• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Matter
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 Summary of tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Hardee County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026063/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Hardee County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 1, 139 p., 2, 49 folded p. of plates. : ill., maps (1 col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Robbins, John M
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Hardee County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Hardee County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 79.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "By John M. Robbins ... et al."--P. 1.
General Note: "Issued June 1984"--p. iii.
General Note: Includes glossary and indexes to map sheets and units.
General Note: Item 102-B-9.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026063
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001289227
notis - AGD9901
oclc - 11193469
lccn - 84603182

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    How to use this soil survey
        Page ia
        Page ib
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    Summary of tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
    How this survey was made
        Page 3
        May unit composition
            Page 3
            Page 4
    General soil map units
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Soil descriptions
            Page 7
            Page 8
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 9
        Soil descriptions
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 33
        Crops and pasture
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
        Rangeland and grazable woodland
            Page 37
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 37
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 38
        Recreation
            Page 39
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 39
            Page 40
        Engineering
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
    Soil properties
        Page 47
        Engineering index properties
            Page 47
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 48
        Soil and water features
            Page 49
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Engineering index test data
            Page 52
    Classification of the soils
        Page 53
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Formation of the soils
        Page 77
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 77
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 78
    References
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Glossary
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Tables
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    General soil map
        Page 140
    Index to map sheets
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
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        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
Full Text

7a United States
r Department of
SAgriculture
Soil
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with
University of Florida,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations and Soil Science
Department,
and Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services


Soil Survey of

Hardee County

Florida


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Locate your area of interest on
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Locate your area of interest
3. on the map sheet.


HOW TO U!



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Note the number of the map
S* sheet and turn to that sheet.


List the map unit symbols


Symbols

,27C
-56B
-131B
-134A
-148B
151C


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HIS SOIL SURVEY



Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5 which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. "


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, Contents) for location of additional data
on a specific soil use.


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Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.


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This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1980. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1980. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1980. This survey was
made by the Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations and Soil Science Department, and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance
furnished to the Hardee Soil and Water Conservation District. The Hardee
County Board of Commissioners contributed financially to accelerate the
completion of fieldwork for the soil survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.

Cover Improved pasture of bahlagrass. The soil Is Myakka fine sand.


ii

















Contents


Index to map units................................... ............
Summary of tables ................................. ...............
Foreword...................................... ...........................
General nature of the county.......................................
How this survey was made ......................................
Map unit composition..........................................
General soil map units ...............................................
Soil descriptions ................................... ..............
Detailed soil map units ..............................................
Soil descriptions ................................... ..............
Use and management of the soils..........................
Crops and pasture................................. ............
Rangeland and grazable woodland.........................
Woodland management and productivity .................
Windbreaks and environmental plantings.................
Recreation .......................................... ..................


iv
v
vii
1
3
3
5
5
9
9
33
33
37
37
38
39


Wildlife habitat .................................... ...............
Engineering .......................................... ...............
Soil properties .........................................................
Engineering index properties......................................
Physical and chemical properties............................
Soil and water features....................... ............
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
selected soils............................... ...............
Engineering index test data......................................
Classification of the soils......................................
Soil series and their morphology...................................
Formation of the soils............................. .............
Factors of soil formation......................... ............
Processes of soil formation....................................
References ............................................. ...............
Glossary .................................................................
Tables ......................................................................


Soil Series


Adamsville series................................... ...............
Apopka series ................................................................
Basinger series ......................................... ............
Bradenton series ....................................... ..............
Candler series..........................................................
Cassia series............................................................
Chobee series..........................................................
Electra series ...................................................................
Farmton series........................................ ................
Felda series...................................... ........................
Floridaria series ........................................ ..............
Ft. Green series...................................... ................
Holopaw series ........................................ ...............
Hontoon series ......................................... ..............
Immokalee series .................................... ..............
Jonathan series ......................................... .............


53
54
55
55
56
57
57
58
59
60
60
61
62
62
63
63


Kaliga series.............................................. .................
Manatee series .................... ............................................
Myakka series .................. ........................... ...
Ona series ........................................ ........ ....
Placid series........................................................
Pomello series ........................... ................
Pomona series .............................. .. ..............
Pompano series............................................................
Popash series ..................................................................
Samsula series ..............................................
Smyrna series ............................................................
Sparr series............................ ...............
St. Lucie series ............................................ ..............
Tavares series ................................. ................
W abasso series .................. .............................................
Wauchula series .................................... ...............
Zolfo series ............................................... .................


Issued June 1984


iii


39
41
47
47
48
49
50
52
53
53
77
77
78
79
81
89


64
64
65
66
66
67
68
69
69
70
70
71
72
72
73
74
75

















Index to Map Units


1-Adamsville fine sand.............................................
2-Zolfo fine sand................................... ..............
3-Ft. Green fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes..........
4-Apopka fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...........
5-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............
6-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes...........
7-Basinger fine sand .............................................
8-Bradenton loamy fine sand, frequently flooded...
9-Popash mucky fine sand ......................................
10-Pomona fine sand ...............................................
11-Felda fine sand.................................... ............
12-Felda fine sand, frequently flooded ................
13-Floridana mucky fine sand, depressional.............
15-Immokalee fine sand ............................................
16-Myakka fine sand ..............................................
17-Smyrna sand ........................................... ........
18-Cassia fine sand.....................................................
19-Ona fine sand ................................... ..............
20-Samsula muck .....................................................
21-Placid fine sand, depressional.............................


9
10
10
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
16
17
17
18
18
19
19
20
21
22


22-Pomello fine sand ..............................................
23-Sparr fine sand .....................................................
24-Jonathan sand ...................................................
25-Wabasso fine sand ................. .......................
26-Electra sand.............................................................
27-Bradenton-Felda-Chobee association,
frequently flooded..................................................
28-Holopaw fine sand ..........................................
29-Pits ....................................................................
30-Hontoon muck ................................... .............
31-Pompano fine sand, frequently flooded...............
32-Felda fine sand, depressional................................
33-Manatee mucky fine sand, depressional..............
34-Wauchula fine sand ..............................................
35-Farmton fine sand ................................................
36-Kaliga muck ..........................................................
37-Basinger fine sand, depressional ..........................
38-St. Lucie fine sand ..............................................
39-Bradenton loamy fine sand..................................


iv


22
23
23
24
24

25
26
26
26
27
27
28
28
29
29
30
30
30

















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)....................................... ......... 90
Freeze data (table 2) .......................................................... ...................... 90
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3).............................. 91
Acres. Percent.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 4) ...................................... 92
Oranges. Grapefruit. Cabbage. Cucumbers. Tomatoes.
Bahiagrass. Grass-clover. Watermelons.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 5)................................. ......... 94
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Rangeland productivity (table 6) .............................................. ............... 95
Range site. Potential annual production for kind of
growing season.
Woodland management and productivity (table 7) ..................................... 97
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 8)................................................................ 100
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 9) ..................................................................................... 103
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 10) .............................................................. 105
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 11)................................................................................ 108
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 12) .................................................................... 111
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
Water management (table 13)......................... .............. 114
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Grassed waterways.


v



















Engineering index properties (table 14) ................................................. 117
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15) ............................. 121
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Reaction. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility
group. Organic matter.
Soil and water features (table 16)................................... ..... 124
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.
Depth to water table in selected soils (table 17) ............................................ 126
Elevation above mean sea level. Year. Month.
Physical properties of selected soils (table 18)......................................... 127
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Saturated
hydraulic conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.
Chemical properties of selected soils (table 19).......................................... 131
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon. Electrical
conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable. Citrate
dithionite extractable.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 20).................................................... 135
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay minerals.
Engineering index test data (table 21) ........................................................... 137
Classification. Mechanical analysis. Liquid limit. Plasticity
index. Moisture density.
Classification of the soils (table 22).................................................. ....... 139
Family or higher taxonomic class.
















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Hardee County, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.





James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service


vii


































FACKSONVILLE


PENSACOLA


APPROXIMATE SCALES


0 50 100
I I I
MILES


0 100 200

KILOMETERS


*State Agricultural Experiment Station


0 ,


Location of Hardee County In Florida.













Soil survey of


Hardee County, Florida


By John M. Robbins, Jr., Richard D. Ford, Jeffrey T. Werner, and W. Dean Cowherd,
Soil Conservation Service

Participating in the fieldwork were Earl S. Vanatta, James Schultzetenberg,
Warren Henderson, and Clifford Landers,
Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services


HARDEE COUNTY is in the south-central part of
peninsular Florida. It is bisected by the Peace River. It is
bordered on the north by Polk County, on the west by
Manatee County, on the south by De Soto County, and
on the east by Highlands County. Hardee County covers
403,200 acres, about 630 square miles. It has 376 acres
of water in bodies of less than 40 acres. The county is
about 21 miles long and 30 miles wide. Wauchula, the
county seat, is in the north-central part of the county.
The economy of Hardee County is based on
agriculture and agriculture-related enterprises.


General Nature of the County
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that
affect the use and management of the soils in Hardee
County are described. These factors are climate; history;
physiography, relief, and drainage; water resources;
farming; and transportation.

Climate
Prepared by the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina.
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation
for the survey area as recorded at Wauchula in the


period 1932 to 1978. Table 2 shows probable dates of
the first freeze in fall and the last freeze in spring (14).
In winter the average temperature is 62 degrees F,
and the average daily minimum temperature is 52
degrees. The lowest temperature on record, which
occurred at Wauchula on December 13, 1962, is 20
degrees. In summer the average temperature is 82
degrees, and the average daily maximum temperature is
91 degrees. The highest recorded temperature, which
occurred at Ona on May 31, 1945, is 103 degrees.
The total annual precipitation is 53.52 inches. Of this,
39.47 inches, or 72 percent, usually falls in April through
September. The growing season for most crops falls
within this period. In 2 years out of 10, the rainfall in April
through September is less than 39 inches. The heaviest
1-day rainfall during the period of record was 10.12
inches at Wauchula in June 1945. Thunderstorms occur
on about 100 days each year, and most occur in July.
Snowfall is rare. In 90 percent of the winters, there is
no measurable snowfall. In 10 percent, the snowfall,
usually of short duration, is less than 1 inch.
The average relative humidity in midafternoon is about
57 percent. Humidity is higher at night, and the average
at dawn is about 87 percent. The sun shines 61 percent
of the time possible in summer and 63 percent in winter.
The prevailing wind is from the east-northeast. Average
windspeed is highest, 7.8 miles per hour, in March.
1






Soil survey


History
In the late 1840's, settlement began in the area that is
now Hardee County (5, 6). In the late 1860's the first
school in the area was established on the road between
Wauchula and Ona. In the mid-1880's the railroad was
extended into the area.
Hardee County was established on April 23, 1921, the
result of a land division that created Hardee, De Soto,
Charlotte, Highlands, and Glades Counties. Wauchula
was established as the county seat on December 30,
1921.

Physiography, Relief, and Drainage
Hardee County is divided into two major physiographic
regions: the Polk Upland and the De Soto Plain (15).
The Polk Upland nearly covers the northern half of the
county. It is roughly square in shape and is surrounded
by lower ground on three sides. Except for these lower
areas, the elevation generally is between 100 and 130
feet. An inconspicuous but persistent outfacing scarp
separates the Polk Upland from the De Soto Plain. The
toe of the scarp is about 75 to 80 feet high. The crest
varies somewhat more in elevation and generally is more
than 100 feet high. The scarp is quite irregular, and its
origin is not clear. Most likely it is an erosional marring
scarp made by the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico at
Wicomico sea level.
The Bone Valley Formation underlies most of the Polk
Upland and much of the De Soto Plain. It has deposits
of phosphate. Its siliclastic composition has influenced
the topographic character of Hardee County. The effects
of solution are not so intense as they generally are
throughout peninsular Florida, and there is more
branching of surface streams. The Peace River, Horse
Creek, and Charlie Creek have widely branching
tributaries and contribute to the drainage of the county.
Topographic dissection in the Polk Upland generally
ranges to about 50 feet. It is much less in the De Soto
Plain.
The De Soto Plain covers the southern part of the
county. Its incline is gradual; the vertical drop is 30 feet
every 5 or 6 miles. The plain has all the characteristics
of a major scarp except abruptness. In Hardee County
the elevation of the plain generally ranges from 40 to 85
feet. The De Soto Plain is a submarine plain that was
formed most likely at Wicomico sea level. The absence
of beach ridges throughout the plain indicates submarine
origin. In Hardee County the Peace River is entrenched
to a depth of 30 to 40 feet throughout the plain.

Water Resources
The Peace River, Horse Creek, and Charlie Creek are
the major permanent streams and surface drainage
systems in the county. There are numerous small
streams and creeks along the major streams.


The Floridian Aquifer is the primary source of all
underground water in central Florida (4). The shallow
aquifers that overlie the Floridian Aquifer, including the
surficial sands and the upper region of the Hawthorn
Formation, are secondary sources.
Wells provide the water supply for towns, communities,
and individual homes within the county. The wells are
dug into the underlying limestone to the aquifer and then
cased to the limestone. The depth of the wells varies,
but most of the wells are 80 to 100 feet deep.

Farming
Tilman W. Robinson, district conservationist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
The soils and climate in Hardee County are suited to
various agricultural enterprises, including growing
vegetable crops and citrus and raising cattle (7, 8).
Crops such as cucumbers, yellow squash, zucchini
squash, bell peppers, cabbage, and watermelons are
grown on thousands of acres. Cucumbers are the main
crop. Strawberries, field peas, sweet corn, and tomatoes
are grown to a lesser extent. Most vegetable crops are
grown on soils in the flatwoods, but drainage and
irrigation are required.
Citrus is grown on more than 45,000 acres. Most of
the better citrus is produced on Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5
percent slopes. However, citrus is also grown on soils in
the flatwoods that have a high water table, but bedding,
open ditch or closed drainage systems, and irrigation are
needed for highest yields.
Raising beef cattle, mainly cow-calf herds, is a major
agricultural enterprise in the county. Currently 80,000
head of cattle graze mainly on improved pasture;
however, part of a large acreage of native range is
managed to improve the better native grasses.
Subsurface irrigation systems that use water pumped
from deep wells are used on large acreages of improved
pasture-mainly pangolagrass and white clover.
The dairy industry in the county is growing but is still
comparatively small.
Ornamental plant nurseries are becoming increasingly
important in agriculture in the county. Several large
nurseries presently are in operation.
Forest products, mostly pulpwood, also are produced
in the county. There are no large tracts of woodland in
the county, but most of the forests in the extensive
areas that are used as native range are naturally
regenerated. Some of the smaller trees are used in the
production of treated posts by a plant in Ona.
Swine, horses, and poultry, in small numbers, are
raised in the county, and some honey is produced.

Transportation
Several county, state, and federal highways provide
ready access between population centers within the


2







Hardee County, Florida


county and between the county and the rest of the state.
Several trucking firms that have facilities for handling
interstate trade serve the county. Rail and bus service
are available. Scheduled airline service is available at
Tampa International Airport. The Wauchula Airport is
used mainly by private planes.

How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about the
soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management
of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed
the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general
pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants
growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The
profile extends from the surface down into the
unconsolidated material in which the soil formed. The
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other
living organisms and has not been changed by other
biologic activity.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern
that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief,
climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each
kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil
scientists must determine the boundaries between the
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented
by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in
an area and to determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and
other features that enable them to identify soils. After
describing the soils in the survey area and determining
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind


and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
confirm data and assemble additional data based on
experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of
the soils in the area generally are collected for laboratory
analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists
interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as
well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil
properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils
under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils
were field tested through observation of the soils in
different uses under different levels of management.
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
sources, such as research information, production
records, and field experience of specialists. For example,
data on crop yields under defined levels of management
were assembled from farm records and from field or plot
experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have
a high water table within certain depths in most years,
but they cannot assure that a high water table will
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific
date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.

Map Unit Composition
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of


3







Hardee County, Florida


county and between the county and the rest of the state.
Several trucking firms that have facilities for handling
interstate trade serve the county. Rail and bus service
are available. Scheduled airline service is available at
Tampa International Airport. The Wauchula Airport is
used mainly by private planes.

How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about the
soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management
of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed
the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general
pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants
growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The
profile extends from the surface down into the
unconsolidated material in which the soil formed. The
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other
living organisms and has not been changed by other
biologic activity.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern
that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief,
climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each
kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil
scientists must determine the boundaries between the
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented
by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in
an area and to determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and
other features that enable them to identify soils. After
describing the soils in the survey area and determining
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind


and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
confirm data and assemble additional data based on
experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of
the soils in the area generally are collected for laboratory
analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists
interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as
well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil
properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils
under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils
were field tested through observation of the soils in
different uses under different levels of management.
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
sources, such as research information, production
records, and field experience of specialists. For example,
data on crop yields under defined levels of management
were assembled from farm records and from field or plot
experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have
a high water table within certain depths in most years,
but they cannot assure that a high water table will
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific
date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.

Map Unit Composition
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of


3










other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit
is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and
some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes.
These latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas
and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of
contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit


descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.






5


General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up
one unit can occur in other units but in a different
pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure.
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that
affect management.

Soil Descriptions

1. Zolfo-Tavares
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
and moderately well drained soils that are sandy
throughout
This map unit consists of broad sandhill areas on
uplands. Most areas are along U.S. 17 from Bowling
Green, in the northern part of the county, to Zolfo
Springs, in the south-central part. Other areas are near
Lemon Grove and Fort Green Springs.
This unit consists of broad, nearly level to gently
sloping, deep sandy soils that are intermixed with small
areas of poorly drained soils. The natural vegetation is
slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak, water oak,
magnolia, hickory, and dogwood and an understory of
native grasses and annual forbs.
This unit takes in about 33,000 acres, or about 8
percent of the county. It is about 54 percent Zolfo soils,
21 percent Tavares soils, and 25 percent soils of minor
extent.
Zolfo soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 7
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 56
inches thick. It is grayish brown in the upper 21 inches,
very pale brown in the middle 17 inches, and light
brownish gray in the lower 18 inches. The subsoil is fine


sand. It is dark brown to a depth of 68 inches and black
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 7
inches thick. The underlying material is light yellowish
brown fine sand to a depth of 16 inches, very pale
brown fine sand to a depth of 50 inches, and white fine
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The soils of minor extent are Adamsville, Apopka,
Candler, Electra, and Sparr soils.
The soils making up this unit are used mainly for citrus
or improved pasture. In some areas they are used for
residential and urban development. In a few places they
are used for truck crops.

2. Smyrna-Myakka-Ona

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy
throughout and that have a dark colored subsoil at a
depth of less than 30 inches
This map unit consists of nearly level pine and
sawpalmetto flatwoods interspersed with small, grassy,
wet depressions and cypress and hardwood swamps.
Some of the depressions are connected by narrow, wet
drainageways. This unit is scattered throughout the
county.
The natural vegetation in the broad flatwoods is
longleaf pine, slash pine, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle,
inkberry, running oak, and native grasses. In grassy
depressions it is mainly maidencane and St. John's-wort,
and in the swampy areas the natural vegetation is
cypress, bay, and gum trees.
This map unit takes in about 151,700 acres, or about
38 percent of the county. It is about 36 percent Smyrna
soils, 25 percent Myakka soils, 9 percent Ona soils, and
30 percent soils of minor extent.
Smyrna soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is light gray sand about 11 inches
thick. The subsoil is organic-coated sand to a depth of
about 29 inches. In the upper 4 inches it is black; in the
middle 4 inches it is dark reddish brown; and in the lower
5 inches it is dark brown. The next layer to a depth of 48
inches is light gray fine sand. The subsoil in the lower
part is dark brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.







Soil survey


Popash


Pomnona


Pomona


r


j7 /pp7hL


Figure 1.-Relationship of soils to topography and parent material in the Pomona-Floridana-Popash general soil map unit.


Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about 17
inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand about 25 inches
thick. In the upper 4 inches it is very dark brown, in the
next 4 inches it is dark reddish brown, in the next 5
inches it is brown, and in the lowermost 12 inches it is
yellowish brown. The substratum is light brownish gray
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Ona soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick.
The subsoil is dark reddish brown to brown fine sand to
a depth of 47 inches and black fine sand to a depth of
80 inches or more.
The soils of minor extent are Basinger, Immokalee,
Placid, and Pompano soils.
The soils making up this map unit are used mainly for
improved pasture. In some areas they are still in natural
vegetation and are used as native range. In other areas
they have been cleared and bedded and are used for
citrus and cultivated crops. In a few areas they are used
for residential development. In the wooded areas they
provide food and cover for wildlife, especially for birds
and small animals.


3. Pomona-Floridana-Popash

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
sandy soils; some have a dark colored subsoil at a depth
of less than 30 inches over loamy material, a/nd some
are sandy to a depth of 20 to more than 40 inches and
are loamy below
This map unit consists of nearly level pine and
sawpalmetto flatwoods interspersed with small, grassy,
wet depressions, cypress ponds, and swamps (fig. 1).
Some of the depressions are connected by narrow, wet
drainageways. This unit is scattered throughout the
county.
The natural vegetation in the broad, poorly drained
flatwoods is longleaf pine, South Florida slash pine,
sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, running oak, and
native grasses. In the depressions the natural vegetation
is mainly maidencane and St. John's-wort, and in the
swamps it is mainly cypress, bay, and gum trees.
This map unit takes in about 150,500 acres, or about
37 percent of the county. It is about 48 percent Pomona
soils, 6 percent Floridana soils, 4 percent Popash soils,
and 42 percent soils of minor extent.
Pomona soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is black fine sand about 3 inches thick. The


6







Hardee County, Florida


subsurface layer is gray fine sand about 24 inches thick.
The subsoil in the upper part to a depth of 46 inches is
dark reddish brown fine sand coated with organic matter
and brown fine sand. The subsoil in the lower part is
gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Between the upper part of the subsoil and the lower
part, there is a layer of brown fine sand about 11 inches
thick. The layer has many coarse distinct black bodies.
Floridana soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is about 15 inches thick. In the upper 4
inches it is black mucky fine sand, and in the lower 11
inches it is very dark gray fine sand. The subsurface
layer is gray fine sand about 17 inches thick. The subsoil
is dark gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 44 inches and
gray sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. It has
lenses and pockets of loamy fine sand and fine sand.
Popash soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer in the upper 8 inches is black mucky fine
sand, and in the lower 11 inches it is black fine sand.
The subsurface layer is gray fine sand about 25 inches
thick. The subsoil to a depth of 60 inches is grayish
brown sandy clay loam, and to a depth of 80 inches it is
light brownish gray fine sandy loam.
The soils of minor extent are Farmton, Felda,
Holopaw, and Manatee soils.
The soils making up this map unit are used mainly for
improved pasture. In some areas they have been cleared
and bedded and are used for citrus and cultivated crops.
In some areas they are still in natural vegetation and are
used as native range. In a few areas they are used for
residential development. In wooded areas they provide
food and cover for wildlife, especially for birds and small
animals.
4. Immokalee-Pomello-Myakka
Nearly level, poorly drained and moderately well drained
soils that are sandy throughout; some have a dark
colored subsoil at a depth of 30 to 50 inches, and some
at a depth of less than 30 inches
This map unit consists of nearly level pine and
sawpalmetto flatwoods, occasional ridges and knolls,
and interspersed small, grassy, wet depressions, cypress
ponds, and swamps. Some of the depressions are
connected by narrow, wet drainageways. The areas,
which are scattered throughout the county, are strips 1
to 2 miles wide that generally parallel the major streams
at a distance of 1 to 3 miles.
In the flatwoods the natural vegetation is longleaf pine,
South Florida slash pine, scrub oak, dwarf live oak,
sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, running oak, and
native grasses. In the depressions the native vegetation
is mainly maidencane and St. John's-wort, and in the
swamps it is mainly cypress, bay, and gum trees. On
ridges and knolls the vegetation is mainly scrub oak and
dwarf live oak.
This map unit takes in about 24,500 acres, or about 6
percent of the county. It is about 41 percent Immokalee


soils, 15 percent Pomello soils, 11 percent Myakka soils,
and 33 percent soils of minor extent.
Immokalee soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 5 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand about 39
inches thick. The subsoil is black fine sand to a depth of
48 inches and is dark reddish brown fine sand to a depth
of 80 inches.
Pomello soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 35 inches
thick. In the upper 10 inches it is gray, and in the lower
25 inches it is white. The subsoil in the upper part is
black fine sand to a depth of 58 inches, and in the lower
part it is black fine sand to a depth of 80 inches. An 8-
inch layer of gray fine sand separates the two parts.
Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about 17
inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand about 25 inches
thick. In the upper 4 inches it is very dark brown, in the
next 4 inches it is dark reddish brown, in the next 5
inches it is brown, and in the lower 12 inches it is
yellowish brown. The substratum is light brownish gray
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.
The soils of minor extent are Cassia, Electra,
Jonathan, and St. Lucie soils.
The soils making up this map unit are used mainly for
improved pasture and citrus. In the remaining areas they
are mainly in natural vegetation. In some areas they are
used for residential development, and in a few areas
they are used for cultivated crops. In wooded areas they
provide cover and a fair supply of food for wildlife.

5. Bradenton-Felda-Chobee

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
soils; some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and
are loamy below, and some are loamy throughout;
subject to frequent flooding
This map unit consists of low first bottoms of rivers
and streams. The areas are interspersed with shallow
river and creek channels and are flooded frequently.
They are along streams and rivers throughout the county
and are adjacent to the Peace River, Horse Creek, and
Charlie Creek.
The natural vegetation is dense, consisting of water
oak, cypress, cabbage palm, sweetgum, hickory, red
maple, cutgrass maidencane, sawgrass, swamp
primrose, buttonbush, smartweed, sedges, and other
water-tolerant plants.
This unit takes in about 35,700 acres, or about 9
percent of the county. It is about 30 percent Bradenton
soils, 25 percent Felda soils, 25 percent Chobee soils,
and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
Bradenton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick.


7











The subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand about
10 inches thick. The subsoil is light brownish gray sandy
clay loam about 13 inches thick. The substratum is gray
sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches.
Felda soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand about 21 inches thick. In
the upper 5 inches it is grayish brown, and in the lower
16 inches it is light gray. The subsoil is sandy loam about
22 inches thick. In the upper 10 inches it is gray, and in
the lower 12 inches it is grayish brown. The substratum
is light gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.
Chobee soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black sandy clay loam about 22 inches
thick. The subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of 40 inches and gray sandy clay loam to a depth
of 80 inches.
The soils of minor extent are Ft. Green, Holopaw,
Kaliga, Wabasso, and Wauchula soils.
The soils making up this map unit are in natural
vegetation. In some areas they are used as range and
native pasture. They are too wet to be used for pine
trees. They provide habitat for waterfowl. Cranes and
herons are common throughout the year, and ducks are
common in winter.
6. Kaliga-Samsula
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils; the
organic material extends to a depth of 16 to 51 inches;
some soils are underlain by loamy material, and some by
sandy material
This map unit consists of nearly level, freshwater
hardwood and cypress swamps. The areas are scattered


throughout the county but generally are at the head of
the numerous creeks. They are 1/2 to 2 miles wide, and
most are covered by water except during extended dry
periods.
The natural vegetation consists of sweetbay, sweet
gum, cypress, various pines, cabbage palm, water oak,
hickory, magnolia, and cedar and an understory of
maidencane, cattail, sawgrass, royal fern, cinnamon fern,
sawpalmetto, goat vine, muscadine vine, inkberry, and
various aquatic plants.
This map unit takes in about 7,800 acres, or about 2
percent of the county. It is about 70 percent Kaliga soils,
20 percent Samsula soils, and 10 percent soils of minor
extent.
Kaliga soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black muck about 28 inches thick. Below
the muck there is very dark grayish brown loamy fine
sand to a depth of 34 inches and dark gray sandy clay
loam to a depth of 80 inches.
Samsula soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black muck about 25 inches thick. Below
the muck there is fine sand to a depth of 65 inches or
more. In the upper 8 inches the fine sand is black. Below
that, it is light gray.
The soils of minor extent are Floridana, Hontoon,
Manatee, and Popash soils.
The soils making up this unit are mainly in natural
vegetation. In a few areas that have been cleared and
drained, they are used for pasture and truck crops.
These soils provide habitat for waterfowl. Cranes and
herons are common throughout the year, and ducks are
common in winter.






9


Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils
for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of
a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Felda fine sand is one of
several phases in the Felda series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil associations. A soil
association is made up of two or more geographically
associated soils that are shown as one unit on the maps.
Because of present or anticipated soil uses in the survey
area, it is not considered practical or necessary to map
the soils separately. The pattern and relative proportion
of the soils are somewhat similar. Bradenton-Felda-
Chobee association, frequently flooded, is an example.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some


small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
have little or no soil material and support little or no
vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
maps.
Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.

Soil Descriptions

1-Adamsville fine sand. This is a somewhat poorly
drained soil on low, broad flats that are less than 2 feet
higher than adjacent sloughs. Slopes generally are less
than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The underlying material is very pale
brown to light gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pompano, Tavares, and Zolfo soils. In 80 percent of the
mapped areas, the included soils make up 12 to 17
percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up either less than 12
percent or more than 17 percent.
In most years this Adamsville soil has a water table at
a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. The water
table rises to within 20 inches of the surface for less
than 2 weeks during very wet seasons and recedes to a
depth of more than 40 inches during dry periods. The
available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is low.
Permeability is rapid.
This soil, in most areas, has been cleared and is used
for citrus, improved pasture, and truck crops. The natural
vegetation is mainly slash pine, laurel, and water oak
and an understory of sawpalmetto and pineland
threeawn.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is high if a
water control system can remove excess water from the
soil rapidly to a depth of about 4 feet. The trees should
be planted in beds. A cover of close-growing vegetation
should be maintained between the trees to protect the






9


Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils
for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of
a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Felda fine sand is one of
several phases in the Felda series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil associations. A soil
association is made up of two or more geographically
associated soils that are shown as one unit on the maps.
Because of present or anticipated soil uses in the survey
area, it is not considered practical or necessary to map
the soils separately. The pattern and relative proportion
of the soils are somewhat similar. Bradenton-Felda-
Chobee association, frequently flooded, is an example.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some


small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
have little or no soil material and support little or no
vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
maps.
Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.

Soil Descriptions

1-Adamsville fine sand. This is a somewhat poorly
drained soil on low, broad flats that are less than 2 feet
higher than adjacent sloughs. Slopes generally are less
than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The underlying material is very pale
brown to light gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pompano, Tavares, and Zolfo soils. In 80 percent of the
mapped areas, the included soils make up 12 to 17
percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up either less than 12
percent or more than 17 percent.
In most years this Adamsville soil has a water table at
a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. The water
table rises to within 20 inches of the surface for less
than 2 weeks during very wet seasons and recedes to a
depth of more than 40 inches during dry periods. The
available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is low.
Permeability is rapid.
This soil, in most areas, has been cleared and is used
for citrus, improved pasture, and truck crops. The natural
vegetation is mainly slash pine, laurel, and water oak
and an understory of sawpalmetto and pineland
threeawn.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is high if a
water control system can remove excess water from the
soil rapidly to a depth of about 4 feet. The trees should
be planted in beds. A cover of close-growing vegetation
should be maintained between the trees to protect the







Soil survey


soil from blowing in dry weather and from washing during
heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed,
and for highest yields, irrigation is needed in seasons of
low rainfall.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is
medium if a simple water control system can remove
excess surface water in times of heavy rainfall. Regular
applications of fertilizer are needed. Grazing should be
controlled to maintain healthy plants for highest yields.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
longleaf pine and especially for slash pine. It is not more
productive because of the low fertility. The main
management concerns are equipment limitations,
seedling mortality, and plant competition.
If used as range, this soil has moderately high
potential for creeping bluestem, indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, various panicums, and numerous legumes and
forbs. If the range is allowed to deteriorate, sawpalmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) become dominant.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

2-Zolfo fine sand. This is a somewhat poorly
drained, nearly level soil on broad ridges and knolls on
uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 10 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are less than
2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine
sand about 56 inches thick. It is grayish brown in the
upper 21 inches, very pale brown in the middle 17
inches, and light brownish gray in the lower 18 inches.
The subsoil is dark brown fine sand to a depth of 68
inches and black fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Adamsville, Myakka, Ona, Pomello, and Tavares soils. In
80 percent of the mapped areas, the included soils make
up 8 to 12 percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the included soils make up either less
than 8 percent or more than 12 percent.
The Zolfo soil has a water table at a depth of 20 to 40
inches for 2 to 6 months. The water table rises to within
20 inches of the surface for less than 2 weeks during
very wet seasons and recedes to a depth of more than
40 inches during very dry periods. Permeability is very
rapid in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil.
The available water capacity is low, and natural fertility is
low.
This soil is used mainly for citrus and improved
pasture. The natural vegetation includes longleaf and
slash pine, scattered blackjack, turkey, and post oak,
and an undercover of pineland threeawn.
Periodic wetness is a severe limitation to use of this
soil for cultivated crops. Unless intensive water control
measures are used, the kinds of crops that can be
grown are very limited. The potential for crops is medium
if a water control system can remove excess water in


wet seasons. Cover crops and the residue of all other
crops are needed to protect the soil from erosion.
Additions of fertilizer and lime should be based on the
needs of the crop.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is high if a
water control system can remove excess water from the
soil rapidly to a depth of about 4 feet (fig. 2). The trees
should be planted in beds. A cover of close-growing
vegetation should be maintained between the trees to
protect the soil from blowing during dry weather and
from washing during heavy rains. Regular applications of
fertilizer are needed, and for highest yields, irrigation is
needed in seasons of low rainfall.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is
medium. A simple water control system is needed to
remove excess surface water in times of heavy rainfall.
Regular fertilization is also needed. Grazing should be
carefully controlled to maintain healthy plants for highest
yields.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
longleaf pine and especially for slash pine. It is not more
productive because of low fertility.
If used as range, this soil has moderately high
potential for creeping bluestem, indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, various panicums, and numerous legumes and
forbs. If the range is allowed to deteriorate, sawpalmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) become dominant.
This soil is in capability subclass Illw.

3-Ft. Green fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This
is a gently sloping, poorly drained soil on side slopes
adjacent to flood plains and depressions. The individual
areas are mostly long and narrow and generally are
parallel to the flood plains or are adjacent to the
depressions. The individual areas range from 5 to 20
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer in the upper
part is grayish brown fine sand 11 inches thick and in the
lower part is light brownish gray fine sand 14 inches
thick. The subsoil is light gray to a depth of 80 inches.
The upper 11 inches is cobbly sandy clay loam, the
middle 10 inches is sandy clay loam, and the lower 28
inches is fine sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
similar soils that have slopes of less than 2 percent or
more than 5 percent. Also included are small areas of
Bradenton, Pomona, and Wabasso soils. In 80 percent
of the mapped areas, the included soils make up 10 to
15 percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up either less than 10
percent or more than 15 percent.
The Ft. Green soil has a water table within 10 inches
of the surface for 1 to 4 months. Permeability is slow or
moderately slow. The available water capacity is
moderate, and natural fertility is moderate.


10







Hardee County Florida


'V


Fgure 2.--Ct Is a major crop on Zolfo fin sand.


This soil is used mainly as range and woodland. In
some areas it is used for improved pasture. The natural
vegetation consists mainly of oak, longleaf and slash
pine, cabbage palm, and sawpalmetto and grasses,
vines, and shrubs.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suitable for
cultivated crops. The high water table restricts root
development Cobbles and boulders on the surface and
in the soil are limitations to use of equipment Drainage
and removal of stones are needed before crops can be
grown successfully.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture
grasses if a water control system can be installed. In


some areas, cobbles and boulders are limitations to use
of equipment Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and
clovers grow well under proper management
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
slash and longleaf pine. During wet seasons use of
equipment is limited. Seedling mortality and plant
competition are severe.
If used as range, this soil has moderately high
potential for creeping bluestem, indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, various panicums, and numerous legumes and
forbs. If the range is allowed to deteriorate, sawpalmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) become dominant
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.


11







Soil survey


4-Apopka fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is
a nearly level to gently sloping, well drained soil on
uplands throughout the county. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 40 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish
brown to very pale brown fine sand 47 inches thick. The
subsoil is yellow loamy fine sand to a depth of 65 inches
and strong brown, brownish yellow, and reddish yellow
sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Candler and Sparr soils. In 90 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up 10 to 15 percent of
the acreage. In 10 percent of the mapped areas, the
included soils make up either less than 10 percent or
more than 15 percent.
The available water capacity is very low in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. The
water table is at a depth of more than 80 inches.
This soil is used mainly for citrus and improved
pasture. The natural vegetation consists mainly of
bluejack, turkey, post, and live oak, longleaf pine, and an
understory of bluestem, paspalum, and other native
grasses.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are
severe limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops.
The potential for crops is medium if good management
practices are followed and if irrigation is used during dry
seasons if water for irrigation is available. Cultivated
crops should be planted on the contour in alternating
strips with close-growing crops. The cropping sequence
should keep close-growing vegetation on the soil at least
two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving crops should be
grown, and all crop residue should be left on the surface
or plowed under. Frequent fertilizing and liming are
needed.
This soil has high potential for citrus trees. A ground
cover of close-growing plants is needed between the
trees to protect the soil from blowing. Good yields can
usually be obtained without irrigation, but for increased
yields, irrigation should be used if water for irrigation is
readily available.
The potential of this soil is medium for improved
pasture grasses if deep-rooting grasses such as Coastal
bermudagrass and bahiagrass are planted. Yields are
occasionally restricted by extreme droughts. Controlled
grazing helps to maintain vigorous plants for highest
yields.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
longleaf pine and especially for slash pine. The major
management concerns because of the sandy texture of
the soil are the establishment of seedlings and the
movement of equipment.
If used as range, this soil has moderate potential for
forage. The quantity and quality of forage are poor.


This soil is in capability subclass Ills.

5-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is
a moderately well drained soil on low ridges and knolls
throughout the county. Individual areas are irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 40 acres in size. Slopes are
smooth to concave.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying material
to a depth of 80 inches is fine sand. The upper 19
inches is light yellowish brown, the next 26 inches is very
pale brown, the next 19 inches is white, and the lower
11 inches is very pale brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Adamsville, Candler, Sparr, and Zolfo soils. Also included
are a few areas of soils that have a dark surface layer
more than 10 inches thick. In 80 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up 8 to 12 percent of the
acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped areas, the
included soils make up either less than 8 percent or
more than 12 percent.
In most years this Tavares soil has a water table at a
depth of 40 to 80 inches for 6 to 10 months and at a
depth below 80 inches during very dry periods. The
available water capacity is very low, and natural fertility is
low. Permeability is rapid.
In most areas this soil has been cleared and is used
for citrus and improved pasture. The natural vegetation
includes slash and longleaf pine, blackjack, turkey, and
post oak, and an understory of pineland threeawn, low
panicums, and broomsedge bluestem.
This soil has low potential for most cultivated crops.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
the kinds and potential yields of crops that can be
grown. Good management practices include planting row
crops on the contour and alternate strips of close-
growing crops. The cropping sequence should include
close-growing crops at least two-thirds of the time. All
crops should be fertilized and limed. Cover crops and all
crop residue are needed to help to control erosion.
Irrigation of high-value crops is usually feasible if water is
readily available.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is high. A
ground cover of close-growing vegetation is needed
between the trees to help control erosion. Citrus can
usually be grown without irrigation, but for optimum
yields, irrigation should be used if water is readily
available. Additions of fertilizer and lime are needed.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is
medium. Pangolagrass, Coastal bermudagrass, and
bahiagrass are well adapted. Yields are good if the soil is
fertilized and limed. Controlled grazing is needed to
maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
pine trees, especially for slash pine. Management
concerns are mobility of equipment, seedling mortality,
and plant competition.


12






Hardee County, Florida


If used as range, this soil has moderate potential for
forage. The quantity and quality of the forage are poor.
This soil is in capability subclass Ills.

6-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is
a nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil
in small to very large areas on uplands. Slopes are
smooth to concave.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
fine sand to a depth of about 48 inches. The upper 28
inches is yellowish brown, and the lower 13 inches is
yellow. At a depth below 48 inches there is yellow fine
sand that has lamellae of yellowish brown loamy fine
sand about 1/16 to 1/8 inch thick and 1 to 4 inches
long, and at a depth below 66 inches there are white
mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Apopka and Tavares soils and small areas of Candler
soils that have slopes of more than 5 percent. In 80
percent of the mapped areas, the included soils make up
5 to 10 percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the included soils make up either less
than 5 percent or more than 10 percent.
The available water capacity is very low to a depth of
48 inches and low below that depth. Permeability is very
rapid to a depth of 48 inches and rapid below that depth.
Natural fertility is low. The water table is at a depth
below 80 inches.
This soil, in most areas, has been cleared and is used
for citrus. The natural vegetation consists mainly of
bluejack, post, and turkey oak, scattered longleaf and
slash pine, and a sparse understory of indiangrass,
chalky bluestem, pineland threeawn, panicum, and
annual forbs.
This soil has low potential for cultivated crops because
of poor soil quality. Intensive management practices are
required if the soil is cultivated. Droughtiness and rapid
leaching of plant nutrients reduce the kinds and potential
yields of crops that can be grown. Close-growing crops
should be kept on the soil at least three-fourths of the
time. Cover crops and all crop residue are needed to
help to control erosion. Only a few crops produce good
yields without irrigation. Irrigation is usually feasible if
water for irrigation is readily available.
This soil has medium potential for citrus trees. A
ground cover of close-growing plants is needed between
the trees to protect the soil from blowing. In some years
good yields can be obtained without irrigation, but for
best yields a well designed irrigation system is needed to
maintain optimum moisture conditions.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is low.
Deep-rooting plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass are well adapted, but yields are reduced by
periodic droughtiness. Regular applications of fertilizer
and lime are needed. Controlled grazing is needed to


permit plants to recover from grazing and to maintain
plant vigor.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine
trees, especially for sand and slash pine. The major
management concerns because of the sandy texture of
the soil are the establishment of seedlings and the
movement of equipment.
If used as range, this soil has moderate potential for
production of forage. The quantity and quality of the
forage are poor.
This soil is in capability subclass IVs.

7-Basinger fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
nearly level soil in poorly defined drainageways and
sloughs in the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 25 acres. Slopes are smooth
to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black and dark gray fine
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 14 inches. The
next layer is dark brown fine sand mixed with grayish
brown fine sand to a depth of 24 inches. The substratum
is brown fine sand to a depth of 30 inches and light gray
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
have a black surface layer 10 to 13 inches thick and that
are in small depressions. Also included are small areas
of Myakka, Ona, and Smyrna soils on higher positions
near the edges of areas of this Basinger soil. In 80
percent of the mapped areas, the included soils make up
12 to 17 percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the included soils make up either less
than 12 percent or more than 17 percent.
In most years, if this Basinger soil is not drained, the
water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 6
months and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for more than
6 months. Permeability is very rapid throughout. The
available water capacity is very low, and natural fertility is
low.
The natural vegetation is mainly longleaf and slash
pine and an understory consisting of waxmyrtle, St.
John's-wort, pineland threeawn, and sawpalmetto.
Wetness and poor soil quality are very severe
limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops. Unless
very intensive management practices are used, the kinds
of crops that can be grown are limited. The soil,
however, has medium potential for some vegetable
crops if a water control system can remove excess water
during wet seasons and provide water by means of
subsurface irrigation during dry seasons. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Additions of fertilizer and lime should be based on the
needs of the crops.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. The potential
for trees is low even if a carefully designed water control
system can maintain the water table below a depth of


13







Soil survey


about 4 feet. The trees should be planted in beds, and a
vegetative cover maintained between the trees.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture.
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover
grow well if they are well managed. A water control
system that can remove excess surface water after
heavy rains is needed. Regular applications of fertilizer
and lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled
to prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for
longleaf pine and especially for slash pine if a water
control system can remove excess surface water. The
main management concerns are seedling mortality and
restricted use of equipment during periods of heavy
rainfall.
If used as range, this soil has high potential for
producing blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, and
various panicums. Carpetgrass, an introduced species,
tends to become dominant if the site is overgrazed.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

8-Bradenton loamy fine sand, frequently flooded.
This is a poorly drained, nearly level soil along streams
and rivers and on low-lying ridges and hammocks in
flood plains. Individual areas are long and narrow,
generally are adjacent to streams, and range from 5 to
20 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave and
range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy fine
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine
sand to a depth of about 15 inches. The upper 7 inches
is gray, and the lower 8 inches is grayish brown. The
subsoil is light gray sandy clay loam about 21 inches
thick. The substratum is light brownish gray sandy loam
to a depth of 66 inches and light gray loamy sand to a
depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
similar soils that have limestone boulders below the
subsoil. Also included are small areas of Felda, Pomona,
and Wabasso soils. In 80 percent of the mapped areas,
the included soils make up 10 to 15 percent of the
acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped areas, the
included soils make up either less than 10 percent or
more than 15 percent.
This Bradenton soil has a water table at a depth of
less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months each year.
Generally, the soil is flooded every year and more than
once in most years. Permeability is moderate. The
available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is
medium, and organic matter content is low.
This soil is used mainly as range and woodland. In
some areas that have adequate water management, it is
used for improved pasture and truck crops. The natural
vegetation consists mainly of slash pine, laurel and live
oak, cabbage palm, sawpalmetto, and pineland
threeawn.


This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops or
improved pasture because flooding is a severe hazard. If
the hazard of flooding can be reduced, the potential is
low for cultivated crops and medium for improved
pasture.
This soil has high potential productivity for longleaf
and slash pine. The management concerns are plant
competition, seedling mortality, and use of heavy
equipment. A water control system that reduces the
hazard of flooding and that removes excess surface
water should be installed before planting trees.
If used as range, this soil has moderately high
potential for creeping bluestem, indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, various panicums, and numerous legumes and
forbs. If the range is allowed to deteriorate, sawpalmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) become dominant.
This soil is in capability subclass Vw.

9-Popash mucky fine sand. This is a nearly level,
very poorly drained soil in intermittent ponds. Slopes are
smooth to concave and are less than 1 percent.
Individual areas are circular and range from 3 to 15
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is black. The upper 10
inches is mucky fine sand, and the lower 11 inches is
fine sand. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a
depth of 52 inches. The subsoil is light brownish gray
sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Felda and Floridana soils and a few small areas of
organic soils. In 80 percent of the mapped areas, the
included soils make up 15 percent of the acreage. In 20
percent of the mapped areas, the included soils make up
either more or less than 15 percent.
In most years, most areas of this Popash soil are
covered by standing water for 6 months or more. The
available water capacity is moderate. Natural fertility is
medium. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
slow or very slow in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists mainly of waxmyrtle,
pickerelweed, sedges, reeds, water-tolerant grasses, and
a few cypress, bay, and tupelo trees.
Under natural conditions, the soil is not suitable for
crops or improved pasture. The water table above the
surface for much of the year severely restricts plant
growth. In most places, however, an adequate water
control system cannot be installed because suitable
outlets are not available. If a system can be installed, the
soil has medium potential for improved pasture.
This soil is not suitable for the commercial production
of pine trees.
If used as range, this soil has very high potential for
maidencane and cutgrass. The water level fluctuates
throughout the year; thus grazing is naturally deferred
and forage production increases when the water level is
high.
This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.


14







Hardee County, Florida


7.*y^- J*fe
b.1 4**"Vb&


Figure 3.-Watermelons between strips of rye on Pomona fine sand, a soil that requires Intensive management practices if it s used for
cultivated crops.


10-Pomona fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil in large areas on low ridges in the flatwoods.
Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2
percent. Individual areas are broad and oblong and
range from 15 to 200 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 3
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 24
inches thick. The upper 7 inches is gray, and the lower
17 inches is light gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of
80 inches. The upper 8 inches is dark reddish brown fine
sand coated with organic matter, the middle 22 inches is
brown fine sand, and the lower 23 inches is gray fine
sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Myakka, Smyrna, and Wauchula soils. In 80
percent of the mapped areas, the included soils make up
10 to 15 percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the included soils make up either less
than 10 percent or more than 15 percent.
In most years this Pomona soil has a water table at a
depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3 months and at a depth of
less than 40 inches for more than 6 months.
The available water capacity is very low to low in all


layers except the lower part of the subsoil, where it is
moderate. Natural fertility is low. Permeability is
moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, moderately
slow in the lower part of the subsoil, and rapid in the
other layers.
This soil is mainly in natural vegetation or is used for
improved pasture. The natural vegetation includes
longleaf and slash pine and sawpalmetto,
gallberry, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn.
Wetness and poor soil quality are very severe
limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops. Unless
intensive management practices are used, the kinds of
crops that can be grown are limited (fig. 3). The soil has
medium potential for some vegetable crops if a water
control system can remove excess water during wet
seasons and provide water for subsurface irrigation
during dry seasons (fig. 4). Crop residue and cover crops
are needed to protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding of the rows.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is low even if a
carefully designed water control system can maintain the
water table below a depth of 4 feet The trees should be
planted in beds and a vegetative cover maintained


15







Soil survey


Figure 4.-Watermelons in contour beds on Pomona fine snd. The water control system in use s a combination of seepage rhigtin and
drainage ditches.


between the trees. Areas subject to freezing
temperatures in winter are not suitable for citrus trees.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is
medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
clover grow well if they are well managed. Water control
is needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent
overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
pine trees, especially for slash pine, if a simple water
control system can remove excess surface water.
Management concerns are restricted use of equipment
during periods of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and
plant competition.
If used as range, this soil has moderately high
potential for creeping bluestem, indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, various panicums, and numerous legumes and
forbs. If the site is allowed to deteriorate, sawpalmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) become dominant.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

11-Felda fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil in low flat areas and in poorly defined
drainageways. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 5 to 20 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.


Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a
depth of about 31 inches. The upper 7 inches is light
brownish gray, and the lower 20 inches is light gray. The
subsoil is fine sandy loam about 27 inches thick. The
upper 13 inches is light brownish gray, and the lower 14
inches is dark gray. The substratum is gray loamy sand
to a depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bradenton, Holopaw, and Wabasso soils. In 90 percent
of the mapped areas, the included soils make up 8 to 12
percent of the acreage. In 10 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up either less than 8
percent or more than 12 percent
If this Felda soil is not drained, the water table is
within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months of the
year. Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid. The
available water capacity is low, and natural fertility is low.
This soil is used mainly as range and woodland. In
some areas that have adequate water management, it is
used for improved pasture and truck crops. The natural
vegetation consists mainly of cabbage palm, longleaf
and slash pine, water oak, waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto,
pineland threeawn, and many grasses, vines, and
shrubs.
The potential of this soil for cultivated crops is low
because of wetness. Unless very intensive management


16






Hardee County, Florida


practices are used, the kinds of crops that can be grown
are limited. The soil has medium potential for a number
of vegetable crops if a water control system can remove
excess water during wet seasons and provide water for
subsurface irrigation during dry seasons.
This soil has medium potential for citrus trees if a
water control system can maintain the water table below
a depth of 4 feet.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is high.
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover
grow well if they are well managed. Water control is
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed, and grazing should be controlled to maintain
plant vigor.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
longleaf and slash pine if a water control system can
remove excess water from the soil.
If used as range, this soil has high potential for blue
maidencane, chalky bluestem, and various panicums.
Carpetgrass, an introduced species, tends to become
dominant if the site is excessively grazed.
This soil is in capability subclass Illw.

12-Felda fine sand, frequently flooded. This is a
nearly level, poorly drained soil along the small streams
and creeks throughout the county. The areas are mainly
long and narrow and generally are adjacent to the
streams. Individual areas range from 5 to 25 acres.
Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 1
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a
depth of about 26 inches. The upper 5 inches is grayish
brown, and the lower 16 inches is light gray. The subsoil
is sandy loam about 22 inches thick. The upper 10
inches is gray, and the lower 12 inches is grayish brown.
The substratum is light gray fine sand to a depth of 80
inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bradenton and Pompano soils. Also included are a few
small areas of organic soils. In 80 percent of the
mapped areas, the included soils make up about 12
percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up either more or less
than 12 percent.
Generally, this soil is flooded every year. Every 2
years, on the average, it is flooded more than once
during the year. The flooding results in yearly deposition
on or scouring of the surface. In addition, there is debris
on the surface. Floodwater marks are evident on trees,
fences, and bridges. During periods when the soil is not
flooded, the water table is within 10 inches of the
surface for 2 to 6 months. Permeability is moderate to
moderately rapid. The available water capacity is low,
and natural fertility is low. The content of organic matter
is low.


This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists mainly of cypress, water oak, pond
and slash pine, cabbage palm, and vines and shrubs.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops or
improved pasture because flooding is a severe hazard. If
the hazard of flooding can be reduced, the potential is
low for cultivated crops and medium for improved
pasture.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
longleaf and slash pine. A water control system that can
reduce the hazard of flooding and remove excess water
is needed before trees can be planted.
If used as range, this soil has high potential for blue
maidencane, chalky bluestem, and various panicums.
Carpetgrass, an introduced species, tends to become
dominant if the site is excessively grazed.
This soil is in capability subclass Vw.

13-Floridana mucky fine sand, depressional. This
is a nearly level, very poorly drained soil in wet
depressions. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 3 to 30 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
concave and are less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is about 15 inches thick.
The upper 4 inches is black, mucky fine sand and the
lower 11 inches is very dark gray fine sand. The
subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of 32
inches. The subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of 44 inches and gray sandy loam to a depth of 80
inches or more. It has lenses and pockets of loamy fine
sand and fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Felda and Popash soils and a few small areas of organic
soils. In 80 percent of the mapped areas, the included
soils make up 12 to 15 percent of the acreage. In 20
percent of the mapped areas, the included soils make up
either less than 12 or more than 15 percent.
In most years, water stands on the surface of this
Floridana soil for more than 6 months. The available
water capacity is moderate, and natural fertility is
medium. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
slow or very slow in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists mainly of cypress,
cattails, and dense stands of maidencane and sawgrass.
Very few areas of this soil have been cleared, and most
areas are ponded and do not have natural outlets.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suitable for
crops. The water table above the surface for most of the
year severely restricts plant growth. In most places an
adequate water control system cannot be installed
because suitable outlets are not available. If a water
control system can be installed, however, the potential of
this soil for pasture is medium.
This soil is not suitable for the commercial production
of pine trees.
If used as range, this soil has very high potential for
production of maidencane and cutgrass. The water level


17







Soil survey


fluctuates throughout the year; thus grazing is naturally
deferred and forage production increases when the
water level is high.
This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

15--mmokalee fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
nearly level soil on broad low ridges and low knolls in
the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 10 to 60 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine
sand to a depth of about 44 inches. The subsoil is fine
sand to a depth of 80 inches. The upper 4 inches is
black, and the lower 32 inches is dark reddish brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Myakka, Ona, Placid, and Pomello soils. In 80 percent of
the mapped areas, the included soils make up 10 to 15
percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up either less than 10 or
more than 15 percent.
In most years, the water table is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 2 months and at a depth of 10 to 40
inches for more than 8 months. It is at a depth of more
than 40 inches during dry periods. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low.
In most areas this soil is used as range and woodland.
In some areas that have adequate water management, it
is used for citrus, improved pasture, and truck crops. The
natural vegetation consists mainly of longleaf and slash
pine and an undergrowth of sawpalmetto, gallberry,
waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn.
Wetness and poor soil quality are very severe
limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops. Unless
very intensive management practices are used, the kind
of crops that can be grown is limited. The soil has
medium potential for vegetable crops if a water control
system can remove excess water during wet seasons
and provide water for subsurface irrigation during dry
seasons. Good management practices include growing
cover crops and leaving crop residue on the surface to
help control erosion. Seedbed preparation should include
bedding of the rows.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is low even if a
carefully designed water control system can maintain the
water table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be
planted in beds and a vegetative cover maintained
between the trees.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture grasses
is medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and
white clover grow well if they are well managed. A water
control system is needed to remove excess surface
water after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer
and lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled
to prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.


This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine
trees, especially for slash pine, if a central water control
system can remove excess surface water. Management
concerns include restricted use of equipment during
periods of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant
competition.
If used as range, this soil has moderately high
potential for creeping bluestem, indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, various panicums, and numerous legumes and
forbs. If the range is allowed to deteriorate, sawpalmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) become dominant.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

16-Myakka fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil in broad areas in the flatwoods. Slopes are
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown.
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
light gray fine sand to a depth of 21 inches. The subsoil
is fine sand about 25 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is
very dark gray, the next 5 inches is dark reddish brown,
the next 10 inches is dark brown, and the lower 6 inches
is brown. The substratum is pale brown and light
brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of similar
soils that have a black surface layer more than 8 inches
thick. Also included are small areas of Adamsville,
Basinger, Pomona, Smyrna, and Pompano soils. In 85
percent of the mapped areas, the included soils make up
10 to 15 percent of the acreage. In 15 percent of the
mapped areas, the included soils make up either less
than 10 percent or more than 15 percent.
In most years this Myakka soil has a water table at a
depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months. The
water table recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during very dry seasons. The available water capacity is
moderate in the subsoil but is very low in the other
layers. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
substratum and moderate or moderately rapid in the
subsoil. Internal drainage is slow, and runoff is slow.
Natural fertility is low.
This soil is mainly wooded. The natural vegetation
includes longleaf and slash pine and an understory of
sawpalmetto, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle,
huckleberry, pineland threeawn, and scattered fetter
bushes.
Wetness and poor soil quality are very severe
limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops. Unless
very intensive management practices are used, the kinds
of crops that can be grown are limited. The soil has
medium potential for vegetable crops if a water control
system can remove excess water duringwet seasons
and provide water for subsurface irrigation during dry
seasons. Crop residue and cover crops are needed to
help control erosion. Seedbed preparation should include
bedding of the rows.


18







Hardee County, Florida


The potential of this soil for citrus trees is low even if a
carefully designed water control system can maintain the
water table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be
planted in beds and a vegetative cover maintained
between the trees.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is
medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
clover grow well if they are well managed. Water control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled to
prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
This soil has low potential productivity for pine trees. A
central water control system to remove excess surface
water is needed for increased production. Slash pine is
better suited than other trees. Management concerns
are restricted use of equipment during periods of heavy
rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
If used as range, this soil has moderately high
potential for creeping bluestem, indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, various panicums, and numerous legumes and
forbs. If the range is allowed to deteriorate, sawpalmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) become dominant.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

17-Smyrna sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil in the flatwoods. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and range from 3 to 20 acres in size.
Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
sand to a depth of 16 inches. The subsoil is organic-
coated sand to a depth of 29 inches. The upper part is
black, and the lower part is dark reddish brown and dark
brown. Below the subsoil there is a light gray sand to a
depth of 48 inches and dark brown sand to a depth of
80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are Immokalee,
Myakka, and Ona soils. In 80 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up 8 to 12 percent of the
acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped areas, the
included soils make up either less than 8 percent or
more than 12 percent.
In most years this Smyrna soil has a water table at a
depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months and at a
depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6 months.
Permeability is moderate. Natural fertility is moderate.
The available water capacity is moderate in the subsoil
and very low to low in the other layers.
This soil is used mainly for improved pasture and
citrus where bedding is used or surface drainage has
been installed, or both. The native vegetation includes
longleaf and slash pine and an undergrowth of
sawpalmetto, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and
pineland threeawn.


Wetness and poor soil quality are very severe
limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops. Unless
very intensive management practices are used, the kinds
of crops that can be grown are limited. The soil has
medium potential for some vegetable crops if a water
control system can remove excess water during wet
seasons and provide water for subsurface irrigation
during dry seasons. Crop residue and soil-improving
crops should be plowed under. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding of the rows (fig. 5).
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is low even if a
carefully designed water control system has been
installed to maintain the water table below a depth of 4
feet. The trees should be planted in beds and a
vegetative cover maintained between the trees.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is
medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
clover grow well if they are well managed. Water control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled to
prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
pine trees, especially for slash pine. Management
concerns are restricted use of equipment during periods
of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant
competition. For highest yields, a central water control
system is needed to remove excess surface water.
If used as range, this soil has moderately high
potential for creeping bluestem, indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, various panicums, and numerous legumes and
forbs (fig. 6). If the range is allowed to deteriorate,
sawpalmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) become
dominant.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

18-Cassia fine sand. This is a nearly level,
somewhat poorly drained soil on low ridges slightly
higher than the adjacent flatwoods. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 15 acres in size.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white sand
to a depth of 27 inches. The subsoil is sand to a depth
of 65 inches. In the upper 7 Inches it is dark reddish
brown, and the grains are coated with organic material;
in the next 23 inches it is brown or pale brown, and in
the lower 8 inches it is dark grayish brown and contains
black very firm fragments. The substratum to a depth of
80 inches or more is very pale brown and light gray
sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Immokalee and Pomello soils. In 90 percent of the
mapped areas, the included soils make up 5 to 12
percent of the acreage. In 10 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up either less than 5 or
more than 12 percent.


19







Soil survey


Figure 5.-Strawberries planted in beds. The soil is Smyrna sand.


This Cassia soil has a water table at a depth of 15 to
40 inches for about 6 months and at a depth below 40
inches during dry periods. The available water capacity is
very low to low except in the subsoil, where it is
moderate. Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in
the surface and subsurface layers and moderate to
moderately rapid in the subsoil.
This soil is used mainly as range. The natural
vegetation consists of scattered slash and longleaf pine,
dwarf and sand live oak, sawpalmetto, pineland
threeawn, running oak, and broomsedge bluestem.
This soil has low potential for cultivated crops because
of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients. It is
not suitable for most commonly cultivated crops.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is medium. In
some years, good yields can be obtained without
irrigation, but for best yields, irrigation should be used if
water is available.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is low
even if good management practices are used. Grasses
such as bahiagrass are better adapted than others.
Clovers are not suited. Yields are reduced by periodic
droughts. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed. Grazing should be greatly restricted to permit


plants to maintain vigorous growth for highest yields and
to provide ground cover.
The potential productivity of this soil is low for pine
trees. Sand pine is better suited than other trees. Major
management concerns include seedling mortality,
mobility of equipment, and plant competition.
If used as range, this soil has low potential for native
forage.
This soil is in capability subclass VIs.

19-Ona fine sand. This is a poorly drained, nearly
level soil in the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular
in shape and range from 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes
are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 9
inches thick. The subsoil is dark reddish brown loamy
fine sand to a depth of 16 inches. The substratum is fine
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 8
inches is brown, the next 18 inches is pale brown, the
next 18 inches is light gray, and the lower 20 inches is
brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Immokalee, Myakka, and Placid soils. Also
included are wet spots and small ponds. In 80 percent of


20






Hardee County, Florida


21


the mapped areas, the included soils make up 12 to 17
percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up either less than 12
percent or more than 17 percent
In most years this Ona soil has a water table at a
depth of 10 to 40 inches for 4 to 6 months. The water
table rises to a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 2
months and may recede to a depth of more than 40
inches during very dry seasons. Permeability is
moderate. Natural fertility is moderate. The available
water capacity is moderate in the surface layer and
subsoil and very low to low in the other layers.
This soil is used mainly for improved pasture and truck
crops. In some areas where bedding is used and surface
drainage has been installed, it is used for citrus. The
natural vegetation includes slash and longleaf pine,
gallberry, and widely spaced sawpalmetto, huckleberry,
and pineland threeawn.
Wetness and poor soil quality are very severe
limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops. Unless
very intensive management practices are used, the kinds
of crops that can be grown are limited. The soil has
medium potential for some vegetable crops if a water
control system can remove excess water during wet
seasons and provide water for subsurface irrigation
during dry seasons. Crop residue and cover crops are
needed to control erosion.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is low even if a


carefully designed water control system can maintain the
water table at a depth below 4 feet The trees should be
planted in beds and a vegetative cover maintained
between the trees.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is
medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
clover grow well if they are well managed. Water control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled to
prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
pine trees, especially for slash pine. Management
concerns are restricted use of equipment during periods
of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant
competition. For highest yields, a central water control
system is needed to remove excess surface water.
If used as range, this soil has moderately high
potential for creeping bluestem, indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, various panicums, and numerous legumes and
forbs. If the range is allowed to deteriorate, sawpalmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) become dominant.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

20-Samsula muck. This is a very poorly drained,
nearly level organic soil in low depressions. Individual
areas are irregular in shape and range from 3 to 100
acres in size. Slopes are less than 2 percent


g S.--Wtive range on Smyma sand in the South RForka Flatwoods range







Soil survey


Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 25
inches thick. Below the muck there is fine sand to a
depth of 65 inches or more. In the upper 8 inches the
fine sand is black. In the lower 32 inches it is light gray.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of similar
soils except that the organic material is less than 16
inches thick. Also included are small areas of soils that
have organic material to a depth of 52 inches or more.
Also included are areas of soils that are loamy within a
depth of 52 inches. In 80 percent of the mapped areas,
the included soils make up 8 to 12 percent of the
acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped areas, the
included soils make up either less than 8 percent or
more than 12 percent.
This Samsula soil has a water table at or near the
surface for 6 to 12 months of the year. If the soil is not
drained, it is covered by water for very long periods. The
available water capacity is very high in the organic layer
and very low in the sandy layers. Permeability is rapid
throughout. Natural fertility is moderate, and the content
of organic matter is very high.
The native vegetation consists of loblolly bay,
scattered cypress, maple, gum, and pine, and a ground
cover of greenbrier, ferns, and other aquatic plants.
This soil is mainly in native vegetation and is used as
range. In a few areas that have been cleared, the soil is
used for improved pasture and truck crops.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops. However,
it has high potential for some crops if a well designed
and maintained water control system can remove excess
water when tle soil is in crops and can keep the soil
saturated at other times. Fertilizers that contain
phosphates, potassium, and minor elements are needed.
Heavy applications of lime are needed.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture
grasses and clover if a water control system can
maintain the water table near the surface to prevent
excessive oxidation of the organic layer. Fertilizers high
in potassium, phosphates, and minor elements are
needed. Grazing should be controlled for maximum
yields.
If used as range, this soil has very high potential for
production of maidencane and cutgrass. The water level
fluctuates throughout the year; thus grazing is naturally
deferred and forage production increases when the
water level is high.
This soil is not suitable for citrus trees or the
commercial production of pine trees.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

21-Placid fine sand, depressional. This is a very
poorly drained soil in wet depressions and in poorly
defined drainageways in the flatwoods. Individual areas
are irregular in shape and range from 3 to 20 acres in
size. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 18
inches thick. It is black in the upper 6 inches and very


dark gray in the lower 12 inches. The underlying material
is grayish brown or light brownish gray fine sand to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger and Pompano soils. Also included are small
areas of similar soils that have a well decomposed
organic surface layer 3 to 12 inches thick. In 80 percent
of the mapped areas, the included soils make up 12 to
17 percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up either less than 12
percent or more than 17 percent.
In most years this Placid soil is covered by water for 6
months or more. The available water capacity is high in
the surface layer and low in the underlying material.
Permeability is rapid throughout. Internal drainage is slow
because it is impeded by a shallow water table. Natural
fertility and the content of organic matter are high to a
depth of about 15 inches and low below that depth.
This soil, in most places, is in native vegetation and is
used as range or wildlife habitat. In some areas that
have been cleared and that have water control
measures, the soil is used for truck crops, improved
pasture, and citrus. The natural vegetation consists
mainly of pond pine, bay, cypress, gum, pickerelweed,
rushes, sedges, maidencane, and other water-tolerant
grasses.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suitable for
crops. The water table above the surface for most of the
year severely restricts plant growth. In most places an
adequate water control system cannot be installed
because suitable outlets are not available. If a water
control system can be installed, the potential for good
quality pasture is medium.
This soil is not suitable for the commercial production
of pine trees.
If used as range, this soil has very high potential for
maidencane and cutgrass. The water level fluctuates
throughout the year; thus grazing is naturally deferred
and forage production increases when the water level is
high.
This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

22-Pomello fine sand. This is a nearly level,
moderately well drained soil on low ridges in the
flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 10 to 60 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 41
inches thick. The upper 10 inches is gray, and the lower
31 inches is white. The subsoil is black fine sand to a
depth of 58 inches. Below that, there is gray fine sand 8
inches thick and black fine sand 14 inches thick.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Cassia, Electra, and Jonathan soils in about the same
position on the landscape as this Pomello soil. In 80
percent of the mapped areas, the included soils make up


22







Hardee County, Florida


23


12 to 17 percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the included soils make up either less
than 12 percent or more than 17 percent.
In most years this Pomello soil has a water table at a
depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1 to 4 months and at a
depth of 40 to 60 inches for 8 months. The available
water capacity is very low except in the subsoil, where it
is moderate. Natural fertility is low. Permeability is very
rapid in the surface layer and moderately rapid in the
subsoil.
The natural vegetation includes dwarf and sand live
oak, sawpalmetto, longleaf and slash pine, pineland
threeawn, and running oak.
This soil has low potential for cultivated crops because
of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients. It is
not suitable for most commonly cultivated crops.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is medium. In
some years, good yields can be obtained without
irrigation, but for highest yields, irrigation should be used
if water is available.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is low
even if good management practices are used. Grasses
such as bahiagrass are better adapted than others.
Clovers are not suited. Yields are reduced by periodic
droughts. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed. Grazing should be greatly restricted to permit
plants to maintain vigorous growth for highest yields and
to provide good ground cover.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine
trees. Sand pine is better suited than other trees.
Management concerns are seedling mortality, mobility of
equipment, and plant competition.
If used as range, this soil has low potential for native
forage.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis.

23-Sparr fine sand. This is a nearly level, somewhat
poorly drained soil in seasonally wet, sandy areas on
uplands. Slopes are smooth. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and range from 10 to 40 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
yellowish brown to very pale brown fine sand to a depth
of 60 inches. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
more is light gray sandy clay loam that has yellow
mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are Apopka, Candler,
and Tavares soils. In 80 percent of the mapped areas,
the included soils make up 12 to 17 percent of the
acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped areas, the
included soils make up either less than 12 percent or
more than 17 percent.
In most years this Sparr soil has a perched water table
on loamy material for 1 to 4 months. The available water
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate to high in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.


Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderate in the subsoil.
In many areas the soil is used for citrus and pasture
and as range. Natural vegetation includes oak, hickory,
magnolia, sweetgum, slash and longleaf pine, and in
some areas an understory of gallberry, waxmyrtle,
scattered sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn.
The potential of this soil for most cultivated crops is
low mainly because of droughtiness or poor soil quality.
However, good yields of fruit and vegetable crops can be
obtained if the crops are irrigated during dry periods.
Row crops should be grown in sequence with close-
growing cover crops. The cover crops should be on the
land three-fourths of the time. Crop residue and cover
crops are needed to control erosion. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Additions of fertilizer and lime should be based on the
needs of the crop.
This soil has very high potential for citrus trees. A
water control system is needed to maintain the water
table below a depth of about 4 feet. Close-growing
vegetation should be maintained between the trees to
protect the soil from blowing in dry weather and from
washing during heavy rains. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is high.
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if
they are well managed. In some areas a simple water
control system is needed for best yields. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, and grazing
should be controlled to maintain vigor of the plants.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
longleaf pine and especially for slash pine. Management
concerns are mobility of equipment, seedling mortality,
and plant competition.
If used as range, this soil has moderate potential for
forage. Indiangrass generally is the most important
forage species. The tree canopy can become so dense
that the quality and quantity of forage are drastically
reduced.
This soil is in capability subclass Ills.

24-Jonathan sand. This is a moderately well drained
to somewhat excessively drained soil on low ridges in
the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape, and
most range from 5 to 60 acres in size. Slopes are
smooth and are less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray to
white sand and fine sand to a depth of 64 inches. The
subsoil is loamy fine sand coated with organic material.
The upper 5 inches is dark reddish brown, and the lower
11 inches is black.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Cassia and Pomello soils. In 90 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up 8 to 12 percent of the
acreage. In 10 percent of the mapped areas, the







Soil survey


included soils make up either less than 8 percent or
more than 12 percent.
The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1
to 4 months or at a depth of 36 inches for brief periods.
It is at a depth of more than 60 inches for the rest of the
year. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and slow or very slow in the subsoil. The available
water capacity is very low.
The natural vegetation consists mainly of dwarf and
scrub oak, sawpalmetto, sand pine, pricklypear, and
pineland threeaWn.
This soil has low potential for cultivated crops because
of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients. It is
not suitable for most commonly cultivated crops.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is medium. In
some years, good yields can be obtained without
irrigation, but for best yields, irrigation should be used if
water is available.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is low
even if good management practices are used. Grasses
such as bahiagrass are better adapted than others.
Clovers are not suited. Yields are reduced by periodic
droughts. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed. Grazing should be greatly restricted to permit
plants to maintain vigorous growth for highest yields and
to provide good ground cover.
This soil has low potential productivity for pine trees.
Sand pine is better suited than other trees. Major
management concerns are seedling mortality, mobility of
equipment, and plant competition.
If used as range, this soil has low potential for native
forage.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis.

25-Wabasso fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil in broad areas in the flatwoods. Individual
areas are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 60
acres in size. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand 20 inches
thick. The upper 14 inches is gray, and the lower 6
inches is light brownish gray. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 70 inches. It is very dark grayish brown fine
sand coated with organic material to a depth of about 32
inches and light brownish gray sandy loam to a depth of
52 inches. Below that, it is gray sandy loam to a depth of
64 inches and light olive gray sandy loam to a depth of
70 inches. The substratum is olive gray loamy sand to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Felda and Pomona soils. In 80 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up 12 to 17 percent of
the acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped areas, the
included soils make up either less than 12 percent or
more than 17 percent.
In most years, the water table is at a depth of 10 to 40
inches for more than 6 months. It is at a depth of less


than 10 inches for less than 60 days during wet seasons
and at a depth of more than 40 inches during very dry
seasons. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers, moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and
slow in the lower part of the subsoil. Natural fertility is
low.
The natural vegetation includes longleaf and slash
pine, and scattered cabbage palm, and an understory of
sawpalmetto, inkberry, waxmyrtle, creeping bluestem,
indiangrass, little bluestem, Florida paspalum, pineland
threeawn, panicums, deertongue, grassleaf goldaster,
huckleberry, and running oak.
Wetness and poor soil quality are severe limitations to
use of this soil for cultivated crops. Unless very intensive
management practices are used, the kinds of crops that
can be grown are limited. The soil has medium potential
for some vegetable crops if a water control system can
remove excess water during wet seasons and provide
water for subsurface irrigation during dry seasons. Crop
residue and cover crops are needed to help control
erosion. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of
the rows.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is low even if a
carefully designed water control system can maintain the
water table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be
planted in beds and a vegetative cover maintained
between the trees.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is
medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
clover grow well if they are well managed. Water control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled to
prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
pine trees, especially for slash pine. For highest yields, a
simple water control system is needed to remove excess
surface water. Management concerns are equipment
limitations during periods of heavy rainfall, seedling
mortality, and plant competition.
If used as range, this soil has moderately high
potential for creeping bluestem, indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, various panicums, and numerous legumes and
forbs. If the range is allowed to deteriorate, sawpalmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) become dominant.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

26-Electra sand. This is a nearly level to gently
sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil on ridges on
uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 10 to 40 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 4 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of about
42 inches. The upper 12 inches is light gray, and the
lower 26 inches is white. The subsoil extends to a depth


24







Hardee County, Florida


of 80 inches. It is dark reddish brown sand to a depth of
54 inches and is dark brown sand to a depth of 60
inches. Next, it is gray and dark brown sand to a depth
of 66 inches, light brownish gray fine sandy loam to a
depth of 72 inches, and light gray fine sandy loam to a
depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Cassia and Pomello soils and many areas of Electra
soils that have short slopes of more than 3 percent. The
included soils make up about 10 percent of a mapped
area.
In most years this Electra soil has a water table at a
depth of 20 to 40 inches for 4 months. The water table
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during drier
periods. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, moderate
in the upper part of the subsoil, and slow or very slow in
the lower part of the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
The natural vegetation consists mainly of sand live
oak, scattered longleaf, slash, and sand pine, and an
understory of pineland threeawn, sawpalmetto, running
oak, blueberry, creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
indiangrass, low panicums, and numerous forbs.
This soil has low potential for cultivated crops because
of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients. It is
not suitable for most commonly cultivated crops.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is medium. In
some years good yields can be obtained without
irrigation, but for best yields, irrigation should be used if
water is available.
The potential for improved pasture is low even if good
management practices are used. Grasses such as
bahiagrass are better adapted than others. Clovers are
not suited. Yields are reduced by periodic droughts.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Grazing should be greatly restricted to permit plants to
maintain vigorous growth for highest yields and to
provide ground cover.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine
trees. Sand pine is the best tree to plant. The major
management concerns are seedling mortality, mobility of
equipment, and plant competition.
If used as range, this soil has moderately high
potential for creeping bluestem, indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, various panicums, and numerous legumes and
forbs. If the range is allowed to deteriorate, sawpalmetto
and pineland threeawn (wiregrass) become dominant.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis.

27-Bradenton-Felda-Chobee association,
frequently flooded. This association consists of poorly
drained Bradenton and Felda soils and very poorly
drained Chobee soils. The Bradenton soils make up
about 35 percent of the association, Felda soils make up
25 percent, Chobee soils make up 20 percent, and minor
soils make up 20 percent. The soils are in regular and
repeating patterns along streams and rivers throughout


the county. Most areas are long and narrow and are
adjacent to the Peace River. Felda and Bradenton soils
are in the higher places, and Chobee soils are in the
lower places. The individual areas of each soil range
from 5 to 120 acres. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. The soils
are subject to frequent flooding.
Bradenton soils have a surface layer of dark gray
loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is grayish brown fine sand about 10 inches thick.
The subsoil is light brownish gray sandy clay loam about
13 inches thick. The substratum is gray sandy clay loam
to a depth of 80 inches.
Bradenton soils have a water table at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months of the year, and at a
depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 8 months.
Permeability is moderate. The available water capacity is
low. Natural fertility is medium, and the content of
organic matter is low.
Felda soils have a surface layer of black fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
about 21 inches thick. In the upper 5 inches it is grayish
brown, and in the lower 16 inches it is light gray. The
subsoil is sandy loam about 22 inches thick. In the upper
10 inches it is gray, and in the lower 12 inches it is
grayish brown. The substratum is light gray fine sand to
a depth of 80 inches.
Felda soils have a water table within 10 inches of the
surface for 2 to 6 months of the year. Permeability is
moderate to moderately rapid. The available water
capacity is low. Natural fertility is low, and the content of
organic matter is low.
Chobee soils have a surface layer of black fine sandy
loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay
loam about 47 inches thick. It is black in the upper 10
inches and very dark gray in the lower 37 inches. The
substratum is gray loamy fine sand to a depth of 80
inches.
Chobee soils have a water table at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 6 or more months of the year..The
water table seldom recedes to a depth of more than 20
inches. Permeability is slow or very slow. The available
water capacity is moderate. Natural fertility is high, and
the content of organic matter is high.
The minor soils that were included in mapping are
Holopaw, Manatee, and Pompano soils and small areas
of organic soils. In 25 percent of the mapped areas or
less, the minor soils make up either less than 20 percent
or more than 20 percent of the acreage.
The soils making up this association are mainly in
dense vegetation consisting of water oak, cypress,
sweetgum, hickory, cutgrass, maidencane, sawgrass,
swamp primrose, buttonbush, smartweed, sedges, and
other water-tolerant plants.
These soils are not suitable for cultivated crops or
improved pasture mainly because flooding is a severe
hazard. If the hazard of flooding can be reduced, the


25







Soil survey


potential is low for cultivated crops and medium for
improved pasture grasses.
Bradenton and Chobee soils have high potential
productivity for pine, and Felda soils have moderately
high potential productivity. A water control system that
reduces the hazard of flooding and removes excess
surface water is needed before trees can be planted.
If used as range, these soils have moderate potential
for forage because of the dense canopy of palm trees.
The trees provide shade and rest areas for cattle.
These soils are in capability subclass Vw.

28-Holopaw fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
nearly level soil on broad, low-lying flats and in poorly
defined drainageways. Individual areas are irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 40 acres in size. Slopes are
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 3
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a
depth of 63 inches. The upper 5 inches is light gray, the
middle 16 inches is brown, and the lower 39 inches is
light gray. The subsoil is gray sandy loam to a depth of
80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Felda and Pomona soils. In 80 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up 12 to 17 percent of
the acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped areas, the
included soils make up either less than 12 percent or
more than 17 percent.
This Holopaw soil has a water table within 10 inches
of the surface for 2 to 6 months of the year. Permeability
is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate to moderately slow in the subsoil. The
available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is low to
medium.
The soil is used mainly as range and woodland. In
some areas that have adequate water management, it is
used for truck crops. The natural vegetation is mainly
scattered slash pine and cabbage palm and
sawpalmetto.
Wetness and poor soil quality are very severe
limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops. Unless
very intensive management practices are used, the kinds
of crops that can be grown are limited. The soil has
medium potential for some vegetable crops if a water
control system can remove excess water in wet seasons
and provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry
seasons. Crop residue and soil-improving crops should
be used to protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding of the rows.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is low even if a
carefully designed water control system maintains the
water table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be
planted in beds and a vegetative cover maintained'
between the trees.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is
medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white


clover grow well if well managed. Water control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled to
prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
The soil is used mainly as range and woodland. In
some areas that have adequate water management, it is
used for truck crops. The natural vegetation is scattered
slash pine and cabbage palm and sawpalmetto.
Wetness and poor soil quality are very severe
limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops. Unless
very intensive management practices are used, the kinds
of crops that can be grown are limited. The soil has
medium potential for some vegetable crops if a water
control system can remove excess water in wet seasons
and provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry
seasons. Crop residue and cover crops should be used
to protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding of the rows.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is low even if a
carefully designed water control system maintains the
water table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be
planted in beds and a vegetative cover maintained
between the trees.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is
medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
clover grow well if well managed. Water control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled to
prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
The soil has moderately high potential productivity for
pine trees, especially for slash pine. The main
management concerns are equipment use during periods
of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant
competition. For highest yields, a simple water control
system is needed to remove excess surface water.
If used as range, the soil has high potential for blue
maidencane, chalky bluestem, and various panicums.
Carpetgrass, an introduced species, tends to become
dominant if the site is excessively grazed.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

29-Pits. Pits, or borrow pits, are open excavations
from which soil and geologic material have been
removed primarily for use in road construction or for
foundations. Waste material, mostly a mixture of sand,
sandy loam, and sandy clay loam, is piled or scattered
around the edges of the pits. Most of the pits are small;
a few are large. Many have been abandoned. The areas
are not suited to cultivated crops or to pine trees.
This map unit is not assigned to a capability subclass.

30-Hontoon muck. This is a very poorly drained,
nearly level soil in swamps and in poorly defined
drainageways. Most areas are circular to oblong and


26







Hardee County, Florida


range from about 15 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black to dark reddish
brown muck to a depth of 60 inches. Below the muck
there is dark gray loamy fine sand to a depth of 70
inches and dark gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Placid, Samsula, and Kaliga soils. In 80 percent of the
mapped areas, the included soils make up 12 to 17
percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up either less than 12
percent or more than 17 percent.
This Hontoon soil has a water table at or above the
surface except during extended dry periods. Permeability
is rapid. The available water capacity is very high. The
natural fertility is high. The content of organic matter is
high.
The soil, in most areas, is in native vegetation and is
used for water storage for irrigation and as wildlife
habitat. A small acreage that has water control is used
for truck crops and pasture. In dry weather, fire is a
severe hazard on this soil. The natural vegetation
consists mainly of loblollybay, maple, gum, and scattered
cypress trees and a ground cover of greenbrier, ferns,
and other aquatic plants. In a few areas the natural
vegetation is slash pine and a ground cover of osmunda
fern.
The soil is not suitable for cultivation. If a water control
system is installed, the soil has high potential for some
specialized crops and for improved pasture.
The soil is not suitable for citrus trees.
Generally, drainage is not practical for production of
pine trees on this soil.
The potential of this soil for use as habitat for wetland
and woodland wildlife is high. The shallow water areas
are easily developed, and food and cover are abundant.
If used as range, the soil has very high potential for
maidencane and cutgrass. The water level fluctuates
throughout the year; thus grazing is naturally deferred
and forage production increases when the water level is
high.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

31-Pompano fine sand, frequently flooded. This is
a poorly drained, deep sandy soil on flood plains and in
well defined drainageways throughout the county.
Individual areas are long and narrow, are adjacent to the
stream, and range from 5 to 15 acres in size. Slopes
generally are less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The substratum is light gray fine
sand to a depth of 44 inches and is light brownish gray
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Adamsville, Basinger, and Placid soils. In 80 percent of
the mapped areas, the included soils make up 12 to 17


percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the mapped
areas, the included soils make up either less than 12
percent or more than 17 percent.
In most years, the water table is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months. Generally, the soil is
flooded every year and more than once in most years.
The available water capacity is very low. Natural
fertility is low. Permeability is very rapid.
The soil is used mainly as range and woodland. In
some areas that have been cleared, it is used for
improved pasture and truck crops. The natural
vegetation consists mainly of slash pine, cypress,
cabbage palm, oak, magnolia, and hickory and an
understory of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
blue maidencane, Florida paspalum, pineland threeawn,
low panicums, grassleaf goldaster, gallberry, and
sawpalmetto.
The soil is not suitable for cultivated crops or improved
pasture because flooding is a severe hazard. Even if the
hazard of flooding is reduced, the potential is low for
cultivated crops and medium for improved pasture.
The soil is not suitable for the commercial production
of pine trees.
If used as range, the soil has high potential for blue
maidencane, chalky bluestem, and various panicums.
Carpetgrass, an introduced species, tends to become
dominant if the site is excessively grazed.
This soil is in capability subclass Vlw.

32-Felda fine sand, depressional. This is a nearly
level, poorly drained soil in depressions. Individual areas
are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 60 acres in
size. Slopes are smooth to concave and are less than 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a
depth of about 26 inches. The upper 5 inches is grayish
brown, and the lower 16 inches is light gray. The subsoil
is sandy loam about 22 inches thick. The upper 10
inches is gray, and the lower 12 inches is grayish brown.
The substratum is light gray fine sand to a depth of 80
inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bradenton and Holopaw soils and a few small areas of
organic soils. In 85 percent of the mapped areas, the
included soils make up about 8 percent of the acreage.
In 15 percent of the mapped areas, the included soils
make up either more or less than 8 percent.
In most years, water stands on this soil for more than
6 months. The available water capacity is low, and
natural fertility is medium. Permeability is moderate to
moderately rapid.
The soil is used mainly as range. The natural
vegetation consists mainly of cypress, cattails, cabbage
palm, maidencane, and sawgrass.
Under natural conditions, the soil is not suitable for
crops or improved pasture. The water table above the


27







Soil survey


surface for much of the year severely restricts plant
growth. In most places an adequate water control
system cannot be installed because suitable outlets are
not available. If a system can be installed, the potential
is medium for improved pasture.
The soil is not suitable for the commercial production
of pine trees.
If used as range, the soil has very high potential for
maidencane and cutgrass. The water level fluctuates
throughout the year; thus grazing is naturally deferred
and forage production increases when the water table is
high.
This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

33-Manatee mucky fine sand, depresslonal. This is
a very poorly drained, nearly level soil in depressions.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from 10
to 300 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave and
are less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is about 14 inches thick.
The upper 4 inches is black mucky fine sand, the next 5
inches is black fine sand, and the lower 5 inches is very
dark grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 44 inches. The upper 16 inches is dark gray
sandy loam, and the lower 14 inches is grayish brown
sandy loam. The subsoil has lenses and pockets of fine
sand. The substratum is light brownish gray sandy loam
to a depth of 64 inches and light gray sandy clay loam to
a depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Felda, Bradenton, Kaliga, and Floridana soils. In 90
percent of the mapped areas, the included soils make up
10 to 15 percent of the acreage. In 10 percent of the
mapped areas, the included soils make up either less
than 10 percent or more than 15 percent.
In most years water stands on this Manatee soil for
more than 6 months. Permeability is moderate. The
available water capacity is moderate, and natural fertility
is medium. The content of organic matter is high.
The soil, in most areas, is mainly in native vegetation.
In a few areas that have been drained, it is used for
improved pasture. The natural vegetation includes
cypress, myrtle, greenbrier, and some red maple. In
treeless areas, the natural vegetation is mainly
pickerelweed, lilies, sedges, and some sawgrass.
If this soil is not drained, it is not suitable for crops or
improved pasture. The water table, which is above the
surface for much of the year, severely restricts plant
growth. In most places an adequate water control
system cannot be installed because suitable outlets are
not available. If a system can be installed, the soil has
medium potential for production of improved pasture.
The soil is not suitable for the commercial production
of pine trees.
If used as range, the soil has very high potential for
maidencane and cutgrass. The water level fluctuates
throughout the year; thus grazing is naturally deferred


and forage production increases when the water level is
high.
This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

34-Wauchula fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil in broad, low areas in the flatwoods.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from 10
to 40 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave and
range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray or light
gray fine sand to a depth of 22 inches. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches. The upper 12 inches is
dark reddish brown fine sand, the next 4 inches is
yellowish brown fine sand, the next 12 inches is grayish
brown sandy clay loam, and the lower 30 inches is
greenish gray loamy fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of similar
soils that have slopes of more than 2 percent. In most
places these areas are at the outer edges of the
mapped areas. Also included are small areas of
Farmton, Felda, Myakka, and Pomona soils. In 80
percent of the mapped areas, the included soils make up
12 to 17 percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the included soils make up either less
than 12 percent or more than 17 percent.
In most years, if this Wauchula soil is not drained, the
water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 4
months and is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for the rest
of the year. In very dry periods the water table recedes
to a depth of more than 40 inches. The available water
capacity is moderate. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderate to rapid below that,
except in the loamy part of the subsoil, where it is slow.
Natural fertility is low.
The natural vegetation includes longleaf and slash
pine and an understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry,
waxmyrtle, creeping bluestem, indiangrass, little
bluestem, Florida paspalum, pineland threeawn,
huckleberry, and running oak.
Wetness and poor soil quality are severe limitations to
use of this soil for cultivated crops. Unless very intensive
management practices are used, the kinds of crops that
can be grown are limited. A water control system is
needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and to
provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons.
Crop residue and cover crops should be used to protect
the soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation should
include bedding of the rows.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is low even if a
carefully designed water control system can maintain the
water table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be
planted in beds and a vegetative cover maintained
between the trees.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is
medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
clover grow well if well managed. Water control


28







Hardee County, Florida


measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled to
prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
The soil has moderately high potential productivity for
pine trees, especially for slash pine. Management
concerns are restricted use of equipment during periods
of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant
competition. For highest yields, a simple water control
system is needed to remove excess surface water.
If used as range, the soil has moderately high potential
for creeping bluestem, indiangrass, chalky bluestem,
various panicums, and numerous legumes and forbs. If
the range is allowed to deteriorate, sawpalmetto and
pineland threeawn (wiregrass) become dominant.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

35-Farmton fine sand. This is a poorly drained soil
in nearly level flatwoods. Slopes are smooth and range
from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are irregular in
shape and range from about 20 to 200 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a
depth of about 34 inches. The upper 6 inches is dark
gray; the middle 7 inches is light gray; and the lower 15
inches is white. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80
inches. It is very dark brown fine sand in the upper 11
inches, brown fine sand in the next 10 inches, black fine
sand in the next 6 inches, dark gray fine sandy loam in
the next 10 inches, and mottled gray, olive, and greenish
gray sandy clay loam in the lower 9 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
Immokalee, Myakka, Pomona, and Wauchula soils. In 80
percent of the mapped areas, the included soils make up
8 to 12 percent of the acreage. In 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the included soils make up either less
than 8 percent or more than 12 percent.
In most years, if this Farmton soil is not drained, the
water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for periods
of more than 6 months. It is at a depth of less than 10
inches for 1 to 3 months in wet seasons, and recedes to
a depth of more than 40 inches in extended dry periods.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers, moderate in the sandy part of the subsoil, and
slow to very slow in the loamy part of the subsoil. The
available water capacity is low. The content of organic
matter is low, and natural fertility is low.
The soil is used mainly as range and woodland. In
some areas that have been cleared, it is used for
improved pasture. The native vegetation includes
cabbage palm, sawpalmetto, live oak, and slash pine
and an undergrowth of laurel, waxmyrtle, and pineland
threeawn.
Wetness and poor soil quality are very severe
limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops. Unless
very intensive management practices are used, the kinds
of crops that can be grown are limited. The soil has


medium potential for some vegetable crops. A water
control system is needed to remove excess water in wet
seasons and to provide water for subsurface irrigation in
dry seasons. Crop residue and cover crops should be
used to protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding of the rows.
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is low even if a
carefully designed water control system can maintain the
water table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be
planted in beds and a vegetative cover maintained
between the trees.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture is
medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
clover grow well if well managed. Water control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled to
prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
The soil has moderately high potential productivity for
pine trees, especially for slash pine. Management
concerns are restricted use of equipment during periods
of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant
competition. For highest yields, a simple water control
system is needed to remove excess surface water.
If used as range, the soil has moderately high potential
for creeping bluestem, indiangrass, chalky bluestem,
various panicums, and numerous legumes and forbs. If
the range is allowed to deteriorate, sawpalmetto and
pineland threeawn (wiregrass) become dominant.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

36-Kaliga muck. This is a very poorly drained, nearly
level organic soil in low depressions. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and range from 3 to 20 acres in size.
Slopes are less than 2 percent and are concave.
Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 25
inches thick. Below the muck there is very dark gray fine
sandy loam to a depth of 35 inches, dark gray sandy
clay loam to a depth of 60 inches, and very dark gray
fine sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils in
which the organic material extends to a depth of 52
inches or more. In 80 percent of the mapped areas, the
included soils make up 12 to 17 percent of the acreage.
In 20 percent of the mapped areas, the included soils
make up either less than 12 percent or more than 17
percent.
This Kaliga soil has a water table at or near the
surface for 6 to 12 months. The available water capacity
is very high in the surface layer and moderate below the
surface layer. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer
and slow or very slow in the mineral layer between
depths of 35 and 60 inches. Natural fertility is moderate.
The content of organic matter is very high.
The natural vegetation consists mainly of loblollybay,
scattered cypress, maple, gum, and pine trees and a


29







Soil survey


ground cover of greenbrier, ferns, and other aquatic
plants.
The soil is not suitable for cultivation in its native state.
If a water control system is installed, the soil has high
potential for some specialized crops and for improved
pasture.
The soil is not suitable for citrus trees or pine trees.
The potential of this soil for use as habitat for wetland
and woodland wildlife is high. Shallow water areas are
easily developed, and food and cover are abundant.
If used as range, the soil has very high potential for
maidencane and cutgrass. The water level fluctuates
throughout the year; thus grazing is naturally deferred
and forage production increases when the water level is
high.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

37-Basinger fine sand, depressional. This is a
poorly drained soil in depressions in the flatwoods.
Individual areas are circular in shape and range from 3
to 10 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave and
range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 27
inches thick. The upper 5 inches is dark grayish brown,
and the lower 22 inches is grayish brown. The subsoil is
mixed brown and very dark brown fine sand to a depth
of about 55 inches and very dark grayish brown fine
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pompano and Holopaw soils along small drainageways
and Placid soils in the center of depressions. Also
included are areas of similar soils that have a very thin
organic surface layer or a black surface layer 10 to 14
inches thick. These soils are also in the center of
depressions. In 80 percent of the mapped areas, the
included soils make up 12 to 17 percent of the acreage.
In 20 percent of the mapped areas, the included soils
make up either less than 12 percent or more than 17
percent.
In most years, this Basinger soil is covered by
standing water for 6 to 9 months or more. Natural fertility
is low, and response to fertilization is moderate. Internal
drainage is slow, but it is rapid if artificial drainage is
installed. The available water capacity is low.
A large acreage is in natural vegetation consisting of
maidencane, St. John's-wort, water lilies, pickerelweed,
bay, cypress, pop ash, pond pine, and other water-
tolerant plants.
Under natural conditions, the soil is not suitable for
cultivated crops or improved pasture. The potential of
this soil for crops or pasture is very low. The lack of
suitable drainage outlets precludes the use of an
adequate drainage system.
The soil is used as wildlife habitat. There are watering
places and feeding grounds on this soil for many kinds
of wading birds and other wetland wildlife.


The soil is not suitable for the commercial production
of pine trees.
If used as range, the soil has very high potential for
maidencane and cutgrass. The water level fluctuates
throughout the year; thus grazing is naturally deferred
and forage production increases when the water level is
high.
This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

38-St. Lucie fine sand. This is an excessively
drained, nearly level soil on ridgetops, knolls, and dunes
in areas of sand hills. Individual areas range from 5 to 20
acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave and range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The underlying material is white
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pomello and Tavares soils. The soils on the small ridges
in the flatwoods are likely to have a water table during
the rainy season. In 80 percent of the mapped areas, the
included soils make up 5 to 10 percent of the acreage.
In 20 percent of the mapped areas, the included soils
make up either less than 5 percent or more than 10
percent.
This St. Lucie soil has a water table at a depth of 72
to 120 inches. The available water capacity is very low.
Natural fertility is very low. Permeability is very rapid
throughout.
In some areas that have been cleared, the soil is used
for citrus or pasture. The natural vegetation includes
sand pine, scrub live oak, scattered turkey and bluejack
oak, and an understory of scattered sawpalmetto,
creeping dodder, rosemary cactus, moss, and lichens.
The soil has very low potential for cultivated crops
because of extreme droughtiness and rapid leaching of
plant nutrients. It is not suitable for mbst commonly
cultivated crops. It has very low potential for improved
pasture even if good management practices are used.
Grasses such as pangolagrass and bahiagrass are better
adapted than others. Clovers are not suited.
The soil has low potential for citrus, and yields are low
even if irrigation is used.
The soil has low potential productivity for pine trees.
Sand pine is the best tree to plant. Management
concerns in commercial tree production are seedling
mortality and mobility of equipment.
If used as range, the soil has low potential for native
forage.
This soil is in capability subclass Vlls.

39-Bradenton loamy fine sand. This is a poorly
drained, nearly level soil on low-lying ridges and
hammocks. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 5 to 20 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.


30







Hardee County, Florida


Figur 7.-Natur vegetaton coneiaing of water oki, lonleaf pin, and cabbage pdmn i n area of Bradenton lamy fln and.


Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy fine
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine
sand about 9 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is grayish
brown, and the lower 5 inches is light gray. The subsoil
is fine sandy loam. The upper 6 inches is grayish brown,
and the lower 7 inches is light brownish gray. The
substratum is light olive gray, dark gray, or light gray fine
sandy loam to a depth of 76 inches and greenish gray
loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
similar soils that have limestone boulders below the
subsoil. Also included are small areas of Felda, Pomona,
and Wabasso soils. In 90 percent of the mapped areas,
the included soils make up 10 to 15 percent of the
acreage. In 10 percent of the mapped areas, the
included soils make up either less than 10 percent or
more than 15 percent


This Bradenton soil has a water table at a depth of
less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months of the year.
Permeability is moderate. The available water capacity is
low. Natural fertility is medium, and the content of
organic matter is low.
The soil is used mainly as range and woodland. In
some areas that have adequate water management, it is
used for improved pasture and truck crops. The natural
vegetation consists mainly of slash pine, laurel and live
oak, cabbage palm, sawpalmetto, southern bayberry,
sweetbay magnolia, American holly, bluestems, longleaf
uniola, and panicum (fig. 7).
Under natural conditions, the soil is not suitable for
crops. A high water table severely restricts plant growth.
If an adequate water control system can be installed, the
potential is low for cultivated crops and medium for
improved pasture.


31






32


The soil has high potential productivity for longleaf and
slash pine. A water control system is needed to remove
excess water before the trees can be planted.
If used as range, the soil has moderate potential for


forage because of the dense canopy of palm trees. The
trees provide shade and rest areas for cattle.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.






33


Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help prevent
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses
and management. Field experience and collected data
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis
in predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil
properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information can
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture is
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils are identified; the system of land
capability classification used by the Soil Conservation
Service is explained; and the estimated yields of the


main crops and hay and pasture plants are listed for
each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
Approximately 235,000 acres in the county was used
for crops and pasture according to the 1980 Census of
Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service "Now-on-the-
Land" records, Hardee County Extension Service
estimates, and Florida Agricultural Statistics, Florida Crop
and Livestock Reporting Service. Of this total, 165,000
acres was used for pasture; more than 45,000 acres was
used for citrus; and 25,000 acres was used for special
crops, mainly cucumbers, watermelons, snap beans,
sweet corn, and peppers and some squash, eggplant,
field peas, sod and nursery plants, grapes, and
blackberries.
The potential of the soils in Hardee County for
increased food production is good. About 157,000 acres
of potentially good cropland currently is used as
woodland, and about 158,000 acres is used as pasture.
Additional land that is presently used as woodland and
pasture could be used as cropland, but intensive
conservation measures are needed to control soil
blowing in those areas. In addition, food production could
be increased considerably by extending the latest
cropland technology to all cropland in the county. This
soil survey can greatly facilitate the application of such
technology.
The acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has
been gradually decreasing as more and more land is
used for urban development. In 1980 there was about
5,000 acres of urban land in the county; this acreage has
been increasing about 10 percent a year for the past 10
years, according to estimates of the Central Florida
Regional Planning Council.
Soil erosion generally is a hazard on the more sloping
soils if the surface is not protected by a cover of
vegetation. Also, erosion is a hazard if the slope is more
than 2 percent on the well drained and moderately well
drained Apopka, Candler, and Tavares soils; the
somewhat poorly drained Sparr soils; and the poorly
drained Ft. Green soils.






33


Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help prevent
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses
and management. Field experience and collected data
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis
in predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil
properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information can
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture is
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils are identified; the system of land
capability classification used by the Soil Conservation
Service is explained; and the estimated yields of the


main crops and hay and pasture plants are listed for
each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
Approximately 235,000 acres in the county was used
for crops and pasture according to the 1980 Census of
Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service "Now-on-the-
Land" records, Hardee County Extension Service
estimates, and Florida Agricultural Statistics, Florida Crop
and Livestock Reporting Service. Of this total, 165,000
acres was used for pasture; more than 45,000 acres was
used for citrus; and 25,000 acres was used for special
crops, mainly cucumbers, watermelons, snap beans,
sweet corn, and peppers and some squash, eggplant,
field peas, sod and nursery plants, grapes, and
blackberries.
The potential of the soils in Hardee County for
increased food production is good. About 157,000 acres
of potentially good cropland currently is used as
woodland, and about 158,000 acres is used as pasture.
Additional land that is presently used as woodland and
pasture could be used as cropland, but intensive
conservation measures are needed to control soil
blowing in those areas. In addition, food production could
be increased considerably by extending the latest
cropland technology to all cropland in the county. This
soil survey can greatly facilitate the application of such
technology.
The acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has
been gradually decreasing as more and more land is
used for urban development. In 1980 there was about
5,000 acres of urban land in the county; this acreage has
been increasing about 10 percent a year for the past 10
years, according to estimates of the Central Florida
Regional Planning Council.
Soil erosion generally is a hazard on the more sloping
soils if the surface is not protected by a cover of
vegetation. Also, erosion is a hazard if the slope is more
than 2 percent on the well drained and moderately well
drained Apopka, Candler, and Tavares soils; the
somewhat poorly drained Sparr soils; and the poorly
drained Ft. Green soils.







Soil survey


Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging
for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the
surface layer is lost and as part of the subsoil is
incorporated into the plow layer. Second, soil erosion on
farmland results in sediment entering streams. Control of
erosion minimizes the pollution of streams by sediment
and improves the quality of water for municipal use, for
recreation, and for fish and wildlife.
In some areas of Ft. Green soils, preparing a good
seedbed and tilling are difficult because of rock
fragments.
Erosion control practices provide a protective surface
cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. A cropping
system that keeps a vegetative cover on the soil for
extended periods can hold soil losses to amounts that
will not reduce the productive capacity of the soils. On
livestock farms, which require pasture and hay, the
legumes and grasses grown for forage in the cropping
system help to reduce erosion on sloping soils; they also
provide nitrogen and improve tilth for the following crop.
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the
surface are management practices that help to increase
infiltration and to reduce runoff and erosion. The
practices can be adapted to most soils in the survey
area. No-tillage for corn and soybeans is effective in
reducing erosion on sloping soils, but it can be adapted
to most soils in the survey area.
In the survey area the soils are so sandy and the
slopes so short and irregular that contour tillage or
terracing is not practical. Stripcropping and diversions
reduce the length of the slope and help to reduce runoff
and erosion. They are more practical on the deep, well
drained soils that have regular slopes. On many soils
used as cropland, diversions and sod waterways help to
reduce runoff and erosion; they can be adapted to most
soils in the survey area.
Wind erosion is a major hazard on sandy soils and on
organic soils. In-a few hours it can damage soils and
tender crops in open, unprotected areas if the winds are
strong and the soil is dry and bare of vegetation and
surface mulch. Maintaining a vegetative cover and
mulching the surface minimize wind erosion.
Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It
reduces soil fertility by removing the finer soil particles
and organic matter from the soil; it damages or destroys
crops by sandblasting; it spreads diseases, insects, and
weed seeds; and it creates health hazards and cleaning
problems. Control of wind erosion minimizes duststorms
and improves the quality of air.
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such as
Carolina cherry laurel, slash pine, Southern red cedar,
and Japanese privet, and strip crops of small grains are
effective in reducing wind erosion and crop damage.
Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow plantings
made at right angles to the prevailing wind and at
specific intervals across the field. The intervals depend


on the erodibility of the soil and on the susceptibility of
the crop to damage from sandblasting.
Information on the design of erosion control practices
for each kind of soil is contained in the "Water and Wind
Erosion Control Handbook-Florida," which is available
at local offices of the Soil Conservation Service.
Soil drainage is a major management concern on
much of the acreage used for crops and pasture in the
survey area. Some soils are naturally so wet that the
production of crops common to the area is generally not
practical. These are the poorly drained Bradenton, Felda,
Holopaw, Myakka, Ona, Pomona, Pompano, Smyrna,
Wabasso, and Wauchula soils and the very poorly
drained Chobee, Floridana, Manatee, Placid, and Popash
soils.
Unless artificially drained, some of the somewhat
poorly drained soils are wet enough in the root zone to
cause damage to most crops in most years during the
wet seasons. Included in this category are Adamsville,
Sparr, and Zolfo soils.
Unless artificially drained, some of the poorly drained
soils are wet enough to cause some damage to pasture
plants during the wet seasons. These soils are the
Myakka, Ona, Pomona, Pompano, Smyrna, Wabasso,
and Wauchula soils. A subsurface irrigation system is
needed on these soils for adequate pasture production.
The very poorly drained soils are very wet during rainy
periods. In most areas water stands on the surface and
the production of pasture of good quality is not possible
if artificial drainage is not used. The Chobee, Floridana,
Hontoon, Kaliga, Manatee, Placid, Popash, and Samsula
soils are very poorly drained.
The design of surface drainage and subsurface
irrigation systems varies with the kind of soil and the
pasture. For intensive pasture production, a combination
of these systems is needed. Information on the drainage
and irrigation needed for each kind of soil is contained in
the "Technical Guide," which is available at local offices
of the Soil Conservation Service.
Soil fertility is naturally low on most soils in the survey
area. Most of the soils have a sandy surface layer and
are light colored. The Apopka, Felda, Ft. Green, and
Sparr soils have a loamy subsoil. The Adamsville,
Candler, Placid, Pompano, St. Lucie, Tavares, and Zolfo
soils have sandy material to a depth of 80 inches or
more. The Basinger, Cassia, Electra, Farmton, Jonathan,
Myakka, Ona, Pomello, Pomona, Smyrna, Wabasso, and
Wauchula soils have a dark colored sandy subsoil that
has organic carbon.
Most of the soils have a surface layer that is strongly
acid or very strongly acid. Applications of ground
limestone are required to raise the pH level sufficiently
for good growth of crops. The levels of nitrogen,
potassium, and available phosphorus are naturally low in
most of the soils. On all the soils, additions of lime and
fertilizer should be based on the results of soil tests, on
the needs of the crops, and on the expected level of


34







Hardee County, Florida


yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can help in
determining the kind and amount of fertilizer and lime to
apply.
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
seeds and in the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils
with good tilth are granular and porous.
All the soils have a sandy surface layer that is low to
moderate in content of organic matter except the
Chobee, Floridana, Hontoon, Kaliga, Manatee, Placid,
Popash, and Samsula soils. The Chobee, Floridana,
Manatee, Placid, and Popash soils have a sandy, dark
surface layer that is high in content of organic matter.
The Kaliga, Hontoon, and Samsula soils are organic soils
and have an organic surface layer. Generally, the
structure of the surface layer of most soils is weak. Most
of the excessively drained and well drained soils are low
in content of organic matter and are drought.
Conservation tillage helps to improve soil structure and
to increase the moisture available to crops.
Fall plowing generally is not a good practice. About
one-fourth of the cropland is on sloping soils that are
subject to damaging erosion if they are plowed in fall. In
addition, about three-fourths of the cropland is subject to
soil blowing.
Field crops are grown on a small acreage in Hardee
County. The acreage of corn, grain sorghum, sunflowers,
and sugarcane could be increased if economic
conditions warrant an increase. Rye is the commonly
grown close-growing crop, but wheat, oats, and triticale
can also be grown.
Special crops grown commercially are citrus,
watermelons, cucumbers, peppers, and some squash,
eggplant, cabbage, snap beans, grapes, blackberries,
nursery plants, and sod. If economic conditions are
favorable, the acreage of grapes, blackberries, nursery
plants, sod, cabbage, cauliflower, turnips, and mustard
can be increased.
If irrigated, deep soils that have good natural drainage,
for example, Apopka and Candler soils on slopes of less
than 5 percent, are especially well suited to many
vegetables and small fruits. If irrigated, the Sparr,
Tavares, and Zolfo soils are very well suited to
vegetables and citrus. If adequately drained, the
Adamsville, Farmton, Felda, Kaliga, Hontoon,
Immokalee, Ona, Pomona, Samsula, Smyrna, Wabasso,
and Wauchula soils are very well suited to vegetables
and citrus.
The well drained and moderately well drained soils are
suitable mainly for citrus and nursery plants. Soils in low
areas where air drainage is poor and frost pockets are
common generally are poorly suited to early vegetables,
small fruits, and citrus.
The latest information on special crops can be
obtained from local offices of the Cooperative Extension
Service and of the Soil Conservation Service.
Pasture is used to produce forage for beef and dairy
cattle. Beef cattle and cow-calf operations are the major


livestock enterprises. Bahiagrass and Coastal
bermudagrass are the major pasture plants grown. Grass
seeds could be harvested from these grasses for
improved pasture plantings as well as for commercial
purposes. In summer, excess grass is harvested from
Coastal bermudagrass as hay for feeding cattle in winter.
The well drained Apopka soils, the excessively drained
Candler soils, and the moderately well drained Tavares
soils are well suited to bahiagrass and improved
bermudagrass. Under good management, hairy indigo
and alsike clover may be grown in summer and fall.
The somewhat poorly drained Adamsville, Sparr, and
Zolfo soils are well suited to bahiagrass, improved
bermudagrass, and legumes such as sweet clover, but
adequate lime and fertilizer are needed.
If drained, Basinger, Bradenton, Cassia, Farmton,
Felda, Floridana, Holopaw, Immokalee, Manatee, Ona,
Placid, Pomona, Popash, Smyrna, Wabasso, and
Wauchula soils are well suited to pasture of bahiagrass
and hemerthria grass. Subsurface irrigation helps to
increase the length of the growing season and total
forage production. Legumes such as white clover are
well suited if adequate amounts of lime and fertilizer are
added to the soils.
In some parts of the county, pasture is greatly
depleted by continuous excessive grazing. Yields of
pasture are increased by adding lime and fertilizer,
growing legumes, and using irrigation and other
management practices.
Differences in the amount and kind of pasture yields
are closely related to the kind of soil. Management of
pasture is based on the relationship of soils, pasture
plants, lime, fertilizer, moisture, and management.
The latest information about pasture can be obtained
from local offices of the Cooperative Extension Service
and of the Soil Conservation Service.
Most of the land currently used for pasture will be
mined for phosphate and eventually reclaimed. The
reclaimed areas will likely be reseeded to an improved
pasture grass such as improved bermudagrass,
pangolagrass, or bahiagrass.
Expected yields, under a high level of management, of
a grass and a legume suited to the soils are shown in
table 4. The yields are in animal unit months (AUM), the
amount of forage needed for one cow and her calf for 1
month.
Erosion control in urban areas and on disturbed soils
is necessary if rains are intense and if the soils are bare
of vegetation and surface mulch.
Grading removes topsoil and can expose the sandy
clay loam or sandy clay subsoil in the Bradenton, Felda,
Sparr, Wabasso, and Wauchula soils. Ripping the
exposed subsoil and covering it with less erodible topsoil
help to reduce erosion.
Erosion control practices provide protective cover,
reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. Diversions and
contouring reduce the length of the slope, reduce runoff,


35







Soil survey


and help control erosion. They are most practical on
soils that have uniform slopes.
On sandy soils, maintaining a vegetative cover and
mulching the surface minimizes soil blowing. Windbreaks
of adapted trees and shrubs and strip crops of small
grains help to reduce wind erosion.
Clearing and disturbing the minimum area necessary
to construct the works of improvement helps to reduce
runoff and soil blowing. Mulching helps to reduce
damage from runoff and soil blowing and improves
moisture conditions for seedlings.
Information on the erosion control practices needed
for each kind of soil is available at local offices of the
Soil Conservation Service.
Yields Per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management
are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain the indicated
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop
residue, barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; and
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss.
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely
to increase as new production technology is developed.
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of
other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
about the management and productivity of the soils for
those crops.
Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops


that require special management are excluded. The soils
are grouped according to their limitations for field crops,
the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the
way they respond to management. The grouping does
not take into account major and generally expensive
landforming that would change slope, depth, or other
characteristics of the soils, nor does it consider possible
but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability
classification is not a substitute for interpretations
designed to show suitability and limitations of groups of
soils for rangeland, for woodland, and for engineering
purposes (11).
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
are defined in the following paragraphs.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have slight limitations that restrict their
use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e
shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold
or very dry.
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in
class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have


36







Hardee County, Florida


other limitations that restrict their use to pasture,
rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The
soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to
the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar
management, and to have similar productivity. Capability
units are generally designated by adding an Arabic
numeral to the subclass symbol, for example, lle-4 or
llle-6.
The acreage of soils in each capability class and
subclass is shown in table 5. The capability classification
of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed Soil
Map Units."

Rangeland and Grazable Woodland
Kathryn F. Heacock, range conservationist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
In areas that have similar climate and topography,
differences in the kind and amount of vegetation
produced on rangeland are closely related to the kind of
soil. Effective management is based on the relationship
between the soils and vegetation and water.
Table 6 shows, for each soil listed, the range site and
the total annual production of vegetation in favorable,
normal, and unfavorable years. Only those soils that are
used as rangeland or are suited to use as rangeland are
listed. Explanation of the column headings in table 6
follows.
A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that
produces a characteristic natural plant community that
differs from natural plant communities on other range
sites in kind, amount, and proportion of range plants.
The relationship between soils and vegetation was
established during this survey; thus, range sites generally
can be determined directly from the soil map. Soil
properties that affect moisture supply and plant nutrients
have the greatest influence on the productivity of range
plants. Soil reaction, salt content, and a seasonal high
water table are also important.
Totalproduction is the amount of vegetation that can
be expected to grow annually on well managed
rangeland that is supporting the potential natural plant
community. It includes all vegetation, whether or not it is
palatable to grazing animals. It includes the current
year's growth of leaves, twigs, and fruits of woody
plants. It does not include the increase in stem diameter
of trees and shrubs. It is expressed in pounds per acre
of air-dry vegetation for favorable, normal, and
unfavorable years. In a favorable year, the amount and
distribution of precipitation and the temperatures make
growing conditions substantially better than average. In a
normal year, growing conditions are about average. In an
unfavorable year, growing conditions are well below
average, generally because of low available soil
moisture.


Range management requires a knowledge of the kinds
of soil and of the potential natural plant community. It
also requires an evaluation of the present range
condition. Range condition is determined by comparing
the present plant community with the potential natural
plant community on a particular range site. The more
closely the existing community resembles the potential
community, the better the range condition. Range
condition is an ecological rating only. It does not have a
specific meaning that pertains to the present plant
community in a given use.
The objective in range management is to control
grazing so that the plants growing on a site are about
the same in kind and amount as the potential natural
plant community for that site. Such management
generally results in the optimum production of
vegetation, reduction of undesirable brush species,
conservation of water, and control of erosion.
Sometimes, however, a range condition somewhat below
the potential meets grazing needs, provides wildlife
habitat, and protects soil and water resources.

Woodland Management and Productivity
Hal E. Brockman, forester, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare
this section.
Approximately 157,000 acres, or 39 percent, of the
total land area in Hardee County is woodland. Nearly all
of this acreage is privately owned. The pine trees
scattered throughout the county are in areas that are not
considered to be woodland.
South Florida slash pine, which grows predominantly in
the flatwoods, makes up most of the woodland.
Economically, it is the most important tree in the survey
area. It is used mainly for the production of pulpwood
and lumber. Sand pine grows in small areas along the
higher sand ridges in the central and western parts of
the county. Most of the sand pine does not have high
economic value.
The oak-gum-cypress type makes up a sizable part of
the forested land. This type grows in the freshwater
swamps along the river systems (10). The stands of oak-
gum-cypress and their associated species, such as
maple, are economically valuable as sawtimber. These
areas, however, may be more valuable for the wildlife
they harbor and for the water resources they protect
than for the timber they could produce. Stands of mixed
oak and hickory grow on the floodplains of the Peace
River and its tributaries. These stands are not
economically valuable as timber but are highly valuable
as wildlife habitat and as recreation areas.
In recent years intensive farming and wildfire have
reduced the areas of woodland. Some of the areas
protected from wildfire have been reverting back to pine.
In December 1979, 101,850 acres, or more than 25
percent of the land area in Hardee County, was under
lease for phosphate mining, according to the Florida


37







Hardee County, Florida


other limitations that restrict their use to pasture,
rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The
soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to
the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar
management, and to have similar productivity. Capability
units are generally designated by adding an Arabic
numeral to the subclass symbol, for example, lle-4 or
llle-6.
The acreage of soils in each capability class and
subclass is shown in table 5. The capability classification
of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed Soil
Map Units."

Rangeland and Grazable Woodland
Kathryn F. Heacock, range conservationist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
In areas that have similar climate and topography,
differences in the kind and amount of vegetation
produced on rangeland are closely related to the kind of
soil. Effective management is based on the relationship
between the soils and vegetation and water.
Table 6 shows, for each soil listed, the range site and
the total annual production of vegetation in favorable,
normal, and unfavorable years. Only those soils that are
used as rangeland or are suited to use as rangeland are
listed. Explanation of the column headings in table 6
follows.
A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that
produces a characteristic natural plant community that
differs from natural plant communities on other range
sites in kind, amount, and proportion of range plants.
The relationship between soils and vegetation was
established during this survey; thus, range sites generally
can be determined directly from the soil map. Soil
properties that affect moisture supply and plant nutrients
have the greatest influence on the productivity of range
plants. Soil reaction, salt content, and a seasonal high
water table are also important.
Totalproduction is the amount of vegetation that can
be expected to grow annually on well managed
rangeland that is supporting the potential natural plant
community. It includes all vegetation, whether or not it is
palatable to grazing animals. It includes the current
year's growth of leaves, twigs, and fruits of woody
plants. It does not include the increase in stem diameter
of trees and shrubs. It is expressed in pounds per acre
of air-dry vegetation for favorable, normal, and
unfavorable years. In a favorable year, the amount and
distribution of precipitation and the temperatures make
growing conditions substantially better than average. In a
normal year, growing conditions are about average. In an
unfavorable year, growing conditions are well below
average, generally because of low available soil
moisture.


Range management requires a knowledge of the kinds
of soil and of the potential natural plant community. It
also requires an evaluation of the present range
condition. Range condition is determined by comparing
the present plant community with the potential natural
plant community on a particular range site. The more
closely the existing community resembles the potential
community, the better the range condition. Range
condition is an ecological rating only. It does not have a
specific meaning that pertains to the present plant
community in a given use.
The objective in range management is to control
grazing so that the plants growing on a site are about
the same in kind and amount as the potential natural
plant community for that site. Such management
generally results in the optimum production of
vegetation, reduction of undesirable brush species,
conservation of water, and control of erosion.
Sometimes, however, a range condition somewhat below
the potential meets grazing needs, provides wildlife
habitat, and protects soil and water resources.

Woodland Management and Productivity
Hal E. Brockman, forester, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare
this section.
Approximately 157,000 acres, or 39 percent, of the
total land area in Hardee County is woodland. Nearly all
of this acreage is privately owned. The pine trees
scattered throughout the county are in areas that are not
considered to be woodland.
South Florida slash pine, which grows predominantly in
the flatwoods, makes up most of the woodland.
Economically, it is the most important tree in the survey
area. It is used mainly for the production of pulpwood
and lumber. Sand pine grows in small areas along the
higher sand ridges in the central and western parts of
the county. Most of the sand pine does not have high
economic value.
The oak-gum-cypress type makes up a sizable part of
the forested land. This type grows in the freshwater
swamps along the river systems (10). The stands of oak-
gum-cypress and their associated species, such as
maple, are economically valuable as sawtimber. These
areas, however, may be more valuable for the wildlife
they harbor and for the water resources they protect
than for the timber they could produce. Stands of mixed
oak and hickory grow on the floodplains of the Peace
River and its tributaries. These stands are not
economically valuable as timber but are highly valuable
as wildlife habitat and as recreation areas.
In recent years intensive farming and wildfire have
reduced the areas of woodland. Some of the areas
protected from wildfire have been reverting back to pine.
In December 1979, 101,850 acres, or more than 25
percent of the land area in Hardee County, was under
lease for phosphate mining, according to the Florida


37







Soil survey


Phosphate Council. Moreover, the number of mining
leases has been increasing. In mined areas all natural
vegetation, including trees, is destroyed.
The county has scattered markets for wood products,
such as lumber, fenceposts, and pulpwood. Woodland
management generally consists of natural regeneration
following a harvest cut or a clearcut. Prescribed burning
is important in forest management. It is used extensively
to reduce the "rough." It also helps to facilitate natural
regeneration and can increase production of forage in
woodland. Prescribed burning, however, is a hazard to
wildlife.
More detailed information about woodland
management can be obtained at the local office of the
Soil Conservation Service, of the County Extension
Service, and of the Florida Division of Forestry.
Table 7 can be used by woodland owners or forest
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops.
Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The
table lists the ordination symbol (woodland suitability) for
each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol
require the same general management and have about
the same potential productivity.
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number,
indicates the potential productivity of the soils for
important trees. The number 1 indicates very high
productivity; 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate;
and 5, low. The second part of the symbol, a letter,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter w
indicates excessive water in or on the soil, and the letter
s indicates sandy texture. If a soil has more than one
limitation, the priority is as follows: w and s.
In table 7, slight, moderate, and severe indicate the
degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in
management.
Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the
characteristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use
of the equipment generally needed in woodland
management or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates
that use of equipment is not limited to a particular kind of
equipment or time of year; moderate indicates a short
seasonal limitation or a need for some modification in
management or in equipment; and severe indicates a
seasonal limitation, a need for special equipment or
management, or a hazard in the use of equipment.
Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which
the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant
competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings
apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly
planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of
slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than
25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe,
more than 50 percent.
Ratings of windthrow hazard are based on soil
characteristics that affect the development of tree roots
and the ability of the soil to hold trees firmly. A rating of
slight indicates that few trees may be blown down by


strong winds; moderate, that some trees will be blown
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and
strong winds; and severe, that many trees are blown
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and
moderate or strong winds.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to
which undesirable plants are expected to invade where
there are openings in the tree canopy. The invading
plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings. A
rating of slight indicates little or no competition from
other plants; moderate indicates that plant competition is
expected to hinder the development of a fully stocked
stand of desirable trees; severe indicates that plant
competition is expected to prevent the establishment of
a desirable stand unless the site is intensively prepared,
weeded, or otherwise managed to control undesirable
plants.
The potential productivity of merchantable or common
trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is
the average height, in feet, that dominant and
codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified
number of years. The site index is based on an age of
25 years for South Florida slash pine and of 50 years for
all other pines. The site index applies to fully stocked,
even-aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly grown trees
are those that woodland managers generally favor in
intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected
on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and
marketability.
Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils
and to commercial wood production.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens, and
they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low- and
high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and shrubs
provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock
of suitable species should be planted properly on a well
prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a nursery.


38







Hardee County, Florida


Recreation
Facilities are available in Hardee County for a variety
of recreation activities, including fishing, hunting,
swimming, boating, canoeing, and horseback riding. A
number of parks and playgrounds are available for public
use. The main camping and recreation area is the
Pioneer Park Wildlife Sanctuary, located just north of
Zolfo Springs on the Peace River. There, the wilderness
has been preserved, and facilities for canoeing, hiking,
and fishing are available. The museum has artifacts
dating back to the days of Hernando de Soto, the
Spanish explorer who came to America in the 16th
century.
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 8
according to limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
vegetation, access to vater, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
of these measures.
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
and for local roads and streets in table 10.
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.


Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or
stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and
are not subject to flooding more than once a year during
the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few
or no stones or boulders on the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
Wildlife habitat is adequate in most areas in Hardee
County. The areas of wetland surrounding Charlie Creek,
Horse Creek, and the Peace River are particularly
valuable as habitat.
The primary game species are deer, wild turkey, and
quail. In most areas they are plentiful. Other game
species include squirrel and Florida duck. Nongame
species include raccoon, opossum, armadillo, gray fox,
bobcat, otter, mink, skunk, and a variety of songbirds,
woodpeckers, wading birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
Areas of concern include the changes to wildlife
habitat caused by intensive farming such as growing
citrus or improved pasture. The acreages in citrus and
improved pasture are now large but are interspersed with
other areas that provide good food and cover for wildlife.
Overall, therefore, wildlife habitat is adequate. Some
areas of native rangeland could provide better wildlife
habitat if improved grazing and burning practices were
used. In addition, phosphate mining disrupts large areas
of natural wildlife habitat. The habitat, however, can be
reestablished to an adequate stage through proper
reclamation.
The endangered and threatened species found in the
county range from the rare red-cockaded woodpecker to


39







Hardee County, Florida


Recreation
Facilities are available in Hardee County for a variety
of recreation activities, including fishing, hunting,
swimming, boating, canoeing, and horseback riding. A
number of parks and playgrounds are available for public
use. The main camping and recreation area is the
Pioneer Park Wildlife Sanctuary, located just north of
Zolfo Springs on the Peace River. There, the wilderness
has been preserved, and facilities for canoeing, hiking,
and fishing are available. The museum has artifacts
dating back to the days of Hernando de Soto, the
Spanish explorer who came to America in the 16th
century.
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 8
according to limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
vegetation, access to vater, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
of these measures.
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
and for local roads and streets in table 10.
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.


Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or
stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and
are not subject to flooding more than once a year during
the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few
or no stones or boulders on the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
Wildlife habitat is adequate in most areas in Hardee
County. The areas of wetland surrounding Charlie Creek,
Horse Creek, and the Peace River are particularly
valuable as habitat.
The primary game species are deer, wild turkey, and
quail. In most areas they are plentiful. Other game
species include squirrel and Florida duck. Nongame
species include raccoon, opossum, armadillo, gray fox,
bobcat, otter, mink, skunk, and a variety of songbirds,
woodpeckers, wading birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
Areas of concern include the changes to wildlife
habitat caused by intensive farming such as growing
citrus or improved pasture. The acreages in citrus and
improved pasture are now large but are interspersed with
other areas that provide good food and cover for wildlife.
Overall, therefore, wildlife habitat is adequate. Some
areas of native rangeland could provide better wildlife
habitat if improved grazing and burning practices were
used. In addition, phosphate mining disrupts large areas
of natural wildlife habitat. The habitat, however, can be
reestablished to an adequate stage through proper
reclamation.
The endangered and threatened species found in the
county range from the rare red-cockaded woodpecker to


39







Soil survey


the more common alligator and wood stork. A detailed
list of such species and information on their needs for
range and habitat are available at the local office of the
Soil Conservation Service.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
In table 9, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
the intensity of management needed for each element of
the habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind
of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and
seed crops are corn, soybeans, wheat, browntop millet,
and grain sorghum.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard,
and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
bahiagrass, clover, and sesbania.


Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod,
beggarweed, partridge pea, and bristlegrass.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
these plants are oak, sawpalmetto, dahoon holly, red
maple, wild grape, sugarberry, water hickory, blackberry,
and huckleberry. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that
are suitable for planting on soils rated good are firethorn,
waxmyrtle, and blackberry.
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar,
and juniper.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
plants are smartweed, wild millet, wildrice, saltgrass,
cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and cattails.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water-control
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
ponds.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
the following paragraphs.
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas
include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow,
sandhill crane, and cottontail.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray
fox, raccoon, deer, and bear.






Hardee County, Florida


Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, geese, herons, shore
birds, herons, otter, mink, and beaver.
Wildlife Management Practices
Wildlife habitat management thrives on disturbances
such as controlled burning, grazing, chopping, cultivation,
water level manipulation, mowing, and sometimes the
use of pesticides. Each species of wildlife occupies a
niche in a vegetative type; therefore, management for a
particular species involves an attempt to keep the
vegetative community in the stage or stages that favor
that species.
A primary factor in evaluating wildlife habitat is the
plant diversity in an area. A wide range in the
interspersion of vegetative types or age classes
generally is more favorable to wildlife. Increasing
dominance by a few plant species generally is
accompanied by a corresponding decrease in numbers
of wildlife.

Engineering
James E. Thomas, area engineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features'are identified. The ratings are
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils.
Additional testing and analysis by personnel experienced
in the design and construction of engineering works may
be necessary.
State and local government ordinances and
regulations that restrict certain land uses or impose
specific design criteria were not considered in preparing
the information in this section. Local ordinances and
regulations must be considered in planning, in site
selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings


in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the
surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-
swell potential, available water capacity, and other
behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses.
This information can be used to (1) evaluate the
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
and recreation uses; (2) make preliminary estimates of
construction conditions; (3) evaluate alternative routes
for roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; (4) evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; (5)
plan detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
(6) locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
topsoil; (7) plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and (8) predict performance of proposed
small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same or
similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
survey can be used to make additional interpretations.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Glossary.

Building Site Development
Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
without basements, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
features are generally favorable for the indicated use
and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate
if soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
special design, significant increases in construction
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
Special feasibility studies may be required where the soil
limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,


41







Soil survey


filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to
bedrock, a cemented layer, or a very firm dense layer;
stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the
year that excavations can be made is affected by the
depth to a seasonal high water table and the
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of the
excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is
affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made
for small commercial buildings without basements, for
dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without
basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high
water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water
table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large
stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts
and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high
water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the
ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil),
shrink-swell potential, frost action potential, and depth to
a high water table affect the traffic supporting capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil
reaction, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan, the available water capacity in the upper
40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic
materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope,
stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic
matter in the surface layer affect trafficability after
vegetation is established.
Sanitary Facilities
Table 11 shows the degree and the kind of soil
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
are considered slight if soil properties and site features
are generally favorable for the indicated use and
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the


limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
special design, significant increases in construction
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
and good performance and low maintenance can be
expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
more soil properties or site features make the soil less
desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
that one or more soil properties or site features are
unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
costly alteration.
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan, and flooding affect absorption of the
effluent. Large stones and bedrock or a cemented pan
interfere with installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath
the absorption field to filter the effluent effectively. Many
local ordinances require that this material be of a certain
thickness.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level
floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
required to minimize seepage and contamination of
ground water.
Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth
to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones,
and content of organic matter.
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level


42






Hardee County, Florida


of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function
unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive
or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of
organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the
lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope,
bedrock, and cemented pans can cause construction
problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of
the lagoon floor.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted,
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
away from the site.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
needs to be considered.
The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties,
site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a
high water table, slope, and flooding affect both types of
landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly organic
layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and sodium
affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the
ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth
of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated
slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation
is needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing
and seepage.
After soil material has been removed, the soil material
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over
bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit
revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a
landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
and the best potential for plant growth. Material from the
surface layer, therefore, should be stockpiled for use as
the final cover.
Construction Materials
Table 12 gives information about the soils as a source
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.


They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
properties and site features that affect the removal of
the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
compaction, minor processing, and other standard
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
and used in road embankments in another place. In this
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
exacting in design than higher embankments.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
their profile. The table showing engineering index
properties provides detailed information about each soil
layer. This information can help determine the suitability
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered
in the ratings.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of
excavation is affected by large stones, a high water
table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place
after it has been compacted and drained is determined
by its strength (as inferred from the engineering
classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to
the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers
of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 12, only
the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect
excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated
by the engineering classification of the soil), the
thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock


43







Soil survey


fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are
given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain
sizes is given in the table on engineering index
properties.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale
and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is
the reclamation potential of the borrow area.
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a depth
of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less
than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or
soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are
not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more
than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
near the surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of
moisture and nutrients for plant growth.
Water Management
Table 13 gives information on the soil.properties and
site features that affect water management. The degree
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil
properties and site features are generally favorable for
the indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are
not favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to


overcome that special design, significant increase in
construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
are required.
This table also gives for each soil the restrictive
features that affect drainage, irrigation, terraces and
diversions, and grassed waterways.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity
of the reservoir area.
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
constructed to impound water or to protect land against
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
and compacted during construction.
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth even greater than the height of the embankment
can affect performance and safety of the embankment.
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
determine these properties.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include
less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content
of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium.
A high water table affects the amount of usable material.
It also affects trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
water table, permeability of the aquifer, and quality of the
water as inferred from the salinity of the soil. Depth to
bedrock and the content of large stones affect the ease
of excavation.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth to
a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is
subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding;
subsidence of organic layers; and potential frost action.
Excavating and grading and the stability of ditchbanks
are affected by depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
large stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving.
The productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely
affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in the


44






Hardee County, Florida


root zone, such as salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of
drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
and management of an irrigation system are affected by
depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system
is affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or
sodium, and soil reaction.


Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
construction.


45







47


Soil Properties


Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in
table 21.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for the
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5
or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other
properties of each layer are given for each soil series
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary.
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).


The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
for soils tested, with group index numbers in
parentheses, is given in table 21.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
weight percentage.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
from nearby areas and on field examination.







47


Soil Properties


Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in
table 21.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for the
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5
or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other
properties of each layer are given for each soil series
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary.
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).


The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
for soils tested, with group index numbers in
parentheses, is given in table 21.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
weight percentage.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
from nearby areas and on field examination.







Soil survey


The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and
plasticity index are rounded to the nearest 5 percent.
Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg limits
extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points)
across classification boundaries, the classification in the
marginal zone is omitted in the table.

Physical and Chemical Properties
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics and
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area.
The estimates are based on field observations and on
test data for these and similar soils.
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter.
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain
moisture, They influence shrink-swell potential,
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion,
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in
a soil also affect tillage and earth-moving operations.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential,
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture,
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are
based on soil characteristics observed in the field,
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability
is considered in the design of soil drainage systems,
septic tank absorption fields, and construction where the
rate of water movement under saturated conditions
affects behavior.
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The
capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per
inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies,
depending on soil properties that affect the retention of
water and the depth of the root zone. The most
important properties are the content of organic matter,


soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available
water capacity is an important factor in the choice of
plants or crops to be grown and in the design and
management of irrigation systems. Available water
capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
corrosion.
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates
are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and
organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69.
The higher the value the more susceptible the soil is to
sheet and rill erosion by water.
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
can occur without affecting crop productivity over a
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following
distinctions:
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to
establish.
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind
erosion are used.
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to
control wind erosion are used.
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion
are used.
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to
control wind erosion are used.
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and


48







Hardee County, Florida


sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to
control wind erosion are used.
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate,
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly
erodible. Crops can easily be grown.
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate.
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily
be grown.
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject
to wind erosion.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
soil at various stages of decomposition.
In table 15, the estimated content of organic matter is
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The content of organic matter of a soil can be
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
other nutrients for crops.

Soil and Water Features
Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water
features. The estimates are used in land use planning
that involves engineering considerations.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
according to the intake of water when the soils are
thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
duration storms.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
transmission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
transmission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that


have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
Some soils in the county are assigned to two
hydrologic soil groups. The dual grouping is used if the
soils have a seasonal high water table and if the intake
of water improves with drainage. The first letter in the
dual grouping applies to the drained condition and the
second letter to the undrained condition.
Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after
rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding, nor is
water in swamps and marshes.
Table 16 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, rare,
common, occasional, and frequent. None means that
flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but
possible under unusual weather conditions; common that
it is likely under normal conditions; occasional that it
occurs, on the average, no more than once in 2 years;
and frequent that it occurs, on the average, more than
once in 2 years. Duration is expressed as very brief if
less than 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, and long if more
than 7 days. Probable datesare expressed in months;
November-May, for example, means that flooding can
occur during the period November through May.
The information is based on evidence in the soil
profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of
distinctive horizons that form in soils that are not subject
to flooding.
Also considered are local information about the extent
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
levels.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
soil. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to the seasonal
high water table; the kind of water table-that is,
perched, artesian, or apparent; and the months of the
year that the water table commonly is high. A water table
that is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not
indicated in table 16.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. An


49







Soil survey


artesian water table is under hydrostatic head, generally
beneath an impermeable layer. When this layer is
penetrated, the water level rises in an uncased borehole.
A perched water table is water standing above an
unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water
table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet
are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
indicates that the water table is above the surface of the
soil. The first numeral in the range indicates how high
the water rises above the surface. The second numeral
indicates the depth below the surface.
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
results from either desiccation and shrinkage or oxidation
of organic material, or both, following drainage.
Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period
of several years. Table 16 shows the expected initial
subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage, and
annual subsidence, which usually is a result of oxidation.
Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
water throughout an extensive area as a result of
lowering the water table.
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil.
Special site examination and design may be needed if
the combination of factors creates a severe corrosion
environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion
than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
of soil or within one soil layer.
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.
Table 17 gives data on the depth to the water table in
some of the soils in the survey area.

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
Analyses of Selected Soils
By Dr. V.W. Carlisle and Dr. R.E. Caldwell, Professors of Soil
Science, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science
Department.
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical
properties of representative pedons sampled in Hardee


County are presented in tables 18, 19, and 20. The
analyses were conducted and coordinated by the Soil
Characterization Laboratory at the University of Florida.
Detailed profile descriptions of soils analyzed are given
in alphabetical order in the section "Classification of the
Soils." Laboratory data and profile information for
additional soils in Hardee County as well as for other
counties in Florida are on file at the University of Florida,
Soil Science Department.
Typical pedons were sampled in pits at carefully
selected locations. Samples were air dried, crushed, and
sieved through a 2-mm screen. Most analytical methods
used are outlined in Soil Survey Investigations Report
No. 1 (12).
Particle-size distribution was determined using a
modified pipette method with sodium
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Saturated hydraulic
conductivity and bulk density were determined'on
undisturbed soil cores. Saturated hydraulic conductivity,
or permeability, is the rate at which water moves
downward through saturated soils. Water retention
parameters were obtained from duplicate undisturbed
soil cores placed in tempe pressure cells. Weight
percentages of water retained at 100 cm water (1/10
bar) and 345 cm water (1/3 bar) were calculated from
volumetric water percentages divided by bulk density.
Samples were ovendried and ground to pass a 2-mm
sieve, and the 15-bar water retention was determined.
Organic carbon was determined by a modification of the
Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils with
N ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium and
potassium in the extract were determined by flame
emission, and calcium and magnesium by atomic
absorption spectrophotometry. Extractable acidity was
determined by the barium chloridetriethanolamine
method at pH 8.2. Cation exchange capacity was
calculated by summation of extractable bases and
extractable acidity. Base saturation is the ratio of
extractable bases to cation exchange capacity
expressed in percent. The pH measurements were made
with a glass electrode using a soil water ratio of 1:1; a
0.01 M calcium chloride solution in a 1:2 soil-solution
ratio; and N potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-
solution ratio.
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were
extracted from probable spodic horizons with 0.1 M
sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and
iron was by atomic absorption, and of extracted carbon
by the Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
Mineralogy of the clay fraction that was greater than
0.002 mm was ascertained by X-ray diffraction. Peak
heights at 18 angstrom, 14 angstrom, 7.2 angstrom, and


50







Hardee County, Florida


4.31 angstrom positions represent montmorillonite,
interstratified expandable vermiculite or 14-angstrom
intergrades, kaolinite, and quartz, respectively. Peaks
were measured, summed, and normalized to give the
percentage of soil minerals identified in the X-ray
diffractograms. These percentage values do not indicate
absolute determined quantities of soil minerals but do
imply a relative distribution of minerals in a particular
mineral suite. Absolute percentages would require
additional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, unit
structure substitution, and matrix problems.
The particle-size fraction in all horizons of selected
soils is given in table 18. Sand is the dominant particle-
size fraction. All horizons of Cassia, Smyrna, Tavares,
and Zolfo soils are more than 90 percent sand. Cassia,
Jonathan, Myakka, Smyrna, Tavares, and Zolfo soils are
less than 5 percent clay throughout. Apopka, Electra,
Farmton, Pomona, Sparr, and Wauchula soils are
inherently sandy to a depth of more than 1 meter, but
increase in content of clay in the lower horizons. Felda
and Ft. Green soils are inherently sandy to a depth of
slightly less than 1 meter, and Bradenton soils are sandy
to a depth of less than 0.5 meter. Ona and Pomello soils
also have large amounts of sand throughout their profile;
however, the amount of clay increases in the surface
layer of Ona soils and in the B2h horizon of Pomello
soils. All soils were less than 1 percent very coarse
sand. Except for the Farmton soils, the sand fraction of
mineral horizons of all soils was dominated by fine sand.
Although silt generally makes up less than 5 percent of
all soils, the amounts of silt commonly increases in the
argillic and spodic horizons. Droughtiness is a common
characteristic of sandy soils, particularly those that are
moderately well drained, well drained, and excessively
drained.
Hydraulic conductivity values, as expected, are very
high for all horizons of the Tavares soils. Contrastingly,
in some argillic horizons of Apopka, Bradenton, Electra,
Farmton, Felda, Pomona, Sparr, and Wauchula soils, the
hydraulic conductivity nears or is zero. Generally, sandy
horizons that are 95 percent or more sand and that are
low in content of organic matter retain a low amount of
water. Available water for plants can be estimated from
bulk density and water content data. Apopka, Electra,
Jonathan, Pomello, Sparr, and Tavares soils, to a depth
of more than 1 meter, retain a very low amount of water
available for plants. The surface horizon of Kaliga muck,
an organic soil, retains the greatest amount of water
available for plants.
The chemical properties of selected soils is given in
table 19. The cation-exchange capacity exceeds 10
milliequivalents per 100 grams in the surface horizon of
Bradenton, Farmton, Ft. Green, Kaliga, Myakka, Ona,
and Zolfo soils. Except for Zolfo soils, the surface
horizon of these soils also is more than 3 percent
organic carbon. Calcium generally is the predominant
base, followed by magnesium. In all soils, sodium and


potassium consistently occur in very low amounts in all
horizons. In Bradenton, Farmton, Kaliga, Ona, and Zolfo
soils, calcium in the surface horizon exceeds 5
milliequivalents per 100 grams. Most of these surface
horizons also contain the most magnesium. Within a
pedon the values of the cation-exchange capacity
increase as expected in Bh and B2t horizons. The values
of cation-exchange capacity in the argillic horizon of
Bradenton, Electra, Farmton, Felda, Ft. Green, Kaliga,
Pomona, and Wauchula soils are higher than those in
the argillic horizon of the Apopka and Sparr soils. The
higher values are attributed to the presence of the much
more highly reactive montmorillonitic clays.
Soils with a low cation-exchange capacity in the
surface horizon, such as Electra, Felda, Pomello, Sparr,
and Tavares soils, require only small amounts of lime to
significantly alter both base status and soil reaction in
the upper horizons. Successful crop production on these
soils usually requires small but frequent applications of
fertilizer.
None of the soils sampled have cation-exchange
capacity values throughout their profile in excess of 10
milliequivalents per 100 grams, and in most of the soils
several horizons have cation-exchange capacity values
that are less than 5 milliequivalents per 100 grams.
Generally, low values for extractable bases and for
cation-exchange capacity indicate low inherent soil
fertility, and high values for extractable bases, for cation-
exchange capacity, and for base saturation indicate high
soil fertility.
In Apopka, Cassia, Electra, Jonathan, Pomello,
Pomona, Sparr, Tavares, and Zolfo soils, organic carbon
in the surface horizon is less than 1.5 percent. The
content of organic carbon decreases rapidly with depth
in all soils except Cassia, Electra, Farmton, Jonathan,
Myakka, Pomello, Pomona, Smyrna, and Wauchula soils.
These soils have a Bh horizon that contains enhanced
amounts of organic carbon. The greatest amount of
organic carbon occurs in the Oa horizon of Kaliga muck.
Because organic carbon is directly related to the
capacity of sandy soils to retain soil nutrients and water,
management practices are needed to conserve the
content of organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity values are consistently less than
0.5 millimhos per centimeter, indicating a low soluble salt
content in the soils in Hardee County. These values
generally have to be in excess of 3 millimhos per
centimeter before growth of salt-sensitive plants is
affected.
Soil reaction in water ranges between pH 4.0 and 6.5
in all horizons of the Apopka, Cassia, Farmton, Ft.
Green, Jonathan, Myakka, Ona, Pomello, Pomona,
Smyrna, Tavares, and Wauchula soils. Reaction in
excess of pH 7.0 occurs only in the lower horizons of
Bradenton and Kaliga soils. Soil reaction generally is 0.5
to 1.5 units lower in a solution of calcium chloride or
potassium chloride than in water. Maximum availability of


51







52


plant nutrients usually is attained when reaction is
between pH 6.5 and 7.0.
Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron is 0.04 percent
or less in selected horizons of Spodosols. The ratio of
pyrophosphate extractable carbon and aluminum to clay
in Cassia, Electra, Farmton, Jonathan, Myakka, Ona,
Pomello, Pomona, Smyrna, Wauchula, and Zolfo soils is
sufficient to meet the chemical criteria for spodic
horizons. With the exception of Ona soils, values of
citrate-dithionite extractable aluminum are less than 0.50
percent, and iron values by this extraction are in excess
of 0.50 percent only in the Apopka, Electra, and Sparr
soils. The soils in Hardee County contain insufficient
aluminum and iron to affect detrimentally the content of
phosphorus available to plants.
Mineralogy of the sand fraction (2 to 0.05 millimeters)
is siliceous; quartz is dominant in all soils. Small amounts
of heavy minerals, mostly ilmenite, occur in most
horizons; the greatest concentration of them is in the
very fine sand fraction. Crystalline mineral components
of the clay fraction (less than 0.002 millimeters) are
reported in table 20 for selected horizons of specific
pedons. The clay mineralogical suite is composed of
montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom intergrade mineral,
kaolinite, and quartz. Montmorillonite occurs in the
Bradenton, Cassia, Farmton, Felda, Ft. Green, Kaliga,
Pomello, Pomona, Wauchula, and Zolfo soils. Except for
Bradenton, Kaliga, Pomello, and Wauchula soils, the 14-
angstrom intergrade mineral occurs in some horizons of
all soils. Kaolinite occurs in all soils except the Smyrna
and Wauchula soils. Quartz occurs in all soils.
Montmorillonite, the least stable of the mineral
components in the present. environment, appears to
have been inherited in the Bradenton, Felda, Ft. Green,
Kaliga, Pomona, and Wauchula soils, which have
relatively large amounts that increase with depth. In soils
that contain appreciable amounts of montmorillonitic
clay, a considerable change in volume could result from
shrinking of the soil when it is dry and swelling when it is
wet. Horizons in Bradenton, Felda, Kaliga, Pomona, and
Wauchula soils that contain large amounts of
montmorillonite contain little or no 14-angtrom intergrade
and commonly contain very low amounts of kaolinite.
The general tendency of 14-angstrom intergrade to
decrease with depth, accompanied by the general,
although not consistent, tendency of kaolinite to increase
with depth, suggests that the 14-angstrom intergrade is
the most stable species in this weathering environment.


Soils dominated by kaolinite and quartz have a lower
cation-exchange capacity and retain less plant nutrients
than soils dominated by 14-angstrom intergrade minerals
and montmorillonite.

Engineering Index Test Data
Table 21 shows engineering test data about some of
the major soils in the survey area. The tests were made
by the Soils Laboratory, Bureau of Materials and
Research, Florida Department of Transportation, to help
evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The
classifications given are based on data obtained by
mechanical analysis and by tests to determine liquid
limits and plastic limits.
The mechanical analyses were made by a combined
sieve and hydrometer method (3). In this method, the
various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis of
all the material in the soil sample, including that coarser
than 2 millimeters in diameter. The mechanical analyses
used in this method should not be used in naming
textural classes of soils.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
water on the strength and consistence of the soil
material. As the moisture content of a clayey soil is
increased from a dry state, the material changes from
semisolid to plastic.
If the moisture content is increased more, the material
changes from plastic to liquid. The plastic limit is the
moisture content at which the soil material changes from
semisolid to plastic, and the liquid limit is the moisture
content at which the soil material changes from plastic
to liquid. The plasticity index is the numerical difference
between the liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates
the range of moisture content within which a soil material
is plastic. The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in
this table are based on laboratory tests of soil samples.
Compaction, or moisture-density, data are important in
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive
effort remains constant, the density of the compacted
material increases until the optimum moisture content is
reached. After that, density decreases with an increase
in moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in
the compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As
a rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density.






53


Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (13).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or from laboratory measurements. Table 22 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning
water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of
the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm,
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the
Entisols that have an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where
there is much biological activity. Among the properties


and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
Psammaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
differ within a series.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (9). Many of
the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
in Soil Taxonomy (13). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
description is the range of important characteristics of
the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Adamsville Series
The Adamsville series consists of nearly level,
somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds
of sandy marine sediment. These soils are on low, broad
flats that are less than 2 feet higher than the adjacent
sloughs. In most years, if the soils are not drained, the
water table rises to within 20 inches of the surface for
less than 2 weeks in very wet seasons; it remains at a
depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months and recedes
to a depth of more than 40 inches during dry periods.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. These soils are
hyperthermic, uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments.






53


Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (13).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or from laboratory measurements. Table 22 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning
water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of
the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm,
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the
Entisols that have an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where
there is much biological activity. Among the properties


and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
Psammaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
differ within a series.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (9). Many of
the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
in Soil Taxonomy (13). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
description is the range of important characteristics of
the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Adamsville Series
The Adamsville series consists of nearly level,
somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds
of sandy marine sediment. These soils are on low, broad
flats that are less than 2 feet higher than the adjacent
sloughs. In most years, if the soils are not drained, the
water table rises to within 20 inches of the surface for
less than 2 weeks in very wet seasons; it remains at a
depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months and recedes
to a depth of more than 40 inches during dry periods.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. These soils are
hyperthermic, uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments.






Soil survey


Adamsville soils are near Basinger, Myakka, Pompano,
Tavares, and Zolfo soils. Basinger soils are poorly
drained and have a Bh&A horizon. Myakka soils are
poorly drained and have a spodic horizon within a depth
of 30 inches. Pompano soils are poorly drained and are
in poorly defined drainageways and in depressions.
Tavares soils are at slightly higher elevations and do not
have mottles (evidence of wetness) between depths of
20 and 40 inches. Zolfo soils are in about the same
position on the landscape as Adamsville soils but have a
spodic horizon between depths of 50 and 80 inches.
Typical pedon of Adamsville fine sand, in an orange
grove, approximately 100 feet east of Dr. Banks Road
and 100 feet north of State Highway 664A, SE1/4SW1/4
sec. 23, T. 33 S., R. 25 E.
Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
mixture of organic matter and light gray sand grains
has a salt-and-pepper appearance; neutral; abrupt
smooth boundary.
C1-7 to 23 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
sand grains uncoated; slightly acid; clear smooth
boundary.
C2-23 to 31 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; single grained; loose; sand grains uncoated;
medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
C3-31 to 52 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
many medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
mottles; single grained; loose; loose sand grains
coated in mottled part, uncoated in matrix; medium
acid; gradual smooth boundary.
C4-52 to 70 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few
fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles;
single grained; loose; loose sand grains coated in
mottled part, uncoated in matrix; slightly acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
C5-70 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles;
single grained; loose; slightly acid.
The A and C horizons combined are 80 inches thick or
more. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral
throughout. The content of silt plus clay is less than 5
percent in the 10- to 40-inch control section.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5,
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 3 to 8 inches thick.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8,
and chroma of 1 through 4. In the lower part it generally
has chroma of 1 or 2. Its texture is fine sand or sand.
The horizon generally has mottles in shades of gray,
yellow, and brown.

Apopka Series
The Apopka series consists of nearly level to gently
sloping, well drained soils that formed in sandy and


loamy marine deposits. The soils are on uplands. Slopes
range from 0 to 5 percent. These soils are loamy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Grossarenic Paleudults.
Apopka soils are near Candler and Sparr soils.
Candler soils are in about the same position on the
landscape as Apopka soils but do not have an argillic
horizon. Sparr soils are in the lower part of the
landscape and are somewhat poorly drained.
Typical pedon of Apopka fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, in an orange grove, 100 feet north of Dr. Coil
Road, 2 miles west of Bowling Green,
SW1/4NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 7, T. 33 S., R. 25 E.
Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak
fine crumb structure; friable; common fine roots;
slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A21-8 to 20 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
medium roots; many uncoated sand grains; strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A22-20 to 36 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
medium roots; many uncoated sand grains; strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
A23-36 to 55 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few roots; few brownish
yellow (10YR 6/8) loamy fine sand lamellae;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B1t-55 to 65 inches; yellow (10YR 7/8) loamy fine
sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
thin strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) clay films on faces of
peds and walls of pores; sand grains coated and
bridged with clay; few medium pebbles; strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B21t-65 to 70 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) and
brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy clay loam;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm;
thin patchy yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay films on
faces of peds and walls of pores; sand grains
coated and bridged with clay; few medium pebbles;
few roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22t-70 to 80 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) sandy
clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; thin yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay
films on faces of peds; few red (2.5YR 5/8) soft
plinthite bodies; light gray (10YR 7/1) material in old
root channels; sand grains coated and bridged with
clay; few fine roots; very strongly acid.
Apopka soils are medium acid to very strongly acid
except where the Ap horizon has been limed.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or
4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 3 to 8 inches thick.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through
7, and chroma of 4 through 6. It ranges from 37 to 75
inches in thickness. Its texture is fine sand or sand.
Texture of the lamellae bands is loamy fine sand or


54






Hardee County, Florida


sandy loam. The A horizon ranges from 40 to 79 inches
in thickness.
The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR through 10YR, value of
4 through 7, and chroma of 4 through 8. Its texture is
sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The horizon ranges from
10 to 26 inches or more in thickness. The weighted
content of clay in the upper 20 inches of the argillic
horizon ranges from 18 to 35 percent.
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 8, and
chroma of 4. There is no B3 horizon in some pedons.
Base saturation in the B22t horizon is greater than 35
percent. Consequently, Apopka soils in Hardee County
are considered to be a taxadjunct to the series. This
difference, however, does not affect the use or behavior
of the soils. It is estimated that in at least half of the
mapped areas of Apopka soils in Hardee County the
base saturation is less than 35 percent at a depth of 71
inches.

Basinger Series
The Basinger series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained sandy soils in poorly defined drainageways, wet
depressions, and sloughs in the flatwoods. The soils
formed in thick deposits of marine sand. In most years, if
the soils are not drained, the water table is at a depth of
less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months and at a depth of
10 to 30 inches for more than 6 months. In most years
the soils in depressions are covered by standing water
for 6 to 9 months or more. Slopes are less than 2
percent. These soils are siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic
Psammaquents.
Basinger soils are near Floridana, Myakka, Pomona,
Popash, Tavares, and Wauchula soils. Floridana and
Popash soils have a dark colored A horizon. Pomona
and Wauchula soils have a spodic horizon and an argillic
horizon. Myakka soils have a spodic horizon. Tavares
soils are moderately well drained and are on higher
ridges adjacent to the flatwoods.
Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand, in a pasture,
about 0.1 mile south of Wauchula and 0.2 mile east of
U.S. Highway 17, SE1/4SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 10, T. 34 S.,
R. 25 E.
A1-0 to 3 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and
medium roots; many uncoated sand grains; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A12-3 to 7 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
A2-7 to 14 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; many fine roots; many
clean sand grains; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Bh&A-14 to 24 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) and
grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; single grained;


loose; few fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
C1-24 to 30 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C2-30 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
common medium brown (10YR 5/3) mottles; single
grained; nonsticky; very strongly acid.

Basinger soils are very strongly acid throughout. In the
C1 and C2 horizons the content of organic matter is less
than 1 percent and the content of iron is less than 0.5
percent.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through
4, and chroma of 2 or less. It is 2 to 8 inches thick. The
A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and
chroma of 3 or less. It is about 17 to 25 inches thick.
The Bh&A horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR;
value is 3 through 6, and chroma is 2 through 4. The
colors are mixed. The horizon does not meet the
requirements of a spodic horizon. It is about 8 to 12
inches thick.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5
through 8, and chroma of 1 through 3. It has common
brown mottles.

Bradenton Series
The Bradenton series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils that formed in unconsolidated loamy
textured sediment influenced by calcareous material. The
soils are on flood plains and on low-lying hammocks in
the area of the flood plains. The water table is within 10
inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months of the year.
Generally, the soils are flooded every year and more
than once in most years. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
These soils are coarse-loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic
Typic Ochraqualfs.
Bradenton soils are near Felda, Pomona, Popash, and
Wabasso soils. Felda and Popash soils have a sandy A
horizon more than 20 inches thick. Pomona and
Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Bradenton loamy fine sand, in a
wooded area, 2.5 miles south of State Highway 64 and
1.75 miles west of the Highlands County line, on Smith
Ranch, SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 2, T. 34 S., R. 27 E.
A1-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy fine
sand; moderate medium crumb structure; friable;
many fine and medium roots; mixture of organic
matter and light gray sand grains has a salt-and-
pepper appearance; medium acid; clear smooth
boundary.
A21-4 to 8 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common fine and medium
roots; medium acid; clear smooth boundary.


55






Soil survey


A22-8 to 13 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common fine roots; medium
acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
B21tg-13 to 20 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sandy loam; many fine distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6) mottles; moderate coarse subangular
blocky structure; firm; common fine roots; few thin
discontinuous clay films on faces of peds and in root
channels; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22tgca-20 to 27 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
fine sandy loam; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; firm; common medium roots; few thin
discontinuous clay films on faces of peds and in root
channels; common soft white calcium carbonate
accumulations and common fine white calcium
carbonate nodules; slightly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Clca-27 to 36 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) fine
sandy loam; massive; slightly sticky; common
medium carbonate nodules; few streaks and
pockets of white sand; strongly alkaline; calcareous;
clear wavy boundary.
C2ca-36 to 56 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) fine sandy
loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) mottles; massive; slightly sticky;
common medium carbonate nodules; few streaks
and pockets of white sand; strongly alkaline;
calcareous; clear wavy boundary.
C3ca-56 to 76 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) fine sandy
loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) and light greenish gray (5GY 7/1)
mottles; massive; slightly sticky; common medium
carbonate nodules; common streaks and pockets of
white sand; strongly alkaline; calcareous; gradual
wavy boundary.
C4ca-76 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 6/1) loamy
fine sand; massive; slightly sticky; common streaks
and pockets of white sand; moderately alkaline.

The solum ranges from 20 to 50 inches in thickness.
Reaction is medium acid to neutral in the A horizon,
slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the B horizon, and
mildly alkaline to strongly alkaline in the C horizon.
The Al or Ap horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of
10YR or 2.5Y; value is 2 to 4, and chroma is 2 or less. It
is 4 to 6 inches thick. The A2 horizon has no hue (N) or
has hue of 10YR; value is 4 to 7, and chroma is 2 or
less. It is 8 to 16 inches thick. It is fine sand or sand.
The Bt horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR or
2.5Y; value is 4 to 6, and chroma is 2 or less. In most
pedons it has few to many yellow, brown, or red mottles.
It ranges from 8 to 30 inches in thickness. Its texture is
sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. The
B3g horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y;
value is 5 to 7, and chroma is 2 or less. Its texture is
sandy loam. There is no B3g horizon in some pedons.


The Cca horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR,
5Y, 5GY, or 2.5Y; value is 4 through 7, and chroma is 2
or less. Its texture ranges from loamy fine sand to sandy
loam. In most pedons the horizon has few to common
yellow, brown, or red mottles.

Candler Series
The Candler series consists of nearly level to gently
sloping, excessively drained sandy soils that formed in
thick beds of unconsolidated sandy marine, eolian, or
fluvial sediment. The soils are in an area of sandhills on
uplands. The water table is at a depth of more than 80
inches throughout the year. Slopes are smooth to
concave and range from 0 to 5 percent. These soils are
hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments.
Candler soils are near Apopka, Pomello, Sparr, and
Tavares soils. Apopka soils are in about the same
position on the landscape as Candler soils but have an
argillic horizon. Pomello, Sparr, and Tavares soils are in
lower areas on the landscape. Sparr and Tavares soils
have mottles (evidence of wetness) between depths of
about 40 and 80 inches. Pomello soils have a Bh horizon
between depths of 30 and 50 inches.
Typical pedon of Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, in a citrus grove, approximately 1.25 miles west
of Bowling Green on County Highway 664 and north
about 200 feet, SE1/4SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 6, T. 33 S., R.
25 E.
Ap-0 to 7 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
many fine and medium roots; many uncoated sand
grains; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
A21-7 to 19 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; many fine and medium
roots and few large roots; many uncoated sand
grains; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A22-19 to 35 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
medium roots; many uncoated sand grains; strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
A23-35 to 48 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
A24&B-48 to 66 inches; yellow (10YR 8/6) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few roots; few yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) loamy fine sand lamellae about 1/16 to
1/8 inch thick and 1 to 4 inches long; many
uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A25&B-66 to 80 inches; yellow (10YR 8/6) fine sand;
few fine and medium distinct white (1 YR 8/2)
mottles; single grained; loose; few roots; yellowish
brown (10YR 5/8) loamy fine sand lamellae about
1/16 to 1/8 inch thick and 1 to 4 inches long,


56






Hardee County, Florida


increasing in abundance with depth; sand grains in
lamellae are well coated; strongly acid.

Candler soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid
except in areas that have been limed.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
5, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 2 to 8 inches thick. The A2
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and
chroma of 3 through 6. Its texture is generally fine sand
but ranges to sand.
The A24&B horizon is at a depth of 40 to 80 inches. It
is less than 5 percent silt plus clay in the 10- to 40-inch
control section.
The A2 part of the A2&B horizons has hue of 10YR,
value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 to 6. Its texture is fine
sand or sand. The B part of the A2&B horizons has hue
of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4
through 8. Its texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand.
The individual lamellae are 1 to 8 mm thick. The
lamellae combined within a depth of 80 inches are
generally 5 to 12 mm thick but range from 1 to 55 mm in
thickness. In some pedons there are few to common
small and large pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2)
and white (10YR 8/1, 8/2) uncoated sand grains in the
A2 and A2&B horizons.

Cassia Series
The Cassia series consists of nearly level, somewhat
poorly drained sandy soils that formed in thick deposits
of marine sand. The soils are on low ridges slightly
higher than the adjacent flatwoods. In most years, if the
soils are not drained, the water table is at a depth of 15
to 40 inches for about 6 months and at a depth of more
than 40 inches during dry periods. Slopes are 0 to 2
percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic
Typic Haplohumods.
Cassia soils are near Immokalee, Jonathan, Myakka,
Pomello, and Pomona soils. Immokalee, Myakka, and
Pomona soils are poorly drained and are in slightly lower
positions on the landscape than Cassia soils. Pomona
soils have an argillic horizon. Jonathan soils are
moderately well drained, are in higher positions on the
landscape, and have a Bh horizon below a depth of 50
inches. Immokalee and Pomello soils have a Bh horizon
between depths of 30 and 50 inches. Pomello soils are
moderately well drained and are in higher positions on
the landscape.
Typical pedon of Cassia fine sand, in a wooded area,
300 feet north of New Zion Baptist Church, 6 miles west
of Ona, NE1/4NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 28, T. 34 S., R. 23 E.
A1-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; loose; many fine and
medium roots; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.


A2-6 to 27 inches; white (N 8/0) sand; single grained;
loose; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid;
abrupt wavy boundary.
B21h-27 to 34 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
sand; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; few fine and medium roots; approximately 30
percent slightly brittle to brittle material; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B22h-34 to 42 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) sand;
single grained; loose; few and medium roots; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B31-42 to 57 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B32&B'h-57 to 65 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR
4/2) sand; many medium, distinct black (10YR 2/1)
very firm natural Bh fragments; single grained; loose;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
C-65 to 80 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/2) sand; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid.
Cassia soils range from very strongly acid to medium
acid.
The Al horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR;
value is 3 to 7, and chroma is 1 or 0. Unrubbed material
has a salt-and-pepper appearance. The horizon is 2 to 6
inches thick.
The A2 horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR;
value is 6 to 8, and chroma is 1 or 0. In some pedons
there are gray, yellow, and brown mottles. In many
pedons there is a transitional horizon 1/2 to 2 inches
thick that has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR; value is 2
through 4, and chroma is 2 or less. The A horizon
ranges from 20 to 30 inches in thickness.
The Bh horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR,
7.5YR, or 5YR; value is 2 to 4, and chroma is 4 or less.
Its texture is sand, fine sand, loamy fine sand, or loamy
sand. The horizon ranges from 9 to 20 inches in
thickness. The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR,
value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 or 4.
The B32&B'h horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2
through 4, and chroma of 2 or less. Its texture is sand,
fine sand, or loamy fine sand. The A'2 horizon has hue
of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 4. There is
no A'2 horizon in some pedons.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4
to 7, and chroma of 1 through 4. It has mottles in
shades of gray, brown, and yellow in some pedons. Its
texture is fine sand or sand.

Chobee Series
The Chobee series consists of nearly level, very poorly
drained soils that formed in thick beds of
unconsolidated, moderately fine marine sediment. These
soils are in small to large depressions or in low, nearly
level areas along the major streams throughout the


57






Soil survey


county. In most years the water table is above the
surface for 6 to 9 months and is within 10 inches of the
surface for most of the rest of the year except in very
dry periods. The soils are subject to frequent flooding of
long duration but do not receive appreciable sediment
from the floodwaters. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
These soils are fine-loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
Argiaquolls.
Chobee soils are near Bradenton, Felda, Holopaw, and
Pompano soils, all of which do not have a mollic
epipedon and are poorly drained. Felda soils have an
argillic horizon at a depth between 20 and 40 inches.
Bradenton soils are coarser textured in the argillic
horizon than Chobee soils. Pompano soils do not have
an argillic horizon.
Typical pedon of Chobee fine sandy loam, in an area
of Bradenton-Felda-Chobee association, frequently
flooded, in a pasture, 3 miles southwest of Ona,
SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 12, T. 35 S., R. 23 E.

A1-0 to 8 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sandy loam;
moderate medium granular structure; friable; many
fine and medium roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B21tg-8 to 18 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sandy clay
loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; sand grains bridged and coated with clay;
common fine roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B22tg-18 to 42 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
sandy clay loam; common streaks of black (10YR
2/1); weak coarse subangular structure; friable;
sand grains bridged and coated with clay; common
fine roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
B23tgca-42 to 55 inches; very dark gray (5Y 3/1)
sandy loam; common fine distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6), brown (10YR 5/3), and black (10YR
2/1) streaks along root channels; common medium
white (10YR 8/1) calcium carbonate nodules; weak
coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; sand
grains bridged and coated with clay; common
medium roots; moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear
wavy boundary.
Cg-55 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) loamy fine sand;
common fine and medium faint dark grayish brown
(1 YR 4/2) mottles; massive; slightly sticky; few
pockets of gray (N 5/0) and white (N 8/0) nodules
of carbonates; moderately alkaline; calcareous.
The solum ranges from 40 to 80 inches or more in
thickness. Base saturation is 50 percent or more in all
horizons. The mollic epipedon is 10 to 24 inches thick.
The A horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR; the
value is 2 or 3, and chroma is 1 or 0. Reaction ranges
from slightly acid to neutral. The content of organic
matter is about 5 to 20 percent. The A horizon is 3 to 18
inches thick.


The Btg and Btgca horizons have no hue (N) or have
hues of 10YR to 5Y; the value is 2 through 6, and
chroma is 1 or 0. Texture is sandy clay loam or sandy
loam. The weighted average clay content of the 10- to
40-inch control section is 25 to 35 percent. Reaction
ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline. In some
pedons there are few to many mottles in shades of
yellow or brown in these horizons.
The Cg horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR or
5Y; the value is 5 to 7, and chroma is 2 or less. Texture
is loamy fine sand, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam that
has pockets of coarser or finer textured material and
carbonates. Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately
alkaline.

Electra Series
The Electra series consists of nearly level, somewhat
poorly drained soils that formed in unconsolidated loamy
marine sediment. The soils are on upland ridges that
have been partially drained by natural dissection. In most
years, if the soils are not drained, the water table is at a
depth of 25 to 40 inches for cumulative periods of 4
months and recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during dry periods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
These soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic
Ultic Haplohumods.
Electra soils are near Immokalee, Myakka, and
Pomello soils. Immokalee and Myakka soils are poorly
drained, and Pomello soils are moderately well drained.
Unlike Electra soils, Immokalee, Myakka, and Pomello
soils do not have an argillic horizon. Immokalee and
Myakka soils are in lower positions on the landscape
than Electra soils. Pomello soils are in about the same
position on the landscape as Electra soils.
Typical pedon of Electra sand, in a pasture, 1.5 miles
north of Wauchula airport, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 26, T. 33
S., R. 25 E.

Ap-0 to 4 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; weak medium
granular structure; very friable; many fine roots;
slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
A21-4 to 16 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
sand grains are uncoated; neutral; gradual wavy
boundary.
A22-16 to 42 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
sand grains are uncoated; neutral; abrupt irregular
boundary.
B21h-42 to 45 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
sand; weak medium granular structure; friable; few
fine roots; sand grains coated with colloidal organic
matter; 20 percent ortstein; medium acid; abrupt
irregular boundary.






Hardee County, Florida


B22h-45 to 54 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
sand; weak medium granular structure; friable; few
fine roots; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B23h-54 to 60 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/2) sand;
weak medium granular structure; friable; medium
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B3&Bh-60 to 66 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) and dark
brown (7.5YR 4/4) sand; single grained; loose;
medium acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
B'21tg-66 to 72 inches; light brownish gray (2.5YR 6/2)
fine sandy loam; many medium distinct strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6) mottles; moderate medium and coarse
subangular blocky structure; firm; sand grains
bridged and coated with clay; strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
B'22tg-72 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/2) fine sandy
loam; common medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR
5/6) mottles; moderate medium and coarse
subangular blocky structure; firm; sand grains
bridged and coated with clay; strongly acid.
Electra soils are very strongly acid or strongly acid
except in areas that have been limed.
The Ap or Al horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value
of 2 to 6, and chroma of 2 or less. The horizon has a
salt-and-pepper appearance. It is 2 to 6 inches thick.
The A2 horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR;
the value is 5 to 8, and chroma is 2 or less. It is fine
sand or sand. The A horizon ranges from 40 to 50
inches in thickness.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR,
value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is sand or fine
sand. Most sand grains are coated with organic matter.
The horizon is about 10 to 18 inches thick.
The B3&Bh horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value
of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 through 4. It is fine sand or
sand. It is 5 to 10 inches thick.
The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 to 3. Its texture is fine sand or sand. There
is no A'2 horizon in some pedons.
The B'tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or it has hue of 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 6
or 7, and chroma of 2 or 4 and has mottles in shades of
gray, yellow, red, or brown. Its texture is sandy clay
loam, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam. This horizon is at
a depth of 41 to about 79 inches.

Farmton Series
The Farmton series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils that formed in sandy marine sediment over
loamy material. The soils are on low ridges and knolls in
the flatwoods. In most years, if the soils are not drained,
the water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for
periods of more than 6 months; it rises to within 10
inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months in wet seasons
and recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
extended dry periods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.


These soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic
Ultic Haplaquods.
Farmton soils are near Electra, Immokalee, Myakka,
Ona, Pomona, Pomello, Wabasso, and Wauchula soils.
Farmton soils have a Bh horizon at a depth of more than
30 inches; Myakka, Ona, Pomona, and Wabasso soils
have a Bh horizon at a depth of less than 30 inches.
Farmton soils have a Bt horizon at a depth of 40 to 76
inches; Immokalee, Ona, and Pomello soils do not have
a Bt horizon. Farmton soils have a Bt horizon with base
saturation of less than 35 percent; Wabasso soils have a
Bt horizon with base saturation of more than 35 percent.
Electra and Pomello soils are in higher positions on the
landscape than Farmton soils.
Typical pedon of Farmton fine sand, in a pasture, on
the Ben Hill Griffin Peace River Ranch, 4 miles south of
Zolfo Springs, NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 16, T. 35 S., R. 25 E.

Ap-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand, rubbed;
weak fine crumb structure; very friable; many fine
roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
A21-6 to 12 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A22-12 to 19 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
A23-19 to 34 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; medium acid;
clear wavy boundary.
B21h-34 to 45 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
many medium and coarse faint black (5YR 2/1)
bodies; sand grains coated with organic matter; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B3-45 to 55 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; few medium
distinct black (5YR 2/1) bodies; few fine roots; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B'h-55 to 61 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; sand grains
coated with organic matter; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B'21tg-61 to 71 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) fine sandy
loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; firm;
sand grains coated and bridged with clay; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B'22tg-71 to 80 inches; mottled gray (5Y 5/1), olive (5Y
5/6), and greenish gray (5GY 6/1) sandy clay loam;
massive in place, parting to weak fine subangular
blocky structure; friable; sand grains coated and
bridged with clay; extremely acid.
Farmton soils range from extremely acid to medium
acid in all horizons.
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 to
4, and chroma of 2 or less. If undisturbed, the horizon


59






Soil survey


has a salt-and-pepper appearance. It is 3 to 7 inches
thick.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 8, and
chroma of 2 or less. The A horizon is fine sand or sand.
It ranges from 30 to 50 inches in thickness.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. It ranges from 10
to 20 inches in thickness. Its texture is fine sand or sand.
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 3 or 4. Its texture is fine sand or sand. It is 8
to 12 inches thick.
The B'h horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 2 to 5, and chroma of 3 or less. Its texture is
fine sand. It is 3 to 6 inches thick.
The B'tg horizon has hue of 10YR, 5GY, 5Y, or 2.5Y,
value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 6. Its texture is fine
sandy loam, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.

Felda Series
The Felda series consists of soils that formed in
stratified, unconsolidated sandy and loamy marine
sediment. The soils are in depressions, poorly defined
drainageways, and low flat areas, on flood plains, and on
side slopes adjacent to flood plains or depressions. In
most years, if the soils are not drained, the water table is
within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months. The
soils in depressions are ponded for more than 6 months
of the year. The soils on flood plains are frequently
flooded. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. These soils
are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs.
The Felda soils are near Bradenton, Holopaw,
Pomona, and Wabasso soils. Bradenton soils have an
argillic horizon at a depth of less than 20 inches, and
Holopaw soils have an argillic horizon between depths of
40 and 80 inches. Pomona and Wabasso soils have a
spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Felda fine sand, approximately 6.5
miles west of Fort Green Springs and 0.75 mile north of
Florida State Highway 62, SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 17, T. 33
S., R. 23 E.
Ap-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak fine crumb structure; very friable; many fine
and medium roots; mixture of organic matter and
light gray sand grains has a salt-and-pepper
appearance; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth
boundary.
A21-4 to 11 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; single grained; loose; many fine roots; many
clean sand grains; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
A22-11 to 21 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; few
medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
A23-21 to 31 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand;
common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR


5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine and
medium roots; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B21tg-31 to 44 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
fine sandy loam; common fine distinct yellowish
brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots;
clay bridging between sand grains; neutral; clear
wavy boundary.
B22tg-44 to 58 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) fine sandy
loam; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; clay bridging between sand grains;
slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Cg-58 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) loamy sand; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; firm; slightly
acid.

The solum ranges from 30 to 60 inches in thickness.
Reaction in the A horizon ranges from very strongly acid
to neutral and in the B and C horizons from slightly acid
to moderately alkaline.
The Al or Ap horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of
10YR or 2.5Y; value is 2 to 5, and chroma is 2 or less. It
is 3 to 6 inches thick.
The A2 horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR or
2.5Y; value is 4 through 7, and chroma is 2 or less. In
some pedons there are few to common yellow or brown
mottles in this horizon; in other pedons there are no
mottles. The A horizon is fine sand or sand. It ranges
from 20 to 40 inches in thickness.
The B2tg horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR,
5Y, or 2.5Y; value is 4 through 7, and chroma is 2 or
less. It has brown, yellow, or red mottles. Its texture is
sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. The
average content of clay is 13 to 25 percent but ranges to
35 percent; the content of silt is less than 20 percent.
The horizon ranges from 10 to 30 inches in thickness.
The Cg horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR,
5Y, or 5G; value is 4 through 8, and chroma is 2 or less.
There are red, yellow, brown, and gray mottles in some
pedons. The texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy sand. In
some pedons there are few to many shell fragments; in
other pedons there are no shell fragments.

Floridana Series
The Floridana series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils that formed in sandy and loamy
marine sediment. The soils are in depressions. In most
years, if the soils are not drained, they are covered by
water for more than 6 months. Slopes are less than 2
percent. These soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic
Arenic Argiaquolls.
Floridana soils are near Basinger, Pompano, Popash,
and Samsula soils. Basinger soils have an A&Bh horizon
but do not have a mollic epipedon. Pompano soils are
poorly drained and do not have a mollic epipedon or an


60






Hardee County, Florida


argillic horizon. Popash soils have an argillic horizon
between depths of 40 and 80 inches. Samsula soils are
organic.
Typical pedon of Floridana mucky fine sand,
depressional, in a grassy depression, 5 miles south of
Crewsville and 1.5 miles west of the Hardee County line,
SW1/4SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 14, T. 36 S., R. 27 E.
A11-0 to 4 inches; black (N 2/0) mucky fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine and
few medium roots; sand grains coated with organic
material; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
A12-4 to 15 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sand; many fine and few coarse gray (10YR 5/1)
pockets of uncoated sand; weak fine granular
structure; very friable; many fine and few medium
roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A2-15 to 32 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
common coarse distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
mottles; single grained; loose; common medium
roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B2tg-32 to 44 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
loam; common coarse faint light brownish gray
(10YR 6/2) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; slightly plastic; common fine and
medium roots; sand grains coated and bridged with
clay; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
B31g-44 to 65 inches; gray (2.5Y 6/1) sandy loam;
common medium faint light brownish gray (10YR
6/2) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; common medium lenses and pockets of
light gray (10YR 7/1) loamy fine sand and fine sand;
many uncoated sand grains; mildly alkaline; gradual
wavy boundary.
B32g-65 to 80 inches; light gray (N 7/0) sandy loam;
common fine and medium white (N 8/0) mottles;
massive; friable; common medium and coarse
lenses and pockets of fine sand and loamy fine
sand; mildly alkaline.
Floridana soils range from medium acid to mildly
alkaline in all horizons.
The Al horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR or
2.5Y; the value is 3 or less, and chroma is 2 or less. The
Al horizon is 10 to 16 inches thick. Texture is mucky
fine sand in the Al horizon and sand or fine sand in the
A12 horizon. The A2 horizon has no hue (N) or has hue
of 10YR or 2.5Y; the value is 4 through 7, and chroma is
2 or less. There are few to common mottles in the A2
horizon. The texture is fine sand or sand. The Al and A2
horizons combined range from 20 to 40 inches in
thickness.
The Btg and Bg horizons have no hue (N) or have hue
of 10YR or 2.5Y; the value is 4 through 7, and chroma is
2 or less. In some pedons the horizons have gray,
yellow, or brown mottles. Their texture is sandy loam or
sandy clay loam. In some pedons there are pockets of
sand, fine sand, or loamy fine sand. The content of clay


ranges from 14 to 30 percent but generally is 16 to 23
percent.

Ft. Green Series
The Ft. Green series consists of gently sloping, poorly
drained soils that formed in stratified, unconsolidated
sandy and loamy marine sediment. The soils are on side
slopes adjacent to flood plains or depressions. In most
years, if the soils are not drained, the water table is
within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months. Slopes
are from 2 to 5 percent. These soils are loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs.
Ft. Green soils are near Bradenton, Holopaw, Pomona,
and Wabasso soils. Bradenton soils have an argillic
horizon at a depth of less than 20 inches, and Holopaw
soils have an argillic horizon between depths of 40 and
80 inches. Pomona and Wabasso soils are in about the
same position on the landscape as Ft. Green soils and
have a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Ft. Green fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes, in a pasture, approximately 4 miles west of
Wauchula, 0.5 mile east of County Highway 64A,
SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 24, T. 34 S., R. 24 E.

Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak fine crumb structure; very friable; many fine
and medium roots; medium acid; clear smooth
boundary.
A21-6 to 17 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; many fine and medium
roots; many uncoated sand grains; medium acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
A22-17 to 31 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
medium roots; 10 to 15 percent cobbles; strongly
acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B21tg-31 to 42 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) cobbly
sandy clay loam; massive parting to weak medium
granular structure; friable; strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
B22tg-42 to 52 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy
clay loam; massive parting to weak coarse
subangular blocky structure; firm; medium acid;
abrupt wavy boundary.
B23tg-52 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) fine sandy
loam; massive parting to weak coarse subangular
blocky structure; firm; strongly acid.
The A horizon is strongly acid to neutral, and the B
horizon is medium acid to neutral.
The Al or Ap horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of
10YR or 2.5Y; the value is 2 to 5, and chroma is 2 or
less. It is 3 to 7 inches thick.
The A2 horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR or
2.5Y; the value is 4 to 7, and chroma is 2 or less. In
some pedons there are few to common yellow or brown


61






Soil survey


mottles; in other pedons there are no mottles. In the
lower part the horizon is fine sand, sand, or cobbly fine
sand. The A horizon ranges from 20 to 40 inches in
thickness.
The B2tg horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR,
5Y, or 2.5Y; the value is 4 to 7, and chroma is 2 or less.
In some pedons it has brown, yellow, or gray mottles. Its
texture in the upper part is cobbly fine sandy loam or
cobbly sandy clay loam and in the lower part is fine
sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The horizon extends to
a depth of more than 80 inches.

Holopaw Series
The Holopaw series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils that formed in stratified, unconsolidated
marine sand and sandy clay loam. The soils are on
broad, low-lying flats and in poorly defined drainageways.
In most years, if the soils are not drained, the water
table rises to within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6
months. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. These soils
are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Grossarenic
Ochraqualfs.
Holopaw soils are near Bradenton, Felda, and Pomona
soils. Bradenton soils have a sandy loam Btg horizon
within 20 inches of the surface. Felda soils have a sandy
A horizon 20 to 40 inches thick. Pomona soils have a
spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Holopaw fine sand, in a wooded
area, approximately 300 feet west of Polk Road NW and
approximately 0.5 mile south of the intersection of Old
Bradenton Road NW and Polk Road NW,
NE1/4SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 30, T. 33 S., R. 25 E.
A1-0 to 3 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
fine crumb structure; friable; many fine roots; slightly
acid; clear smooth boundary.
A21-3 to 8 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common fine roots; slightly
acid; clear smooth boundary.
A22-8 to 24 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid;
clear smooth boundary.
A23g-24 to 63 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; neutral; clear smooth
boundary.
B2tg-63 to 70 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy loam; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; firm clay
bridging between sand grains; moderately alkaline;
gradual wavy boundary.
B3g-70 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy loam;
massive; firm; moderately alkaline.
The solum ranges from 50 to 80 inches in thickness.
Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline
throughout.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value
of 2 to 4, and chroma of 2 or less. The A2 horizon has


hue of 10YR or 2.5Y; value is 4 to 7; and within a depth
of 30 inches chroma is 3 or less, but below a depth of
30 inches it is 2 or less. There are mottles in shades of
yellow and brown in some pedons. The A horizon ranges
from 40 to 72 inches in thickness.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value
of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. There are mottles in
shades of brown or yellow in some pedons. Texture is
sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The horizon commonly
has pockets and lenses of sand.
The B3g horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value
of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. It has mottles in
shades of brown or yellow. Its texture is sandy loam or
loamy sand. In many pedons the horizon has pockets of
sandy clay loam and lenses of sand.
The C horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR or
2.5Y; the value is 5 to 7, and chroma is 2 or less. Its
texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy fine sand. There is
no C horizon in some pedons.

Hontoon Series
The Hontoon series consists of very poorly drained,
nearly level organic soils in swampy areas that range
from 3 to 40 acres in size. The water table is at or above
the surface except during extended dry periods. Slopes
are dominantly less than 1 percent but range to 2
percent. These soils are dysic, hyperthermic Typic
Medisaprists.
Hontoon soils are near Placid, Myakka, and Samsula
soils. Placid and Myakka soils are on higher lying convex
ridges and are mineral soils. Samsula soils are at the
outer edge of the swamp and, unlike Hontoon soils, have
an organic layer less than 51 inches thick.
Typical pedon of Hontoon muck, in a wooded area,
approximately 0.75 mile south of junction of County
Highways 663A and 663, 300 feet east of County
Highway 663, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 28, T. 35 S., R. 24 E.
Oal-0 to 36 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck, unrubbed
and rubbed; about 5 percent fiber; weak fine
granular structure; friable; many fine roots; very dark
grayish brown (10YR 3/2) sodium pyrophosphate
extract; extremely acid in 0.01M calcium chloride;
clear wavy boundary.
Oa2-36 to 50 inches; black (N 2/0) muck, unrubbed
and rubbed; weak fine granular structure; friable; few
fine roots; dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) sodium
pyrophosphate extract; extremely acid in 0.01M
calcium chloride; clear wavy boundary.
Oa3-50 to 56 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
muck, unrubbed and rubbed; about 5 percent fiber;
massive; friable; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
extract; extremely acid in 0.01M calcium chloride;
clear wavy boundary.
Oa4-56 to 60 inches; black (N 2/0) muck; massive;
friable; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) extract;


62






Hardee County, Florida


extremely acid in 0.01M calcium chloride; abrupt
wavy boundary.
IIC1lg-60 to 70 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loamy fine
sand; massive; friable; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
IIC2g-70 to 80 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy
loam; massive, friable; very strongly acid.
Reaction is less than pH 4.5 in 0.01M calcium
chloride. The IICg horizon is extremely acid or very
strongly acid by the Hellige-Truog method. The O
horizon is muck or mucky peat. The organic material is
51 inches thick or more.
The Oa horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR or
5YR; the value is 0 to 3, and chroma is 0 to 3. The
content of fiber when the material is unrubbed is less
than 30 percent, and when the material is rubbed the
content is less than 15 percent. Sodium pyrophosphate
extract of the Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
4, and chroma of 4 or less.
The IICg horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR
or 2.5Y; the value is 2 to 5, and chroma is 2 or less. Its
texture is fine sand, sand, loamy fine sand, fine sandy
loam, or sandy clay loam.

Immokalee Series
The Immokalee series consists of poorly drained,
nearly level soils that formed in thick beds of marine
sand deposits. The soils are on broad low ridges and low
knolls in the flatwoods. In most years, if the soils are not
drained, the water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches
for more than 8 months; it is at a depth of less than 10
inches for 2 months and at a depth of more than 40
inches during dry periods. Slopes range from 0 to 2
percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic
Arenic Haplaquods.
Immokalee soils are near Adamsville, Jonathan,
Myakka, and Pomello soils. Adamsville soils are in about
the same position on the landscape as Immokalee soils
but are better drained and do not have a Bh horizon.
Jonathan and Pomello soils are in higher positions on
the landscape and are better drained than Immokalee
soils. Jonathan soils have a Bh horizon at a depth of
more than 50 inches. Myakka soils are in similar
positions on the landscape but have a Bh horizon at a
depth of less than 30 inches.
Typical pedon of Immokalee fine sand, in a pasture, 4
miles northeast of Wauchula, 600 feet east of County
Highway 636, NW1/4NW1/4NW1/4 sec. 24, T. 33 S., R.
25 E.
A1-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
mixture of organic matter and light gray sand grains
has a salt-and-pepper appearance when dry; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and
medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.


A21-5 to 11 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; very
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
A22-11 to 44 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine vertical streaks of
gray and very dark gray; few medium roots; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
B21h-44 to 48 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
fine granular structure; sand grains coated with
organic matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
B22h-48 to 60 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/1)
fine sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
medium dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) weakly
cemented fragments; sand grains coated with
organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B3-60 to 80 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid.
The solum ranges from 60 to 80 inches in thickness.
Reaction ranges from medium acid to very strongly acid
in all horizons. Texture is sand or fine sand throughout.
The Al or Ap horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of
10YR; the value is 2 or 3, and chroma is 2 or less. It is 3
to 8 inches thick.
The A2 horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR or
2.5Y; the value is 5 to 8, and chroma is 2 or less. In
some pedons it has a few gray, yellow, brown, and red
mottles. Commonly, there is a transitional horizon 1/2 to
2 inches thick between the A and B horizons. The A2
horizon ranges from 30 to 44 inches in thickness.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 3 or less. It ranges from
12 to 28 inches in thickness.
In some pedons there is a second sequum of A'2 and
B'2 horizons. The A'2 horizon has the same color range
as the A2 horizon, and the B'2 horizon has the same
color range as the Bh horizon.
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 3 or 4. In some pedons
there is a B3&Bh horizon that has matrix colors similar to
the colors of the B3 horizon. It has medium and coarse
weakly cemented fragments that are dark reddish brown
and black. The B3 or B3&h horizon ranges from 10 to 30
inches in thickness.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
chroma of 2 to 4. It has few to common brown, yellow,
or gray mottles throughout. It ranges from 0 to 15 inches
in thickness. There is no C horizon in some pedons.

Jonathan Series
The Jonathan series consists of moderately well
drained to somewhat excessively drained, nearly level
soils that formed in thick deposits of marine sand. The
soils are on low ridges in the flatwoods. In most years, if


63






Soil survey


the soils are not drained, the water table may rise for
brief periods to a depth of 36 inches but is usually at a
depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 to 4 months during the
wet season; it is below a depth of 60 inches for the rest
of the year. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. These
soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic, ortstein Typic
Haplohumods.
Jonathan soils are near Cassia, Myakka, and Pomello
soils. Cassia and Myakka soils have a Bh horizon at a
depth of less than 30 inches. Cassia soils are somewhat
poorly drained, and Myakka soils are poorly drained.
Pomello soils have a Bh horizon between depths of 30
and 50 inches.
Typical pedon of Jonathan sand, in an area of sand
scrub, approximately 6.5 miles west of Ona, north on
Owen Roberts Road, SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 17, T. 34 S., R.
23 E.

A1-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand,
rubbed; salt-and-pepper appearance, unrubbed;
weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine and
medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A21-6 to 21 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
A22-21 to 45 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
A23-45 to 64 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B21h-64 to 69 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/1)
loamy fine sand; massive; very firm; weakly
cemented; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
B22h-69 to 80 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine
sand; massive; very firm; weakly cemented;
extremely acid.

Jonathan soils range from very strongly acid to
medium acid in the A horizon and from extremely acid to
very strongly acid in the Bh horizon. They are sand or
fine sand in the A horizon and are sand, fine sand,
loamy fine sand, or loamy sand in the Bh horizon.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. When unrubbed it has a salt-and-
pepper appearance. It is 2 to 6 inches thick. The A2
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of
1 or 2. The A horizon ranges from 51 to 75 inches in
thickness.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 2 or 3; and chroma of 1 to 3. It is 20 to 26
inches thick. The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR,
value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 3 or 4. There is no B3
horizon in some pedons. The B3&Bh horizon has the
same matrix colors that the B3 horizon has and has
darker colored, firm Bh fragments. There is no B3&Bh
horizon in some pedons.


Kaliga Series
The Kaliga series consists of nearly level, very poorly
drained soils that formed in well decomposed organic
matter and in the underlying sandy and loamy marine
sediment. The soils are in low depressions. In most
years, if the soils are not drained, the water table is at or
near the surface for 6 to 12 months and usually is above
the surface for very long periods. Slopes are less than 2
percent. These soils are loamy, siliceous, dysic,
hyperthermic Terric Medisaprists.
Kaliga soils are near Bradenton, Felda, Holopaw, and
Pomona soils, which are mineral soils and which are in
higher positions on the landscape.
Typical pedon of Kaliga muck, in a pasture, 1.25 miles
north of State Highway 64 and approximately 0.5 mile
west of Smith Ranch; SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 14, T. 33 S., R.
27 E.

Oa-0 to 25 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck, unrubbed
and rubbed; about 10 percent fiber, 5 percent when
rubbed; moderate medium crumb structure; very
friable; many fine roots; sodium pyrophosphate
brown (10YR 5/3); extremely acid, pH 3.4 in 0.01M
calcium chloride; clear smooth boundary.
IIC1-25 to 35 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sandy loam; weak fine granular structure; friable;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
IIC2-35 to 60 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; very firm; few fine roots; neutral; clear
wavy boundary.
IIC3-60 to 80 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sandy loam; massive; firm; neutral.

The Oa horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 7.5YR or
10YR; the value is 2 or 3, and chroma is 3 or less. The
content of unrubbed fiber is 10 to 30 percent, and that of
rubbed fiber is less than 5 percent. Reaction is extremely
acid or very strongly acid by the Hellige-Truog field test
or is less than pH 4.5 in 0.01M solution of calcium
chloride. The organic material ranges from 16 to 50
inches in thickness but on the average is 25 to 30
inches thick.
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
chroma of 1. The IIC1 horizon is fine sand, loamy fine
sand, or fine sandy loam; the IIC2 horizon is sandy loam
or sandy clay loam; and the IIC3 horizon is fine sandy
loam or sandy clay loam. The IIC1 horizon is 8 to 12
inches thick. Reaction in the IIC horizon is neutral to
strongly acid.

Manatee Series
The Manatee series consists of very poorly drained,
moderately permeable soils that formed in sandy and
loamy marine sediment. The soils are in depressions. In


64






Hardee County, Florida


most years, if the soils are not drained, they are covered
by shallow water for more than 6 months. Slopes are
dominantly less than 1 percent but range to 2 percent.
These soils are coarse-loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic
Typic Argiaquolls.
Manatee soils are near Bradenton, Felda, Floridana,
Holopaw, and Kaliga soils. Bradenton soils do not have a
mollic epipedon. Felda soils do not have a mollic
epipedon but have an argillic horizon within a depth of
20 to 40 inches. Floridana soils have an argillic horizon
between depths of 20 and 40 inches. Holopaw soils
have a sandy epipedon more than 40 inches thick.
Kaliga soils are organic soils.
Typical profile of Manatee mucky fine sand,
depressional, in an area of cypress trees, 1.125 miles.
east of Parnell Road and 4.5 miles north of State
Highway 64, SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 16, T. 34 S., R. 27 E.

A11-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand;
moderate fine and medium granular structure;
friable; many fine and medium roots; 10 to 15
percent organic matter; medium acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A12-4 to 9 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
moderate fine granular structure; very friable; many
fine and medium roots; medium acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A13-9 to 14 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) loamy fine sand, unrubbed; very dark gray
(10YR 3/1), rubbed; moderate fine granular
structure; friable; many fine and medium roots;
slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B21t-14 to 30 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy
loam; few small pockets of fine sand; weak medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine and
medium roots; moderately alkaline; clear wavy
boundary.
B22tg-30 to 44 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
sandy loam; pockets of fine sand; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine
and medium roots; moderately alkaline; gradual
wavy boundary.
Clg-44 to 64 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
sandy loam; massive; slightly sticky; slightly plastic;
moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
C2g-64 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 6/1) sandy clay
loam; massive; sticky; moderately alkaline.
Manatee soils range from medium acid to mildly
alkaline in the A horizon and from neutral to moderately
alkaline in the B and C horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 12 to 20 inches thick.
The B21t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Its texture is fine sandy loam,
sandy loam, or loamy sand.


The B22tg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 4
to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Its texture is fine sandy loam,
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
The C horizon has hue of 2.5 or 5Y, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 0. Its texture is sandy clay loam or
sandy loam.

Myakka Series
The Myakka series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained, deep sandy soils in broad areas of flatwoods.
Slopes are less than 2 percent. In most years, if the soils
are not drained, the water table is at a depth of less than
10 inches for 1 to 4 months and recedes to a depth of
more than 40 inches during very dry seasons. These
soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Aeric
Haplaquods.
Myakka soils are near Adamsville, Basinger, Pomona,
Pompano, and Wauchula soils. Adamsville soils are on
slightly higher ridges on the landscape. Unlike Myakka
soils, they are somewhat poorly drained and do not have
a Bh horizon. Basinger and Pompano soils are in about
the same position on the landscape as Myakka soils but
do not have a spodic horizon. Pomona and Wauchula
soils have an argillic horizon below a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Myakka fine sand, in a pasture, on
the Ona Range Cattle Experiment Station, pasture no.
74, 1,400 feet north of drainage canal and 100 feet west
of Highway 663, NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 33, T. 35 N., R. 24
E.
A1-0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
fine sand, crushed; salt-and-pepper appearance,
uncrushed; weak fine crumb structure; very friable;
matted with many fine and medium roots; extremely
acid; clear smooth boundary.
A2-6 to 21 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
common fine vertical dark gray streaks along root
channels; single grained; loose; common fine and
medium roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B21h-21 to 25 inches; very dark gray (5YR 3/1) fine
sand; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; many fine and medium roots; sand grains
coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
B22h-25 to 30 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4)
fine sand; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; many fine and medium roots; sand
grains coated with organic matter; very strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
B3&Bh-30 to 40 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine
roots; few medium distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/2)
bodies; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B3-40 to 46 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few small pieces of ironstone;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.


65






66


C1-46 to 54 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common medium distinct red
(2.5YR 4/6) bodies; a few small pieces of ironstone;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C2-54 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid.
Myakka soils range from extremely acid to slightly acid
throughout. They are fine sand or sand except in the Al
horizon, where they are fine sand.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Uncrushed, the material is a mixture of
white sand grains and black organic material that has a
salt-and-pepper appearance. The Al horizon is 4 to 8
inches thick. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of
5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons it has
gray, brown, and yellow mottles. The A horizon ranges
from 20 to 30 inches in thickness.
The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 4 or less; or it has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR,
chroma of 3 or less, and value of 2 or less. The B3&Bh
horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of
4 or less; or it has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 3 to
7, and chroma of 2 through 4. The B3 horizon has hue
of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2
through 4.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7,
and chroma of 1 through 4.

Ona Series
The Ona series consists of nearly level, poorly drained
soils that formed in sandy marine sediment in broad
areas of flatwoods. Unless artificially drained the soils
are saturated in the normal wet seasons. Slopes
generally are less than 2 percent. In most years, if the
soils are not drained, the water table is at a depth of 10
to 40 inches for periods of 4 to 6 months; it rises to a
depth of less than 10 inches for periods of 1 to 2
months and may recede to a depth of more than 40
inches in very dry seasons. These soils are sandy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Haplaquods.
Ona soils are near Immokalee, Myakka, Pomello, and
Pompano soils. Unlike Ona soils, Immokalee, Myakka,
and Pomello soils typically have a leached horizon.
Pompano soils do not have a Bh horizon.
Typical pedon of Ona fine sand, in a pasture, on the
Ona Range Cattle Experimental Station, 4.75 miles south
of Ona on State Highway 663, 400 feet west on Goose
Pond Road, NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 28, T. 35 S., R. 24 E.
Ap-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
moderate fine crumb structure; friable; many fine
roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A12-4 to 9 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand,
crushed; weak fine granular structure; friable;
common fine roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth
boundary.


Bh-9 to 16 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) loamy
fine sand; weak coarse blocky structure; friable;
common fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C1-16 to 24 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
grained; loose; common fine roots; medium acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
C2-24 to 42 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common fine roots; slightly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
C3-42 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
common medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR
6/6) mottles; single grained; loose; slightly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
C4-60 to 80 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; medium acid.
Ona soils range from slightly acid to extremely acid
throughout. They are sand or fine sand in the A and C
horizons and sand, fine sand, or loamy fine sand in the
Bh horizon.
The Al or Ap horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of
10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2 or less. It is 4 to
8 inches thick. In some pedons an A2 horizon about 2
inches thick separates the Ap or Al and the Bh
horizons.
The Bh horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR,
7.5YR, or 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 3 or less.
It ranges from 6 to 20 inches in thickness. The B3
horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 2 or 3. It ranges from 10 to 38 inches in
thickness.
The B'h horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 3 or less. It ranges from
12 to 33 inches in thickness. There is no B'h horizon in
some pedons.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR through 2.5Y, value of
5 through 8, and chroma of 2 through 4. In some pedons
it has few to common mottles of brown, yellow, or gray.

Placid Series
The Placid series consists of deep, very poorly drained
acid soils that formed in thick beds of marine deposits.
The soils are in wet depressions in the flatwoods. In
most years the water table is at a depth of less than 10
inches for more than 6 months, and most depressions
are covered by water for 6 months or more. Slopes are
less than 2 percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Humaquepts.
Placid soils are near Basinger, Myakka, Pompano, and
Samsula soils. Basinger and Pompano soils are in about
the same position on the landscape as Placid soils but
are poorly drained and do not have a thick, dark colored
A horizon. Myakka soils are on low ridges and in higher
positions on the landscape and have a spodic horizon.


Soil survey







Hardee County, Florida


Samsula soils are at lower elevations on the landscape
and are organic soils.
Typical pedon of Placid fine sand, depressional, in an
area of pasture, 3.8 miles south of Sweetwater on Fish
Branch Road, 200 feet east of road, NE1/4SE1/4 sec.
9, T. 36 S., R. 26 E.

A11-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
moderate medium crumb structure; friable; many fine
and medium roots; about 10 percent organic matter
very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
A12-6 to 18 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sand; weak fine crumb structure; very friable; many
fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
C1-18 to 52 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; few fine distinct dark brown (10YR 4/3)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C2-52 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid.

Placid soils are fine sand, sand, loamy fine sand, or
loamy sand throughout. They are extremely acid through
strongly acid in all horizons.
The A horizon is 10 to 20 inches thick in more than
half of the pedons, but the range is 10 to 24 inches. The
horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR, value of 2
or 3, and chroma of 2 or less.
The C horizon has no hue-(N) or has hue of 10YR or
2.5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. In some
pedons it has a few fine mottles in shades of yellow, red,
and brown. In some pedons it has a few discontinuous
vertical black streaks.

Pomello Series
The Pomello series consists of nearly level,
moderately well drained sandy soils that formed in thick
deposits of marine sand. The soils are on low ridges in
the flatwoods. In most years, if the soils are not drained,
the water table is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1 to 4
months and is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 8
months. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. These soils
are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Haplohumods.
Pomello soils are near Cassia, Jonathan, and Myakka
soils. Cassia and Myakka soils have a Bh horizon within
a depth of 30 inches. In addition, Cassia soils are
somewhat poorly drained, and Myakka soils are poorly
drained. Jonathan soils have a Bh horizon at a depth of
more than 50 inches.
Typical pedon of Pomello fine sand (fig. 8), in a
pasture, approximately 1,500 feet west of County
Highway 664B and 300 feet north of Reynolds Road,
NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 23, T. 33 S., R. 25 E.


Figure 8.-Pomelo fine sand has a dark colored subsoil at a
depth of about 48 inches. Depth is shown in meters and feet

Ap-0 to 5 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; common fine roots;
very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
A21-5 to 15 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; common fine roots; strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
A22-15 to 46 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common fine roots; medium
acid; clear wavy boundary.
B2h-46 to 58 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
masses of dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2); weak
coarse subangular blocky structure; very friable;
sand grains coated with organic matter; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A'2-58 to 66 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
B'h-66 to 80 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand;
massive parting to weak fine granular structure; very


67






Soil survey


friable; sand grains coated with organic matter;
extremely acid.
Pomello soils range from very strongly acid to medium
acid. They are sand or fine sand throughout.
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
chroma of 1 or 2. When unrubbed it has a salt-and-
pepper appearance. The horizon is 2 to 6 inches thick.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 30 to 48 inches thick.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 through 3. It ranges
from 10 to 20 inches in thickness.
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4
or 5, and chroma of 2 or 4. There is no B3 horizon in
some pedons.
The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through
7, and chroma of 2 or less. It is 6 to 12 inches thick.
The B'h horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 through 3. It is 10 to 20
inches thick.

Pomona Series
The Pomona series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained sandy soils that formed in sandy and loamy
marine deposits. The soils are in broad areas of
flatwoods. In most years, if the soils are not drained, the
water table is at a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3 months
and at a depth of less than 40 inches for more than 6
months. Slopes are less than 2 percent These soils are
sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Ultic Haplaquods.
Pomona soils are near Basinger, Floridana, Myakka,
Popash, and Wauchula soils. Floridana and Popash soils
have a mollic epipedon and generally are in depressions
in the flatwoods. Basinger soils do not have a spodic
horizon or an argillic horizon. Wauchula soils have an
argillic horizon within 40 inches of the surface.
Typical pedon of Pomona fine sand (fig. 9), in a
pasture, on the Range Cattle Experiment Station, 1.5
miles west of State Highway 663 on Goose Pond Road,
and 1,000 feet south on Experiment Station Road,
NW1/4NW1/4 sec. 29, T. 35 S., R. 24 E.
A1-0 to 3 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
fine granular structure; loose; few coarse and many
fine and medium roots; extremely acid; clear smooth
boundary.
A21-3 to 10 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few coarse and many fine and
medium roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary.
A22-10 to 27 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B2h-27 to 35 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
fine sand; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; few fine roots; sand grains coated with


Figure 9.-Profle of Pomona fie sand The dark colored subsoil
Is at a depth of about 22 Inhes. Depth Is shown in meters
and feet

organic matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
B3-35 to 46 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; weak
coarse subangular blocky structure; loose; few fine
roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A'2-46 to 57 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; many
coarse distinct black (10YR 2/1) bodies; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; 1 percent fine and
coarse rock fragments (iron-magnesium nodules);
very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B'tg-57 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sandy loam;
common coarse distinct olive yellow (5Y 6/6)
mottles and common medium distinct yellowish red
(5YR 4/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; very strongly
acid.

Pomona soils range from extremely acid to strongly
acid in all horizons.


68







Hardee County, Florida


The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1. If undisturbed, it is a mixture of uncoated
sand grains and organic matter. Its texture is fine sand
or sand.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Its texture is fine sand or sand. The A
horizon ranges from 15 to 30 inches in thickness.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 4 or less. Its texture is
fine sand or sand, and in some pedons the sand grains
are weakly cemented by organic matter. The horizon
ranges from 8 to 20 inches in thickness.
The B3 horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 3
or 4, and chroma of 3 or 4. Its texture is fine sand or
sand. The horizon ranges from 10 to 22 inches in
thickness.
The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 to 3. Its texture is fine sand or sand. The
horizon ranges from 8 to 24 inches in thickness.
The B'tg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 or
6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Its texture is sandy loam, fine
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. In some pedons the
horizon has brown, yellow, and gray mottles. It ranges
from 7 to 20 inches in thickness.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Its texture is sand, fine sand, sandy
loam, fine sandy loam, loamy fine sand, loamy sand, or a
combination of two or more textures. There is no C
horizon in some pedons.

Pompano Series
The Pompano series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils on flood plains along small streams and in
poorly defined drainageways throughout the county. The
soils formed in thick deposits of marine sand. In most
years the water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
for cumulative periods of 2 to 6 months. Generally, the
soils are flooded every year and more than once in most
years. Slopes are less than 2 percent. These soils are
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents.
Pompano soils are near Adamsville, Basinger, and
Placid soils. Adamsville soils are somewhat poorly
drained and are on slightly higher ridges on the
landscape. Basinger soils have an A2&Bh horizon. Placid
soils are in depressions and have an umbric epipedon.
Typical pedon of Pompano fine sand, frequently
flooded, in a wooded area, 2.5 miles southwest of
Bowling Green, 0.5 mile west of State Highway 636 in
NW1/4SE1/4NW1/4 sec. 14, T. 33 S., R. 25 E.
A1-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak fine crumb structure; very friable; many fine
roots; mixture of organic matter and light gray sand
grains when dry has a salt-and-pepper appearance;
medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
C1-4 to 45 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; many fine roots; many


uncoated sand grains; slightly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C2-45 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; slightly acid.

Pompano soils range from very strongly acid to neutral
throughout. They are fine sand throughout.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 5 to 8 inches thick. The A12
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of
1 or 2. It ranges from 3 to 13 inches in thickness. There
is no A12 horizon in some pedons.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1 or 2. In most pedons it has light gray and
dark brown mottles.

Popash Series
The Popash series consists of very poorly drained,
nearly level soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine
material. The soils are in depressions. If the soils are not
drained, water stands on the surface for more than 6
months of the year. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
These soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
Umbraqualfs.
Popash soils are near Basinger, Felda, Floridana, and
Pompano soils. Basinger soils have an A2&Bh horizon
and do not have a mollic epipedon. Felda soils are
poorly drained and have an argillic horizon between
depths of 20 and 40 inches. Floridana soils are in about
the same position on the landscape as Popash soils but
do not have an argillic horizon between depths of 20 and
40 inches. Pompano soils are poorly drained and do not
have a mollic epipedon or a B2tg horizon.
Typical pedon of Popash mucky fine sand, in a
pasture, 2 miles west of Wauchula in
SE1/4SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 6, T. 34 S., R. 25 E.

A1 1-0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand;
weak medium granular structure; friable; many fine
roots; few medium faint dark gray sand pockets;
about 10 percent organic matter; medium acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
A12-10 to 21 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine
roots; common medium and few coarse faint dark
gray and gray sand pockets; about 5 percent
organic matter; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
A21g-21 to 32 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine and
medium faint very dark gray and dark gray stains
along old root channels; many fine roots; slightly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A22g-32 to 52 inches; grayish brown (1 YR 5/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium
faint very dark gray and dark gray stains along old


69






Soil survey


roots channels; many fine roots; slightly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Btg-52 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
sandy loam; few fine faint dark grayish brown and
fine distinct light olive brown mottles; weak coarse
subangular blocky structure; slightly plastic; sand
grains are mostly bridged and coated with clay but
some are uncoated; neutral.
Popash soils range from extremely acid to slightly acid
in the surface layer, and from medium acid to neutral in
the other layers.
The Al horizon has hue of 5Y or 10YR, value of 2 or
3, and chroma of 1 or less. It is 10 to 24 inches thick.
The A12 horizon is fine sand or sand.
The A2g horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through
6, and chroma of 2 or less. In some pedons has few to
common brown or yellow mottles. In some pedons there
are thin, very dark gray or black tongues of material from
the Al horizon extending into this horizon. The horizon
ranges from 27 to 55 inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR through 5Y, value of
4 through 6, and chroma of 2 or less. In some pedons it
has brown, yellow, or gray mottles. Its texture is sandy
loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. The horizon
extends to a depth of more than 80 inches.

Samsula Series
The Samusula series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils that formed in well decomposed
organic matter and in the underlying sandy marine
sediment. The soils are in low depressions. In most
years, if the soils are not drained, the water table is at or
near the surface for 6 to 12 months and usually is above
the surface for very long periods. Slopes are less than 2
percent. These soils are sandy or sandy-skeletal,
siliceous, dysic, hyperthermic Terric Medisaprists.
Samsula soils are near Basinger, Felda, Floridana,
Placid, and Pompano soils, all of which are mineral soils
in higher positions on the landscape.
Typical pedon of Samsula muck, in a ponded area,
approximately 0.8 mile west of the intersection of State
Highway 663 and Experiment Station Road and 8,900
feet south of State Highway 663, NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 31,
T. 35 S., R. 24 E.
Oal-0 to 10 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; about 15
percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; few fine
roots; sodium pyrophosphate extract is dark
yellowish brown (10YR 4/4); extremely acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
Oa2-10 to 25 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; about 10
percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; few fine
partly decomposed roots; sodium pyrophospate


extract is dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4);
extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
IIlAb-25 to 33 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
IlCb-33 to 65 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid.

The Oa horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 5YR,
7.5YR, or 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 3 or
less. The content of unrubbed fiber is 10 to 33 percent,
and the content of rubbed fiber is less than 5 percent.
Reaction is extremely acid to very strongly acid by the
Hellige-Truog field test or is less than pH 4.5 in 0.01M
calcium chloride. The organic material ranges from 16 to
40 inches in thickness.
The IIAb horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3,
and chroma of 1.
The IICb horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through
7, and chroma of 1 or 2.
The IIAb and IICb horizons are sand or fine sand.
Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid.

Smyrna Series
The Smyrna series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained, deep sandy soils in broad areas of flatwoods.
Slopes are less than 2 percent. In most years, if the soils
are not drained, the water table is at a depth of less than
10 inches for 1 to 4 months and is between depths of 10
and 40 inches for more than 6 months. These soils are
sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Aeric Haplaquods.
Smyrna soils are near Basinger, Immokalee, and
Myakka soils. Basinger soils have an A&Bh horizon
between depths of 20 and 40 inches. Immokalee soils
have a Bh horizon at a depth of more than 30 inches.
Myakka soils have a Bh horizon between depths of 20
and 30 inches.
Typical pedon of Smyrna sand, in a pasture,
approximately 6.5 miles west of Fort Green Springs and
1 mile north of State Highway 62, NW1/4NW1/4 sec.
17, T. 33 S., R. 23 E.

A1-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand,
rubbed; weak coarse crumb structure; very friable;
many fine and medium roots; extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
A2-5 to 16 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single
grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; very
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B21h-16 to 20 inches; black (5YR 2/1) sand; weak
coarse subangular blocky structure; few medium
decaying roots; sand grains coated with organic
matter; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
B22h-20 to 24 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4)
sand; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; few


70







Hardee County, Florida


medium decaying roots; many uncoated sand grains;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B3&Bh-24 to 29 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) sand;
common coarse distinct weakly cemented dark
reddish brown (5YR 3/2) natural Bh fragments;
massive in place, parting to moderate medium
granular structure; few medium decaying roots;
many uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
A'2-29 to 48 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; few
fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
B'21h-48 to 68 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/2) sand;
dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) bodies; weak coarse
subangular blocky structure; friable; very strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
B'22h-68 to 80 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/2) sand;
weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable;
very strongly acid.

Smyrna soils are extremely acid to strongly acid
throughout. They are sand or fine sand throughout.
The Ap or Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
4, and chroma of 1 or 0. It is 4 to 6 inches thick. The A2
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of
1 or 2. It is 7 to 11 inches thick.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 4. It is 8 to 15 inches
thick.
The B3&Bh horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value
of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 or 4. It is 4 to 12 inches thick.
The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 2 or 3. It is 5 to 11 inches thick.
The B'h horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 2 or 3. It ranges from 10
to 20 inches in thickness.

Sparr Series
The Sparr series consists of nearly level, somewhat
poorly drained soils that formed in sandy and loamy
marine sediment. The water table is at a depth of 20 to
40 inches for periods of 1 to 4 months. It is usually
perched on the Bt horizon. Slopes are smooth to
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. These soils are
loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Grossarenic Paleudults.
Sparr soils are near Apopka, Candler, and Tavares
soils. Between depths of 40 and 80 inches, Apopka soils
have redder loamy material than Sparr soils. Candler
soils are excessively drained and do not have an argillic
horizon. Tavares soils are moderately well drained and
do not have an argillic horizon.
Typical pedon of Sparr fine sand, 3 miles west of
Bowling Green and 100 feet north of County Highway
664, NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 12, T. 33 S., R. 24 E.


Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
sand; weak fine crumb structure; very friable;
common fine and medium roots; neutral; abrupt
smooth boundary.
A21-6 to 16 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
medium roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A22-16 to 29 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A23-29 to 43 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
sand; common medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR
5/8) and white (10YR 8/1) mottles; single grained;
loose; common fine and medium roots; very strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
A24-43 to 53 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; many medium distinct white (10YR 8/1) and
strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; single grained;
loose; few medium roots; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
A3-53 to 60 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; common medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles;
single grained; loose; very friable; about 3 percent
plinthite; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B21tg-60 to 67 inches; light gray (N 7/0) fine sandy
loam; many medium distinct light olive brown (2.5Y
5/6) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; clay
bridging between sand grains; about 3 percent
plinthite; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B22tg-67 to 80 inches; light gray (N 7/0) sandy clay
loam; many medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR
6/6) mottles; moderate coarse subangular blocky
structure; clay bridging between sand grains; about
4 percent plinthite; very strongly acid.

Unless limed, Sparr soils are strongly acid or very
strongly acid in the A horizon and are strongly acid to
extremely acid in the B horizon.
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 1 to 4. It is 5 to 8 inches thick.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 through 4.
The A3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
chroma of 4 to 8 or value of 6, and chroma of 4 and has
mottles in shades of brown, yellow, gray, and red. There
is no A3 horizon in some pedons. The A horizon ranges
from 42 to 68 inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR,
value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. It has yellow,
brown, and red mottles. It is sandy loam or sandy clay
loam. It ranges from 4 to 24 inches in thickness.


71







Soil survey


St Lucle Series
The St Lucie series consists of nearly level,
excessively drained acid soils that formed in thick beds
of sandy marine or eolian deposits. The soils are on
ridgetops, knolls, and dunes throughout the county. The
water table is at a depth of 72 to 120 inches. Slopes are
0 to 2 percent. These soils are hyperthermic, uncoated
Typic Quartzipsamments.
St. Lucie soils are near Candler, Pomello, and Tavares
soils. Candler soils are in about the same position on the
landscape but have lamellae. Tavares soils are
moderately well drained and are at lower elevations on
the landscape. In addition, they have mottles (evidence
of wetness) at a depth of 40 inches or more. Pomello
soils are moderately well drained, are at lower elevations
on the landscape, and have a spodic horizon between
depths of 30 and 50 inches.
Typical pedon of St Lucie fine sand, in a citrus grove,
approximately 2.5 miles south of Wauchula on County
Highway 35A, 0.25 mile west on Alec Hendry Road, and
100 feet north of road, SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 16, T. 34 S.,
R. 25 E.
Ap-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand,
rubbed; single grained; loose; few large roots; many
large and medium pores; strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary.
C1-4 to 17 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few large roots; common medium
distinct black (10YR 2/1) pieces of charcoal; many
large and medium pores; sand grains are uncoated;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C2-17 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few large roots; many large and
medium pores; sand grains are uncoated; strongly
acid.
St. Lucie soils are fine sand or sand throughout. They
are extremely acid to medium acid within a depth of 80
inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 8, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 2 to 4 inches thick.
The C horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR,
value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 2 or less.

Tavares Series
The Tavares series consists of nearly level to gently
sloping, moderately well drained soils that formed in
thick beds of sandy marine or eolian sediment The soils
are on knolls and ridges throughout the county. In most
years, if the soils are not drained, the water table is at a
depth of 40 to 80 inches for 6 to 10 months and below a
depth of 80 inches during very dry periods. These soils
are hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments.
Tavares soils are near Adamsville, Candler, Myakka,
and St. Lucie soils. Adamsville soils are on low broad


flats and are somewhat poorly drained. Candler soils are
well drained and have lamellae between depths of 40
and 80 inches. Myakka soils are poorly drained; they
have a leached A2 horizon and a Bh horizon. St. Lucie
soils are excessively drained; they are white sand
throughout.
Typical pedon of Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes (fig. 10), approximately 0.5 mile east of U.S.
Highway 17 and 0.5 mile north of Wauchula Hills,
SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 28, T. 33 S., R. 25 E.
Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; friable;
common uncoated light gray sand grains; few fine


Figure 10.-Profile of Tavares fine snd, 0 to 5 percent slopes
Depth is shown In meter and feet.


72







Hardee County, Florida


and medium roots; slightly acid; abrupt smooth
boundary.
C1-5 to 24 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
common very fine carbon particles; many uncoated
sand grains; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
C2-24 to 50 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
sand; common medium distinct reddish yellow
(7.5YR 6/8) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine
roots; many uncoated sand grains; medium acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
C3-50 to 69 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand;
common medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
mottles; single grained; slightly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C4-69 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/4) fine
sand; few medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR
6/6) mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid.
Tavares soils are very strongly acid to slightly acid
throughout. They are less than 5 percent silt plus clay
within the 10- to 40-inch control section.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
chroma of 2 or less. It is 4 to 8 inches thick.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1 to 4. In most places the upper part of the C
horizon has chroma of 3 to 6, and the lower part has
chroma of 1 to 4. The lower part of the C horizon
generally has brown, gray, yellow, or red mottles.

Wabasso Series
The Wabasso series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained sandy soils that formed in sandy and loamy
marine sediment. The soils are in low, broad areas of
flatwoods. In most years, if the soils are not drained, the
water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more
than 6 months; it is at a depth of less than 10 inches for
less than 60 days in wet seasons and is at a depth of
more than 40 inches in very dry seasons. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Alfic Haplaquods.
Wabasso soils are near Basinger, Felda, Pomona,
Popash, and Floridana soils. Basinger soils are in poorly
defined drainageways and in sloughs and do not have a
spodic horizon or an argillic horizon. Floridana and
Popash soils have a dark colored surface, do not have a
spodic horizon, and are in depressions. Felda soils do
not have a spodic horizon. Pomona soils have an argillic
horizon between depths of 40 and 80 inches. Pomona
and Felda soils are in the same position on the
landscape as Wabasso soils.
Typical pedon of Wabasso fine sand, in an improved
pasture, 0.8 mile north of junction of County Highway
35A and U.S. Highway 17, 1.2 miles northeast on
Maxwell road, 0.5 mile northeast of Maxwell road,
NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 22, T. 33 S., R. 25 E.


Ap-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; mixture
of organic matter and light gray sand grains has a
salt-and-pepper appearance; weak fine granular
structure; very friable; many fine and medium roots;
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A21-4 to 18 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
common uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
A22-18 to 24 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; single grained; loose; medium vertical
dark gray and very dark gray streaks in the matrix
and along root channels; few medium roots; very
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Bh-24 to 32 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) fine sand; massive parting to moderate fine
granular structure; firm; sand grains are coated with
organic matter; few fine roots; very strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
B'21t-32 to 52 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
sandy loam; few fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR
5/8) and few fine faint gray (N 5/0) mottles; weak
fine subangular blocky structure; friable; sand grains
are bridged and coated with clay; slightly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B'22tg-52 to 64 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy loam; few
coarse distinct reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) mottles;
weak fine subangular blocky structure; firm; sand
grains distinctly coated and bridged with clay; few
thin patchy clay films on faces of peds and in root
channels; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B'23tg-64 to 70 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) sandy
loam; few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; sand
grains coated and weakly bridged with clay; few
lenses of fine sand; slightly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Cg-70 to 80 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) loamy sand;
few fine distinct brownish yellow and strong brown
mottles; massive; friable; neutral.
Wabasso soils are neutral to very strongly acid in the
A and Bh horizons and are medium acid to mildly
alkaline below the Bh horizon.
The Ap or Al horizon has a salt-and-pepper
appearance if undisturbed. It is 3 to 6 inches thick. The
A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The A horizon ranges from 16 to 30
inches in thickness.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 3 or less. It ranges from 7
to 18 inches in thickness.
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. Its texture is fine sand
or sand. The horizon ranges from 0 to 6 inches in
thickness. There is no B3 horizon in some pedons. The


73







Soil survey


B3&Bh horizon has matrix colors that are similar to the
colors of the B3 horizon. It has black or dark reddish
brown weakly cemented Bh fragments. There is no
B3&Bh horizon in some pedons.
The A'2 horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR or
2.5Y, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 3 or less. Its texture
is fine sand or sand. The horizon ranges from 0 to 14
inches in thickness. There is no A'2 horizon in some
pedons.
The B'2t horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value
of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 8. It has gray, brown,
yellow, and red mottles. Its texture is fine sandy loam,
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. In some pedons the
horizon has few to common, fine and medium nodules of
white (10YR 8/1) carbonatic material. The horizon is at a
depth within 26 to 40 inches of the surface. It ranges
from 15 to 40 inches in thickness.
The Cg horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR or
5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. In some
pedons it consists of fragments of shells or of a mixture
of sand or loamy sand and fragments of shells.

Wauchula Series
The Wauchula series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained sandy soils that formed in sandy and loamy
marine sediment. The soils are in broad, low areas in the
flatwoods. In most years, if the soils are not drained, the
water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more
than 6 months; it is at a depth of less than 10 inches for
2 months in wet seasons and is at a depth of more than
40 inches in very dry seasons. These soils are sandy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Ultic Haplaquods.
Wauchula soils are near Myakka, Pomona, and
Wabasso soils. Myakka soils do not have an argillic
horizon. Pomona soils have an argillic horizon at a depth
of more than 40 inches. Wabasso soils have a high base
saturation in the argillic horizon.
Typical pedon of Wauchula fine sand, in a pasture,
approximately 1,700 feet north of State Highway 64 and
1,500 feet west of Peace River, NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 3, T.
4 S., R. 25 E.

Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak fine crumb structure; very friable; common fine
and medium roots; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth
boundary.
A21-6 to 14 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A22-14 to 22 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common fine and medium
roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B21h-22 to 29 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
fine sand; moderate medium granular structure;
friable; many sand grains coated with organic
matter, few uncoated sand grains; common fine and


medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B22h-29 to 34 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
fine sand; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
firm; few medium roots; many sand grains coated
with organic matter; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B3-34 to 38 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid;
abrupt wavy boundary.
B'2tg-38 to 50 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
clay loam; common fine distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) mottles; moderate coarse subangular
blocky structure; firm; sand grains distinctly coated
and bridged with clay; few thin patchy clay films on
faces of peds and in root channels; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B'3g-50 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 5/1) loamy
fine sand; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; strongly acid.

The Wauchula soils are strongly acid to extremely acid
throughout. The Ap or Al horizon has no hue (N) or has
hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 2 or less. It
has a salt-and-pepper appearance if undisturbed. It is 3
to 8 inches thick.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 2 or less. In some pedons it has yellow,
brown, or red mottles. Its texture is fine sand or sand.
The A2 horizon ranges from 8 to 20 inches in thickness.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 3 or less. Its texture is
fine sand or sand. The horizon is 7 to 16 inches thick.
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4
or 5, and chroma of 2 to 4 or value of 3 and chroma of 3
or 4. Its texture is fine sand or sand. The horizon ranges
from 0 to 6 inches in thickness.
The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 through 4. Its texture is fine sand or sand.
The horizon is 3 to 6 inches thick. There is no A'2
horizon in some pedons.
The B'2tg horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR,
2.5Y, 5Y, or 5GY, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 or
less. It has brown, yellow, and red mottles. In some
pedons it has lenses of sandy material. The content of
clay ranges from about 15 to 35 percent. The horizon is
fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. It is at a depth of
about 25 to 40 inches.
The B'3g horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 5GY,
5Y, 2.5Y, or 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 or
less. Its texture is loamy fine sand, fine sandy loam, or
mixed sandy loam and pockets of fine sand.
The C horizon is fine sandy loam or mixed sandy loam
and loamy sand to a depth of more than 60 inches. It
has the same colors that the B'3g horizon has. There is
no C horizon in some pedons.


74







Hardee County, Florida


Zolfo Series
The Zolfo series consists of nearly level, somewhat
poorly drained soils that formed in thick sandy marine
sediment. These soils are on broad, nearly level ridges
on uplands. In most years, if the soils are not drained,
the water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6
months; it rises to within 20 inches of the surface for
less than 2 weeks in very wet seasons and recedes to a
depth of more than 40 inches during dry periods. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent. These soils are sandy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Grossarenic Entic Haplohumods.
Zolfo soils are near Immokalee, Pomello, and Tavares
soils. Zolfo soils are in slightly lower positions on the
landscape than the Tavares soils, and they have a
spodic horizon. They are in slightly higher positions on
the landscape than the Immokalee and Pomello soils,
and they have a Bh horizon at a depth between 50 and
80 inches. Unlike Zolfo soils, the Immokalee soils are
poorly drained.
Typical pedon of Zolfo ie sand, in a citrus grove,
1,100 feet west of the junction of County Highway 35A
and Metheny Road, 0.75 mile north of Wauchula,
NW1/4NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 33, T. 33 S., R. 25 E.

Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; many fine and medium
roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
A21-7 to 16 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; many fine and medium
roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
A22-16 to 28 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
5/4) mottles that increase in number in the lower


part of the horizon; single grained; loose; common
fine and medium roots; neutral; gradual wavy
boundary.
A23-28 to 45 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; few fine distinct yellow (10YR 7/8) mottles;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
A24-45 to 63 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR
6/8) mottles; single grained; loose; neutral; gradual
wavy boundary.
B21h-63 to 68 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; most
sand grains coated with organic matter; slightly acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
B22h-68 to 80 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; sand
grains coated with organic matter; slightly acid.

The solum is 80 inches thick or more. Reaction ranges
from strongly acid to neutral throughout.
The Ap or Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
5, and chroma of 2 or less. It is 4 to 9 inches thick. The
A2 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7,
and chroma of 2 to 4. It has few to common yellow,
brown, or gray mottles. The A horizon ranges from 50 to
70 inches in thickness.
The B21h horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 3, and chroma of 2 or 3; or it has value of 4 and
chroma of 2. There are few to common uncoated sand
grains in this horizon. The horizon is 2 to 8 inches thick.
The B22h horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR;
value of 2 or 3; and chroma of 3 or less. Where the
horizon is black, it generally is less than 8 inches thick.


75






77


Formation of the Soils


In this section, the processes of soil formation are
discussed and related to the soils in the survey area.

Factors of Soil Formation
Soil is produced by forces of weathering and soil
formation acting on parent material. The kind of soil that
forms depends on five major factors. These factors are:
the climate under which soil material has existed since
accumulation; the plant and animal life in and on the soil;
the type of parent material; the relief, or lay of the land;
and the length of time the forces of soil formation have
acted on the soil material.
The five soil-forming factors are interdependent; each
modifies the effect of the others. Any one of the five
factors can have more influence than the others on the
formation of a soil and can account for most of the
properties of a soil. For example, if the parent material is
quartz sand, the soil generally has only weakly
expressed horizons. In some places the effect of the
parent material is modified greatly by the effect of
climate, relief, and plants and animals in and on the soil.
As a soil forms, it is influenced by more than one of the
five factors, but in some places just one factor can have
the strongest effect. A modification or variation in any of
these factors results in a different soil.

Parent Material
The parent material of the soils in Hardee County
consists of beds of sandy and clayey material that was
transported by waters of the sea that covered the area a
number of times during the Pleistocene Epoch. During
the high stands of the sea, the Miocene-Pliocene
sediment was eroded and redeposited or was reworked
on the shallow sea bottom to form marine terraces.
Nearly all of the county is underlain by the Bone Valley
Formation (15). Part of the county is underlain by the
Hawthorn Formation, which is confined to the area of the
Peace River and its tributaries and to the southeast
corner of the county. The Hawthorn Formation crops out
along the Peace River, 1 mile east of Bowling Green,
and on the west bank of the Peace River above the
bridge on U.S. Highway 17, between Wauchula and Zolfo
Springs.
The parent material differs widely in mineral and
chemical composition and in physical constitution. The
main physical differences, such as those between sand,


silt, and clay, are apparent. But less apparent
differences, such as mineral and chemical composition,
also have an important influence on soil formation and
on present physical and chemical characteristics. Many
differences among soils appear to reflect original
differences in the parent material as it was laid down.

Climate
Precipitation, temperature, humidity, and wind are the
climatic forces that act on the parent material of soils.
These forces also cause some variation in the plant and
animal life on and in the soils. They influence changes in
parent material and, consequently, soil development.
Hardee County has a warm, humid climate. The Gulf
of Mexico and numerous inland lakes have a moderating
effect on temperature in summer and winter. In summer
the day-to-day temperature is fairly uniform from year to
year. In winter, however, the day-to-day temperature
varies considerably. Rainfall averages about 55 inches a
year.
Because of the warm climate and the abundant
rainfall, chemical and biological processes are rapid. The
abundant rainfall leaches much of the plant nutrients
from the soils.

Plants and Animals
Plants have been the principal biological factor in the
formation of soils in the survey area. Animals, insects,
bacteria, and fungi, however, also have been important.
Their chief functions have been to add organic matter to
the soil and to bring plant nutrients from the lower to the
upper horizons. Plants and animals have caused
differences in the content of organic matter, nitrogen,
and plant nutrients in the soils as well as in soil structure
and porosity.

Relief
Relief has affected the formation of the soils in Hardee
County primarily through its influence on soil-water
relationships and through its effect on erosion in the
central ridge part of the county. Other factors of soil
formation normally associated with relief, such as
temperature and plant cover, are of minor importance.
In the three general areas in the county-flatwoods,
swamps, and the central ridge-some differences in the
soils are directly related to relief.






77


Formation of the Soils


In this section, the processes of soil formation are
discussed and related to the soils in the survey area.

Factors of Soil Formation
Soil is produced by forces of weathering and soil
formation acting on parent material. The kind of soil that
forms depends on five major factors. These factors are:
the climate under which soil material has existed since
accumulation; the plant and animal life in and on the soil;
the type of parent material; the relief, or lay of the land;
and the length of time the forces of soil formation have
acted on the soil material.
The five soil-forming factors are interdependent; each
modifies the effect of the others. Any one of the five
factors can have more influence than the others on the
formation of a soil and can account for most of the
properties of a soil. For example, if the parent material is
quartz sand, the soil generally has only weakly
expressed horizons. In some places the effect of the
parent material is modified greatly by the effect of
climate, relief, and plants and animals in and on the soil.
As a soil forms, it is influenced by more than one of the
five factors, but in some places just one factor can have
the strongest effect. A modification or variation in any of
these factors results in a different soil.

Parent Material
The parent material of the soils in Hardee County
consists of beds of sandy and clayey material that was
transported by waters of the sea that covered the area a
number of times during the Pleistocene Epoch. During
the high stands of the sea, the Miocene-Pliocene
sediment was eroded and redeposited or was reworked
on the shallow sea bottom to form marine terraces.
Nearly all of the county is underlain by the Bone Valley
Formation (15). Part of the county is underlain by the
Hawthorn Formation, which is confined to the area of the
Peace River and its tributaries and to the southeast
corner of the county. The Hawthorn Formation crops out
along the Peace River, 1 mile east of Bowling Green,
and on the west bank of the Peace River above the
bridge on U.S. Highway 17, between Wauchula and Zolfo
Springs.
The parent material differs widely in mineral and
chemical composition and in physical constitution. The
main physical differences, such as those between sand,


silt, and clay, are apparent. But less apparent
differences, such as mineral and chemical composition,
also have an important influence on soil formation and
on present physical and chemical characteristics. Many
differences among soils appear to reflect original
differences in the parent material as it was laid down.

Climate
Precipitation, temperature, humidity, and wind are the
climatic forces that act on the parent material of soils.
These forces also cause some variation in the plant and
animal life on and in the soils. They influence changes in
parent material and, consequently, soil development.
Hardee County has a warm, humid climate. The Gulf
of Mexico and numerous inland lakes have a moderating
effect on temperature in summer and winter. In summer
the day-to-day temperature is fairly uniform from year to
year. In winter, however, the day-to-day temperature
varies considerably. Rainfall averages about 55 inches a
year.
Because of the warm climate and the abundant
rainfall, chemical and biological processes are rapid. The
abundant rainfall leaches much of the plant nutrients
from the soils.

Plants and Animals
Plants have been the principal biological factor in the
formation of soils in the survey area. Animals, insects,
bacteria, and fungi, however, also have been important.
Their chief functions have been to add organic matter to
the soil and to bring plant nutrients from the lower to the
upper horizons. Plants and animals have caused
differences in the content of organic matter, nitrogen,
and plant nutrients in the soils as well as in soil structure
and porosity.

Relief
Relief has affected the formation of the soils in Hardee
County primarily through its influence on soil-water
relationships and through its effect on erosion in the
central ridge part of the county. Other factors of soil
formation normally associated with relief, such as
temperature and plant cover, are of minor importance.
In the three general areas in the county-flatwoods,
swamps, and the central ridge-some differences in the
soils are directly related to relief.






78


The soils in the flatwoods have a high water table, and
periodically the surface is wet. The soils in the swamps
are covered by water for long periods of time, and in
many places the content of organic matter in the surface
layer is high. The soils on the central ridge are at higher
elevations than those in the flatwoods and swamps.
Most of the deep, sandy soils on the central ridge are
better drained than the soils in the flatwoods and
swamps and are not influenced by a ground water table.
Some of the clayey and loamy soils in the central part of
the ridge are influenced by a ground water table and
also are subject to much more erosion than soils in other
parts of the county.

Time
Time is an important factor in soil formation. The
physical and chemical changes brought about by climate,
living organisms, and relief are slow. The length of time
needed for soil to form in geologic material varies with
the nature of the geologic material and with the
interaction of the other factors. Some minerals in which
the soils formed weather fairly rapidly, but other minerals
are chemically inert and change little over long periods
of time. The time required for the translocation of fine
particles within the soil to form the various horizons
varies under different conditions but is always relatively
long.
The dominant geologic material, sand, is inactive. The
sand is almost pure quartz and is highly resistant to
weathering. The finer textured silt and clay are products
of earlier weathering.


In terms of geologic time, relatively little time has
elapsed since the parent material of the soils was laid
down or emerged from the sea. The loamy and clayey
horizons formed in place through the process of clay
translocation.

Processes of Soil Formation
Soil morphology refers to the process of formation of
soil horizons. The differentiation of soil horizons is the
result of accumulation of organic matter, leaching of
carbonates, reduction and transfer of iron, or
accumulation of silicate clay minerals or more than one
of these processes.
Some organic matter has accumulated in the upper
layers of most of the soils to form an Al horizon. The
content of organic matter is low in some of the soils but
relatively high in others.
Leaching to varying degrees has occurred in most
soils. In nearly all soils carbonates and salts, have been
leached. In some soils the effects of leaching have been
indirect in that the leaching permitted the subsequent
translocation of silicate clay material.
The reduction and transfer of iron has occurred in all
soils except the organic soils. In some of the wet soils,
iron has been segregated within the deeper horizons to
form reddish brown mottles and concretions. For
example, in the Sparr soils there is evidence of wetness
and movement or alteration of clay in the form of a light-
colored, leached A2 horizon and a loamy Bt horizon that
has sand grains coated and bridged with clay material.






79


References


(1) American Association of State Highway [and
Transportation] Officials. 1970. Standard
sepcifications for highway materials and methods of
sampling and testing. Ed. 10, 2 vol., illus.
(2) American Society for Testing and Materials. 1974.
Method for classification of soils for engineering
purposes. ASTM Stand. D 2487-69. In 1974 Annual
Book of ASTM Standards, Part 19, 464 pp., illus.
(3) Bouyoucos, G. J. 1962. Hydrometer method
improved for making particle size analyses of soils.
Agron. J. 54: 464-465.
(4) Cooke, C. Wythe. 1945. Geology of Florida. Fla.
State Dep. Conserv. & Fla. Geol. Surv. Geol. Bull.
29, 339 pp., illus.
(5) Frisbie, Louise K. 1976. Peace River Pioneers. E.E.
Seeman Pub. Inc., 134 pp., illus.
(6) Plowden, Gene. 1929. History of Hardee County.
The Florida Advocate, Wauchula, Fla., 85 pp.
(7) United States Department of Agriculture. 1938. Soils
and men. U.S. Dep. Agric. Yearb., 1232 pp., illus.
(8) United States Department of Agriculture. 1941.
Climate and man. U.S. Dep. Agric. Yearb., 1248 pp.,
illus.
(9) United States Department of Agriculture. 1951. Soil
survey manual. U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 18, 503 pp.,


illus. [Supplements replacing pp. 173-188 issued
May 1962.]
(10) United States Department of Agriculture. 1960.
Management and inventory of southern hardwoods.
Forest Serv., U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 181, 102 pp.
(11) United States Department of Agriculture. 1961. Land
capability classification. U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 210,
21 pp.
(12) United States Department of Agriculture. 1972. Soil
survey laboratory methods and procedures for
collecting soil samples. Soil Surv. Invest. Rep. 1, 63
pp., illus.
(13) United States Department of Agriculture. 1975. Soil
taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for
making and interpreting soil surveys. Soil Conserv.
Serv., U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 436, 754 pp., illus.
(14) United States Department of Commerce, National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1959.
Climatography of the United States. Climates of the
States. Climate of Florida. No. 60-8, 31 pp., illus.
[Rev. Nov. 1962, June 1972]
(15) White, William A. 1970. The Geomorphology of the
Florida Peninsula. State Fla., Dep. Nat. Resour.
Geol. Bull. No. 51, 165 pp., illus.






81


Glossary


Aeration, soil. The exchange of air in soil with air from
the atmosphere. The air in a well aerated soil is
similar to that in the atmosphere; the air in a poorly
aerated soil is considerably higher in carbon dioxide
and lower in oxygen.
Alluvium. Material, such as sand, silt, or clay, deposited
on land by streams.
Association, soil. A group of soils geographically
associated in a characteristic repeating pattern and
defined and delineated as a single map unit.
Available water capacity (available moisture
capacity). The capacity of soils to hold water
available for use by most plants. It is commonly
defined as the difference between the amount of
soil water at field moisture capacity and the amount
at wilting point. It is commonly expressed as inches
of water per inch of soil. The available water
capacity is very low if less than 0.05 inch per inch,
low if 0.05 to 0.10 inch per inch, moderate if 0.10 to
0.15 inch per inch, high if 0.15 to 0.20 inch per inch,
and very high if more than 0.20 inch per inch. The
capacity, in inches, in a 60-inch profile or to a
limiting layer may also be expressed as-
Inches
Very low..................................................................0 to 3
Low........................................................... 3 to 6
Moderate...................................................... 6 to 9
High............................. ............... .............. 9 to 12
Very high.................................................... more than 12
Base saturation. The degree to which material having
cation exchange properties is saturated with
exchangeable bases (sum of Ca, Mg, Na, K),
expressed as a percentage of the total cation
exchange capacity.
Bedding planes. Fine stratifications, less than 5
millimeters thick, in unconsolidated alluvial, eolian,
lacustrine, or marine sediments.
Bedrock. The solid rock that underlies the soil and other
unconsolidated material or that is exposed at the
surface.
Bisequum. Two sequences of soil horizons, each of
which consists of an illuvial horizon and the
overlying eluvial horizons.
Boulders. Rock fragments larger than 2 feet (60
centimeters) in diameter.
Calcareous soil. A soil containing enough calcium
carbonate (commonly combined with magnesium


carbonate) to effervesce visibly when treated with
cold, dilute hydrochloric acid.
Capillary water. Water held as a film around soil
particles and in tiny spaces between particles.
Surface tension is the adhesive force that holds
capillary water in the soil.
Cation. An ion carrying a positive charge of electricity.
The common soil cations are calcium, potassium,
magnesium, sodium, and hydrogen.
Cation-exchange capacity. The total amount of
exchangeable cations that can be held by the soil,
expressed in terms of milliequivalents per 100 grams
of soil at neutrality (pH 7.0) or at some other stated
pH value. The term, as applied to soils, is
synonymous with base-exchange capacity, but is
more precise in meaning.
Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less
than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural
class, soil material that is 40 percent or more clay,
less than 45 percent sand, and less than 40 percent
silt.
Clay film. A thin coating of oriented clay on the surface
of a soil aggregate or lining pores or root channels.
Synonyms: clay coating, clay skin.
Climax vegetation. The stabilized plant community on a
particular site. The plant cover reproduces itself and
does not change so long as the environment
remains the same.
Coarse fragments. If round, mineral or rock particles 2
millimeters to 25 centimeters (10 inches) in
diameter; if flat, mineral or rock particles (flagstone)
15 to 38 centimeters (6 to 15 inches) long.
Coarse textured soil. Sand or loamy sand.
Cobblestone (or cobble). A rounded or partly rounded
fragment of rock 3 to 10 inches (7.5 to 25
centimeters) in diameter.
Complex, soil. A map unit of two or more kinds of soil in
such an intricate pattern or so small in area that it is
not practical to map them separately at the selected
scale of mapping. The pattern and proportion of the
soils are somewhat similar in all areas.
Compressible (in tables). Excessive decrease in volume
of soft soil under load.
Concretions. Grains, pellets, or nodules of various
sizes, shapes, and colors consisting of concentrated
compounds or cemented soil grains. The
composition of most concretions is unlike that of the






Soil survey


surrounding soil. Calcium carbonate and iron oxide
are common compounds in concretions.
Consistence, soil. The feel of the soil and the ease with
which a lump can be crushed by the fingers. Terms
commonly used to describe consistence are-
Loose.-Noncoherent when dry or moist; does not
hold together in a mass.
Friable.-When moist, crushes easily under gentle
pressure between thumb and forefinger and can be
pressed together into a lump.
Firm.-When moist, crushes under moderate
pressure between thumb and forefinger, but
resistance is distinctly noticeable.
Plastic.-When wet, readily deformed by moderate
pressure but can be pressed into a lump; will form a
"wire" when rolled between thumb and forefinger.
Sticky.-When wet, adheres to other material and
tends to stretch somewhat and pull apart rather than
to pull free from other material.
Hard.-When dry, moderately resistant to pressure;
can be broken with difficulty between thumb and
forefinger.
Soft.-When dry, breaks into powder or individual
grains under very slight pressure.
Cemented.-Hard; little affected by moistening.
Contour stripcropping. Growing crops in strips that
follow the contour. Strips of grass or close-growing
crops are alternated with strips of clean-tilled crops
or summer fallow.
Control section. The part of the soil on which
classification is based. The thickness varies among
different kinds of soil, but for many it is that part of
the soil profile between depths of 10 inches and 40
or 80 inches.
Corrosive. High risk of corrosion to uncoated steel or
deterioration of concrete.
Cover crop. A close-growing crop grown primarily to
improve and protect the soil between periods of
regular crop production, or a crop grown between
trees and vines in orchards and vineyards.
Cutbanks cave (in tables). The walls of excavations
tend to cave in or slough.
Decreasers. The most heavily grazed climax range
plants. Because they are the most palatable, they
are the first to be destroyed by overgrazing.
Deferred grazing. Postponing grazing or resting
grazingland for a prescribed period.
Depth to rock (in tables). Bedrock is too near the
surface for the specified use.
Drainage class (natural). Refers to the frequency and
duration of periods of saturation or partial saturation
during soil formation, as opposed to altered
drainage, which is commonly the result of artificial
drainage or irrigation but may be caused by the
sudden deepening of channels or the blocking of
drainage outlets. Seven classes of natural soil
drainage are recognized:


Excessively drained.-Water is removed from the
soil very rapidly. Excessively drained soils are
commonly very coarse textured, rocky, or shallow.
Some are steep. All are free of the mottling related
to wetness.
Somewhat excessively drained.-Water is removed
from the soil rapidly. Many somewhat excessively
drained soils are sandy and rapidly pervious. Some
are shallow. Some are so steep that much of the
water they receive is lost as runoff. All are free of
the mottling related to wetness.
Well drained.-Water is removed from the soil
readily, but not rapidly. It is available to plants
throughout most of the growing season, and
wetness does not inhibit growth of roots for
significant periods during most growing seasons.
Well drained soils are commonly medium textured.
They are mainly free of mottling.
Moderately well drained.-Water is removed from
the soil somewhat slowly during some periods.
Moderately well drained soils are wet for only a
short time during the growing season, but
periodically they are wet long enough that most
mesophytic crops are affected. They commonly
have a slowly pervious layer within or directly below
the solum, or periodically receive high rainfall, or
both.
Somewhat poorly drained.--Water is removed slowly
enough that the soil is wet for significant periods
during the growing season. Wetness markedly
restricts the growth of mesophytic crops unless
artificial drainage is provided. Somewhat poorly
drained soils commonly have a slowly pervious
layer, a high water table, additional water from
seepage, nearly continuous rainfall, or a combination
of these.
Poorly drained.-Water is removed so slowly that
the soil is saturated periodically during the growing
season or remains wet for long periods. Free water
is commonly at or near the surface for long enough
during the growing season that most mesophytic
crops cannot be grown unless the soil is artificially
drained. The soil is not continuously saturated in
layers directly below plow depth. Poor drainage
results from a high water table, a slowly pervious
layer within the profile, seepage, nearly continuous
rainfall, or a combination of these.
Very poorly drained.-Water is removed from the
soil so slowly that free water remains at or on the
surface during most of the growing season. Unless
the soil is artificially drained, most mesophytic crops
cannot be grown. Very poorly drained soils are
commonly level or depressed and are frequently
ponded. Yet, where rainfall is high and nearly
continuous, they can have moderate or high slope
gradients.


82




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