• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 How to use this soil survey
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Prime farmland
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Baker County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026064/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Baker County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 184 p., 3, 37 folded p. of plates : ill. (some col.), maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Watts, Frank C
United States -- Natural Resources Conservation Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1996]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Baker County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Baker County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 109-111).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list.: no. 96-0224-P.
General Note: "Issued April 1996"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026064
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002096395
notis - AKT5146
oclc - 34757598
lccn - 96161271

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    How this survey was made
        Page 10
        Soil classification and soil mapping
            Page 10
        Soil variability and map unit composition
            Page 11
        Confidence limits of soil survey information
            Page 11
            Page 12
    General soil map units
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Prime farmland
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 53
        Crops and pasture
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Grazing land
            Page 58
        Ecological communities
            Page 59
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 59
        Recreation
            Page 59
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 60
        Engineering
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
    Soil properties
        Page 67
        Engineering index properties
            Page 67
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 68
        Soil and water features
            Page 69
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
        Engineering index test data
            Page 73
            Page 74
    Classification of the soils
        Page 75
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 75
        Albany series
            Page 75
        Allanton series
            Page 76
        Blanton series
            Page 77
        Bonneau series
            Page 78
        Boulogne series
            Page 79
        Dasher series
            Page 79
        Dorovan series
            Page 80
        Duplin series
            Page 80
        Evergreen series
            Page 81
        Hurricane series
            Page 82
        Kershaw series
            Page 82
        Kingsferry series
            Page 83
        Leefield series
            Page 84
        Leon series
            Page 84
        Mandarin series
            Page 85
        Mascotte series
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
        Mulat series
            Page 91
        Murville series
            Page 91
        Ocilla series
            Page 92
        Olustee series
            Page 93
        Ortega series
            Page 94
        Osier series
            Page 94
        Ousley series
            Page 95
        Pamlico series
            Page 95
        Pantego series
            Page 96
        Pelham series
            Page 97
        Penney series
            Page 97
        Plummer series
            Page 98
        Pottsburg series
            Page 99
        Rains series
            Page 99
        Ridgewood series
            Page 100
        Sapelo series
            Page 101
        Surrency series
            Page 102
        Troup series
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
    Formation of the soils
        Page 105
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 105
        Processes of horizon differentiation
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
    References
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Glossary
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Tables
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    General soil map
        Page 185
    Index to map
        Page 186
        Page 187
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
Full Text


',;.tn te cooperation with
ptmentf University of Florida,
A iortuJture Institute of Food and


Natural
Resources
Conservation
Service


Agricultural sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil
Science Department;
Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services; and United
States Department of
Agriculture, Forest
Service


&


I 1 1% '' '- MR,- --


:"


Soil Survey of

Baker County,

Florida
















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, vtich is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps


The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas.


To find information about
your area of interest,
locate that area on the
Index to Map Sheets,
which precedes the soil
maps. Note the number of
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet.


Locate your area of
interest on the map
sheet. Note the map unit
symbols that are in that
area. Turn to the Index
to Map Units (see Con-
tents), which lists the map
units by symbol and
name and shows the
page where each map
unit is described.


MAP SHEET
SKok m E



MAP SHEET


AREA OF INTEREST
NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
survey may consist only of numbers or
letters, or they may be a combination
of numbers and letters.


MAP SHEET


The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.


4. J



16 1. 18 19 20
INDEX TO MAP SHEETS




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal
agencies, State agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil
Conservation Service) has leadership for the Federal part of the National
Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1990. Fieldwork for the
soil survey of the Osceola National Forest was completed in 1973, and that
survey was transferred to the field sheets for this soil survey. Soil names and
descriptions for this survey were approved in 1990. Unless otherwise indicated,
statements in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1990. This
soil survey was made cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation
Service; the Forest Service; the University of Florida, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science
Department; the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services; and
the Baker County Board of Commissioners. The survey is part of the technical
assistance furnished to the Baker County Soil and Water Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Natural Resources Conservation Service are
offered on a nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national
origin, religion, sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: Broomsedge bluestem in an area of Mascotte fine sand. The cypress trees in the
background are in an area of Panlego-Pamlico, loamy substratum, complex, depressional, that
is surrounded by a forested area of slash pine.





















Contents


Index to map units .................. ............ iv
Summary of tables .................. ............ v
Foreword .............. ...... ........ ....... vii
General nature of the county ....................... 1
How this survey was made ....................... 10
Soil classification and soil mapping .............. 10
Soil variability and map unit composition ......... 11
Confidence limits of soil survey information ....... 11
General soil map units .......................... 13
Detailed soil map units ............ ............ 19
Prime farmland .................................. 51
Use and management of the soils.............. 53
Crops and pasture .............................. 53
Woodland management and productivity ......... 56
Grazing land ............ ...... ... ........... 58
Ecological communities .......................... 59
Windbreaks and environmental plantings ......... 59
Recreation ................................... 59
W wildlife habitat ................................. 60
Engineering .................................. 61
Soil properties .................................. 67
Engineering index properties .................... 67
Physical and chemical properties ............... 68
Soil and water features ........................ 69


Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses
of selected soils .................. ...........
Engineering index test data ....................
Classification of the soils .......................
Soil series and their morphology ...................
Albany series ............. ... ... ..........
A llanton series .................................
Blanton series .................................
Bonneau series ............... ...............
Boulogne series. ............... ...........
Dasher series ....................... ...........


Dorovan series ..
Duplin series ....
Evergreen series.
Hurricane series.
Kershaw series ..
Kingsferry series.
Leefield series...
Leon series ......
Mandarin series..
Mascotte series..
Mulat series .....
Murville series ...


Ocilla series......
Olustee series ....
Ortega series.....


. . . . . . . . 8 0
. . .. . . . . 8 0
. . . . . . . . 8 1


Osier series ....................... ..........
Ousley series ................ ................
Pam lico series .................................
Pantego series.................................
Pelham series ................... ...........
Penney series .................................
Plummer series .................. ............
Pottsburg series ............ .. ...........
Rains series ................ ...... ..........
Ridgewood series .... ......... ... ..........
Sapelo series .......... ........ ...........
Surrency series .................. ............
Troup series ..................................
Formation of the soils ..........................
Factors of soil formation ......................
Processes of horizon differentiation .............
References ..........................
Glossary ...............................
Tables ........... ........... ...........


70
73
75
75
75
76
77
78
79
79


82
82
83
84
84
85
86
91
91
92
93
94
94
95
95
96
97
97
98
99
99
100
101
102
102
105
105
106
109
113
121


Issued April 1996


iii


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... . . .
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. I .... . .
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Index to Map Units


3- Pits .......................................... 19
6-Blanton fine sand, moderately wet, 0 to 5
percent slopes .................. ............ 20
7-Troup-Bonneau-Penney complex, 5 to 8
percent slopes ............................... 20
8-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......... 21
1 1-Boulogne sand ............... ........... 22
16-Dasher mucky peat, depressional ............. 23
17-Dorovan muck, frequently flooded ............ 23
18-Surrency-Mulat complex, frequently flooded .... 24
20-Duplin loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes................... ................. 25
21-Hurricane and Ridgewood soils, 0 to 5
percent slopes ............................. 25
22-Leefield fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...... 26
23- Leon sand ........... .................... 27
24-Leon-Evergreen complex, depressional ........ 29
25-Kershaw sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes .......... 29
26- Kingsferry and Allanton soils .................. 30
28- Mandarin sand .............................. 31
29- Mascotte fine sand .......................... 32
30- Murville fine sand .............. .............. 32


32-Ocilla fine sand, 0 to 3 percent slopes ......... 33
33-Olustee-Pelham complex ................. ... 34
34-Ortega sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .......... 35
35-Ousley fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
occasionally flooded .......................... 36
36-Pantego-Pamlico, loamy substratum,
complex, depressional ....................... 37
37-Pelham fine sand ....................... 38
39-Plummer fine sand ......................... 40
40-Pamlico muck, loamy substratum,
depressional ................................ 40
42-Pottsburg sand, high ........................ 41
43-Pottsburg sand ............... ............... 42
44-Rains loamy fine sand ....................... 43
46-Osier fine sand, frequently flooded .......... 43
47-Sapelo fine sand ................ ......... 45
51-Leon fine sand, occasionally flooded........... 45
52-Mascotte-Pamlico, loamy substratum,
complex, depressional ....................... 47
53- Mascotte fine sand, low ...................... 48
54-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........ 48


iv
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) .................................. 122

Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2).................................. 123

Growing season (table 3)............ .... .. ......... ............... 124

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) .................. 125

Land capability and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 5) .......... 126

Woodland management and productivity (table 6) ........................ 128

Recreational development (table 7). ...................... ............. 136

W wildlife habitat (table 8) ............. .... ............. .............. 140

Building site development (table 9) ...................................... 143

Sanitary facilities (table 10) .............. ... ............ ............. 147

Construction m materials (table 11) ........................................ 151

Water management (table 12) ............. .... ......... ............. 154

Engineering index properties (table 13) .................................. 159

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 14) .................... 164

Soil and water features (table 15) .................. .............. 168

Physical analyses of selected soils (table 16)............................. 171

Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 17)............................ 176

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 18) ......................... 180

Engineering index test data (table 19) ........... ......... ......... .182

Classification of the soils (table 20)........... ........ ............. 184


v
















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Baker County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected
land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters, and
agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan
land use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to
ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists
in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use
the survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are too unstable to be used
as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to
use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly
suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the
Natural Resources Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Natural Resources Conservation Service


vii













Soil Survey of

Baker County, Florida


By Frank C. Watts, Natural Resources Conservation Service

Fieldwork by Frank C. Watts, Terry S. Bowerman, Robert A. Casteel, Donna Hinz,
Anthony Jenkins, James C. Remley, Todd J. Solem, Allan Younk, and David Vyain,
Natural Resources Conservation Service, and Peter E. Avers and Kenneth C. Bracy,
Forest Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services; and the United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service



BAKER COUNTY is in northeast Florida (fig. 1). It is
bordered on the west by Columbia County, on the south
by Union and Bradford Counties, on the east by Duval .
and Clay Counties, on the northeast by Nassau County
and the St. Mary's River, and on the north by the State
of Georgia. The total area of the county is 588 square
miles, including bodies of water and 100,672 acres in
the Osceola National Forest.
Macclenny, the county seat, has a population of
approximately 5,000. The total population of Baker
County is about 20,000. Forestry and agriculture are the
major industries in the county.

General Nature of the County
This section provides general information about the
survey area. It describes history and development,
climate, farming, natural resources, recreation, Figure 1.-Location of Baker County in Florida.
transportation facilities, geomorphology, stratigraphy,
hydrogeology, and mineral resources.

History and Development Hernando de Soto in 1539 during his travels through
the area. With the help of the Yamassee, Creek, and
Patricia Dove, administrative assistant, Baker County Chamber of Carolinian Indians of Carolina, the English gained
Commerce, and Gene Barber, local historian, prepared this section, control of Florida in 1763. The Spanish regained control
The survey area was originally occupied by the in 1783. Florida was obtained by the United States from
Timucuan Indians, as was noted by Spanish explorer Spain by treaty on February 21, 1821. Seminole Indians







Soil Survey


occupied much of the survey area during the early
1800's.
At various times, Baker County was part of several
different counties, including Alachua, Duval, St. Johns,
Columbia, and New River Counties. Until the final
boundary was set in the 1920's, the extreme eastern
part of Baker County was at times included in Nassau
County.
Baker County is the 39th county in the State of
Florida. It was named for Judge James McNeir Baker, a
Confederate senator and judge of the Fourth Judicial
District.
During the Civil War, a campaign culminating in the
Battle of Olustee took place in the survey area. The
Olustee Battlefield State Historical Site was established
to commemorate this battle.
After the Civil War, Olustee became a major mill
center, producing local building material. Elsewhere in
the survey area, settlers established lumber mills,
experimental orange groves, and other ventures.
Horticulture became a major industry, and several large
nurseries were founded.
As settlers moved into Baker County from Georgia on
the Old Yarbrough Trail (Florida Highway 2), they built
homes and stockades of hand-hewn logs for protection
from the Indians (3). The first masonry building in Baker
County was not built until 1903.
Agriculture was limited mainly to family farms, which
produced a variety of crops. A few farms produced
crops for sale.
The area experienced growth and development in the
second half of the 19th century. The population had
increased to more than 2,300 before the yellow fever
epidemic of 1888. The disease began in Jacksonville
and spread west into Baker County. By the end of the
epidemic, several communities had lost most or all of
their population.
At the beginning of the 20th century, raising cattle,
farming, lumbering, and making turpentine were the
major industries. The area again experienced a period
of growth after the paving of U.S. Highway 90 in 1924,
but the Great Depression was felt bitterly in Baker
County. Many people lost their jobs and their homes.
In 1929, the Osceola National Forest was acquired
by the Forest Service as a field laboratory for forest
management. After the 1930's there was little private
interest in the lumber industry. Government support
after the Depression included Work Projects
Administration (WPA) road and bridge projects and the
construction of a new courthouse.
Baker County was largely an agricultural community.
The primary crop was corn. After the financial
devastation of the Depression, people discovered new
and innovative ways to market the corn crop. The


moonshine industry flourished in Baker County until the
mid-1950's.
The 1950's began another era of growth and rapid
change in Baker County. The wholesale nursery
industry flourished, the timber industry grew, and
agricultural practices were refined. Construction of the
Northeast Florida State Hospital in the middle and late
1950's provided employment for many Baker County
residents.

Climate
Baker County has a moderate climate that is
favorable for the production of crops, livestock, and pine
trees. The summers are long, hot, and humid. The
winters, which may have occasional invasions of cool or
cold air from the north, are mild because the county is
in the southern latitudes. Also, the Atlantic Ocean and
the Gulf of Mexico moderate the temperatures.
Rainfall is heaviest from June through September.
October and November are the driest months. About 49
percent of the annual rainfall occurs in the summer and
results from afternoon and evening thundershowers.
The remainder of the precipitation is evenly distributed
throughout the rest of the year. Excessive rainfall in the
spring can be expected in about 1 year out of 10.
Storms during these periods can cause rivers to
overflow.
The average maximum temperature shows little day-
to-day variation. The temperature can be as high as 96
degrees F for at least 1 day a month during the
summer. The minimum temperature in winter varies
considerably from day to day, mainly because of
periodic invasions of cold, dry air moving southward
from across the continent. Table 1 shows summarized
climatic data based on records collected at Lake City,
Florida (32, 34). Table 2 shows probable dates of the
first freeze in fall and the last freeze in spring. Table 3
provides data on length of the growing season.
In winter, the average temperature is 55 degrees F
and the average daily minimum temperature is 43
degrees. The lowest temperature on record, which
occurred in 1962, is 10 degrees. In summer, the
average temperature is 80 degrees and the average
daily maximum temperature is 91 degrees. The highest
recorded temperature, which occurred in 1954, is 105
degrees.
Most rainfall in summer occurs as afternoon or
evening showers or thundershowers. As much as 2 or 3
inches of rain can fall in an hour. Daylong rains in the
summer are rare and generally accompany tropical
storms. Rainfall in the fall, winter, and spring is seldom
as intense as it is in the summer.
Hail occasionally accompanies thunderstorms. The







Baker County, Florida


hailstones generally are small and seldom cause
extensive damage. Snow is rare and generally melts as
it hits the ground.
Tropical storms can affect the area from early in
June through mid-November. The copious rains and the
flooding associated with these storms can cause
considerable damage.
Extended periods of dry weather can occur in any
season but are most common in the spring and fall. Dry
periods in the spring generally are shorter than those in
the fall, but they are more serious because
temperatures are higher and the need for moisture is
greater.
Prevailing winds are generally northeasterly in the fall
and winter and southwesterly in the spring and summer.
Windspeed averages slightly less than 9 miles per hour.
It is 2 or 3 miles per hour higher in early afternoon. It is
slightly higher in the spring than in other seasons.

Farming
In 1987, 220 farms were in Baker County (33).
Seventy-seven of these farms had landowners who
listed farming as their principal occupation. Land
classified as agricultural land made up a large
percentage of the county's acreage. Approximately
355,566 acres, or 90 percent of the total land area, was
used as forest land (35), about 16,921 acres was used
as pastureland, and about 10,000 acres was used as
cropland (33). The average farm size was 127 acres.
The total farm acreage was about 28,000 acres.
Twenty-one of the farms in Baker County had sales of
$10,000 or more (33). These farms had a total acreage
of 16,719 acres and an average size of 250 acres.
Farmers in Baker County produce poultry, beef,
woody ornamental plants, and dairy products. They also
produce smaller amounts of field crops, such as corn
and tobacco. Vegetable production, both in the field and
in greenhouses, is increasing in the county.

Natural Resources
Soil is the most important resource in Baker County.
The soil and the underlying parent material are the
source of the natural resources and the agricultural
commodities produced in the county.
Water for most domestic and urban uses is supplied
by underground wells. These wells tap into underground
aquifers. The depth of the wells varies, but it generally
ranges from 50 to 80 feet. Water for agricultural uses is
supplied by wells, streams, or water-retention areas.
The St. Mary's River and Cedar, Olustee, Moccasin,
and Little Creeks are the largest permanent streams.


The St. Mary's River and Cedar and Moccasin Creeks
flow generally to the east and empty into the Atlantic
Ocean. Olustee Creek flows generally to the south and
empties into the Santa Fe River, which flows to the
west. The St. Mary's River and Cedar and Olustee
Creeks flow permanently, except for the upper stretches
during extended dry periods. The county has very few
other streams. Most of these are intermittent and dry up
to pools and potholes during extended dry periods.
Ocean Pond is the largest body of water in Baker
County. It is about 1,750 acres in size. It is in the
extreme western part of the county, just north of
Olustee. It is accessible to the public.
Woodland is a major natural resource in Baker
County. Forestry and forest products are an important
part of the county's economy. Timber is used for lumber
and pulpwood, and the wooded areas provide habitat
for wildlife.


Recreation


A wide variety of recreational activities are available
in Baker County. Fishing, hunting, boating, and camping
are popular. The St. Mary's River and Ocean Pond,
which is in the national forest, provide opportunities for
fishing and boating. Large acreages of woodland are
reserved for hunt clubs, which lease hunting rights from
landowners. Golfing also is a popular recreational
activity. There is a golf course in Macclenny (fig. 2).
Other recreational facilities include swimming pools,
tennis courts, football and baseball stadiums, and
neighborhood playgrounds. The Olustee Battlefield
State Historical Site is in the western part of the county
along U.S. Highway 90.

Transportation Facilities
Baker County is served by a good transportation
network. Interstate Highway 10 and U.S. Highway 90
run from east to west in the south-central part of the
county. Florida Highway 121 and county roads 125,
127, 229, 231, and 250 run from north to south. Florida
Highway 2 runs through the northern part of the county.
Several paved and dirt roads serve other parts of the
county.
There are no major passenger bus or rail services
with regularly scheduled stops in Baker County, but
Amtrak services and a variety of bus services are
available in Jacksonville. Bus service is also available in
Macclenny. One railroad system provides freight
transportation for Baker County. Commercial air
passenger service is available at the nearby
Jacksonville International Airport.


3







Soil Survey


Geomorphology

Paulette A. Bond, Florida Department of Natural Resources,
Florida Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology, prepared this section
and the sections on stratigraphy, hydrogeology, and mineral
resources.

Baker County is in the Proximal or Northern Zone
(36). This zone includes the western panhandle of
Florida and extends to the east coast. The southern
boundary extends from the vicinity of Adams Beach in
Taylor County to the boundary between St. Johns and
Flagler Counties. Baker County has two subzones,
which are differentiated on the basis of topographic


elevations. Most of Baker County is in the Northern
Highlands subzone, but a small area adjacent to
Nassau and Duval Counties is in the Atlantic Coastal
Lowlands subzone. Figure 3 shows geologic cross
sections in Baker County, and figures 4 and 5 illustrate
the underlying stratigraphy of these cross sections.

Northern Highlands
The Northern Highlands subzone extends east
across northern Florida from the western boundary with
Alabama to Trail Ridge. This province extends north
into Alabama and Georgia. It is bordered on the south
and east by the Cody Scarp, a persistent and


Figure 2.-A golf course in an area of Troup-Bonneau-Penney complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes.






Baker County, Florida 5

GEORGIA

-N-
NORTHERN ::::
HIGHLANDS:::::::
........... ....... .... .. 0 5 MILES





o t:::::::::::::::~:,:,:::::: DUVAL
6................................
........ ........ .... ..... 0 8 KILOMETERS
0 ..... .............. ....................
0.............................. ........
.....................UPLAND
.................. ................. S C A L E





... ... ..... ........ ............... ......



0 .. 1...... ................
................ .......W.4 59....
. . . . . . .. . .








.. . ..4 7

TRAIL RIDGE*:*::~ -

B' W-21 87............. .......... ..


Figure 3.-Geologic cross sections in Baker County, Florida.


continuous slope that is broken only by the valleys of 200 feet above mean sea level. The province is
major streams (20). In Baker County the elevation of underlain by Miocene sand, clay, dolomite, and
the Northern Highlands ranges from approximately 95 to limestone. Miocene deposits are overlain by locally thick











A
West


I
if
60 -- 200


30 -- 100


0-


- 0


W-4056


MSL


-30 -- -100


-60- -200


-90-- -300


-120-L- -400


5 0 MILES
I5 0 KI II I L
5 0 KILOMETERS


SCALE


Figure 4.-Geologic cross section A-A' in Baker County. The numbers preceded by "W" are well numbers. "TD" means total depth, and
"MSL" means mean sea level.


deposits of quartz sands that contain varying amounts
of clay (13). Baker County includes the Trail Ridge and
Lake City Ridge geomorphic subdivisions of the
Northern Highlands (20).
Trail Ridge.-Trail Ridge is a linear ridge that roughly
parallels the present Atlantic coastline (20). It is narrow
in Baker County but becomes more broad to the south.
It is in southeastern Baker County near the boundaries
with Nassau and Duval Counties. Elevations of the Trail
Ridge range from 100 to 200 feet. The feature is
underlain by quartz sand, which contains clay and
organic material as well as heavy minerals (13).
Originally, Trail Ridge may have been a barrier island
during a time when sea level was higher than it is
presently (36).
Lake City Ridge.-Lake City Ridge is a prominent
topographic feature that is geographically related to


Trail Ridge. Reportedly, it intersects Trail Ridge (9), but
a map of geomorphologic features does not show this
intersection (7). The difference in interpretations may be
related to differing definitions for the boundaries of the
ridges. Elevations of the Lake City Ridge range from
150 to 215 feet and are similar to those associated with
Trail Ridge.
Atlantic Coastal Lowlands
The Atlantic Coastal Lowlands geomorphic subzone
includes the land adjacent to the Atlantic coastline of
Florida (20). This area is low in elevation and generally
is poorly drained. The geomorphic features that
characterize the Atlantic Coastal Lowlands are
underlain by a mixture of Miocene clay, sand, dolomite,
and limestone. The Miocene lithologies are blanketed
by varying amounts of Pleistocene quartz sand and clay


Soil Survey


W-6502


A'
East


TD 825'


TD 610'







Baker County, Florida


B
North


B'
South


V)

0 5
60 200

30-- 100


0 t 0


MSL


-30- -100

-60- -200

-90- -300

-120-- -400


W-13812 W-4056 W-2187


UNDIFFERENTIATED \
SANDS AND CLAYS




TD 272'
OCALA GROUP
OCALA GROUP


TD 182'


HAWTHORN GROUP


TD 3349'


5 0 MILES

5 0 KILOMETERS

SCALE

Figure 5.-Geologic cross section B-B' in Baker County. The numbers preceded by "W" are well numbers. "TD" means total depth, and
"MSL" means mean sea level.


(15). Because the geomorphic features of the Atlantic
Coastal Lowlands roughly parallel the present Atlantic
coastline, their origin may be related to marine
processes. The Atlantic Coastal Lowlands includes a
number of geomorphic subdivisions. Only one of these
subdivisions, the Duval Upland, occurs in Baker County.
Duval Upland.-The Duval Upland (20) is in
southeastern Baker County adjacent to the boundary of
Baker and Nassau Counties. It is bordered on the west
by Trail Ridge. It is part of a larger landform that
parallels the coast and extends eastward into Nassau
and Duval Counties. The very small part of this feature
that occurs in Baker County ranges in elevation from
approximately 50 to 100 feet and is characterized by
medium or fine sand and clayey sand (15).

Stratigraphy
According to the Florida Geological Survey, the
oldest rocks penetrated by water wells in Baker County


are limestones of the Eocene age that are included in
the Ocala Group. The youngest sediments are
undifferentiated surficial quartz sands and clayey sands
of Pleistocene and Holocene age (16). The limestones
of the Ocala Group and the younger overlying limestone
and siliciclastic (sandstone, silt, and clay) units are
important freshwater aquifers. The following description
of the geology of Baker County is limited to sediments
of Eocene age and younger.

Eocene Series
Ocala Group.-Marine limestones of the Ocala Group
(19) underlie all of Baker County (16). The Ocala Group
is made up of, in ascending order, the Inglis Formation,
the Williston Formation, and the Crystal River
Formation. These formations are generally differentiated
on the basis of lithology and fossil content. In Baker
County, however, they consist of a fairly homogeneous
sequence of cream to light gray, medium soft, chalky to


MSL


TD 340'


TD 3043'


7







Soil Survey


granular marine limestones that contain thin beds of
hard, massive dolomitic limestone and dolomite (16).
Foraminifera, bryozoan fragments, and whole and
broken echinoids are the most abundant fossil types in
sediments in the Ocala Group. The thickness of the
Ocala Group in the vicinity of Baker County ranges from
approximately 220 to 310 feet. It averages about 250
feet. Depth to the top of the Ocala Group ranges from
approximately 200 to 500 feet. In Baker County the
upper surface of the Ocala Group dips to the northeast
(16).

Oligocene Series
Suwannee Limestone.-The Suwannee Limestone
unconformably overlies the limestone of the Ocala
Group in the southwestern part of Baker County (16). It
consists of light gray to white, granular limestone which
contains yellowish brown, indurated siltstone and
sandstone cemented with calcium carbonate. It is less
than 30 feet thick in Baker County and occurs at a
depth of approximately 180 feet. The unit does not
occur in many parts of the county. It may not have been
deposited in these areas, or it may have been removed
by erosion before the deposition of the overlying
Hawthorn Group (16).

Miocene Series
Hawthorn Group.-The Hawthorn Group
unconformably overlies the Ocala Group limestones or
the Suwannee Limestone in Baker County (16). In
northern Florida the Hawthorn Group is made up of, in
ascending order, the Penney Farms Formation, the
Marks Head Formation, the Coosawhatchie Formation,
and the Statenville Formation (22). Within Baker County
the Coosawhatchie Formation may contain the Charlton
Member (13, 22). In much of Baker County, the
Hawthorn Group is not differentiated into its component
formations. Few cores are available, and cores are
required in order for the formations to be identified.
Lithologically, the undifferentiated Hawthorn Group
consists of interbedded quartz sand, clay, and
dolostone. The quartz sand varies in color from
yellowish gray to light gray. It is poorly indurated and
contains varying amounts of clay, dolostone, and
phosphate. The clay is yellowish gray to light olive gray
and contains sand, dolomite, and phosphate. It is poorly
indurated or moderately indurated. The dolostone is
light gray to olive gray and contains sand, clay, and
phosphate. It is poorly indurated to well indurated and
has fossil molds scattered throughout (13). The
undifferentiated Hawthorn Group ranges from
approximately 125 to 350 feet in thickness (22). Depth
to the top of the Hawthorn Group ranges from


approximately 20 to 170 feet. If core data of good
quality are available, the Hawthorn Group may be
differentiated into its constituent formations (22). In
Baker County, data have been collected from a core of
the Coosawhatchie Formation (13). This formation
consists mainly of quartz sand that has lesser amounts
of dolomite and limestone. In places it contains a
recognizable subunit, the Charlton Member. The
Charlton Member in Baker County is sandy limestone
and calcareous, clayey quartz sand with common
mollusk molds. The Charlton Member is restricted to the
southeastern part of Baker County. It lies at the top of
the Coosawhatchie Formation and ranges from less
than 1 foot to about 20 feet in thickness. In Baker
County the Charlton Member is at a depth of about 160
feet (13). The Statenville Formation consists of
interbedded phosphatic sands, dolostones, and clays
and may extend into northwestern Baker County (22).

Undifferentiated Post-Miocene Sediments
The upper surface of the Hawthorn Group in Baker
County is blanketed by deposits of unconsolidated and
poorly consolidated quartz sand that contains varying
amounts of clay. According to the Florida Geological
Survey, these sandy deposits generally range from
about 20 to 100 feet in thickness in the Northern
Highlands area of Baker County. Sandy deposits in the
vicinity of Trail Ridge and the Lake City Ridge are
thicker than those in the Northern Highlands. A
thickness of 162 feet is observed in a well in Baker
County that completely penetrates the post-Miocene
sequence (13). The thickness of sands in the Duval
Upland in Baker County cannot be documented
because data are not available for wells in that area.
Sand in the Northern Highlands is fine grained or
medium grained and has only trace amounts of heavy
minerals (13). In contrast, sand in the Trail Ridge area
is characteristically fine grained to coarse grained and
has common heavy minerals and organic matter. Sand
in the Northern Highlands is mixed with clay, but sand
in the Trail Ridge area is mixed with clay or is in
discrete, scattered clay beds (13).

Hydrogeology
Ground water fills the pore spaces and voids in
subsurface rocks and sediments. Most of the ground
water in Baker County comes from rainfall and the
downward seepage of water from surface streams and
marshes. Ground water is drawn from ground-water
aquifers. In order of increasing depth, the main aquifer
systems under Baker County are the surficial aquifer
system, the intermediate aquifer system, and the
Floridan aquifer system (24, 16).


8







Baker County, Florida


Surficial Aquifer System
The surficial aquifer system (24) in Baker County
includes upper Miocene sediments of the Hawthorn
Group and post-Miocene sediments that are not
differentiated in this report. These sediments range from
approximately 30 to 150 feet in thickness, but the
permeable beds of the aquifer generally are within the
upper 50 feet of the deposits (16). These permeable
sand and shell beds are not continuous and tend to
form lenses that are bounded by less permeable silty
clay beds. The surficial aquifer system is recharged
mainly by rainfall and the downward seepage of water
from surface streams and marshes. Water is discharged
from the aquifer through evapotranspiration and
seepage into streams, lakes, and swamps if their water
levels are lower than the water level in the aquifer (16).
Discharge also occurs through downward movement or
percolation into the lower aquifers and through pumping
from wells in the county. Water from the surficial aquifer
system may be high in iron. The iron content stains
plumbing fixtures and causes bad-tasting water.
Generally, the water is used for rural domestic uses and
for livestock and irrigation because it is relatively
inexpensive to acquire (16).

Intermediate Aquifer System
The intermediate aquifer system (24) in Baker County
is made up of comparatively thin, discontinuous lenses
of sand, shell, and carbonate. These permeable lenses
occur within the relatively impermeable beds of clay and
clayey sand in the Hawthorn Group. The impermeable
beds are referred to as the intermediate confining unit
(24). Clay beds and beds of clayey sand may restrict
the vertical movement of water so that the water exists
under artesian pressure within some permeable layers
(16). These permeable lenses have a varying rate of
occurrence in Baker County. Their location cannot be
predicted. The intermediate aquifer system is recharged
by the downward movement of water from the shallow
aquifer system. Wells that penetrate the intermediate
aquifer system generally yield more water that has a
lower iron content than wells penetrating the shallow
system. Water from the intermediate aquifer system is
used for domestic, livestock, and irrigation supplies
(16).

Floridan Aquifer System
The Floridan aquifer system supplies most of the
water in northeastern Florida and southeastern Georgia.
In Baker County this aquifer system is mainly made up
of permeable limestone and dolomite of Eocene age. In
some areas of the county, Suwannee Limestone of Late
Oligocene age and limestone beds of the Hawthorn


Group of Miocene age may also be a part of the
Floridan aquifer system (16). The Floridan aquifer
system underlies all of Baker County. Its upper surface
ranges from approximately 50 feet below mean sea
level in the western part of the county to more than 350
feet in the eastern part. The thickness of the Floridan
aquifer system throughout Baker County is not known,
but it is more than 1,600 feet thick in the southwestern
part and about 1,900 feet thick in the northeastern part
(16). The relatively impermeable sediments of the
Hawthorn Group confine the Floridan aquifer system in
Baker County. The aquifer system is recharged
primarily in areas where the intermediate confining unit
is thin or breached by streams or sinkholes. In these
areas water may move downward into the aquifer
system. Water from the Floridan aquifer system is
discharged by upward seepage and also from wells
(16).

Mineral Resources
Currently, no mineral commodities are commercially
mined in Baker County (8, 25). Clayey sands of post-
Miocene age have some potential for use as fill
material. Limestone is deeply buried by post-Miocene
clayey sands and also by the siliciclastics and
discontinuous dolostones and limestones of Miocene
age. The existence of peat deposits is suggested by
extensive wetland areas in northern Baker County, but
no data are currently available to document their
occurrence (5). Phosphate and heavy minerals are not
currently being mined in Baker County, but future
development of these resources is possible.

Phosphate
Baker County is in the Northern and Northeast
Florida Phosphate Districts (8). Phosphate production in
northern Florida is from the Statenville Formation of the
Hawthorn Group and is restricted to eastern Hamilton
County, which is in the Northern District (22). The
Statenville Formation may occur in a very limited area
of northwestern Baker County. Eastern Baker County is
in the Northeast District that has phosphate at a depth
of approximately 200 feet (22). Phosphate is currently
not mined in Baker County, probably because of the
economic factors related to the thickness of overburden
as well as the relative enrichment of phosphate within
the rock units that contain it. Commercial exploitation of
this resource may become an option in the future as
alternate phosphate resources dwindle and technology
improves. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated
impacts associated with potential phosphate mining on
the hydrology of the Osceola National Forest in a study
conducted in 1978 (17).


9







Soil Survey


Heavy Minerals
The ore body at the southern end of Trail Ridge in
Bradford and Clay Counties is mined commercially for
heavy minerals. A core drilled on Trail Ridge in Baker
County was found to have an ore zone approximately
35 feet thick (18). Heavy minerals from the ore zone
include leucoxene and ilmenite. They are intermixed
with quartz sand, silt, clay, and organic matter (18).


How This Survey Was Made

Soil scientists made this survey to learn what soils
are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
can be used. They observed the steepness, length, and
shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
pattern of drainage; and the kinds of native plants or
crops. They dug many holes to study the soil profile,
which is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in
a soil. The profile extends from the surface down into
the parent material, which has been changed very little
by leaching or by plant roots.
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
profiles that they studied and compared those profiles
with others in nearby counties and in more distant
places. They classified and named the soils according
to uniform nationwide procedures. They drew the
boundaries of the soils on aerial photographs. These
photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately.
The soil maps at the back of this publication were
prepared from aerial photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called map units.
Most map units are made up of one kind of soil. Some
are made up of two or more kinds. The map units in
this survey area are described under the headings
"General Soil Map Units" and "Detailed Soil Map
Units."
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
soils are taken for laboratory-measurements and for
engineering tests. The characteristics of all the soils are
determined through field tests. Interpretations of those
characteristics may be modified during the survey. Data
are assembled from other sources, such as test results,
records, field experience, and State and local
specialists. For example, data on crop yields under
defined management are assembled from farm records
and from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of
soil.
Only part of a soil survey is completed when the soils
have been named, described, interpreted, and
delineated on aerial photographs and when the


laboratory data and other data have been assembled.
The mass of detailed information then must be
organized so that it can be used by farmers, woodland
managers, engineers, planners, developers and
builders, home buyers, and others.

Soil Classification and Soil Mapping

After describing the soils in a survey area and
measuring or characterizing their properties, soil
scientists systematically classify the soils into taxonomic
classes that have a specified range of characteristics.
The system of taxonomic classification used for soils in
the United States, described in "Soil Taxonomy" (26),
has categories that are based mainly on the kind and
character of soil properties and the arrangement of soil
horizons within the profile. Once the individual soils in a
survey area are classified, they can be compared and
correlated with similar soils in the same taxonomic class
that have been recognized in other areas.
Soils occur on the landscape in an orderly pattern
that is related to the geology, the landforms, and the
vegetation. Each kind of soil is associated with a
particular kind of landscape or with a segment of the
landscape. By observing the soils in the survey area
and relating their position to specific segments of the
landscape, the soil scientists can develop a concept, or
model, of how the soils formed. During mapping, this
model enables the soil scientists to predict with a
considerable degree of accuracy the location of specific
soils on the landscape.
Individual soils on the landscape commonly merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, the soil
scientists must determine the boundaries between the
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
profiles. Compared to the whole three-dimensional soil
volume, the areas examined are little more than points.
These few observations, however, supplemented by an
understanding of the soil-landscape relationship, are
sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in an
area and to determine the boundaries. The delineated
map units are based on inferences derived from this
small sample.
A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system and hand
transects were used to document the type and
variability of the soils occurring in the map units (10, 11,
14, 23). The GPR system was used successfully on all
soils to measure the depth to and determine the
variability of major soil horizons or other soil features. In
this survey 235 random transects were made by GPR
or by hand. Information from notes and ground-truth
observations made in the field were used, along with


10







Soil Survey


Heavy Minerals
The ore body at the southern end of Trail Ridge in
Bradford and Clay Counties is mined commercially for
heavy minerals. A core drilled on Trail Ridge in Baker
County was found to have an ore zone approximately
35 feet thick (18). Heavy minerals from the ore zone
include leucoxene and ilmenite. They are intermixed
with quartz sand, silt, clay, and organic matter (18).


How This Survey Was Made

Soil scientists made this survey to learn what soils
are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
can be used. They observed the steepness, length, and
shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
pattern of drainage; and the kinds of native plants or
crops. They dug many holes to study the soil profile,
which is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in
a soil. The profile extends from the surface down into
the parent material, which has been changed very little
by leaching or by plant roots.
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
profiles that they studied and compared those profiles
with others in nearby counties and in more distant
places. They classified and named the soils according
to uniform nationwide procedures. They drew the
boundaries of the soils on aerial photographs. These
photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately.
The soil maps at the back of this publication were
prepared from aerial photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called map units.
Most map units are made up of one kind of soil. Some
are made up of two or more kinds. The map units in
this survey area are described under the headings
"General Soil Map Units" and "Detailed Soil Map
Units."
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
soils are taken for laboratory-measurements and for
engineering tests. The characteristics of all the soils are
determined through field tests. Interpretations of those
characteristics may be modified during the survey. Data
are assembled from other sources, such as test results,
records, field experience, and State and local
specialists. For example, data on crop yields under
defined management are assembled from farm records
and from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of
soil.
Only part of a soil survey is completed when the soils
have been named, described, interpreted, and
delineated on aerial photographs and when the


laboratory data and other data have been assembled.
The mass of detailed information then must be
organized so that it can be used by farmers, woodland
managers, engineers, planners, developers and
builders, home buyers, and others.

Soil Classification and Soil Mapping

After describing the soils in a survey area and
measuring or characterizing their properties, soil
scientists systematically classify the soils into taxonomic
classes that have a specified range of characteristics.
The system of taxonomic classification used for soils in
the United States, described in "Soil Taxonomy" (26),
has categories that are based mainly on the kind and
character of soil properties and the arrangement of soil
horizons within the profile. Once the individual soils in a
survey area are classified, they can be compared and
correlated with similar soils in the same taxonomic class
that have been recognized in other areas.
Soils occur on the landscape in an orderly pattern
that is related to the geology, the landforms, and the
vegetation. Each kind of soil is associated with a
particular kind of landscape or with a segment of the
landscape. By observing the soils in the survey area
and relating their position to specific segments of the
landscape, the soil scientists can develop a concept, or
model, of how the soils formed. During mapping, this
model enables the soil scientists to predict with a
considerable degree of accuracy the location of specific
soils on the landscape.
Individual soils on the landscape commonly merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, the soil
scientists must determine the boundaries between the
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
profiles. Compared to the whole three-dimensional soil
volume, the areas examined are little more than points.
These few observations, however, supplemented by an
understanding of the soil-landscape relationship, are
sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in an
area and to determine the boundaries. The delineated
map units are based on inferences derived from this
small sample.
A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system and hand
transects were used to document the type and
variability of the soils occurring in the map units (10, 11,
14, 23). The GPR system was used successfully on all
soils to measure the depth to and determine the
variability of major soil horizons or other soil features. In
this survey 235 random transects were made by GPR
or by hand. Information from notes and ground-truth
observations made in the field were used, along with


10







Baker County, Florida


radar data, to classify the soils and to determine the
composition of map units. The map units described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" are based on
these data.

Soil Variability and Map Unit Composition
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by two or three kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
the soils are natural objects. In common with other
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes. These areas
of differing soils are called inclusions.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are referred to as similar
inclusions. Their properties are noted in the description
of the dominant soil or soils. Some inclusions have
properties and behavior different enough to affect use
or require different management. They generally occupy
small areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil
maps because of the scale used in mapping. The
dissimilar inclusions are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soil on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil
survey. The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate
pure taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate
the landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.


Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
Information
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
over long periods, but they are not predictable from
year to year. For example, soil scientists can predict
with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given soil
will have a high water table within certain depths in
most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
specific date.
Confidence limits in soil surveys are statistical
expressions of the probability that a soil property or the
composition of a map unit will vary within prescribed
limits. These limits can be assigned numerical values
based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
data for determining confidence limits, the natural
variability of soils and the way soil surveys are made
must be considered. The composition of map units and
other information are derived largely from extrapolations
made from a small sample. Also, information about the
soils does not extend below a depth of about 6 feet.
The information in the soil survey is not meant to be
used as a substitute for onsite investigation. Soil survey
information can be used to select from among
alternative practices or general designs that may be
needed to minimize the possibility of soil-related
failures. It cannot be used to interpret specific points on
the landscape.
Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
units in this survey area were determined by random
transects made by ground-penetrating radar or by hand
across mapped areas. The data are given in the
description of each soil under the heading "Detailed
Soil Map Units." Soil scientists made enough transects
and took enough samples to characterize each map unit
at a specific confidence level. For example, map unit 23
was characterized at a 95 percent confidence level
based on transect data. The composition is described
as follows: "On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as
Leon sand, Leon and similar soils make up 90 to 100
percent of the mapped areas." On the other 5 percent
of the acreage, the percentage of Leon and similar soils
may be lower than 90 percent.
The composition of some map units in the survey
area, such as miscellaneous areas, was determined on
the basis of the judgment of the soil scientist rather
than by a statistical procedure.


11







Baker County, Florida


radar data, to classify the soils and to determine the
composition of map units. The map units described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" are based on
these data.

Soil Variability and Map Unit Composition
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by two or three kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
the soils are natural objects. In common with other
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes. These areas
of differing soils are called inclusions.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are referred to as similar
inclusions. Their properties are noted in the description
of the dominant soil or soils. Some inclusions have
properties and behavior different enough to affect use
or require different management. They generally occupy
small areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil
maps because of the scale used in mapping. The
dissimilar inclusions are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soil on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil
survey. The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate
pure taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate
the landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.


Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
Information
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
over long periods, but they are not predictable from
year to year. For example, soil scientists can predict
with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given soil
will have a high water table within certain depths in
most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
specific date.
Confidence limits in soil surveys are statistical
expressions of the probability that a soil property or the
composition of a map unit will vary within prescribed
limits. These limits can be assigned numerical values
based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
data for determining confidence limits, the natural
variability of soils and the way soil surveys are made
must be considered. The composition of map units and
other information are derived largely from extrapolations
made from a small sample. Also, information about the
soils does not extend below a depth of about 6 feet.
The information in the soil survey is not meant to be
used as a substitute for onsite investigation. Soil survey
information can be used to select from among
alternative practices or general designs that may be
needed to minimize the possibility of soil-related
failures. It cannot be used to interpret specific points on
the landscape.
Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
units in this survey area were determined by random
transects made by ground-penetrating radar or by hand
across mapped areas. The data are given in the
description of each soil under the heading "Detailed
Soil Map Units." Soil scientists made enough transects
and took enough samples to characterize each map unit
at a specific confidence level. For example, map unit 23
was characterized at a 95 percent confidence level
based on transect data. The composition is described
as follows: "On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as
Leon sand, Leon and similar soils make up 90 to 100
percent of the mapped areas." On the other 5 percent
of the acreage, the percentage of Leon and similar soils
may be lower than 90 percent.
The composition of some map units in the survey
area, such as miscellaneous areas, was determined on
the basis of the judgment of the soil scientist rather
than by a statistical procedure.


11







13


General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it
consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making
up one unit can occur in another but in a different
pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or a building or other
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other
characteristics that affect management.

Soils on Narrow to Broad Ridges and Isolated Knolls
These soils are somewhat poorly drained and nearly
level or gently sloping. They are sandy to a depth of 20
or more inches and have loamy material within a depth
of 80 inches. They occur along the St. Mary's River and
its tributaries.

1. Leefield-Albany-Ocilla
Nearly level or gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
soils that are sandy to a depth of 20 or more inches and
have loamy material within a depth of 80 inches
The soils in this map unit are on narrow to broad
ridges and isolated knolls. Areas of this map unit
generally are near Cedar Creek and the south, middle,
and north prongs of the St. Mary's River. Individual
areas are small or medium sized and are elongated.
This map unit makes up about 23,970 acres, or
slightly more than 6 percent of the acreage in the
county. It is about 25.5 percent Leefield soils, 23
percent Albany soils, 19 percent Ocilla soils, and 32.5
percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, Leefield soils have a surface layer of dark
gray fine sand about 10 inches thick. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of about 28 inches, is pale yellow fine


sand and yellow loamy fine sand. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 35 inches, is brownish yellow fine
sandy loam. The next part, to a depth of about 58
inches, is light brownish gray sandy clay loam. The
lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is reticulately
mottled sandy clay loam.
Typically, Albany soils have a surface layer of dark
grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of 59 inches, is light
yellowish brown and pale yellow fine sand over
brownish yellow loamy fine sand. The subsoil to a depth
of 80 inches or more is gray fine sandy loam and sandy
clay loam.
Typically, Ocilla soils have a surface layer of dark
gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The upper part of
the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 22 inches, is
very pale brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of
26 inches, is yellow fine sand. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 32 inches, is light grayish brown
fine sandy loam. The next part, to a depth of 41 inches,
is light brownish gray sandy clay loam. The lower part
to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray sandy clay
loam.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Blanton,
Bonneau, Duplin, Hurricane, Kershaw, Mulat, Olustee,
Ortega, Pamlico, Pelham, Penney, Plummer,
Ridgewood, Sapelo, Surrency, and Troup soils. Blanton,
Bonneau, Kershaw, Ortega, Penney, and Troup soils
are in the highest positions on the landscape. Duplin,
Hurricane, and Ridgewood soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the major soils. Olustee,
Pamlico, Pelham, and Sapelo soils are in the lower
positions on the landscape. Surrency and Mulat soils
are on the flood plains.
Most areas of this map unit are used for urban
development or farming. Some areas support natural
vegetation and planted trees. Seasonal wetness can
affect production of deep-rooted crops, but it can be
easily overcome by bedding.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine,
slash pine, and water oak. The understory includes
turkey oak, live oak, gallberry, pineland threeawn
(wiregrass), and bluestem.







Soil Survey


Soils in the Flatwoods
These soils are somewhat poorly drained to very
poorly drained and are nearly level. They are mostly
sandy to a depth of 20 or more inches. Some of the
soils are loamy throughout but have a surface layer of
muck.

2. Mascotte-Pantego-Sapelo

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
that are sandy to a depth of 20 or more inches or are
loamy throughout but have a thin surface layer of muck
The soils in this map unit are in the flatwoods. Areas
of this unit are throughout the county. The individual
areas vary in shape and are small to very large in size.
The landscape is characterized by depressions and
broad, low flats.
This map unit makes up about 170,400 acres, or
slightly more than 45 percent of the acreage in the
county. It is about 42 percent Mascotte soils, 21 percent
Pantego soils, 15 percent Sapelo soils, and 22 percent
soils of minor extent.
Mascotte soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black fine sand about 7 inches thick.
The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 18 inches, is
light gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
depth of 24 inches, is black and dark reddish brown fine
sand. The next part, to a depth of 29 inches, is light
yellowish brown fine sand. Below this, to a depth of 38
inches, is an intervening layer of fine sand. The lower
part of the subsoil is gray fine sandy loam and grayish
brown loamy fine sand. The underlying material to a
depth of 80 inches or more is grayish brown loamy fine
sand.
Pantego soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black muck, black mucky fine sandy
loam, and very dark gray fine sandy loam about 26
inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
more is light brownish gray sandy clay loam.
Sapelo soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick.
The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 18 inches, is
light gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
depth of 31 inches, is black, dark reddish brown, and
yellowish brown fine sand. Below this, to a depth of 48
inches, is an intervening layer of light gray fine sand.
The lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of 70 inches, is
light gray fine sandy loam and sandy clay. The
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
light gray fine sandy loam.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Duplin, Leefield,
Ocilla, Olustee, Pamlico, Pelham, Plummer, and Rains
soils. Duplin, Leefield, and Ocilla soils are in the higher


positions on the landscape, and Pamlico soils are in the
lowest positions.
Most areas of this map unit support planted trees.
Some areas are used for urban development.
The natural vegetation in the flatwoods is slash pine.
The understory consists dominantly of saw palmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass). The vegetation in
the depressions is cypress, blackgum, loblolly-bay,
sweetbay, redbay, red maple, pond pine, and myrtleleaf
holly.

3. Pelham-Pantego-Ocilla

Nearly level, poorly drained, very poorly drained, and
somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy to a depth
of 20 or more inches and have loamy material within a
depth of 40 inches or are loamy throughout but have a
thin surface layer of muck
The soils in this map unit are on broad, low flats
characterized by scattered depressions (fig. 6). Areas of
this unit are in the eastern part of the county.
This map unit makes up about 69,660 acres, or
slightly less than 19 percent of the acreage in the
county. It is about 46 percent Pelham soils, 12 percent
Pantego soils, 10 percent Ocilla soils, and 32 percent
soils of minor extent.
Pelham soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black and very dark gray fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of about 26 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The
subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray fine
sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
Pantego soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black muck, black mucky fine sandy
loam, and very dark gray fine sandy loam about 26
inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
more is light brownish gray sandy clay loam.
Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 9 inches
thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth
of about 22 inches, is very pale brown fine sand. The
lower part, to a depth of 26 inches, is yellow loamy fine
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 32
inches, is light brownish gray fine sandy loam. The next
part, to a depth of 41 inches, is light brownish gray
sandy clay loam. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches
or more is gray sandy clay loam.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Duplin, Leefield,
Mascotte, Olustee, Pamlico, Plummer, Rains, and
Sapelo soils. Duplin and Leefield soils are in the higher
positions on the landscape.
Most areas of this map unit support planted trees.
Some areas are used for urban development.
The natural vegetation on the broad, low flats and in







Baker County, Florida


-- ~ \ \ 7}" 7 /^ \
/o^ N .- \-\\>\
_I N
N^ -. I~^ ^
I ~ ~V X
ocilla \,
\\.
0^y ^ ^~$i i~i \^'v'- N^

o ^ \\ >*' 'S5 \ /\ Z


4- 0


\ .J"::' : .
Np' /c
O~ii~0


N-


I'-P
Ni Nz


Figure 6.-Pattern of soils and parent material in the Pelham-Pantego-Ocilla and Osier-Surrency-Mulat general soil map units.


sloughs is slash pine. The understory consists of
gallberry, scattered saw palmetto, bluestem, and
pineland threeawn (wiregrass). The vegetation in the
depressions is cypress, blackgum, loblolly-bay,
sweetbay, redbay, red maple, pond pine, and myrtleleaf
holly.

4. Leon-Pottsburg-Boulogne

Nearly level, poorly drained and somewhat poorly
drained, sandy soils
The soils in this unit are in the flatwoods. Areas of
this map unit are in the eastern part of the county and


along a ridge extending from near Olustee east-
northeast to an area between Cedar Creek and the
south prong of the St. Mary's River. Individual areas are
elongated and large. The landscape is characterized by
nearly level flatwoods intermixed with cypress ponds
and drainageways (figs. 7 and 8).
This map unit makes up about 44,570 acres, or
about 12 percent of the acreage in the county. It is
about 51 percent Leon soils, 20 percent Pottsburg soils,
8 percent Boulogne soils, and 21 percent soils of minor
extent.
Leon soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is dark gray and black sand about 7 inches thick.






Soil Survey


7 -- K N


-- --/ IK I

/ /c,, \
....1:.:::.\\$./ o" -N \ 7 ^ .,
S ... V / \ hurricane\
:.': .'.":. I \ -., X
.": .". 0 N-

7t

S"* ,. \ ~ \ / \ i' / Ii/0 .

\ '-." -.



Figure 7 Paern of soils and paren material in an area of he eonPos r olone general soil map ni on Trail Ride.






Figure 7.-Pattern of soils and parent material in an area of the Leon-Pottsburg-Boulogne general soil map unit on Trail Ridge.


The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 17 inches, is
light gray sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
depth of 23 inches, is dark reddish brown loamy sand.
Below this is 3 inches of very dark grayish brown sand.
The next part, to a depth of 31 inches, is yellowish
brown sand. Below this, to a depth of 47 inches, is an
intervening layer of light gray sand. The lower part of
the subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is black
sand.
Pottsburg soils are poorly drained and somewhat
poorly drained. Typically, the surface layer is black and
very dark gray sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of 53 inches, is dark gray,


light gray, and brown sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80
inches or more is black sand.
Boulogne soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray sand about 6 inches
thick. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 11
inches, is dark brown sand. The next part, to a depth of
38 inches, is grayish brown fine sand, light grayish
brown sand, and light gray fine sand. The lower part to
a depth of 80 inches or more is dark brown and dark
reddish brown fine sand that has an intervening layer of
pinkish gray fine sand over black fine sand.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Evergreen,
Hurricane, Kingsferry, Ortega, Mandarin, and







Baker County, Florida


Ridgewood soils. Hurricane, Mandarin, Ortega, and
Ridgewood soils are in the higher positions on the
landscape, and Evergreen and Kingsferry soils are in
the lower positions.
Most areas of this map unit support planted trees.
Some areas are used for urban development.
The natural vegetation in the flatwoods is mixed
longleaf pine and slash pine. The understory consists
dominantly of saw palmetto, gallberry, pineland
threeawn (wiregrass), and bluestem. The vegetation in


the cypress ponds and drainageways is dominantly
pond pine, cypress, blackgum, loblolly-bay, sweetbay,
redbay, red maple, and myrtleleaf holly.
Soils in Swamps and on Flood Plains
These soils are poorly drained and very poorly
drained and are level or nearly level. Some have an
organic layer 16 to 51 inches thick underlain by sandy
material. Some have a dark, loamy subsoil within a
depth of 30 inches. Some are organic throughout, and


Figure 8.-Pattern of soils and parent material in the Leon-Pottsburg-Boulogne and Osier-Surrency-Mulat general soil map units.


17










some are sandy throughout. The soils are in swamps
throughout the county. The largest area is in Pinhook
Swamp and along the tributaries of the St. Mary's River.

5. Pamlico-Mascotte-Dasher

Level and nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly
drained soils that are organic over sandy or loamy
material, are sandy material more than 24 inches thick
over a sandy or loamy subsoil, or are organic throughout
and are frequently ponded
This map unit is in swamps in the southern and
northern parts of the county. The landscape is
characterized by large, low swamps that are under
water for long periods.
This map unit makes up about 58,795 acres, or
slightly less than 16 percent of the acreage in the
county. It is about 43 percent Pamlico soils, 23 percent
Mascotte soils, 6 percent Dasher soils, and 28 percent
soils of minor extent.
Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black muck to a depth of about 18
inches. The underlying material extends to a depth of
70 inches or more. In sequence downward, it is 4
inches of black mucky fine sand, 8 inches of grayish
brown fine sand, 12 inches of dark gray loamy fine
sand, 13 inches of dark gray sandy clay loam, and 15
or more inches of dark grayish brown loamy fine sand.
Mascotte soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick.
The subsurface layer, to a depth of 18 inches, is light
gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80
inches or more. In sequence downward, it is 6 inches of
black and dark reddish brown fine sand, 14 inches of
yellowish brown and light gray fine sand, 14 inches of
gray fine sandy loam, and 28 or more inches of grayish
brown loamy fine sand and fine sand.
Dasher soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they
are black muck to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Pelham,
Plummer, and Sapelo soils in the flatwoods.
This map unit supports natural vegetation. Natural
vegetation in the swamps consists of hardwoods,
including sweetbay, cypress, slash pine, and pond pine.
The understory includes gallberry, swamp cyrilla,
greenbrier, fetterbush lyonia, and myrtleleaf holly.


6. Osier-Surrency-Mulat
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
that are sandy throughout or are sandy to a depth of 20
or more inches and have loamy material within a depth
of 40 inches
The soils in this map unit are in swamps along the
St. Mary's River and its tributaries. Individual areas are
mostly narrow and elongated (figs. 6 and 8). The
landscape is characterized by nearly smooth to slightly
undulating, elevated ridges and flood plains. The areas
are interspersed with swamps, depressions, oxbows,
slight knolls, or small bluffs adjoining the St. Mary's
River. Extreme variations in the water level of the St.
Mary's River affect the water table in the soils.
This map unit makes up about 7,114 acres, or about
2 percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 49
percent Osier soils, 35 percent Surrency soils, 14
percent Mulat soils, and 2 percent soils of minor extent.
Osier soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick.
The underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more
is light brownish gray and white fine sand.
Surrency soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is 8 inches of black mucky fine sand over
20 inches of black and very dark gray fine sand. The
subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is light brownish
gray fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
Mulat soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray mucky fine sand about 8 inches
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 31
inches, is dark gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth
of about 57 inches, is dark gray sandy clay loam. The
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
dark gray fine sand.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Kingsferry, Leon,
and Ousley soils. These minor soils are in positions on
the landscape similar to those of the major soils.
This map unit supports natural vegetation. The
natural vegetation is dominantly pond pine, baldcypress,
water tupelo, sweetgum, and water oak and an
understory of saw palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and
bluestem. The slightly elevated ridges support slash
pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine and scattered
blackjack oak, turkey oak, post oak, willow oak, and red
maple and an understory of gallberry, saw palmetto,
running oak, pineland threeawn (wiregrass), and
bluestem.







19


Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area.
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under the heading "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more
soils for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils
of a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5
percent slopes, is a phase of the Blanton series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or
undifferentiated groups.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar
in all areas. Surrency-Mulat complex, frequently
flooded, is an example.
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made


for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
made up of all of them. Hurricane and Ridgewood soils,
0 to 5 percent slopes, is an undifferentiated group in
this survey area.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named.
Some of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
areas have little or no soil material and support little or
no vegetation. The map unit "Pits" is an example.
Miscellaneous areas are shown on the soil maps. Some
that are too small to be shown are identified by a
special symbol on the soil maps.
Advances in soil science and changes in series
concepts have occurred since the soil survey of the
Osceola National Forest was completed in 1973.
Therefore, some of the map unit delineations from the
earlier survey do not agree with those of the present
survey. These differences do not affect the use and
management of the soils.
Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The
"Glossary" defines many of the terms used in
describing the soils.

3-Pits. This map unit consists of excavations from
which soil and other geologic material have been
removed for use in road construction, foundations,
septic tank absorption fields, or other purposes. The
excavations have short, steep side slopes. Most of the
pits are abandoned. They are locally referred to as
borrow pits. Most are less than 10 acres in size, but a
few are more than 20 acres in size. Areas that have







Soil Survey


been excavated below the normal water table usually
contain water.
This map unit is not associated with or confined to a
particular kind of soil. It does not have an orderly
sequence of soil layers. The soils in the pits are
variable, but they usually include the subsoil and
substratum of surrounding soils.
No capability subclass is assigned.

6-Blanton fine sand, moderately wet, 0 to 5
percent slopes. This moderately well drained, nearly
level or gently sloping soil is on narrow to broad ridges
and isolated knolls. Individual areas are irregular in
shape and range from about 3 to 100 acres in size.
Slopes are nearly smooth or convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 73 inches, is light yellowish brown,
yellow, brownish yellow, and white fine sand and loamy
fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more
is light gray sandy clay loam.
On 92 percent of the acreage mapped as Blanton
fine sand, moderately wet, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
Blanton and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of
the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 20
percent.
Included in mapping are Blanton soils that have a
water table below a depth of 48 inches.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Blanton soil
in mapping occur as small areas of Albany and Ocilla
soils. These soils are in positions on the landscape
similar to those of the Blanton soil. They generally are
in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderate in the Blanton soil.
Available water capacity is low. In most years the
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 30 to 48
inches, except during dry periods. In some years,
during wet periods, it is at a depth of 18 to 30 inches for
as long as 2 weeks.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine
ecological community (30). This community is
dominated by bluejack oak, southern red oak, laurel
oak, and live oak and has common slash pine, loblolly
pine, and longleaf pine. Other common trees include
sweetgum, black cherry, hickory, and water oak.
Common understory plants are hawthorn, blackberry,
sparkleberry, American beautyberry, waxmyrtle,
blueberry, wild plum, and sassafras. Common
herbaceous plants, vines, and grasses include wild
grape, greenbriers, yellow jessamine, trumpet creeper,
broomsedge bluestem, and wiregrass. Quantities and
types of vegetation can vary greatly, depending on the
successional stage. In the climax stage, which has a
closed canopy dominated by oaks, understory


vegetation may be quite sparse.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as
harrowing, helps to establish seedlings. Chopping
reduces debris, controls competing vegetation, and
facilitates planting. Using planting stock that is larger
than usual or that is containerized can reduce the
seedling mortality rate. Using field machinery equipped
with large tires or tracks helps to overcome the
equipment limitation and minimizes soil compaction and
root damage during thinning activities. Logging systems
that leave plant debris well distributed over the site
increase the content of organic matter and improve
fertility. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture
grasses. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass
produce moderate yields if the pasture is properly
managed. Controlled grazing and proper applications of
lime and fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops.
Droughtiness and low fertility are limitations affecting
most crops. Irrigation is needed during dry periods.
Residue management, including conservation tillage,
conserves moisture during dry periods and helps to
control erosion. Lime and fertilizer should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is moderately suited to septic tank
absorption fields and to dwellings without basements.
The seasonal high water table and a poor filtering
capacity are the main management concerns. If the soil
is used as a site for septic tank absorption fields,
mounding may be needed. If the density of housing is
moderate or high, a community sewage system can
prevent the contamination of ground water resulting
from seepage.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11S.

7-Troup-Bonneau-Penney complex, 5 to 8 percent
slopes. These moderately well drained to excessively
drained, moderately sloping soils are on upland side
slopes. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from about 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are
concave or convex.
Typically, the surface layer of the Troup soil is
grayish brown fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 55 inches, is light
yellowish brown fine sand. The subsoil is strong brown
fine sandy loam to a depth of 64 inches and red sandy
clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Bonneau soil is
dark grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The







Baker County, Florida


subsurface layer, to a depth of about 26 inches, is light
yellowish brown fine sand. The subsoil is yellowish
brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 31 inches,
yellowish brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 44
inches, reticulately mottled sandy clay loam to a depth
of 70 inches, and reticulately mottled fine sandy loam to
a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Penney soil is dark
gray fine sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of 50 inches,.is yellowish brown and
light yellowish brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth
of 80 inches or more is pale brown and light yellowish
brown fine sand that has strong brown lamellae.
On 77 percent of the acreage mapped as Troup-
Bonneau-Penney complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
Troup, Bonneau, Penney, and similar soils make up 67
to 100 percent of the mapped areas. Generally, the
mapped areas are about 42 percent Troup and similar
soils, 22 percent Bonneau and similar soils, and 13
percent Penney and similar soils. Dissimilar soils make
up 0 to 33 percent. On 23 percent of the acreage, the
dissimilar soils make up more than 33 percent of the
mapped areas.
Soils that are similar to the Troup, Bonneau, and
Penney soils are included in mapping. These are
Ortega soils and soils that have slopes of as much as
12 percent.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Troup,
Bonneau, and Penney soils in mapping occur as small
areas of Albany, Duplin, and Ridgewood soils. These
dissimilar soils are in positions on the landscape similar
to those of the Troup, Bonneau, and Penney soils. They
generally are in areas less than 3 acres in size.
The components of this map unit occur as areas so
intricately intermingled that it is not practical to map
them separately at the scale used in mapping. The
proportions and patterns of the Troup, Bonneau, and
Penney soils and of the similar soils are relatively
consistent in most mapped areas.
Permeability is moderate in the Troup and Bonneau
soils and rapid in the Penney soil. Available water
capacity is low in the Troup and Bonneau soils and very
low in the Penney soil. The seasonal high water table is
at a depth of more than 72 inches in the Troup and
Penney soils. It is at a depth of 48 to 60 inches in the
Bonneau soil, except during dry periods in early spring
and late fall.
This map unit is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine or
Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological community
(30). The Mixed Hardwood and Pine community is in
the moderately well drained areas. It has native
vegetation dominated by bluejack oak, southern red
oak, laurel oak, and live oak and has common slash
pine, longleaf pine, or loblolly pine. Other common trees


include sweetgum, black cherry, hickory, and water oak.
The Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills community is in the
excessively drained areas. It is dominated by longleaf
pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak, and sand post oak.
Understory plants include Adam's needle, coontie,
coralbean, pricklypear, shining sumac, yaupon, blazing
star, partridge pea, yellow indiangrass, and dropseed.
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
is high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as
harrowing, helps to establish seedlings. Chopping
reduces debris, controls competing vegetation, and
facilitates planting. Using planting stock that is larger
than usual or that is containerized can reduce the
seedling mortality rate. Using field machinery equipped
with large tires or tracks helps to overcome the
equipment limitation and minimizes soil compaction and
root damage during thinning activities. Fire lanes and
access roads that slope gently to streams reduce the
hazard of soil erosion. Water bars, water turnouts, and
broad-based dips are needed to direct water and
sediments away from roads and streams. Logging
systems that leave plant debris well distributed over the
site increase the content of organic matter and improve
fertility. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
These soils are moderately suited to tame pasture
grasses. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass
produce moderate yields if the pasture is properly
managed. Controlled grazing and proper applications of
lime and fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
slope, droughtiness, and low fertility are limitations
affecting most crops.
These soils are well suited to moderately suited to
septic tank absorption fields and to dwellings without
basements. In some areas the slope, a poor filtering
capacity, and the seasonal high water table are
management concerns. If the Bonneau soil is used as a
site for septic tank absorption fields, mounding may be
needed. If the density of housing is moderate or high, a
community sewage system can prevent the
contamination of ground water resulting from seepage.
The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11S for the Troup and Bonneau
soils and 5S for the Penney soil.

8-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
moderately well drained, nearly level or gently sloping
soil is on narrow to broad ridges and isolated knolls.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from
about 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth
or convex.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine







Soil Survey


sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 43 inches, is light yellowish brown fine
sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is
brownish yellow loamy fine sand that grades to light
yellowish brown fine sandy loam and light brownish
gray sandy clay loam.
On 83 percent of the acreage mapped as Blanton
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Blanton and similar
soils make up 80 to 90 percent of the mapped areas.
Dissimilar soils make up 10 to 20 percent. On 17
percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up
less than 10 percent or more than 20 percent of the
mapped areas.
Soils that are similar to the Blanton soil are included
in mapping. These are Bonneau soils, Blanton soils that
are moderately wet, and soils that have a surface layer
less than 6 inches thick.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Blanton soil
in mapping occur as small areas of Troup soils. These
soils are well drained and are on side slopes. They are
generally in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderate or moderately slow in the
Blanton soil. Available water capacity is low. In most
years the seasonal high water table is at a depth of 48
to 72 inches during wet periods. In some years it is at a
depth of 36 to 48 inches for as long as 2 weeks.
This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological community (30). This community is
dominated by longleaf pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak,
and sand post oak. Common shrubs include Adam's
needle, coontie, coralbean, shining sumac, and yaupon.
Pricklypear, partridge pea, blazing star, elephants-foot,
grassleaf goldaster, yellow indiangrass, and dropseed
are also common.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. Site preparation helps to establish
seedlings. Chopping reduces debris, controls competing
vegetation, and facilitates planting. Using planting stock
that is larger than usual or that is containerized can
reduce the seedling mortality rate. Using field
machinery equipped with large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes soil
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Logging systems that leave plant debris well distributed
over the site increase the content of organic matter and
improve fertility. The trees respond well to applications
of fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture
grasses. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass
produce moderate yields if the pasture is properly
managed. Controlled grazing and proper applications of
lime and fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops.


Droughtiness and low fertility are limitations affecting
most crops. Irrigation is needed during dry periods.
Residue management, including conservation tillage,
conserves moisture during dry periods and helps to
control erosion. Lime and fertilizer should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is moderately suited to septic tank
absorption fields and to dwellings without basements.
The seasonal high water table is the main limitation. If
the soil is used as a site for septic tank absorption
fields, mounding may be needed.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11S.

11-Boulogne sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is in the flatwoods. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and range from about 3 to 100 acres
in size. Slopes are nearly smooth to concave and range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
depth of about 11 inches, is dark brown sand. Below
this, to a depth of 38 inches, is grayish brown fine sand,
light brownish gray sand, and light gray fine sand. The
lower part of the subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
more is dark brown and dark reddish brown fine sand
that has an intervening layer of pinkish gray fine sand
underlain by black fine sand.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Boulogne
sand, Boulogne and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
0 to 20 percent. On 5 percent of the acreage, the
dissimilar soils make up more than 20 percent of the
mapped areas.
Included in mapping are areas of soils that are
similar to the Boulogne soil. The dark upper part of the
subsoil in these soils is 16 to 23 inches thick. In the
Lake City Ridge area, the Boulogne soil is fine sand,
but in the Trail Ridge area it is dominantly sand.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Boulogne
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Allanton,
Evergreen, Kingsferry, Leon, Pottsburg, and Murville
soils. Allanton, Kingsferry, and Murville soils are in the
lower positions on the landscape. Evergreen and Leon
soils are in small depressions. Pottsburg soils are in
positions on the landscape similar to or slightly higher
than those of the Boulogne soil. These dissimilar soils
are generally in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is slow in the Boulogne soil. Available
water capacity is moderate. In most years the seasonal
high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches during
wet periods.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (30). This community is generally dominated


22







Baker County, Florida


by slash pine. The understory includes saw palmetto,
gallberry, and grasses. Scattered water oak and laurel
oak and several species of blueberry and waxmyrtle
also are common. Chalky bluestem, broomsedge
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, low panicums, and
wiregrass are the more common grasses. Other
common plants include grassleaf goldaster, blackberry,
brackenfern, deer tongue, gayfeather, milkwort, and a
variety of seed-producing legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as bedding,
helps to establish seedlings, reduces the seedling
mortality rate, and increases early growth. Chopping
and bedding reduce debris, control competing
vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field machinery
equipped with large tires or tracks and harvesting
during dry periods help to overcome the equipment
limitation and minimize soil compaction and root
damage during thinning activities. Logging systems that
leave plant debris well distributed over the site increase
the content of organic matter and improve fertility. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
moderately good yields if the pasture is properly
managed. Controlled grazing and proper applications of
lime and fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The
seasonal high water table, low fertility, and droughtiness
are limitations affecting most crops. A drainage system
is needed to remove excess water. Lime and fertilizer
should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table and the slow permeability are
the main management concerns. If the soil is used as a
site for septic tank absorption fields, mounding may be
needed. If the density of housing is moderate or high, a
community sewage system can prevent the
contamination of ground water resulting from seepage.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

16-Dasher mucky peat, depressional. This very
poorly drained, nearly level soil is in depressions.
Individual areas are circular or oblong and range from
about 10 to more than 100 acres in size. Slopes are
nearly smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, this soil is black mucky peat to a depth of
80 inches or more.
On 94 percent of the acreage mapped as Dasher
mucky peat, depressional, Dasher and similar soils


make up 80 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 20 percent. On 6 percent
of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than
20 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of Pamlico soils are included in
mapping. These soils are similar to the Dasher soil.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Dasher soil
in mapping occur as small areas of Mascotte soils.
These soils are in positions on the landscape similar to
those of the Dasher soil. They are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the Dasher soil.
Available water capacity is very high. The seasonal high
water table is usually at the surface or 1 to 2 feet
above the surface. The water table is slightly below the
surface during dry periods.
This soil is in the Scrub Bog-Bay Swamp ecological
community (30). This community is dominated by
gallberry, fetterbush lyonia, myrtleleaf holly, swamp
cyrilla, greenbriers, sweet pepperbush, and sweetbay
and has scattered slash pine and pond pine. Cinnamon
fern, maidencane, and sphagnum moss commonly grow
in open areas. Scrub bogs are predominantly dense
masses of evergreen shrubs that seldom exceed 25
feet in height. Bay swamps are forested wetlands
dominated by one or two species of evergreen trees.
The bay swamps are climax communities that have
mature trees. The scrub bogs are in the earlier stages
of plant succession. Some areas of scrub bogs remain
in the subclimax stage because of periodic fire. The
shrubs have many stems and thick foliage and
commonly appear impenetrable. Common herbaceous
plants and vines include wild grape, greenbriers, and
poison ivy. Other plants include maidencane, cinnamon
fern, and sphagnum moss.
This soil is not suited to pasture, cultivated crops, or
the production of planted pine trees because of ponding
and the seasonal high water table.
This soil is not suited to septic tank absorption fields
or to dwellings without basements because of the
ponding and subsidence.
The capability subclass is Vllw. No woodland
ordination symbol is assigned.

17-Dorovan muck, frequently flooded. This very
poorly drained, nearly level soil is on the flood plains.
Individual areas are elongated and range from about 10
to more than 100 acres in size. Slopes are nearly
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil is black muck to a depth of 80
inches or more.
On 91 percent of the acreage mapped as Dorovan
muck, frequently flooded, Dorovan and similar soils
make up 80 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.







Soil Survey


Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 20 percent. On 9 percent
of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than
20 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of Pamlico soils are included in
mapping. These soils are similar to the Dorovan soil.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Dorovan
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Surrency soils.
These soils are in positions on the landscape similar to
those of the Dorovan soil. They are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderate in the Dorovan soil.
Available water capacity is very high. In most years the
seasonal high water table is slightly above the surface
or within a depth of 12 inches during wet periods.
Flooding occurs several times during most years in
winter and summer.
This soil is in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological
community (30). This community is dominated by
blackgum, red maple, ogeechee lime, cypress, and bay
trees. Common shrubs include fetterbush lyonia,
Virginia willow, buttonbush, and waxmyrtle. Common
herbaceous plants and vines include wild grape,
greenbriers, and poison ivy. Other plants include
maidencane, cinnamon fern, and sphagnum moss.
This soil is not suited to the production of planted
pine trees because of wetness and flooding. A drainage
system is not practical.
This soil is not suited to pasture or cultivated crops
because of the flooding and the seasonal high water
table.
This soil is not suited to septic tank absorption fields
or to dwellings without basements because of the
flooding and subsidence.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W.

18-Surrency-Mulat complex, frequently flooded.
These very poorly drained and poorly drained, nearly
level soils are on the flood plains. Individual areas are
elongated and range from about 10 to more than 100
acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth to concave and
range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Surrency soil is
about 28 inches thick. The upper part is black mucky
fine sand. The lower part is black and very dark gray
fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more
is light brownish gray fine sandy loam and sandy clay
loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Mulat soil is very
dark gray mucky fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 28 inches, is gray
fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 55 inches, is
dark gray sandy clay loam. The underlying material to a


depth of 80 inches or more is dark gray loamy fine
sand.
On 92 percent of the acreage mapped as Surrency-
Mulat complex, frequently flooded, Surrency, Mulat, and
similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the mapped
areas. Dissimilar soils make up 10 to 20 percent. On 8
percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up
more than 20 percent of the mapped areas. Generally,
the mapped areas are about 59 percent Surrency and
similar soils and 33 percent Mulat and similar soils.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Surrency
and Mulat soils are included in mapping. These are
Pelham soils; soils that have a black and very dark gray
surface layer but have a sandy texture below the loamy
subsoil and above a depth of 60 inches; and soils that
have a layer of organic material more than 10 inches
thick over the black and very dark gray surface layer.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Surrency
and Mulat soils in mapping occur as small areas of
Osier, Pamlico, and Pottsburg soils. Pottsburg and
Osier soils are at the edges of the mapped areas.
Pamlico soils are in positions on the landscape similar
to those of the Surrency and Mulat soils. The dissimilar
soils are generally in areas less than 3 acres in size.
The components of this map unit occur as areas so
intricately intermingled that it is not practical to map
them separately at the scale used in mapping. The
proportions and patterns of the Surrency and Mulat
soils and of the similar soils are relatively consistent in
most mapped areas.
Permeability is moderate in the Surrency soil and
slow or moderately slow in the Mulat soil. Available
water capacity is moderate in both soils. In most years
the seasonal high water table is within a depth of 6
inches during wet periods. Flooding occurs during most
years in winter and summer.
These soils are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological
community (30). This community is dominated by
blackgum, red maple, ogeechee lime, cypress, and bay
trees. Common shrubs include fetterbush lyonia,
Virginia willow, buttonbush, and waxmyrtle. Common
herbaceous plants and vines include wild grape,
greenbriers, and poison ivy. Other plants include
maidencane, cinnamon fern, and sphagnum moss.
These soils are not suited to the production of
planted pine trees. The major management concerns
are flooding and the seasonal high water table. A
drainage system is not practical.
These soils are not suited to pasture or cultivated
crops because of the flooding and the seasonal high
water table.
These soils are not suited to septic tank absorption
fields or to dwellings without basements because of the


24







Baker County, Florida


flooding and the seasonal high water table.
The capability subclass is Vw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W.

20-Duplin loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
This moderately well drained, gently sloping soil is on
narrow ridges and isolated knolls bordering
drainageways. Individual areas are irregular in shape
and range from about 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are
nearly smooth or convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown loamy fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 10 inches, is dark
brown loamy fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about
70 inches is yellowish brown sandy clay loam, yellowish
brown clay, light brownish gray sandy clay, and
reticulately mottled, brown sandy clay.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Duplin
loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Duplin and
similar soils make up 86 to 100 percent of the mapped
areas. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 14 percent. On 5
percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up
more than 14 percent of the mapped areas.
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
Duplin soil but have a substratum of loamy fine sand
and sandy loam within a depth of 60 inches.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Duplin soil
in mapping occur as small areas of Leefield, Ocilla,
Pelham, and Rains soils. These soils are in the lower
positions on the landscape. They are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderately slow in the Duplin soil.
Available water capacity is moderate. In most years the
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 24 to 36
inches during wet periods. In some years, during wet
periods, it is at a depth of 18 to 24 inches for as long as
2 weeks.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine
ecological community (30). This community is
dominated by bluejack oak, southern red oak, laurel
oak, and live oak and has common slash pine, loblolly
pine, and longleaf pine. Other common trees include
sweetgum, black cherry, hickory, and water oak.
Common understory plants are hawthorn, blackberry,
sparkleberry, American beautyberry, waxmyrtle,
blueberry, wild plum, and sassafras. Common
herbaceous plants, vines, and grasses include wild
grape, greenbriers, yellow jessamine, trumpet creeper,
broomsedge bluestem, and wiregrass. Quantities and
types of vegetation can vary greatly, depending on the
successional stage. In the climax stage, which has a
closed canopy dominated by oaks, understory
vegetation may be quite sparse.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is


high. Loblolly pine and slash pine are suitable for
planting. Site preparation, such as harrowing, helps to
establish seedlings. Chopping reduces debris, controls
competing vegetation, and facilitates planting. Using
planting stock that is larger than usual or that is
containerized can reduce the seedling mortality rate.
Using field machinery equipped with large tires or tracks
helps to overcome the equipment limitation and
minimizes soil compaction and root damage during
thinning activities. Logging systems that leave plant
debris well distributed over the site increase the content
of organic matter and improve fertility. The trees
respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
moderate yields if the pasture is properly managed.
Controlled grazing and proper applications of lime and
fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
This soil is moderately well suited to cultivated crops.
The erosion hazard and low fertility are limitations
affecting most crops. Irrigation is needed in some years.
Residue management, including conservation tillage,
conserves moisture during dry periods and helps to
control erosion. Lime and fertilizer should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table, a high shrink-swell potential,
and the slow permeability are the main limitations. If the
soil is used as a site for septic tank absorption fields,
mounding may be needed.
The capability subclass is lie. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9W.

21-Hurricane and Ridgewood soils, 0 to 5 percent
slopes. These somewhat poorly drained, nearly level or
gently sloping soils are on narrow to broad ridges and
isolated knolls in the flatwoods. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and range from about 3 to 100 acres
in size. Slopes are nearly smooth or convex.
Typically, the surface layer of the Hurricane soil is
dark gray and dark grayish brown sand about 8 inches
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 63
inches, is light yellowish brown and white sand. The
subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is brown and
very dark gray sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Ridgewood soil is
dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of 80 inches or more is brown, olive
yellow, pale yellow, and light gray fine sand.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 53 percent
Hurricane and similar soils and 35 percent Ridgewood
and similar soils. Some areas are made up of Hurricane
and similar soils, some are made up of Ridgewood and


25







Soil Survey


similar soils, and some are made up of both soils. The
relative proportion of the combinations of the soils
varies. Areas of the individual soils are large enough to
map separately, but because of present and predicted
use they were mapped as one unit.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Hurricane
and Ridgewood soils, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Hurricane,
Ridgewood, and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
0 to 20 percent. On 8 percent of the acreage, the
dissimilar soils make up more than 20 percent of the
mapped areas.
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
Hurricane and Ridgewood soils but have a subsurface
layer that is 66 to 75 inches thick. In the Lake City
Ridge area, the Hurricane and Ridgewood soils are fine
sand, but in the Trail Ridge area they are dominantly
sand.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Hurricane
and Ridgewood soils in mapping occur as small areas
of Albany, Boulogne, Mandarin, Ortega, and Pottsburg
soils. Ortega soils are in the higher positions on the
landscape. Boulogne, Mandarin, and Pottsburg soils are
in the lower positions on the landscape. Albany soils
are in positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Hurricane and Ridgewood soils. The dissimilar soils are
generally in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the Hurricane soil
and rapid in the Ridgewood soil. Available water
capacity is low in both soils. In most years the seasonal
high water table is at a depth of 24 to 42 inches, except
during dry periods. In some years, during wet periods, it
is at a depth of 12 to 24 inches for as long as 2 weeks.
These soils are in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological community (30). This community is
dominated by longleaf pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak,
and sand post oak. Common shrubs include Adam's
needle, coontie, coralbean, shining sumac, and yaupon.
Pricklypear, partridge pea, blazing star, elephants-foot,
grassleaf goldaster, yellow indiangrass, and dropseed
are common.
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
is high. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine are
suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
reduces the seedling mortality rate, and increases early
growth. Chopping and bedding reduce debris, control
competing vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field
machinery equipped with large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes soil
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Logging systems that leave plant debris well distributed
over the site increase the content of organic matter and


improve fertility. The trees respond well to applications
of fertilizer.
These soils are moderately suited to tame pasture
grasses. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass
produce moderate yields if the pasture is properly
managed. Controlled grazing and proper applications of
lime and fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
These soils are moderately suited to cultivated crops.
Droughtiness and low fertility are limitations affecting
most crops. Irrigation is needed during dry periods.
Residue management, including conservation tillage,
conserves moisture during dry periods and helps to
control erosion. Lime and fertilizer should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
These soils are poorly suited to septic tank
absorption fields and moderately suited to dwellings
without basements. The seasonal high water table and
a poor filtering capacity are the main management
concerns. If the soil is used as a site for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding may be needed. If the
density of housing is moderate or high, a community
sewage system can prevent the contamination of
ground water resulting from seepage.
The capability subclass is Illw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W for the Hurricane soil and
10W for the Ridgewood soil.

22-Leefield fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level or gently sloping
soil is on narrow to broad ridges and isolated knolls in
the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape
and range from about 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are
nearly smooth or convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 10 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of about 28 inches, is pale yellow fine sand and yellow
loamy fine sand. The subsoil is light brownish gray fine
sandy loam to a depth of 35 inches, light brownish gray
sandy clay loam to a depth of 58 inches, and
reticulately mottled sandy clay loam to a depth of 80
inches or more.
On 93 percent of the acreage mapped as Leefield
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Leefield and similar
soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 20 percent. On 7 percent
of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than
20 percent of the mapped areas.
Soils that are similar to the Leefield soil are included
in mapping. These are Albany and Ocilla soils and
Blanton soils that are moderately wet. Blanton soils are
in the higher positions on the landscape. Also included
in mapping are soils that have a water table at a lower
depth than that in the Leefield soil and soils in which


26







Baker County, Florida


the surface layer is 4 to 7 inches thick.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Leefield soil
in mapping occur as small areas of Duplin and Pelham
soils. Duplin soils are near drainageways. Pelham soils
are in the lower positions on the landscape. The
dissimilar soils are generally in areas less than 3 acres
in size.
Permeability is moderately slow in the Leefield soil.
Available water capacity is low. In most years the
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to 30
inches, except during dry periods. In some years,
during wet periods, it is at a depth of 12 to 18 inches for
as long as 2 weeks.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine
ecological community (30). This community is
dominated by bluejack oak, southern red oak, laurel
oak, and live oak and has frequent slash pine, loblolly
pine, and longleaf pine. Other common trees include
sweetgum, black cherry, hickory, and water oak.
Common understory plants are hawthorn, blackberry,
sparkleberry, American beautyberry, waxmyrtle,
blueberry, wild plum, and sassafras. Common
herbaceous plants, vines, and grasses include wild
grape, greenbriers, yellow jessamine, trumpet creeper,
broomsedge bluestem, and wiregrass. Quantities and
types of vegetation can vary greatly, depending on the
successional stage. In the climax stage, which has a
closed canopy dominated by oaks, understory
vegetation may be quite sparse.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
reduces the seedling mortality rate, and increases early
growth. Chopping and bedding reduce debris, control
competing vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field
machinery equipped with large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes soil
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Logging systems that leave plant debris well distributed
over the site increase the content of organic matter and
improve fertility. The trees respond well to applications
of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
moderate yields if the pasture is properly managed.
Controlled grazing and proper applications of lime and
fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
This soil is moderately well suited to cultivated crops
(fig. 9). Droughtiness and low fertility are limitations
affecting most crops. Irrigation is needed during
extended dry periods. Residue management, including
conservation tillage, conserves moisture during dry
periods and helps to control erosion. Lime and fertilizer


should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and is moderately suited to dwellings without
basements. The seasonal high water table and the slow
permeability are the main management concerns. If the
soil is used as a site for septic tank absorption fields,
mounding may be needed.
The capability subclass is llw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

23-Leon sand. This poorly drained, nearly level soil
is in the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in
shape and range from about 3 to 100 acres in size.
Slopes are nearly smooth to concave and range from 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray and black
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 17 inches, is light gray sand. The upper
part of the subsoil, to a depth of 31 inches, is dark
reddish brown, very dark grayish brown, and yellowish
brown loamy sand. Below this, to a depth of 47 inches,
is an intervening layer of light gray sand. The lower part
of the subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is black
sand.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Leon sand,
Leon and similar soils make up 90 to 100 percent of the
mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 10
percent. On 5 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 10 percent of the mapped
areas.
Soils that are similar to the Leon soil are included in
mapping. These are Boulogne soils and soils in which
the subsoil is below a depth of 30 inches. In the Lake
City Ridge area, the Leon soil is fine sand, but in the
Trail Ridge area it is dominantly sand.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Leon soil in
mapping occur as small areas of Allanton, Evergreen,
Hurricane, Kingsferry, Mandarin, Osier, and Pottsburg
soils. Hurricane soils are in the higher positions on the
landscape. Allanton and Kingsferry soils are in the
lower positions on the landscape. Pottsburg soils are in
landscape positions similar to or higher than those of
the Leon soil. Evergreen soils are in small depressions.
Osier soils are on flood plains. The dissimilar soils are
generally in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderately rapid or moderate in the
Leon soil. Available water capacity is low. The seasonal
high water table is within a depth of 12 inches, except
during dry periods.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (30). This community is dominated by laurel
oak and water oak and has scattered longleaf pine,
loblolly pine, and slash pine. Other common trees
include sweetgum, hickory, wild cherry, magnolia, and


27








Soil Survey


Figure 9.-Corn and beans in an area of Leefield fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.


flowering dogwood. Common shrubs are sparkleberry,
American beautyberry, saw palmetto, and waxmyrtle.
Common herbaceous plants, vines, and grasses are
greenbriers, wild grape, trumpet creeper, crossvine,
yellow jessamine, low panicums, switchgrass, and
broomsedge bluestem.


The potential productivity of this soil for pines is
moderately high. Slash pine and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as bedding,
helps to establish seedlings, reduces the seedling
mortality rate, and increases early growth. Chopping
and bedding reduce debris, control competing


28







Baker County, Florida


vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field machinery
equipped with large tires or tracks and harvesting
during dry periods help to overcome the equipment
limitation and minimize soil compaction and root
damage during thinning activities. Logging systems that
leave plant debris well distributed over the site increase
the content of organic matter and improve fertility. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
moderately good yields if the pasture is properly
managed. Controlled grazing and proper applications of
lime and fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
seasonal high water table, low fertility, and droughtiness
are limitations affecting most crops. A drainage system
is needed to remove excess water. Lime and fertilizer
should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table and a poor filtering capacity
are the main management concerns. If the soil is used
as a site for septic tank absorption fields, mounding
may be needed. If the density of housing is moderate or
high, a community sewage system can prevent the
contamination of ground water resulting from seepage.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8W.

24-Leon-Evergreen complex, depressional. These
very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions in the flatwoods. Individual areas are
circular or oblong and range from about 10 to more
than 100 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth to
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of the
Leon soil is dark reddish brown muck about 5 inches
thick. The lower part, to a depth of about 14 inches, is
black fine sand. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 26
inches, is light gray sand. The subsoil is dark reddish
brown loamy sand to a depth of 31 inches, dark brown
sand to a depth of 57 inches, dark dusky red loamy
sand to a depth of 69 inches, and black loamy fine sand
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Evergreen soil is
black muck about 14 inches thick. It is underlain by 8
inches of black fine sand. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 40 inches, is dark gray, gray, and brown
fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 65 inches or more
is dark brown and dark reddish brown fine sand.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Leon-
Evergreen complex, depressional, Leon, Evergreen,
and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent of the


mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 30
percent. On 5 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 25 percent of the mapped
areas. Generally, the mapped areas are about 67
percent Leon and similar soils and 28 percent
Evergreen and similar soils.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Leon soil
are included in mapping. These are Murville soils and
soils having a surface layer that is 18 to 20 inches
thick. Also included in mapping are Pamlico soils, which
are similar to the Evergreen soil.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Leon and
Evergreen soils in mapping occur as small areas of
Allanton, Boulogne, Kingsferry, Osier, and Pottsburg
soils. Allanton, Boulogne, Kingsferry, and Pottsburg
soils are along the edges of the mapped areas. Osier
soils are in positions on the landscape similar to those
of the Leon and Evergreen soils. The dissimilar soils
are generally in areas less than 3 acres in size.
The components of this map unit occur as areas so
intricately intermingled that it is not practical to map
them separately at the scale used in mapping. The
proportions and patterns of the Leon and Evergreen
soils and of the similar soils are relatively consistent in
most mapped areas.
Permeability is moderately rapid or moderate in the
Leon and Evergreen soils. Available water capacity is
low or moderate. The seasonal high water table is at
the surface or I to 2 feet above the surface. The water
table is slightly below the surface during dry periods.
These soils are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological
community (30). This community is dominated by
blackgum, red maple, ogeechee lime, cypress, and bay
trees. Common shrubs include fetterbush lyonia,
Virginia willow, buttonbush, and waxmyrtle. Common
herbaceous plants and vines include wild grape,
greenbriers, and poison ivy. Other plants include
maidencane, cinnamon fern, and sphagnum moss.
These soils are not suited to pasture, cultivated
crops, or the production of pine trees because of
ponding and the seasonal high water table.
These soils are not suited to septic tank absorption
fields or to dwellings without basements because of the
ponding and the seasonal high water table.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W.

25-Kershaw sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This
excessively drained, gently sloping soil is on high,
broad ridges in the uplands. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and range from about 3 to 100 acres
in size. Slopes are nearly smooth or convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
sand about 3 inches thick. The underlying material to a







Soil Survey


depth of 80 inches or more is yellowish brown, brownish
yellow, and yellow sand.
On 88 percent of the acreage mapped as Kershaw
sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, the Kershaw soil makes up
80 to 100 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils
make up 0 to 20 percent. On 12 percent of the acreage,
the dissimilar soils make up more than 20 percent of
the mapped areas.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Kershaw
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Ortega soils.
These soils are in the lower positions on the landscape.
They are generally in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is very rapid in the Kershaw soil.
Available water capacity is very low. The seasonal high
water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches.
This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological community (30). This community is
dominated by longleaf pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak,
and sand post oak. Common shrubs include Adam's
needle, coontie, coralbean, shining sumac, and yaupon.
Pricklypear, partridge pea, blazing star, elephants-foot,
grassleaf goldaster, yellow indiangrass, and dropseed
are also common.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
low. Sand pine and longleaf pine are suitable for
planting. Site preparation, such as chopping, reduces
debris, controls competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Using planting stock that is larger than usual
or that is containerized can reduce the seedling
mortality rate. Natural regeneration may be preferable.
Using field machinery equipped with large tires or tracks
helps to overcome the equipment limitation and
minimizes soil compaction and root damage during
thinning activities. Logging systems that leave plant
debris well distributed over the site increase the content
of organic matter and improve fertility. The trees
respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is poorly suited to tame pasture grasses and
is unsuited to cultivated crops because of droughtiness
and low fertility.
This soil is well suited to septic tank absorption fields
and to dwellings without basements. If the soil is used
as a site for septic tank absorption fields, the very rapid
permeability may cause pollution of ground water in
areas where the density of housing is high.
The capability subclass is Vlls. The woodland
ordination symbol is 3S.

26-Kingsferry and Allanton soils. These very
poorly drained, nearly level soils are on broad, low flats
in the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape
and range from about 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are
nearly smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2
percent.


Typically, the surface layer of the Kingsferry soil is
black and very dark gray fine sand about 34 inches
thick. The subsoil is dark brown fine sand to a depth of
about 43 inches, very dark gray fine sand to a depth of
54 inches, and black fine sand to a depth of 80 inches
or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Allanton soil is
black and very dark gray fine sand about 22 inches
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 60
inches, is dark gray and gray fine sand. The subsoil to
a depth of 80 inches or more is dark reddish brown fine
sand.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 76 percent
Kingsferry and similar soils and 21 percent Allanton and
similar soils. Some areas are made up of Kingsferry
and similar soils, some are made up of Allanton and
similar soils, and some are made up of both soils. The
relative proportion of the combinations of the soils
varies. Areas of the individual soils are large enough to
map separately, but because of present and predicted
use they were mapped as one unit.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Kingsferry
and Allanton soils, Kingsferry, Allanton, and similar soils
make up 90 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 20 percent. On 3 percent
of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than
20 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Kingsferry
and Allanton soils are included in mapping. These are
Murville soils, soils that are similar to the Kingsferry soil
but are on seepage slopes along the St. Mary's River,
soils that have a stained organic layer below a depth of
50 inches, and soils that have a thin transitional layer of
loamy fine sand with streaks of fine sandy loam just
above the black subsoil layer.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Kingsferry
and Allanton soils in mapping occur as small areas of
Boulogne and Leon soils. These soils are in the higher
positions on the landscape. They are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is slow to moderately rapid in the
Kingsferry and Allanton soils. Available water capacity
is moderate. In most years the seasonal high water
table is within a depth of 6 inches during wet periods.
These soils are in the Scrub Bog-Bay Swamp
ecological community (30). This community is
dominated by gallberry, fetterbush lyonia, myrtleleaf
holly, swamp cyrilla, greenbriers, sweet pepperbush,
and sweetbay and has scattered slash pine and pond
pine. Cinnamon fern, maidencane, and sphagnum moss
commonly grow in open areas. Scrub bogs are
predominantly dense masses of evergreen shrubs that
seldom exceed 25 feet in height. Bay swamps are
forested wetlands dominated by one or two species of


30







Baker County, Florida


evergreen trees. The bay swamps are climax
communities that have mature trees. The scrub bogs
are in the earlier stages of plant succession. Some
areas of scrub bogs remain in the subclimax stage
because of periodic fire. The shrubs have many stems
and thick foliage and commonly appear impenetrable.
The potential productivity of these soils for pines is
high. Adequate surface drainage or bedding is needed
to regenerate the forest stand and to obtain potential
productivity. Slash pine is suitable for planting on
prepared sites. Site preparation, such as bedding, helps
to establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality
rate, and increases early growth. Chopping and bedding
reduce debris, control competing vegetation, and
facilitate planting. Using field machinery equipped with
large tires or tracks and harvesting during dry periods
help to overcome the equipment limitation and minimize
soil compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Logging systems that leave plant debris well
distributed over the site increase the content of organic
matter and improve fertility. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
These soils are moderately suited to tame pasture
grasses. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass
produce moderately good yields if the pasture is
properly managed. A drainage system is needed to
remove excess water. Controlled grazing and proper
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed for
optimum production.
These soils are very poorly suited to cultivated crops.
The seasonal high water table is a limitation affecting
most crops. A drainage system is needed to remove
excess water. Lime and fertilizer should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
These soils are very poorly suited to septic tank
absorption fields and to dwellings without basements
because of the seasonal high water table. If the soils
are used as a site for septic tank absorption fields,
mounding may be needed. Careful consideration is
needed if these soils are used for urban development.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

28-Mandarin sand. This somewhat poorly drained,
nearly level soil is on narrow ridges and isolated knolls
in the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape
and range from about 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are
nearly smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
24 inches, is gray sand. The upper part of the subsoil,
to a depth of 45 inches, is dark reddish brown sand,
reddish brown sand, and yellowish brown sand. Below


this, to a depth of 70 inches, is an intervening layer of
light brownish gray and grayish brown sand. The lower
part of the subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is
black fine sand.
On 88 percent of the acreage mapped as Mandarin
sand, Mandarin and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
0 to 20 percent. On 12 percent of the acreage, the
dissimilar soils make up more than 20 percent of the
mapped areas.
Included in mapping are areas of soils that are
similar to the Mandarin soil. The depth to the subsoil in
these soils is more than 30 inches. In the Lake City
Ridge area, the Mandarin soil is fine sand, but in the
Trail Ridge area it is dominantly sand.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Mandarin
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Hurricane and
Leon soils and areas of Pottsburg sand, high. Hurricane
and Pottsburg soils are in the higher positions on the
landscape. Leon soils are in the lower positions on the
landscape. The dissimilar soils are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderate in the Mandarin soil.
Available water capacity is low. In most years the
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to 42
inches, except during dry periods. In some years,
during wet periods, it is at a depth of 12 to 18 inches for
as long as 2 weeks.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (30). This community is generally dominated
by slash pine. The understory includes grasses, live
oak, saw palmetto, and scattered water oak and laurel
oak. Chalky bluestem, broomsedge bluestem, low
panicums, and wiregrass are the more common
grasses. Other common plants include grassleaf
goldaster, blackberry, gayfeather, milkwort, and a
variety of seed-producing legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderate. Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable for
planting. Site preparation, such as bedding, helps to
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality rate,
and increases early growth. Chopping and bedding
reduce debris, control competing vegetation, and
facilitate planting. Using field machinery equipped with
large tires or tracks and harvesting during dry periods
help to overcome the equipment limitation and minimize
soil compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Logging systems that leave plant debris well
distributed over the site increase the content of organic
matter and improve fertility. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is very poorly suited to tame pasture
grasses. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass
produce moderately good yields if the pasture is


31







Soil Survey


properly managed. Controlled grazing and proper
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed for
optimum production.
This soil is generally unsuited to cultivated crops.
The seasonal high water table, low fertility, and
droughtiness are limitations affecting crops.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and moderately suited to dwellings without
basements. The seasonal high water table and a poor
filtering capacity are the main management concerns. If
the soil is used as a site for septic tank absorption
fields, mounding may be needed. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system can prevent the contamination of ground water
resulting from seepage.
The capability subclass is VIs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8S.

29-Mascotte fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is in the flatwoods. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and range from about 3 to 100 acres
in size. Slopes are nearly smooth to concave and range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
18 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the
subsoil is black and dark reddish brown fine sand to a
depth of 24 inches and light yellowish brown fine sand
to a depth of 29 inches. Below this, to a depth of 38
inches, is an intervening layer of light gray fine sand.
The lower part of the subsoil is gray fine sandy loam
and grayish brown loamy fine sand. The underlying
material to a depth of 80 inches or more is grayish
brown loamy fine sand.
On 96 percent of the acreage mapped as Mascotte
fine sand, Mascotte and similar soils make up 85 to 100
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
0 to 15 percent. On 4 percent of the acreage, the
dissimilar soils make up more than 15 percent of the
mapped areas.
Included in mapping are areas of soils that are
similar to the Mascotte soil. These are Olustee and
Sapelo soils and soils, near depressions, that have a
surface layer of mucky fine sand.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Mascotte
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Leefield, Ocilla,
Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, and Rains soils. Ocilla and
Leefield soils are in the higher positions on the
landscape. Pelham, Plummer, and Rains soils are in the
lower positions on the landscape. Pantego soils are in
depressions. The dissimilar soils are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderately slow in the Mascotte soil.
Available water capacity is low. In most years the


seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
inches during wet periods.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (30). This community is generally dominated
by slash pine. The understory includes saw palmetto,
gallberry, and grasses. Scattered water oak and laurel
oak and several species of blueberry and waxmyrtle
also are common. Chalky bluestem, broomsedge
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, low panicums, and
wiregrass are the more common grasses. Other
common plants include grassleaf goldaster, blackberry,
brackenfern, deer tongue, gayfeather, milkwort, and a
variety of seed-producing legumes. Fetterbush lyonia,
redbay, loblolly-bay, and sweetbay are in areas near
depressions.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as bedding,
helps to establish seedlings, reduces the seedling
mortality rate, and increases early growth. Chopping
and bedding reduce debris, control competing
vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field machinery
equipped with large tires or tracks and harvesting
during dry periods help to overcome the equipment
limitation and minimize soil compaction and root
damage during thinning activities. Logging systems that
leave plant debris well distributed over the site increase
the content of organic matter and improve fertility. The

trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
moderately good yields if the pasture is properly
managed. A drainage system is needed to remove
excess water. Controlled grazing and proper
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed for
optimum production.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The
seasonal high water table, low fertility, and droughtiness
are limitations affecting most crops. A drainage system
is needed to remove excess water. Lime and fertilizer
should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table and a poor filtering capacity
are the main management concerns. If the soil is used
as a site for septic tank absorption fields, mounding
may be needed. If the density of housing is moderate or
high, a community sewage system can prevent the
contamination of ground water resulting from seepage.
The capability subclass is Illw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

30-Murville fine sand. This very poorly drained,
nearly level soil is on broad, low flats in the flatwoods.


32







Baker County, Florida


Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from
about 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth
to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about
10 inches thick. The subsoil is dark reddish brown fine
sand to a depth of about 35 inches, dark brown fine
sand to a depth of 42 inches, dark reddish brown fine
sand to a depth of 60 inches, and black fine sand to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Murville
fine sand, Murville and similar soils make up 75 to 90
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
10 to 25 percent. On 20 percent of the acreage, the
dissimilar soils make up less than 10 percent or more
than 25 percent of the mapped areas.
Soils that are similar to the Murville soil are included
in mapping. These are Kingsferry soils and soils in
which the surface layer is 14 to 20 inches thick.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Murville soil
in mapping occur as small areas of Boulogne and Leon
soils. These soils are in the higher positions on the
landscape. They are generally in areas less than 3
acres in size.
Permeability is moderate in the Murville soil.
Available water capacity also is moderate. In most
years the seasonal high water table is within a depth of
6 inches during wet periods.
This soil is in the Scrub Bog-Bay Swamp ecological
community (30). This community is dominated by
gallberry, fetterbush lyonia, myrtleleaf holly, swamp
cyrilla, greenbriers, sweet pepperbush, and sweetbay
and has scattered slash pine and pond pine. Cinnamon
fern, maidencane, and sphagnum moss commonly grow
in open areas. Scrub bogs are predominantly dense
masses of evergreen shrubs that seldom exceed 25
feet in height. Bay swamps are forested wetlands
dominated by one or two species of evergreen trees.
The bay swamps are climax communities that have
mature trees. The scrub bogs are in the earlier stages
of plant succession. Some areas of scrub bogs remain
in the subclimax stage because of periodic fire. The
shrubs have many stems and thick foliage and
commonly appear impenetrable.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Adequate surface drainage or bedding is needed
to regenerate the forest stand and to obtain potential
productivity. Slash pine is suitable for planting on
prepared sites. Site preparation, such as bedding, helps
to establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality
rate, and increases early growth. Chopping and bedding
reduce debris, control competing vegetation, and
facilitate planting. Using field machinery equipped with
large tires or tracks and harvesting during dry periods
help to overcome the equipment limitation and minimize


soil compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Logging systems that leave plant debris well
distributed over the site increase the content of organic
matter and improve fertility. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture
grasses. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass
produce moderately good yields if the pasture is
properly managed. A drainage system is needed to
remove excess water. Controlled grazing and proper
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed for
optimum production.
This soil is very poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
seasonal high water table is a limitation affecting most
crops. A drainage system is needed to remove excess
water. Lime and fertilizer should be applied according to
the needs of the crop.
This soil is very poorly suited to septic tank
absorption fields and to dwellings without basements.
The seasonal high water table and a poor filtering
capacity are the main management concerns. If the soil
is used as a site for septic tank absorption fields,
mounding may be needed. Careful consideration is
needed if this soil is used for urban development.
The capability subclass is Vw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

32-Ocilla fine sand, 0 to 3 percent slopes. This
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level or gently sloping
soil is on narrow to broad ridges and isolated knolls in
the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape
and range from about 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are
nearly smooth or convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is very pale
brown fine sand to a depth of about 22 inches and
yellow loamy fine sand to a depth of 26 inches. The
subsoil is light brownish gray fine sandy loam to a depth
of 32 inches, light brownish gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of 41 inches, and gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
On 92 percent of the acreage mapped as Ocilla fine
sand, 0 to 3 percent slopes, Ocilla and similar soils
make up 94 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 6 percent. On 8 percent of
the acreage, dissimilar soils make up more than 6
percent of the mapped areas.
Soils that are similar to the Ocilla soil are included in
mapping. These are Albany, Duplin, and Leefield soils
and soils that have a water table at a depth higher than
that in the Ocilla soil. Duplin soils are near
drainageways.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Ocilla soil
in mapping occur as small areas of Albany, Leefield,


33







Soil Survey


Mascotte, Olustee, and Pelham soils and the
moderately wet Blanton soils. Albany, Blanton, and
Leefield soils are in positions on the landscape similar
to those of the Ocilla soil. Mascotte, Olustee, and
Pelham soils are in the lower positions on the
landscape. The dissimilar soils are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderate or moderately slow in the
Ocilla soil. Available water capacity is low. In most
years the seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12
to 30 inches, except during dry periods. In some years,
during wet periods, it is at a depth of 6 to 12 inches for
as long as 2 weeks.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine
ecological community (30). This community is
dominated by bluejack oak, southern red oak, laurel
oak, and live oak and has common slash pine, loblolly
pine, and longleaf pine. Other common trees include
sweetgum, black cherry, hickory, and water oak.
Common understory plants are hawthorn, blackberry,
sparkleberry, American beautyberry, waxmyrtle,
blueberry, wild plum, and sassafras. Common
herbaceous plants, vines, and grasses include wild
grape, greenbriers, yellow jessamine, trumpet creeper,
broomsedge bluestem, and wiregrass. Quantities and
types of vegetation can vary greatly, depending on the
successional stage. In the climax stage, which has a
closed canopy dominated by oaks, understory
vegetation may be quite sparse.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
reduces the seedling mortality rate, and increases early
growth. Chopping and bedding reduce debris, control
competing vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field
machinery equipped with large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes soil
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Logging systems that leave plant debris well distributed
over the site increase the content of organic matter and
improve fertility. The trees respond well to applications
of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
moderate yields if the pasture is properly managed.
Controlled grazing and proper applications of lime and
fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops.
Seasonal wetness, droughtiness, and low fertility are
management concerns affecting most crops. Irrigation is
needed in some years. Residue management, including
conservation tillage, conserves moisture during dry


periods and helps to control erosion. A drainage system
is needed for some crops. Lime and fertilizer should be
applied according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table is the main management
concern. If the soil is used as a site for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding may be needed.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

33-Olustee-Pelham complex. These poorly
drained, nearly level soils are in the flatwoods.
Individual areas are circular or oblong and range from
about 10 to more than 100 acres in size. Slopes are
nearly smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Olustee soil is very
dark gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The upper part
of the subsoil, to a depth of about 14 inches, is dark
brown fine sand. Below this, to a depth of 37 inches, is
a layer of light gray fine sand. The lower part of the
subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is light brownish
gray fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pelham soil is
black fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of about 35 inches, is dark grayish
brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
more is light gray sandy clay loam.
On 99 percent of the acreage mapped as Olustee-
Pelham complex, Olustee, Pelham, and similar soils
make up 90 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 10 percent. On 1 percent
of the acreage, dissimilar soils make up more than 10
percent of the mapped areas. Generally, the mapped
areas are about 68 percent Olustee and similar soils
and 31 percent Pelham and similar soils. The
percentage of Pelham and similar soils is higher in the
Osceola National Forest.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Olustee
soil are included in mapping. These are Mascotte and
Sapelo soils and soils that have a loamy subsoil below
a depth of 40 inches. Also included in mapping are
Plummer soils, which are similar to the Pelham soil.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Olustee
and Pelham soils in mapping occur as small areas of
Albany, Ocilla, and Rains soils. Albany and Ocilla soils
are in the higher positions on the landscape, and Rains
soils are in the lower positions. The dissimilar soils are
generally in areas less than 3 acres in size.
The components of this map unit occur as areas so
intricately intermingled that it is not practical to map
them separately at the scale used in mapping. The
proportions and patterns of the Olustee and Pelham


34







Baker County, Florida


soils and of the similar soils are relatively consistent in
most mapped areas.
Permeability is moderate or moderately slow in the
Olustee and Pelham soils. Available water capacity is
low. In most years the seasonal high water table is at a
depth of 6 to 18 inches during wet periods.
These soils are in the North Florida Flatwoods
ecological community (30). This community is generally
dominated by slash pine. The understory includes saw
palmetto, gallberry, and grasses. Scattered water oak
and laurel oak and several species of blueberry and
waxmyrtle also are common. Chalky bluestem,
broomsedge bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, low
panicums, and wiregrass are the more common
grasses. Other common plants include grassleaf
goldaster, blackberry, brackenfern, deer tongue,
gayfeather, milkwort, and a variety of seed-producing
legumes.
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
is high. Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable for
planting. Site preparation, such as bedding, helps to
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality rate,
and increases early growth. Chopping and bedding
reduce debris, control competing vegetation, and
facilitate planting. Using field machinery equipped with
large tires or tracks and harvesting during dry periods
help to overcome the equipment limitation and minimize
soil compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Logging systems that leave plant debris well
distributed over the site increase the content of organic
matter and improve fertility. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
These soils are well suited to tame pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
moderately good yields if the pasture is properly
managed. A drainage system is needed to remove
excess water. Controlled grazing and proper
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed for
optimum production.
These soils are moderately suited to cultivated crops.
The seasonal high water table, low fertility, and
droughtiness are limitations affecting most crops. A
drainage system is needed to remove excess water.
Lime and fertilizer should be applied according to the
needs of the crop.
These soils are poorly suited to septic tank
absorption fields and to dwellings without basements.
The seasonal high water table is the main management
concern. If the soil is used as a site for septic tank
absorption fields, mounding may be needed.
The capability subclass is Illw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.


34-Ortega sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
moderately well drained, nearly level or gently sloping
soil is on narrow to broad ridges and isolated knolls.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from
about 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth
or convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray and grayish
brown sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of 80 inches or more is light
yellowish brown and very pale brown sand.
On 93 percent of the acreage mapped as Ortega
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Ortega and similar soils
make up 90 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 10 percent. On 7 percent
of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than
10 percent of the mapped areas.
Included in mapping are areas of soils that are
similar to the Ortega soil but have a dark, sandy
subsoil. In the Lake City Ridge area, the Ortega soil is
fine sand, but in the Trail Ridge area it is dominantly
sand.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Ortega soil
in mapping occur as small areas of Kershaw and
Ridgewood soils. Kershaw soils are in the higher
positions on the landscape, and Ridgewood soils are in
the lower positions. The dissimilar soils are generally in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is rapid in the Ortega soil. Available
water capacity is very low. In most years the seasonal
high water table is at a depth of 42 to 60 inches, except
during dry periods. In some years, during wet periods, it
is at a depth of 30 to 42 inches for as long as 2 weeks.
This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological community (30). This community is
dominated by longleaf pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak,
and sand post oak. Common shrubs include Adam's
needle, coontie, coralbean, shining sumac, and yaupon.
Pricklypear, partridge pea, blazing star, elephants-foot,
grassleaf goldaster, yellow indiangrass, and dropseed
are also common.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderately high. Slash pine and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as
harrowing, helps to establish seedlings. Chopping
reduces debris, controls competing vegetation, and
facilitates planting. Using planting stock that is larger
than usual or that is containerized can reduce the
seedling mortality rate. Using field machinery equipped
with large tires or tracks helps to overcome the
equipment limitation and minimizes soil compaction and
root damage during thinning activities. Logging systems
that leave plant debris well distributed over the site


35







Soil Survey


increase the content of organic matter and improve
fertility. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture
grasses. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass
produce moderate yields if the pasture is properly
managed. Controlled grazing and proper applications of
lime and fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops.
Droughtiness and low fertility are limitations affecting
most crops. Irrigation is needed during dry periods.
Residue management, including conservation tillage,
conserves moisture during dry periods and helps to
control erosion. Lime and fertilizer should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is moderately suited to septic tank
absorption fields and well suited to dwellings without
basements. The seasonal high water table and a poor
filtering capacity are the main management concerns. If
the soil is used as a site for septic tank absorption
fields, mounding may be needed. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system can prevent the contamination of ground water
resulting from seepage.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10S.

35-Ousley fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
occasionally flooded. This somewhat poorly drained,
nearly level or gently sloping soil is on low, slightly
elevated terraces next to the flood plains. Individual
areas are irregular in shape and range from about 3 to
100 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth or convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray and gray fine
sand about 10 inches thick. The underlying material to a
depth of 80 inches or more is light gray, white, and dark
brown fine sand.
On 98 percent of the acreage mapped as Ousley fine
sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally flooded,
Ousley and similar soils make up 90 to 100 percent of
the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 10
percent of the mapped areas. On 2 percent of the
acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than 10
percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Ousley soil
are included in mapping. These are soils that are
stratified with organic matter and soils, near river banks,
that have pale brown and very pale brown subsurface
layers.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Ousley soil
in mapping occur as small areas of Osier soils. These
soils are on flood plains. They are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is rapid in the Ousley soil. Available


water capacity is very low. In most years the seasonal
high water table is at a depth of 18 to 36 inches, except
during dry periods. In some years, during wet periods, it
is at a depth of 12 to 18 inches for as long as 2 weeks.
The water table is lower in areas near river banks.
Flooding occurs during some years.
This soil is in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks
ecological community (30). This community is
dominated by laurel oak, live oak, and water oak and
has scattered longleaf pine, loblolly pine, and slash
pine. Other common trees include sweetgum, hickory,
wild cherry, magnolia, and flowering dogwood. Common
shrubs are sparkleberry, American beautyberry, saw
palmetto, and waxmyrtle. Common herbaceous plants,
vines, and grasses are greenbriers, wild grape, trumpet
creeper, crossvine, yellow jessamine, low panicums,
switchgrass, and broomsedge bluestem.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderately high. Slash pine and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
reduces the seedling mortality rate, and increases early
growth. Chopping and bedding reduce debris, control
competing vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field
machinery equipped with large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes soil
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Logging systems that leave plant debris well distributed
over the site increase the content of organic matter and
improve fertility. The trees respond well to applications
of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
moderate yields if the pasture is properly managed.
Controlled grazing and proper applications of lime and
fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops.
Droughtiness and low fertility are limitations affecting
most crops. Irrigation is needed during dry periods.
Residue management, including conservation tillage,
conserves moisture during dry periods and helps to
control erosion. Lime and fertilizer should be applied
according to the needs of the crop. In some years
flooding may damage crops.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table, the flooding, and a poor
filtering capacity are the main management concerns. If
the soil is used as a site for septic tank absorption
fields, mounding may be needed. Careful consideration
is needed if this soil is used for urban development
(figs. 10 and 11).
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.







Baker County, Florida


Figure 10.-An area of Ousley fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally flooded, during a dry period.


36-Pantego-Pamlico, loamy substratum, complex,
depressional. These very poorly drained, nearly level
soils are in depressions in the flatwoods. Individual
areas are circular or oblong and range from about 10 to
more than 100 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth
to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pantego soil is
black muck, black mucky fine sandy loam, and very
dark gray fine sandy loam about 36 inches thick. The
subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is light brownish
gray sandy clay loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is
black muck about 18 inches thick. The underlying
material is black mucky fine sand to a depth of 22
inches, grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 30 inches,
dark gray loamy fine sand to a depth of 42 inches, dark
gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 55 inches, and dark
grayish brown loamy fine sand to a depth of 70 inches
or more.
On 99 percent of the acreage mapped as Pantego-
Pamlico, loamy substratum, complex, depressional,
Pantego, Pamlico, and similar soils make up 80 to 100


percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
0 to 20 percent. Generally, the mapped areas are about
65 percent Pantego and similar soils and 34 percent
Pamlico and similar soils.
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
Pantego soil but have a layer of muck that is more than
10 inches thick over the black and very dark gray
surface layer.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Pantego
and Pamlico soils in mapping occur as small areas of
Olustee, Pelham, Plummer, and Rains soils. These soils
are on the edges of depressions. They are generally in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
The components of this map unit occur as areas so
intricately intermingled that it is not practical to map
them separately at the scale used in mapping. The
proportions and patterns of the Pantego and Pamlico
soils and of the similar soils are relatively consistent in
most mapped areas.
Permeability is moderately slow in the Pantego and
Pamlico soils. Available water capacity is moderate or
high. The seasonal high water table is at the surface or


37







Soil Survey


Figure 11.-A flooded area of Ousley fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally flooded.


1 to 2 feet above the surface. The water table is slightly
below the surface during dry periods (fig. 12).
These soils are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological
community (30). This community is dominated by
blackgum, red maple, ogeechee lime, cypress, and bay
trees. Common shrubs include fetterbush lyonia,
Virginia willow, buttonbush, and waxmyrtle. Common
herbaceous plants and vines include wild grape,
greenbriers, and poison ivy. Other plants include
maidencane, cinnamon fern, and sphagnum moss.
These soils are not suited to pasture, cultivated
crops, or the production of planted pine trees because
of ponding and the seasonal high water table.
These soils are not suited to septic tank absorption
fields or to dwellings without basements. The main
limitations are the ponding and the seasonal high water
table.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W.

37-Pelham fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is on broad, low flats in the flatwoods.


Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from
about 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth
to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black and very dark
gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of about 26 inches, is light brownish
gray fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
more is gray fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
On 94 percent of the acreage mapped as Pelham
fine sand, Pelham and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
0 to 20 percent. On 6 percent of the acreage. the
dissimilar soils make up more than 20 percent.
Soils that are similar to the Pelham soil are included
in mapping. These are Plummer and Rains soils: soils
that have a black and very dark gray surface layer more
than 8 inches thick; and soils that have a thin. very dark
gray or dark gray transitional layer between the
subsurface layer and the subsoil.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Pelham soil
in mapping occur as small areas of Albany. Mascotte.
Mulat, Ocilla, Olustee, Sapelo. and Surrency soils.


38







Baker County, Florida


Albany, Mascotte, Ocilla, Olustee, and Sapelo soils are
in the higher positions on the landscape. Surrency and
Mulat soils are in drainageways. The dissimilar soils are
generally in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderate or moderately slow in the
Pelham soil. Available water capacity is low. In most
years the seasonal high water table commonly is at a
depth of 6 to 12 inches. In the lower areas, the water
table is within a depth of 6 inches.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (30). This community is generally dominated
by slash pine. The understory includes saw palmetto,
gallberry, and grasses. Scattered water oak and laurel
oak and several species of blueberry and waxmyrtle
also are common. Chalky bluestem, broomsedge
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, low panicums, and
wiregrass are the more common grasses. Other
common plants include grassleaf goldaster, blackberry,


brackenfern, deer tongue, gayfeather, milkwort, and a
variety of seed-producing legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Slash pine and loblolly pine are suitable for
planting. Site preparation, such as bedding, helps to
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality rate,
and increases early growth. Chopping and bedding
reduce debris, control competing vegetation, and
facilitate planting. Using field machinery equipped with
large tires or tracks and harvesting during dry periods
help to overcome the equipment limitation and minimize
soil compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Logging systems that leave plant debris well
distributed over the site increase the content of organic
matter and improve fertility. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce


Figure 12.-The stains on the tree trunks in this area of Pantego-Pamlico, loamy substratum, complex, depressional, were caused by the
seasonal high water table.







Soil Survey


moderately good yields if the pasture is properly
managed. A drainage system is needed to remove
excess water. Controlled grazing and proper
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed for
optimum production.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The
seasonal high water table is a limitation affecting most
crops. A drainage system is needed to remove excess
water. Lime and fertilizer should be applied according to
the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table is the main limitation. If the
soil is used as a site for septic tank absorption fields,
mounding may be needed.
The capability subclass is Illw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

39-Plummer fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is on broad, low flats in the flatwoods.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from
about 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth
to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 45 inches, is grayish brown and light
gray fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
more is light brownish gray sandy clay loam.
On 83 percent of the acreage mapped as Plummer
fine sand, Plummer and similar soils make up 80 to 90
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
10 to 20 percent. On 17 percent of the acreage, the
dissimilar soils make up less than 10 percent or more
than 20 percent of the mapped areas.
Soils that are similar to the Plummer soil are included
in mapping. These are Pelham soils and soils that have
a black and very dark gray surface layer more than 8
inches thick.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Plummer
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Albany, Leon,
Mulat, Osier, Pantego, Sapelo, and Surrency soils.
Mulat and Surrency soils are in drainageways. Albany
soils are in the higher positions on the landscape. Leon
and Sapelo soils are in the lower positions on the
landscape. Pantego and Osier soils are in small
depressions. The dissimilar soils are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderate or moderately slow in the
Plummer soil. Available water capacity is low. In most
years the seasonal high water table is commonly at a
depth of 6 to 12 inches. In the lower areas, the water
table is within a depth of 6 inches during wet periods.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (30). This community is generally dominated


by slash pine. The understory includes saw palmetto,
gallberry, and grasses. Scattered water oak and laurel
oak and several species of blueberry and waxmyrtle
also are common. Chalky bluestem, broomsedge
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, low panicums, and
wiregrass are the more common grasses. Other
common plants include grassleaf goldaster, blackberry,
brackenfern, deer tongue, gayfeather, milkwort, and a
variety of seed-producing legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Slash pine and loblolly pine are suitable for
planting. Site preparation, such as bedding, helps to
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality rate,
and increases early growth. Chopping and bedding
reduce debris, control competing vegetation, and
facilitate planting. Using field machinery equipped with
large tires or tracks and harvesting during dry periods
help to overcome the equipment limitation and minimize
soil compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Logging systems that leave plant debris well
distributed over the site increase the content of organic
matter and improve fertility. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
moderately good yields if the pasture is properly
managed. A drainage system is needed to remove
excess water. Controlled grazing and proper
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed for
optimum production.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
seasonal high water table is a limitation affecting most
crops. A drainage system is needed to remove excess
water. Lime and fertilizer should be applied according to
the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table and a poor filtering capacity
are the main management concerns. If the soil is used
as a site for septic tank absorption fields, mounding
may be needed. If the density of housing is moderate or
high, a community sewage system can prevent the
contamination of ground water resulting from seepage.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

40-Pamlico muck, loamy substratum,
depressional. This very poorly drained, nearly level soil
is in depressions. Individual areas are circular or oblong
and range from about 10 to more than 100 acres in
size. Slopes are nearly smooth to concave and range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 18
inches thick. The underlying material is black mucky


40







Baker County, Florida


fine sand to a depth of 22 inches, grayish brown fine
sand to a depth of 30 inches, dark gray loamy fine sand
to a depth of 42 inches, dark gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of 55 inches, and dark grayish brown loamy fine
sand to a depth of 70 inches or more.
On 89 percent of the acreage mapped as Pamlico
muck, loamy substratum, depressional, Pamlico and
similar soils make up 80 to 90 percent of the mapped
areas. Dissimilar soils make up 10 to 14 percent.
Soils that are similar to the Pamlico soil are included
in mapping. These are Dorovan soils, soils that have a
subsoil with organic stains between the muck and the
loamy substratum, and soils that do not have a sandy
layer between the muck and the loamy substratum.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Pamlico soil
in mapping occur as small areas of Pantego, Pelham,
and Plummer soils. Pantego soils are in positions on
the landscape similar to those of the Pamlico soil.
Pelham and Plummer soils are at the edges of the
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils are generally in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is slow in the Pamlico soil. Available
water capacity is high. The seasonal high water table is
at the surface or 1 to 2 feet above the surface. The
water table is slightly below the surface during dry
periods.
Most areas of this soil are in the Swamp Hardwoods
ecological community (30). This community is
dominated by blackgum, red maple, ogeechee lime,
cypress, and bay trees. Common shrubs include
fetterbush lyonia, Virginia willow, buttonbush, and
waxmyrtle. Common herbaceous plants and vines
include wild grape, greenbriers, and poison ivy. Other
plants include maidencane, cinnamon fern, and
sphagnum moss. In the Pinhook Swamp area, this soil
is in the Scrub Bog ecological community. Scrub bogs
are predominantly dense masses of evergreen shrubs
that seldom exceed 25 feet in height. This community is
dominated by gallberry, fetterbush lyonia, myrtleleaf
holly, swamp cyrilla, greenbriers, sweet pepperbush,
and sweetbay and has scattered cypress, slash pine,
and pond pine. Cinnamon fern, maidencane, and
sphagnum moss commonly grow in open areas. Some
areas of scrub bogs remain in the subclimax stage
because of periodic fire. The shrubs have many
stems and thick foliage and commonly appear
impenetrable.
This soil is not suited to pasture, cultivated crops, or
the production of planted pine trees because of ponding
and the seasonal high water table.
This soil is not suited to septic tank absorption fields
or to dwellings without basements because of the
ponding and the seasonal high water table.


The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W.

42-Pottsburg sand, high. This somewhat poorly
drained, nearly level soil is on narrow to broad ridges
and isolated knolls in the flatwoods. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and range from about 3 to 100 acres
in size. Slopes are nearly smooth or convex and range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of about 52 inches, is brown, light brownish gray, very
pale brown, light gray, and white sand. The subsoil to a
depth of 80 inches or more is dark brown and black
sand.
On 93 percent of the acreage mapped as Pottsburg
sand, high, Pottsburg and similar soils make up 80 to
100 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make
up 0 to 20 percent. On 7 percent of the acreage, the
dissimilar soils make up more than 20 percent of the
mapped areas.
Soils that are similar to this Pottsburg soil are
included in mapping. These are Pottsburg soils that are
in the lower areas and soils that do not have a subsoil
and have slopes of as much as 3 percent. In the Lake
City Ridge area, the major Pottsburg soil is fine sand,
but in the Trail Ridge area it is dominantly sand.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Pottsburg
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Allanton,
Boulogne, Hurricane, and Leon soils. Boulogne,
Hurricane, and Leon soils are in the higher positions on
the landscape, and Allanton soils are in the lower
positions. The dissimilar soils are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderate in the Pottsburg soil.
Available water capacity is low. In most years the
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12 to 24
inches, except during dry periods. In some years,
during wet periods, it is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches for
as long as 2 weeks.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (30). This community is normally dominated
by slash pine. The understory includes saw palmetto,
gallberry, and grasses. Scattered water oak and laurel
oak and several species of blueberry and waxmyrtle
also are common. Chalky bluestem, broomsedge
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, low panicums, and
wiregrass are the more common grasses. Other
common plants include grassleaf goldaster, blackberry,
brackenfern, deer tongue, gayfeather, milkwort, and a
variety of seed-producing legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderately high. Slash pine and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as


41







Soil Survey


harrowing, helps to establish seedlings, reduces the
seedling mortality rate, and increases early growth.
Chopping reduces debris, controls competing
vegetation, and facilitates planting. Using field
machinery equipped with large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes soil
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Logging systems that leave plant debris well distributed
over the site increase the content of organic matter and
improve fertility. The trees respond well to applications
of fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture
grasses. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass
produce moderate yields if the pasture is properly
managed. Controlled grazing and proper applications of
lime and fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
Droughtiness, low fertility, and the seasonal high water
table are management concerns affecting most crops.
Irrigation is needed during dry periods. A drainage
system is needed for a few crops. Residue
management, including conservation tillage, conserves
moisture during dry periods and helps to control
erosion. Lime and fertilizer should be applied according
to the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table and a poor filtering capacity
are the main management concerns. If the soil is used
as a site for septic tank absorption fields, mounding
may be needed. If the density of housing is moderate or
high, a community sewage system can prevent the
contamination of ground water resulting from seepage.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.

43-Pottsburg sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil in the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular
in shape and range from about 3 to 100 acres in size.
Slopes are nearly smooth or convex and range from 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black and very dark
gray sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
a depth of about 53 inches, is dark gray, light brownish
gray, and brown sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80
inches or more is black sand.
On 91 percent of the acreage mapped as Pottsburg
sand, Pottsburg and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
0 to 20 percent. On 9 percent of the acreage, the
dissimilar soils make up more than 20 percent.
Soils that are similar to the Pottsburg soil are
included in mapping. These are Boulogne soils and


soils that have a subsoil above a depth of 50 inches. In
the Lake City Ridge area, the Pottsburg soil is fine
sand, but in the Trail Ridge area it is dominantly sand.
Dissimilar soils that are included with this Pottsburg
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Allanton,
Boulogne, Evergreen, Kingsferry, Leon, and Osier soils,
Pottsburg soils that are in the higher areas, and Leon
soils that are in depressions. Allanton and Kingsferry
soils are in the lower positions on the landscape. Osier
soils are in drainageways. Evergreen soils are in small
depressions. The dissimilar soils are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderate in the Pottsburg soil.
Available water capacity is low. In most years the
seasonal high water table commonly is at a depth of 6
to 12 inches. In the lower areas, the water table is
within a depth of 6 inches during wet periods.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (30). This community is generally dominated
by slash pine. The understory includes saw palmetto,
gallberry, and grasses. Scattered water oak and laurel
oak and several species of blueberry and waxmyrtle
also are common. Chalky bluestem, broomsedge
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, low panicums, and
wiregrass are the more common grasses. Other
common plants include grassleaf goldaster, blackberry,
brackenfern, deer tongue, gayfeather, milkwort, and a
variety of seed-producing legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderately high. Slash pine and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as
harrowing, helps to establish seedlings, reduces the
seedling mortality rate, and increases early growth.
Chopping reduces debris, controls competing
vegetation, and facilitates planting. Using field
machinery equipped with large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes soil
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Logging systems that leave plant debris well distributed
over the site increase the content of organic matter and
improve fertility. The trees respond well to applications
of fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture
grasses. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass
produce moderate yields if the pasture is properly
managed. Controlled grazing and proper applications of
lime and fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
Droughtiness, low fertility, and the seasonal high water
table are management concerns affecting most crops.
Irrigation is needed during dry periods. A drainage
system is needed for a few crops. Residue
management, including conservation tillage, conserves
moisture during dry periods and helps to control


42







Baker County, Florida


erosion. Lime and fertilizer should be applied according
to the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table and a poor filtering capacity
are the main management concerns. If the soil is used
as a site for septic tank absorption fields, mounding
may be needed. If the density of housing is moderate or
high, a community sewage system can prevent the
contamination of ground water resulting from seepage.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.

44-Rains loamy fine sand. This poorly drained,
nearly level soil is on broad, low flats in the flatwoods.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from
about 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth
to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
a depth of about 15 inches, is grayish brown loamy fine
sand. The subsoil is light brownish gray fine sandy loam
to a depth of 20 inches and sandy clay loam to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
On 98 percent of the acreage mapped as Rains
loamy fine sand, Rains and similar soils make up 95 to
100 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make
up 0 to 5 percent. On 2 percent of the acreage, the
dissimilar soils make up more than 5 percent of the
mapped areas.
Small areas of Pelham soils are included in mapping.
These soils are similar to the Rains soil.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Rains soil
in mapping occur as small areas of Mascotte, Mulat,
Olustee, Pantego, and Surrency soils. Olustee and
Mascotte soils are in the higher positions on the
landscape. Surrency and Mulat soils are in
drainageways. Pantego soils are in small depressions.
The dissimilar soils are generally in areas less than 3
acres in size.
Permeability is moderately slow in the Rains soil.
Available water capacity is moderate. The seasonal
high water table is within a depth of 12 inches during
wet periods.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (30). This community is generally dominated
by slash pine. The understory includes saw palmetto,
gallberry, and grasses. Scattered water oak and laurel
oak and several species of blueberry and waxmyrtle
also are common. Chalky bluestem, broomsedge
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, low panicums, and
wiregrass are the more common grasses. Other
common plants include grassleaf goldaster, blackberry,
brackenfern, deer tongue, gayfeather, milkwort, and a


variety of seed-producing legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
very high. Loblolly pine and slash pine are suitable for
planting. Site preparation, such as bedding, reduces the
seedling mortality rate and increases early growth.
Chopping and bedding reduce debris, control competing
vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field machinery
equipped with large tires or tracks and harvesting
during dry periods help to overcome the equipment
limitation and minimize soil compaction and root
damage during thinning activities. Logging systems that
leave plant debris well distributed over the site increase
the content of organic matter and improve fertility. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
moderately good yields if the pasture is properly
managed. A drainage system is needed to remove
excess water. Controlled grazing and proper
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed for
optimum production.
This soil is very poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
seasonal high water table is a limitation affecting most
crops. A drainage system is needed to remove excess
water. Lime and fertilizer should be applied according to
the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table is the main limitation. If the
soil is used as a site for septic tank absorption fields,
mounding may be needed.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 12W.

46-Osier fine sand, frequently flooded. This poorly
drained, nearly level soil is on the flood plains.
Individual areas are elongated and range from about 10
to more than 100 acres in size. Slopes are nearly
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying material to a
depth of 80 inches or more is light brownish gray and
white fine sand.
On 94 percent of the acreage mapped as Osier fine
sand, frequently flooded, Osier and similar soils make
up 90 to 100 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar
soils make up 0 to 10 percent. On 6 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than
10 percent of the mapped areas.
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
Osier soil but have a thick, dark surface layer.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Osier soil in
mapping occur as small areas of Leon and Ousley soils.
Leon soils are in the higher positions on the landscape.


43







Soil Survey


Figure 13.-A flooded area of Osier fine sand, frequently flooded.


Ousley soils are on slightly elevated terraces next to the
flood plains. The dissimilar soils are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is rapid in the Osier soil. Available water
capacity is low. In most years the seasonal high water
table is within a depth of 12 inches during wet periods.
In most years flooding occurs during winter and summer
(fig. 13).
This soil is in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological
community (30). This community is dominated by
blackgum, red maple, ogeechee lime, cypress, and bay
trees. Common shrubs include fetterbush lyonia,
Virginia willow, buttonbush, and waxmyrtle. Common
herbaceous plants and vines include wild grape,
greenbriers, and poison ivy. Other plants include


maidencane, cinnamon fern, and sphagnum moss.
This soil is not suited to the production of planted
pine trees. The major management concerns are
flooding and the seasonal high water table. A drainage
system is not practical.
This soil is not suited to pasture or cultivated crops
because of the flooding and the seasonal high water
table.
This soil is not suited to septic tank absorption fields
or to dwellings without basements because of the
flooding, the seasonal high water table, and a poor
filtering capacity.
The capability subclass is Vw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W.


44







Baker County, Florida


47-Sapelo fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is in the flatwoods. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and range from about 3 to 100 acres
in size. Slopes are nearly smooth to concave and range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 18 inches, is light gray fine sand. The
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 31 inches, is
black, dark reddish brown, and yellowish brown fine
sand. Below this, to a depth of 48 inches, is an
intervening layer of light gray fine sand. The lower part
of the subsoil, to a depth of 70 inches, is light gray fine
sandy loam and sandy clay loam. The underlying
material to a depth of 80 inches or more is light gray
fine sandy loam.
On 92 percent of the acreage mapped as Sapelo fine
sand, Sapelo and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
0 to 20 percent. On 8 percent of the acreage, the
dissimilar soils make up more than 20 percent of the
mapped areas.
Soils that are similar to the Sapelo soil are included
in mapping. These are Mascotte and Olustee soils and
soils, near depressions, that have a surface layer of
mucky fine sand.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Sapelo soil
in mapping occur as small areas of Albany, Boulogne,
Leefield, Leon, Ocilla, Pantego, Pelham, and Plummer
soils. Albany, Leefield, and Ocilla soils are in the higher
positions on the landscape. Pelham and Plummer soils
are in the lower positions on the landscape. Boulogne
and Leon soils are in positions on the landscape similar
to those of the Sapelo soil. Pantego soils are in small
depressions. The dissimilar soils are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderate or moderately low in the
Sapelo soil. Available water capacity is low. The
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
inches during wet periods.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (30). This community is generally dominated
by slash pine. The understory includes saw palmetto,
gallberry, and grasses. Scattered water oak and laurel
oak and several species of blueberry and waxmyrtle
also are common. Chalky bluestem, broomsedge
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, low panicums, and
wiregrass are the more common grasses. Other
common plants include grassleaf goldaster, blackberry,
brackenfern, deer tongue, gayfeather, milkwort, and a
variety of seed-producing legumes. Fetterbush lyonia,
redbay, loblolly-bay, and sweetbay are in areas near
depressions.


The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high (fig. 14). Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine
are suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as
bedding, helps to establish seedlings, reduces the
seedling mortality rate, and increases early growth.
Chopping and bedding reduce debris, control competing
vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field machinery
equipped with large tires or tracks and harvesting
during dry periods help to overcome the equipment
limitation and minimize soil compaction and root
damage during thinning activities. Logging systems that
leave plant debris well distributed over the site increase
the content of organic matter and improve fertility. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
moderately good yields if the pasture is properly
managed. Surface drainage, controlled grazing, and
proper applications of lime and fertilizer are needed for
optimum production.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
seasonal high water table, low fertility, and droughtiness
are limitations affecting most crops. A drainage system
is needed to remove excess water. Lime and fertilizer
should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table and a poor filtering capacity
are the main management concerns. If the soil is used
as a site for septic tank absorption fields, mounding
may be needed. If the density of housing is moderate or
high, a community sewage system can prevent the
contamination of ground water resulting from seepage.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

51-Leon fine sand, occasionally flooded. This
poorly drained, nearly level soil is on flatwoods adjacent
to flood plains. Individual areas are irregular in shape
and range from about 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are
nearly smooth or convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of about 25 inches, is light gray and light brownish gray
fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 40 inches, is dark
brown and very dark brown fine sand. The underlying
material to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark brown
fine sand.
On 85 percent of the acreage mapped as Leon fine
sand, occasionally flooded, Leon and similar soils make
up 76 to 94 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar
soils make up 6 to 24 percent.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Leon soil in


45







Soil Survey


Figure 14.-Slash pine in an area of Sapelo fine sand. Saw palmetto is a common understory plant.


mapping occur as small areas of Osier soils. These
soils are in drainageways. They are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderately rapid or moderate in the
Leon soil. Available water capacity is low. The seasonal
high water table is within a depth of 12 inches during
wet periods. Flooding occurs in some years.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (30). This community is generally dominated
by slash pine. The understory includes saw palmetto,


gallberry, and grasses. Scattered water oak and laurel
oak and several species of blueberry and waxmyrtle
also are common. Chalky bluestem, broomsedge
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, low panicums, and
wiregrass are the more common grasses. Other
common plants include grassleaf goldaster, blackberry,
brackenfern, deer tongue, gayfeather, milkwort, and a
variety of seed-producing legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderate. Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable for


46







Baker County, Florida


planting. Site preparation, such as harrowing and
bedding, helps to establish seedlings, reduces the
seedling mortality rate, and increases early growth.
Chopping and bedding reduce debris, control competing
vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field machinery
equipped with large tires or tracks helps to overcome
the equipment limitation and minimizes soil compaction
and root damage during thinning activities. Logging
systems that leave plant debris well distributed over the
site increase the content of organic matter and improve
fertility. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
moderate yields if the pasture is properly managed.
Controlled grazing and proper applications of lime and
fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
seasonal high water table, droughtiness, and low fertility
are management concerns affecting most crops. A
drainage system is needed to remove excess water.
Lime and fertilizer should be applied according to the
needs of the crop. In some years flooding may damage
crops.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table, flooding, and a poor filtering
capacity are the main management concerns. Careful
consideration is needed if this soil is used for urban
development.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8W.

52-Mascotte-Pamlico, loamy substratum,
complex, depressional. This very poorly drained,
nearly level soil is in depressions in the flatwoods.
Individual areas are circular or oblong and range from
about 10 to more than 100 acres in size. Slopes are
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Mascotte soil is
black muck to a depth of 6 inches and mucky fine sand
to a depth of about 9 inches. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 22 inches, is light gray fine sand. The
subsoil is dark brown fine sand to a depth of 38 inches
and grayish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is
black muck about 25 inches thick. The underlying
material is black mucky fine sand to a depth of 30
inches, light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 50
inches, and grayish brown sandy clay loam to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
On 94 percent of the acreage mapped as Mascotte-
Pamlico, loamy substratum, complex, depressional,


Mascotte, Pamlico, and similar soils make up 75 to 100
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
0 to 25 percent. On 6 percent of the acreage, the
dissimilar soils make up more than 25 percent of the
mapped areas.
Soils that are similar to the Mascotte and Pamlico
soils are included in mapping. These are Dorovan and
Olustee soils and soils that are similar to the Mascotte
soil but have a surface layer of muck 8 to 16 inches
thick.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Mascotte
and Pamlico soils in mapping occur as small areas of
Pelham and Plummer soils and small areas of Mascotte
fine sand. Mascotte fine sand is in the higher positions
on the landscape. Pelham and Plummer soils are at the
edges of the mapped areas, between depressions and
the flatwoods. The dissimilar soils are generally in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
The components of this map unit occur as areas so
intricately intermingled that it is not practical to map
them separately at the scale used in mapping. The
proportions and patterns of the Sapelo and Pamlico
soils and of the similar soils are relatively consistent in
most mapped areas.
Permeability is moderately slow in the Mascotte soil
and slow in the Pamlico soil. Available water capacity is
moderate in the Mascotte soil and high in the Pamlico
soil. In most years the seasonal high water table is at
the surface to 12 inches above the surface during wet
periods in both soils.
These soils are in the Scrub Bog-Bay Swamp
ecological community (30). This community is
dominated by gallberry, fetterbush lyonia, myrtleleaf
holly, swamp cyrilla, greenbriers, sweet pepperbush,
and sweetbay and has scattered cypress, slash pine,
and pond pine. Cinnamon fern, maidencane, and
sphagnum moss commonly grow in open areas. Scrub
bogs are predominantly dense masses of evergreen
shrubs that seldom exceed 25 feet in height. Bay
swamps are forested wetlands dominated by one or two
species of evergreen trees. The bay swamps are climax
communities that have mature trees. The scrub bogs
are in the earlier stages of plant succession. Some
areas of scrub bogs remain in the subclimax stage
because of periodic fire. The shrubs have many stems
and thick foliage and commonly appear impenetrable.
This map unit is not suited to pasture, cultivated
crops, or the production of planted pine trees because
of ponding and the seasonal high water table.
This map unit is not suited to septic tank absorption
fields or to dwellings without basements because of the
ponding and the seasonal high water table.
The capability subclass is VIlw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W.


47







Soil Survey


53-Mascotte fine sand, low. This poorly drained,
nearly level soil is in the flatwoods near depressions.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from
about 3 to 40 acres in size. Slopes are nearly smooth to
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 9
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
16 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 22 inches, is black and dark
reddish brown fine sand. Below this, to a depth of 36
inches, is an intervening layer of light gray fine sand.
The lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of 42 inches, is
grayish brown fine sandy loam. The underlying material
to a depth of 80 inches or more is light brownish gray
sandy clay loam.
On 96 percent of the acreage mapped as Mascotte
fine sand, low, Mascotte and similar soils make up 85 to
100 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make
up 0 to 15 percent. On 4 percent of the acreage, the
dissimilar soils make up more than 15 percent of the
mapped areas.
Small areas of Sapelo soils are included in mapping.
These soils are similar to the Mascotte soil.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Mascotte
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Pantego,
Pelham, and Plummer soils. Pelham and Plummer soils
are in the lower positions on the landscape. Pantego
soils are in depressions. The dissimilar soils are
generally in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Permeability is moderately slow in the Mascotte soil.
Available water capacity is moderate. In most years the
seasonal high water table is within a depth of 6 inches
during wet periods.
This soil is in the Scrub Bog-Bay Swamp ecological
community (30). This community is dominated by
gallberry, fetterbush lyonia, myrtleleaf holly, swamp
cyrilla, greenbriers, slash pine, and pond pine.
Cinnamon fern, maidencane, and sphagnum moss
commonly grow in open areas. Scrub bogs are
predominantly dense masses of evergreen shrubs that
seldom exceed 25 feet in height. Bay swamps are
forested wetlands dominated by one or two species of
evergreen trees. The bay swamps are climax
communities that have mature trees. The scrub bogs
are in the earlier stages of plant succession. Some
areas of scrub bogs remain in the subclimax stage
because of periodic fire. The shrubs have many stems
and thick foliage and commonly appear impenetrable.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderately high. Slash pine and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as bedding,
helps to establish seedlings, reduces the seedling
mortality rate, and increases early growth. Chopping
and bedding reduce debris, control competing


vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field machinery
equipped with large tires or tracks and harvesting
during dry periods help to overcome the equipment
limitation and minimize soil compaction and root
damage during thinning activities. Logging systems that
leave plant debris well distributed over the site increase
the content of organic matter and improve fertility. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture
grasses. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass
produce moderately good yields if the pasture is
properly managed. A drainage system is needed to
remove excess water. Controlled grazing and proper
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed for
optimum production.
This soil is very poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
seasonal high water table is a limitation affecting most
crops. A drainage system is needed to remove excess
water. Lime and fertilizer should be applied according to
the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table and a poor filtering capacity
are the main management concerns. If the soil is used
as a site for septic tank absorption fields, mounding
may be needed.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.

54-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level or gently sloping
soil is on narrow, broad ridges and isolated knolls in the
flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from about 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are
nearly smooth or convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 59 inches, is light yellowish brown and
pale yellow fine sand over brownish yellow loamy fine
sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is
gray fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
On 97 percent of the acreage mapped as Albany fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Albany and similar soils
make up 95 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 5 percent. On 3 percent of
the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than 5
percent of the mapped areas.
Soils that are similar to the Albany soil are included
in mapping. These are Hurricane, Ocilla, and Leefield
soils and soils in which the surface layer is less than 6
inches thick.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Albany soil
in mapping occur as small areas of Hurricane, Leefield,
Ocilla, Olustee, and Plummer soils and the moderately


48







Baker County, Florida


wet Blanton soils. Blanton soils are in the higher
positions on the landscape. Plummer and Olustee soils
are in the lower positions on the landscape. Hurricane,
Leefield, and Ocilla soils are in positions on the
landscape similar to those of the Albany soil. The
dissimilar soils are generally in areas less than 3 acres
in size.
Permeability is moderate or moderately slow in the
Albany soil. Available water capacity is low. In most
years the seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12
to 30 inches, except during dry periods. In some years,
during wet periods, it is at a depth of 6 to 12 inches for
as long as 2 weeks.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine
ecological community (30). This community is
dominated by bluejack oak, southern red oak, laurel
oak, and live oak and has common slash pine, loblolly
pine, and longleaf pine. Other common trees include
sweetgum, black cherry, hickory, and water oak.
Common understory plants are hawthorn, blackberry,
sparkleberry, American beautyberry, waxmyrtle,
blueberry, wild plum, and sassafras. Common
herbaceous plants, vines, and grasses include wild
grape, greenbriers, yellow jessamine, trumpet creeper,
broomsedge bluestem, and wiregrass. Quantities and
types of vegetation can vary greatly, depending on the
successional stage. In the climax stage, which has a
closed canopy dominated by oaks, understory
vegetation may be quite sparse.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are


suitable for planting. Site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
reduces the seedling mortality rate, and increases early
growth. Chopping and bedding reduce debris, control
competing vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field
machinery equipped with large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes soil
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Logging systems that leave plant debris well distributed
over the site increase the content of organic matter and
improve fertility. The trees respond well to applications
of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
moderate yields if the pasture is properly managed.
Controlled grazing and proper applications of lime and
fertilizer are needed for optimum production.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops.
Droughtiness and low fertility are limitations affecting
most crops. Irrigation is needed during dry periods.
Residue management, including conservation tillage,
conserves moisture during dry periods and helps to
control erosion. Lime and fertilizer should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields and to dwellings without basements. The
seasonal high water table is the main limitation. If the
soil is used as a site for septic tank absorption fields,
mounding may be needed.
The capability subclass is Ille. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.


49






51


Prime Farmland


In this section, prime farmland is defined and the
soils in Baker County that are considered prime
farmland are listed.
Prime farmland is one of several kinds of important
farmland defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
It is of major importance in meeting the Nation's short-
and long-range needs for food and fiber. The acreage
of high-quality farmland is limited, and the U.S.
Department of Agriculture recognizes that government
at local, State, and Federal levels, as well as
individuals, must encourage and facilitate the wise use
of our Nation's prime farmland.
Prime farmland soils, as defined by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture, are soils that are best suited
to food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops. Such
soils have properties that favor the economic production
of a sustained high yield of crops. The soils need only
to be treated and managed by acceptable farming
methods. The moisture supply must be adequate, and
the growing season must be sufficiently long. Prime
farmland soils produce the highest yields with minimal
expenditure of energy and economic resources.
Farming these soils results in the least damage to the
environment.
Prime farmland soils may presently be used as
cropland, pasture, or woodland or for other purposes.
They either are used for food or fiber or are available
for these uses. Urban or built-up land, public land, and
water areas cannot be considered prime farmland.
Urban or built-up land is any contiguous unit of land 10
acres or more in size that is used for such purposes as
housing, industrial, and commercial sites, sites for
institutions or public buildings, small parks, golf
courses, cemeteries, railroad yards, airports, sanitary
landfills, sewage treatment plants, and water-control
structures. Public land is land not available for farming


in National forests, National parks, military reservations,
and State parks.
Prime farmland soils usually receive an adequate
and dependable supply of moisture from precipitation or
irrigation. The temperature and growing season are
favorable. The acidity or alkalinity level of the soils is
acceptable. The soils have few or no rocks and are
permeable to water and air. They are not excessively
erodible or saturated with water for long periods and
are not frequently flooded during the growing season.
The slope ranges mainly from 0 to 5 percent.
The map units that are considered prime farmland in
Baker County are listed at the end of this section. This
list does not constitute a recommendation for a
particular land use. The location of each map unit is
shown on the detailed soil maps at the back of this
publication. The extent of each unit is given in table 4.
The soil qualities that affect use and management are
described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
Some soils that have a high water table qualify as
prime farmland only in areas where this limitation has
been overcome by drainage measures. If applicable, the
need for these measures is indicated in parentheses
after the map unit name in the following list. Onsite
evaluation is necessary to determine if the limitation has
been overcome by corrective measures. Drainage
systems are not common in Baker County.
The soils identified as prime farmland in Baker
County are:

20 Duplin loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
22 Leefield fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
(where drained)
32 Ocilla fine sand, 0 to 3 percent slopes (where
drained)
44 Rains loamy fine sand (where drained)

















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to
prevent soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as grazing land; as sites for buildings,
sanitary facilities, highways and other transportation
systems, and parks and other recreational facilities; and
for wildlife habitat. It can be used to identify the
potentials and limitations of each soil for specific land
uses and to help prevent construction failures caused
by unfavorable soil properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment. The survey can
help planners to maintain or create a land use pattern
that is in harmony with nature.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
Michael Sweat, county extension director, Florida Cooperative
Extension Service, and Fletcher Stephens, district conservationist,
Natural Resources Conservation Service, helped prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants


best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Natural
Resources Conservation Service is explained; and the
estimated yields of the main crops and hay and pasture
plants are listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under the heading
"Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific information can be
obtained from the local office of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service.
About 28,000 acres in Baker County is farmland (33).
Of this total, about 10,000 acres is cropland and 17,000
acres is pastureland (fig. 15). The acreage used for
crops and pasture has gradually been decreasing as
more and more land is used for urban development.
Erosion is a hazard on the cropland and pastureland
in Baker County. Information on the design of erosion-
control measures for each kind of soil is available in
local offices of the Natural Resources Conservation
Service.
On cultivated cropland that is tilled with disks and
plows, water erosion occurs at a rate of up to 5 tons of
soil loss per acre per year on about 5,400 acres, 5 to
10 tons per acre per year on 1,500 acres, and greater
than 10 tons per acre per year on 100 acres. Under
natural conditions, most of the soils in Baker County
can tolerate 5 tons of soil loss per acre per year without
a substantial loss in productivity.
Soil blowing or wind erosion can be a hazard on the
better drained sandy soils and on the more poorly
drained sandy soils that have been drained. It can
damage crops in a few hours if the wind is strong and
the soil is dry and bare of vegetation or surface mulch.
Soil blowing can be minimized by maintaining a
vegetative cover or surface mulch; by planting
windbreaks of adapted plants, such as pine, redcedar,
and myrtle; and by planting properly spaced, temporary
strips of seasonal small grain at a right angle to the
prevailing wind.
Wind erosion occurs on fields that are bare and

















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to
prevent soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as grazing land; as sites for buildings,
sanitary facilities, highways and other transportation
systems, and parks and other recreational facilities; and
for wildlife habitat. It can be used to identify the
potentials and limitations of each soil for specific land
uses and to help prevent construction failures caused
by unfavorable soil properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment. The survey can
help planners to maintain or create a land use pattern
that is in harmony with nature.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
Michael Sweat, county extension director, Florida Cooperative
Extension Service, and Fletcher Stephens, district conservationist,
Natural Resources Conservation Service, helped prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants


best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Natural
Resources Conservation Service is explained; and the
estimated yields of the main crops and hay and pasture
plants are listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under the heading
"Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific information can be
obtained from the local office of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service.
About 28,000 acres in Baker County is farmland (33).
Of this total, about 10,000 acres is cropland and 17,000
acres is pastureland (fig. 15). The acreage used for
crops and pasture has gradually been decreasing as
more and more land is used for urban development.
Erosion is a hazard on the cropland and pastureland
in Baker County. Information on the design of erosion-
control measures for each kind of soil is available in
local offices of the Natural Resources Conservation
Service.
On cultivated cropland that is tilled with disks and
plows, water erosion occurs at a rate of up to 5 tons of
soil loss per acre per year on about 5,400 acres, 5 to
10 tons per acre per year on 1,500 acres, and greater
than 10 tons per acre per year on 100 acres. Under
natural conditions, most of the soils in Baker County
can tolerate 5 tons of soil loss per acre per year without
a substantial loss in productivity.
Soil blowing or wind erosion can be a hazard on the
better drained sandy soils and on the more poorly
drained sandy soils that have been drained. It can
damage crops in a few hours if the wind is strong and
the soil is dry and bare of vegetation or surface mulch.
Soil blowing can be minimized by maintaining a
vegetative cover or surface mulch; by planting
windbreaks of adapted plants, such as pine, redcedar,
and myrtle; and by planting properly spaced, temporary
strips of seasonal small grain at a right angle to the
prevailing wind.
Wind erosion occurs on fields that are bare and







Soil Survey


Figure 15.-Pasture in an area of Ocilla fine sand, 0 to 3 percent slopes.


exposed to the wind during the months of January,
February, March, and April. Wind erosion occurs at an
estimated rate of up to 2 tons of soil loss per acre per
year on 5,000 acres, 2 to 5 tons per acre per year on
1,500 acres, and 5 to 10 tons per acre per year on 500
acres.
Soil drainage is a major management need on most
of the acreage used for crops and pasture in the
county. Some soils are wet and need artificial drainage
or water control for the production of specialty crops
and pasture grasses. These soils include the poorly
drained Boulogne, Leon, Mascotte, Pelham, Plummer,
Pottsburg, and Sapelo soils and the very poorly drained
Allanton and Kingsferry soils. Albany, Blanton,
Hurricane, Leefield, Ocilla, Ortega, and Ridgewood soils
have good natural drainage and tend to dry out quickly
after rains. Irrigation is needed for crop production
during periods of low rainfall.
The design of both surface and subsurface drainage
systems varies with the kind of soils. Surface drainage
is needed in most areas of poorly drained and very


poorly drained soils that are used for specialty crops or
pasture. If surface ditches are used, the poorly drained
soils in the flatwoods are well suited to improved
pasture grasses. Unless some of the poorly drained
soils are artificially drained, excessive wetness can
cause some damage to pasture grasses during wet
seasons.
Soil fertility is naturally low in most soils in the survey
area. Most of the soils are naturally acid.
On all soils, additions of lime and fertilizer should be
based on the results of soil tests, on the needs of the
crop, and on the expected level of yields. The
Cooperative Extension Service can help in determining
the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime to apply.
Field crops grown in the county include corn, grain
sorghum, soybeans, vegetables, watermelons, and
some tobacco. The corn and grain sorghum are used
as feed for beef cattle and swine.
Some specialty crops are also grown in the county.
The latest information and suggestions for growing
specialty crops can be obtained from the local offices of







Baker County, Florida


the Cooperative Extension Service and the Natural
Resources Conservation Service.
In areas of similar climate and topography,
differences in the kinds and amounts of forage that a
pasture can produce are closely related to the kind of
soil. Pasture management is based on the relationships
among soils, pasture plants, lime and fertilizer, and
grazing systems. Yields can be increased by adding
lime and fertilizer and by including grass-legume
mixtures in the cropping system.
The major pasture plants in the county are improved
bermudagrass and bahiagrass. Excess grass is
harvested as hay for winter feed or is sold. Millet,
sorghum, and Sudan hybrids are grown during the
summer for green manure crops and for grazing. Rye,
wheat, and oats are grown during the winter as forage.

Yields per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management
are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table
because of variations in rainfall and other climatic
factors. The land capability classification also is shown
in the table.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain the indicated
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Management can include drainage,
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop
varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable
soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures
the smallest possible loss.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
likely to increase as new production technology is
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service or
of the Cooperative Extension Service can provide


information about the management and productivity of
the soils for those crops.

Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general
way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops
that require special management are excluded. The
soils are grouped according to their limitations for field
crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops,
and the way they respond to management. The criteria
used in grouping the soils do not include major and
generally expensive landforming that would change
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for
interpretations designed to show suitability and
limitations of groups of soils for woodland or for
engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
at three levels-capability class, subclass, and unit.
Only class and subclass are used in this survey.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate
conservation practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The
letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of
erosion unless a close-growing plant cover is
maintained; w shows that water in or on the soil
interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some soils


55







Soil Survey


the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial
drainage); s shows that the soil is limited mainly
because it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in
only some parts of the United States, shows that the
chief limitation is climate that is very cold or very dry.
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V
are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, woodland,
wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V contains only the
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c.
The capability classification of each map unit is given
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" and in the
yields table.

Woodland Management and Productivity
Prepared by Jay Tucker, county forester, Baker County; Barry L.
Coulliett, senior forest ranger, Florida Division of Forestry; and Keith
Lawrence, district ranger, Forest Service, Osceola National Forest.
About 355,566 acres, or 90 percent of Baker County,
is used as woodland (35). About 57 percent of this
woodland is owned by forest industries, 14 percent by
private individuals, 28 percent by the Federal
Government, and 1 percent by the State of Florida.
Forestry has played an important role in the
economic development of Baker County. Before the first
settlers arrived, longleaf pine dominated the better
drained areas, loblolly pine grew along the St. Mary's
River and its tributaries, and slash pine grew on the
wetter soils in the flatwoods. Burning practices favored
grasses and native grazing. Longleaf pine was the only
tree that could withstand the hot fires. Baldcypress,
pondcypress, blackgum, sweetgum, red maple, and
loblolly-bay, redbay, and sweetbay were the principal
trees on the flood plains, around ponds, and in
drainageways and swamps.
Harvesting timber, collecting gum naval stores, and
cutting railroad crossties once provided many jobs to
area residents. In the past and to some extent in the
present, timber cutting practices by private landowners
have failed to provide adequate regeneration of
commercially important species. Also, fire prevention
allows undesirable hardwoods to grow, further inhibiting
the establishment and growth of pine trees.
The soils and climate of Baker County are well suited
to southern pines. Slash pine is the dominant
commercial species in the county. Loblolly pine occurs
naturally on Duplin and Pelham soils along the St.
Mary's River and its tributaries. Natural stands of
longleaf pine are scattered throughout the area on
Albany, Blanton, Bonneau, Hurricane, Kershaw,
Leefield, Ortega, Penney, Ridgewood, and Troup soils.
The trees respond well to applications of nitrogen,
phosphorus, and potassium. Loblolly pine and slash


pine grow best if an adequate amount of phosphorus is
applied. Additional applications of fertilizer at
midrotation should be based on soil tests or tissue
analysis. Timber management consists mainly of
clearcutting and intensive site preparation. The thinning
of pine stands for residual sawtimber growth and
salvage purposes is practiced on a small scale in the
area. Prescribed burning is very important for slash
removal during site preparation, for reducing the wildfire
hazard in established stands, and for encouraging the
growth of grasses and forbs that provide food or cover
for cattle and a diversity of wildlife species.
On the poorly drained soils that are dominant in most
of Baker County, management practices involve the
seasonal wetness and plant competition. Equipment use
is severely restricted during wet times. Plant
competition from heavy brush and hardwood sprouting
can severely affect seedling survival and growth. Site
preparation, such as chopping and bedding, helps to
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality rate,
and increases early growth. Bedding is needed so that
natural drainage is not blocked.
A strong demand for timber is expected to continue
well into the next century. This anticipated demand,
along with the pressure to increase overall farm
revenues, has prompted many landowners to be
concerned with managing timber for maximum
production.
Before the most can be made of an investment in
commercial woodland, suitable trees must be selected
for planting. This selection can be made through an
evaluation of soil productivity as it relates to tree
growth, which is determined mainly by the physical and
chemical properties of the soil. One of the most
important considerations affecting the productive
capacity is the ability of the soil to provide adequate
moisture. Other factors include thickness of the surface
layer and its organic matter content, the natural supply
of plant nutrients, the texture and consistence of the soil
material, aeration, internal drainage, and depth to and
duration of the seasonal high water table.
A well managed stand of trees can conserve soil and
water resources. It protects the soil against erosion.
The tree cover allows more moisture to enter the soil
and thus increases the supply of ground water.
There are plentiful markets for wood products in the
county. Within a 60-mile radius, there are six pulp
mills-two in Jacksonville, two in Fernandina Beach,
and two nearby in Georgia. Chip-n-saw logs, pole-
timber, and veneer timber are aggressively marketed
and sold to neighboring mills. Timber buyers and
loggers are abundant. More than 20 companies serve
the area. The market for cypress sawtimber is growing.
Cypress is generally sawed locally for fencing and


56







Baker County, Florida


rough lumber. The residual material is sold as mulch.
The Osceola National Forest is in the midwestern
part of the survey area along the border between
Columbia and Baker Counties. The primary
considerations for management are timber production,
wildlife habitat, and recreational opportunities. Current
management practices include thinning, prescribed
burning, natural pine reproduction, clearcutting and tree
planting, and improving the habitat for wildlife. Diversity
in management practices is a key element.
More detailed information on woodland management
can be obtained from the local office of the Natural
Resources Conservation Service, the Cooperative
Extension Service, or the Florida Division of Forestry.
Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Available
water capacity and depth of the root zone have major
effects on tree growth. Fertility and texture also
influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate
determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site.
Elevation and aspect are of particular importance in
mountainous areas.
This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
planning ways to increase the productivity of forest
land. Some soils respond better to applications of
fertilizer than others, and some are more susceptible to
landslides and erosion after roads are built and timber
is harvested. Some soils require special reforestation
efforts. In the section "Detailed Soil Map Units," the
description of each map unit in the survey area suitable
for timber includes information about productivity,
limitations in harvesting timber, and management
concerns in producing timber. The common forest
understory plants also are listed. Table 6 summarizes
this forestry information and rates the soils for a number
of factors to be considered in management. Slight,
moderate, and severe are used to indicate the degree of
the major soil limitations to be considered in forest
management.
Table 6 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator
species in cords per acre. The larger the number, the
greater the potential productivity. Potential productivity
is based on the site quality and site index.
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation affecting use
and management. The letter R indicates a soil that has
a significant limitation because of steepness of slope.
The letter X indicates that a soil has restrictions
because of stones or rocks on the surface. The letter W
indicates a soil in which excessive water, either
seasonal or year-round, causes a significant limitation.
The letter T indicates a soil that has, within the root
zone, excessive alkalinity or acidity, sodium salts, or


other toxic substances that limit the development of
desirable trees. The letter D indicates a soil that has a
limitation because of a restricted rooting depth, such as
a shallow soil that is underlain by hard bedrock, a
hardpan, or other layers that restrict roots. The letter C
indicates a soil that has a limitation because of the kind
or amount of clay in the upper part of the soil. The letter
S indicates a dry, sandy soil. The letter F indicates a
soil that has a large amount of coarse fragments. The
letter A indicates a soil having no significant limitations
that affect forest use and management. If a soil has
more than one limitation, the priority is as follows: R, X,
W, T, D, C, S, and F.
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the
use of forest management equipment, year-round or
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope,
wetness, stoniness, and susceptibility of the surface
layer to compaction. As slope gradient and length
increase, it becomes more difficult to use wheeled
equipment. On the steeper slopes, tracked equipment is
needed. On the steepest slopes, even tracked
equipment cannot be operated and more sophisticated
systems are needed. The rating is slight if equipment
use is restricted by wetness for less than 2 months and
if special equipment is not needed. The rating is
moderate if slopes are so steep that wheeled equipment
cannot be operated safely across the slope, if wetness
restricts equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, if
stoniness restricts the use of ground-based equipment,
or if special equipment is needed to prevent or minimize
compaction. The rating is severe if slopes are so steep
that tracked equipment cannot be operated safely
across the slope, if wetness restricts equipment use for
more than 6 months per year, if stoniness restricts the
use of ground-based equipment, or if special equipment
is needed to prevent or minimize compaction. Ratings
of moderate or severe indicate a need to choose the
best suited equipment and to carefully plan the timing of
harvesting and other management activities.
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
the death of naturally occurring or properly planted
seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall, as
influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features.
Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much
water or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil
for seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer,
depth to a seasonal high water table and the length of
the period when the water table is high, rock fragments
in the surface layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of
the slope. The mortality rate generally is highest on
soils that have a sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk
is slight if, after site preparation, expected mortality is
less than 25 percent; moderate if expected mortality is
between 25 and 50 percent; and severe if expected


57







Soil Survey


mortality exceeds 50 percent. Ratings of moderate or
severe indicate that it may be necessary to use
containerized or larger than usual planting stock or to
make special site preparations, such as bedding,
furrowing, installing a surface drainage system, and
providing artificial shade for seedlings. Reinforcement
planting is often needed if the risk is moderate or
severe.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
competition is more severe on the more productive
soils, on poorly drained soils, on dry, sandy soils, and
on soils having a restricted root zone that holds
moisture. The risk is slight if competition from
undesirable plants hinders adequate natural or artificial
reforestation but does not necessitate intensive site
preparation and maintenance. The risk is moderate if
competition from undesirable plants hinders natural or
artificial reforestation to the extent that intensive site
preparation and maintenance are needed. The risk is
severe if competition from undesirable plants prevents
adequate natural or artificial reforestation unless the
site is intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate
or severe rating indicates the need for site preparation
to ensure the development of an adequately stocked
stand. Managers must plan site preparation measures
to ensure reforestation without delays.
The potential productivity of merchantable or common
trees on a soil is expressed as a site index and as a
volume number. The site index is the average height, in
feet, that dominant and codominant trees of a given
species attain in a specified number of years. The site
index applies to fully stocked, even-aged, unmanaged
stands. Commonly grown trees are those that woodland
managers generally favor in intermediate or
improvement cuttings. They are selected on the basis of
growth rate, quality, value, and marketability.
The volume, a number, is the yield likely to be
produced by the most important trees. This number,
expressed as cubic feet per acre per year, indicates the
amount of fiber produced in a fully stocked, even-aged,
unmanaged stand (6, 21, 27).
Site quality is the average height, in feet, at age 25
years. It applies to fully stocked, even-aged, managed
pine plantations. Productivity is the number of cords per
acre per year based on the 25-year average of
corresponding site quality.
The first species listed under common trees for a soil
is the indicator species for that soil. It is the dominant
species on the soil and the one that determines the
ordination class.
Trees to plant are those that are suitable for
commercial wood production.
More detailed information about woodland


management can be obtained from local offices of the
Natural Resources Conservation Service, the
Cooperative Extension Service, and the Florida Division
of Forestry.

Grazing Land
Sid B. Brontly, range conservationist, Natural Resources
Conservation Service, prepared this section.
Grazing land in Baker County is tame pasture, which
is primarily bahiagrass or bermudagrass, and grazable
woodland, which supports native grasses, forbs, and
legumes for use as forage by livestock and wildlife. An
estimated 6,000 acres of tame pasture and 150,000
acres of grazable woodland provide food and habitat for
5,500 head of cattle and for many species of wildlife.
Many of the smaller, private tracts and much of the
Forest Service land are fenced and provide grazing for
livestock. Many of the larger wooded tracts owned by
timber companies are not fenced, and the forage
produced is not utilized.
Because forage production and availability are
directly related to the tree canopy, the different age
classes of trees result in a wide variation in forage
production within a given tract. In some places, large
areas must be fenced to provide adequate forage for a
small number of cattle.
Grazable woodland has an understory of native
grasses, legumes, forbs, and shrubs. The understory is

an integral part of the forest plant community. The
native plants can be grazed without significantly
impairing other forest values. Grazing is compatible with
timber management if it is controlled or managed in
such a manner that both timber and forage resources
are maintained or enhanced. Prescribed burning is an
important part of the woodland grazing system.
Understory vegetation is grazed by livestock and by
wildlife. Some woodland, if well managed, can produce
enough understory vegetation to support grazing by
optimum numbers of livestock and wildlife.
Forage production on grazable woodland varies
according to the different kinds of grazable woodland,
the amount of shade cast by the canopy, the
accumulation of fallen needles and leaves, the time and
intensity of grazing, and the number, size, spacing, and
method of site preparation for tree plantings.
Pastures in Baker County provide forage and habitat
for a variety of wildlife species and provide filtration and
storage for some of the county's freshwater supply.
Pastures are managed by livestock producers and
provide forage for a majority of the cattle in the county.
Bahiagrass and bermudagrass are the main hay crops
grown in the county. Sound management practices
generally include using planned grazing systems,


58







Baker County, Florida


maintaining the proper stubble height, controlling
weeds, and applying proper amounts of fertilizer and
lime.
Stubble on bahiagrass is successfully managed at a
height of about 2 inches. A successful grazing system
includes short grazing periods followed by a rest period
of 3 to 4 weeks. Stubble on bermudagrass is best
managed at a height of about 4 inches. Grazing periods
should be followed by a rest period of 4 to 6 weeks.

Ecological Communities
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Natural Resources Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
The concept of ecological communities is based on
the awareness that a specific soil type commonly
supports a specific vegetative community, which in turn
provides the habitat needed by a specific wildlife
species.
These vegetative communities are generally
recognizable on the landscape by a casual observer
after only a minimal amount of training. Even with no
botanical training, an observer can soon distinguish
between pine flatwoods and pine-turkey oak sandhills,
between hardwood hammocks and cypress swamps,
and between mangrove swamps and salt marshes.
After the ecological community is identified,
generalizations can be made concerning the
characteristics of the soil and the types of plants and
animals. Some plants grow only within a very narrow
range of conditions, but many plants can survive under
a wide range of conditions. Individual plants that have a
wide tolerance level may occur in many different
communities and on a variety of soil types. When
describing ecological communities, botanists study the
patterns of vegetative occurrence-what species are
there, their relative abundance, the stage of plant
succession, which species are dominant, their position
on the landscape, and the types of soil on which this
pattern occurs. Recognizable patterns of vegetation are
generally found on a small group of soil types with
common characteristics. Through many years of field
observation, the Natural Resources Conservation
Service has determined which vegetative communities
commonly occur on specific soils throughout Florida
(30).
In the section "Detailed Soil Map Units," the
vegetative communities occurring in each map unit
during the climax state of plant succession are
described. The descriptions of the ecological
communities are based on the vegetation that would
commonly occur under relatively natural conditions;
however, human activities, such as pine plantings,


agriculture, urbanization, and fire suppression, may
have altered a community on a specific site.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several
rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous
trees and shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Information on planning windbreaks and screens and
on planting and caring for trees and shrubs can be
obtained from local offices of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a commercial nursery.

Recreation
In table 7, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational uses by the duration and intensity of
flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of the
height, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 7, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,


59







Baker County, Florida


maintaining the proper stubble height, controlling
weeds, and applying proper amounts of fertilizer and
lime.
Stubble on bahiagrass is successfully managed at a
height of about 2 inches. A successful grazing system
includes short grazing periods followed by a rest period
of 3 to 4 weeks. Stubble on bermudagrass is best
managed at a height of about 4 inches. Grazing periods
should be followed by a rest period of 4 to 6 weeks.

Ecological Communities
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Natural Resources Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
The concept of ecological communities is based on
the awareness that a specific soil type commonly
supports a specific vegetative community, which in turn
provides the habitat needed by a specific wildlife
species.
These vegetative communities are generally
recognizable on the landscape by a casual observer
after only a minimal amount of training. Even with no
botanical training, an observer can soon distinguish
between pine flatwoods and pine-turkey oak sandhills,
between hardwood hammocks and cypress swamps,
and between mangrove swamps and salt marshes.
After the ecological community is identified,
generalizations can be made concerning the
characteristics of the soil and the types of plants and
animals. Some plants grow only within a very narrow
range of conditions, but many plants can survive under
a wide range of conditions. Individual plants that have a
wide tolerance level may occur in many different
communities and on a variety of soil types. When
describing ecological communities, botanists study the
patterns of vegetative occurrence-what species are
there, their relative abundance, the stage of plant
succession, which species are dominant, their position
on the landscape, and the types of soil on which this
pattern occurs. Recognizable patterns of vegetation are
generally found on a small group of soil types with
common characteristics. Through many years of field
observation, the Natural Resources Conservation
Service has determined which vegetative communities
commonly occur on specific soils throughout Florida
(30).
In the section "Detailed Soil Map Units," the
vegetative communities occurring in each map unit
during the climax state of plant succession are
described. The descriptions of the ecological
communities are based on the vegetation that would
commonly occur under relatively natural conditions;
however, human activities, such as pine plantings,


agriculture, urbanization, and fire suppression, may
have altered a community on a specific site.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several
rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous
trees and shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Information on planning windbreaks and screens and
on planting and caring for trees and shrubs can be
obtained from local offices of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a commercial nursery.

Recreation
In table 7, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational uses by the duration and intensity of
flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of the
height, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 7, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,


59







Baker County, Florida


maintaining the proper stubble height, controlling
weeds, and applying proper amounts of fertilizer and
lime.
Stubble on bahiagrass is successfully managed at a
height of about 2 inches. A successful grazing system
includes short grazing periods followed by a rest period
of 3 to 4 weeks. Stubble on bermudagrass is best
managed at a height of about 4 inches. Grazing periods
should be followed by a rest period of 4 to 6 weeks.

Ecological Communities
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Natural Resources Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
The concept of ecological communities is based on
the awareness that a specific soil type commonly
supports a specific vegetative community, which in turn
provides the habitat needed by a specific wildlife
species.
These vegetative communities are generally
recognizable on the landscape by a casual observer
after only a minimal amount of training. Even with no
botanical training, an observer can soon distinguish
between pine flatwoods and pine-turkey oak sandhills,
between hardwood hammocks and cypress swamps,
and between mangrove swamps and salt marshes.
After the ecological community is identified,
generalizations can be made concerning the
characteristics of the soil and the types of plants and
animals. Some plants grow only within a very narrow
range of conditions, but many plants can survive under
a wide range of conditions. Individual plants that have a
wide tolerance level may occur in many different
communities and on a variety of soil types. When
describing ecological communities, botanists study the
patterns of vegetative occurrence-what species are
there, their relative abundance, the stage of plant
succession, which species are dominant, their position
on the landscape, and the types of soil on which this
pattern occurs. Recognizable patterns of vegetation are
generally found on a small group of soil types with
common characteristics. Through many years of field
observation, the Natural Resources Conservation
Service has determined which vegetative communities
commonly occur on specific soils throughout Florida
(30).
In the section "Detailed Soil Map Units," the
vegetative communities occurring in each map unit
during the climax state of plant succession are
described. The descriptions of the ecological
communities are based on the vegetation that would
commonly occur under relatively natural conditions;
however, human activities, such as pine plantings,


agriculture, urbanization, and fire suppression, may
have altered a community on a specific site.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several
rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous
trees and shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Information on planning windbreaks and screens and
on planting and caring for trees and shrubs can be
obtained from local offices of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a commercial nursery.

Recreation
In table 7, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational uses by the duration and intensity of
flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of the
height, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 7, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,


59







Soil Survey


intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
of these measures.
The information in table 7 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
10 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
and for local roads and streets in table 9.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few
or no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after
rains, and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed,
the depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should
be considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They
have moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Natural Resources Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
Baker County is primarily rural and provides good
wildlife habitat. The large swamps along the St. Mary's


River and its larger tributaries and the large tracts of
pine flatwoods are the primary habitat types. In 1990,
the Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission had
over 40,000 acres of timberland open to the public in
the Lake Butler Management Area, 100,672 acres in the
Osceola Wildlife Management Area (the Osceola
National Forest), and 3,600 acres in the Okefenokee
National Wildlife Refuge. Also, large acreages are
leased to individual hunting clubs. Current forestry
practices, such as clearcutting and burning, heavily
favor wildlife food and cover.
Primary game species include white-tailed deer,
squirrels, turkey, bobwhite quail, feral hogs, and
waterfowl. Nongame species include raccoon, rabbit,
armadillo, opossum, skunks, bobcat, gray fox, red fox,
otter, and a variety of songbirds, wading birds,
woodpeckers, predatory birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
The freshwater streams provide good fishing. Game
and nongame fish species include largemouth bass,
channel catfish, bullhead catfish, bluegill, redear
sunfish, spotted sunfish, warmouth, black crappie, chain
pickerel, gar, bowfin, and suckers.
Some endangered and threatened species inhabit the
survey area. Examples are the rare red-cockaded
woodpecker and the more common alligator. A detailed
list of these species and information on their range and
habitat needs are available at the local office of the
Natural Resources Conservation Service.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat
can be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable
plants.
In table 8, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
the intensity of management needed for each element
of the habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for







Baker County, Florida


satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain
and seed crops are corn, wheat, browntop millet, and
grain sorghum.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flooding,
and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
fescue, cowpea, bahiagrass, clover, and alfalfa.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod,
beggarweed, partridge pea, and switchgrass.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
these plants are oak, maple, wild grape, cherry,
sweetgum, cabbage-palm, willow, bay, hawthorn,
dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and blueberry. Examples
of fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for planting on
soils rated good are wild plum, autumn-olive, and
crabapple.
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar,
and juniper.


Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
plants are smartweed, wild millet, pickerelweed,
wildrice, saltgrass, cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and
reeds.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water-control
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas,
ponds, and swamps.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described
in the following paragraphs.
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas
produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,
and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these
areas include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field
sparrow, cottontail, and red fox.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels,
gray fox, raccoon, deer, and bear.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore
birds, otters, alligators, mink, and beaver.

Engineering
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features are identified. Ratings are given
for building site development, sanitary facilities,
construction materials, and water management. The
ratings are based on observed performance of the soils
and on the estimated data and test data in the "Soil
Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet.


61







Soil Survey


Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this
section. Local ordinances and regulations should be
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 or 6 feet of the
surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
fractions, and the kinds of adsorbed cations. Estimates
were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity,
shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, and
other behavioral characteristics affecting engineering
uses.
This information can be used to evaluate the
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
and recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and predict performance of proposed
small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same
or similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil
maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
this survey, can be used to make additional
interpretations.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
"Glossary."

Building Site Development
Table 9 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and


without basements, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and
site features are generally favorable for the indicated
use and limitations are minor and easily overcome;
moderate if soil properties or site features are not
favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to
overcome that special design, significant increases in
construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
are required. Special feasibility studies may be required
where the soil limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to
bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm, dense layer;
stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the
year that excavations can be made is affected by the
depth to a seasonal high water table and the
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of
the excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is
affected by soil texture and depth to the water table.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are
made for small commercial buildings without
basements, for dwellings with basements, and for
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on
soil properties, site features, and observed performance
of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrinking and
swelling, and organic layers can cause the movement of
footings. A high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan, large stones, and flooding affect the
ease of excavation and construction. Landscaping and
grading that require cuts and fills of more than 5 or 6
feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.
They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base
of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized fill material; and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a
high water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect
the ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil),
shrink-swell potential, the potential for frost action, and


62







Baker County, Florida


depth to a high water table affect the traffic-supporting
capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Soil reaction, a high water table, depth to
bedrock or to a cemented pan, the available water
capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the content of
salts, sodium, and sulfidic materials affect plant growth.
Flooding, wetness, slope, stoniness, and the amount of
sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface layer affect
trafficability after vegetation is established.
Sanitary Facilities
Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
are considered slight if soil properties and site features
are generally favorable for the indicated use and
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
special design, significant increases in construction
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are
required.
Table 10 also shows the suitability of the soils for
use as daily cover for landfill. A rating of good indicates
that soil properties and site features are favorable for
the use and that good performance and low
maintenance can be expected; fair indicates that soil
properties and site features are moderately favorable
for the use and one or more soil properties or site
features make the soil less desirable than the soils
rated good; and poor indicates that one or more soil
properties or site features are unfavorable for the use
and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires
special design, extra maintenance, or costly alteration.
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 60 inches is
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to a high water table, depth to
bedrock or to a cemented pan, and flooding affect
absorption of the effluent. Large stones and bedrock or
a cemented pan interfere with installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect


public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material
beneath the absorption field to filter the effluent
effectively. Many local ordinances require that this
material be of a certain thickness.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the
solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly
level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
required to minimize seepage and contamination of
ground water.
Table 10 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. Considered in
the ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high
water table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
flooding, large stones, and content of organic matter.
Excessive seepage resulting from rapid permeability
in the soil or a water table that is high enough to raise
the level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to
function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is
excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high
content of organic matter is detrimental to proper
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic
activity. Slope, bedrock, and cemented pans can cause
construction problems, and large stones can hinder
compaction of the lagoon floor.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in
successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste
is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin
layer of soil from a source away from the site.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground-
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
should be considered.
The ratings in table 10 are based on soil properties,
site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a
high water table, slope, and flooding affect both types of
landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly organic


63







Soil Survey


layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and sodium
affect trench landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the
ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth
of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated
slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite
investigation is needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
to cover compacted solid waste in an area sanitary
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to wind
erosion.
After soil material has been removed, the soil
material remaining in the borrow area must be thick
enough over bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water
table to permit revegetation. The soil material used as
final cover for a landfill should be suitable for plants.
The surface layer generally has the best workability,
more organic matter, and the best potential for plants.
Material from the surface layer should be stockpiled for
use as the final cover.

Construction Materials
Table 11 gives information about the soils as a
source of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils
are rated good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and
topsoil. They are rated as a probable or improbable
source of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on
soil properties and site features that affect the removal
of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
compaction, minor processing, and other standard
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
and used in road embankments in another place. In this
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
exacting in design than higher embankments.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
their profile. The table showing engineering index
properties provides detailed information about each soil
layer. This information can help to determine the
suitability of each layer for use as roadfill. The
performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or
cement is not considered in the ratings.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site


features, and observed performance of the soils. The
thickness of suitable material is a major consideration.
The ease of excavation is affected by large stones, a
high water table, and slope. How well the soil performs
in place after it has been compacted and drained is
determined by its strength (as inferred from the
engineering classification of the soil) and shrink-swell
potential.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
material, a low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
plasticity index of less than 10. They have a moderate
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
more than 25 percent. They are wet and have a water
table at a depth of less than 1 foot. They may have
layers of suitable material, but the material is less than
3 feet thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. They
are used in many kinds of construction. Specifications
for each use vary widely. In table 11, only the
probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect
excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source
of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as
indicated by the engineering classification of the soil),
the thickness of suitable material, and the content of
rock fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification
are given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of
grain sizes is given in the table on engineering index
properties.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of
clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is
up to 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at
least 3 feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight,
large stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as
shale and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and
gravel.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
can be established and maintained. The upper 40
inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also
evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow
area.
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and


64







Baker County, Florida


fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of
less than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble
salts, are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer,
and are not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have
a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20
to 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts,
or soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils
are not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large
amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes
of more than 15 percent, or have a seasonal high water
table at or near the surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
for topsoil because of its organic matter content.
Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and
retention of moisture and releases a variety of plant
nutrients as it decomposes.

Water Management
Table 12 gives information on the soil properties and
site features that affect water management. The degree
and kind of limitations are given for pond reservoir
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
excavated ponds. The limitations are considered slight if
soil properties and site features are generally favorable
for the indicated use and limitations are minor and are
easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site
features are not favorable for the indicated use and
special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
properties or site features are so unfavorable or so
difficult to overcome that special design, significant
increase in construction costs, and possibly increased
maintenance are required.
This table also gives the restrictive features that
affect each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and
diversions, and grassed waterways.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage
capacity of the reservoir area.


Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
constructed to impound water or to protect land against
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the
soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about
5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly
mixed and compacted during construction.
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth greater than the height of the embankment can
affect performance and safety of the embankment.
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
determine these properties.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features
include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high
content of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts
or sodium. A high water table affects the amount of
usable material. It also affects trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
impound water 3 feet or more above the original
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a
permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and
the salinity of the soil. Depth to bedrock and the content
of large stones affect the ease of excavation.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth
to a high water table or depth of standing water if the
soil is subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to
flooding; subsidence of organic layers; and the potential
for frost action. Excavating and grading and the stability
of ditchbanks are affected by depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan, large stones, slope, and the hazard of
cutbanks caving. The productivity of the soil after
drainage is adversely affected by extreme acidity or by
toxic substances in the root zone, such as salts,
sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is not
considered in the ratings.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The
design and management of an irrigation system are
affected by depth to the water table, the need for
drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The
construction of a system is affected by large stones and
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan. The


65







66


performance of a system is affected by the depth of the
root zone, the amount of salts or sodium, and soil
reaction.
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
combination of channels and ridges constructed across
a slope to control erosion and conserve moisture by
intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the
construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind erosion or water
erosion, an excessively coarse texture, and restricted


permeability adversely affect maintenance.
Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available
water capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic
substances such as salts or sodium, and restricted
permeability adversely affect the growth and
maintenance of the grass after construction.






67


Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during
the course of the soil survey. The data and the
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are
explained on the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity,
and compaction characteristics. These results are
reported in table 19.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help to characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the
upper 5 or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil
series under the heading "Soil Series and Their
Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27


percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as about 15 percent, an appropriate
modifier is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural
terms are defined in the "Glossary."
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
for example, SP-SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
for soils tested, with group index numbers in
parentheses, is given in table 19.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard






67


Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during
the course of the soil survey. The data and the
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are
explained on the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity,
and compaction characteristics. These results are
reported in table 19.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help to characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the
upper 5 or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil
series under the heading "Soil Series and Their
Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27


percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as about 15 percent, an appropriate
modifier is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural
terms are defined in the "Glossary."
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
for example, SP-SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
for soils tested, with group index numbers in
parentheses, is given in table 19.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard







Soil Survey


Series), have openings of 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area
or from nearby areas and on field examination.
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit,
and plasticity index are generally rounded to the
nearest 5 percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and
Atterberg limits extend a marginal amount (1 or 2
percentage points) across classification boundaries, the
classification in the marginal zone is omitted in the
table.

Physical and Chemical Properties

Table 14 shows estimates of some characteristics
and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey
area. The estimates are based on field observations
and on test data for these and similar soils.
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter.
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the
soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain
moisture. They influence the shrink-swell potential,
permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, and
other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in a
soil also affect tillage and earthmoving operations.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at
/3-bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential,
available water capacity, total pore space, and other
soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates
the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk
density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and
root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by
texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil
structure.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of
movement of water through the soil when the soil is


saturated. They are based on soil characteristics
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil
drainage systems and septic tank absorption fields.
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
plants. The capacity for water storage is given in inches
of water per inch of soil for each major soil layer. The
capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect
the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
The most important properties are the content of
organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
design and management of irrigation systems. Available
water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
water actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
corrosion.
Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
minerals with water and varies with the amount and
type of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on
the soil and the magnitude of the change in soil
moisture content influence the amount of swelling of
soils in place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For
others, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind
and amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
measurements of similar soils.
If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
often needed.
Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
classes are low, a change of less than 3 percent;
moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high, more than 6
percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent, is sometimes
used.
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil
to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates
are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and


68







Baker County, Florida


organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69.
The higher the value, the more susceptible the soil is to
sheet and rill erosion by water.
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water
that can occur without affecting crop productivity over a
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion. Soils are grouped
according to the following distinctions:
1. Coarse sands, sands, fine sands, and very fine
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult
to establish.
2. Loamy coarse sands, loamy sands, loamy fine
sands, loamy very fine sands, and sapric soil material.
These soils are very highly erodible. Crops can be
grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion are
used.
3. Coarse sandy loams, sandy loams, fine sandy
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are
highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive
measures to control wind erosion are used.
4L. Calcareous loams, silt loams, clay loams, and
silty clay loams. These soils are erodible. Crops can be
grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion are
used.
4. Clays, silty clays, noncalcareous clay loams, and
silty clay loams that are more than 35 percent clay.
These soils are moderately erodible. Crops can be
grown if measures to control wind erosion are used.
5. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are less
than 20 percent clay and sandy clay loams, sandy
clays, and hemic soil material. These soils are slightly
erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to control
wind erosion are used.
6. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are
more than 20 percent clay and noncalcareous clay
loams that are less than 35 percent clay. These soils
are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
ordinary measures to control wind erosion are used.
7. Silts, noncalcareous silty clay loams that are less
than 35 percent clay, and fibric soil material. These
soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
ordinary measures to control wind erosion are used.
8. Soils that are not subject to wind erosion
because of coarse fragments on the surface or because
of surface wetness.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
soil at various stages of decomposition. In table 14, the
estimated content of organic matter is expressed as a


percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less
than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The content of organic matter in a soil can be
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
other nutrients for crops.

Soil and Water Features

Table 15 gives estimates of various soil and water
features. The estimates are used in land use planning
that involves engineering considerations.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
according to the infiltration of water when the soils are
thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
duration storms.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained
sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of
water transmission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate
when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or
well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to
moderately coarse texture. These soils have a
moderate rate of water transmission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate
(high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These
consist chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell
potential, soils that have a permanent high water table,
soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the
surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly
impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate
of water transmission.
In table 15, some soils are assigned to two
hydrologic soil groups. Soils that have a seasonal high
water table but can be drained are assigned first to a
hydrologic group that denotes the drained condition of
the soil and then to a hydrologic group that denotes the
undrained condition, for example, B/D. Because there
are different degrees of drainage and water table
control, onsite investigation is needed to determine the
hydrologic group of the soil in a particular location.
Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is


69







Soil Survey


caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods
after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding, nor
is water in swamps and marshes.
Table 15 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of
occurrence are estimated. Frequency is expressed as
none, rare, occasional, and frequent. None means that
flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but
possible under unusual weather conditions (the chance
of flooding is nearly 0 percent to 5 percent in any year);
occasional that it occurs infrequently under normal
weather conditions (the chance of flooding is 5 to 50
percent in any year); and frequent that it occurs often
under normal weather conditions (the chance of
flooding is more than 50 percent in any year). Duration
is expressed as very brief if less than 2 days, brief if 2
to 7 days, long if 7 days to 1 month, and very long if
more than 1 month. The time of year that floods are
most likely to occur is expressed in months. About two-
thirds to three-fourths of all flooding occurs during the
stated period.
The information is based on evidence in the soil
profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic
matter content with increasing depth; and little or no
horizon development.
Also considered are local information about the
extent and levels of flooding and the relation of each
soil on the landscape to historic floods. Information on
the extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific
than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
levels.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The estimates
are based mainly on the evidence of a saturated zone,
namely grayish colors or mottles in the soil. Indicated in
table 15 are the depth to the seasonal high water table;
the kind of water table-that is, perched or apparent;
and the months of the year that the water table
commonly is high. A water table that is seasonally high
for less than 1 month is not indicated in table 15.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A
perched water table is water standing above an
unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water
table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
Two numbers in the column showing depth to the
water table indicate the normal range in depth to a
saturated zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot.


The first numeral in the range indicates the highest
water level. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
indicates that the water table is above the surface of
the soil. "More than 6.0" indicates that the water table
is below a depth of 6 feet or that it is within a depth of 6
feet for less than a month.
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
generally results from either desiccation and shrinkage
or oxidation of organic material, or both, following
drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually
over a period of several years. Table 15 shows the
expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of
drainage, and total subsidence, which results from a
combination of factors.
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion
of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the
soil. Special site examination and design may be
needed if the combination of factors results in a severe
hazard of corrosion. The steel in installations that
intersect soil boundaries or soil layers is more
susceptible to corrosion than steel in installations that
are entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil
layer.
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed
as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage
class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field
capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation
extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
Analyses of Selected Soils
Dr. Mary E. Collins, professor, Soil Science Department,
University of Florida, helped prepare this section.
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical
properties of representative pedons sampled in Baker
County are given in tables 16, 17, and 18. The analyses
were conducted and coordinated by the Soil Genesis
and Characterization Laboratory at the University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Detailed descriptions of the
analyzed soils are given in the section "Soil Series and
Their Morphology." Laboratory data and profile
information for additional soils in Baker County, as well
as for soils in other counties in Florida, are on file at the


70







Baker County, Florida


University of Florida, Soil Science Department.
Typical pedons were sampled from pits at carefully
selected locations. Samples were air-dried, crushed,
and sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most of the
analytical methods used are outlined in a soil survey
investigations report (28).
Particle-size distribution was determined using a
modified pipette method with sodium
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil
cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at
Vio bar and 1/ bar were calculated from volumetric
water percentages divided by bulk density. Samples
were ovendried and ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve,
and the 15-bar water retention was determined. Organic
carbon was determined by a modified Walkley-Black
wet combustion method.
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils
with 1.0 Normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0.
Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined
by flame emission. Calcium and magnesium were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Extractable acidity was determined by the 0.5 Normal
barium chloride-0.2 Normal triethanolamine method at
pH 8.2. Cation-exchange capacity was calculated by
summation of extractable bases and extractable acidity.
Base saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to
cation-exchange capacity expressed in percent. The pH
measurements were made with a glass electrode using
a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01 molar calcium chloride
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and a 1.0 Normal
potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio.
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry. Iron, aluminum, and carbon were
extracted from probable spodic horizons with 0.1 molar
sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of iron and
aluminum was by atomic absorption, and determination
of extracted pyrophosphate carbon was by the Walkley-
Black wet combustion method.
Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 0.002
millimeter was ascertained by x-ray diffraction. Peak
heights were measured at various angstrom positions
representing the various clay minerals, such as
kaolinite, montmorillonite, and quartz. Peaks were
measured, added, and normalized to give the
percentage of soil minerals identified in the x-ray
diffractograms. These percentage values do not indicate
absolute determined quantities of soil minerals but do
imply a relative distribution of minerals in a particular


mineral suite. Absolute percentages would require
additional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, unit
structure substitution, and matrix problems.

Physical Properties
The results of physical analyses are shown in table
16. Most of the soils in Baker County are inherently
sandy. Except for the Duplin and Pantego soils, all of
the soils sampled have one or more horizons in which
the total content of sand is more than 90 percent. The
Boulogne, Hurricane, Kingsferry, Leon, Ortega,
Pottsburg, and Ridgewood soils have more than 90
percent sand in each horizon to a depth of 80 inches or
more. The Blanton, Mascotte, Sapelo, and Troup soils
have less than 90 percent sand from a depth of 40 to
more than 80 inches. Most of the finer textured material
is in the deeper horizons of the Albany, Blanton, Duplin,
Leefield, Mascotte, Ocilla, Olustee, Pantego, Sapelo,
and Troup soils. The Duplin and Pantego soils are the
only soils that have more than 30 percent clay in one or
more horizons.
The content of silt is less than 10 percent in all of the
soils sampled, except for the Duplin and Pantego soils.
It is as high as 27 percent in some horizons of the
Pantego soil.
Fine sand dominates the sand fractions in most of
the soils sampled. The Hurricane, Leon, and Ortega
soils, however, are dominated by sand coarser than fine
sand. With the exception of the Hurricane, Leon,
Ortega, Pantego, and Pottsburg soils, the soils sampled
have at least one horizon with more than 50 percent
fine sand. The Hurricane, Leon, Mascotte, and Ortega
soils have more than 50 percent sand in at least one
horizon. The content of coarse sand is less than 10
percent in all of the soils, except for the Leon soil,
which is more than 10 percent coarse sand in the lower
two horizons. Very coarse sand is rare and did not
exceed 0.5 percent in any of the soils sampled. A
common characteristic of these sandy soils is
droughtiness, particularly in those soils that are well
drained to excessively drained.
Hydraulic conductivity values are more than 40
centimeters per hour in at least one horizon in the
Boulogne, Hurricane, Ortega, Pantego, Pottsburg,
Ridgewood, and Sapelo soils. The hydraulic
conductivity values in the argillic horizons, however,
rarely are more than 1 centimeter per hour. Low
hydraulic conductivity values at a shallow depth can
affect the design and function of septic tank absorption
fields. Low hydraulic conductivity values are recorded
for spodic horizons in the Boulogne and Pottsburg soils,
but these values are higher in the Bh horizon of other
soils. The available water for plants can be estimated
from bulk density and water data. In excessively sandy


71







Soil Survey


soils, such as the Boulogne, Hurricane, Ortega, and
Ridgewood soils, the amount of water available to
plants is very low. In soils that have a high content of
fine textured material, such as the Duplin and Pantego
soils, the amount of water available to plants is much
higher.

Chemical Properties
The results of chemical analyses are shown in table
17. Most of the soils in Baker County have a relatively
low content of extractable bases. The surface horizon
and subsurface horizon of the Duplin soil are the only
horizons sampled in which the sum of extractable
calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium is more
than 5 milliequivalents per 100 grams. The Boulogne,
Hurricane, Kingsferry, Leon, Ortega, Pottsburg,
Ridgewood, and Sapelo soils have less than 1
milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable bases in
every horizon. The Mascotte, Olustee, and Pantego
soils have one horizon with more than 1 milliequivalent
per 100 grams extractable bases. The Blanton and
Troup soils have two horizons that have more than 1
milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable bases, and
the Albany, Duplin, Leefield, and Ocilla soils have more
than two such horizons. The relatively mild, humid
climate of Baker County results in the depletion of basic
cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium)
through leaching.
Calcium is the dominant base in most of the soils
that were sampled. Magnesium is the second most
common base, but it occurs in much smaller amounts.
Sodium is nondetectable in the Boulogne, Hurricane,
Ortega, and Pottsburg soils. Also, the Kingsferry, Leon,
Mascotte, Pantego, Ridgewood, and Sapelo soils all
have one or more horizons in which sodium is
nondetectable. The content of extractable potassium is
less than 0.5 milliequivalent per 100 grams in all of the
soils sampled, except for the Duplin soil. In the Duplin
soil, it is less than 1 milliequivalent per 100 grams.
Values for cation-exchange capacity, an indicator of
plant-nutrient capacity, are more than 5 milliequivalents
per 100 grams in the surface horizons of all of the soils
sampled, except for the Albany, Blanton, Hurricane,
Leon, Ortega, Ridgewood, Sapelo, and Troup soils.
Cation-exchange capacity is almost entirely a result of
the amount of organic matter and the amount and kind
of clay in the soil. Soils that have a very low cation-
exchange capacity, such as Hurricane sand, require
only a small amount of lime to alter the base status of
the soil and the soil reaction in the surface horizon.
Generally, soils that have low fertility have low values
for extractable bases and a low cation-exchange
capacity. Fertile soils generally have a high extractable
base value, a high cation-exchange capacity, and a


high percentage of base saturation.
The content of organic carbon is more than 1 percent
in the surface horizons of the Duplin, Kingsferry,
Mascotte, Olustee, Pantego, Pottsburg, and Ridgewood
soils. Generally, the content of organic carbon in the
soils sampled is less than 2 percent, except in the
Duplin, Kingsferry, Leon, Pantego, and Sapelo soils.
Significant increases in the content of organic carbon
are in the Bh horizon of the Kingsferry and Leon soils.
The Pantego soil has the highest content of organic
carbon. Because the content of organic carbon in the
surface horizon is directly related to the nutrient- and
water-holding capacities of the soil, management
practices that conserve organic carbon are important.
Electrical conductivity values of the soils sampled are
more than 0.1 millimho per centimeter in only the
surface horizon of the Duplin soil, the Btgl horizon of
the Ocilla soil, and the Al horizon of the Pantego soil.
All of the other soils tested have very low electrical
conductivity. These data indicate that the content of
soluble salt in the soils sampled is insufficient to hinder
the growth of salt-sensitive plants.
Soil reaction in water generally ranges from pH 4.5 to
pH 6.0 in the soils that were sampled. Higher values
are recorded in one or more horizons of the Boulogne,
Leefield, and Ortega soils. Lower values are recorded in
the surface horizon of the Kingsferry, Leon, Mascotte,
and Pottsburg soils and in one or more subsurface
horizons of the Leon, Ocilla, and Pantego soils. The
Leon soil has a pH of 4.5 or less throughout. Reaction
is generally 0.5 to 1.5 pH units lower in calcium chloride
and potassium chloride solutions than it is in water. The
maximum availability of plant nutrients is generally
attained when reaction is between pH 6.5 and 7.0. In
Florida, however, maintaining the reaction of strongly
acid soils above pH 6.0 is not economically feasible for
most kinds of agricultural production.
The content of sodium pyrophosphate extractable
iron, if it occurs, ranges from 0.01 percent in the
Hurricane, Kingsferry, Pottsburg, and Sapelo soils to
0.04 percent in the Leon soil. The content of sodium
pyrophosphate extractable aluminum, if it occurs,
ranges from 0.01 to 0.43 percent in the Leon soil. The
content of sodium pyrophosphate extractable carbon, if
it occurs, ranges from 0.01 to 1.52 percent in the Leon
soil. The ratio of sodium pyrophosphate extractable
carbon and aluminum to clay in the Bh horizon of the
Boulogne, Kingsferry, Leon, Mascotte, Olustee,
Pottsburg, and Sapelo soils is sufficient to meet the
chemical criteria established for spodic horizons. The
content of pyrophosphate extractable iron and
aluminum is sufficient to meet the criteria established
for spodic horizons.
The content of citrate-dithionite extractable iron


72







Baker County, Florida


ranges from 0.01 percent in several horizons of the
Leon soil to 5.80 percent in the Duplin soil. The content
of citrate-dithionite extractable aluminum ranges from
0.00 percent in one horizon of the Leon soil to 0.55
percent in the C horizon of the Mascotte soil. The
content of citrate-dithionite extractable iron in the soils
sampled generally is higher in the Bt horizon than it is
in the Bh horizon. The content of iron and aluminum in
the soils of Baker County is not sufficient to restrict the
availability of phosphorus.

Mineralogical Properties
Table 18 shows the clay mineralogy of several soils
in Baker County. The mineralogy of the sand fractions,
which are 0.05 to 2.0 millimeters in size, is siliceous.
Quartz is overwhelmingly dominant in the soils
sampled. Small amounts of heavy minerals are in some
pedons, mainly in the very fine sand fraction. The soils
have no weatherable minerals. The crystalline mineral
components of the clay fraction, which is less than
0.002 millimeter in size, are reported in table 18 for
selected horizons of the pedons sampled. The clay
mineralogical suite is made up of montmorillonite, a 14-
angstrom intergrade, kaolinite, and quartz.
Montmorillonite occurs in Mascotte, Ortega, Pantego,
and Ridgewood soils. Relatively large amounts of
montmorillonite are in the lower horizons of the
Mascotte soil (at a depth of more than 40 inches). The
14-angstrom intergrade mineral occurs in all of the
pedons sampled, except for the Mascotte soil. Kaolinite
and clay-sized quartz occur in all of the pedons
sampled.
Montmorillonite generally occurs in increased
amounts in the lower horizons of the soils in Baker
County. Therefore, montmorillonite was probably
inherited from the parent material; montmorillonite is the
least stable of the mineral components in this
weathering environment. The 14-angstrom intergrade
mineral, which is of uncertain origin, is widespread in
the soils of Florida. It tends to be more common under
moderately acid, relatively well drained conditions, but it
occurs in a variety of soil environments. Generally, the
amount of this mineral decreases with increasing depth,
indicating that it is the most stable of the clay-sized
minerals in this weathering environment. The content of
kaolinite increases with increasing depth, and thus this
mineral is less stable than the 14-angstrom intergrade.
The kaolinite was most likely inherited from the parent
material, but it could have formed as a weathering
product of other minerals. It is relatively stable in the
acidic environment of the soils in the area. Clay-sized
quartz is a result of weathering of the silt-sized quartz in
the soil.


Engineering Index Test Data

Table 19 shows laboratory test data for several
pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey
area. The pedons are typical of the series and are
described in the section "Soil Series and Their
Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the Soil
Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
Bureau of Materials and Research.
The testing methods are those of the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO) or the American Society for Testing
and Materials (ASTM).
Table 19 contains engineering test data for some of
the major soils in Baker County. These tests help to
evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The
classifications given are based on data obtained by
mechanical analysis and by tests to determine liquid
limits and plastic limits.
The mechanical analyses were made by the
combined sieve and hydrometer method. When this
method is applied, the various grain-size fractions are
calculated on the basis of all the material in the soil
sample, including that coarser than 2 millimeters in
diameter. The results of this method should not be used
in naming textural classes of soils.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
water on the strength and consistence of the soil
material. As the moisture content of a dry, clayey soil is
increased, the material changes from a dry state to a
semisolid state and then to a plastic state. If the
moisture content is further increased, the material
changes from plastic to liquid. The plastic limit is the
moisture content at which the soil material changes
from a semisolid state to a plastic state, and the liquid
limit is the moisture content at which the soil material
changes from a plastic state to a liquid state. The
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of
moisture content within which soil material is plastic.
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in table 19
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples.
Compaction, or moisture-density, data are important
in earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a
successively higher moisture content, assuming that the
compactive effort remains constant, the density of the
compacted material increases until the optimum
moisture content is reached. After that, density
decreases with an increase in moisture content. The
highest dry density obtained in the compactive test is
termed maximum dry density. As a rule, maximum
strength of earthwork is obtained if the soil is
compacted to the maximum dry density.


73






75


Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (26).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or from laboratory measurements. Table 20 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Psamment (Psamm,
meaning sandy horizons, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Quartzipsamments (Quartz,
meaning dominated by quartz, plus psamment, the
suborder of the Entisols that are sandy).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Quartzipsamments.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup


on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is thermic, uncoated Typic
Quartzipsamments.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. The texture of the surface layer or of the
underlying material can differ within a series.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (31).
Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (26). Unless otherwise
stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
Following the pedon description is the range of
important characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Albany Series
The Albany series consists of nearly level and gently
sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
sandy and loamy marine deposits. These soils are on






75


Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (26).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or from laboratory measurements. Table 20 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Psamment (Psamm,
meaning sandy horizons, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Quartzipsamments (Quartz,
meaning dominated by quartz, plus psamment, the
suborder of the Entisols that are sandy).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Quartzipsamments.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup


on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is thermic, uncoated Typic
Quartzipsamments.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. The texture of the surface layer or of the
underlying material can differ within a series.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (31).
Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (26). Unless otherwise
stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
Following the pedon description is the range of
important characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Albany Series
The Albany series consists of nearly level and gently
sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
sandy and loamy marine deposits. These soils are on






75


Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (26).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or from laboratory measurements. Table 20 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Psamment (Psamm,
meaning sandy horizons, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Quartzipsamments (Quartz,
meaning dominated by quartz, plus psamment, the
suborder of the Entisols that are sandy).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Quartzipsamments.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup


on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is thermic, uncoated Typic
Quartzipsamments.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. The texture of the surface layer or of the
underlying material can differ within a series.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (31).
Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (26). Unless otherwise
stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
Following the pedon description is the range of
important characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Albany Series
The Albany series consists of nearly level and gently
sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
sandy and loamy marine deposits. These soils are on







Soil Survey


narrow to broad ridges and isolated knolls in the
flatwoods. They are loamy, siliceous, thermic
Grossarenic Paleudults.
Albany soils are associated with the moderately wet
Blanton soils and Bonneau, Duplin, Hurricane, Leefield,
Ocilla, Olustee, Pelham, Penney, Plummer, and Sapelo
soils. The moderately wet Blanton soils and Bonneau,
Duplin, and Penney soils are in the higher positions on
the landscape. Bonneau and Penney soils are on side
slopes, and Duplin soils are near drainageways.
Olustee, Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils are in the
lower positions on the landscape. Hurricane, Leefield,
and Ocilla soils are in positions on the landscape
similar to those of the Albany soils. Hurricane soils have
a spodic horizon. Leefield and Ocilla soils have an
argillic horizon within a depth of 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, in a wooded area approximately 4.0 miles north
of Macclenny, 0.2 mile east of Florida Highway 121,
1,525 feet west and 1,400 feet south of the northeast
corner of sec. 8, T. 2 S., R. 22 E.

Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
sand; few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) charcoal
specks; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
common fine roots; moderately acid; abrupt smooth
boundary.
E1-8 to 18 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) fine
sand; common medium distinct dark grayish brown
(10YR 4/2) and few fine distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6) mottles; few fine prominent black (10YR
2/1) charcoal specks; single grained; loose; few fine
roots; moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E2-18 to 34 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) fine sand;
common medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR
5/8) and few medium distinct dark grayish brown
(10YR 4/2) mottles; few fine prominent black (10YR
2/1) charcoal specks; single grained; loose; few fine
roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
EB1-34 to 40 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
loamy fine sand; common medium distinct strong
brown (7.5YR 5/8) and few medium prominent light
gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; single grained; loose; few
fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
EB2-40 to 59 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
loamy fine sand; common medium distinct strong
brown (7.5YR 5/8), few medium prominent strong
brown (7.5YR 4/6), and few medium distinct light
gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; single grained; loose; few
fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Btg1-59 to 65 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sandy
loam; few medium distinct light yellowish brown


(2.5Y 6/4) and few medium prominent strong brown
(7.5YR 4/6) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; very friable; sand grains bridged
and coated with clay; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Btg2-65 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
loam; common medium prominent light yellowish
brown (2.5Y 6/4), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), and red
(2.5YR 4/8) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; sand grains bridged and coated
with clay; strongly acid.
The solum is more than 80 inches thick. Reaction
ranges from very strongly acid to moderately acid
throughout the profile. Depth to the argillic horizon
ranges from 40 to 78 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 6, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 4 to 10 inches in
thickness.
The upper part of the E horizon has hue of 10YR or
2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3 or 4. It has
mottles in shades of white, gray, yellow, olive, brown,
and red. Few or common mottles in shades of gray,
brown, yellow, or red, which are generally indicative of
wetness, are at a depth of 12 to 30 inches. The upper
part of the E horizon ranges from fine sand to loamy
fine sand. It ranges from 6 to 47 inches in thickness.
In many pedons, the lower part of the E horizon has
hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 1
or 2. It has mottles in shades of yellow, olive, brown, or
red. It ranges from 20 to 55 inches in thickness. The
total thickness of the E horizon ranges from 34 to 73
inches.
The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y or is neutral
in hue. It has value of 5 to 7 and chroma of 0 to 6. It
has mottles in shades of brown, yellow, gray, and red.
In some pedons it does not have a matrix color and is
mottled in shades of red, yellow, brown, and gray. The
content of plinthite, if it occurs, is less than 5 percent.
The Bt horizon is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam.

Allanton Series
The Allanton series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils that formed in sandy marine
deposits. These soils are on broad, low flats in the
flatwoods. They are sandy, siliceous, thermic
Grossarenic Haplaquods.
Allanton soils are associated with Boulogne,
Evergreen, Kingsferry, Leon, Mandarin, Murville,
Pottsburg, and Sapelo soils. Evergreen soils and some
of the Leon soils are in small depressions. Boulogne,
Mandarin, Pottsburg, and Sapelo soils and some Leon
soils are in the higher positions on the landscape.
Kingsferry and Murville soils are in positions on the







Baker County, Florida


landscape similar to those of the Allanton soils.
Kingsferry soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of 30
to 50 inches.
Typical pedon of Allanton fine sand, in an area of
Kingsferry and Allanton soils; in a wooded area
approximately 5.5 miles northeast of Macclenny; 2.3
miles north of U.S. Highway 90; 2,100 feet east and
2,050 feet south of the northwest corner of sec. 12, T. 2
S., R. 22 E.

A1-0 to 9 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
moderate medium granular structure; friable; many
fine, common medium, and few coarse roots; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A2-9 to 22 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sand; common medium faint black (10YR 2/1)
streaks; weak medium granular structure; very
friable; common fine and few medium roots; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Eg1-22 to 35 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
common medium faint black (10YR 2/1) streaks;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Eg2-35 to 42 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Eg3-42 to 60 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Bh-60 to 80 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) fine
sand; common medium faint black (5YR 2/1),
weakly cemented fragments of ortstein; massive;
friable; sand grains well coated with organic matter;
very strongly acid.

The solum is more than 80 inches thick. Reaction is
extremely acid or very strongly acid throughout the
profile. Depth to the spodic horizon ranges from 50 to
80 inches. Some pedons have an O horizon or an O
horizon that blends into a mass of roots in the upper
few inches of the A horizon.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1, or it is neutral in hue and has chroma of 0
or 1. It ranges from 16 to 22 inches in thickness.
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 25 to 40 inches in
thickness.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR or 7.5YR or is
neutral in hue. It has value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 0 to
2. It is sand, fine sand, or loamy fine sand.

Blanton Series
The Blanton series consists of nearly level and gently
sloping, moderately well drained soils that formed in


thick deposits of sandy and loamy marine material.
These soils are on narrow to broad ridges and isolated
knolls. They are loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic
Paleudults.
Blanton soils are associated with Albany, Bonneau,
Duplin, Leefield, Ocilla, Pelham, Penney, Plummer, and
Troup soils. Bonneau, Penney, and Troup soils are on
side slopes bordering drainageways. Albany, Leefield,
Ocilla, Pelham, and Plummer soils are in the lower
positions on the landscape. The clayey Duplin soils are
in positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Blanton soils. They are near drainageways.
Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand, moderately wet,
0 to 5 percent slopes (fig. 16), in a wooded area
approximately 4 miles north of Macclenny and 2 miles
east of Florida Highway 121, 1,550 feet west and 1,350
feet south of the northeast corner of sec. 8, T. 2 S., R.
22 E.
Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
sand; few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) charcoal
specks; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
many fine roots; moderately acid; abrupt smooth
boundary.
E1-8 to 21 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) fine
sand; few medium distinct dark grayish brown
(10YR 4/2) and few fine faint pale yellow mottles;
few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) charcoal specks;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; moderately
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E2-21 to 40 inches; yellow (2.5Y 7/6) fine sand;
common medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) and
few fine faint pale yellow mottles; few fine
prominent black (10YR 2/1) charcoal specks; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
E3-40 to 55 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
sand; common medium distinct strong brown
(7.5YR 5/8) and light gray (10YR 7/2) and few fine
distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4) mottles; single grained;
loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
E4-55 to 73 inches; reticulately mottled white (10YR
8/1), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), yellowish
brown (10YR 5/4), and strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
fine sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
Btg-73 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay
loam; common medium prominent yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) and medium red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; sand grains bridged and coated with clay;
very strongly acid.
The solum ranges from 60 to more than 80 inches in


77







Soil Survey


thickness. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
moderately acid throughout the profile. Depth to the
argillic horizon ranges from 40 to 80 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 6 to 8 inches in
thickness.
The E horizon has hue of 2.5Y to 7.5YR, value of 5
to 8, and chroma of 2 to 8. Few or common mottles in
shades of gray, brown, yellow, or red, which are mostly
indicative of wetness, are at a depth of 30 to more than
48 inches. The E horizon is fine sand or loamy fine
sand. It ranges from 42 to 65 inches in thickness.
The Bt horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 2.5Y to
7.5YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 8, or it is
mottled in varying shades of brown, yellow, red, and
gray. In most pedons it has mottles with chroma of 2 or
less within the upper 10 inches. It is loamy fine sand,
fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
The Btg horizon has hue of 5Y to 7.5YR, value of 5
to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue,
dominantly has chroma of 2 or less, and is mottled in
varying shades of brown, yellow, red, and gray. The
texture is dominantly fine sandy loam or sandy clay
loam, but the range includes sandy clay at a depth of
about 60 inches or more. The content of nodular
plinthite is less than 5 percent within a depth of 60
inches but ranges to 15 percent below that depth.

Bonneau Series
The Bonneau series consists of sloping and strongly
sloping, moderately well drained soils that formed in
thick, sandy and loamy marine deposits. These soils are
on upland side slopes. They are loamy, siliceous,
thermic Arenic Paleudults.
Bonneau soils are associated with Albany, Blanton,
Duplin, Ocilla, Osier, Penney, Ridgewood, and Troup
soils. Albany, Blanton, Duplin, Ocilla, Osier, and
Ridgewood soils are in the lower positions on the
landscape. Duplin soils are near drainageways. Penney
and Troup soils are in positions on the landscape
similar to those of the Bonneau soils. Penney soils do
not have an argillic horizon. Troup soils have an argillic
horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches.
Typical pedon of Bonneau fine sand, in an area of
Troup-Bonneau-Penney complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes;
in a wooded area approximately 4.0 miles northwest of
Macclenny and 0.6 mile west of Florida Highway 121;
4,700 feet east and 1,400 feet south of the northwest
corner of sec. 8, T. 2 S., R. 22 E.
A-0 to 5 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
many fine roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary.


E1-5 to 9 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; common fine roots; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E2-9 to 17 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; common medium distinct light gray (10YR
7/2) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E3-17 to 26 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; common medium light gray (10YR 7/2)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btl-26 to 31 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
friable; few fine roots; sand grains bridged and
coated with clay; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Bt2-31 to 38 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
sandy clay loam; common medium prominent
yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots;
sand grains bridged and coated with clay; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bt3-38 to 44 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
sandy clay loam; common medium prominent
yellowish red (5YR 5/8) and few medium distinct
light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots;
sand grains bridged and coated with clay; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bt4-44 to 70 inches; reticulately mottled light gray
(10YR 7/2), red (10R 4/6 and 2.5YR 4/6), yellowish
red (5YR 5/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), and
yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy clay loam; weak
very coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; sand
grains bridged and coated with clay; very strongly
acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
BC-70 to 80 inches; reticulately mottled strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6), light gray (10YR 7/2), red (10R 4/6),
and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine sandy loam;
massive; friable; very strongly acid.

The solum ranges from 60 to 80 inches in thickness.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to moderately
acid in the surface layer and subsurface layer, except in
areas that have been limed.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 to
5, and chroma of 1 to 3. It ranges from 2 to 9 inches in
thickness.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to
8, and chroma of 2 to 6. It ranges from 11 to 38 inches
in thickness.
The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5YR, value of
5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 8. The lower part commonly
is reticulately mottled in shades of gray, brown, red, or


78







Baker County, Florida


yellow, or it is gray and has brown, red, and yellow
mottles. Mottles that have chroma of 0 to 2 are within a
depth of 60 inches. The Bt horizon is generally fine
sandy loam or sandy clay loam, but below the control
section the range includes sandy clay. This horizon
ranges from 20 to more than 40 inches in thickness. It
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The C or BC horizon, if it occurs, is sandy or loamy
material. It is red, or it is mottled and has no dominant
matrix color.

Boulogne Series
The Boulogne series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils that formed in sandy marine deposits.
These soils are in the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to
2 percent. The soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Typic
Haplaquods.
Boulogne soils are associated with Allanton,
Evergreen, Hurricane, Kingsferry, Leon, Murville,
Pottsburg, and Pottsburg, high, soils. Hurricane and
Pottsburg, high, soils are in the higher positions on the
landscape. Allanton, Evergreen, Kingsferry, and Murville
soils are in the lower positions on the landscape.
Evergreen soils and the depressional Leon soils are in
small depressions. Other Leon soils and Pottsburg soils
are in positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Boulogne soils. They have an eluvial horizon.
Typical pedon of Boulogne sand (fig. 17), in a
wooded area approximately 3.75 miles east-northeast of
Macclenny, 1.1 miles south of U.S. Highway 90, 500
feet west and 1,700 feet north of the southeast corner
of sec. 23, T. 2 S., R. 22 E.
Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
moderate medium granular structure; very friable;
many fine, common medium, and few coarse roots;
extremely acid; smooth wavy boundary.
Bh-6 to 11 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand; weak
fine granular structure; massive; very friable;
common fine and few medium roots; sand grains
coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
E1-11 to 17 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; common fine and few
medium roots; extremely acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
E2-17 to 30 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; common medium distinct very pale brown
(10YR 7/4) and few fine prominent strong brown
(7.5YR 5/8) mottles; few fine prominent very dark
grayish brown (10YR 3/2) streaks along old root
channels; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E3-30 to 38 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;


many coarse prominent brown (7.5YR 5/4) and
common medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E4-38 to 44 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; common medium prominent yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine
roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
BE-44 to 49 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/2) fine sand;
common medium faint dark brown (7.5YR 3/2),
weakly cemented fragments of ortstein; massive;
very friable; few fine roots; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B'h-49 to 59 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fine
sand; common medium distinct black (5YR 2/1)
streaks; massive; very friable; few fine roots; sand
grains well coated with organic matter; very strongly
acid; clear smooth boundary.
E'-59 to 66 inches; pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
B"h-66 to 80 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand;
massive; friable; sand grains well coated with
organic matter; very strongly acid.
The solum is more than 80 inches thick. Reaction is
very strongly acid or strongly acid. The texture is sand
or fine sand throughout the profile, except in the Bh
horizon, which includes loamy fine sand or loamy sand.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 6 to 14 inches in
thickness. In some pedons an incipient E horizon about
2 inches thick is between the A and Bh horizons.
The Bh horizon has hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 2. It ranges from 2 to 10 inches in thickness.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4
to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 10 to 40
inches in thickness.
The B'h and B"h horizons have hue of 7.5YR, value
of 3, and chroma of 2 or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3,
and chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons, the B'h or B"h
horizon is weakly cemented in more than half of the
horizon and is very friable or friable in the upper part
and firm or very firm in the lower part. Depth to a firm or
very firm, weakly cemented B'h horizon is greater than
50 inches. This horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches
or more. The E' horizon separates the B'h and B"h
horizons. It has the same colors and textures as the E
horizon and is less than 10 inches thick.

Dasher Series
The Dasher series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils that formed in fibrous, hydrophytic,
nonwoody plant remains. These soils are in


79







Baker County, Florida


yellow, or it is gray and has brown, red, and yellow
mottles. Mottles that have chroma of 0 to 2 are within a
depth of 60 inches. The Bt horizon is generally fine
sandy loam or sandy clay loam, but below the control
section the range includes sandy clay. This horizon
ranges from 20 to more than 40 inches in thickness. It
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The C or BC horizon, if it occurs, is sandy or loamy
material. It is red, or it is mottled and has no dominant
matrix color.

Boulogne Series
The Boulogne series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils that formed in sandy marine deposits.
These soils are in the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to
2 percent. The soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Typic
Haplaquods.
Boulogne soils are associated with Allanton,
Evergreen, Hurricane, Kingsferry, Leon, Murville,
Pottsburg, and Pottsburg, high, soils. Hurricane and
Pottsburg, high, soils are in the higher positions on the
landscape. Allanton, Evergreen, Kingsferry, and Murville
soils are in the lower positions on the landscape.
Evergreen soils and the depressional Leon soils are in
small depressions. Other Leon soils and Pottsburg soils
are in positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Boulogne soils. They have an eluvial horizon.
Typical pedon of Boulogne sand (fig. 17), in a
wooded area approximately 3.75 miles east-northeast of
Macclenny, 1.1 miles south of U.S. Highway 90, 500
feet west and 1,700 feet north of the southeast corner
of sec. 23, T. 2 S., R. 22 E.
Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
moderate medium granular structure; very friable;
many fine, common medium, and few coarse roots;
extremely acid; smooth wavy boundary.
Bh-6 to 11 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand; weak
fine granular structure; massive; very friable;
common fine and few medium roots; sand grains
coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
E1-11 to 17 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; common fine and few
medium roots; extremely acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
E2-17 to 30 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; common medium distinct very pale brown
(10YR 7/4) and few fine prominent strong brown
(7.5YR 5/8) mottles; few fine prominent very dark
grayish brown (10YR 3/2) streaks along old root
channels; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E3-30 to 38 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;


many coarse prominent brown (7.5YR 5/4) and
common medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E4-38 to 44 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; common medium prominent yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine
roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
BE-44 to 49 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/2) fine sand;
common medium faint dark brown (7.5YR 3/2),
weakly cemented fragments of ortstein; massive;
very friable; few fine roots; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B'h-49 to 59 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fine
sand; common medium distinct black (5YR 2/1)
streaks; massive; very friable; few fine roots; sand
grains well coated with organic matter; very strongly
acid; clear smooth boundary.
E'-59 to 66 inches; pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
B"h-66 to 80 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand;
massive; friable; sand grains well coated with
organic matter; very strongly acid.
The solum is more than 80 inches thick. Reaction is
very strongly acid or strongly acid. The texture is sand
or fine sand throughout the profile, except in the Bh
horizon, which includes loamy fine sand or loamy sand.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 6 to 14 inches in
thickness. In some pedons an incipient E horizon about
2 inches thick is between the A and Bh horizons.
The Bh horizon has hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 2. It ranges from 2 to 10 inches in thickness.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4
to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 10 to 40
inches in thickness.
The B'h and B"h horizons have hue of 7.5YR, value
of 3, and chroma of 2 or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3,
and chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons, the B'h or B"h
horizon is weakly cemented in more than half of the
horizon and is very friable or friable in the upper part
and firm or very firm in the lower part. Depth to a firm or
very firm, weakly cemented B'h horizon is greater than
50 inches. This horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches
or more. The E' horizon separates the B'h and B"h
horizons. It has the same colors and textures as the E
horizon and is less than 10 inches thick.

Dasher Series
The Dasher series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils that formed in fibrous, hydrophytic,
nonwoody plant remains. These soils are in


79







Soil Survey


depressions. They are dysic, thermic Typic
Medihemists.
Dasher soils are associated with Mascotte and
Pamlico soils. Mascotte and Pamlico soils are in
positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Dasher soils. Mascotte soils are of mineral origin.
Pamlico soils have organic material 16 to 51 inches
thick over sandy mineral deposits.
Typical pedon of Dasher mucky peat, depressional,
in a wooded area approximately 23 miles north-
northwest of Macclenny, 5 miles south of Florida
Highway 2, 3,200 feet west and 4,200 feet north of the
southeast corner of sec. 16, T. 1 N., R. 19 E.

Oel-0 to 8 inches; black (5YR 2/1) mucky peat; about
70 percent fiber, mostly roots, 40 percent rubbed;
massive; friable; many fine roots; extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Oe2-8 to 70 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
mucky peat; about 40 percent fiber, 25 percent
rubbed; massive; very friable; few fine roots;
extremely acid.

The organic material ranges from 51 to more than 80
inches in thickness. Reaction is extremely acid (0.01
molar calcium chloride) in the organic layers. It is
strongly acid or very strongly acid in the Cg horizon, if it
occurs.
The Oe horizon is neutral in hue and has value of 2
or 3, or it has hue of 10YR to 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 to 3. The content of fiber, by volume, in the
Oe2 horizon ranges from 25 to 65 percent unrubbed
and from about 12 to 35 percent rubbed. The fibers that
remain after rubbing are dominantly woody. This
horizon extends to a depth of 51 inches or more.
The Cg horizon, if it occurs, is neutral in hue and has
value of 3 to 5, or it has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y,
value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is
sand, fine sand, loamy fine sand, fine sandy loam, or
sandy clay loam.

Dorovan Series
The Dorovan series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils that formed in fibrous, hydrophytic,
nonwoody plant remains. These soils are on flood
plains. They are dysic, thermic Typic Medisaprists.
Dorovan soils are associated with Mulat, Pamlico,
and Surrency soils. Mulat, Pamlico, and Surrency soils
are in positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Dorovan soils. Mulat and Surrency soils are of mineral
origin. Pamlico soils have organic material 16 to 51
inches thick over sandy mineral deposits.
Typical pedon of Dorovan muck, frequently flooded,
in a wooded area approximately 7.5 miles southwest of


Macclenny, 3.0 miles south of U.S. Highway 90, 200
feet north of County Road 130 and 80 feet east of the
south prong of the St. Mary's River, 1,350 feet east and
200 feet north of the southwest corner of sec. 21, T. 3
S., R. 21 E.

Oal-0 to 14 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 40
percent fiber, mostly roots, 10 percent rubbed;
massive; friable; many fine roots; extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Oa2-14 to 60 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 10
percent fiber, 5 percent rubbed; massive; very
friable; few fine roots; extremely acid.

The organic material ranges from 51 to more than 80
inches thick. Reaction is extremely acid (0.01 molar
calcium chloride) in the organic layers. Reaction is
strongly acid or very strongly acid in the Cg horizon.
The Oa horizon is neutral in hue and has value of 2
or 3, or it has hue of 10YR to 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 to 3. The content of fiber, by volume, is 10
to 40 percent unrubbed and less than about 16 percent
rubbed. The fibers that remain after rubbing are
dominantly woody. A few logs and large fragments of
wood are typically in the lower part of the horizon. This
horizon extends to a depth of 51 inches or more.
The Cg horizon, if it occurs, is neutral in hue and has
value of 3 or 4, or it has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y,
value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand, fine
sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or
sandy clay loam.

Duplin Series
The Duplin series consists of gently sloping,
moderately well drained soils that formed in loamy and
clayey marine deposits. These soils are on narrow
ridges and isolated knolls near drainageways. They are
clayey, kaolinitic, thermic Aquic Paleudults.
Duplin soils are associated with Albany, Blanton,
Bonneau, Leefield, Mascotte, Ocilla, Pelham, Penney,
Plummer, Rains, Sapelo, and Troup soils. Blanton,
Bonneau, Penney, and Troup soils are in the higher
positions on the landscape. Bonneau, Penney, and
Troup soils are on side slopes near drainageways.
Mascotte, Pelham, Plummer, Rains, and Sapelo soils
are in the lower positions on the landscape. Albany,
Leefield, and Ocilla soils are in positions on the
landscape similar to those of the Duplin soils. Albany
soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of more than 40
inches. Leefield and Ocilla soils have an argillic horizon
at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Duplin loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
percent slopes, in a wooded area approximately 4.0
miles north-northwest of Macclenny, 0.9 mile west of


80







Soil Survey


depressions. They are dysic, thermic Typic
Medihemists.
Dasher soils are associated with Mascotte and
Pamlico soils. Mascotte and Pamlico soils are in
positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Dasher soils. Mascotte soils are of mineral origin.
Pamlico soils have organic material 16 to 51 inches
thick over sandy mineral deposits.
Typical pedon of Dasher mucky peat, depressional,
in a wooded area approximately 23 miles north-
northwest of Macclenny, 5 miles south of Florida
Highway 2, 3,200 feet west and 4,200 feet north of the
southeast corner of sec. 16, T. 1 N., R. 19 E.

Oel-0 to 8 inches; black (5YR 2/1) mucky peat; about
70 percent fiber, mostly roots, 40 percent rubbed;
massive; friable; many fine roots; extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Oe2-8 to 70 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
mucky peat; about 40 percent fiber, 25 percent
rubbed; massive; very friable; few fine roots;
extremely acid.

The organic material ranges from 51 to more than 80
inches in thickness. Reaction is extremely acid (0.01
molar calcium chloride) in the organic layers. It is
strongly acid or very strongly acid in the Cg horizon, if it
occurs.
The Oe horizon is neutral in hue and has value of 2
or 3, or it has hue of 10YR to 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 to 3. The content of fiber, by volume, in the
Oe2 horizon ranges from 25 to 65 percent unrubbed
and from about 12 to 35 percent rubbed. The fibers that
remain after rubbing are dominantly woody. This
horizon extends to a depth of 51 inches or more.
The Cg horizon, if it occurs, is neutral in hue and has
value of 3 to 5, or it has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y,
value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is
sand, fine sand, loamy fine sand, fine sandy loam, or
sandy clay loam.

Dorovan Series
The Dorovan series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils that formed in fibrous, hydrophytic,
nonwoody plant remains. These soils are on flood
plains. They are dysic, thermic Typic Medisaprists.
Dorovan soils are associated with Mulat, Pamlico,
and Surrency soils. Mulat, Pamlico, and Surrency soils
are in positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Dorovan soils. Mulat and Surrency soils are of mineral
origin. Pamlico soils have organic material 16 to 51
inches thick over sandy mineral deposits.
Typical pedon of Dorovan muck, frequently flooded,
in a wooded area approximately 7.5 miles southwest of


Macclenny, 3.0 miles south of U.S. Highway 90, 200
feet north of County Road 130 and 80 feet east of the
south prong of the St. Mary's River, 1,350 feet east and
200 feet north of the southwest corner of sec. 21, T. 3
S., R. 21 E.

Oal-0 to 14 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 40
percent fiber, mostly roots, 10 percent rubbed;
massive; friable; many fine roots; extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Oa2-14 to 60 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 10
percent fiber, 5 percent rubbed; massive; very
friable; few fine roots; extremely acid.

The organic material ranges from 51 to more than 80
inches thick. Reaction is extremely acid (0.01 molar
calcium chloride) in the organic layers. Reaction is
strongly acid or very strongly acid in the Cg horizon.
The Oa horizon is neutral in hue and has value of 2
or 3, or it has hue of 10YR to 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 to 3. The content of fiber, by volume, is 10
to 40 percent unrubbed and less than about 16 percent
rubbed. The fibers that remain after rubbing are
dominantly woody. A few logs and large fragments of
wood are typically in the lower part of the horizon. This
horizon extends to a depth of 51 inches or more.
The Cg horizon, if it occurs, is neutral in hue and has
value of 3 or 4, or it has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y,
value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand, fine
sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or
sandy clay loam.

Duplin Series
The Duplin series consists of gently sloping,
moderately well drained soils that formed in loamy and
clayey marine deposits. These soils are on narrow
ridges and isolated knolls near drainageways. They are
clayey, kaolinitic, thermic Aquic Paleudults.
Duplin soils are associated with Albany, Blanton,
Bonneau, Leefield, Mascotte, Ocilla, Pelham, Penney,
Plummer, Rains, Sapelo, and Troup soils. Blanton,
Bonneau, Penney, and Troup soils are in the higher
positions on the landscape. Bonneau, Penney, and
Troup soils are on side slopes near drainageways.
Mascotte, Pelham, Plummer, Rains, and Sapelo soils
are in the lower positions on the landscape. Albany,
Leefield, and Ocilla soils are in positions on the
landscape similar to those of the Duplin soils. Albany
soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of more than 40
inches. Leefield and Ocilla soils have an argillic horizon
at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Duplin loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
percent slopes, in a wooded area approximately 4.0
miles north-northwest of Macclenny, 0.9 mile west of


80







Baker County, Florida


Florida Highway 125, 1,230 feet south and 1,800 feet
east of the northwest corner of sec. 13, T. 3 S., R. 21
E.
Ap-0 to 4 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
loamy fine sand; weak medium granular structure;
very friable; many fine roots; strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
E-4 to 10 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) loamy fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
common fine roots; moderately acid; clear smooth
boundary.
Btl-10 to 15 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
sandy clay loam; common medium prominent red
(10YR 4/8) and few fine prominent yellowish red
(5YR 5/8) mottles; weak medium subangular
structure; friable; few fine roots; sand grains bridged
and coated with clay; moderately acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Bt2-15 to 27 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay;
common medium prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/8)
and red (10R 4/6) and few medium distinct light
yellowish brown (2.5YR 6/4) mottles; moderate
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few
fine roots; sand grains bridged and coated with clay;
clay skins on faces of peds; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Btg1-27 to 44 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sandy clay; common medium distinct brownish
yellow (10YR 6/6) and few fine prominent strong
brown (7.5YR 5/6) and red (10R 4/6) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; few
fine roots; sand grains bridged and coated with clay;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-44 to 70 inches; reticulately mottled light gray
(10YR 7/2), yellow (10YR 7/6), red (10R 4/6 and
2.5YR 4/6), yellowish red (5YR 4/6), strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6), and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy
clay; weak very coarse subangular blocky structure;
firm; sand grains bridged and coated with clay; very
strongly acid.
The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction
ranges from very strongly acid to moderately acid
throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 5 to 9 inches in
thickness.
The E horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y,
value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 6. It is less than 16
inches thick.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 3 to 8. Few or common low-chroma mottles,
which are indicative of wetness, are within a depth of 30
inches. The Bt horizon is dominantly sandy clay or clay.


It ranges from 11 to 18 inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sandy clay or clay.
The C horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR to 5YR,
value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 6. It has few to
many prominent mottles. It is stratified sandy, loamy,
and clayey coastal plain sediments.

Evergreen Series
The Evergreen series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils that formed in fibrous, hydrophytic,
nonwoody plant remains over sandy marine deposits.
These soils are in depressions in the flatwoods. They
are sandy, siliceous, thermic Histic Haplaquods.
Evergreen soils are associated with Allanton,
Boulogne, Kingsferry, Leon, Murville, and Pottsburg
soils. Allanton, Boulogne, Kingsferry, Leon, Murville,
and Pottsburg soils are in the higher positions on the
landscape. The depressional Leon soils are in positions
on the landscape similar to those of the Evergreen
soils. They do not have a histic epipedon.
Typical pedon of Evergreen muck, in an area of
Leon-Evergreen complex, depressional; in a forested
area, approximately 6 miles west of Macclenny; 2 miles
east of Florida Highway 121; 1,750 feet east and 100
feet north of the southwest corner of sec. 3, T. 2 S., R.
22 E.
Oa-0 to 14 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 30
percent fiber, 5 percent rubbed; weak coarse
granular structure; very friable; common fine and
medium and few coarse roots; extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
A-14 to 22 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
coarse granular structure; very friable; few fine,
medium, and coarse roots; extremely acid; clear
wavy boundary.
Eg1-22 to 28 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Eg2-28 to 36 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand;
common medium distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Eg3-36 to 40 inches; brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Bh1-40 to 50 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine
sand; massive; friable; sand grains coated with
organic matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Bh2-50 to 65 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
fine sand; massive; friable; sand grains coated with
organic matter; very strongly acid.


81







Soil Survey


Reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid
throughout the profile.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3,
and chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is 10 to 33
percent unrubbed and less than 10 percent rubbed. The
horizon ranges from 8 to 15 inches in thickness.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1. It is a mixture of uncoated sand grains and
organic matter. It is sand or fine sand. It ranges from 4
to 8 inches in thickness.
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6,
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand or fine sand. It ranges
from 2 to 20 inches in thickness.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 2. In some pedons it has few to many small,
black, weakly cemented fragments of ortstein. The
texture is fine sand, sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine
sand. This horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more.

Hurricane Series
The Hurricane series consists of nearly level and
gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that
formed in sandy marine deposits. These soils are on
narrow to broad ridges and isolated knolls in the
flatwoods. They are sandy, siliceous, thermic
Grossarenic Entic Haplohumods.
Hurricane soils are associated with Albany,
Boulogne, Leon, Mandarin, Ortega, Pottsburg, and
Ridgewood soils. Ortega soils are in the higher
positions on the landscape. Boulogne, Leon, and
Pottsburg soils are lower on the landscape than the
Hurricane soils. Albany and Ridgewood soils are in
positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Hurricane soils. Albany soils have an argillic horizon.
Ridgewood soils do not have a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Hurricane sand, in an area of
Hurricane and Ridgewood soils, 0 to 5 percent slopes;
in a wooded area approximately 2.0 miles northeast of
Macclenny; 0.7 mile north of U.S. Highway 90; 800 feet
west and 1,000 feet south of the northeast corner of
sec. 27, T. 2 S., R. 22 E.
A1-0 to 3 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and
few medium roots; extremely acid; clear smooth
boundary.
A2-3 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
common medium faint light gray (10YR 4/1) mottles;
few medium prominent light gray (10YR 6/1)
streaks; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
common fine and medium and few coarse roots;
extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.


E1-8 to 16 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; common medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1)
streaks; many medium distinct grayish brown (10YR
5/2) mottles; few fine prominent black (10YR 2/1)
fragments of organic coated fine sand; single
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E2-16 to 24 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; few fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
and few fine distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine and medium
roots; extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E3-24 to 35 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; common medium prominent strong brown
(7.5YR 5/8), few fine prominent yellowish red (5YR
5/6), and common medium distinct light gray (10YR
7/2) mottles; single grained; loose; common fine
and few medium roots; extremely acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
E4-35 to 63 inches; white (10YR 8/2) sand; many
medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) and
few fine prominent yellowish red (5YR 4/6) mottles;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
BE-63 to 74 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/2) sand; common
medium distinct brown (7.5YR 5/4) mottles; single
grained; loose; extremely acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Bh-74 to 80 inches; very dark gray (5YR 3/1) sand;
massive; friable; sand grains coated with organic
matter; extremely acid.
The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Depth to the
Bh horizon ranges from 51 to 79 inches. Reaction
ranges from moderately acid to very strongly acid
throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 2 to 6 inches in
thickness.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y and value of
4 to 7. It generally has chroma of 1 to 4, but chroma of
1 or 2 are common in the lower part. Few or common
mottles in shades of gray, brown, yellow, and red, which
are mostly indicative of wetness, are at a depth of 20 to
40 inches. The texture is sand or fine sand throughout
the profile. The E horizon ranges from 45 to 66 inches
in thickness.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR to 5YR, value of 2
to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is fine sand, sand, or
loamy sand.

Kershaw Series
The Kershaw series consists of gently sloping,
excessively drained soils that formed in thick beds of


82




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