57






Soil Survey


The woodland grazing resources can complement
improved pasture grazing systems. Grazeable woodland
provides a low-overhead and low-maintenance winter
forage reserve.
Grazeable woodland has an understory of native
grasses, legumes, forbs, and shrubs. The understory is
an integral part of the forest plant community. The
native plants can be grazed without significantly
impairing other forest values. Grazing is compatible with
timber management if it is controlled or managed in
such a manner that both timber and forage resources
are maintained or enhanced. The native forage in
wooded areas is readily available to livestock and is an
economic resource. Integrating woodland and grazing
management offers opportunities to obtain income from
the woodland during the first 2 to 12 years of the pine
rotation and possibly during the life of the rotation when
double-row planting techniques are applied.
The North Florida Flatwoods is the largest grazeable
woodland site in Bradford County. It has the best
potential for forage production in the county (fig. 12).
The native forage plants include chalky bluestem,
creeping bluestem, blue maidencane, and indiangrass.
Associated annual forbs, ground blueberry, gallberry,
and a variety of sedges and rushes are an excellent
source of food for wildlife.
Forage production on grazeable woodland is
influenced by soil types, site preparation and planting
techniques, the frequency of burning, and canopy
closure. The degree of wetness is critical in determining
the annual forage production levels of a woodland site.
For example, soils that have a high water table, such as
Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils, support the
vegetation characteristic of a North Florida Flatwoods
site. Suggested annual stocking rates range from 8 to
30 acres per cow on these soils. Better drained soils,
such as Albany, Blanton, and Chipley soils, support
hardwoods on upland hammocks and longleaf pine and
turkey oak on hills. Suggested stocking rates range
from 18 to 40 acres per cow annually on these soils.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens,
and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low-
and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and
shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen


houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and on planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a commercial nursery.

Recreation
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 6
according to limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 6, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations, if
any, are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means
that limitations can be overcome or alleviated by
planning, design, or special maintenance. Severe
means that soil properties are unfavorable and that
limitations can be offset only by soil reclamation, special
design, intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a
combination of these measures.
The information in table 6 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 9
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and
for local roads and streets in table 8.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs
rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when


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Soil Survey


The woodland grazing resources can complement
improved pasture grazing systems. Grazeable woodland
provides a low-overhead and low-maintenance winter
forage reserve.
Grazeable woodland has an understory of native
grasses, legumes, forbs, and shrubs. The understory is
an integral part of the forest plant community. The
native plants can be grazed without significantly
impairing other forest values. Grazing is compatible with
timber management if it is controlled or managed in
such a manner that both timber and forage resources
are maintained or enhanced. The native forage in
wooded areas is readily available to livestock and is an
economic resource. Integrating woodland and grazing
management offers opportunities to obtain income from
the woodland during the first 2 to 12 years of the pine
rotation and possibly during the life of the rotation when
double-row planting techniques are applied.
The North Florida Flatwoods is the largest grazeable
woodland site in Bradford County. It has the best
potential for forage production in the county (fig. 12).
The native forage plants include chalky bluestem,
creeping bluestem, blue maidencane, and indiangrass.
Associated annual forbs, ground blueberry, gallberry,
and a variety of sedges and rushes are an excellent
source of food for wildlife.
Forage production on grazeable woodland is
influenced by soil types, site preparation and planting
techniques, the frequency of burning, and canopy
closure. The degree of wetness is critical in determining
the annual forage production levels of a woodland site.
For example, soils that have a high water table, such as
Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils, support the
vegetation characteristic of a North Florida Flatwoods
site. Suggested annual stocking rates range from 8 to
30 acres per cow on these soils. Better drained soils,
such as Albany, Blanton, and Chipley soils, support
hardwoods on upland hammocks and longleaf pine and
turkey oak on hills. Suggested stocking rates range
from 18 to 40 acres per cow annually on these soils.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens,
and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low-
and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and
shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen


houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and on planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a commercial nursery.

Recreation
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 6
according to limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 6, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations, if
any, are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means
that limitations can be overcome or alleviated by
planning, design, or special maintenance. Severe
means that soil properties are unfavorable and that
limitations can be offset only by soil reclamation, special
design, intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a
combination of these measures.
The information in table 6 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 9
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and
for local roads and streets in table 8.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs
rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when


58






Bradford County, Florida


Figure 12.-An area of Sapelo sand, which is in the North Florida Flatwoods grazeable woodland site. This area can be managed so that
both timber and forage resources are maintained.


dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes that
increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access
roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry. If


grading is needed, the depth of the soil over bedrock or
a hardpan should be considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. Also, they have
moderate to level slopes.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. Also,


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Soil Survey


they have moderate to level slopes. The suitability of
the soil for tees or greens is not considered in rating the
soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
Bradford County has extensive areas of good wildlife
habitat. The large areas of flatwoods and swamps
provide better habitat than other areas in the county.
Important areas include the 5,000-acre Santa Fe
Swamp and the Camp Blanding Reservation.
The main game species include white-tailed deer,
squirrel, turkey, bobwhite quail, mourning dove, feral
hogs, and waterfowl. Nongame species include
raccoon, rabbit, armadillo, opossum, skunks, bobcat,
gray fox, red fox, otter, and a variety of songbirds,
wading birds, woodpeckers, predatory birds, reptiles,
and amphibians. Bears are occasionally sighted in the
Santa Fe Swamp.
The headwaters of the Santa Fe River are in
Bradford County. The county has six lakes more than
100 acres in size. The largest, Santa Fe Lake, is 6,000
acres. The lakes and the rivers and their larger
tributaries provide good opportunities for fishing. Game
and nongame fish species include largemouth bass,
channel catfish, bullhead catfish, bluegill, redear,
spotted sunfish, warmouth, black crappie, chain
pickerel, gar, bowfin, and suckers.
Some endangered and threatened species inhabit
Bradford County. Examples are the rare red-cockaded
woodpecker and the more common southeastern
kestrel. A detailed list of these species and information
on their range and habitat are available at the local
office of the Soil Conservation Service.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat
can be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable
plants.
In table 7, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
the intensity of management needed for each element
of the habitat.


The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
available water capacity, wetness, slope, and flood
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of grain and seed crops are
corn, wheat, browntop millet, and grain sorghum.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, wetness, flood hazard, and slope. Soil
temperature and soil moisture are also considerations.
Examples of grasses and legumes are lovegrass,
Florida beggarweed, bahiagrass, clover, and sesbania.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, and flood
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of wild herbaceous plants are
bluestem, goldenrod, beggarweed, partridge pea, and
bristlegrass.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
these plants are oak, wild grape, cherry, sweetgum,
hawthorn, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and blueberry.
Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for
planting on soils rated good are firethorn, wild plum,
and crabapple.


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Bradford County, Florida


Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine and cypress.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, and
slope. Examples of wetland plants are smartweed, St
Johnswort, wild millet, pickerelweed, cordgrass, rushes,
sedges, and reeds.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water-control
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
water areas are wetness, slope, and permeability.
Examples of shallow water areas are marshes,
swamps, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described
in the following paragraphs.
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas
produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,
and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these
areas include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field
sparrow, cottontail, and red fox.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
turkey, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
raccoon, deer, and bear.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons,
otters, shore birds, and alligators.

Engineering
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and


construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this
section. Local ordinances and regulations should be
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, soil wetness,
depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, likelihood
of flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, and soil
density. Data were collected about kinds of clay
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and
the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for
erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell
potential, available water capacity, and other behavioral
characteristics affecting engineering uses.
This information can be used to evaluate the
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
and recreation uses; make preliminary estimates of
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and predict performance of proposed
small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same
or similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil
maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
this survey, can be used to make additional
interpretations.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Glossary.
Building Site Development
Table 8 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and


61






Soil Survey


without basements, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and
site features are generally favorable for the indicated
use and limitations, if any, are minor and easily
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features
are not favorable for the indicated use and special
planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
properties or site features are so unfavorable that
special design, soil reclamation, and possibly increased
maintenance are required. Special feasibility studies
may be required where the soil limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
filling, and compacting is affected by a cemented pan or
a very firm, dense layer, stone content, soil texture, and
slope. The time of the year that excavations can be
made is affected by the depth to a seasonal high water
table and the susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The
resistance of the excavation walls or banks to sloughing
or caving is affected by soil texture and the depth to the
water table.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are
made for small commercial buildings without
basements, for dwellings with basements, and for
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on
soil properties, site features, and observed performance
of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrink-swell
potential, and organic layers can cause the movement
of footings. A high water table, large stones, slope, and
flooding affect the ease of excavation and construction.
Landscaping and grading that require cuts and fills of
more than 5 or 6 feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.
They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base
of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material; and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. A high water table, flooding, large stones, and
slope affect the ease of excavating and grading. Soil
strength (as inferred from the engineering classification
of the soil), shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high
water table affect the traffic-supporting capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established


and maintained. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Soil reaction, a high water table, and the
available water capacity in the upper 40 inches affect
plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, and the amount
of sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface layer
affect trafficability after vegetation is established.
Sanitary Facilities
Table 9 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect septic tank absorption fields, sewage
lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations are
considered slight if soil properties and site features are
generally favorable for the indicated use and limitations,
if any, are minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil
properties or site features are somewhat restrictive for
the indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if one or more soil property or
site feature is unfavorable for the use and if overcoming
the unfavorable properties requires special design, extra
maintenance, or alteration.
Table 9 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates
that soil properties and site features are favorable for
the use and good performance and low maintenance
can be expected; fair indicates that soil properties and
site features are moderately favorable for the use and
one or more soil properties or site features make the
soil less desirable than the soils rated good; and poor
indicates that one or more soil property or site feature is
unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
properties requires special design, extra maintenance,
or costly alteration.
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, a high water table, and flooding affect
absorption of the effluent. A cemented pan can interfere
with installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
permeable sand and gravel are less than 4 feet below
the base of the absorption field, if slope is excessive, or
if the water table is near the surface. There must be
unsaturated soil material beneath the absorption field to
filter the effluent effectively. Many local and state
ordinances require that this material be of a certain
thickness.


62






Bradford County, Florida


Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the
solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly
level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
required to minimize seepage and contamination of
ground water.
Table 9 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. Considered in
the ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table,
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, and
content of organic matter.
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the
level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to
function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is
excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high
content of organic matter is detrimental to proper
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic
activity. Slope and cemented pans can cause
construction problems.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in
successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste
is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin
layer of soil from a source away from the site.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground-
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
needs to be considered.
The ratings in table 9 are based on soil properties,
site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to a cemented pan, a high water
table, slope, and flooding affect both types of landfill.
Texture, highly organic layers, and soil reaction affect
trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the
ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth
of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated
slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite
investigation is needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
to the landfill, and spread over the waste.


Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil
blowing.
After soil material has been removed, the soil
material remaining in the borrow area must be thick
enough over the water table to permit revegetation. The
soil material used as final cover for a landfill should be
suitable for plants. The surface layer generally has the
best workability, more organic matter, and the best
potential for plants. Material from the surface layer
should be stockpiled for use as the final cover.
Construction Materials
Table 10 gives information about the soils as a
source of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils
are rated good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and
topsoil. They are rated as a probable or improbable
source of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on
soil properties and site features that affect the removal
of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
compaction, minor processing, and other standard
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
and used in road embankments in another place. In this
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
exacting in design than higher embankments.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
their profile. The table showing engineering index
properties provides detailed information about each soil
layer. This information can help to determine the
suitability of each layer for use as roadfill. The
performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or
cement is not considered in the ratings.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. The
thickness of suitable material is a major consideration.
The ease of excavation is affected by a high water table
and slope. How well the soil performs in place after it
has been compacted and drained is determined by its
strength (as inferred from the engineering classification
of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
material, a low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the


63






Soil Survey


water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
plasticity index of less than 10. They have a moderate
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and depth to the
water table is less than 1 foot. These soils may have
layers of suitable material, but the material is less than
3 feet thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand
and gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 10,
only the probability of finding material in suitable
quantity is evaluated. The suitability of the material for
specific purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that
affect excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source
of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as
indicated by the engineering classification of the soil),
the thickness of suitable material, and the content of
rock fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification
are given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of
grain sizes is given in the table on engineering index
properties.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of
clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is
up to 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at
least 3 feet thick. All other soils are rated as an
improbable source.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
can be established and maintained. The upper 40
inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also
evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow
area.
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
is affected by slope, a water table, soil texture, and
thickness of suitable material. Reclamation of the
borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, and
toxic material.
Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
cobbles and have slopes of less than 8 percent. They
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer and are
not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have
a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20
to 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
appreciable amount of gravel, or soils that have slopes


of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are not so wet that
excavation is difficult.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large
amount of gravel, have slopes of more than 15 percent,
or have a seasonal water table at or near the surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
for topsoil because of its organic matter content.
Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and
retention of moisture and nutrients for plant growth.
Water Management
Table 11 gives information on the soil properties and
site features that affect water management. The degree
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
excavated ponds. The limitations are considered slight if
soil properties and site features are generally favorable
for the indicated use and limitations, if any, are minor
and are easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or
site features are somewhat restrictive for the indicated
use and special planning, design, or maintenance is
needed to overcome or minimize the limitations; and
severe if soil properties or site features are unfavorable
for the use and special design and possibly increased
maintenance or alteration are required.
This table also gives for each soil the restrictive
features that affect drainage, irrigation, terraces and
diversions, and grassed waterways.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil.
Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity of the
reservoir area.
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
constructed to impound water or to protect land against
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the
soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about
5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly
mixed and compacted during construction.
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth even greater than the height of the embankment
can affect performance and safety of the embankment.
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
determine these properties.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features
include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high


64






Bradford County, Florida


content of stones or organic matter. A high water table
affects the amount of usable material. It also affects
trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
impound water 3 feet or more above the original
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a
permanent water table and permeability of the aquifer.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
effectively the soil is drained depends on permeability,
depth to a high water table or depth of standing water if
the soil is subject to ponding, slope, susceptibility to
flooding, and subsidence of organic layers. Excavating
and grading and the stability of ditchbanks are affected
by depth to a cemented pan, slope, and the hazard of
cutbanks caving. The productivity of the soil after
drainage is adversely affected by extreme acidity or by
toxic substances in the root zone. Availability of
drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The


design and management of an irrigation system are
affected by depth to the water table, the need for
drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The
performance of a system is affected by the depth of the
root zone and soil reaction.
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
combination of channels and ridges constructed across
a slope to control erosion and conserve moisture by
intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, and depth to a
cemented pan affect the construction of terraces and
diversions. A restricted rooting depth, a severe hazard
of soil blowing or water erosion, an excessively coarse
texture, and restricted permeability adversely affect
maintenance.
Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity.
Wetness, slope, and depth to a cemented pan affect the
construction of grassed waterways. A hazard of soil
blowing, low available water capacity, restricted rooting
depth, and restricted permeability adversely affect the
growth and maintenance of the grass after construction.


65





67


Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during
the course of the soil survey. The data and the
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are
explained on the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity,
and compaction characteristics. These results are
reported in table 18.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 12 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the
upper 5 or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52


percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as about 15 percent, an appropriate
modifier is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural
terms are defined in the Glossary.
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
for example, CL-ML.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
for soils tested, with group index numbers in
parentheses, is given in table 18.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates
determined mainly by converting volume percentage in
the field to weight percentage.






Soil Survey


Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area
or from nearby areas and on field examination.
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit,
and plasticity index are generally rounded to the
nearest 5 percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and
Atterberg limits extend a marginal amount (1 or 2
percentage points) across classification boundaries, the
classification in the marginal zone is omitted in the
table.

Physical and Chemical Properties
Table 13 shows estimates of some characteristics
and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey
area. The estimates are based on field observations
and on test data for these and similar soils.
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter.
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the
soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain
moisture. They influence shrink-swell potential,
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion,
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay
in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving operations.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at
/3 bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential,
available water capacity, total pore space, and other
soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates
the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk
density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and
root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by


texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil
structure.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of
downward movement of water when the soil is
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil
drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and
construction where the rate of water movement under
saturated conditions affects behavior.
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
plants. The capacity for water storage is given in inches
of water per inch of soil for each major soil layer. The
capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect
the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
The most important properties are the content of
organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
design and management of irrigation systems. Available
water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
water actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
corrosion.
Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
minerals with water and varies with the amount and
type of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on
the soil and the magnitude of the change in soil
moisture content influence the amount of swelling of
soils in place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For
others, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind
and amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
measurements of similar soils.
If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
often needed.
Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change


68






Bradford County, Florida


of less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and
high, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9
percent, is sometimes used.
Erosion factor Kindicates the susceptibility of a soil
to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates
are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and
organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69.
The higher the value, the more susceptible the soil is to
sheet and rill erosion by water.
Erosion factor Tis an estimate of the maximum
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water
that can occur without affecting crop productivity over a
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to soil
blowing in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the
susceptibility to soil blowing. Soils are grouped
according to the following distinctions:
1. Coarse sands, sands, fine sands, and very fine
sands. These soils are extremely erodible, and
vegetation can be difficult to establish.
2. Loamy coarse sands, loamy sands, loamy fine
sands, loamy very fine sands, and sapric soil material.
These soils are very highly erodible. Crops can be
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are
used.
3. Coarse sandy loams, sandy loams, fine sandy
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are
highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive
measures to control soil blowing are used.
4L. Calcareous loams, silt loams, clay loams, and
silty clay loams. These soils are erodible. Crops can be
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are
used.
4. Clays, silty clays, noncalcareous clay loams, and
silty clay loams that are more than 35 percent clay.
These soils are moderately erodible. Crops can be
grown if measures to control soil blowing are used.
5. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are less
than 20 percent clay and sandy clay loams, sandy
clays, and hemic soil material. These soils are slightly
erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to control soil
blowing are used.
6. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are
more than 20 percent clay and noncalcareous clay
loams that are less than 35 percent clay. These soils
are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used.
7. Silts, noncalcareous silty clay loams that are less
than 35 percent clay, and fibric soil material. These


soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used.
8. Soils that are not subject to soil blowing because
of coarse fragments on the surface or because of
surface wetness.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
soil at various stages of decomposition. In table 13, the
estimated content of organic matter is expressed as a
percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less
than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The content of organic matter in a soil can be
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
other nutrients for crops.

Soil and Water Features

Table 14 gives estimates of various soil and water
features. The estimates are used in land use planning
that involves engineering considerations.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
according to the infiltration of water when the soils are
thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
duration storms.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained
sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of
water transmission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate
when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or
well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to
moderately coarse texture. These soils have a
moderate rate of water transmission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate
(high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These
consist chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell
potential, soils that have a permanent high water table,
soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the
surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly
impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate
of water transmission.
If a soil is assigned to two hydrologic groups in table
14, the first letter is for drained areas and the second is


69






Soil Survey


for undrained areas. Onsite investigation is needed to
determine the hydrologic group in a particular area.
Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods
after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding, nor
is water in swamps and marshes.
Table 14 gives the frequency and duration of
flooding. Frequency and duration are estimated.
Frequency is expressed as none, rare, occasional,
frequent, and common. None means that flooding is not
probable; rare that it is unlikely but possible under
unusual weather conditions (the chance of flooding is
near 0 percent to 5 percent in any year); occasional that
it occurs, on the average, once or less in 2 years (the
chance of flooding is 5 to 50 percent in any year); and
frequent that it occurs, on the average, more than once
in 2 years (the chance of flooding is more than 50
percent in any year). Common means that flooding is
either occasional or frequent. Duration is expressed as
very brief if less than 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, long if
7 days to 1 month, and very long if more than 1 month.
The information is based on evidence in the soil
profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of
distinctive horizons that form in soils that are not
subject to flooding.
Also considered are local information about the
extent and levels of flooding and the relation of each
soil on the landscape to historic floods. Information on
the extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific
than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
levels.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils.
The estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
soil. Indicated in table 14 are the depth to the seasonal
high water table and the kind of water table-that is,
perched or apparent. A water table that is seasonally
high for less than 1 month is not indicated in table 14.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A
perched water table is water standing above an
unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water
table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet
are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
indicates that the water table is above the surface of


the soil. The first numeral in the range indicates how
high the water rises above the surface. The second
numeral indicates the depth below the surface.
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
results from either desiccation and shrinkage or
oxidation of organic material, or both, following
drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually
over a period of several years. Table 14 shows the
expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of
drainage, and total subsidence, which usually is a result
of oxidation.
Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
water throughout an extensive area as a result of
lowering the water table.
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion
of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the
soil. Special site examination and design may be
needed if the combination of factors creates a severely
corrosive environment. The steel in installations that
intersect soil boundaries or soil layers is more
susceptible to corrosion than steel in installations that
are entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil
layer.
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed
as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage
class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field
capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation
extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation
extract.

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
Analyses of Selected Soils
Dr. Victor W. Carlisle, professor, University of Florida, Soil
Science Department, Agricultural Experiment Station, prepared this
section.
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical
properties of representative pedons sampled in
Bradford County are presented in tables 15, 16, and 17.
The analyses were conducted and coordinated by the
Soil Characterization Laboratory at the University of
Florida. Detailed descriptions of the analyzed soils are
given in the section "Soil Series and Their Morphology."


70






71


Bradford County, Florida


Laboratory data and profile information for additional
soils in Bradford County, as well as for other counties in
Florida, are on file at the University of Florida, Soil
Science Department.
Typical pedons were sampled from pits at carefully
selected locations. Samples were air dried, crushed,
and sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most
analytical methods used are outlined in a soil survey
investigations report (27).
Particle-size distribution was determined using a
modified pipette method with sodium
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil
cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at
100-centimeters water (1io bar) and 345-centimeters
water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water
percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were
ovendried and ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and
the 15-bar water retention was determined. Organic
carbon was determined by a modification of the
Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils
with normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0.
Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined
by flame emission. Calcium and magnesium were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Extractable acidity was determined by the barium
chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. Cation-
exchange capacity was calculated by adding the values
of extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base
saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation-
exchange capacity expressed in percent. The pH
measurements were made with a glass electrode using
a soil-water ratio of 1:1, a 0.01 molar calcium chloride
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio, and normal
potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio.
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were
extracted from probable spodic horizons with 0.1 molar
sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and
iron was by atomic absorption, and determination of
extracted carbon was by the Walkley-Black wet
combustion method.
Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 2 microns
was ascertained by x-ray diffraction. Peak heights at
18-angstrom, 14-angstrom, 7.2-angstrom, and 4.31-
angstrom positions represent montmorillonite,
interstratified expandable vermiculite or 14-angstrom
intergrades, kaolinite, and quartz, respectively. Peaks


were measured, added, and normalized to give the
percentage of soil minerals identified in the x-ray
diffractograms. These percentage values do not indicate
absolute determined quantities of soil minerals but do
imply a relative distribution of minerals in a particular
mineral suite. Absolute percentages would require
additional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, unit
structure substitution, and matrix problems.
Physical Properties
The results of physical analyses are shown in table
15. Soils sampled in Bradford County for laboratory
analyses are inherently very sandy; however, some of
the pedons have an argillic horizon in the lower part of
the solum. Except for Ocilla sand, all of the soils
sampled have three horizons or more in which the total
content of the sand is more than 90 percent. Hurricane
and Penney soils have more than 90 percent total sand
to a depth of 2 meters or more.
The content of clay in these soils generally is less
than 2 percent. The content of clay in the deeper argillic
horizons in Mascotte and Ocilla soils ranges from 18.4
to 33.4 percent.
The content of silt ranges from 1.5 percent in the
Hurricane soil to 11 percent in the Ocilla soil. All
horizons sampled in the Allanton and Ocilla soils have
more than 6 percent silt.
Fine sand dominates the sand fractions in the
Mascotte and Ocilla soils. Medium sand dominates the
sand fractions in the Allanton, Hurricane, and Penney
soils. All the horizons in the Hurricane and Penney soils
have more than 45 percent sand. The content of very
fine sand is more than 20 percent in all the horizons of
the Ocilla soil. The content of coarse sand is less than
2 percent in the Ocilla soil and ranges from 2.5 to 7.3
percent in the other soils. Very coarse sand was
nondetectable throughout all the horizons in the
Allanton, Hurricane, Ocilla, and Penney soils. It is 0.4
percent or less in all the horizons in the Mascotte soil.
The sandy soils in Bradford County rapidly become very
drought during periods of low precipitation when
rainfall is widely scattered; conversely, they are rapidly
saturated when they receive high amounts of rainfall.
Soils with inherently poor drainage, such as Mascotte
soil, can remain saturated because the ground water is
close to the surface for long periods.
Hydraulic conductivity values exceed 22 centimeters
per hour throughout the entire pedon of Penney sand.
Similarly, values of more than 22 centimeters per hour
are recorded for Allanton and Hurricane soils to a depth
of at least 1 meter. Hydraulic conductivity values in
Mascotte and Ocilla soils rarely exceed 2 centimeters
per hour in the argillic horizon. Low hydraulic
conductivity values in these soils can affect the design






Soil Survey


and performance of septic tank absorption fields.
Hydraulic conductivity values in the Bh horizon of
Allanton loamy sand are also low, but the hydraulic
conductivity values for the Bh horizon in the Hurricane
soil are much higher than those generally recorded for
spodic horizons in most soils in Florida.
In excessively sandy soils, such as Hurricane and
Penney sands, the amount of water available to plants
is very low. Conversely, soils that have a higher amount
of fine textured material, such as Allanton loamy sand,
retain larger amounts of available water.
Chemical Properties
The results of chemical analyses are shown in table
16. The soils in Bradford County have a low content of
extractable bases. Except for Ocilla sand, all of the soils
that were sampled have less than 1 milliequivalent per
hundred grams extractable bases to a depth of 2
meters or more. Ocilla sand has the highest amount of
extractable bases, ranging from 0.60 to 2.89
milliequivalents per hundred grams. The relatively mild,
humid climate of Bradford County results in a rapid
depletion of basic cations (calcium, magnesium,
sodium, and potassium) through leaching.
Calcium was the dominant base in most of the soils;
however, the amount of sodium exceeds the amount of
calcium in Allanton loamy sand. The amount of
potassium exceeds the amount of calcium in the deeper
horizons in Ocilla fine sand. Allanton, Hurricane, and
Penney soils have 0.30 milliequivalent per hundred
grams or less extractable calcium throughout all
pedons. The content of extractable magnesium is less
than 0.10 milliequivalent per hundred grams in the
Allanton, Hurricane, and Penney soils. The combined
amounts of extractable calcium and magnesium exceed
1 milliequivalent per hundred grams in the surface layer
and a few deeper horizons in the Ocilla soil. The
amount of sodium generally is less than 0.1
milliequivalent per hundred grams; however, most
horizons in the Ocilla soil exceed this amount. Except
for Ocilla sand, all of the soils have horizons that have
nondetectable amounts of potassium. In the Ocilla soil
extractable potassium ranges from 0.10 to 0.84
milliequivalent per hundred grams.
Values for cation-exchange capacity, an indication of
plant-nutrient capacity, are more than 10
milliequivalents per hundred grams in the surface layer
in Allanton and Mascotte soils. The highest cation-
exchange capacities range from 12.89 to 18.70
milliequivalents per hundred grams in the deeper Bh
horizon in Allanton and Mascotte soils. Soils that have a
low cation-exchange capacity in the surface layer, such
as Hurricane sand, require only small amounts of lime


or sulfur to alter significantly the base status and soil
reaction. Generally, soils that are inherently low in
fertility are associated with low values for extractable
bases and a low cation-exchange capacity. Fertile soils
are associated with a high extractable base value, a
high base saturation value, and a high cation-exchange
capacity.
The content of organic carbon is less than 1 percent
in all horizons of the Hurricane, Ocilla, and Penney
soils. The Allanton soil has 4.07 percent organic carbon
in the surface layer and 1.37 percent in the Bh2
horizon. The Mascotte soil has 1.80 percent organic
carbon in the surface layer and 1.66 percent in the Bhl
horizon. Since the content of organic carbon in the
surface layer is directly related to the nutrient- and
water-holding capacities of sandy soils, management
practices that conserve the amount of organic carbon
are highly desirable.
Electrical conductivity values are low in all of the
soils, generally ranging from nondetectable amounts to
0.05 millimhos per centimeter. Mascotte sand, however,
has electrical conductivity values ranging from 0.06 to
0.25 millimhos per centimeter. These data indicate that
the content of soluble salts in the soils sampled in
Bradford County are insufficient to hinder the growth of
salt-sensitive plants.
Soil reaction in water generally ranges from pH 4.1 to
5.1 in the soils that were sampled; however, pH 6.0 is
recorded in the Ap horizon in Ocilla fine sand. With few
exceptions, the reaction in calcium chloride and
potassium chloride is within 0.5 pH unit of the water
measurements. The maximum availability of plant
nutrients is generally attained when reaction is between
pH 6.5 and 7.5; in Florida, however, maintaining
reaction above pH 6.0 is not economically feasible for
most kinds of agricultural production.
The ratio of sodium pyrophosphate carbon and
aluminum to clay in the Bh horizon of Allanton,
Hurricane, and Mascotte soils is sufficient to meet the
chemical criteria established for spodic horizons.
Pyrophosphate extractable iron and aluminum are also
sufficient to meet the criteria for spodic horizons in
these soils. Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron
ranges from 0.01 to 0.08 percent in these soils, and
citrate-dithionite extractable iron ranges from 0.06 to
0.14 percent.
The content of citrate-dithionite extractable iron in the
Bt horizon in Mascotte and Ocilla soils and the E&Bt
horizon in Penney sand ranges from 0.06 to 0.98
percent. The content of aluminum extracted by citrate-
dithionite from these horizons ranges from 0.02 to 0.30
percent. The Bt horizon in Mascotte and Ocilla soils has
a much larger content of citrate-dithionite extractable


72





73


Bradford County, Florida


iron than that in the Bh horizon in Allanton, Hurricane,
and Mascotte soils. The content of extractable iron and
aluminum in the soils in Bradford County is not
sufficient to restrict the availability of phosphorus.
Mineralogical Properties
Sand fractions, 0.05 millimeter to 2.0 millimeters in
size, are siliceous. Quartz is overwhelmingly dominant
in all pedons. Varying amounts of heavy minerals are in
all horizons. The greatest concentration is in the very
fine sand fraction. The soils have no weatherable
minerals. The crystalline mineral components of the
clay fraction, which is less than 0.002 millimeter in size,
are reported in table 17 for the major horizons of the
pedons sampled. The clay mineralogical suite was
made up mostly of montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom
intergrade, kaolinite, and quartz.
Montmorillonite occurs only in the Mascotte soil. The
14-angstrom intergrade mineral and kaolinite occur in
all horizons in all of the soils sampled, except for the
Bhl horizon of Allanton loamy sand. Quartz occurs in
all horizons in all of the pedons. The amounts of mica
and gibbsite are insufficient for the assignment of
numerical values.
Montmorillonite in the soils in Bradford County
appears to have been inherited from the sediments in
which the soils formed. It generally is most abundant in
areas where the alkaline elements have not been
leached by percolating rainwater; however,
montmorillonite can occur in moderate amounts
regardless of present drainage or chemical conditions. It
is a minor constituent in the clay minerals in Mascotte
sand.
The 14-angstrom intergrade, a mineral of uncertain
origin, is widespread in the soils in Florida. It tends to
be more prevalent under moderately acidic, relatively
well drained conditions, although it occurs in a large
variety of soil environments. This soil mineral is a major
constituent of sand grain coatings in Hurricane, Ocilla,
and Penney soils in Bradford County; however, the
amount of coatings in these soils is not sufficient to
meet the taxonomic criteria established for the
recognition of coated soil classes.
Kaolinite was most likely inherited from the parent
material. It also could have been formed as a
weathering product of other minerals. Kaolinite is
relatively stable in the acidic environment of the soils
throughout most of Bradford County. The weathering
environment is less severe with increased soil depth;
therefore, the amount of kaolinite frequently increases
in the lower part of the solum. Clay-sized quartz has
mainly resulted from decrements of the silt fraction.
Clay mineralogy can have a significant impact on soil
properties, particularly in soils that have a higher


content of clay. The soils that have montmorillonite
have a higher capacity for plant nutrient retention than
the soils dominated by kaolinite, 14-angstrom intergrade
minerals, and quartz. Since montmorillonite is a very
minor constituent that occurs in only a few soils, the
total content of clay influences use and management of
the soils in Bradford County more frequently than the
clay mineralogy.

Engineering Index Test Data
Table 18 shows laboratory test data for several
pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the
county. The pedons are representative of the series
described in the section "Soil Series and Their
Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the
Florida Department of Transportation, Soils Laboratory,
Bureau of Materials and Research.
The testing methods generally are those of the
American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials (AASHTO) or the American
Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
Table 18 contains engineering test data about some
of the major soils in Bradford County. These tests help
to evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The
classifications given are based on data obtained by
mechanical analysis and by tests to determine liquid
limits and plastic limits.
The mechanical analyses were made by the
combined sieve and hydrometer method. When this
method is applied, the various grain-size fractions are
calculated on the basis of all the material in the soil
sample, including that coarser than 2 millimeters in
diameter. The results of this method should not be used
in naming textural classes of soils.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
water on the strength and consistence of the soil
material. As the moisture content of a dry, clayey soil is
increased, the material changes from a dry state to a
semisolid state and then to a plastic state. If the
moisture content is further increased, the material
changes from plastic to liquid. The plastic limit is the
moisture content at which the soil material changes
from a semisolid state to a plastic state, and the liquid
limit is the moisture content at which the soil material
changes from a plastic state to a liquid state. The
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of
moisture content within which soil material is plastic.
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in table 18
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples.
Compaction, or moisture-density, data are important
in earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a
successively higher moisture content, assuming that the






74


compactive effort remains constant, the density of the
compacted material increases until the optimum
moisture content is reached. After that, density
decreases with an increase in moisture content. The


highest dry density obtained in the compactive test is
termed maximum dry density. As a rule, maximum
strength of earthwork is obtained if the soil is
compacted to the maximum dry density.






75


Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (25).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or from laboratory measurements. Table 19 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Psamments (Psamm,
meaning sandy horizons, plus ent, from Entisol,
meaning minimal horizonation).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Quartzipsamments (Quartz,
meaning dominated by quartz, plus psamments, the
sandy suborder of the Entisols).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Quartzipsamments.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup


on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is thermic, coated Typic
Quartzipsamments.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. The texture of the surface layer or of the
underlying material can differ within a series.


Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The typical pedon for some of the soils is
located in Union County. The detailed description of
each soil horizon follows standards in the Soil Survey
Manual (24). Many of the technical terms used in the
descriptions are defined in Soil Taxonomy (25). Unless
otherwise stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist
soil. Following the pedon description is the range of
important characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Albany Series
The Albany series consists of somewhat poorly
drained soils that formed in deposits of sandy and
loamy marine sediments. These nearly level to gently






75


Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (25).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or from laboratory measurements. Table 19 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Psamments (Psamm,
meaning sandy horizons, plus ent, from Entisol,
meaning minimal horizonation).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Quartzipsamments (Quartz,
meaning dominated by quartz, plus psamments, the
sandy suborder of the Entisols).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Quartzipsamments.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup


on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is thermic, coated Typic
Quartzipsamments.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. The texture of the surface layer or of the
underlying material can differ within a series.


Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The typical pedon for some of the soils is
located in Union County. The detailed description of
each soil horizon follows standards in the Soil Survey
Manual (24). Many of the technical terms used in the
descriptions are defined in Soil Taxonomy (25). Unless
otherwise stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist
soil. Following the pedon description is the range of
important characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Albany Series
The Albany series consists of somewhat poorly
drained soils that formed in deposits of sandy and
loamy marine sediments. These nearly level to gently






75


Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (25).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or from laboratory measurements. Table 19 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Psamments (Psamm,
meaning sandy horizons, plus ent, from Entisol,
meaning minimal horizonation).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Quartzipsamments (Quartz,
meaning dominated by quartz, plus psamments, the
sandy suborder of the Entisols).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Quartzipsamments.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup


on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is thermic, coated Typic
Quartzipsamments.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. The texture of the surface layer or of the
underlying material can differ within a series.


Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The typical pedon for some of the soils is
located in Union County. The detailed description of
each soil horizon follows standards in the Soil Survey
Manual (24). Many of the technical terms used in the
descriptions are defined in Soil Taxonomy (25). Unless
otherwise stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist
soil. Following the pedon description is the range of
important characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Albany Series
The Albany series consists of somewhat poorly
drained soils that formed in deposits of sandy and
loamy marine sediments. These nearly level to gently






Soil Survey


sloping soils are on low uplands and in slightly elevated
areas in the flatwoods. They are loamy, siliceous,
thermic Grossarenic Paleudults.
Albany soils are associated with the Blanton, Chipley,
Hurricane, Ocilla, Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils.
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Ocilla and
Pelham soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to
40 inches. Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils are
poorly drained. Also, Sapelo soils have a spodic horizon
within a depth of 30 inches, and Hurricane soils have
one at a depth of about 51 inches or more. Chipley and
Hurricane soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Typical pedon of Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, 1,000 feet north of County Road 239A, 0.95
mile east of County Road 241, SE/4NE/4 sec. 15, T. 6
S., R. 18 E., in Union County:

Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine
and medium roots; medium acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
E1-8 to 22 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E2-22 to 42 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
E3-42 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; medium acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Bt-50 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
sandy loam; common coarse prominent light gray
(10YR 7/2) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles;
weak coarse subangular blocky structure; very
friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg-60 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay
loam; common coarse prominent strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; clay films on faces of peds; very strongly
acid.

The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction
ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid in the A and
E horizons and from very strongly acid to medium acid
in the Bt and Btg horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 6 to 10 inches in
thickness.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to
8, and chroma of 2 to 8. It is mottled in shades of


yellow, brown, gray, or red in some parts. Mottles or
matrix colors with chroma of 2 or less are within 30
inches of the surface. This horizon is sand or fine sand.
The combined thickness of the A and E horizons ranges
from 41 to 70 inches.
Some pedons have a BE horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma of 4 to 6 or hue of
2.5Y, value of 7, and chroma of 4. It is mottled in
shades of gray, yellow, or brown. The texture is loamy
sand or loamy fine sand. This horizon ranges from 0 to
10 inches in thickness.
The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 to 7,
and chroma of 6 to 8 or hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8,
and chroma of 3 to 8. It is mottled in shades of brown,
yellow, gray, or red. The texture is sandy loam, fine
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. This horizon ranges
from 7 to 10 inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5
to 8, and chroma of 2 or less, or it is gleyed with hue of
5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1. It is mottled in
shades of brown, yellow, or gray. The textures are the
same as those of the Bt horizon.

Allanton Series
The Allanton series consists of poorly drained and
very poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of
sandy marine sediments. These nearly level soils are in
the lower areas in the flatwoods and in poorly defined
drainageways. They are sandy, siliceous, thermic
Grossarenic Haplaquods.
Allanton soils are associated with the Hurricane,
Leon, Plummer, Pottsburg, Sapelo, Starke, and
Surrency soils. Hurricane soils are somewhat poorly
drained. Leon and Sapelo soils have a spodic horizon
within a depth of 30 inches. Plummer, Sapelo, and
Starke soils have an argillic horizon below a depth of 40
inches. Hurricane, Plummer, and Pottsburg soils do not
have an umbric epipedon. Starke and Surrency soils
are very poorly drained and do not have a spodic
horizon. Also, Surrency soils have an argillic horizon at
a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Allanton loamy sand, 0.2 mile west
of the Clay County line, 0.7 mile south of County Road
225, NE/4NE/4 sec. 1, T. 6 S., R. 22 E.

A1-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots
throughout; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A2-5 to 22 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy
sand; single grained; loose; common fine roots
throughout; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E1-22 to 36 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) and brown
(10YR 5/3) sand; few fine distinct brownish yellow


76






Bradford County, Florida


(10YR 6/6) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine
roots throughout; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
E2-36 to 45 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
few medium prominent yellowish red (5YR 4/8)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots
throughout; common patchy distinct very dark gray
(10YR 3/1) stains in root channels and pores; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E3-45 to 59 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; abrupt
wavy boundary.
Bhl-59 to 69 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few
very coarse irregular ironstone nodules; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bh2-69 to 80 inches; black (N 2/0) sand; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; very friable;
very strongly acid.

The solum is more than 80 inches thick. Reaction is
very strongly acid or strongly acid throughout the
profile. Depth to the spodic horizon is 59 to 80 inches.
The umbric epipedon is 12 to 23 inches thick.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 2 or less. The texture is dominantly sand,
fine sand, or loamy sand. In depressional areas,
however, it is mucky sand, mucky fine sand, or mucky
loamy sand.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
chroma of 2 or less. The texture is sand or fine sand.
This horizon ranges from 18 to 41 inches in thickness.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR or
is neutral in hue. It has value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 2
or less. The texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy sand.
Most sand grains are well coated with organic matter.

Blanton Series
The Blanton series consists of moderately well
drained soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine
deposits. These nearly level to strongly sloping soils are
in the uplands. They are loamy, siliceous, thermic
Grossarenic Paleudults.
Blanton soils are geographically associated with the
Albany, Foxworth, Ocilla, Penney, and Troup soils.
Albany and Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Ocilla soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to
40 inches. Foxworth soils are sandy throughout. Penney
soils are excessively drained and have thin lamellae at
a depth of 50 to 80 inches. Troup soils are well drained.
Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, about 0.4 mile east of County Road 241 and 0.8


mile south of County Road 238, NE14NW/4 sec. 6, T. 6
S., R. 18 E., in Union County:

Ap-0 to 9 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; common
fine roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
E1-9 to 36 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
E2-36 to 42 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; about
5 percent quartz gravel and ironstone nodules; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
BE-42 to 48 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
loamy fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine
roots; about 5 percent quartz gravel and ironstone
nodules; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Bt-48 to 61 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sandy clay loam; common coarse distinct strong
brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular
blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly
plastic; few fine roots; about 5 percent quartz gravel
and ironstone nodules; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
Btg1-61 to 74 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay;
common medium and coarse prominent brownish
yellow (10YR 6/8) and few medium prominent red
(2.5YR 4/8) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
few fine roots; common discontinuous clay films on
faces of peds; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg2-74 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sandy clay;
few medium prominent red (2.5YR 4/8) and
common fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; extremely
acid.

The solum is 80 or more inches thick. Unless lime
has been applied, reaction ranges from very strongly
acid to medium acid in the A and E horizons. It ranges
from extremely acid to strongly acid in the Bt and Btg
horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 6, and
chroma of 1 to 3. It is 6 to 9 inches thick.
The E horizon generally has hue of 10YR, value of 5
to 8, and chroma of 1 to 8. The lower part also has hue
of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6 to 8 and is
mottled in shades of brown, yellow, or red. This horizon
is fine sand, sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. In
some pedons it has 5 percent or less ironstone nodules
or quartz gravel. The combined thickness of the A and
E horizons ranges from 42 to 72 inches.


77






Soil Survey


The BE horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value
of 5 to 7, and chroma of 4 to 6. The texture is loamy
sand or loamy fine sand. This horizon is less than 10
inches thick.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 3 to 8 or hue of 10YR, value of 7, and
chroma of 3 or 4. It is mottled in shades of brown,
yellow, or red. The texture is loamy fine sand, sandy
loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
The Btg horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 5Y, value of
5, and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8,
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is mottled in shades of brown,
yellow, red, or gray. The texture is dominantly sandy
loam or sandy clay loam. In some pedons, however, it
ranges to sandy clay below a depth of 60 inches or
more.

Chipley Series
The Chipley series consists of somewhat poorly
drained soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy
marine sediments. These nearly level to gently sloping
soils are on low knolls and ridges in the flatwoods and
on toe slopes in the uplands. They are thermic, coated
Aquic Quartzipsamments.
Chipley soils are associated with the Albany, Blanton,
Foxworth, Hurricane, Lakeland, Pelham, Penney,
Plummer, and Sapelo soils. Pelham soils have an
argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches, and
Albany, Blanton, Plummer, and Sapelo soils have one
at a depth of more than 40 inches. Sapelo soils have a
spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches, and
Hurricane soils have one at a depth of about 51 inches
or more. Lakeland and Penney soils are excessively
drained, Blanton and Foxworth soils are moderately well
drained, and Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils are
poorly drained.
Typical pedon of Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, about 1,400 feet north of the Santa Fe River, 80
feet west of Southwest 55th Street, SWINE/4 sec. 18,
T. 7 S., R. 20 E.

Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
C1-5 to 18 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
C2-18 to 38 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
sand; common fine prominent yellowish red (5YR
5/8) and common medium faint yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; medium
acid; clear wavy boundary.
C3-38 to 53 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; few


fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) and common fine
distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; single
grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
C4-53 to 72 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
common fine distinct reddish brown (5YR 5/4) and
yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; single grained; loose;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C5-72 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; few
fine distinct yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid.

Unless lime has been applied, reaction ranges from
extremely acid to medium acid in the A horizon. It
ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid in the C
horizon.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The thickness of this horizon ranges
from 4 to 7 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR. It has value of 7
and chroma of 1 to 6, value of 8 and chroma of 1 to 4,
value of 5 or 6 and chroma of 2 to 6, or value of 4 and
chroma of 3. Few or common mottles in shades of
yellow or brown are at a depth of more than 12 inches
in some pedons. Mottles in shades of gray or reddish
and yellowish, segregated iron mottles are at a depth of
20 to 40 inches. This horizon is sand or fine sand.

Croatan Series

The Croatan series consists of very poorly drained
soils that formed in moderately thick deposits of organic
material underlain by loamy marine sediments. These
nearly level soils are in depressions and on flood plains.
They are loamy, siliceous, dysic, thermic Terric
Medisaprists.
Croatan soils are geographically associated with the
Dorovan, Pamlico, and Surrency soils. Dorovan soils
are organic to a depth of 51 inches or more. Pamlico
soils are organic to a depth of 16 to 50 inches and are
underlain by sandy material. The mineral Surrency soils
have an umbric epipedon. Also, they have an argillic
horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Croatan muck, in an area of
Pamlico and Croatan mucks; about 1 mile north of
County Road 125 and 2.3 miles west of U.S. Highway
301, SE1/4NE/4 sec. 9, T. 5 S., R. 22 E.

Oa-0 to 23 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 20
percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed;
massive; very friable; extremely acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C-23 to 30 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
mucky sandy loam; massive; very friable; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.






Soil Survey


The BE horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value
of 5 to 7, and chroma of 4 to 6. The texture is loamy
sand or loamy fine sand. This horizon is less than 10
inches thick.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 3 to 8 or hue of 10YR, value of 7, and
chroma of 3 or 4. It is mottled in shades of brown,
yellow, or red. The texture is loamy fine sand, sandy
loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
The Btg horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 5Y, value of
5, and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8,
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is mottled in shades of brown,
yellow, red, or gray. The texture is dominantly sandy
loam or sandy clay loam. In some pedons, however, it
ranges to sandy clay below a depth of 60 inches or
more.

Chipley Series
The Chipley series consists of somewhat poorly
drained soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy
marine sediments. These nearly level to gently sloping
soils are on low knolls and ridges in the flatwoods and
on toe slopes in the uplands. They are thermic, coated
Aquic Quartzipsamments.
Chipley soils are associated with the Albany, Blanton,
Foxworth, Hurricane, Lakeland, Pelham, Penney,
Plummer, and Sapelo soils. Pelham soils have an
argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches, and
Albany, Blanton, Plummer, and Sapelo soils have one
at a depth of more than 40 inches. Sapelo soils have a
spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches, and
Hurricane soils have one at a depth of about 51 inches
or more. Lakeland and Penney soils are excessively
drained, Blanton and Foxworth soils are moderately well
drained, and Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils are
poorly drained.
Typical pedon of Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, about 1,400 feet north of the Santa Fe River, 80
feet west of Southwest 55th Street, SWINE/4 sec. 18,
T. 7 S., R. 20 E.

Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
C1-5 to 18 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
C2-18 to 38 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
sand; common fine prominent yellowish red (5YR
5/8) and common medium faint yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; medium
acid; clear wavy boundary.
C3-38 to 53 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; few


fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) and common fine
distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; single
grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
C4-53 to 72 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
common fine distinct reddish brown (5YR 5/4) and
yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; single grained; loose;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C5-72 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; few
fine distinct yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid.

Unless lime has been applied, reaction ranges from
extremely acid to medium acid in the A horizon. It
ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid in the C
horizon.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The thickness of this horizon ranges
from 4 to 7 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR. It has value of 7
and chroma of 1 to 6, value of 8 and chroma of 1 to 4,
value of 5 or 6 and chroma of 2 to 6, or value of 4 and
chroma of 3. Few or common mottles in shades of
yellow or brown are at a depth of more than 12 inches
in some pedons. Mottles in shades of gray or reddish
and yellowish, segregated iron mottles are at a depth of
20 to 40 inches. This horizon is sand or fine sand.

Croatan Series

The Croatan series consists of very poorly drained
soils that formed in moderately thick deposits of organic
material underlain by loamy marine sediments. These
nearly level soils are in depressions and on flood plains.
They are loamy, siliceous, dysic, thermic Terric
Medisaprists.
Croatan soils are geographically associated with the
Dorovan, Pamlico, and Surrency soils. Dorovan soils
are organic to a depth of 51 inches or more. Pamlico
soils are organic to a depth of 16 to 50 inches and are
underlain by sandy material. The mineral Surrency soils
have an umbric epipedon. Also, they have an argillic
horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Croatan muck, in an area of
Pamlico and Croatan mucks; about 1 mile north of
County Road 125 and 2.3 miles west of U.S. Highway
301, SE1/4NE/4 sec. 9, T. 5 S., R. 22 E.

Oa-0 to 23 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 20
percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed;
massive; very friable; extremely acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C-23 to 30 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
mucky sandy loam; massive; very friable; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.






Bradford County, Florida


Cgl-30 to 65 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
loam; massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg2-65 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
loam; massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
strongly acid.

The thickness of the organic material commonly
ranges from 16 to 35 inches, but it can be as much as
50 inches. Reaction is extremely acid in the organic
material and ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid
in the mineral layers.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of
2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral in hue and
has value of 2. The content of mineral material is less
than 15 percent. The content of fiber is less than 10
percent after rubbing.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
chroma of 1 to 3 or hue of 5Y, value of 4, and chroma
of 1. The texture is mucky sandy loam, sandy loam, fine
sandy loam, or loam. This horizon ranges from 3 to 10
inches in thickness.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 3 to
5, and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5,
and chroma of 3. This horizon is sandy loam, sandy
clay loam, or fine sandy loam.

Dorovan Series
The Dorovan series consists of very poorly drained
soils that formed in highly decomposed organic material
more than 51 inches thick. This organic material is
decomposed leaves, twigs, roots, and plants. These
nearly level soils are in depressions and on flood plains.
They are dysic, thermic Typic Medisaprists.
Dorovan soils are associated with the Croatan,
Mascotte, Pamlico, Pelham, Plummer, Sapelo, Starke,
and Surrency soils. Croatan and Pamlico soils are
organic to a depth of less than 51 inches and are
underlain by loamy and sandy material, respectively.
The mineral Mascotte, Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo
soils are poorly drained. Mascotte and Pelham soils
have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches,
and Plummer and Sapelo soils have one at a depth of
40 to 80 inches. Mascotte and Sapelo soils have a
spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches. Starke and
Surrency soils have an umbric epipedon and are very
poorly drained. Also, Starke soils have an argillic
horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches, and Surrency
soils have one at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Dorovan muck, frequently flooded,
0.87 mile north of Little Santa Fe Lake, 0.53 mile
northwest of County Road 21B, SW/4SE/4 sec. 15, T. 8
S., R. 22 E.


Oal-0 to 25 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) muck;
about 30 percent fiber unrubbed, 5 percent rubbed;
fine to coarse roots rubbed and partly decomposed
leaves, twigs, and wood fragments; massive;
nonsticky; extremely acid; diffuse wavy boundary.
Oa2-25 to 40 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
muck; about 20 percent fiber unrubbed, 5 percent
rubbed; fine and medium, partly decomposed roots
and wood fragments; massive; nonsticky; extremely
acid; diffuse wavy boundary.
Oa3-40 to 80 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
muck; about 5 percent fiber unrubbed, 2 percent
rubbed; decomposed parts of plants; massive;
nonsticky; extremely acid.

The Oa horizon ranges from 51 to more than 80
inches in thickness. It has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The content of
fiber ranges from 10 to 40 percent before rubbing and
from less than 5 percent to 15 percent after rubbing.
This horizon has few or common partly decomposed
leaves, roots, and twigs and the remains of hydrophytic
plants. A few logs and large wood fragments are in the
lower part.
Some pedons have a Cg horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The
texture is sand to sandy loam.

Elloree Series
The Elloree series consists of poorly drained soils
that formed in sandy and loamy sediments. These
nearly level soils are on flood plains. They are loamy,
siliceous, thermic Arenic Ochraqualfs.
Elloree soils are associated with the Grifton,
Meadowbrook, Ousley, Pelham, Plummer, Sapelo, and
Surrency soils and Fluvaquents. Grifton soils have an
argillic horizon within a depth of 20 inches, and
Meadowbrook, Plummer, and Sapelo soils have one at
a depth of 40 to 80 inches. Also, Sapelo soils have a
spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches. Fluvaquents
have stratified fluvial material of varying textures
throughout. Ousley soils are somewhat poorly drained
and are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. Pelham
and Surrency soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of
20 to 40 inches. Also, Surrency soils have an umbric
epipedon. Pelham, Plummer, and Surrency soils have a
base saturation of less than 35 percent.
Typical pedon of Elloree fine sand, in an area of
Grifton and Elloree soils, frequently flooded; about 0.5
mile northeast of County Road 125, about 900 feet
south of the New River, NE/4NW/4SE1/4 sec. 36, T. 5
S., R. 11 E.


79






Bradford County, Florida


Cgl-30 to 65 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
loam; massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg2-65 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
loam; massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
strongly acid.

The thickness of the organic material commonly
ranges from 16 to 35 inches, but it can be as much as
50 inches. Reaction is extremely acid in the organic
material and ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid
in the mineral layers.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of
2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral in hue and
has value of 2. The content of mineral material is less
than 15 percent. The content of fiber is less than 10
percent after rubbing.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
chroma of 1 to 3 or hue of 5Y, value of 4, and chroma
of 1. The texture is mucky sandy loam, sandy loam, fine
sandy loam, or loam. This horizon ranges from 3 to 10
inches in thickness.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 3 to
5, and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5,
and chroma of 3. This horizon is sandy loam, sandy
clay loam, or fine sandy loam.

Dorovan Series
The Dorovan series consists of very poorly drained
soils that formed in highly decomposed organic material
more than 51 inches thick. This organic material is
decomposed leaves, twigs, roots, and plants. These
nearly level soils are in depressions and on flood plains.
They are dysic, thermic Typic Medisaprists.
Dorovan soils are associated with the Croatan,
Mascotte, Pamlico, Pelham, Plummer, Sapelo, Starke,
and Surrency soils. Croatan and Pamlico soils are
organic to a depth of less than 51 inches and are
underlain by loamy and sandy material, respectively.
The mineral Mascotte, Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo
soils are poorly drained. Mascotte and Pelham soils
have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches,
and Plummer and Sapelo soils have one at a depth of
40 to 80 inches. Mascotte and Sapelo soils have a
spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches. Starke and
Surrency soils have an umbric epipedon and are very
poorly drained. Also, Starke soils have an argillic
horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches, and Surrency
soils have one at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Dorovan muck, frequently flooded,
0.87 mile north of Little Santa Fe Lake, 0.53 mile
northwest of County Road 21B, SW/4SE/4 sec. 15, T. 8
S., R. 22 E.


Oal-0 to 25 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) muck;
about 30 percent fiber unrubbed, 5 percent rubbed;
fine to coarse roots rubbed and partly decomposed
leaves, twigs, and wood fragments; massive;
nonsticky; extremely acid; diffuse wavy boundary.
Oa2-25 to 40 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
muck; about 20 percent fiber unrubbed, 5 percent
rubbed; fine and medium, partly decomposed roots
and wood fragments; massive; nonsticky; extremely
acid; diffuse wavy boundary.
Oa3-40 to 80 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
muck; about 5 percent fiber unrubbed, 2 percent
rubbed; decomposed parts of plants; massive;
nonsticky; extremely acid.

The Oa horizon ranges from 51 to more than 80
inches in thickness. It has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The content of
fiber ranges from 10 to 40 percent before rubbing and
from less than 5 percent to 15 percent after rubbing.
This horizon has few or common partly decomposed
leaves, roots, and twigs and the remains of hydrophytic
plants. A few logs and large wood fragments are in the
lower part.
Some pedons have a Cg horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The
texture is sand to sandy loam.

Elloree Series
The Elloree series consists of poorly drained soils
that formed in sandy and loamy sediments. These
nearly level soils are on flood plains. They are loamy,
siliceous, thermic Arenic Ochraqualfs.
Elloree soils are associated with the Grifton,
Meadowbrook, Ousley, Pelham, Plummer, Sapelo, and
Surrency soils and Fluvaquents. Grifton soils have an
argillic horizon within a depth of 20 inches, and
Meadowbrook, Plummer, and Sapelo soils have one at
a depth of 40 to 80 inches. Also, Sapelo soils have a
spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches. Fluvaquents
have stratified fluvial material of varying textures
throughout. Ousley soils are somewhat poorly drained
and are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. Pelham
and Surrency soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of
20 to 40 inches. Also, Surrency soils have an umbric
epipedon. Pelham, Plummer, and Surrency soils have a
base saturation of less than 35 percent.
Typical pedon of Elloree fine sand, in an area of
Grifton and Elloree soils, frequently flooded; about 0.5
mile northeast of County Road 125, about 900 feet
south of the New River, NE/4NW/4SE1/4 sec. 36, T. 5
S., R. 11 E.


79






Soil Survey


Ap-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; medium
acid; clear wavy boundary.
Eg1-5 to 15 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; few medium uncoated sand grains; single
grained; loose; medium acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Eg2-15 to 33 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
common uncoated sand grains; single grained;
loose; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg1-33 to 43 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) sandy loam;
few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-43 to 55 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
boundary.
Btg3-55 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
clay loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; mildly alkaline.

The solum is more than 50 inches thick. Reaction
ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid in the A
horizon, from strongly acid to neutral in the E horizon,
and from strongly acid to moderately alkaline in the Btg
and Cg horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 2 or less. It ranges from 2 to 7 inches in
thickness.
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 2 or less. The texture is sand, fine sand,
or loamy sand. This horizon ranges from 15 to 30
inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR to 5Y,
value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. It is mottled in
shades of gray, yellow, or brown. The texture is sandy
loam or sandy clay loam.
Some pedons have a Cg horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or
less. The texture is sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, or
sandy clay loam.

Foxworth Series
The Foxworth series consists of moderately well
drained soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy
marine or eolian sediments. These nearly level to gently
sloping soils are in the uplands. They are thermic,
coated Typic Quartzipsamments.
Foxworth soils are associated with the Albany,
Blanton, Chipley, Lakeland, Ocilla, Penney, Plummer,


and Troup soils. Albany, Blanton, Plummer, and Troup
soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to 80
inches, and Ocilla soils have one at a depth of 20 to 40
inches. Albany, Chipley, and Ocilla soils are somewhat
poorly drained, Plummer soils are poorly drained, Troup
soils are well drained, and Lakeland and Penney soils
are excessively drained. Also, Penney soils have thin
lamellae at a depth of 50 to 80 inches.
Typical pedon of Foxworth fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, about 50 feet west of Willy Kelly Road and 0.18
mile south of stream NE/4SW/4 sec. 29, T. 6 S., R. 20
E.
Ap-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; medium
acid; clear wavy boundary.
C1-8 to 28 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sand;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C2-28 to 52 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C3-52 to 75 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
few fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles
and few pale brown splotches; single grained;
loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C4-75 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand;
few medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8)
mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid.
The sandy material is 80 or more inches thick.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid
throughout the profile. The texture is sand or fine sand
in the C horizon. The content of silt combined with the
content of clay is 5 to 10 percent in the 10- to 40-inch
control section.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 to 3. It is 4 to 8 inches thick.
The C1 and C2 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of
5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 8. Few fine mottles or
pockets of uncoated sand grains are at a depth of 36 to
42 inches in some pedons. They are not indicative of
wetness.
The C3 and C4 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of
5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 6. Few or common, fine or
medium mottles in shades of yellow, brown, or red are
at a depth of 45 to about 60 inches. Few to many
uncoated sand grains are in these horizons. In pedons
with thin C1 and C2 horizons, the C3 horizon can have
the same colors as those horizons.

Grifton Series
The Grifton series consists of poorly drained soils
that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine


80






Soil Survey


Ap-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; medium
acid; clear wavy boundary.
Eg1-5 to 15 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; few medium uncoated sand grains; single
grained; loose; medium acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Eg2-15 to 33 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
common uncoated sand grains; single grained;
loose; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg1-33 to 43 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) sandy loam;
few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-43 to 55 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
boundary.
Btg3-55 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
clay loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; mildly alkaline.

The solum is more than 50 inches thick. Reaction
ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid in the A
horizon, from strongly acid to neutral in the E horizon,
and from strongly acid to moderately alkaline in the Btg
and Cg horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 2 or less. It ranges from 2 to 7 inches in
thickness.
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 2 or less. The texture is sand, fine sand,
or loamy sand. This horizon ranges from 15 to 30
inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR to 5Y,
value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. It is mottled in
shades of gray, yellow, or brown. The texture is sandy
loam or sandy clay loam.
Some pedons have a Cg horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or
less. The texture is sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, or
sandy clay loam.

Foxworth Series
The Foxworth series consists of moderately well
drained soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy
marine or eolian sediments. These nearly level to gently
sloping soils are in the uplands. They are thermic,
coated Typic Quartzipsamments.
Foxworth soils are associated with the Albany,
Blanton, Chipley, Lakeland, Ocilla, Penney, Plummer,


and Troup soils. Albany, Blanton, Plummer, and Troup
soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to 80
inches, and Ocilla soils have one at a depth of 20 to 40
inches. Albany, Chipley, and Ocilla soils are somewhat
poorly drained, Plummer soils are poorly drained, Troup
soils are well drained, and Lakeland and Penney soils
are excessively drained. Also, Penney soils have thin
lamellae at a depth of 50 to 80 inches.
Typical pedon of Foxworth fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, about 50 feet west of Willy Kelly Road and 0.18
mile south of stream NE/4SW/4 sec. 29, T. 6 S., R. 20
E.
Ap-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; medium
acid; clear wavy boundary.
C1-8 to 28 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sand;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C2-28 to 52 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C3-52 to 75 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
few fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles
and few pale brown splotches; single grained;
loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C4-75 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand;
few medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8)
mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid.
The sandy material is 80 or more inches thick.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid
throughout the profile. The texture is sand or fine sand
in the C horizon. The content of silt combined with the
content of clay is 5 to 10 percent in the 10- to 40-inch
control section.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 to 3. It is 4 to 8 inches thick.
The C1 and C2 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of
5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 8. Few fine mottles or
pockets of uncoated sand grains are at a depth of 36 to
42 inches in some pedons. They are not indicative of
wetness.
The C3 and C4 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of
5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 6. Few or common, fine or
medium mottles in shades of yellow, brown, or red are
at a depth of 45 to about 60 inches. Few to many
uncoated sand grains are in these horizons. In pedons
with thin C1 and C2 horizons, the C3 horizon can have
the same colors as those horizons.

Grifton Series
The Grifton series consists of poorly drained soils
that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine


80






81


Bradford County, Florida


and alluvial sediments. These nearly level soils are on
flood plains and in drainageways. They are fine-loamy,
siliceous, thermic Typic Ochraqualfs.
Grifton soils are associated with the Elloree,
Meadowbrook, Ousley, Pelham, Plummer, and Surrency
soils and Fluvaquents. Fluvaquents have stratified
alluvial material of varying textures throughout. Pelham
and Plummer soils are not subject to frequent flooding.
Elloree and Pelham soils have an argillic horizon at a
depth of 20 to 40 inches, and Meadowbrook and
Plummer soils have one at a depth of 40 to 80 inches.
Surrency soils have an umbric epipedon. They have an
argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Pelham,
Plummer, and Surrency soils have a base saturation of
less than 35 percent. Ousley soils are somewhat poorly
drained and are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typical pedon of Grifton loamy fine sand, in an area
of Grifton and Elloree soils, frequently flooded; 150 feet
south of the New River and 2 miles west of County
Road 16, SE/4NW/4 sec. 21, T. 5 S., R. 21 E.

A-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Eg-4 to 10 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loamy fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Btgi-10 to 18 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
loam; common medium yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
Btg2-18 to 24 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
loam; many medium prominent brownish yellow
(10YR 6/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
about 5 percent, by volume, pockets and thin
discontinuous bands of soft white calcium carbonate
accumulations; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg3-24 to 52 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
about 5 percent, by volume, pockets and thin
discontinuous bands of soft white calcium carbonate
accumulations; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
boundary.
BCg-52 to 65 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam;
common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
5/6) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
slightly sticky and nonplastic; neutral.

The thickness of the solum is 60 inches or more.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid


in the A and E horizons, from very strongly acid to
moderately alkaline in the Btg horizon, and from
medium acid to moderately alkaline in the BCg and Cg
horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 2 or less. It ranges from 4 to 8 inches in
thickness.
The Eg horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value
of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is loamy
sand, loamy fine sand, or sandy loam. The combined
thickness of the A and E horizons ranges from 6 to 17
inches.
Some pedons have a BEg horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR, value of 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The
texture is loamy sand or sandy loam. This horizon
ranges from 0 to 7 inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to
7, and chroma of 2 or less. It is mottled in shades of
yellow or brown. The texture is sandy loam or sandy
clay loam. This horizon ranges from 18 to 45 inches in
thickness.
Some pedons have a Cg or 2Cg horizon. This
horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 4 to 7, and
chroma of 2 or less. The texture is sand, fine sand, or
loamy fine sand.

Hurricane Series
The Hurricane series consists of somewhat poorly
drained soils that formed in sandy marine sediments.
These nearly level to gently sloping soils are in slightly
elevated areas in the flatwoods. They are sandy,
siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Entic Haplohumods.
Hurricane soils are associated with the Albany,
Allanton, Blanton, Chipley, Foxworth, Leon, Plummer,
Pottsburg, and Sapelo soils. Albany, Blanton, Chipley,
Foxworth, and Plummer soils do not have a spodic
horizon. Also, Albany, Blanton, and Plummer soils have
an argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches.
Allanton, Leon, Pottsburg, Plummer, and Sapelo soils
are poorly drained. Allanton soils have an umbric
epipedon, and Sapelo soils have a spodic horizon within
a depth of 30 inches and an argillic horizon at a depth
of 40 to 80 inches.
Typical pedon of Hurricane sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, 0.1 mile west of the Clay County line, 0.8 mile
north of County Road 225, SE/4SE/4 sec. 25, T. 5 S.,
R. 22 E.

A-0 to 2 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single
grained; loose; many fine and medium roots
throughout; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E1-2 to 9 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;






Soil Survey


single grained; loose; common fine and medium
roots throughout; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
E2-9 to 29 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; few fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)
mottles; single grained; loose; common fine and
medium roots throughout; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
E3-29 to 41 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 7/2)
sand; few fine distinct yellow (10YR 7/8) mottles;
single grained; loose; common fine roots; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E4-41 to 51 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; few fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E5-51 to 57 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; common medium distinct strong brown
(7.5YR 5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine
roots throughout; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
Bhl-57 to 71 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
sand; common fine distinct red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles;
weak fine granular structure; loose; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bh2-71 to 80 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; very strongly acid.

The solum is more than 80 inches thick. Depth to the
spodic horizon is 55 to 70 inches. Unless lime has been
applied, reaction ranges from extremely acid to medium
acid throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The A horizon ranges from 2 to 9
inches in thickness.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 to 4. It is mottled in shades of yellow or
brown at a depth of more than 20 inches. The texture is
sand or fine sand. The combined thickness of the A and
E horizons ranges from 55 to 70 inches.
The Bh horizon has hue of 7.5YR, 10YR, or 5YR,
value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 3 or less. The texture is
sand or fine sand. The sand grains are well coated with
organic matter.

Lakeland Series
The Lakeland series consists of excessively drained
soils that formed in thick beds of eolian or marine sand.
These nearly level to gently sloping soils are on broad,
slightly elevated ridges in the uplands. They are
thermic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments.
Lakeland soils are associated with the Albany,


Blanton, Chipley, Foxworth, and Troup soils. Troup soils
are well drained, Blanton and Foxworth soils are
moderately well drained, and Chipley and Albany soils
are somewhat poorly drained. Also, Albany, Blanton,
and Troup soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 40
to 80 inches.
Typical pedon of Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, 0.4 mile west of County Road 241A, about 0.6
mile south of State Road 238, NW%4NE/4 sec. 1, T. 6
S., R. 17 E., in Union County:

Ap-0 to 8 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
sand; single grained; loose; few uncoated sand
grains; common fine roots; medium acid; abrupt
wavy boundary.
C1-8 to 32 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
sand; single grained; loose; common fine roots; few
uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C2-32 to 48 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6)
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; few
uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C3-48 to 80 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sand;
single grained; loose; few uncoated sand grains;
about 2 percent ironstone nodules; strongly acid.

The sand is more than 80 inches thick. Unless lime
has been applied, reaction is very strongly acid to
medium acid throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 3 to 9 inches in
thickness.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
chroma of 3 to 8 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 6. Some pedons have less than 5 percent,
by volume, ironstone nodules at a depth of more than
40 inches.

Leon Series
The Leon series consists of poorly drained soils that
formed in thick deposits of sandy marine sediments.
These nearly level soils are in the flatwoods. They are
sandy, siliceous, thermic Aeric Haplaquods.
Leon soils are associated with the Albany, Allanton,
Hurricane, Mascotte, Plummer, Pottsburg, Sapelo,
Starke, and Surrency soils. Albany, Plummer, Starke,
and Surrency soils do not have a spodic horizon.
Albany, Plummer, Sapelo, and Starke soils have an
argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches. Allanton and
Pottsburg soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of
about 51 inches or more. Allanton, Starke, and


82






Soil Survey


single grained; loose; common fine and medium
roots throughout; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
E2-9 to 29 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; few fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)
mottles; single grained; loose; common fine and
medium roots throughout; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
E3-29 to 41 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 7/2)
sand; few fine distinct yellow (10YR 7/8) mottles;
single grained; loose; common fine roots; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E4-41 to 51 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; few fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E5-51 to 57 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; common medium distinct strong brown
(7.5YR 5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine
roots throughout; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
Bhl-57 to 71 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
sand; common fine distinct red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles;
weak fine granular structure; loose; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bh2-71 to 80 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; very strongly acid.

The solum is more than 80 inches thick. Depth to the
spodic horizon is 55 to 70 inches. Unless lime has been
applied, reaction ranges from extremely acid to medium
acid throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The A horizon ranges from 2 to 9
inches in thickness.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 to 4. It is mottled in shades of yellow or
brown at a depth of more than 20 inches. The texture is
sand or fine sand. The combined thickness of the A and
E horizons ranges from 55 to 70 inches.
The Bh horizon has hue of 7.5YR, 10YR, or 5YR,
value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 3 or less. The texture is
sand or fine sand. The sand grains are well coated with
organic matter.

Lakeland Series
The Lakeland series consists of excessively drained
soils that formed in thick beds of eolian or marine sand.
These nearly level to gently sloping soils are on broad,
slightly elevated ridges in the uplands. They are
thermic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments.
Lakeland soils are associated with the Albany,


Blanton, Chipley, Foxworth, and Troup soils. Troup soils
are well drained, Blanton and Foxworth soils are
moderately well drained, and Chipley and Albany soils
are somewhat poorly drained. Also, Albany, Blanton,
and Troup soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 40
to 80 inches.
Typical pedon of Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, 0.4 mile west of County Road 241A, about 0.6
mile south of State Road 238, NW%4NE/4 sec. 1, T. 6
S., R. 17 E., in Union County:

Ap-0 to 8 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
sand; single grained; loose; few uncoated sand
grains; common fine roots; medium acid; abrupt
wavy boundary.
C1-8 to 32 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
sand; single grained; loose; common fine roots; few
uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C2-32 to 48 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6)
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; few
uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C3-48 to 80 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sand;
single grained; loose; few uncoated sand grains;
about 2 percent ironstone nodules; strongly acid.

The sand is more than 80 inches thick. Unless lime
has been applied, reaction is very strongly acid to
medium acid throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 3 to 9 inches in
thickness.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
chroma of 3 to 8 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 6. Some pedons have less than 5 percent,
by volume, ironstone nodules at a depth of more than
40 inches.

Leon Series
The Leon series consists of poorly drained soils that
formed in thick deposits of sandy marine sediments.
These nearly level soils are in the flatwoods. They are
sandy, siliceous, thermic Aeric Haplaquods.
Leon soils are associated with the Albany, Allanton,
Hurricane, Mascotte, Plummer, Pottsburg, Sapelo,
Starke, and Surrency soils. Albany, Plummer, Starke,
and Surrency soils do not have a spodic horizon.
Albany, Plummer, Sapelo, and Starke soils have an
argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches. Allanton and
Pottsburg soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of
about 51 inches or more. Allanton, Starke, and


82






Bradford County, Florida


Surrency soils have an umbric epipedon. Mascotte and
Surrency soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20
to 40 inches. Starke and Surrency soils are very poorly
drained. Albany and Hurricane soils are somewhat
poorly drained.
Typical pedon of Leon sand, 0.2 mile north of County
Road 231 and 2.9 miles east of County Road 235,
SW1/4NW/4 sec. 23, T. 7 S., R. 20 E.

A-0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
single grained; loose; slightly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
E-7 to 16 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grained; loose; slightly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Bhl-16 to 20 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
sand grains well coated with organic matter;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bh2-20 to 29 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
sand; moderate coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; sand grains well coated with organic matter;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bh3-29 to 34 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
E'-34 to 59 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single
grained; loose; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B'h-59 to 80 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) sand; single grained; loose; medium acid.

The solum is 35 or more inches thick. Unless lime
has been applied, reaction ranges from extremely acid
to slightly acid throughout the profile. The texture
generally is fine sand or sand throughout the profile, but
in some pedons the Bh horizon is loamy fine sand or
loamy sand.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has value of
2. It ranges from 3 to 9 inches in thickness.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 4 to 15 inches in
thickness.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. It ranges from 6
to 21 inches in thickness.
The E' horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value
of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 3. It ranges from 0 to 36
inches in thickness.
The B'h horizon, if it occurs, has colors similar to
those of the Bh horizon. It is below a BE horizon, if it
occurs, or the E' horizon.
Some pedons have a C horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 3.


Mascotte Series
The Mascotte series consists of poorly drained soils
that formed in thick deposits of sandy and loamy marine
sediments. These nearly level soils are in the flatwoods.
They are sandy, siliceous, thermic Ultic Haplaquods.
Mascotte soils are associated with the Albany, Ocilla,
Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, Sapelo, and Surrency soils.
All of the associated soils, except for Sapelo soils, have
no spodic horizon. Albany and Ocilla soils are
somewhat poorly drained. Pantego and Surrency soils
have an umbric epipedon. Pantego soils have an argillic
horizon within a depth of 20 inches, and Albany,
Plummer, and Sapelo soils have one at a depth of more
than 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Mascotte sand, 0.75 mile north of
County Road 18, about 2.2 miles east of the Seaboard
Coast Line Railroad, NW4SE/4 sec. 11, T. 7 S., R. 20
E.

Ap-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; few coarse, common
medium, and many fine roots; extremely acid; clear
wavy boundary.
E-6 to 19 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grained; loose; common medium and fine
roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bhl-19 to 23 inches; black (5YR 2/1) loamy sand;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; very
friable; few medium and fine roots; very strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bh2-23 to 27 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very
friable; few fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
E'-27 to 35 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; common fine and medium very dark gray
(10YR 3/1) spodic bodies; single grained; loose; few
fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg1-35 to 38 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sandy
loam; common coarse distinct strong brown (7.5YR
5/8) and many coarse faint light yellowish brown
(10YR 6/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-38 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay
loam; many medium and coarse distinct brownish
yellow (10YR 6/8) and few fine and medium
prominent red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles; moderate
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg3-60 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay
loam; common coarse prominent light red (10R 6/8)
and many fine distinct yellow (10YR 7/8) mottles;


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